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Sample records for superpro designer tall

  1. Uso de la simulación con SuperPro Designer en las prácticas de laboratorio de tratamiento de agua y residuales Using SuperPro Designer simulation in water and waste water treatment laboratory practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Isabel Barreto Torrella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe results of introducing simulation practice, using Super Pro Designer program, in laboratory practices of Water and Waste Water Treatment in Chemical Engineering career of the “Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz” University and designed teaching strategy for that purpose. The subject was studied to set its system of contents, frontier and environment, the relation to other subjects and the system, subsystem and learning dynamics as a whole. A system of laboratory practices and a teaching strategy to use the simulator SuperPro Designer were design. Learning and skills development were assessed through self-preparation control, performance in doing tasks, findings registered in the corresponding reports and application in other homework tasks. The set of activities designed favored students’ independent work of students by presenting problematic situations in a nice graphical environment and under the teacher leadership continue varying operating conditions to evaluate results. The strategy fostered the horizontal and vertical connection of subjects of and the fulfillment of language, economy and ICT curricular strategies. Keywords: , , , .

  2. The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation - influence of process design and - parameters, simulated in SuperPro Designer software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, T.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Bruun, E.W.; Ahrenfeldt, J.

    2011-01-15

    This report investigates whether or not it would be possible to produce carbon-negative energy from pyrolysis of wheat straw in a series of Danish agricultural scenarios. A combination of process simulation in SuperPro Designer software, correlations derived from literature studies and experimental work, and overall balance calculations has been applied in the process. The study deviates from other studies of pyrolysis and biochar production by the inclusion of substitution energy impact on the overall carbon-balance. Substitution energy is integrated to account for the gap between the energy production from the pyrolysis and the full energy potential of the biomass, quantified by complete conversion in either combustion or gasification systems. It was concluded that it is feasible to produce carbon-negative energy under a variation of different settings, but also that the negative carbon-balance is only robust for the slow pyrolysis scenario. The CO{sub 2} benefit of the most carbon-negative slow pyrolysis process is estimated to be around 10 % of the atmospheric carbon stored in the original biomass when natural gas is applied for energy substitution. This process avoids the emission of around 150-200 kg CO{sub 2}/ton wheat straw with substitution energy with a Denmark 2007 average carbon-intensity. This result is weighted against the net emissions of the carbon-'neutral' process of conventional combustion. This emission is in this report estimated to be around 50 - 150 kg CO{sub 2}/ton straw depending on scenario settings. The final results of the study have been compared to another study with convincing results. Results concluded that the primary force of the pyrolysis technology is the recalcitrant char product and not the pyrolysis oil. Based on this, the study suggests that despite the trend in commercial pyrolysis technology that focuses on fast pyrolysis processes with maximized bio-oil production, the twin challenge of climate mitigation and

  3. Sustainable design in the contemporary architecture of tall buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Mastalerczyk Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tall buildings in Singapore - one of the main financial centers of the world - reflect the metropolitan character of the city. These buildings emphasize the importance of the center in the urban landscape. They determine and create a new landscape of the city. Objects, mainly about the function of commercial and prestigious, distinguished by the natural environment-friendly image. Through financial expenditures, they excel in the implementation of innovative solutions in the field ecology. The applied design, facade systems and functional systems are subject to the use of renewable energy sources. Promoting the idea the development of the city “inside”. Ecological aspect is the durability of the structure. Modern tall buildings have completely changed the image of the spatial part of the city-state of Singapore and contributed to enhance the individual character and highlight the specifics of the layout and position of the center (combining functions of business, commercial, recreational and residential.

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment of the design of a tall buildings under the extreme load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes some experiences from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the safety of the tall building structure. There are presented the methods and requirements of Eurocode EN 1990, standard ISO 2394 and JCSS. The uncertainties of the model and resistance of the structures are considered using the simulation methods. The MONTE CARLO, LHS and RSM probabilistic methods are compared with the deterministic results. On the example of the probability analysis of the safety of the tall buildings is demonstrated the effectiveness of the probability design of structures using Finite Element Methods.

  5. Tall Tales on Tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Linda; Silk, Lynn

    "Tall Tales on Tour" consists of a mobile unit of books, posters, puppets, plays, videos, teachers' guides and other resources designed to kindle enthusiasm and love for tall tales in students in grades 3-8 and to establish links with rural Washington County, Maine, schools. The program consists of three main components: (1) immersing…

  6. PROBABILITY MODEL AND SOLUTION ON EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS COMBINATION IN ALONG WIND RESISTANT DESIGN OF TALL-FLEXIBLE BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Xiao-jian; GU Ming

    2006-01-01

    A model on the earthquake effects combination in wind resistant design of high-rise flexible structures is proposed in accordance with the probability method. Based on the Turkstra criteria, the stochastic characters of wind velocity, earthquake ground acceleration and excitations occurrence probability are taken into account and then the combination of the earthquake effects in structure wind resistant design is analyzed with the convolution approach. The results indicate that as for the tall flexible buildings whose lateral force is governed by wind loading, the maximum lateral loads verification with respect to the wind resistant design combined with earthquake effects may be more unfavorable compared with that in terms of the earthquake resistant design involving wind effects.

  7. Design optimization of tall tubular lead/acid cells based on an analysis of the reaction distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kenji; Hatanaka, Teruhiro; Tsubota, Masaharu; Yonezu, Kunio; Ando, Koji

    In order to estimate the discharge performance of tall lead/acid cells (with tubular positives), changes in current and potential distributions with discharge progress were calculated with a computer on the basis of plate resistance and the current—potential—time relationship between small facing parts of positive and negative plates. The taller the cell, the larger the voltage drop along the plates. Thus, the discharge time became shorter despite a large amount of available active mass remaining in the bottom part of the plates. Various current-collector designs were evaluated, e.g., one with varying resistance at each height; a side conductor placed along the plates and connected to them at the top, centre and bottom, etc. Results revealed an optimum collector design with which the maximum discharge capacity could be obtained. Furthermore, it was shown that the side conductor markedly improved the discharge performance because the active mass near the connecting parts was appreciably used.

  8. The TALL-3D facility design and commissioning tests for validation of coupled STH and CFD codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Jeltsov, Marti, E-mail: marti@safety.sci.kth.se; Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se; Karbojian, Aram, E-mail: karbojan@kth.se; Villanueva, Walter, E-mail: walter@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Design of a heavy liquid thermal-hydraulic loop for CFD/STH code validation. • Description of the loop instrumentation and assessment of measurement error. • Experimental data from forced to natural circulation transient. - Abstract: Application of coupled CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and STH (System Thermal Hydraulics) codes is a prerequisite for computationally affordable and sufficiently accurate prediction of thermal-hydraulics of complex systems. Coupled STH and CFD codes require validation for understanding and quantification of the sources of uncertainties in the code prediction. TALL-3D is a liquid Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) loop developed according to the requirements for the experimental data for validation of coupled STH and CFD codes. The goals of the facility design are to provide (i) mutual feedback between natural circulation in the loop and complex 3D mixing and stratification phenomena in the pool-type test section, (ii) a possibility to validate standalone STH and CFD codes for each subsection of the facility, and (iii) sufficient number of experimental data to separate the process of input model calibration and code validation. Description of the facility design and its main components, approach to estimation of experimental uncertainty and calibration of model input parameters that are not directly measured in the experiment are discussed in the paper. First experimental data from the forced to natural circulation transient is also provided in the paper.

  9. Analysis on the key technology of super-tall building electrical design%超高层建筑电气设计关键技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐

    2015-01-01

    This paper elaborated the characteristics of super-tall building electricity design,from the load classification,power supply and voltage selection,transformer and distribution substation design,conductor selection and installation and other aspects,analyzed the key technology of super-tall building electrical design,so as to provide effective reference basis for electrical design personnel.%阐述了超高层建筑电气设计的特点,从负荷分级、供电电源和电压的选择、变电站和配电站的设计、导体的选择与敷设等方面入手,分析了超高层建筑电气设计的关键技术,以期为电气设计人员提供有效的参考依据。

  10. 某多功能高层写字楼结构设计与分析%Structural Design and Analysis on a Multifunctional Tall Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁德祥

    2012-01-01

    In combination with the design of the overall frame-shear wall structure for a tall building, design of two important positions and technical measures are introduced, and these can provide references for the same kind of tall building design and construction.%结合某一多功能综合楼整体框架-剪力墙结构设计,阐述了大面积会议室预应力内置型钢混凝土组合楼盖和主体顶层预应力楼盖重要部位的设计和关键施工技术,为今后同类工程的设计与施工提供参考.

  11. Report on workshop to incorporate basin response in the design of tall buildings in the Puget Sound region, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Susan; Frankel, Arthur D.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 4, 2013, the City of Seattle and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop of 25 engineers and seismologists to provide recommendations to the City for the incorporation of amplification of earthquake ground shaking by the Seattle sedimentary basin in the design of tall buildings in Seattle. The workshop was initiated and organized by Susan Chang, a geotechnical engineer with the City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development, along with Art Frankel and Craig Weaver of the USGS. C.B. Crouse of URS Corporation, Seattle made key suggestions for the agenda. The USGS provided travel support for most of the out-of-town participants. The agenda and invited attendees are given in the appendix. The attendees included geotechnical and structural engineers working in Seattle, engineers with experience utilizing basin response factors in other regions, and seismologists who have studied basin response in a variety of locations. In this report, we summarize the technical presentations and the recommendations from the workshop.

  12. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  13. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  14. Problems should be paid attention to on the general tall building of reinforced concrete structure design%一般高层建筑钢筋混凝土结构设计应注意的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支韶阳

    2011-01-01

    Based on the tall building structure design soft—PKPM,and〈Technical specification for concrete structures of tall building〉(JGJ 3-2010,take an analysis on the result for concrete structures of general tall building,which is consulting by the soft.%根据现在高层结构设计普遍应用的PKPM软件,结合《高层建筑混凝土结构技术规程》(JGJ 3-2010),对一般高层建筑混凝土结构计算结果进行判别。

  15. Safe and Sustainable Tall Buildings - State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendis P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall buildings are becoming very popular around the world. Asia will have most of the tall buildings in this century. Both safety and sustainability aspects are important in planning and designing these buildings. The design and construction of tall buildings present many challenges for the design team, from engineers, architect through to the builder. Although structural systems could be developed and construction solutions could be found to design and construct very tall buildings in excess of 1 km (even 1 mile, other aspects such as fire and egress, long-term movements, environmental wind and perception of motion (including damping for dynamic effects, transportation (lifts issues, sustainability, durability and maintenance will govern and may even restrict the heights. Current practices and important issues related to design of safe and sustainable design of tall buildings are discussed in this paper.

  16. Impact of lateral force-resisting system and design/construction practices on seismic performance and cost of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHamaydeh, Mohammad; Galal, Khaled; Yehia, Sherif

    2013-09-01

    The local design and construction practices in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), together with Dubai's unique rate of development, warrant special attention to the selection of Lateral Force-Resisting Systems (LFRS). This research proposes four different feasible solutions for the selection of the LFRS for tall buildings and quantifies the impact of these selections on seismic performance and cost. The systems considered are: Steel Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF), Concrete SMRF, Steel Dual System (SMRF with Special Steel Plates Shear Wall, SPSW), and Concrete Dual System (SMRF with Special Concrete Shear Wall, SCSW). The LFRS selection is driven by seismic setup as well as the adopted design and construction practices in Dubai. It is found that the concrete design alternatives are consistently less expensive than their steel counterparts. The steel dual system is expected to have the least damage based on its relatively lesser interstory drifts. However, this preferred performance comes at a higher initial construction cost. Conversely, the steel SMRF system is expected to have the most damage and associated repair cost due to its excessive flexibility. The two concrete alternatives are expected to have relatively moderate damage and repair costs in addition to their lesser initial construction cost.

  17. Typhoon effects on super-tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q. S.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Wu, J. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Li, Z. N.

    2008-06-01

    Full-scale measurement is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating wind effects on buildings and structures. This paper presents selected results of wind characteristics and structural responses measured from four super-tall buildings, The Center (350 m high, 79 floors) in Hong Kong, Di Wang Tower (384 m high, 78 floors) in Shenzhen, CITIC Plaza Tower (391 m high, 80 floors) in Guangzhou and Jin Mao Building (421 m high, 88 floors) in Shanghai, during the passages of three typhoons. The field data such as wind speed, wind direction and acceleration responses, etc., were continuously measured from the super-tall buildings during the typhoons. Detailed analysis of the field data was conducted to investigate the characteristics of typhoon-generated wind and wind-induced vibrations of these super-tall buildings under typhoon conditions. The dynamic characteristics of the tall buildings were determined from the field measurements and comparisons with those calculated from the finite element (FE) models of the structures were made. Furthermore, the full-scale measurements were compared with wind tunnel results to evaluate the accuracy of the model test results and the adequacy of the techniques used in the wind tunnel tests. The results presented in this paper are expected to be of considerable interest and of use to researchers and professionals involved in designing super-tall buildings.

  18. Design of passive interconnections in tall buildings subject to earthquake disturbances to suppress inter-storey drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Smith, MC

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the problem of passive control of a multi-storey building subjected to an earthquake disturbance. The building is represented as a homogeneous mass chain model, i.e., a chain of identical masses in which there is an identical passive connection between neighbouring masses and a similar connection to a movable point. The paper considers passive interconnections of the most general type, which may require the use of inerters in addition to springs and dampers. It is shown that the scalar transfer functions from the disturbance to a given inter-storey drift can be represented as complex iterative maps. Using these expressions, two graphical approaches are proposed: one gives a method to achieve a prescribed value for the uniform boundedness of these transfer functions independent of the length of the mass chain, and the other is for a fixed length of the mass chain. A case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques using a 10-storey building model. The disturbance suppression performance of the designed interconnection is also verified for a 10-storey building model which has a different stiffness distribution but with the same undamped first natural frequency as the homogeneous model.

  19. Sport for tall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, T

    1983-09-10

    Eight new events (handball, basketball, and six rowing events) were introduced for women in the Olympic Games at Montreal in 1976. Of 187 women rowers who competed at Montreal, none was shorter than the mean height (162 cm, 64 in) of women aged 18-24 in the United States. In team events only two out of 250 participants were shorter than the reference mean. Even among the tall, it was the taller participants who won medals. What does the slogan "Sport for All" mean in this context? Moreover, the physical size required of champion rowers and basketball players is not to be found in some Asian, African, and Latin American populations. International contests in many such events therefore seem to be at variance with the first charter of the Olympic Games. An independent reviewing body is urgently needed to examine the merits of man made rules in many sporting contests.

  20. Wind-resistant studies on tall buildings and structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some aspects of wind-resistant studies of our research team on tall buildings and structures. Wind tunnel tests were carried out on 27 typical tall building models by using wind pressure scanning and HFFB techniques. The characteristics of wind pressures and forces acting on these buildings were analyzed. Some results have been adopted in a Shanghai code for structural design of steel tall buildings. Interference effects on wind forces and wind pressures among two and three tall buildings were experimentally investigated with about 10000 testing conditions. Regression analyses of the interference factors under different parameter conditions were made and the main regression formulas are presented. Theoretical study on equivalent static wind loads of tall buildings and structures are then introduced. Especially,a new concept of "mode coupling factor" and a modified SRSS method for wind response and equivalent static wind load of complicated tall buildings and structures with consideration of multi mode contributions and their coupling effects are presented. Finally,practical applications of wind-resistant studies on tall building and structures,taking the Guangzhou New TV Tower as an example,are presented.

  1. Tall Buildings and Elevators: A Review of Recent Technological Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2015-01-01

    Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse. Importantly, the paper contextualizes recent technological innovations by examining their implementation...

  2. The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation – influence of process design and –parameters, simulated in SuperPro Designer Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Bruun, Esben

    -balance is only robust for the slow pyrolysis scenario. The CO2 benefit of the most carbon-negative slow pyrolysis process is estimated to be around 10 % of the atmospheric carbon stored in the original biomass when natural gas is applied for energy substitution. This process avoids the emission of around 150...... production from the pyrolysis and the full energy potential of the biomass, quantified by complete conversion in either combustion or gasification systems. It was concluded that it is feasible to produce carbon-negative energy under a variation of different settings, but also that the negative carbon...... in commercial pyrolysis technology that focuses on fast pyrolysis processes with maximized bio-oil production, the twin challenge of climate mitigation and sustainable energy production is most efficiently addressed with a combination of slow pyrolysis and complete biomass conversion through combustion...

  3. Yee-e-e-Haw!: Tall Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of "tall tales." Fills in the historical background of tall tales, from the ancient myth of Gilgamesh to Baron Munchausen, the closest European progenitor of American tall tales. Opines that tall tales appear to have been created as a response to challenges posed by building a new nation. Lists 11…

  4. 高层建筑的等效设计风荷载与风振响应研究%Equivalent design wind loads and wind-induced acceleration responses of a tall building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松林

    2009-01-01

    Wind tunnel test for a typical tall building was conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel. This paper presents some selected results of the base equivalent static wind loads and wind-induced acceleration responses from the analysis of the data obtained in the wind tunnel test. In addition, the results from a previously conducted wind tunnel test were also used for comparative study, and the effects of boundary layer condifions and surrounding building conditions were investigated. The outcomes of this study were used for the structural design and serviceability evaluation of the tall building.%基于某典型高层建筑详细的风洞试验结果,计算分析了该结构的基础等效静风荷载及结构顶部峰值加速度响应,与前期的风洞试验结果相对比,评估了不同风洞试验条件和周边建筑对试验结果的影响,获得的结果可以用于此结构的抗风设计以及居住者舒适度评估.

  5. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  6. Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

  7. Stand Straight and Stand Tall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝亚娟

    2007-01-01

    <正>My grandfather grew up in war-torn Europe.When German soldiers occupied his hometown,the thriving (繁荣的) city of Tarow,Poland,he refused to obey them and eventually joined the Soviet army to fight for his country’s freedom."Stand straight,stand tall,"he told himself.

  8. Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

  9. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hayati; M.H. Sayadi

    2012-01-01

    Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban...

  10. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared.

  11. Spinal deformities in tall girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogland, L B; Steen, H; Trygstad, O

    1985-04-01

    In a prospective study, 62 girls who consulted the paediatric department because of tall stature were examined for spinal deformities. Thirteen cases of scoliosis measuring 10 degrees or more were found. Eighteen girls had a thoracic kyphosis of more than 40 degrees and 11 had additional vertebral abnormalities indicating Scheuermann's disease. The incidence of scoliosis and Scheuermann's disease was much higher in our material than normal.

  12. Push-Over Analysis for Concrete Structures of Tall Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰江; 张佩军; 吕西林; 容柏生

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, push-over analysis for tall concrete structures was made and a corresponding computer program was given.Several kinds of elements in the program were considered to meet the demand of tall buildings with complex structural type. These elements included beam-column element for beams and columns, single slice wall element and three vertical line element for walls, and tube-wall element for tubes. Computational example for verifying the models indicates that the result obtained by this method is identical with a well-known test result and the program can be used to search for the full process of structural reaction, even the softening stage of the structure. With this push-over analysis method, an actual tall building with complex structural type was analyzed, and the result has been put into practice of the structural design of the building.

  13. REDUCTION OF STILLING BASIN LENGTH WITH TALL END SILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FATHI-MOGHADAM Manoochehr; HAGHIGHIPOUR Sadegh; LASHKAR-ARA Babak; AGHTOUMAN Peyman

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize forced hydraulic jumps in stilling basins for enforced cases due to tail water level or dam site arrangement and construction.The case with a single tall sill was simulated in a horizontal flume downstream of a sluice gate.Results of experiments are compared with the classical hydraulic jump,and significant effect of tall sill on dissipation of energy in shorter distance was confirmed.Furthermore,the generated jumps were classified based on the ratio of sill height to basin length,and a simple design criterion was proposed to estimate the basin length for a desired jump and particular inflow.

  14. Lifting Wing in Constructing Tall Buildings —Aerodynamic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Skelton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on previous research by the authors which determined the global state-of-the-art of constructing tall buildings by surveying the most active specialist tall building professionals around the globe. That research identified the effect of wind on tower cranes as a highly ranked, common critical issue in tall building construction. The research reported here presents a design for a “Lifting Wing,” a uniquely designed shroud which potentially allows the lifting of building materials by a tower crane in higher and more unstable wind conditions, thereby reducing delay on the programmed critical path of a tall building. Wind tunnel tests were undertaken to compare the aerodynamic performance of a scale model of a typical “brick-shaped” construction load (replicating a load profile most commonly lifted via a tower crane against the aerodynamic performance of the scale model of the Lifting Wing in a range of wind conditions. The data indicate that the Lifting Wing improves the aerodynamic performance by a factor of up to 50%.

  15. 高层钢结构基于均匀损伤设计的整体抗震能力提高方法%A method for increasing the integral seismic capacity of tall steel buildings based on uniform-damage seismic design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱伏; 侯爽; 欧进萍

    2012-01-01

    The paper mainly study how to increase the integral seismic capacity of the tall steel buildings by reasonable design. Firstly, the structural nonlinear calculation model is given. Secondly, the criterion of collapse failure modes of tall steel buildings under strong earthquake motion is established. Thirdly, by modal pushover analysis, damage law of tall steel buildings under horizongtal earthquake action is studied. Finally, the method for increasing the integral seismic capacity of tall steel buildings is studied mainly. The uniform-damage design method is proposed to increase the integral seismic capacity of tall steel buildings by eliminating the structural weakest stories. Two 20-story steel frame structures are designed on the basis of conventional philosophy and the uniform damage design method are used for limit state time history analysis and limit state pushover analysis to verify the proposed method in the paper. The results demonstrate that the uniform-damage design method is effective for increasing the integral seismic capacity. The research in the paper will give a reference to the design for preventing the seismic collapse of tall steel buildings.%本文主要研究如何通过合理设计来提高高层钢结构的整体抗震能力.首先,给出了高层钢结构的非线性计算模型;其次,建立了高层钢结构在强地震动作用下的倒塌失效模式的极限状态判别准则;然后,通过模态pushover分析,研究了高层钢结构在水平地震作用下的损伤规律;最后,重点研究了高层钢结构的整体抗震能力的提高方法,提出了均匀损伤的设计方法,该方法通过消除结构的薄弱层,来达到提高高层钢结构的整体抗震能力的目的.通过对两栋20层的高层钢框架结构进行极限时程分析和极限pushover分析,验证了文中提出的均匀损伤的设计方法的可行性.本文的工作可为高层钢结构的抗地震倒塌设计提供参考依据.

  16. Lessons learnt from damages of reinforced concrete tall buildings in Chile Earthquake and revelations to structural design in China%智利地震钢筋混凝土高层建筑震害对我国高层结构设计的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 吕西林

    2011-01-01

    An 8.8 magnitude earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 and caused a lot of damages to reinforced concrete ( RC ) tall buildings.It is the maximum earthquake that modern RC tall buildings have suffered in the world, which has attracted the global attentions of structural engineers and earthquake engineers.The structural characteristics of Chilean RC tall buildings were introduced first.Then this paper analyzed damage patterns of shear wall buildings, a complex tall building with setbacks, a multi-tower connected complex building, a super-tall building with energy dissipation braces, and a tall building with metal ball particle energy dissipation system.It is found that in Chile the widths of the shear walls for tall buildings are almost the same as those for low-rise or middle-rise buildings.The axial compression ratios of the shear walls are very high which caused the serious damages to shear walls.In Chilean codes, the design of shear walls refers to US code but permits the design flexibility of boundary element in shear walls, which is another important reason that caused the damages to shear walls.And from the seismic performance of complex tall buildings and energy dissipation buildings in Chile earthquake, the study on the complex tall buildings should be strengthened and the application of energy dissipation technology in tall building is suggested to be widely promoted.%2010年2月27日在南美洲智利发生的8.8级大地震,造成了钢筋混凝土高层建筑的严重破坏,这是近年来现代钢筋混凝土高层建筑经历的最大地震,引起了国内外工程设计人员的广泛关注.以智利高层建筑结构体系特点入手,分别介绍了智利地震中钢筋混凝土剪力墙高层建筑、立面收进复杂高层建筑、连体复杂高层建筑、带消能减震支撑超高层建筑、带金属球颗粒阻尼器高层建筑的震害现象.研究表明:智利高层结构剪力墙厚度与中低层结构剪力墙厚度相近,造成

  17. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  18. Tall stature : morbidity, mortality and treatment outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Benyi, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    Tall stature is usually constitutional. In some cases excessive growth is caused by early puberty and in others by growth disorders such as Marfan syndrome or pituitary gigantism. Some individuals experience a substantial negative psychosocial impact from being tall which can cause them and their families to seek medical attention. Whether or not to reduce adult height is an ethical dilemma where the psychological benefits must be weighed carefully against possible health complications. For o...

  19. Establishment and locating criteria of tall buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hasanvand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High today of the major events of the world and especially in big cities. The growing population and shortage of land prices and urban development problems can be horizontal, vertical and Exalted Among the reasons for making the move to the development said. Development of tall buildings around the world, especially in the last two decades steeply upward growth. Always the tall buildings and urban professionals, architects and other scholars focus of discussion was the construction of the various ways it has been criticized for supporting. Tall buildings as the main index compared to other elements of spatial structure - Physical Cities in shaping the present and future prospects of cities and towns as well as in terms of length and grade plays a role in the world. The relationship between the primary objective of building long exposures and positions and principles of construction in accordance with the provisions of Sublime and its status in the region. This communication must not nobleman in a way that not only enhances the graceful buildings must also comply with the city sky line. The purpose of this study was to investigate how to establish a long and important buildings from the key criteria in making tall buildings and locate them. Method: This descriptive - analytical understanding of the principles that tall building, the location of tall buildings and measures are playing a major role in a tall building, is provided at the end of a tall building better strategies to improve the taking proper places to build them are discussed.

  20. Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics of Two Instrumented Tall Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C.; Laverick, B.; Brincker, Rune

    2003-01-01

    Comparison of recorded structural earthquake response and predicted response by dynamic analysis provides vital information to structural designers on the effectiveness of current methods of dynamic analysis. There have been a number of previous studies of this nature, but only a few have paid...... attention to the three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic behaviour of tall buildings, so there is a need for these types of studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic properties of two well-instrumented tall steel frame buildings in Los Angeles, California. These building are within a few blocks...... of each other and have been subjected to ground motions from several earthquakes, among which the most significant are those from the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The results of this study showed that although the buildings were subjected to similar level of ground shaking their different structural...

  1. New Approaches to Target T-ALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eRoti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common malignancy in children. Although it is now curable in 80-90% of cases, patients with T-ALL experience a higher frequency of induction failure and early relapse. Despite aggressive treatment approaches, including transplantation and new salvage regimens, most children with relapsed T-ALL will not be cured. As such, we are in need of new targeted therapies for the disease. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of T-ALL have uncovered a number of new therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent advancements in the study of inhibiting the NOTCH1, PI3K-AKT and Cyclin D3:CDK4/6 pathways as therapeutic strategies for T-ALL. We will focus on preclinical studies supporting the testing of small-molecule inhibitors targeting these proteins and the rationale of combination therapies. Moreover, epigenetic approaches to modulate T-ALL are rapidly emerging. Here we will discuss the data supporting the role of BET bromodomain inhibitors in human T-ALL.

  2. Isolation Design and Energy Dissipation Analysis of a Shear-wall Tall Building%某钢筋混凝土剪力墙结构隔震设计及耗能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟

    2012-01-01

    Isolation design and energy dissipation analysis of a shear-wall tall building was introduced in detail in this paper. Isola- tion layer was arranged between the basement and the first floor. 18 natural rubber and 40 tead rubber bearings were adopted in the project. Non-isolation and isolation structure models were both built by ETABS software. Then, the dynamic characteristics of both were compared and the effect of isolation was presented particularly. Also, seismic carrying capacity was check under rare earthquake action, and wind-resistant capacity was examined too. Finally, energy dissipation and acceleration response of isola- tion structure were carried out. The results show that isolation layer can mostly absorb earthquake energy, greatly reducing the in- put energy transferring to the uppers. The earthquake action and acceleration response of upper layers are reduced to a great ex- tent. Therefore, safety and comfort of building are greatly improved in the end.%本文详细介绍了某钢筋混凝土剪力墙结构的隔震设计过程及耗能情况。该结构隔震层设置于地下室顶板与首层之间,共布置了18个天然橡胶隔震支座和40个铅芯橡胶隔震支座;采用ETABS有限元软件建立非隔震结构与隔震结构两个计算模型,分析比较了结构隔震前后的动力特性和隔震效果,并对隔震结构进行了罕遇地震作用验算和抗风承载力验算,最后分析了隔震结构罕遇地震下结构耗能与加速度响应。分析结果表明,结构隔震层能够很好吸收地震能量,大大减小地震输入能量往上部传递,显著降低了上部结构的地震作用和加速度响应,从而大幅度提高了结构的安全性和舒适性。

  3. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  4. A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2008-01-01

    In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

  5. Proceedings of the 6. International Conference on Multipurpose High-rise Towers and Tall Buildings. CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity to exchange information on recent building and construction research with particular reference to high-rise towers and tall buildings. The main issues were arranged into two sessions dealing with innovative new designs for tall structures and designs for fire safety. The presentations evaluated best practices in construction with reference to a wide range of topics, including serviceability considerations for tall residential buildings; super tall housing architectural and socio-psychological implications; design of drainage systems for high-rise buildings; bionic towers and vertical gardens; early warning and response measures for buildings at risk to chemical and biological threats; earthquake protection; safety measures for people with disabilities; and, fire resistance. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 1 has been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

    2008-03-01

    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P calf pairs stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25% of BW/d likely optimizes its use; because cow body condition is easily regained in the subsequent spring and summer months, less forage is used during winter, and calf gain per hectare is maximized.

  7. Tall Buildings and Elevators: A Review of Recent Technological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse. Importantly, the paper contextualizes recent technological innovations by examining their implementations in recent major projects including One World Trade Center in New York; Shanghai Tower in Shanghai; Burj Khalifa in Dubai; Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; and the green retrofit project of the Empire State Building in New York. Further, the paper discusses future vertical transportation models including a vertical subway concept, a space lift, and electromagnetic levitation technology. As these new technological advancements in elevator design empower architects to create new forms and shapes of large-scale, mixed-use developments, this paper concludes by highlighting the need for interdisciplinary research in incorporating elevators in skyscrapers.

  8. Ajaloomuuseumi hoovil laguneb kaitsealune tall / Juhan Mellik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mellik, Juhan

    2010-01-01

    Ajaloomuuseumile kuuluv 19. sajandist pärit Maarjamäe suvemõisa tall on hävimisohus, sest hoone katusetalad on mädanenud. Laguneb ka Maarjamäe lossikompleksi juurde viiv trepistik. Tallinna kultuuriväärtuste ameti muinsuskaitse osakonna juhataja Boris Duboviku ja peaspetsialist Oliver Orro ning kultuuriministeeriumi riigivarabüroo juhataja Andres Nõlve arvamus

  9. Fertility of Tall Girls Treated with High-Dose Estrogen, a Dose-Response Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A. E. J.; Drop, S. L. S.; Laven, J. S. E.; Boot, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: High-dose estrogen treatment to reduce final height of tall girls increases their risk for infertility in later life. Objective: The aim was to study the effect of estrogen dose on fertility outcome of these women. Design/Setting: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of university hosp

  10. Developing a green metric mechanism versus LEED for tall buildings in Qatar: evaluation-based case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galal A Ibrahim, Hatem [Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, College of Engineering, Qatar University (Qatar)], E-mail: hatem_ibrahim@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Qatar, with its large and growing economy is one of the busiest construction sites in the world. In Doha, numerous tall buildings have been constructed to provide office space and meet life style property demand. The aim of this paper is to develop a new green metrics system for Doha tall buildings. This green metrics system distributes credits based on indoor thermal comfort, energy consumption, water management and innovation in design. The system was applied in the Tornado tower, a 52-storey office building situated in Doha's West Bay area and compared with the LEED system. It was found that the new metrics system developed herein is better suited to Doha's tall buildings than the LEED system. This paper presented a new green metrics system which will be helpful in determining the environmental performance of tall buildings in Qatar.

  11. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2004-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise.

  12. Statistical extremes and peak factors in wind-induced vibration of tall buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-feng HUANG; Chun-man CHAN; Wen-juan LOU; Kenny Chung-Siu KWOK

    2012-01-01

    In the structural design of tall buildings,peak factors have been widely used to predict mean extreme responses of tall buildings under wind excitations.Vanmarcke's peak factor is directly related to an explicit measure of structural reliability against a Gaussian response process.We review the use of this factor for time-variant reliability design by comparing it to the conventional Davenport's peak factor.Based on the asymptotic theory of statistical extremes,a new closed-form peak factor,the so-called Gamma peak factor,can be obtained for a non-Gaussian resultant response characterized by a Rayleigh distribution process.Using the Gamma peak factor,a combined peak factor method was developed for predicting the expected maximum resultant responses of a building undergoing lateral-torsional vibration.The effects of the standard deviation ratio of two sway components and the inter-component correlation on the evaluation of peak resultant response were also investigated.Utilizing wind tunnel data derived from synchronous multi-pressure measurements,we carried out a wind-induced time history response analysis of the Commonwealth Advisory Aeronautical Research Council (CAARC) standard tall building to validate the applicability of the Gamma peak factor to the prediction of the peak resultant acceleration.Results from the building example indicated that the use of the Gamma peak factor enables accurate predictions to be made of the mean extreme resultant acceleration responses for dynamic serviceability performance design of modern tall buildings.

  13. Improvement of Process Design of Lost Foam Casting for Thin-walled Tall Steel Casting%薄壁高大铸钢件消失模铸造工艺的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦芳; 卢献忠; 范晓明

    2015-01-01

    The heavy rail bearing of thin-walled tall steel castings were produced by the use of lost foam casting. But the problems such as 'vacant shell', collapse of sand and so on,which lead to the lower quality and yield of castings. By improving the casting process, using bottom pouring system to replace the ladder pouring system,using sprue and runner of refractory materials, reducing pouring temperature and degree of negative pressure, and adopting appropriate pouring speed, the quality and yield of heavy rail bearing steel castings were successfully improved. The experience of production is worth promoting.%利用消失模铸造工艺生产了薄壁高大铸钢重轨支座,出现了“空壳”、塌箱等问题,导致其质量和成品率较低。通过改进铸造工艺,改阶梯浇注为底部浇注,采用耐火材料直浇道和横浇道,降低浇注温度和负压度,并采用合适的浇注速度,成功提高了重轨支座铸钢件的质量和成品率,其生产经验值得推广。

  14. Charlemagne was very tall, but not robust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, Frank J; Blümich, Bernhard; Henneberg, Maciej

    2010-07-01

    The left tibia of Charlemagne, the Medieval "Father of Europe" has been X-rayed and CT scanned to determine his still highly debated stature. We found the healthy bone to be long (430 mm) but rather not robust (total mid-shaft cross-sectional area 473 mm(2), cortical area 352 mm(2)). Reconstructed stature of 1.84 m falls at about 99% of Medieval heights, which would be ca. 1.95 m in present-day Europe. Thus, tall stature indeed could have contributed to the success of "Charles the Great" as a king emperor and soldier.

  15. LQG Control of Along-Wind Response of a Tall Building with an ATMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Pyo You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tall buildings use lighter construction materials that have high strength and less stiffness and are more flexible. Although this results in the improvement of structural safety, excessive wind-induced excitations could lead to occupant discomfort. The optimal control law of a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG controller with an active tuned mass damper (ATMD is used for reducing the along-wind response of a tall building. ATMD consists of a second mass with optimum parameters for tuning frequency and damping ratio of the tuned mass damper (TMD, under the stationary random load, was used. A fluctuating along-wind load, acting on a tall building, was treated as a stationary Gaussian white noise and was simulated numerically, in the time domain, using the along-wind load spectra proposed by G. Solari in 1993. Using this simulated wind load, it was possible to calculate the along-wind responses of a tall building (with and without the ATMD, using an LQG controller. Comparing the RMS (root mean square response revealed that the numerically simulated along-wind responses, without ATMD, are a good approximation to the closed form response, and that the reduced responses with ATMD and LQG controller were estimated by varying the values of control design parameters.

  16. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  17. Seedling performance associated with live or herbicide treated tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitro...

  18. Seedling Performance Associated with Live or Herbicide Treated Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitrogen and enhance the nutritive value of forage for livestock production. Competition from existing tall fescue typically must be controlled to ensure interseeding success. We used a soil-on-agar method to determine if soil from intact, living (L, or an herbicide killed (K tall fescue sward influenced germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of tall fescue (E+, MaxQ, and E− or legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and white clover. After 30 days, seedlings were larger and present in greater numbers when grown in L soil rather than K soil. Root growth of legumes (especially white clover and tall fescue (especially MaxQ were not as vigorous in K soil as L soil. While shoot biomass was similar for all cultivars of tall fescue in L soil, MaxQ produced less herbage when grown in K soil. Our data suggest establishing legumes or fescue cultivars may not be improved by first killing the existing fescue sod and seedling performance can exhibit significant interseasonal variation, related only to soil conditions.

  19. Study of Suitability of Out-of-Codes Tall Slab-Column and Shearwall Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Nan; ZHAO Tingting; LIN Yiying

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to discuss the suitability of out-of-codes tall slab-column and shearwall structure and to popularize the structure in seismic region.In the research,flat-plate floor was used in slab-column and shearwall structure in the practical engineering,the key parameters of slab-column and shearwall structure and frame-shearwall structure such as deflection,punching shear behavior,story drift and capability curve were worked out by static plastic analysis,elastic-plastic time history analysis and pushover analysis,then the suitability of out-of-codes tall slab-column and shearwall structure was evaluated.The results show that the out-of-codes tall slab-column and shearwall structure studies could satisfy the require of deflection and punching shear behavior,the story drift under 7 degree expected rare earthquake waves could satisfy the limit value in the codes and the seismic design spectrum was crossed by the capability curve of the structure and the structure could not collapse.The conclusion is that slab-column and shearwall structure with reasonable design built in Ⅱ soil site of intensity 7 seismic fortification zone can be designed higher than the limit height in the codes.

  20. Plastiliinipoisi pilgu läbi / Pärtel Tall

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tall, Pärtel

    2007-01-01

    Kunstnike rühmituse "Avangard" püsiinstallatsiooni ettevalmistamisest ja avamisest Tallinnas Kultuurikatlas. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli kunstiõpetajana lõpetanud Pärtel Tall nukufilmide "Kõrbeorel" ja "Porgand" valmimisest, osalemisest performance'ides

  1. Tall shrub layer biomass in conifer plantations in northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Ohmann

    1982-01-01

    Provides estimates of biomass (pounds/acre) for tall shrub species in 53 conifer plantations in northeastern Minnesota. The estimates are analyzed by plantation age and silvicultural practices used to establish and release the plantations.

  2. Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, Craig; Rerucha, Caitlyn

    2015-07-01

    Short stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations below the mean for age (less than the 3rd percentile). Tall stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (greater than the 97th percentile). The initial evaluation of short and tall stature should include a history and physical examination, accurate serial measurements, and determination of growth velocity, midparental height, and bone age. Common normal variants of short stature are familial short stature, constitutional delay of growth and puberty, and idiopathic short stature. Pathologic causes of short stature include chronic diseases; growth hormone deficiency; and genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome. Tall stature has the same prevalence as short stature, but it is a much less common reason for referral to subspecialty care. Common causes of tall stature include familial tall stature, obesity, Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and precocious puberty. Although most children with short or tall stature have variants of normal growth, children who are more than three standard deviations from the mean for age are more likely to have underlying pathology. Evaluation for pathologic etiologies is guided by history and physical examination findings.

  3. Analysis Impact of Structure Design on Tall-gate Leakage%汽车尾门结构设计对尾门漏水的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童秀芹

    2016-01-01

    尾门漏水是尾门设计中需要重点关注的一个问题,尾门漏水会引发质量问题,导致顾客抱怨。本文介绍了预防尾门漏水的尾门结构设计方案,详细分析了结构设计、内板密封面及工艺孔结构等关键要素,提出的结构设计减少了后期问题的发生,提高了产品质量。%Tail gate leakage is a problem that needs to be focused on in the design of the tail gate. The leakage of the tail gate will cause the quality problems, leading to customer complaints. This paper introduces preventing tail gate leakage tail gate structure design, detailed analysis of the structure design, plate sealing surface and the process of pore structure and key factors, which puts forward the structure design, reduces the later problems and improves the quality of the products.

  4. Analysis of Key Points on the Structural Design of Tall Buildings ANSYS Implementation%关于高层建筑结构设计的ANSYS实施要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡官民

    2014-01-01

    ANSYS软件的全称是大型有限元分析软件,能够为高层建筑的设计提供结构模型的建立、模态分析、风荷载以及地震作用下的结构响应分析。本文将具体分析高层建筑结构设计中ANSYS软件的实施要点。%The ful name of ANSYS software is the large-scale finite element analysis software, can provide established of the structural model, modal analysis, the wind load and the structure response analysis under earthquake for the design of high-rise building. The article would analyze the essentials of implementing ANSYS software in the design of high-rise building structure.

  5. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  6. Does Size Matter? Short and Tall Officers Policing the Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical characteristics is rarely addressed in the literature on professional competence and authority. In police work it is almost taken for granted that height is advantageous in police work, despite a lack of research on the topic. This study examines how height may affect police inter-actions with the public and how short and tall men and women experience the importance of their height in patrol work. Results show that being tall was perceived as beneficial in patrol work. Furthermore, the authority of short police officers is challenged more often by the public, and short female police may have a particular focus on verbal communication. Tallness will probably be perceived as beneficial in fields in which physical conflicts arises.

  7. Comparison of different coupling CFD–STH approaches for pre-test analysis of a TALL-3D experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, Angel, E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany); Jeltsov, Marti; Kööp, Kaspar; Kudinov, Pavel [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lerchl, Georg [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal-hydraulic system codes and CFD tools are coupled. • Pre-test calculations for the TALL-3D facility are performed. • Complex flow and heat transfer phenomena are modeled. • Comparative analyses have been performed. - Abstract: The system thermal-hydraulic (STH) code ATHLET was coupled with the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package ANSYS CFX to improve ATHLET simulation capabilities for flows with pronounced 3D phenomena such as flow mixing and thermal stratification. Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), validation activities for coupled thermal-hydraulic codes are being carried out. The TALL-3D experimental facility, operated by KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, is designed for thermal-hydraulic experiments with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant at natural and forced circulation conditions. GRS carried out pre-test simulations with ATHLET–ANSYS CFX for the TALL-3D experiment T01, while KTH scientists perform these analyses with the coupled code RELAP5/STAR CCM+. In the experiment T01 the main circulation pump is stopped, which leads to interesting thermal-hydraulic transient with local 3D phenomena. In this paper, the TALL-3D behavior during T01 is analyzed and the results of the coupled pre-test calculations, performed by GRS (ATHLET–ANSYS CFX) and KTH (RELAP5/STAR CCM+) are directly compared.

  8. Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges for Tall Wind Turbine and Tower Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric; Roberts, Owen; Dykes, Katherine

    2017-06-28

    This presentation summarizes recent analysis focused on characterizing the opportunity for Tall Wind technologies generally and for tall tower technologies specifically. It seeks to illuminate and explain the concept of Tall Wind, its impact on the wind industry to date, and the potential value of Tall Wind in the future. It also explores the conditions and locations under which the impacts of Tall Wind offer the most significant potential to increase wind technology performance. In addition, it seeks to examine the status of tall tower technology as a key sub-component of Tall Wind, focusing on the potential for continued innovation in tubular steel wind turbine towers and the status and potential for a select set of alternative tall tower technologies.

  9. TALL FESCUE AND ASSOCIATED MUTUALISTIC TOXIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES IN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon et al. (1977) proposed and Hoveland et al. (1980, 1986) substantiated that impaired health and performance of livestock grazing tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum S. J. Darbyshire, formerly Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] were associated with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum Glenn, Ha...

  10. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  11. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids....

  12. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Klotz, J L; Johnson, J M; Strickland, J R; Schrick, F N

    2013-12-01

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 12 different crossbred Angus steers each year to determine if short-term changes in prolactin concentrations, body temperature, and vasoconstriction reflect recovery from fescue toxicosis after steers that previously grazed toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] are placed on nontoxic feed. Groups of 6 steers from toxic endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue grazing treatments were blocked by BW for assignment to pens as a randomized complete block design with 2 replications. Two environments were implemented by initiating the experiment on 18 August in yr 1 and on 8 September in yr 2 for durations of 30 and 21 d, respectively. Rectal temperatures were recorded, jugular blood was collected for assaying serum prolactin, and cross sections of the caudal artery were ultrasonically imaged at selected time points to evaluate temporal changes in the response variables. Rectal temperatures in steers on the toxic endophyte pasture treatment declined (P 0.10) to those on endophyte-free treatment on d 30 in yr 1 and by d 15 in yr 2. Prolactin concentrations in steers on the toxic endophyte pasture treatment showed curvilinear increases (P 0.10) to steers on the endophyte-free treatment by d 15 in yr 1 and by d 10 in yr 2. Luminal areas of the caudal artery in toxic endophyte steers were less (P endophyte-free steers across all dates in both years. Results indicated that rectal temperatures in steers after they are removed from toxic fescue may decrease over time, but temporal changes in rectal temperatures could be affected more by prevailing ambient temperatures than by actual mitigation of fescue toxicosis. Prolactin concentrations in steers after they are removed from toxic endophyte tall fescue can increase and stabilize in less than 2 wk, but alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction that causes a vulnerability to severe heat stress is not

  13. Comparative Performance of Octagrid and Hexagrid Lateral Load Resisting Systems For Tall Building Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Raghu Prasad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction of high rise structure is quite common in this era. There are a number of high rise structures constructed all over the world and are being constructed. The analysis and design of high rise structure is quite different from that of low rise structures because of lateral forces due to wind and earthquake. In high rise structures the resistance to lateral loading (wind and earthquake loads will be the dominant criteria that have to be considered in the analysis and design and an efficient lateral load resisting system will define the efficiency of tall structures. In the present paper it is aimed to study different lateral load resisting systems like octagrid and hexagrid bracing systems for tall building. Not much information is available in the literature on such systems. It is intended to study such lateral load resisting systems. The two types of bracing systems including octagrid and hexagrid bracings are modeled and analyzed. Behavior under lateral loads of hexagrid and octagridsystem is compared with that and the commonly employed shear wall systems. The key parameter for comparision is the top story displacement under wind and seismic loading, the maximum storey drift ratio and also quantity of concrete consumed. It is found that the hexagrid and octagrid systems are best with respect to the above parameter. Although there is a marginal increase in the quantity of concrete consumed.

  14. Trib2 Suppresses Tumor Initiation in Notch-Driven T-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sarah J; Mack, Ethan A; Rome, Kelly S; Pajcini, Kostandin V; Ohtani, Takuya; Xu, Lanwei; Li, Yunlei; Meijerink, Jules P P; Faryabi, Robert B; Pear, Warren S

    2016-01-01

    Trib2 is highly expressed in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and is a direct transcriptional target of the oncogenic drivers Notch and TAL1. In human TAL1-driven T-ALL cell lines, Trib2 is proposed to function as an important survival factor, but there is limited information about the role of Trib2 in primary T-ALL. In this study, we investigated the role of Trib2 in the initiation and maintenance of Notch-dependent T-ALL. Trib2 had no effect on the growth and survival of murine T-ALL cell lines in vitro when expression was blocked by shRNAs. To test the function of Trib2 on leukemogenesis in vivo, we generated Trib2 knockout mice. Mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequencies without gross developmental anomalies. Adult mice did not develop pathology or shortened survival, and hematopoiesis, including T cell development, was unperturbed. Using a retroviral model of Notch-induced T-ALL, deletion of Trib2 unexpectedly decreased the latency and increased the penetrance of T-ALL development in vivo. Immunoblotting of primary murine T-ALL cells showed that the absence of Trib2 increased C/EBPα expression, a known regulator of cell proliferation, and did not alter AKT or ERK phosphorylation. Although Trib2 was suggested to be highly expressed in T-ALL, transcriptomic analysis of two independent T-ALL cohorts showed that low Trib2 expression correlated with the TLX1-expressing cortical mature T-ALL subtype, whereas high Trib2 expression correlated with the LYL1-expressing early immature T-ALL subtype. These data indicate that Trib2 has a complex role in the pathogenesis of Notch-driven T-ALL, which may vary between different T-ALL subtypes.

  15. Trib2 Suppresses Tumor Initiation in Notch-Driven T-ALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Stein

    Full Text Available Trib2 is highly expressed in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and is a direct transcriptional target of the oncogenic drivers Notch and TAL1. In human TAL1-driven T-ALL cell lines, Trib2 is proposed to function as an important survival factor, but there is limited information about the role of Trib2 in primary T-ALL. In this study, we investigated the role of Trib2 in the initiation and maintenance of Notch-dependent T-ALL. Trib2 had no effect on the growth and survival of murine T-ALL cell lines in vitro when expression was blocked by shRNAs. To test the function of Trib2 on leukemogenesis in vivo, we generated Trib2 knockout mice. Mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequencies without gross developmental anomalies. Adult mice did not develop pathology or shortened survival, and hematopoiesis, including T cell development, was unperturbed. Using a retroviral model of Notch-induced T-ALL, deletion of Trib2 unexpectedly decreased the latency and increased the penetrance of T-ALL development in vivo. Immunoblotting of primary murine T-ALL cells showed that the absence of Trib2 increased C/EBPα expression, a known regulator of cell proliferation, and did not alter AKT or ERK phosphorylation. Although Trib2 was suggested to be highly expressed in T-ALL, transcriptomic analysis of two independent T-ALL cohorts showed that low Trib2 expression correlated with the TLX1-expressing cortical mature T-ALL subtype, whereas high Trib2 expression correlated with the LYL1-expressing early immature T-ALL subtype. These data indicate that Trib2 has a complex role in the pathogenesis of Notch-driven T-ALL, which may vary between different T-ALL subtypes.

  16. ANALYSIS METHODS ON STABILITY OF TALL AND BEDDIIG CREEP SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUIYongqin; JIANGZhiming; LIUJinghui

    1995-01-01

    Based on the model of slope engineering geology,the creep and its failure mechanism of tall and bedding slope are deeply analyzed in this paper .The creep laws of weak intercalations are also discussed.The analysis om the stability of creep slope and the age forecasting of sliding slope have been conducted through mumerical simulations using Finite Element Method (FEM)and Dintimct Element Method(DEM).

  17. Catalytic Transformation of Tall Oil into Biocomponent of Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mikulec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the conventional kraft pulp mills produce crude tall oil which is a mixture of free fatty acids, resin acids, sterols, terpenoid compounds, and many others. This study is devoted to the issue of direct transformation of crude tall oil in a mixture with straight-run atmospheric gas oil to liquid fuels using three different commercial hydrotreating catalysts. Diesel fuel production is an alternative to incineration of these materials. High catalytic activity was achieved for all tested catalysts in temperature range 360–380°C, under 5.5 MPa hydrogen pressure and ratio H2/feedstock 500–1000 l/l. Crude tall oil can be converted to diesel oil component via simultaneous refining with straight-run atmospheric gas oil on NiMo/Al2O3 and NiW/Al2O3-zeolite catalysts. All tested catalysts had very good hydrodenitrogenation activity and high liquid yield were at tested conditions.

  18. MONITORING THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TALL BUILDINGS BY GPS TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of large structures,such as tall buildings,long-span suspension,cable-stayed bridges and tall chimneys,are key to assess their drift and stress conditions.The dynamic characteristics of large structures are difficult to measure directly under the condition of earthquakes or strong winds using traditional techniques such as laser collimator,total station and accelerometers.Therefore there is a great need for developing new method or technique for this purpose.Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provide a great opportunity to monitor long-period changes of structures reliably.GPS receivers capable to gauge the motion at the centimeter or sub-centimeter level with sampling frequency 10Hz or even 20 Hz are now available from several manufacturers.To the authors' knowledge,the capability of identifying dynamic characteristics from GPS observations has not been widely verified.For the feasibility study on using kinematic GPS technology to identify the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings,some experiments were conducted in a simulative environment.This paper discusses in detail the experiment device,and the ways through them GPS data are recorded,processed and analyzed.With post-processing version of NovAtel's Softsurv software and auto-regressive (AR) spectral analysis method,relative displacements and corresponding vibrating frequencies have been derived from GPS observations.The results indicate that the dynamic characteristics can be identified accurately by kinematic GPS technology.

  19. Influence of harvest managements on biomass nutrient concentrations and removal rates of festulolium and tall fescue from a poorly drained nutrient-rich fen peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to show the effects of harvest time and frequency on biomass nutrient concentrations (total ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) as well as total nutrient removal potential by festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a nutrient-rich fen peatland. The harvest managemen...

  20. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se; Jeltsov, Marti, E-mail: marti@safety.sci.kth.se; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  1. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  2. Plant and Endophyte Effect on Fiber, N, and P Concentrations in Tall Fescue

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, James K.; Ben C. Morton; Jagadeesh Mosali

    2011-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with an endophyte (Neotyphodium spp.) generally has agronomic advantages over endophyte-free tall fescue. The objective of this study was to determine if endophyte presence (E+) or absence (E−) in three tall fescue genotypes affects concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in field and greenhouse studies. E+ plants had higher concentrations of ADF and NDF (nonsignificant in one ge...

  3. Tall Tales: The Simpsons deconstructing the american myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Betina Götz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the episode Tall Tales from the series The Simpsons that revisits legends of the American folklore. The TV series pays homage to both the time of the pioneers in their travels to the Far West in the nineteenth century, as well as to one of the most iconic and folk characters of the American culture from that period: the Hobo was a beggar, a figure of the American folklore during the Great Depression. It is also interesting to focus on the American imaginary in order to understand how the authors of The Simpsons perform these recreations in contemporary times

  4. Intervention times for fire fighters in tall buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Warneboldt Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The means of intervention for the rescue service is a topic of high interest, when it comes to tall buildings. The usage of stairs and a consequent fatigue of the rescue service, affects the process of fire fighting and rescuing in such buildings. In the present study tests were conducted in a high......-rise building in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The goal was to gain more information regarding the travel time for fire fighters ascending stairs. Furthermore, signs of fatigue such as pulse during the intervention and fluid loss during the whole process were recorded. The test was conducted twice...

  5. Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat of the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir M. Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The tall building is the most dominating symbol of the cities and a human-made marvel that defies gravity by reaching to the clouds. It embodies unrelenting human aspirations to build even higher. It conjures a number of valid questions in our minds. The foremost and fundamental question that is often asked: Why tall buildings? This review paper seeks to answer the question by laying out arguments against and for tall buildings. Then, it provides a brief account of the historic and recent developments of tall buildings including their status during the current economic recession. The paper argues that as cities continue to expand horizontally, to safeguard against their reaching an eventual breaking point, the tall building as a building type is a possible solution by way of conquering vertical space through agglomeration and densification. Case studies of some recently built tall buildings are discussed to illustrate the nature of tall building development in their respective cities. The paper attempts to dispel any discernment about tall buildings as mere pieces of art and architecture by emphasizing their truly speculative, technological, sustainable, and evolving nature. It concludes by projecting a vision of tall buildings and their integration into the cities of the 21st century.

  6. Proposed Configurations for the Use of Smart Dampers with Bracings in Tall Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aly Sayed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wind-induced response reduction in a very slender building using smart dampers with proposed bracings-lever mechanism system. The building presents a case study of an engineered design that is instructive. The paper shows that shear response and flexural response of tall buildings present two very different cases for vibration suppression. Smart dampers are implemented optimally in the building to reduce its response in the lateral directions for both structural safety and occupant comfort concerns. New bracings-lever mechanism configurations are proposed for the dampers to improve their performance. The study shows how the proposed configurations can enable application to flexural response and scenarios where the interstory drift is not enough for dampers to work effectively. In addition, a decentralized bang-bang controller improved the performance of the smart dampers.

  7. Process design and economic evaluation of green extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2017-01-01

    Sunflower oil (SF) and its methyl ester as well as supercritical fluid (SC-CO2+ 5 wt% EtOH) have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin...... (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol (Hex:IPA). The process flowsheets describing these processes were modelled by means of SuperPro Designer...... with SF and synthetic ASX yielded a shrimp feed production cost comparable to the current market price. The calculated feed price based on the ASX production cost of the other green processes, ME-SF and SCFE, resulted in a significantly higher production cost....

  8. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  9. Development of Efficient Models of Corona Discharges Around Tall Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work concerns with numerical modeling of glow corona and sreamer corona discharges that occur near tall ground structures under thunderstorm conditions. Glow corona can occur when ambient electric field reaches modest values on the order of 0.2 kV/cm and when the electric field near sharp points of ground structure rises above a geometry dependent critical field required for ionization of air. Air is continuously ionized in a small region close to the surface of the structure and ions diffuse out into the surrounding air forming a corona. A downward leader approaching from a thundercloud causes a further increase in the electric field at the ground level. If the electric field rises to the point where it can support formation of streamers in air surrounding the tall structure, a streamer corona flash, or series of streamer corona flashes can be formed significantly affecting the space charge configuration formed by the preceding glow corona. The streamer corona can heat the surrounding air enough to form a self-propagating thermalized leader that is launched upward from the tall structure. This leader travels upward towards the thundercloud and connects with the downward approaching leader thus causing a lightning flash. Accurate time-dependent modeling of charge configuration created by the glow and streamer corona discharges around tall structure is an important component for understanding of the sequence of events leading to lightning attachment to the tall structure. The present work builds on principal modeling ideas developed previously in [Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005; Bazelyan et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 17, 024015, 2008; Kowalski, E. J., Honors Thesis, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2008; Tucker and Pasko, NSF EE REU Penn State Annual Res. J., 10, 13, 2012]. The non-stationary glow and streamer coronas are modeled in spherical geometry up to the point of initiation of the upward leader. The model

  10. The Data Model of Tall Building Structure CAD System%高层建筑结构CAD系统的数据模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸元; 袁明武

    2001-01-01

    用面向对象的分析方法对高层建筑结构CAD系统进行了分析,通过对基本对象及其之间关系、作用的抽象,运用面向对象的设计方法建立了高层建筑结构的基本对象模型.采用面向对象技术和关系数据库相结合的方法,构造和初步建立了高层建筑结构的工程数据库,能够较好地解决高层建筑结构集成化CAD系统的数据组织和管理问题.%Tall building structure CAD system is studied in an object-oriented analysis method. While a series of basic objects and decomposition, relation, action among these objects are carried out, an object-oriented model of tall building structure is established in this paper by object-oriented design method. By combining object-oriented modeling technique with relation database approach, a tall building engineering database is constructed and established preliminarily. This engineering database can effectively organize and manage the data of the tall building structure integration CAD system.

  11. Trials with TALL-1O4 Cells for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    appropriate radiological techniques) were performed prior to TALL-104 treatment. When available, excess tumor tissue was cryopreserved and used later...Cesano, A.*, Jeglum, K. A., and Santoli, D. Adjuvant treatment of canine osteosarcoma with the human cytotoxic T cell line TALL-104. Clin. Cancer

  12. Fatherhood in Tall Men Treated with High-Dose Sex Steroids during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A. E. J.; Boellaard, W. P. A.; van Casteren, N. J.; Romijn, J. C.; de Jong, F. H.; Boot, A. M.; Drop, S. L. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: Sex steroid treatment to reduce final height of tall boys has been available since the 1950s. In women, it has been shown to interfere with fertility. In men, no such data are available. We therefore evaluated fertility and gonadal function in tall men who did or did not receiv

  13. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

  14. From the Lab Bench: Should you plant a non-toxic endophyte tall fescue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss planting novel endophyte tall fescue for alleviating fescue toxicosis. Endophyte-free tall fescue cultivars can be grazed as a non-toxic alternative, but it maust be understood that it is the endophyte, through production of alkaloids other than ergot alkaloids, that...

  15. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  16. 78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes (78 FR 25410), proposing to... various events throughout the Great Lakes this summer, to include the Tall Ships Celebration Bay City... Challenge Great Lakes 2013 from June 13, 2013 to September 17, 2013. B. Basis and Purpose Between 12:30...

  17. 78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. These... Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes. (a) Locations. The following are... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of...

  18. Fatherhood in Tall Men Treated with High-Dose Sex Steroids during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A. E. J.; Boellaard, W. P. A.; van Casteren, N. J.; Romijn, J. C.; de Jong, F. H.; Boot, A. M.; Drop, S. L. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: Sex steroid treatment to reduce final height of tall boys has been available since the 1950s. In women, it has been shown to interfere with fertility. In men, no such data are available. We therefore evaluated fertility and gonadal function in tall men who did or did not

  19. Host suitability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars to Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considering the importance of the perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) having as forage potential and its resistance to many pests, including some phytoparasitic nematodes, the host reaction of three tall fescue cultivars (cvs. Bulldogs 51, Georgia 5 and Jesup AR542 ) were evaluated for...

  20. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  1. A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology for Tall Biomass Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Fernandez, Maria G; Bao, Yin; Tang, Lie; Schnable, Patrick S

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in omics technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective, and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short-stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum lines were reconstructed in 3D for feature extraction. User interfaces were developed, and multiple algorithms were evaluated for their accuracy in estimating plant height and stem diameter. Tested feature extraction methods included the following: (1) User-interactive Individual Plant Height Extraction (UsIn-PHe) based on dense stereo three-dimensional reconstruction; (2) Automatic Hedge-based Plant Height Extraction (Auto-PHe) based on dense stereo 3D reconstruction; (3) User-interactive Dense Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction; and (4) User-interactive Image Patch Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction (IPaS-Di). Comparative genome-wide association analysis and ground-truth validation demonstrated that both UsIn-PHe and Auto-PHe were accurate methods to estimate plant height, while Auto-PHe had the additional advantage of being a completely automated process. For stem diameter, IPaS-Di generated the most accurate estimates of this biomass-related architectural trait. In summary, our technology was proven robust to obtain ground-based high-throughput plant architecture parameters of sorghum, a tall and densely planted crop species. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology for Tall Biomass Crops1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in omics technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective, and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short-stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum lines were reconstructed in 3D for feature extraction. User interfaces were developed, and multiple algorithms were evaluated for their accuracy in estimating plant height and stem diameter. Tested feature extraction methods included the following: (1) User-interactive Individual Plant Height Extraction (UsIn-PHe) based on dense stereo three-dimensional reconstruction; (2) Automatic Hedge-based Plant Height Extraction (Auto-PHe) based on dense stereo 3D reconstruction; (3) User-interactive Dense Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction; and (4) User-interactive Image Patch Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction (IPaS-Di). Comparative genome-wide association analysis and ground-truth validation demonstrated that both UsIn-PHe and Auto-PHe were accurate methods to estimate plant height, while Auto-PHe had the additional advantage of being a completely automated process. For stem diameter, IPaS-Di generated the most accurate estimates of this biomass-related architectural trait. In summary, our technology was proven robust to obtain ground-based high-throughput plant architecture parameters of sorghum, a tall and densely planted crop species. PMID:28620124

  3. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E.; Haekkinen, R.; Kuoppala, E.; Koskela, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  4. Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Körner, Christian

    2016-04-15

    Forest trees compete for light and soil resources, but photoassimilates, once produced in the foliage, are not considered to be exchanged between individuals. Applying stable carbon isotope labeling at the canopy scale, we show that carbon assimilated by 40-meter-tall spruce is traded over to neighboring beech, larch, and pine via overlapping root spheres. Isotope mixing signals indicate that the interspecific, bidirectional transfer, assisted by common ectomycorrhiza networks, accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon (about 280 kilograms per hectare per year tree-to-tree transfer). Although competition for resources is commonly considered as the dominant tree-to-tree interaction in forests, trees may interact in more complex ways, including substantial carbon exchange.

  5. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell eBush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  6. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  7. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  9. Development and Study on Construction Technology of Tall and Super Tall Buildings%高层与超高层建筑技术发展与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛志兵

    2012-01-01

    介绍了国内外高层与超高层建筑的发展历史和技术发展情况.结合中国建筑工程总公司(以下简称“中国建筑”)在高层与超高层建筑领域的技术发展情况,阐述了其在该领域的技术研究方向,包括千米级建筑建造技术,超深基坑技术,装备研究,钢结构制作安装,混凝土新材料等.指出高层与超高层建筑存在的问题,并提出了高层建筑应向绿色化、信息化和智能化方向发展.%Development history and technology development situation of tall and super tall buildings are introduced at home and abroad. Combined with technology development situation of China State Construction Engineering Corporation in construction field of tall and super tall buildings, the technological research direction is introduced, including the construction technology of a thousand meter scale building, related technology of ultra-deep foundation excavation, related equipment research, manufacture and installation of steel structure, new material about concrete and so on. The author points out the problems in tall and super tall building construction, and puts forward the development directions of tall building, including greenization, informatization and intellectualization.

  10. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Ali; Alfredsen, Gry; Eikenes, Morten; Terziev, Nasko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana) were performed on both unleached and leached test samples. Boric acid showed a low weight loss in test samples when exposed to fungal decay before leaching, but no effect after leaching. The tall oil derivates gave better efficacy against decay fungi compared to control, but are not within the range of the efficacy needed for a wood preservative. Double impregnation with boric acid and tall oil derivates gave synergistic effects for several of the double treatments both in unleached and leached samples. In the unleached samples the double treatment gave a better efficacy against decay fungi than tall oil alone. In leached samples a better efficacy against brown rot fungi were achieved than in samples with boron alone and a nearly similar or better efficacy than for tall oil alone. Boric acid at 2% concentration combined with the tall oil derivate consisting of 90% free resin acids (TO-III) showed the best performance against the two decay fungi with a weight loss less than 3% after a modified pure culture test.

  11. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  12. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  13. Discussion on super-tall structures type selection in high wind load area%谈高风载地区超高层结构选型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任军

    2016-01-01

    结合珠海某超高层建筑的结构设计参数,建立了四种结构体系,对不同的结构选型进行了分析比较,得到了不同结构形式的优缺点,为高风载地区超高层结构方案设计提供了参考依据。%Combining with the structure design parameters of a super-tall building in Zhuhai established four kinds of structure system,compared and analyzed different structure type selection,gained the advantages and disadvantages of different structure forms,provided reference basis for super-tall structures scheme design in high wind load areas.

  14. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-02-11

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type.

  15. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sarah L.; Rebecca L. McCulley; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis wit...

  16. Paraneoplastic Galactorrhea in Childhood T-ALL: An Evaluation of Tumor-derived Prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Allison; Mirkheshti, Nooshin; Chatterjee, Bandana; Tomlinson, Gail; Assanasen, Chatchawin

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) comprises 15% of childhood leukemia. Although multiagent pulse chemotherapy has improved event-free survival in recent decades, the lack of reliable prognosticators and high rate of relapse remain a challenge. Described is a novel discovery of tumor-derived hyperprolactinemia in childhood T-ALL through a case associated with paraneoplastic galactorrhea. Prolactin production by tumor cells, although a rare phenomenon, is previously demonstrated in several adult cancers and 2 pediatric malignancies with unknown implications. This is the first report demonstrating tumor-derived prolactin in pediatric T-ALL and offers potential as a disease marker and therapeutic drug target.

  17. North American acetone sources determined from tall tower measurements and inverse modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hu,L; D. B. Millet; Kim, S Y; K. C. Wells; Griffis, T. J.; E. V. Fischer; Helmig, D.; J. Hueber; A. J. Curtis

    2013-01-01

    We apply a full year of continuous atmospheric acetone measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), with a 0.5° × 0.667° GEOS-Chem nested grid simulation to develop quantitative new constraints on seasonal acetone sources over North America. Biogenic acetone emissions in the model are computed based on the MEGANv2.1 inventory. An inverse analysis of the tall tower observations implies a 37% underestimate of e...

  18. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  19. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Swanson

    Full Text Available We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7 with deep summer thaw (>80 cm and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large

  20. Fabrication of Pneumatic Microvalve for Tall Microchannel Using Inclined Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Kaminaga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used inclined lithography to fabricate a pneumatic microvalve for tall microchannels such as those used to convey large cells. The pneumatic microvalve consists of three layers. The upper layer is the actual liquid microchannel, which has a parallelogram-shaped cross section of width 500 μm, height 100 μm, and an acute angle of 53.6°. The lower layer is a pneumatic microchannel that functions as an actuator, and the middle layer is a thin polydimethylsiloxane membrane between the upper and lower layers. The operation of the pneumatic microchannel actuator causes the thin membrane to bend, resulting in the bending of the liquid microchannel and its closure. It was confirmed that the closure of the liquid microchannel completely stopped the flow of the HeLa cell suspension that was used to demonstrate the operation of the microvalve. The HeLa cells that passed through the microchannel were also observed to retain their proliferation and morphological properties.

  1. Study of global stability of tall buildings with prestressed slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Feitosa

    Full Text Available The use of prestressed concrete flat slabs in buildings has been increasing in recent years in the Brazilian market. Since the implementation of tall and slender buildings a trend in civil engineering and architecture fields, arises from the use of prestressed slabs a difficulty in ensuring the overall stability of a building without beams. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the main bracing systems used in this type of building, namely pillars in formed "U" in elevator shafts and stairs, and pillars in which the lengths are significantly larger than their widths, was elaborated a computational models of fictional buildings, which were processed and analyzed using the software CAD/TQS. From the variation of parameters such as: geometry of the pillars, thick slabs, characteristic strength of the concrete, reduceofthe coefficient of inertia for consideration of non-linearities of the physical elements, stiffness of the connections between slabs and pillars, among others, to analyze the influence of these variables on the overall stability of the building from the facing of instability parameter Gama Z, under Brazilian standard NBR 6118, in addition to performing the processing of building using the P-Delta iterative calculation method for the same purpose.

  2. 复杂体型钢筋混凝土高层建筑的推覆分析方法和应用%Push-Over Analysis for Concrete Structures of Tall Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰江; 张佩军; 吕西林; 容柏生

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, push-over analysis for tall concrete structures was made and a corresponding computer program was given.Several kinds of elements in the program were considered to meet the demand of tall buildings with complex structural type. These elements included beam-column element for beams and columns, single slice wall element and three vertical line element for walls, and tube-wall element for tubes. Computational example for verifying the models indicates that the result obtained by this method is identical with a well-known test result and the program can be used to search for the full process of structural reaction, even the softening stage of the structure. With this push-over analysis method, an actual tall building with complex structural type was analyzed, and the result has been put into practice of the structural design of the building.

  3. Protective roles of nitric oxide on antioxidant systems in tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... Key words: Antioxidant, high-light stress, nitric oxide, tall fescue. INTRODUCTION ... effective molecular reaction or indirect effect of changing potential ... regime of 14/10 h and a photosynthetic photo flux density (PPFD).

  4. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  5. INVESTMENT ANALYSIS OF REPLACING ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED WITH ENDOPHYTE-FREE TALL FESCUE PASTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Murrell, Courtney Paige; Zhuang, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Cattle consuming tall fescue pastures infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum often suffer physiological disorders that reduce animal performance. One solution is to replace endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures with an endophyte-free mixture. A benefit-cost analysis was conducted to determine the profitability of pasture restoration. The profitability of this action depends on the percentage of endophyte in existing pastures, the discount rate, and the stand life of the endop...

  6. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Dinkins, Randy D; Wood, Constance L; Bacon, Charles W.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fun...

  7. Trial with TALL-104 Cells for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    of TALL-104 cells to induce long-term disease-free survival in dogs and cats with malignant mammary tumors. Five canine and 19 feline patients at...months). In the feline population, TALL- 104 cell therapy resulted in significant increases in disease-free intervals: only 3 out of 19 cats relapsed and...significant increase in the absolute number and percentage of peripheral blood monocytes and eosinophils (Table 1); b) an increase in cytotoxic activity in

  8. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed.

  9. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Vermeulen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, −0.7 m a.s.l.. Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentrations gradient with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations.

    The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500–700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the global values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000–2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr−1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr−1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr−1; for CO no significant trend could be detected.

    The strong local sources and sinks reflect in the amplitude of mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25–30 ppm (higher

  10. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Vermeulen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, −0.7 m a.s.l.. Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO, for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentration gradients with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations.

    The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500–700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000–2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr−1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr−1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr−1; for CO no significant trend could be detected.

    The influences of strong local sources and sinks are reflected in the amplitude of the mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2

  11. Genotypic and chemotypic diversity of Neotyphodium endophytes in tall fescue from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takach, Johanna E; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A; Bright, Sherrita K; Trammell, Michael A; Hopkins, Andrew A; Young, Carolyn A

    2012-08-01

    Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations.

  12. Systematic derivation of an Australian standard for Tall Man lettering to distinguish similar drug names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne; Rizk, Mariam F S; Bedford, Graham; Lalor, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Confusion between similar drug names can cause harmful medication errors. Similar drug names can be visually differentiated using a typographical technique known as Tall Man lettering. While international conventions exist to derive Tall Man representation for drug names, there has been no national standard developed in Australia. This paper describes the derivation of a risk-based, standardized approach for use of Tall Man lettering in Australia, and known as National Tall Man Lettering. A three-stage approach was applied. An Australian list of similar drug names was systematically compiled from the literature and clinical error reports. Secondly, drug name pairs were prioritized using a risk matrix based on the likelihood of name confusion (a four-component score) vs. consensus ratings of the potential severity of the confusion by 31 expert reviewers. The mid-type Tall Man convention was then applied to derive the typography for the highest priority drug pair names. Of 250 pairs of confusable Australian drug names, comprising 341 discrete names, 35 pairs were identified by the matrix as an 'extreme' risk if confused. The mid-type Tall Man convention was successfully applied to the majority of the prioritized drugs; some adaption of the convention was required. This systematic process for identification of confusable drug names and associated risk, followed by application of a convention for Tall Man lettering, has produced a standard now endorsed for use in clinical settings in Australia. Periodic updating is recommended to accommodate new drug names and error reports. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Supply and Economics of Tall Oil for the Manufacture of Second-Generation Biodiesel in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Alfred (Arbokem Inc., P.O. Box 34173, Vancouver V6J 4N1 (Canada)). E-mail: arbokem@arbokem.com

    2008-10-15

    Tall oil is a co-product of the alkaline pulping of coniferous wood for the manufacture of cellulosic pulp. In view of the escalating-cost trend of purchased fossil-fuel energy, pulp mills are prioritizing the use of tall oil for lime-kiln operations, instead of sales to external manufacturers of fatty acids and rosin. There is an attractive economic opportunity to use tall oil for the production of higher-value second-generation biodiesel with concomitant partial off-set of the fossil fuel used in lime-kiln operation. Additional incremental income could be realized with the co-manufacture of phytosterols from tall oil

  14. Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyl, Steven P; Dijkmans, Thomas; Antonykutty, Jinto M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Harlin, Ali; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2012-12-01

    Tall oil fractions obtained from Norwegian spruce pulping were hydrodeoxygenated (HDO) at pilot scale using a commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) showed that HDO of both tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and distilled tall oil (DTO) produced highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids. The hydrotreated fractions also contained fatty acid methyl esters and norabietane and norabietatriene isomers. Steam cracking of HDO-TOFA in a pilot plant revealed that high light olefin yields can be obtained, with 35.4 wt.% of ethene and 18.2 wt.% of propene at a coil outlet pressure (COP) of 1.7 bara, a dilution of 0.45 kg(steam)/kg(HDO-TOFA) and a coil outlet temperature (COT) of 820 °C. A pilot plant coking experiment indicated that cracking of HDO-TOFA at a COT of 850 °C results in limited fouling in the reactor. Co-cracking of HDO tall oil fractions with a typical fossil-based naphtha showed improved selectivity to desired light olefins, further demonstrating the potential of large scale olefin production from hydrotreated tall oil fractions in conventional crackers.

  15. 不同风场下典型高层建筑风压分布的试验研究%Experimental Investigation of Wind Pressure Distributions on a Typical Tall Building in Different Wind Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郅伦海; 李秋胜

    2013-01-01

    通过不同边界层条件下的风洞试验,对典型高层建筑表面风压分布规律进行了对比研究.获得了不同风场下建筑幕墙表面的平均风压系数和峰值风压系数,评估了风场的改变对各种无量纲风压系数的影响.测试的结果可以为高层建筑幕墙设计提供依据,同时,也为其它高层建筑的抗风设计和风洞试验提供技术参考.%The distributions of wind-induced pressure on a tall building were evaluated by a wind tunnel test in two boundary layers. This paper presents some selected results of the mean pressure coefficients and peak pressure coefficients on the tall building based on the analysis of the data obtained in the wind tunnel test. In addition, further studies were conducted to investigate how the pressure coefficients of the tall building are influenced by the variations of boundary layers. The outcomes of this study are expected to be useful to determine the wind loads on curtain walls of the tall building in the design stage, and also provide guidelines for the design and wind tunnel tests for other similar structures in the future.

  16. Earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures from tall buildings to urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xinzheng

    2017-01-01

    Based on more than 12 years of systematic investigation on earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures, this book covers the major research outcomes including a number of novel computational models, high performance computing methods and realistic visualization techniques for tall buildings and urban areas, with particular emphasize on collapse prevention and mitigation in extreme earthquakes, earthquake loss evaluation and seismic resilience. Typical engineering applications to several tallest buildings in the world (e.g., the 632 m tall Shanghai Tower and the 528 m tall Z15 Tower) and selected large cities in China (the Beijing Central Business District, Xi'an City, Taiyuan City and Tangshan City) are also introduced to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed computational models and techniques. The high-fidelity computational model developed in this book has proven to be the only feasible option to date for earthquake-induced collapse simulation of supertall buildings that are higher than 50...

  17. Responses of a tall building in Los Angeles, California as inferred from local and distant earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet; Hasan Ulusoy,; Nori Nakata,

    2016-01-01

    Increasing inventory of tall buildings in the United States and elsewhere may be subjected to motions generated by near and far seismic sources that cause long-period effects. Multiple sets of records that exhibited such effects were retrieved from tall buildings in Tokyo and Osaka ~ 350 km and 770 km from the epicenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In California, very few tall buildings have been instrumented. An instrumented 52-story building in downtown Los Angeles recorded seven local and distant earthquakes. Spectral and system identification methods exhibit significant low frequencies of interest (~0.17 Hz, 0.56 Hz and 1.05 Hz). These frequencies compare well with those computed by transfer functions; however, small variations are observed between the significant low frequencies for each of the seven earthquakes. The torsional and translational frequencies are very close and are coupled. Beating effect is observed in at least two of the seven earthquake data.

  18. Interference effects of two and three super-tall buildings under wind action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Gu; Zhuang-Ning Xie

    2011-01-01

    Most previous investigations on interference effects of tall buildings under wind actions focused on the wind induced interference effects between two buildings,and the interference effects of three or more buildings have seldom been studied so far due to the huge workload involved in experiments and data processing.In this paper,mean and dynamic force/response interference effects and peak wind pressure interference effects of two and three tall buildings,especially the three-building configuration,are investigated through a series of wind tunnel tests on typical tall building models using high frequency force balance technique and wind pressure measurements.Furthermore,the present paper focuses on the effects of parameters,including breadth ratio and height ratio of the buildings and terrain category,on the interference factors and derives relevant regression results for the interference factors.

  19. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Cunilio, T.V. [Center of Sustainable Argoforesty, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  20. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Hall

    Full Text Available Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-, prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control, and watering regime (dry vs. wet on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+. The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here

  1. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  2. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue’s ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E−), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E−>E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  3. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Tall Fescue Transcriptome under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Talukder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is a fundamental problem for tall fescue [ (Schreb. Darbysh.] cultivation in the south–central United States. Genetic improvement of tall fescue for water-stress tolerance is the key strategy for improving its persistence in the region. Genotypes with contrasting characteristics for relative water content and osmotic potential were identified from a tall fescue population. Transcriptome profiling between water-stress-tolerant (B400 and water-stress-susceptible (W279 genotypes was performed to unravel the genetic regulatory mechanism of water-stress responses in tall fescue. RNA samples from leaf, shoot, root, and inflorescence were pooled and sequenced through Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 199,399 contigs were assembled with an average length of 585 bp. Between the two genotypes, 2986 reference transcripts (RTs were significantly differentially expressed and 1048 of them could be annotated and found to associate with metabolic pathways and enzyme coding genes. In total, 175 differentially expressed RTs were reported for various stress-related functions. Among those, 65 encoded kinase proteins, 40 each encoded transposons, and transporter proteins were previously reported to be involved with abiotic stress responses. A total of 6348 simple sequence repeats and 6658 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the contig sequences. Primers were developed from the corresponding sequences, which might be used as candidate gene markers in tall fescue. This study will lead to identification of genes or transcription factors related to water-stress tolerance and development of a comprehensive molecular marker system to facilitate marker-assisted breeding in tall fescue.

  4. Drivers of tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the Dempster Highway, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Emily A.; Lantz, Trevor C.

    2016-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of climate warming and more frequent disturbances. Disturbances can have particularly large effects on high-latitude ecosystems when ecosystem structure and function is controlled by strong feedbacks between soil conditions, vegetation, and ground thermal regime. In this study we investigated the impact of road construction and maintenance on vegetation structure and biomass along the Dempster Highway where it crosses the Peel Plateau in the Northwest Territories. To explore drivers of tall shrub proliferation and to quantify shrub proliferation in this region of continuous permafrost, greyscale air photos (1975) and Quickbird satellite imagery (2008) were used to map landcover change within two 0.6 km2 belts next to the road and two 0.6 km2 belts 500 m away from the road. Maps showing areas where: 1) tall shrubs expanded, and 2) dwarf shrub tundra resisted invasion were then used to select field sites where a suite of biophysical variables were measured. Rapid tall shrub proliferation and greater biomass adjacent to the road indicate that disturbance can facilitate vegetation change in tundra environments. Our field data also suggests that increased shrub proliferation adjacent to the road was caused by greater soil moisture. Tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the road occurred at lower elevation sites characterized by wetter soils with thicker organic layers. Areas that resisted tall shrub encroachment were located at higher elevations and had drier soils with thin organic layers. Our observations also support previous work illustrating that tall shrub expansion next to the highway promotes strong positive feedbacks to ongoing shrub growth and proliferation.

  5. Tall buildings shaping factors : technical evolutions, macroeconomic drivers and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ricardo Meneses Nogueira Urjais

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Civil (área de especialização em Perfil de Construções) Tall buildings are one of the major technological achievements in the 20th century. Burj Khalifa or Shanghai World Financial Center put the cities in which they are built in the imaginary of the common citizen. The following dissertation will focus on provide a basic understanding of the different structural methodologies applied in tall buildings that allows them to go highe...

  6. Browse evaluation of tall shrubs based on direct measurement of a management objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Monaco, Thomas A.; Vernon, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of Geyer willow was based on the following management objective: Browsing will prevent fewer than 50 percent of Geyer willow shrubs from growing taller than 3 m . Three questions were addressed: (1) Is browsing a potential factor? (2) If so, can young plants grow taller than 3 meters? (3) If not, is browsing the dominant factor? All shrubs were intensely browsed. With a post-browsing growth rate of 5.0 cm per yr, no shrub could grow 3 m tall. Analyses of stem growth rate excluded dominant roles for climate and plant vigor. Browsing and stem age were the dominant factors that limited growth to 3 m tall.

  7. Liquid-based cytology improves preoperative diagnostic accuracy of the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hak; Jung, Chan Kwon; Bae, Ja Seong; Jung, So Lyung; Choi, Yeong Jin; Kang, Chang Suk

    2014-01-01

    The tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common among the aggressive variants of the disease. We aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of TCV, and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in TCV detection compared with conventional smear in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA). A total of 266 consecutive patients (220 women and 46 men) with PTC were enrolled. We analyzed tumor characteristics according to histologic growth patterns as classic, classic PTC with tall cell features, and TCV. The cytomorphologic features of these subtypes were investigated according to the preparation methods of conventional smear and LBC. TCV and classic PTC with tall cell features comprised 4.9% and 6.0% of all tumors, respectively, and were significantly associated with older age at presentation, larger tumor size, high frequency of extrathyroid extension, and BRAF mutation in comparison with classic PTC. However, there was no statistically significant difference in clinicopathologic features between TCV and classic PTC with tall cell features. Tall cells were more easily detected by LBC than by conventional smear. The percentage of tall cells identified using LBC was well correlated with three histologic subtypes. Our results demonstrate that TCV is more common than previously recognized in Korea and any PTC containing tall cells may have identical biological behavior regardless of the precise proportions of tall cells. It is possible to make a preoperative diagnosis of TCV using LBC.

  8. Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Concentrate Feeding and Steroidal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fescue toxicosis has a negative impact on animal performance and physiology, but concentrate feeding and ear implantation with steroid hormones could mitigate problems in grazing yearling cattle on toxic tall fescue. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) ‘KY-31’ tall fescue for 7...

  9. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  10. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  11. Dynamics of tall buildings under stochastic wind load: Applicability of Eurocode EN 1991-1-4 procedures 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The new generation of tall buildings is higher and more slender than the buildings built before. Additionally, increased use is made of high-strength materials which have a higher strength yet the same stiffness properties as conventional materials. Both aspects increase the sensitivity of tall buil

  12. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  13. Je zult eerst moeten ontdekken hoe leerlingen denken: Interview David Orme Tall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    In de zomer van 2011 logeert Nellie Verhoef bij David Tall, emeritus hoogleraar in het wiskundig denken aan de Universiteit vanWarwick. Het idee is dat ze oog in oog de resultaten betreffende de Nederlandse experimenten met ‘Lesson Study’ zullen kunnen bespreken. Nellie interviewt David bij gelegenh

  14. ParasiticMeloidogyne and mutualisticAcremonium increase chitinase in tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C A; Marek, S M; Niblack, T L; Karr, A L

    1992-07-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a C-3 perennial grass noted for its persistence in harsh environments. Tall fescue persistence is enhanced byAcremonium coenophialum, a mutualistic fungal endophyte that increases resistance to drought, pathogens, and insects. This research was conducted to identify and elicit biochemical mechanism(s) that could account for tall fescue persistence. In initial studies, two cultivars known to differ in persistence were analyzed for chitinase, an antifungal hydrolase associated with disease resistance in other plants.Acremonium-infected Kentucky 31 (KY31), a persistent cultivar, and Johnstone, a nonpersistent cultivar, were inoculated with the parasitic nematode,Meloidogyne marylandi, grown for 50 days, and analyzed at 10-day intervals. Chitinase fluctuated throughout the 50-day period of seedling development, and activity was highest in the persistentAcremonium-infected KY31. In addition, chitinase was elicited by parasiticM. marylandi and expressed systemically. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine whether or not mutualisticAcremonium could increase chitinase activity. Genetically identical KY31, with and withoutAcremonium, were grown for 25 days and analyzed for chitinase at 5-day intervals. After 20 days,Acremonium-infected KY31 expressed more chitinase thanAcremonium-free KY31. We concluded that chitinase is related to tall fescue persistence; it was highest in the most persistent cultivar, increased under pathogen attack, and increased in the presence ofAcremonium, a symbiont known to enhance disease resistance.

  15. Ecophysiological responses of tall fescue genotypes to fungal endophyte infection and elevated temperature and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) can form a symbiosis with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala, whose presence can benefit the plant, depending on plant and fungal genetics and prevailing environmental conditions. Despite this symbiosis having agricultural, economic and ecological impor...

  16. Vasoactivity and vasoconstriction changes in cattle related to time off toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of ti...

  17. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  18. Mäetaguse mõisa tall-tõllakuuri ümberehitamine hotelliks / Ermo Reiska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiska, Ermo

    2006-01-01

    Muinsuskaitse eritingimused: A. Pantelejev. Projekt: AS Restor. Ehitaja: OÜ Vet Ehitus Grupp. Muinsuskaitseline järelevalve: OÜ Zoroaster, Aivo Raud. Tall-tõllakuuri ümberehitamisel hotelliks "Meintack" säilitati hoone ajaloolistes gabariitides, restaureeriti fassaadid, taastati endine kelpkatus ning ühendati juurdeehituse abil endise veskihoonega

  19. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  20. Evaluating the Impact of Transmission Power on Selecting Tall Vehicles as Best Next Communication Hop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Yu; Klein Wolterink, Wouter; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert

    2012-01-01

    The relatively low height of antennas on communicating vehicles in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) makes one hop and as well multi-hop Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication susceptible to obstruction by other vehicles on the road. When the transmitter or receiver (or both) is a Tall vehi- cle, (

  1. Effect of concrete creep and shrinkage on tall hybrid structures and its countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pusheng SHEN; Hui FANG; Xinhong XIA

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to study the different vertical displacements in tall hybrid-structures and the corresponding engineering measures. First, the method to calculate the different vertical displacements in tall hybrid-structures is presented. This method takes into account the effects of construction process by applying loads sequentially story by story. Based on the concrete creep and shrinkage calculation formula in American Concrete Institute (ACI)code, with the assumption that loads are increased linearly in members, the creep and shrinkage effects of members are analyzed by adopting two parameters named average load-aged-coefficient and average age-last coefficient. The effects of steel ratio on members creep are analyzed by age-adjusted module method (AEMM). The effects that core-tube were constructed in advance to outer steel frame were also considered. Then, based on the samplecalculation, the measures to effectively reduce the different vertical displacements in hybrid-structures are proposed. This method is simple and practical in the calculation of different vertical displacements in tall and super-tall hybrid-structures.

  2. Exploring U.S. Westward Expansion in the Elementary and Middle School Curriculum through Tall Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.; Martin, Nicole; Masuck, William; Strickland, Cynthia; Thomas, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Teaching social studies in the elementary and middle school curriculum is enhanced by incorporating quality children's and adolescent literature and strategies that bring the human element into play. American tall tales are a genre unique to the history of our nation and provide a glimpse into the way early settlers of the west envisioned heroism…

  3. Simulation of wind effects on tall structures by finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Masood

    2016-06-01

    In the present study finite element method is used to predict the wind forces on a tall structure. The governing equations of mass and momentum with boundary conditions are solved. The κ- ɛ turbulence model is utilized to calculate the turbulence viscosity. The results are independent from the generated mesh. The numerical results are validated with American Society of Civil Engineering standards.

  4. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  5. Tennessee Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Tennessee concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including one with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborations...

  6. Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Kentucky concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including a number with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborat...

  7. Seedling emergence of tall fescue and wheat grass under different climate conditions in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behtari, B.; Luis, M. de

    2012-11-01

    Seedling emergence is one of the most important processes determining yield and the probability of crop failure. The ability to predict seedling emergence could enhance crop management by facilitating the implementation of more effective weed control strategies by optimizing the timing of weed control. The objective of the study was to select a seedling emergence thermal time model by comparing five different equations for tall fescue and wheat grass in two sites with different climate conditions (semiarid-temperate and humid-warm) in Iran. In addition, seedling emergence between two target species were studied. Among the five models compared, the Gompertz and Weibull models gave more successful results. In humid-warm conditions, the total emergence of wheat grass was higher than observed in tall fescue. In contrast, emergence was faster in tall fescue than wheat grass in both study sites. Given that early-emerging plants have been described as contributing more to crop yield than later-emerging ones, tall fescue is proposed as a more suitable specie for semiarid- temperate conditions in Iran. (Author) 31 refs.

  8. 77 FR 16974 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...://www.regulations.gov , type the docket number (USCG-2012-0073 in the ``SEARCH'' box and click ``SEARCH... number USCG-2012-0073 in the ``SEARCH'' box and click ``SEARCH.'' Click on Open Docket Folder on the line... the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. Area ``Potter Cove'': In connection with the Parade of Sail...

  9. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how did these variations happened was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays ...

  10. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. These safety zones will... Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. The comment period for this NPRM... that the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration and the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 may...

  11. An 11-year history of crop rotation into new perennial ryegrass and tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converting multi-year remote sensing classification data into crop rotations is beneficial by defining the length of crop rotation cycles and the specific sequences of intervening crops grown between the final year of a grass seed stand and establishment of new perennial ryegrass and tall fescue see...

  12. Design of transient light signal simulator based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jing; Chen, Rong-li; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    A design scheme of transient light signal simulator based on Field Programmable gate Array (FPGA) was proposed in this paper. Based on the characteristics of transient light signals and measured feature points of optical intensity signals, a fitted curve was created in MATLAB. And then the wave data was stored in a programmed memory chip AT29C1024 by using SUPERPRO programmer. The control logic was realized inside one EP3C16 FPGA chip. Data readout, data stream cache and a constant current buck regulator for powering high-brightness LEDs were all controlled by FPGA. A 12-Bit multiplying CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) DAC7545 and an amplifier OPA277 were used to convert digital signals to voltage signals. A voltage-controlled current source constituted by a NPN transistor and an operational amplifier controlled LED array diming to achieve simulation of transient light signal. LM3405A, 1A Constant Current Buck Regulator for Powering LEDs, was used to simulate strong background signal in space. Experimental results showed that the scheme as a transient light signal simulator can satisfy the requests of the design stably.

  13. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes.

  14. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi eGuo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-, infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+ strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+. Plants were grown sterile for three weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes.

  15. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C W; Grigsby, K N; Aldrich, C G; Paterson, J A; Lipsey, R J; Kerley, M S; Garner, G B

    1992-05-01

    Two 120-d trials (May to September, 1988 and 1989) determined the effects of grazing tall fescue (two varieties) or orchardgrass on forage intake and performance by beef cows. Each summer, 48 cow-calf pairs grazed endophyte-infected Kentucky-31 tall fescue (KY-31), endophyte-free Mozark tall fescue (MOZARK), or Hallmark orchardgrass (OG) pastures (16 pairs/treatment). Forage OM intakes and digestibilities were determined during June and August each year. Cow and calf BW and milk production were determined every 28 d. During June of both years, OM intakes did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments. During August of 1988, intakes were 18% lower (P less than .05) by KY-31 cows (1.6% of BW) than by MOZARK or OG cows (average 1.95% of BW); however, no differences (P greater than .10) were measured in August of 1989. Estimates of ergovaline consumption during June from KY-31 were between 4.2 (1988) and 6.0 mg/d (1989), whereas August estimates were between 1.1 (1988) and 2.8 mg/d (1989). Ergovaline in MOZARK estrusa was below detection limits, except in August of 1989. Cows that grazed KY-31 lost three times (P less than .01) more BW than cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (42 vs 9 and 13 kg, respectively). Milk production by KY-31 cows was 25% lower (P less than .01) than that by cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (6.0 vs average of 8.0 kg/d). Similarly, slower (P less than .01) calf gains were noted for KY-31 than for MOZARK or OG (.72 vs .89 and .88 kg/d, respectively). Cows grazing KY-31 experienced accelerated BW loss and reduced milk production and weaned lighter calves than did cows grazing MOZARK or OG. Decreased performance was not explained by consistently reduced forage intakes; hence, altered nutrient utilization was suspected.

  16. Aerially released spray penetration of a tall coniferous canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aerial spray deposition project was designed to evaluate aerial application to an Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) canopy to combat Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae). This adelgid offers a difficult target residing in the forest canopy at the nodes of branchlets. The study collected 1680 ...

  17. 青岛某超高层住宅的风洞试验研究%Wind tunnel study on a Qingdao super-tall residential building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建峰; 郁有升

    2012-01-01

    为了研究超高层建筑在使用阶段的抗风安全性,基于青岛某超高层住宅工程,对设计风速作用下结构的风荷载分布规律、结构的位移、加速度响应进行风洞实验研究,并根据风洞试验结果,对结构的抗风安全性、结构三维风振特性及舒适性进行分析,研究结果为该项目的结构设计提供了依据。%In order to study the wind resistance safety of the super high-tall building in the use of phase,based on a Qingdao super-tall residential building,the wind tunnel experiment of the wind load distribution,the structure displacement,acceleration response under the design wind velocity were carried out.Moreover,according to the results of wind tunnel test,the structural safety,three-dimensional wind vibration and comfort of structure were analyzed,so the research results provide the reference for the structural design of the program.

  18. Robust State Feedback Control of Wind-Excited Tall Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of robust control theory into structure control, as well as design procedure of stabilizing controllers for structures with parameter uncertainty and model error is discussed. A stability bound is derived from the polar decomposition of the nominal system matrix. In addition, our study shows that application of Iow pass filters avoids spillover by eliminating the unconsidered high frequency compo nents. It is demonstrated, via an example, our approach leads to excellent control result and offers far better robustness than previous solutions.

  19. 7 CFR 160.12 - Standard designations for rosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distillation of the volatile oil from the oleoresin within or extracted from pine wood by any suitable process, followed by any necessary further refinement. (d) The designationtall oil rosin” shall refer to the kind... the act and the provisions in this part shall be designated as “gum rosin,” “wood rosin,” or “tall oil...

  20. Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strongearthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for differentconditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system.The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior ofbuildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field,Novak's method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNANcomputer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles,including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.

  1. Quantifying Earthquake Collapse Risk of Tall Steel Braced Frame Buildings Using Rupture-to-Rafters Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourhatch, Ramses

    This thesis examines collapse risk of tall steel braced frame buildings using rupture-to-rafters simulations due to suite of San Andreas earthquakes. Two key advancements in this work are the development of (i) a rational methodology for assigning scenario earthquake probabilities and (ii) an artificial correction-free approach to broadband ground motion simulation. The work can be divided into the following sections: earthquake source modeling, earthquake probability calculations, ground motion simulations, building response, and performance analysis. As a first step the kinematic source inversions of past earthquakes in the magnitude range of 6-8 are used to simulate 60 scenario earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. For each scenario earthquake a 30-year occurrence probability is calculated and we present a rational method to redistribute the forecast earthquake probabilities from UCERF to the simulated scenario earthquake. We illustrate the inner workings of the method through an example involving earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in southern California. Next, three-component broadband ground motion histories are computed at 636 sites in the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area by superposing short-period (0.2s-2.0s) empirical Green's function synthetics on top of long-period (> 2.0s) spectral element synthetics. We superimpose these seismograms on low-frequency seismograms, computed from kinematic source models using the spectral element method, to produce broadband seismograms. Using the ground motions at 636 sites for the 60 scenario earthquakes, 3-D nonlinear analysis of several variants of an 18-story steel braced frame building, designed for three soil types using the 1994 and 1997 Uniform Building Code provisions and subjected to these ground motions, are conducted. Model performance is classified into one of five performance levels: Immediate Occupancy, Life Safety, Collapse Prevention, Red-Tagged, and Model Collapse. The results are combined with

  2. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jingqi eGuo; Rebecca Lynne McCulley; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)) is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce t...

  3. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jingqi; Rebecca L. McCulley; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce th...

  4. Simulation of lightning attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnamahilan, P.; Hoole, P. (Univ. of Technology, Lae (Papua New Guinea). Dept. of Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering); Ratnajeevan, S.; Hoole, H. (Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    The characteristics of lightning waveforms are important in taking protective measures against it. However, many of these characteristics cannot be measured. This paper employs a mathematical model of lightning currents to write a software package to simulate all manner of lightning flashes. The capabilities available to us through this are demonstrated by extracting the behavior of lightning waveforms following attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft.

  5. Numerical simulation of natural convection in a differentially heated tall enclosure using a spectral element method

    OpenAIRE

    Pitz, DB; Chew, JW

    2015-01-01

    Natural convection in differentially heated enclosures is a benchmark problem used to investigate the physics of buoyant flows and to validate numerical methods. Such configurations are also of interest in engineering applications such as cooling of electronic components and air flow around buildings. In this work a spectral element method is used to carry out direct numerical simulations of natural convection in a tall enclosure of aspect ratio 4 with isothermal vertical walls and adiabatic ...

  6. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E

    2014-04-01

    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental

  7. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of practical structural health monitoring systems currently employed for tall buildings consisting of small number of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenta; Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Because of social background, such as repeated large earthquakes and cheating in design and construction, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are getting strong attention. The SHM systems are in a practical phase. An SHM system consisting of small number of sensors has been introduced to 6 tall buildings in Shinjuku area. Including them, there are 2 major issues in the SHM systems consisting of small number of sensors. First, optimal system number of sensors and the location are not well-defined. In the practice, system placement is determined based on rough prediction and experience. Second, there are some uncertainties in estimation results by the SHM systems. Thus, the purpose of this research is to provide useful information for increasing reliability of SHM system and to improve estimation results based on uncertainty analysis of the SHM systems. The important damage index used here is the inter-story drift angle. The uncertainty considered here are number of sensors, earthquake motion characteristics, noise in data, error between numerical model and real building, nonlinearity of parameter. Then I have analyzed influence of each factor to estimation accuracy. The analysis conducted here will help to decide sensor system design considering valance of cost and accuracy. Because of constraint on the number of sensors, estimation results by the SHM system has tendency to provide smaller values. To overcome this problem, a compensation algorithm was discussed and presented. The usefulness of this compensation method was demonstrated for 40 story S and RC building models with nonlinear response.

  9. Notch3/Jagged1 Circuitry Reinforces Notch Signaling and Sustains T-ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pelullo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC–overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect. On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect, finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis.

  10. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fungicide and selectively propagating single tillers. In time course studies on the E+ and E- clones, water was withheld from 0 to 5 days, during which levels of free sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids were determined, as were levels of some major fungal metabolites. Results After 2–3 days of withholding water, survival and tillering of re-watered plants was significantly greater for E+ than E- clones. Within two to three days of withholding water, significant endophyte effects on metabolites manifested as higher levels of free glucose, fructose, trehalose, sugar alcohols, proline and glutamic acid in shoots and roots. The fungal metabolites, mannitol and loline alkaloids, also significantly increased with water deficit. Conclusions Our results suggest that symbiotic N. coenophialum aids in survival and recovery of tall fescue plants from water deficit, and acts in part by inducing rapid accumulation of these compatible solutes soon after imposition of stress. PMID:24015904

  11. Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue and its potential application in the phytoremediation of saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Ren, A; Wei, M; Wu, L; Zhou, Y; Li, X; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    The growth response of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) tall fescue to salt stress was investigated under two growing systems (hydroponic and soil in pots). The hydroponic experiment showed that endophyte infection significantly increased tiller and leaf number, which led to an increase in the total biomass of the host grass. Endophyte infection enhanced Na accumulation in the host grass and improved Na transport from the roots to the shoots. With a 15 g l(-1) NaCl treatment, the phytoextraction efficiency of EI tall fescue was 2.34-fold higher than EF plants. When the plants were grown in saline soils, endophyte infection also significantly increased tiller number, shoot height and the total biomass of the host grass. Although EI tall fescue cannot accumulate Na to a level high enough for it to be termed a halophyte, the increased biomass production and stress tolerance suggested that endophyte/plant associations had the potential to be a model for endophyte-assisted phytoextraction in saline soils.

  12. Tall gastrodis tuber combined with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in focal epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Wang; Zhenyu Fan; Yongqin Zhang; Yuxia Yang; Yaqing Liu; Xiaoli Dang; Wenjun Song; Yinping Wu; Jiang Ye

    2013-01-01

    One hundred patients with focal epilepsy were recruited for the present study and their seizures controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The patients then orally received a capsule of tall gastrodis tuber powder, a traditional Chinese drug, and underwent single photon emission computed tomography, long-term electroencephalogram, and CT/MRI. Blood drug levels were monitored throughout the study. Before treatment with tall gastrodis tuber, 35 of the 100 cases had abnormal CT/MRI scans; 79 cases had abnormal single photon emission computed tomography images; 86 cases had abnormal electroencephalogram; and a total of 146 abnormal perfusion foci were observed across the 100 subjects. After treatment, the number of patients with normal single photon emission computed tomography images increased by 12; normal electroencephalogram was observed in an additional 27 cases and the number of patients with epileptiform discharge decreased by 29 (34% of 86); the total number of abnormal perfusion foci decreased by 52 (36%) and changes in abnormal foci were visible in 65 patients. These changes indicate that the administration of tall gastrodis tuber in combination with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in patients with focal epilepsy. Our results demonstrate that traditional Chinese drugs can repair abnormal perfusion foci and, as such, are a promising new pathway in the treatment of focal epilepsy.

  13. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  14. Economic Analysis of USN-Based Data Acquisition Systems in Tall Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsu Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful construction of tall buildings requires effective construction management based on various quantitative data. The recent development of ubiquitous sensor networks (USNs enables massive amounts of data to be collected in real-time. However, the application of USN-based data acquisition systems to repetitive tasks on typical floors of tall buildings can be inefficient, because this may involve the repetitive reinstallation of sensors and the repositioning of data loggers and routers to enable continuous data transfer. To minimize this cumbersome work, a modified data acquisition method using reusable sensor nodes and mobile devices can be a useful solution. This study analyzes the economic aspects of the USN-based systems for concrete temperature monitoring by using the activity-based costing technique. The case study shows that the modified system can reduce the process cost by about 19%. It can also reduce the resource input time of management by about 55%, freeing up time for other management activities. Moreover, the cost benefits should scale up as projects increasingly require more measurement and monitoring. This study should facilitate the application of USN-based information management systems, particularly for tall building construction.

  15. Assessment of total evacuation systems for tall buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a ...

  16. FEM Updating of Tall Buildings using Ambient Vibration Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C. E.; Lord, J. F.; Turek, M.;

    2005-01-01

    to develop reliable finite element models of large civil engineering structures. A fifteen story and a forty-eight story reinforced concrete buildings are used as case studies for this purpose. The dynamic characteristics of interest for this study were the first few lateral and torsional natural frequencies...... and the corresponding mode shapes. The degree of torsional coupling between the modes was also investigated. The modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of each building were used to update a finite element model of the structure. The starting model of each structure was developed from...... the information provided in the design documentation of the building. Different parameters of the model were then modified using an automated procedure to improve the correlation between measured and calculated modal parameters. Careful attention was placed to the selection of the parameters to be modified...

  17. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lynne Mcculley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals. The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean from 2009 – 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40% in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may

  18. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  19. Effects of Tall Fescue and Its Fungal Endophyte on the Development and Survival of Tawny-Edged Skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Karin J; Debinski, Diane M; Mcculley, Rebecca L

    2016-02-01

    Invasive, exotic grasses are increasing in tallgrass prairie and their dominance may be contributing to the decline of grassland butterflies through alterations in forage quality. Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.), an exotic grass covering millions of acres in the United States, can host a fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala (Morgan-Jones & Gams). Alkaloids produced by the endophyte are known to be toxic to some foliar-feeding pest insects. Endophyte-infected tall fescue is commonly planted in hayfields, pastures, lawns, and is invading natural areas, but effects of the endophyte on nonpest insects such as butterflies are relatively unknown. Our objective was to investigate the role that tall fescue and its endophyte might play in the decline of grass skippers (Hesperiidae). We examined growth and survival parameters of tawny-edged skippers (Polites themistocles (Latreille)) that were reared on endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), endophyte-free tall fescue (E-), and Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). KBG was included as a comparison because it is a cool season grass known to be palatable to P. themistocles larvae. Interestingly, results showed that the endophyte did not affect growth and survival of larvae compared to uninfected tall fescue, even though significant amounts of loline alkaloids (average 740 ppm) were measured in endophyte-infected plant material. Larvae feeding on KBG grew faster with greater survival rates than larvae on both tall fescue treatments. These results confirm that tall fescue invasion and dominance may be deteriorating the quality of grassland habitats for native pollinators; however, this effect does not appear to be linked to endophyte infection.

  20. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  1. Tall towers for large wind turbines. Report from Vindforsk project V-342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Staffan; Lyrner, Tomas; Hassanzadeh, Manouchehr; Stalin, Thomas; Johansson, John

    2010-07-15

    The general rule of thumb has been to furnish a wind turbine with a tower as tall as the turbine diameter, with deviations downwards for high wind speed sites. In this report the statement is questioned, with special emphasis for wind turbines sited in forests. The aim of this project was to propose and calculate candidate types of tall towers for on-shore wind turbines in the 3 - 5 MW range, with special reference to siting in forests with a representative wind shear. During the project this scope has been more precisely defined to study 3 and 5 MW wind turbines with hub heights of 80 - 175 meters featuring the following tower solutions: 1. Steel shell tower designed in a conventional way with flanges and both longitudinal and transverse welds. 2. Steel shell tower with bolted friction joints only. 3. Concrete tower with pretensioned steel tendons. 4. Hybrid tower with a lower concrete part and an upper part built as a conventional steel shell. 5. Lattice tower. 6. Wooden tower. During the execution of the project the design of a total of 42 towers was outlined and calculated. Today the welded steel shell tower dominates the wind turbine market. Larger turbines and higher hub heights result in larger optimal tower base diameters. For the road transportation there are limitations due to bridges and other obstacles. In Sweden the limit for transports with special permits in general maximizes the diameter to 4,5 metres. To some extent it is still technically possible to build towers with a less than optimal diameter, but due to the high mass and the large wall thickness they tend to be uneconomical in comparison with other alternatives above a hub height of roughly 100 metres. In this report welded steel shell towers were outlined for 3 MW turbines up to a hub height of 150 metres whereas the limit for the 5 MW towers was 100 metres. When diameter restrictions tend to make welded towers uneconomical, the next logical choice is steel shell towers with bolted friction

  2. 高层建筑箱形转换层结构变形和应力分析%The deformation and stress analysis of box transfer floor structure of tall building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢益人

    2011-01-01

    本文以厦门蓝湾国际五幢高层住宅为基础建立高层建筑箱形转换层结构模型,采用ANSYS结构分析软件对转换层结构进行有限元分析,重点研究了转换层结构变形和应力分布情况,并提出了高层建筑箱形转换结构设计相关要点。%The box transfer floor structural models of tall-building are builded basing on five buildings of Xiamen Lanwan International.Then the FEM analysis of transfer floor structure is carried out by ANYSYS.Further,the structural deformation and stress distribution of transfer floor are primary studied.Finally,the box transfer structural design keypoints of tall building are proposed.

  3. Application of Lidar Data and 3D-City Models in Visual Impact Simulations of Tall Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    The paper examines possibilities and limitations of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models to provide specialist urban analyses of tall buildings. The location and height of tall buildings is a subject of discussions, conflicts and controversies in many cities. The most important aspect is the visual influence of tall buildings to the city landscape, significant panoramas and other strategic city views. It is an actual issue in contemporary town planning worldwide. Over 50% of high-rise buildings on Earth were built in last 15 years. Tall buildings may be a threat especially for historically developed cities - typical for Europe. Contemporary Earth observation, more and more available Lidar scanning and 3D city models are a new tool for more accurate urban analysis of the tall buildings impact. The article presents appropriate simulation techniques, general assumption of geometric and computational algorithms - available methodologies and individual methods develop by author. The goal is to develop the geometric computation methods for GIS representation of the visual impact of a selected tall building to the structure of large city. In reference to this, the article introduce a Visual Impact Size method (VIS). Presented analyses were developed by application of airborne Lidar / DSM model and more processed models (like CityGML), containing the geometry and it's semantics. Included simulations were carried out on an example of the agglomeration of Berlin.

  4. Rapamycin sensitizes T-ALL cells to dexamethasone-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Dezhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoid (GC resistance is frequently seen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T-cell lineage (T-ALL. In this study we investigate the potential and mechanism of using rapamycin to restore the sensitivity of GC-resistant T-ALL cells to dexamethasone (Dex treatment. Methods Cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis was used to analyze apoptosis and cell cycles. Western blot analysis was performed to test the expression of the downstream effector proteins of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the cell cycle regulatory proteins, and apoptosis associated proteins. Results 10 nM rapamycin markedly increased GC sensitivity in GC-resistant T-ALL cells and this effect was mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway. Cell cycle arrest was associated with modulation of G1-S phase regulators. Both rapamycin and Dex can induce up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors of p21 and p27 and co-treatment of rapamycin with Dex resulted in a synergistic induction of their expressions. Rapamycin did not obviously affect the expression of cyclin A, whereas Dex induced cyclin A expression. Rapamycin prevented Dex-induced expression of cyclin A. Rapamycin had a stronger inhibition of cyclin D1 expression than Dex. Rapamycin enhanced GC-induced apoptosis and this was not achieved by modulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR expression, but synergistically up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins like caspase-3, Bax, and Bim, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein of Mcl-1. Conclusion Our data suggests that rapamycin can effectively reverse GC resistance in T-ALL and this effect is achieved by inducing cell cycles arrested at G0/G1 phase and activating the intrinsic apoptotic program. Therefore, combination of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin with GC containing protocol might be an attracting

  5. Genome-wide SNP identification in multiple morphotypes of allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hand Melanie L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs provide essential tools for the advancement of research in plant genomics, and the development of SNP resources for many species has been accelerated by the capabilities of second-generation sequencing technologies. The current study aimed to develop and use a novel bioinformatic pipeline to generate a comprehensive collection of SNP markers within the agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue; an outbreeding allopolyploid species displaying three distinct morphotypes: Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous. Results A bioinformatic pipeline was developed that successfully identified SNPs within genotypes from distinct tall fescue morphotypes, following the sequencing of 414 polymerase chain reaction (PCR – generated amplicons using 454 GS FLX technology. Equivalent amplicon sets were derived from representative genotypes of each morphotype, including six Continental, five Mediterranean and one rhizomatous. A total of 8,584 and 2,292 SNPs were identified with high confidence within the Continental and Mediterranean morphotypes respectively. The success of the bioinformatic approach was demonstrated through validation (at a rate of 70% of a subset of 141 SNPs using both SNaPshot™ and GoldenGate™ assay chemistries. Furthermore, the quantitative genotyping capability of the GoldenGate™ assay revealed that approximately 30% of the putative SNPs were accessible to co-dominant scoring, despite the hexaploid genome structure. The sub-genome-specific origin of each SNP validated from Continental tall fescue was predicted using a phylogenetic approach based on comparison with orthologous sequences from predicted progenitor species. Conclusions Using the appropriate bioinformatic approach, amplicon resequencing based on 454 GS FLX technology is an effective method for the identification of polymorphic SNPs within the genomes of Continental and Mediterranean tall fescue. The

  6. Tidal influence on particulate organic carbon export fluxes around a tall seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Dumont, Matthew; Kiriakoulakis, Kostas; Legg, Sonya; Mohn, Christian; Peine, Florian; Wolff, George

    2016-12-01

    As tall seamounts may be 'stepping stones' for dispersion and migration of deep open ocean fauna, an improved understanding of the productivity at and food supply to such systems needs to be formed. Here, the 234Th/238U approach for tracing settling particulate matter was applied to Senghor Seamount - a tall sub-marine mountain near the tropical Cape Verde archipelago - in order to elucidate the effects of topographically-influenced physical flow regimes on the export flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the near-surface (topmost ⩽ 100 m) into deeper waters. The comparison of a suitable reference site and the seamount sites revealed that POC export at the seamount sites was ∼2-4 times higher than at the reference site. For three out of five seamount sites, the calculated POC export fluxes are likely to be underestimates. If this is taken into account, it can be concluded that POC export fluxes increase while the passing waters are advected around and over the seamount, with the highest export fluxes occurring on the downstream side of the seamount. This supports the view that biogeochemical and biological effects of tall seamounts in surface-ocean waters might be strongest at some downstream distance from, rather than centred around, the seamount summit. Based on measured (vessel-mounted ADCP) and modelled (regional flow field: AVISO; internal tides at Senghor: MITgcm) flow dynamics, it is proposed that tidally generated internal waves result in a 'screen' of increased rates of energy dissipation that runs across the seamount and leads to a combination of two factors that caused the increased POC export above the seamount: (1) sudden increased upward transport of nutrients into the euphotic zone, driving brief pulses of primary production of new particulate matter, followed by the particles' export into deeper waters; and (2) pulses of increased shear-driven aggregation of smaller, slower-settling into larger, faster-settling particles. This study

  7. A case study of elementary teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy in relationship to a tall grass prairie restoration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shume, Teresa Jayne

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe seven elementary teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy in relationship to a tall grass prairie restoration project and to explore ways in which the tall grass prairie restoration project for third grade contributed to enhancing educational learning experiences. The research questions were: 1. What are teachers' conceptions of environmental literacy for third grade students? 2. How does the prairie restoration trip contribute to teachers' capacity to teach for environmental literacy of third grade students? 3. What is the pedagogical value of the prairie restoration project? The theoretical frameworks underpinning this study were David Sobel's (1996) model for developmental progression in children's relationships with nature, and the North American Environmental Education Association's (2011) framework for environmental literacy. The first assertion derived from thematic data analysis of interviews, field trip observations, classroom observations, and artifacts was, The participating teachers' visions of environmental literacy for third grade students included components that spanned across a developmentally appropriate progression from cultivating empathy for living things, to fueling discovery of nature, to fostering a sense of responsibility toward the natural world . Components of environmental literacy described by teachers included being at ease in the natural environment, appreciation and respect, wonder and curiosity, awareness and interdependence, sense of agency, responsibility and service, and environmental knowledge. The second assertion stemming from thematic data analysis was, The prairie restoration project and related curriculum have pedagogical value that included and exceeded addressing state science standards. In addition to addressing state science standards identified by teachers, the curriculum related to the prairie restoration project served as an agent of curricular

  8. Alterations in hemograms and serum biochemical analytes of steers after prolonged consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J W; Schultze, A E; Rohrbach, B W; Fribourg, H A; Ingle, T; Waller, J C

    2000-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to delineate changes that occur in serum analytes and blood cellular elements in cattle that graze endophyte-infested (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue. Tall fescue is grown on more than 35 million acres (14.2 million ha) of pasture in the United States, and three-fourths of the pastures are infected with the endophyte at a 60% or greater level. Tall fescue toxicosis caused by endophyte-produced ergot alkaloids continues to be the most important grass-related disease in the United States, in terms of economic loss to animal producers. However, the agronomic attributes of tall fescue make it an attractive forage species because of its ability to withstand cool temperatures, drought, poor soil conditions, and intensive defoliation from herbivore species, including insects. Tall fescue toxicosis is a complex disease and the need exists to understand the mechanisms of the toxic effects in order to institute effective, prophylactic control measures. Our group previously reported changes that occur in serum biochemical analytes of cattle that graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. An additional year's worth of data have been added, strengthening and corroborating these data. Consistent and significant changes associated with tall fescue toxicosis during the 3-yr study included decreased serum concentrations of cholesterol, globulin (increased albumin/globulin ratio), prolactin, total protein, and copper. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was decreased in serum, whereas an increase in serum concentrations of creatinine and total bilirubin occurred. The present report also documents comparative hemograms of cattle that grazed endophyte-infected or endophyte-free tall fescue over a prolonged period. The mean erythrocyte counts were increased in cattle that grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue, whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were decreased, as were mean eosinophil counts. Thus, repeatable

  9. Demonstration of a Basis for Tall Wind Turbine Design, EUDP Project Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Madsen, Peter Hauge

    these more advanced wind inflow models. A revision of the IEC 61400-1standard is being developed and has incorporated some of the recommendations made from this project.This project demonstrated the impact of wind models by simulating wind turbine loads based on high frequency wind measurements taken between...... 100m and 200m altitude performed at Høvsøre in Denmark. The project also demonstrated the impact of the new wind models on load cases and the certification envelope of turbines. Further the project provided a detailed assessment of safety factors for IEC 61400-1 load cases using reliability......-based procedures incorporating the new models and this has been made as an Annex to the new standard that is due to be issued....

  10. Prokaryotic expression and purification of human soluble sTALL-2 mutants%人可溶性TALL-2突变体的原核表达及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝英; 郑英如; 何凤田; 李蓉芬; 龚薇; 黄刚

    2006-01-01

    目的 制备人可溶性(soluble TNF and apoptosisligand-relatedleukocyte-expressedligand 2,sTALL-2)的3种突变体,为寻找sTALL-2的竞争抑性制剂创造条件.方法 采用一步反向PCR,将编码sTALL-2第187位谷氨酰胺(Gln)的核苷酸序列分别置换为丝氨酸(Ser)、天冬氨酸(Asp)、精氨酸(Arg)的编码序列,测序正确后,亚克隆到原核表达载体pQE-80L;经IPTG诱导表达,SDS-PAGE和Western blotting鉴定表达产物,Ni2+-NTA柱层析纯化目和蛋白,进而经Sepha-dex G-75柱层析,获得同源三聚体分子.结果 经一步反向PCR扩增后均得到441bp的DNA片段,测序分析表明分别为sTALL-2第187位谷氨酰胺残基置换为Ser、Asp、Arg的序列,3种突变体蛋白在大肠杆DH5α中获得成功表达,并得以有效纯化.结论 成功制备了sTALL-2的3种突变体蛋白,为进一步探讨sTALL-2结构与功能的关系及寻找基于sTALL-2突变体的抗肿瘤分子奠定了基础.

  11. Upregulation of T-Cell-Specific Transcription Factor Expression in Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Sayitoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is associated with recurrent chromosomal aberrations and abnormal ectopic gene expression during T-cell development. In order to gain insight into the pathogenesis of T-ALL this study aimed to measure the level of expression of 7 T-cell oncogenes (LMO2, LYL1, TAL1, TLX1, TLX3, BMI1, and CALM-AF10 in pediatric T-ALL patients. METHODS: LMO2, LYL1, TLX1, TLX3, BMI1, TAL1, and CALM-AF10 expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR in 43 pediatric T-ALL patients. RESULTS: A high level of expression of LMO2, LYL1, TAL1, and BMI1 genes was observed in a large group of T-ALL. Several gene expression signatures indicative of leukemic arrest at specific stages of normal thymocyte development (LYL1 and LMO2 were highly expressed during the cortical and mature stages of T-cell development. Furthermore, upregulated TAL1 and BMI1 expression was observed in all phenotypic subgroups. In all, 6 of the patients had TLX1 and TLX3 proto-oncogene expression, which does not occur in normal cells, and none of the patients had CALM-AF10 fusion gene transcription. Expression of LYL1 alone and LMO2-LYL1 co-expression were associated with mediastinal involvement; however, high-level oncogene expression was not predictive of outcome in the present pediatric T-ALL patient group, but there was a trend towards a poor prognostic impact of TAL1 and/or LMO2 and/or LYL1 protooncogene expression. CONCLUSION: Poor prognostic impact of TAL1 and/or LMO2 and/or LYL1 proto-oncogene expression indicate the need for extensive study on oncogenic rearrangement and immunophenotypic markers in T-ALL, and their relationship to treatment outcome.

  12. Seismic appraisal of tall building in areas with large epicenter distance during Wenchuan Earthquake%汶川地震离震中较远地区高层建筑抗震鉴定实例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白亮; 陈曦虎; 刘永福; 张乃贤

    2011-01-01

    汶川地震中,陕西省西安市处于远震区,该次地震对远震区高层建筑造成了不同程度的震害.通过对一幢位于远震区高层建筑的抗震鉴定,分析了远震区高层建筑的震害特点和原因,对高层建筑抗震设计和抗震措施提出了建议.%In Wenchuan Earthquake,Xi'an city in Shanxi Province are in areas with large epicenter distance. The earthquake caused different degree seismic damage on tall buildings in the areas remote from epicenter. Based on the seismic appraisal of a tall building in Xi'an City, the seismic damage characteristic and reason of tall buildings in the remote areas from the epicenter zone are analyzed. Then several suggestions about seismic design and measures are given,including the earthquake hazard level and seismic fortification level.

  13. 新型板柱-抗震墙体系在某超高层建筑的应用%Application of new system of slab-column-shear walls structure on a supper tall building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧妍君; 陈星; 赖鸿立; 陈润辉; 刘济科

    2012-01-01

    现行规范对于板柱-抗震墙结构的适用高度作了较严格的规定,限制了板柱-抗震墙结构在超高层结构中的使用。以某实际超高层建筑(目前全国在建的最高的板柱-抗震墙结构)设计计算为例,针对该结构体型的抗震性能弱点提出有效可行的解决方案,并将该新型的板柱结构体系应用于超高层建筑中。%The current specifications give strict requirements by limiting the building height of the slab-column-shear wall structure. The requirements limit the use of the slab-column-shear wall system in many real projects, especially, in super tall buildings. A practical design method through a real building was presented, which is currently the highest tall building using slab-column-shear wall system in China. The effective and feasible solutions were proposed aiming at the study of structural weaknesses of the seismic performance and the new slab-column structural system was applied in supper tall buildings.

  14. Reseach on The Position of Fixity of Tall Building Structures with Basements%带地下室高层结构嵌固端相关问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝云

    2014-01-01

    Necessary requirements to definition of the fixity of tall Building in the Code for seismic design of buildings and Technical specification for concrete structures of tall building, it takes the way of analysing dynamic calculating models and typical structure example to compare in several aspects such as dynamic character, deformation character and stress character,as to obtain the conditions for taking the top-floor of basement as the fixed of the tall building.%该文针对我国现行规范对带地下室高层结构嵌固端的相关规定,运用了计算模型和算例分析的方法,通过对地震作用下的动力特性、变形特性和内力特性等方面的比较,分别探讨了剪切型和弯曲型高层建筑结构地下室顶板作为上部结构嵌固端的判定条件。

  15. Surfactant enhanced pyrene degradation in the rhizosphere of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Sardar Alam; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Tang, Xianjin; Shen, Chaofeng; Farooq, Muhammad; Chen, Yingxu

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two non ionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Triton X-100), a biosurfactant (Lecithin), and randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on the remediation of pyrene from soil planted with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Soils with pyrene concentration of about 243 mg kg(-1) was grown with tall fescue and were individually amended with 0, 200, 600, 1000, and 1500 mg kg(-1) of Tween 80, Triton X-100, biosurfactant, and RAMEB. The results show that all surfactants significantly increased plant biomass compared to unamended soil. Dehydrogenase activity was also stimulated as a result of surfactant addition. Only 3.9 and 3.2 % of pyrene was decreased in the uncovered and covered abiotic sterile control, suggesting that microbial degradation was the main removal mechanism of pyrene from soil. In the planted treatment receiving no surfactant, the remediation of pyrene was 45 % which is significantly higher than that of corresponding unplanted control soil, suggesting that the cultivation of tall fescue alone could enhance the overall remediation of pyrene in soil. All surfactants had significantly higher rates of pyrene remediation compared to the unamended planted soil. Generally, RAMEB displayed the highest remediation rates, i.e., 64.4-79.1 % followed by the Triton X-100, i.e., 60.1-74.8 %. The positive impact of surfactants on pyrene remediation could possibly be because of their capacities to increase its bioavailability in soil. The evidence from this study suggests that the addition of surfactants could enhance phytoremediation of PAHs polluted soil.

  16. Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present over one year of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l., and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40 % of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10 % during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35 % in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of formaldehyde (HCHO and carbon monoxide (CO is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20 % of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12 % later in the summer and 12 % on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

  17. Seedling Establishment of Tall Fescue Exposed to Long-Term Starvation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Claudia Roberta; Stefanini, Sara; Vernieri, Paolo; Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Volterrani, Marco; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In germinating seeds under unfavorable environmental conditions, the mobilization of stores in the cotyledons is delayed, which may result in a different modulation of carbohydrates balance and a decrease in seedling vigor. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) caryopses grown at 4°C in the dark for an extended period in complete absence of nutrients, showed an unexpected ability to survive. Seedlings grown at 4°C for 210 days were morphologically identical to seedlings grown at 23°C for 21 days. After 400 days, seedlings grown at 4°C were able to differentiate plastids to chloroplast in just few days once transferred to the light and 23°C. Tall fescue exposed to prolonged period at 4°C showed marked anatomical changes: cell wall thickening, undifferentiated plastids, more root hairs and less xylem lignification. Physiological modifications were also observed, in particular related to sugar content, GA and ABA levels and amylolytic enzymes pattern. The phytohormones profiles exhibited at 4 and 23°C were comparable when normalized to the respective physiological states. Both the onset and the completion of germination were linked to GA and ABA levels, as well as to the ratio between these two hormones. All plants showed a sharp decline in carbohydrate content, with a consequent onset of gradual sugar starvation. This explained the slowed then full arrest in growth under both treatment regimes. The analysis of amylolytic activity showed that Ca2+ played a central role in the stabilization of several isoforms. Overall, convergence of starvation and hormone signals meet in crosstalk to regulate germination, growth and development in tall fescue. PMID:27832166

  18. Tall oil precursors and turpentine in Jack and Eastern White Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    The tall oil precursors and turpentine from jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were investigated. The tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and unsaponifiables were determined by chemical fractionation of the nonvolatile diethyl ether extractives (NVEE) of these speices: (approximate % resin acids, % fatty acids, % unsaponifiables, and % acids other that fatty and resin acids) - jack pine sapwood (10, 60, 10, 20%), heartwood (38, 12, 6, 44%); eastern white pine sapwood (11, 57, 9, 22%), and heartwood (11, 18, 10, 62%). The resin acids were a mixture of the pimaric and abietic acids common to pines. In addition, eastern white pine contained major amounts of the resin acid, anticopalic acid. The fatty acids were predominately oleic, linoleic, and 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acids. The unsaponsiables were a complex mixture of diterpenes and sterols (mainly campesterol and sitosterol). On treating these species with paraquat, lightwood occurred in the sapwood but not in the heartwood areas as we have oberved with other pines. The NVEE of the lightwood areas contained increased amounts of resin acids, unsaponifiables, and acids other than fatty and resin acids. The total fatty acid content was essentially unchanged. Since fatty acid components are preferentially lost by esterification with neutral alcoholic constituents in the unsaponifiables during the distillation refining of crude tall oil, the increased unsaponifiables relative to the constant fatty acid content might result in a net reduction in fatty acid recovery from lightered trees. The turpentine content of both jack and eastern white pine increased on lightering and was primarily a mixture of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-pinene.

  19. Short-term temporal dynamics of yeast abundance on the tall fescue phylloplane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Shannon S; Burpee, Leon L; Jackson, Kimberly L; Buck, James W

    2008-04-01

    Six replicate trials were conducted to determine the short-term temporal dynamics and the effects of foliar applications of nutrients on the phylloplane yeast community of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). In each trial, 2% sucrose + 0.5% yeast extract solution or sterile deionized water (control) was applied to the experiment plots. Twelve hours post-treatment (at 0600 hours), leaf samples were collected and yeast colony-forming units (cfu) were enumerated by dilution plating. This process was repeated at 1200, 1800, and 2400 hours in each trial. Significant differences were observed between the number of yeast cfu and the time at which the samples were collected. On average, the number of yeast cfu recovered was significantly less at 1800 hours and significantly greatest at 2400 hours when compared with all other sampling times. Averaged over all time intervals, we observed a trend of increased yeast abundance in turf treated with the nutrient solution compared with control treatments. In a separate investigation, atmospheric yeast abundance above the canopy of tall fescue was assessed in the morning (0900) and in the afternoon (1500) using a Thermo Andersen single stage viable particle sampler. In 5 of the 6 trials of this experiment, atmospheric yeast abundance was significantly greater in the morning than in the afternoon. Results suggest the following colonization model: phylloplane yeasts on tall fescue reproduce during the late evening and early morning, stabilize during the late morning and early afternoon through exchange of immigrants and emigrants, and decline during the late afternoon and (or) early evening.

  20. SYNTAXONOMY OF SUBALPINE TALL-GRASS COMMUNITIES (CALAMAGROSTIETALIA VILLOSAE IN THE UKRAINIAN DISTRICTS OF EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Iakushenko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a phytosociological survey of subalpine tall-grass communities within the order Calamagrostietalia villosae (class Mulgedio-Aconitetea in the Ukrainian districts of the Eastern Carpathians. This  syntaxonomical revision includes relevés from  the mountain ranges Beskydy, Gorgany, Chornohora, Svydovets’, Marmarosh, Hryniava, and Chyvchyny. The analysis was performed using numerical classification methods. Five associations within three alliances were distinguished and concisely characterized. Typification and name inversion of the association Hyperico alpigeni-Calamagrostietum villosae Pawłowski et Walas 1949 nom. invers. propos. was performed.

  1. Dynamic Characteristics of a Tall Building Identified from Earthquake and Ambient Vibration Records

    OpenAIRE

    Andone Cristian; Demetriu Sorin; Aldea Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the modal characteristics of a tall building in Bucharest (BRD-SG Tower) identified from earthquake and ambient vibration records. The building was built in the early 2000’s and has a reinforced concrete structure (inner shear wall tube and perimeter frames) with 3 underground stories, ground floor and 18 stories. The seismic instrumentation of the building consists of a seismic station with two triaxial acceleration sensors located at the top of the building (+69.6 m) and ...

  2. Analytical modeling of natural convection in a tall rectangular enclosure with multiple disconnected partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Young Min; Kim, Seong Hoon; Seo, Jae Kwang; Kim, Young In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, laminar natural circulation and heat transfer in a tall rectangular enclosure with disconnected vertical partitions inside were investigated. Analytical expressions were developed to predict the circulation flow rate and the average Nusselt number in a partially partitioned enclosure with isothermal side walls at different temperatures and insulated top and bottom walls. The proposed formulas are then validated against numerical results for modified Rayleigh numbers of up to 106. The impacts of the governing parameters are also examined along with a discussion of the heat transfer regimes.

  3. Forages and pastures symposium: managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R

    2013-05-01

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. Although certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte can induce fescue toxicosis, a malady that adversely affects animal production and physiology. Hardiness and persistence of tall fescue under limited management can be attributed to the endophyte, but the trade-off is reduced cattle production from consumption of ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte. Improved understanding and knowledge of this endophyte-grass complex has facilitated development of technologies and management systems that can either mitigate or completely alleviate fescue toxicosis. This review discusses the research results that have led to development of 5 management approaches to either reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis or alleviate it altogether. Three approaches manipulate the endophyte-tall fescue complex to reduce or alleviate ergot alkaloids: 1) use of heavy grazing intensities, 2) replacing the toxic endophyte with nonergot alkaloid-producing endophytes, and 3) chemical suppression of seed head emergence. The remaining 2 management options do not affect ergot alkaloid concentrations in fescue tissues but are used 1) to avoid grazing of tall fescue with increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in the late spring and summer by moving cattle to warm-season grass pasture and 2) to dilute dietary alkaloids by interseeding clovers or feeding supplements.

  4. Reverse engineering of TLX oncogenic transcriptional networks identifies RUNX1 as tumor suppressor in T-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gatta, Giusy; Palomero, Teresa; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Bansal, Mukesh; Carpenter, Zachary W; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Sole, Xavier; Xu, Luyao; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Wiernik, Peter H; Rowe, Jacob M; Meijerink, Jules P; Califano, Andrea; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2012-02-26

    The TLX1 and TLX3 transcription factor oncogenes have a key role in the pathogenesis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we used reverse engineering of global transcriptional networks to decipher the oncogenic regulatory circuit controlled by TLX1 and TLX3. This systems biology analysis defined T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (TLX1) and TLX3 as master regulators of an oncogenic transcriptional circuit governing T-ALL. Notably, a network structure analysis of this hierarchical network identified RUNX1 as a key mediator of the T-ALL induced by TLX1 and TLX3 and predicted a tumor-suppressor role for RUNX1 in T cell transformation. Consistent with these results, we identified recurrent somatic loss-of-function mutations in RUNX1 in human T-ALL. Overall, these results place TLX1 and TLX3 at the top of an oncogenic transcriptional network controlling leukemia development, show the power of network analyses to identify key elements in the regulatory circuits governing human cancer and identify RUNX1 as a tumor-suppressor gene in T-ALL.

  5. Effects of Seed Maturity of Turf-Type Tall Fescue on the Seed Vigor and the Optimal Harvesting Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rong; HAN Jian-guo

    2003-01-01

    By assay of accelerated aging germination, germination index, vigor index, seedling length,seedling weight, electric conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, ATP content and acid phosphoesterase activityduring seed development of turf-type tall fescue, the seed vigor of tall fescue were studied. Combining withseed moisture content and yield, the optimal harvesting time of tall fescue was determined. The results indica-ted that the seed vigor increased continuously along with seed maturity, and the higher seed vigor was achievedat 19th day after perk anthesis and maintained continuously until 31st day after peak anthesis. At 25th day af-ter peak anthesis, the highest yield of 3 533 kg ha-1 and the good quality of seeds of tall fescue were harvestedwith 32.19% moisture content. From 22nd to 31st day after peak anthesis, the seed yield of 3 300 kg ha-1 andthe good quality seeds of tall fescue were harvested with 40 -12.43% moisture content, and the span was theoptimal harvesting time.

  6. An Assessment of the Fire Safety Hazard Associated with External Fire Spread in Tall Buildings with Combustible Façade Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavard Brogaard, Nicholas; Torero, Jose L.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    External fire spread poses a severe threat to the fire safety of tall buildings with the ensuing risk of multiple simultaneous compartment fires and in the worst case, a complete structural failure. However, it is important to understand every aspect of the causes that leads to external fire spread...... in order to obtain a conclusive assessment of the fire safety hazards associated with combustible facades. Prescriptive fire safety codes are typically not allowing any type of combustible façade in buildings that are taller than 2-3 stories. However, a performance based approach does not contain height...... limitations in many countries. The study within external fire spread has shown that the transition from prescriptive to performance based approach can be cryptic and it is important to keep in mind that a performance based design requires that all aspects are taken into account. Therefore, a method...

  7. Development of SCAR Marker Related to Summer Stress Tolerance in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun YUAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Summer stress tolerance (SST is one of the most important breeding objectives in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, an important perennial cool-season grass. However, breeding for better SST is generally complicated by the many environmental factors involved during the growing season. Utilizing the bulked segregant analysis (BSA, we were able to identify one marker related to SST from 100 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers and 800 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers, and successfully developed a dominant sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR marker T_SC856 from the UBC856 sequence. Furthermore, the SCAR marker was tested in different clones of new populations, which were identified under complex summer stress (high temperature and humidity, Pythium blight, and brown patch, and it exhibited relatively high consistency (77% with the phenotype. We believe that with more markers obtained in the future, better efficiency is likely to be achieved in breeding for improved SST in tall fescue and possibly other species as well. Further studies that analyze the factors relating to the SCAR marker are needed.

  8. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  9. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

    2013-05-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate.

  10. ABC transporter and metallothionein expression affected by NI and Epichloe endophyte infection in tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahossini, Zahra; Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sharifi-Tehrani, Majid

    2015-10-01

    Epichloe endophytes are symbiotic fungi which unlike mycorrhiza grow within aerial parts of host plants. The fungi may increase host tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the effect of endophyte infection on growth and tolerance, carbohydrate contents and ABC (ABC transporter) and MET (metallothionein) expression in the leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The endophyte infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (30, 90 and 180mgkg(-1)). Growth parameters including root, shoot, total biomass, tiller number and total chlorophyll content of plants and H2O2 content of shoots were measured at the end of experiment. Ni translocation to the shoots, carbohydrate contents in roots and expression of ABC and MET of the leaves were also measured after 10 weeks of growth. Results demonstrated the beneficial effect of endophyte association on growth and Ni tolerance of tall fescue under Ni stress through an avoidance mechanism (reduction of Ni accumulation and translocation to the shoots). Endophyte infected plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the endophyte free plants. In endophyte free plants, H2O2 production had a significant positive correlation with genes expression, indicating that an increase in H2O2 might be involved in the up-regulation of ABC and MET under Ni stress.

  11. Interaction of heavy metals and pyrene on their fates in soil and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Xue-Jiao

    2014-01-21

    90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100-2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene-heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal-organics co-contaminated soil.

  12. Biological Control of Bipolaris sorokiniana on Tall Fescue by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 was evaluated for control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. In growth chamber experiments, C3 inhibited conidial germination on leaf surfaces and reduced lesion frequency and percent diseased leaf area compared with nontreated controls. The amount of leaf spot suppression was related to the C3 dose applied. The highest dose tested, 10(9) CFU/ml, prevented nearly all B. sorokiniana conidia from germinating on treated leaf surfaces and provided nearly complete suppression of lesion development. When colloidal chitin was added to C3 cell suspensions of 10(7) or 10(8) CFU/ml, biocontrol efficacy was significantly increased over C3 applied alone, whereas addition of chitin to a C3 cell suspension of 10(9) CFU/ml had no effect. In field experiments, application of C3 to tall fescue turf resulted in significant reductions in infection frequency and disease severity compared with nontreated controls. Strain C3 applied at 10(9) CFU/ml was more effective than C3 applied at 10(7) CFU/ml, and amendment of the lower dose with colloidal chitin enhanced its efficacy. Populations sizes of C3 established on foliage in a growth chamber and in the field were directly related to dose applied. Chitin amendments did not affect C3 population size.

  13. Control of wind-induced vibration of long-span bridges and tall buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ming

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid increase in scales of structures,research on controlling wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,such as long-span bridges and super-tall buildings,has been an issue of great concern.For wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,vibration frequencies and damping modes vary with wind speed.Passive,semiactive,and active control strategies are developed to improve the windresistance performance of the structures in this paper.The multiple tuned mass damper (MTMD) system is applied to control vertical bending buffeting response.A new semiactive lever-type tuned mass damper (TMD) with an adjustable frequency is proposed to control vertical bending buffeting and torsional buffeting and flutter in the whole velocity range of bridge decks.A control strategy named sinusoidal reference strategy is developed for adaptive control of wind-induced vibration of super-tall buildings.Multiple degrees of freedom general building aeroelastic model with a square cross-section is tested in a wind tunnel.The results demonstrate that the proposed strategies can reduce vibration effectively,and can adapt to wind-induced vibration control of large-scale structures in the uncertain dynamic circumstance.

  14. Penerapan Grey-Tall and Polya Based Learning Disertai Assessment for Learning untuk Meningkatkan Kreativitas Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zainudin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendiskripsikan penerapan Gray-Tall and Polya Based Learning (GTPBL disertai Assessment for Learning (AfL yang dapat meningkatkan kreativitas mahasiswa pada matakuliah aljabar linear. Penelitian ini termasuk dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK, penelitian ini dilakukan di program studi pendidikan Matematika IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro selama 2 siklus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan Gray-Tall and Polya Based Learning (GTPBL disertai Assessment for Learning (AfL yang dapat meningkatkan kreativitas mahasiswa pada matakuliah aljabar linear dilakukan dengan keaktifan dosen dalam  mengoreksi dan memberikan umpan balik hasil kinerja mahasiswa dalam membuat dan menyelesaikan permasalahan aljabar penelitian setiap pertemuan, mahasiswa pada setiap pertemuan selalu merevisi hasil kinerjanya berdasarkan masukan dari dosen dan teman sejawat, sedangkan bentuk projek yang diberikan kepada mahasiswa berupa tugas membuat permasalahan aljabar sesuai dengan materi dan menyelesaikannya dengan setidaknya 3 cara berbeda sesuai kreativitas mahasiswa. Rerata kreativitas mahasiswa berdasarkan indikator kreativitas pada aspek kefasihan dan kebaruan di siklus I lebih besar 75, tetapi pada aspek fleksibilitas hanya mencapai 70,3; sehingga belum memenuhi indikator keberhasilan. Rerata tiap indikator kreativitas mahasiswa pada siklus II lebih besar 75 sehingga memenuhi indikator keberhasilan, secara keseluruhan mahasiswa mengalami peningkatan kreativitasnya.

  15. A Computational Model for Pedestrian Level Wind Environment Around Tall Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A computational model has been developed for the simulation of pedestrian level wind environment around tall buildings by coupling the numerical simulation of the full-scale site and meteorological station materials. In the first step, the hybrid/mixed finite element method is employed to solve the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equation for the flow field around tall buildings, in view of the influence of fluctuating wind, the flow field is revised with the effective wind velocity. The velocity ratio is defined in order to relate numerical wind velocity to oncoming reference wind velocity. In the second step, the frequency occurred discomfort wind velocity as a suitable criterion is calculated by use of the coupling between the numerical wind velocity and the wind velocity at the nearest meteorological station. The prediction accuracy of the wind environment simulation by use of the computation model will be discussed. Using the available wind data at the nearest meteorological station as well as the established criteria of wind discomfort, the frequency of wind discomfort can be predicted. A numerical example is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  16. Leaf nitrogen distribution in relation to crown architecture in the tall canopy species, Fagus crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Yasumura, Yuko; Ishida, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    The theory of optimal leaf N distribution predicts that the C gain of plants is maximized when the N content per unit area (N(area)) scales with light availability, but most previous studies have demonstrated that the N distribution is not proportional to light availability. In tall trees, the leaves are often clustered on twigs (leaf cluster) and not evenly distributed within the crowns. Thus, we hypothesized that the suboptimal N distribution is partly caused by the limited capacity to translocate N between leaf clusters, and consequently, the relationship between light and N(area) differs for leaves in different clusters. We investigated the light availability and N content of all individual leaves within several leaf clusters on tall trees of a deciduous canopy species Fagus crenata in Japan. We observed that the within-cluster leaf N distribution patterns differed from the between-cluster patterns and the slopes of the relationships between light and N(area) were lower within clusters than between clusters. According to the detailed analysis of the N distribution within leaf clusters, N(area) was greater for current-year shoots with greater light availability or a larger total leaf area. The latter pattern was probably caused by the greater sink strength of the current-year shoots with a larger leaf area. These N distribution patterns suggest that leaf clusters are fairly independent with respect to their N use, and the productivity of real F. crenata crowns may be less than optimal.

  17. Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

    2008-08-01

    Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across the 3-yr study, NE tall fescue produced net returns per hectare of $219; this level of profitability would require 4 yr for a new planting of NE tall fescue to break even. Novel endophyte tall fescues offer potential benefits related to decreased risk of stand establishment of annual forage crops, longer growing season, and acceptable animal performance.

  18. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides,...

  19. Columbia University: Direct Reversal of Glucocorticoid Resistance by AKT inhibition in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to identify key druggable regulators of glucocorticoid resistance in T-ALL. To this end, a reverse-engineered T-ALL context-specific regulatory interaction network was created from a phenotypically diverse T-ALL gene expression dataset, and then this network was interrogated using master regulator analysis to find drivers of glucocorticoid resistance.

  20. Numerical modeling of initiation of lightning leaders from tall structures by sprite-producing lightning discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    It is well established by now that large charge transfers between cloud and ground in positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges (+CGs) can lead to transient electric field enhancements at mesospheric and lower ionospheric altitudes. In these events the electric field can exceed the conventional breakdown field and lead to formation of transient luminous events referred to as sprites and sprite halos [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011, and references therein]. Stanley and Heavner [Proc. 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003] reported that the large and rapid charge transfer of +CGs producing sprites can also initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures. These authors also presented data analysis indicating that structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders that may culminate in a -CG return stroke to the structure. The effect can be understood by considering the field intensification at the top of the tall structure combined with fast application of the field preventing formation and shielding effects of ion corona [Brook et al., JGR, 66, 3967, 1961]. In the present work we utilize the most recent modeling approaches developed at Penn State [e.g., Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] to quantify the conditions leading to initiation of positive leaders from tall structures following sprite-producing +CGs. Experiments show that the streamer zone transforms into leader when voltage drop along the streamer zone exceeds 400 kV [e.g., Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005]. For a formed leader half of the voltage drops in the streamer zone, and another half in free space ahead of the streamer zone [Bazelyan and Raizer, Lightning physics and lightning protection, p. 62, 2000]. In our analysis therefore we assume that minimum voltage at the tip of the tower should exceed 800 kV for sustainment of upward propagating leader

  1. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista La Moen Lea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb. Dumort. and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  2. Evaluation of low wind modeling approaches for two tall-stack databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Robert; Samani, Olga; Kaplan, Mary; Knipping, Eladio; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-11-01

    The performance of the AERMOD air dispersion model under low wind speed conditions, especially for applications with only one level of meteorological data and no direct turbulence measurements or vertical temperature gradient observations, is the focus of this study. The analysis documented in this paper addresses evaluations for low wind conditions involving tall stack releases for which multiple years of concurrent emissions, meteorological data, and monitoring data are available. AERMOD was tested on two field-study databases involving several SO2 monitors and hourly emissions data that had sub-hourly meteorological data (e.g., 10-min averages) available using several technical options: default mode, with various low wind speed beta options, and using the available sub-hourly meteorological data. These field study databases included (1) Mercer County, a North Dakota database featuring five SO2 monitors within 10 km of the Dakota Gasification Company's plant and the Antelope Valley Station power plant in an area of both flat and elevated terrain, and (2) a flat-terrain setting database with four SO2 monitors within 6 km of the Gibson Generating Station in southwest Indiana. Both sites featured regionally representative 10-m meteorological databases, with no significant terrain obstacles between the meteorological site and the emission sources. The low wind beta options show improvement in model performance helping to reduce some of the over-prediction biases currently present in AERMOD when run with regulatory default options. The overall findings with the low wind speed testing on these tall stack field-study databases indicate that AERMOD low wind speed options have a minor effect for flat terrain locations, but can have a significant effect for elevated terrain locations. The performance of AERMOD using low wind speed options leads to improved consistency of meteorological conditions associated with the highest observed and predicted concentration events. The

  3. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S.

    2014-09-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.) and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC) after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  4. Tall Grass Invasion After Grassland Abandonment Influences the Availability of Palatable Plants for Wild Herbivores: Insight into the Conservation of the Apennine Chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Marcello; Tardella, Federico Maria; Ferrari, Carlo; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Invasion of the tall grass Brachypodium genuense was observed in an area of the central Apennines (Italy) where the population size of Apennine chamois ( Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) was in strong decline. Since this dominant tall grass threatens biodiversity and forage quality, our hypothesis was that B. genuense abundance influenced that of palatable species for the chamois, depending on their functional traits and distribution patterns. Our sampling design used plots of 10 × 10 m and 1 × 1 m to investigate the plant community level and fine-scale interactions. We analyzed data using correlation, generalized linear models, and redundancy analyses. We found that B. genuense can reach high abundance values on the deepest soils. Its high cover value influences plant community composition by competitive exclusion of subordinate species and suppression of functional features because of temporal or spatial niche overlap. This leads to low cover of palatable species at a fine scale, and to poor pasture quality for chamois at a wider scale. Therefore, we postulated that B. genuense invasion, enhanced by long-term grazing cessation, may reduce the availability of palatable plants for Apennine chamois, especially below the potential timberline (1900-2000 m a.s.l.). The high abundance of B. genuense may amplify the effect of other negative factors, such as competition with red deer ( Cervus elaphus) and climate change, in restricting the suitable habitat of the Apennine chamois to the higher sectors of the central Apennines. Thus, we suggested that B. genuense spread should be monitored carefully and plans to control its invasion should be implemented.

  5. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  6. Computer assisted detection and analysis of tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in histological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Baloch, Zubair; Kim, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The number of new cases of thyroid cancer are dramatically increasing as incidences of this cancer have more than doubled since the early 1970s. Tall cell variant (TCV-PTC) papillary thyroid carcinoma is one type of thyroid cancer that is more aggressive and usually associated with higher local recurrence and distant metastasis. This variant can be identified through visual characteristics of cells in histological images. Thus, we created a fully automatic algorithm that is able to segment cells using a multi-stage approach. Our method learns the statistical characteristics of nuclei and cells during the segmentation process and utilizes this information for a more accurate result. Furthermore, we are able to analyze the detected regions and extract characteristic cell data that can be used to assist in clinical diagnosis.

  7. Computing the R of the QR factorization of tall and skinny matrices using MPI_Reduce

    CERN Document Server

    Langou, Julien

    2010-01-01

    A QR factorization of a tall and skinny matrix with n columns can be represented as a reduction. The operation used along the reduction tree has in input two n-by-n upper triangular matrices and in output an n-by-n upper triangular matrix which is defined as the R factor of the two input matrices stacked the one on top of the other. This operation is binary, associative, and commutative. We can therefore leverage the MPI library capabilities by using user-defined MPI operations and MPI_Reduce to perform this reduction. The resulting code is compact and portable. In this context, the user relies on the MPI library to select a reduction tree appropriate for the underlying architecture.

  8. From cat's eyes to disjoint multicellular natural convection flow in tall tilted cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Alfredo; Báez, Elsa; Bermúdez, Blanca

    2011-07-01

    Numerical results of two-dimensional natural convection problems, in air-filled tall cavities, are reported to study the change of the cat's eyes flow as some parameters vary, the aspect ratio A and the angle of inclination ϕ of the cavity, with the Rayleigh number Ra mostly fixed; explicitly, the range of the variation is given by 12⩽A⩽20 and 0°⩽ϕ⩽270°; about Ra=1.1×10. A novelty contribution of this work is the transition from the cat's eyes changes, as A varies, to a disjoint multicellular flow, as ϕ varies. These flows may be modeled by the unsteady Boussinesq approximation in stream function and vorticity variables which is solved with a fixed point iterative process applied to the nonlinear elliptic system that results after time discretization. The validation of the results relies on mesh size and time-step independence studies.

  9. Curvature effects on axisymmetric instability of conduction regime in a tall air-filled annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécheux, J.; Le Quéré, P.; Abcha, F.

    1994-10-01

    This paper numerically studies curvature effects on the instability of the conduction regime of natural convection in a tall air-filled differentially heated annulus of vertical aspect ratio 16 by integrating the two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation. The numerical algorithm combines a pseudospectral Chebyshev space discretization with a second-order time-stepping scheme. It is shown that, in contrast with linear stability analysis of the conduction solution, the time-periodic cross-roll instability does not take place in finite aspect ratio cavities for small values of the radius ratio. For all values of the radius ratio transition to unsteadiness occurs through supercritical Hopf bifurcations. Extensive computations show very complex behaviors of the unsteady solutions depending on the radius ratio. The nature of the reverse transition to steady state that occurs for increasing value of the Rayleigh number is also found to depend strongly on the value of the radius ratio.

  10. Rheological properties of inverse emulsions stabilized by ethanolamides of tall oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanovsky V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparative analysis of inverse emulsion rheological behavior stabilized by monoethanolamide and diethanolamide of tall oil fatty acids, which are promising reagents for petroleum engineering. Flow curves of emulsions and volume ratio of dispersed phase have been obtained. The analysis of the dependence of Herschel–Bulkley model parameters on concentration of emulsifiers has been carried out. It is proved that emulsifiers affect weakly on the rheological parameters in high water phase content emulsions, while in cut-back emulsions their impact is registered to be stronger. It has been found that rheological parameters of the emulsions stabilized by monoethanolamide throughout the range of concentration are considerably higher than the samples on the base of diethanolamide. The experimental data proved the key impact of viscosity of dispersion medium on rheological behavior of cut-back emulsions.

  11. Dynamic Characteristics of a Tall Building Identified from Earthquake and Ambient Vibration Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andone Cristian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the modal characteristics of a tall building in Bucharest (BRD-SG Tower identified from earthquake and ambient vibration records. The building was built in the early 2000’s and has a reinforced concrete structure (inner shear wall tube and perimeter frames with 3 underground stories, ground floor and 18 stories. The seismic instrumentation of the building consists of a seismic station with two triaxial acceleration sensors located at the top of the building (+69.6 m and at the third basement (−9.3 m. The dynamic characteristics of the building are estimated from the seismic records from 23 earthquakes (with moment magnitudes MW between 3.7 and 6.0 that occurred during the period 2004÷2010. The results obtained from the earthquake records are compared with those obtained from 35 ambient vibration records from the period 2003 ÷ 2010.

  12. A method to Determine the Effects of Nonuniform Torsion on Tall Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Aydoğuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method is presented to determine the effects of Vlasov nonuniform torsion caused by horizontal loads on structural systems of tall buildings. In this method, a realistic assumption is made that the variable horizontal loads act at each story level instead of a uniform lateral load along the height of building. For the presented method, an algorithm is prepared in software MATHCAD in which the cross-sectional characteristics are calculated and the sectorial coordinate diagram is plotted. The results can be obtained in a short time, hence it is not needed to solve the time consuming differential equations. The method is compared with the studies of Taranath and Smith & Coul, and is also compared with the softwares ANSYS and CONSTEEL by modeling as a cantilever beam to check the accuracy of the algorithm.

  13. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TALL BUILDING%高层建筑的历史发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗福午

    2002-01-01

    高层建筑(Tall building),在国外又称High-rise building,Tower(塔楼)或Skyscraper(摩天大楼)。塔楼是一个回复到中世纪的名称,它意味着单独性(isolation)和防御性(defense)。摩天大楼却是一个激动人心的,也是一个能激发人们想像力-能够达到天际-的名称。相对说来,高层建筑(High-rise building)则是一个比较实际的名称,意味着这幢建筑物很高,层数很多,但还不敢称“可达到天际”。

  14. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  15. Performance and Physiology of Yearling Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls and Steroidal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle to inflict a malady collectively termed ‘fescue toxicosis’. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with yearling steers graz...

  16. Heterogeneous acid-catalyzed biodiesel production from crude tall oil: a low-grade and less expensive feedstock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, NM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study indicates that solid acid catalysis of crude tall oil (CTO) over a WO3/ZrO2 catalyst is effective in converting the CTO fatty acids components into biodiesel in high yield. Preparation of the catalyst by an impregnation method...

  17. Detection of minimal residual disease identifies differences in treatment response between T-ALL and precursor B-ALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, MJ; Seriu, T; Hettinger, K; d'Aniello, E; Hop, WCJ; Panzer-Grumayer, ER; Biondi, A; Schrappe, M; Kamps, WA; Masera, G; Gadner, H; Riehm, H; Bartram, CR; van Dongen, JJM

    2002-01-01

    We performed sensitive polymerase chain reaction-based minimal residual disease (MRD) analyses on bone marrow samples at 9 follow-up time points in 71 children with T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and compared the results with the precursor B-lineage ALL (B-ALL) results (n = 210) of o

  18. The investigation of growing and using of tall perennial grasses as energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinskas, Algirdas [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Instituto 20, Raudondvaris, LT-54132 Kaunas reg. (Lithuania)], E-mail: aljas@mei.lt; Zaltauskas, Algirdas [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Instituto 20, Raudondvaris, LT-54132 Kaunas reg. (Lithuania); Kryzeviciene, Aldona [Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, LT-58344 Dotnuva-Akademija, Kedainiai reg. (Lithuania)

    2008-11-15

    The present paper provides the results of tests on tall-growing perennial grass biomass suitability for use as fuel, as well as findings on the energy potential of swards and energy efficiency of biofuel production from herbaceous plants. The tests were carried out for 3 years. Eight swards differing in species composition were grown. Two of them consisted of pure rhizomatous grasses-reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and awnless bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyser.)-treated with mineral fertilisers, applying N{sub 60} split in two applications. The other swards consisted of the above-mentioned grass mixtures with legumes-sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.), perennial lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) and goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.). The mixtures did not receive nitrogen fertilisers. The soil of the experimental site is light loam with a humus content of 1.5-1.9%. The productivity of swards under good weather conditions ranged between 6.3 and 8.8 t DM ha{sup -1}, while under adverse conditions between 2.8 and 6.5 t ha{sup -1}. The net calorific value of dry biomass ranged from 17.1 to 18.5 MJ kg{sup -1} and depended on sward composition, growing conditions and cutting time. Combustion temperature ranged from 770 to 955 deg. C. In Lithuanian climatic conditions, the energy potential of tall-growing grass swards cultivated on light soils low in humus content was 115-153 GJ ha{sup -1}, and energy input for biofuel production amounted to 8.0-19.2 GJ ha{sup -1}.

  19. Effects of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, P.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Evans, J.J.; Bacon, C.W. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Infection by the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic N in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of KY31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. A number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. Infection resulted in higher sheath NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations decreased in both leaf parts. The effects on amino acid, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations were dependent upon the level of N fertilization and were usually apparent only at the high rate (10 millimolar) of application. Administration of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to the leaf blades increased the accumulation of {sup 14}C in their amino acid fraction but not in the sheaths of infected plants. This may indicate that infection increased amino acid synthesis in the blade but that translocation to the sheath, which is the site of fungal colonization, was not affected. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in leaf blades of infected plants at high and low N rates of fertilization, but nitrate reductase activity was not affected in either part of the leaf. Increased activities of glutamine synthetase together with the other observed changes in N accumulation and metabolism in endophyte-infected tall fescue suggest that NH{sub 4}{sup +} reassimilation could also be affected in the leaf blade.

  20. Observations of Atmospheric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Mixing Ratios: Tall-Tower or Mountain-Top Stations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Ines; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus; Buchmann, Nina; Eugster, Werner

    2017-02-01

    Mountain-top observations of greenhouse gas mixing ratios may be an alternative to tall-tower measurements for regional scale source and sink estimation. To investigate the equivalence or limitations of a mountain-top site as compared to a tall-tower site, we used the unique opportunity of comparing in situ measurements of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) mixing ratios at a mountain top (986 m above sea level, a.s.l.) with measurements from a nearby (distance 28.4 km) tall tower, sampled at almost the same elevation (1009 m a.s.l.). Special attention was given to, (i) how local wind statistics and greenhouse gas sources and sinks at the mountain top influence the observations, and (ii) whether mountain-top observations can be used as for those from a tall tower for constraining regional greenhouse gas emissions. Wind statistics at the mountain-top site are clearly more influenced by local flow systems than those at the tall-tower site. Differences in temporal patterns of the greenhouse gas mixing ratios observed at the two sites are mostly related to the influence of local sources and sinks at the mountain-top site. Major influences of local sources can be removed by applying a statistical filter (5{th} percentile) or a filter that removes periods with unfavourable flow conditions. In the best case, the bias in mixing ratios between the mountain-top and the tall-tower sites after the application of the wind filter was {-}0.0005± 0.0010 ppm for methane (September, 0000-0400 UTC) and 0.11± 0.18 ppm for CO2 (February, 1200-1600 UTC). Temporal fluctuations of atmospheric CH4 and CO2 mixing ratios at both stations also showed good agreement (apart from CO2 during summertime) as determined by moving bi-weekly Pearson correlation coefficients (up to 0.96 for CO2 and 0.97 for CH4 ). When only comparing mixing ratios minimally influenced by local sources (low bias and high correlation coefficients), our measurements indicate that mountain-top observations are

  1. Turbulent Transfer Coefficients and Calculation of Air Temperature inside Tall Grass Canopies in Land Atmosphere Schemes for Environmental Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, D. T.; Alapaty, K.; Lalic, B.; Arsenic, I.; Rajkovic, B.; Malinovic, S.

    2004-10-01

    A method for estimating profiles of turbulent transfer coefficients inside a vegetation canopy and their use in calculating the air temperature inside tall grass canopies in land surface schemes for environmental modeling is presented. The proposed method, based on K theory, is assessed using data measured in a maize canopy. The air temperature inside the canopy is determined diagnostically by a method based on detailed consideration of 1) calculations of turbulent fluxes, 2) the shape of the wind and turbulent transfer coefficient profiles, and 3) calculation of the aerodynamic resistances inside tall grass canopies. An expression for calculating the turbulent transfer coefficient inside sparse tall grass canopies is also suggested, including modification of the corresponding equation for the wind profile inside the canopy. The proposed calculations of K-theory parameters are tested using the Land Air Parameterization Scheme (LAPS). Model outputs of air temperature inside the canopy for 8 17 July 2002 are compared with micrometeorological measurements inside a sunflower field at the Rimski Sancevi experimental site (Serbia). To demonstrate how changes in the specification of canopy density affect the simulation of air temperature inside tall grass canopies and, thus, alter the growth of PBL height, numerical experiments are performed with LAPS coupled with a one-dimensional PBL model over a sunflower field. To examine how the turbulent transfer coefficient inside tall grass canopies over a large domain represents the influence of the underlying surface on the air layer above, sensitivity tests are performed using a coupled system consisting of the NCEP Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model and LAPS.

  2. The Alleviation of Heat Damage to Photosystem II and Enzymatic Antioxidants by Exogenous Spermidine in Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb is a typical cool-season grass that is widely used in turf and pasture. However, high temperature as an abiotic stress seriously affects its utilization. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of spermidine (Spd on heat stress response of tall fescue. The samples were exposed to 22°C (normal condition or 44°C (heat stress for 4 h. The results showed that exogenous Spd partially improved the quality of tall fescue leaves under normal temperature conditions. Nevertheless, after heat stress treatment, exogenous Spd significantly decreased the electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. Spd also profoundly reduced the H2O2 and O2⋅- content and increased antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, PAs can also regulate antioxidant enzymes activities including SOD, POD, and APX which could help to scavenge ROS. Moreover, application of Spd could also remarkably increase the chlorophyll content and had a positive effect on the chlorophyll α fluorescence transients under high temperature. The Spd reagent enhanced the performance of photosystem II (PSII as observed by the JIP-test. Under heat stress, the Spd profoundly improved the partial potentials at the steps of energy bifurcations (PIABS and PItotal and the quantum yields and efficiencies (φP0, δR0, φR0, and γRC. Exogenous Spd could also reduce the specific energy fluxes per QA- reducing PSII reaction center (RC (TP0/RC and ET0/RC. Additionally, exogenous Spd improved the expression level of psbA and psbB, which encoded the proteins of PSII core reaction center complex. We infer that PAs can stabilize the structure of nucleic acids and protect RNA from the degradation of ribonuclease. In brief, our study indicates that exogenous Spd enhances the heat tolerance of tall fescue by maintaining cell membrane stability, increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, improving PSII, and relevant gene expression.

  3. Transcriptional activation of prostate specific homeobox gene NKX3-1 in subsets of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nagel

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcription factors impacting key developmental processes including embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cell differentiation. Reflecting their tight transcriptional control, homeobox genes are often embedded in large non-coding, cis-regulatory regions, containing tissue specific elements. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL homeobox genes are frequently deregulated by chromosomal aberrations, notably translocations adding T-cell specific activatory elements. NKX3-1 is a prostate specific homeobox gene activated in T-ALL patients expressing oncogenic TAL1 or displaying immature T-cell characteristics. After investigating regulation of NKX3-1 in primary cells and cell lines, we report its ectopic expression in T-ALL cells independent of chromosomal rearrangements. Using siRNAs and expression profiling, we exploited NKX3-1 positive T-ALL cell lines as tools to investigate aberrant activatory mechanisms. Our data confirmed NKX3-1 activation by TAL1/GATA3/LMO and identified LYL1 as an alternative activator in immature T-ALL cells devoid of GATA3. Moreover, we showed that NKX3-1 is directly activated by early T-cell homeodomain factor MSX2. These activators were regulated by MLL and/or by IL7-, BMP4- and IGF2-signalling. Finally, we demonstrated homeobox gene SIX6 as a direct leukemic target of NKX3-1 in T-ALL. In conclusion, we identified three major mechanisms of NKX3-1 regulation in T-ALL cell lines which are represented by activators TAL1, LYL1 and MSX2, corresponding to particular T-ALL subtypes described in patients. These results may contribute to the understanding of leukemic transcriptional networks underlying disturbed T-cell differentiation in T-ALL.

  4. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Genetic resistance to the effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Cassady, J P

    2015-12-01

    Forages are the base source of nutrition for any cow-calf operation. Forage types vary based on soil type and climate. Tall fescue () is the most commonly used cultivated grass for grazing beef cattle in the United States. This cool-season perennial is easily established; is resistant to drought, insects, and nematodes; and has the ability to withstand heavy grazing pressure. Most tall fescue varieties are infected with the endophyte fungus () that is essential for the plant's survival but detrimental to cattle performance. Ergot alkaloids are the generally accepted toxic agents produced by the fescue endophyte. Cattle that consume forages infected with this endophyte can develop fescue foot, fat necrosis, or fescue toxicosis. It is estimated that the beef industry loses over US$500 million annually due to fescue toxicosis through heat stress, reduced weight gain, suppressed appetite, and decreased reproductive performance. Other symptoms include a retained or rough hair coat and increased body temperature, which can be detrimental when animals are located in hot and or humid environments. Different forages and forage systems, feed additives, and animal management strategies have been tested through the years allowing the use of tall fescue in beef production systems while minimizing the adverse effects. An animal genetics approach needs to identify and select animals less susceptible to the ergot alkaloids. Research in this area reports that different cattle within the same herd can respond differently when grazing tall fescue, and evidence exists that breed type may also play a role in genetic tolerance to the negative effects on performance. Some studies have looked at the potential of identifying genetic markers that may assist in the selection of more resistant animals. From these studies, there is evidence that genetic variation does exist for resistance to the ergot alkaloids present when grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Forage management coupled with

  5. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Alan V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. Darbysh. is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN], the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first

  6. Genotoxic effects of fumes from asphalt modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Väänänen, Virpi; Järventaus, Hilkka; Suhonen, Satu; Nygren, Jonas; Hämeilä, Mervi; Valtonen, Jarkko; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Norppa, Hannu

    2008-05-31

    As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA-WPT). In addition, fumes from SMA, SMA-WPT, asphalt concrete (AC), and AC modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch (AC-WPT) were collected at paving sites. The genotoxicity of the fumes was studied by analysis of DNA damage (measured in the comet assay) and micronucleus formation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro and by counting mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. DNA damage was also assessed in buccal leukocytes from road pavers before and after working with SMA, SMA-WPT, AC, and AC-WPT. The chemical composition of the emissions was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The SMA-WPT fume generated in the laboratory induced a clear increase in DNA damage in BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. The laboratory-generated SMA fume increased the frequency of micronucleated BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes collected at the paving sites produced DNA damage with or without metabolic activation. Fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT from the paving sites increased micronucleus frequency without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes studied showed mutagenic activity in Salmonella. No statistically significant differences in DNA damage in buccal leukocytes were detected between the pre- and post-shift samples collected from the road pavers. However, a positive correlation was found between DNA damage and the urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after work shift, which suggested an association between occupational exposures during road paving and genotoxic effects. Our

  7. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  8. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Lou

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia, were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP and spike weight (SW. However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  10. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Gwinn, Dr. Kimberley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Waller, John C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough to reliably compare. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP-MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  11. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A H; Somers, G L; Renfro, J R

    2007-10-01

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM.

  12. Comparative analysis of transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caixia; Long, Danfeng; Lenk, Ingo; Nielsen, Klaus Kristian

    2008-10-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment are the two most widely used methods for genetically modifying grasses. Here, these two systems are compared for transformation efficiency, transgene integration and transgene expression when used to transform tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). The bar gene was used as a selectable marker and selection during tissue culture was performed using 2 mg/l bialaphos in both callus induction and regeneration media. Average transformation efficiency across the four callus lines used in the experiments was 10.5% for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and 11.5% for particle bombardment. Similar transgene integration patterns and co-integration frequencies of bar and uidA were observed in both gene transfer systems. However, while GUS activity was detected in leaves of 53% of the Agrobacterium transformed lines, only 20% of the bombarded lines showed GUS activity. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation appears to be the preferred method for producing transgenic tall fescue plants.

  13. From cat's eyes to disjoint multicellular natural convection flow in tall tilted cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, Alfredo, E-mail: anc@xanum.uam.mx [Depto. Matematicas, 3er Piso Ed. AT-Diego Bricio, UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Baez, Elsa [Depto. Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, UAM-C, 01120 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bermudez, Blanca [Facultad de C. de la Computacion, BUAP, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-07-11

    Numerical results of two-dimensional natural convection problems, in air-filled tall cavities, are reported to study the change of the cat's eyes flow as some parameters vary, the aspect ratio A and the angle of inclination φ of the cavity, with the Rayleigh number Ra mostly fixed; explicitly, the range of the variation is given by 12≤A≤20 and 0{sup o}≤φ≤270{sup o}; about Ra=1.1x10{sup 4}. A novelty contribution of this work is the transition from the cat's eyes changes, as A varies, to a disjoint multicellular flow, as φ varies. These flows may be modeled by the unsteady Boussinesq approximation in stream function and vorticity variables which is solved with a fixed point iterative process applied to the nonlinear elliptic system that results after time discretization. The validation of the results relies on mesh size and time-step independence studies. -- Highlights: → Fixed point iterative method for solving symmetric linear elliptic problems. → Robust method to study effects as aspect ratio and angle of inclination vary. → Interest on the dynamics and evolution of the fluid flow and on heat transfer. → Study of transition from cat's eyes instability to a disjoint multicellular flow.

  14. Tree diversity and community characteristics in Talle Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyati Yam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a temperate forest for enumeration of floristic diversity and community characteristics analysis of the Talle Wildlife Sanctuary. A random sampling approach was adopted. Altogether, 63 species were recorded from the sampled area (0.2 ha. Family dominance results showed that Lauraceae was the most dominant followed by Fagaceae. Seventy percent of species showed low frequency distribution and species having higher frequency classes were almost absent or represented by only a few species. Dominance distribution of species resulted in a log normal distribution pattern which further signifies that the forest community was heterogeneous in nature. Species Prediction and Diversity Estimation analysis categorized 80% of the species as a rare species group and 20% as abundant species group. Estimation of coefficient of variation showed that rare species have equal detection possibilities in the sampled area. Distribution of basal cover in different girth classes indicates a reverse trend to that of stand density. The results of this study show that the forest community composition is highly clustered and loosely colonized in nature.

  15. Wind effects on `Z' plan-shaped tall building: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajdip; Dalui, Sujit Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The present paper is centered on the study to understand the behavior of various surfaces of a `Z' plan-shaped tall building under varying wind directions. For that purpose, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package of ANSYS is used. The length scale is considered as 1:300. Force coefficients both in the along and across wind direction as well as the external surface pressure coefficients for different faces of the object building are determined and listed for wind incidence angle 0°-150° with increment of 30°. The wind flow pattern around the building showing flow separation characteristics and vortices are presented. The variation of wind pressure on different surfaces of the building is clearly shown by contour plots. The nature of deviation of external pressure coefficients along the height of the building as well as along the perimeter of the building for different wind angles of attack is presented. The force coefficient ( C f) along the X direction is extreme for 15° wind angle and along Y direction it is maximum for 60° angle of attack. Unsteady vortices are generated in the wake region due to a combination of positive and negative pressure in the windward and leeward faces, respectively.

  16. Production of Transgenic Tall Fescue Plants with Enhanced Stress Tolerances by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guan-ting; CHEN Jin-qing; HU Zhang-hua; LANG Chun-xiu; CHEN Xiao-yun; WANG Fu-lin; JIN Wei; XIA Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve stress tolerances of turf-type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying plasmid pCMD containing stress tolerance-related CBF1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was used to transform mature seeds-derived embryogenic calli of four cultivars. A total of 112 transgenic plants were regenerated from 32 independent lines and verified by histochemical detection of GUS activity, PCR assay and Southern hybridization analysis. The transformation frequency ranged from 0.92 to 2.87% with apparent differences among the cultivars. Stress tolerances of transgenic plants were enhanced, which was shown by the facts that transgenic plants had distinct growth superiority and significantly higher survival rate than non-transformed ones under high salinity and high osmosis stresses,and that relative electronic conductivity of in vitro leaves treated with low and high temperatures, dehydration and high salinity stresses was 25-30% lower in transgenic plants than in control plants. In addition, it was observed that growth of transgenic plants was inhibited due to constitutive overexpression of CBF1 gene under normal environmental conditions.

  17. Velocity statistics and spectra over a forested site measured with a tall mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalini, Antonio; Alfredsson, Henrik; Dellwik, Ebba; Arnqvist, Johan; Bergström, Hans

    2012-11-01

    In the large expansion of wind power it becomes necessary to use also non-ideal sites for the placement of turbines. Such sites may have a complex terrain in terms of surface elevation as well as being forested. The atmospheric boundary layer is assumed to be severely different as compared to the one over flat, low-vegetation areas, which changes the mean velocity distribution as well as the turbulence intensity, thereby negatively affecting both the power production and loads on the turbines. In this study we use data from a 140 m tall mast in a forest in South-Eastern Sweden, where a unique measurement campaign with sonic anemometers has been running since November 2010 for 16 months. The sonic anemometers give the three velocity components with a frequency resolution of about 10 Hz. The site is covered by approximately 20 m high trees and a 40 degree sector, representative of an approximately homogeneous forest flow, is selected for the analysis of the velocity statistics. The screening of the results indicates the presence of a constant stress layer up to 3-5 canopy heights from the ground. An evaluation of the turbulence statistics in this layer and the levels above is presented. In addition, the spectra are evaluated and compared with the commonly used turbulence models.

  18. Influence of soil–structure interaction on seismic collapse resistance of super-tall buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengke Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous field tests indicate that the soil–structure interaction (SSI has a significant impact on the dynamic characteristics of super-tall buildings, which may lead to unexpected structural seismic responses and/or failure. Taking the Shanghai Tower with a total height of 632 m as the research object, the substructure approach is used to simulate the SSI effect on the seismic responses of Shanghai Tower. The refined finite element (FE model of the superstructure of Shanghai Tower and the simplified analytical model of the foundation and adjacent soil are established. Subsequently, the collapse process of Shanghai Tower taking into account the SSI is predicted, as well as its final collapse mechanism. The influences of the SSI on the collapse resistance capacity and failure sequences are discussed. The results indicate that, when considering the SSI, the fundamental period of Shanghai Tower has been extended significantly, and the collapse margin ratio has been improved, with a corresponding decrease of the seismic demand. In addition, the SSI has some impact on the failure sequences of Shanghai Tower subjected to extreme earthquakes, but a negligible impact on the final failure modes.

  19. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their activity could have ramifications for fescue toxicosis and other forms of ergotism in ruminants.

  20. Influence of soilestructure interaction on seismic collapse resistance of super-tall buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengke Li a; Xiao Lu b; Xinzheng Lu a; Lieping Ye a

    2014-01-01

    Numerous field tests indicate that the soilestructure interaction (SSI) has a significant impact on the dynamic characteristics of super-tall buildings, which may lead to unexpected structural seismic re-sponses and/or failure. Taking the Shanghai Tower with a total height of 632 m as the research object, the substructure approach is used to simulate the SSI effect on the seismic responses of Shanghai Tower. The refined finite element (FE) model of the superstructure of Shanghai Tower and the simplified analytical model of the foundation and adjacent soil are established. Subsequently, the collapse process of Shanghai Tower taking into account the SSI is predicted, as well as its final collapse mechanism. The influences of the SSI on the collapse resistance capacity and failure sequences are discussed. The results indicate that, when considering the SSI, the fundamental period of Shanghai Tower has been extended significantly, and the collapse margin ratio has been improved, with a corresponding decrease of the seismic demand. In addition, the SSI has some impact on the failure sequences of Shanghai Tower subjected to extreme earthquakes, but a negligible impact on the final failure modes.

  1. Growth Strategy of Rhizomatous and Non-Rhizomatous Tall Fescue Populations in Response to Defoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racheal H. Bryant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the morphology of rhizome production, in two contrasting rhizomatous (R and non-rhizomatous (NR tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort populations, and to assess whether rhizome production is associated with changed biomass allocation or plant growth pattern. Growth of R and NR populations was compared, under hard defoliation (H, 50 mm stubble, lax defoliation (L, 100 mm stubble, or without defoliation (U, uncut. Populations were cloned and grown in a glasshouse and defoliated every three weeks, with destructive harvests performed at 6, 12 and 18 weeks. R plants allocated more biomass to root and less to pseudostem than NR plants. Plant tiller numbers were greatly reduced by defoliation, and R and NR populations differed in leaf formation strategy. R plants had narrower leaves than NR, but their leaves were longer, because of greater leaf elongation duration. R plants were more plastic than NR plants in response to defoliation. Ultimately, biomass allocation to rhizomes did not differ between populations but R plants exhibited a subtle shift in distribution of internode length with a few longer internode segments typically located on secondary and tertiary tillers.

  2. Drift issues of tall buildings during the March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake, Japan - Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet; Okawa, Izuru

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant effects of the M9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 is the now well-known long duration (>10 minutes) shaking of buildings in Japan – particularly those in Tokyo (~350-375 km from the epicenter) and in places as far as Osaka (~770 km from the epicenter). Although none collapsed, the strong shaking caused many tall buildings not to be functional for days and weeks.

  3. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, James K.; Walker, Nathan R.; Young, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, K...

  4. Linkage Maps of a Mediterranean × Continental Tall Fescue Population and their Comparative Analysis with Other Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dierking

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasses belonging to the complex are important throughout the world in pasture and grassland agriculture. Tall fescue ( Schreb. is the predominant species in the United States, covering approximately 15 million ha. Tall fescue has distinctive morphotypes, two of which are Continental (summer active and Mediterranean (summer semidormant. This is the first report of a linkage map created for Mediterranean tall fescue, while updating the Continental map with additional simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers. Additionally, this is the first time that diversity arrays technology (DArT markers were used in the construction of a tall fescue map. The male parent (Continental, R43-64, map consisted of 594 markers arranged in 22 linkage groups (LGs and covered a total of 1577 cM. The female parent (Mediterranean, 103-2, map was shorter (1258 cM and consisted of only 208 markers arranged in 29 LGs. Marker densities for R43-64 and 103-2 were 2.65 and 6.08 cM per marker, respectively. When compared with the other Poaceae species, meadow fescue ( Huds., annual ryegrass ( Lam., perennial ryegrass ( L., (L. Beauv., and barley ( L., a total of 171 and 98 orthologous or homologous sequences, identified by DArT analysis, were identified in R43-64 and 103-2, respectively. By using genomic in situ hybridization, we aimed to identify potential progenitors of both morphotypes. However, no clear conclusion on genomic constitution was reached. These maps will aid in the search for quantitative trait loci of various traits as well as help define and distinguish genetic differences between the two morphotypes.

  5. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosi, Glade [University of Kentucky; McCulley, Rebecca L [University of Kentucky; Bush, L P [University of Kentucky; Nelson, Jim A [University of Kentucky; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

  6. Infection with a Shoot-Specific Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë) Alters Tall Fescue Soil Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Xavier; Guo, Jingqi; Leff, Jonathan W; McNear, David H; Fierer, Noah; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is a widespread grass that can form a symbiotic relationship with a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala). While the effects of fungal endophyte infection on fescue physiology and ecology have been relatively well studied, less attention has been given to how this relationship may impact the soil microbial community. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to determine the structure and biomass of microbial communities in both bulk and rhizosphere soils from tall fescue stands that were either uninfected with E. coenophiala or were infected with the common toxic strain or one of several novel strains of the endophyte. We found that rhizosphere and bulk soils harbored distinct microbial communities. Endophyte presence, regardless of strain, significantly influenced soil fungal communities, but endophyte effects were less pronounced in prokaryotic communities. E. coenophiala presence did not change total fungal biomass but caused a shift in soil and rhizosphere fungal community composition, increasing the relative abundance of taxa within the Glomeromycota phylum and decreasing the relative abundance of genera in the Ascomycota phylum, including Lecanicillium, Volutella, Lipomyces, Pochonia, and Rhizoctonia. Our data suggests that tripartite interactions exist between the shoot endophyte E. coenophiala, tall fescue, and soil fungi that may have important implications for the functioning of soils, such as carbon storage, in fescue-dominated grasslands.

  7. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  8. Survey of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes expressions in tall fescue inoculated with Funneliformis intraradices under Nickel toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Rafiei-Demneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, there are complex network of transport, chelation, and sequestration processes that functions in maintaining concentrations of essential metal ions in different cellular compartments, thus minimizing the damage caused by entry of non-essential metal ions into the cytosol. In the presence of toxic ones, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are able to alleviate metal toxicity in the plant. In this study the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis intraradices on growth, Nickel tolerance, and ABC transporter and metallothionein expression in leaves and roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The fungi infected (M+ and uninfected (M- fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (0, 30, 90 and 180 ppm for 3 months. Results demonstrated the positive effect of fungi colonization on the increase in growth and reduction in Ni uptake (90 and 180 ppm and Ni translocation from roots to shoot of tall fescue under Ni stress. The results also demonstrated that the level of ABC transporterand metallothionein transcripts accumulation in roots was considerably higher for both M- and M+ plants compared to the control. Also, M+ plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the M- plants. These results demonstrated the importance of mycorrhizal colonization of F. intraradices in reduction of Ni transport from root to shoot of tall fescue which alleviates Ni-induced stress.

  9. Gap between technically accurate information and socially appropriate information for structural health monitoring system installed into tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the structural health monitoring system for tall buildings is now widely recognized by at least structural engineers and managers at large real estate companies to ensure the structural safety immediately after a large earthquake and appeal the quantitative safety of buildings to potential tenants. Some leading real estate companies decided to install the system into all tall buildings. Considering this tendency, a pilot project for the west area of Shinjuku Station supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency was started by the author team to explore a possibility of using the system to provide safe spaces for commuters and residents. The system was installed into six tall buildings. From our experience, it turned out that viewing only from technological aspects was not sufficient for the system to be accepted and to be really useful. Safe spaces require not only the structural safety but also the soundness of key functions of the building. We need help from social scientists, medical doctors, city planners etc. to further improve the integrity of the system.

  10. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzheng Gao

    Full Text Available Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.. POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP, phenanthrene (PHE and anthracene (ANT. The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  11. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  12. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappelka, A.H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Somers, G.L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Renfro, J.R. [USDI National Park Service, Resource Management and Science Division, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN 37738 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM. - Ground-level ozone has the potential to cause deleterious effects to tall milkweed growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  13. Leukemia-associated NF1 inactivation in patients with pediatric T-ALL and AML lacking evidence for neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgobind, Brian V; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Beverloo, H Berna; Terlouw-Kromosoeto, Joan N R; van Wering, Elisabeth R; Reinhardt, Dirk; Horstmann, Martin; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Pieters, Rob; Zwaan, C Michel; Van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Meijerink, Jules P P

    2008-04-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. Patients with NF1 have a higher risk to develop juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) with a possible progression toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In an oligo array comparative genomic hybridization-based screening of 103 patients with pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and 71 patients with MLL-rearranged AML, a recurrent cryptic deletion, del(17)(q11.2), was identified in 3 patients with T-ALL and 2 patients with MLL-rearranged AML. This deletion has previously been described as a microdeletion of the NF1 region in patients with NF1. However, our patients lacked clinical NF1 symptoms. Mutation analysis in 4 of these del(17)(q11.2)-positive patients revealed that mutations in the remaining NF1 allele were present in 3 patients, confirming its role as a tumor-suppressor gene in cancer. In addition, NF1 inactivation was confirmed at the RNA expression level in 3 patients tested. Since the NF1 protein is a negative regulator of the RAS pathway (RAS-GTPase activating protein), homozygous NF1 inactivation represent a novel type I mutation in pediatric MLL-rearranged AML and T-ALL with a predicted frequency that is less than 10%. NF1 inactivation may provide an additional proliferative signal toward the development of leukemia.

  14. 静力弹塑性分析方法 Pushover 在高层结构中的应用%Pushover Analysis Method and Application for Tall Building Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹汉涛

    2014-01-01

    静力弹塑性(Pushover)分析法在高层结构的抗震设计和结构性能评估中有着广泛的应用,本文给出了Pushover 分析法的基本原理,并用该方法对某框架-剪力墙超限结构进行了分析。结果表明, Pushover 法具有较高的精确性,应用前景广泛,可为同类工程设计提供参考。%The pushover analysis method has been exten_sively used in earthquake design and evaluation of tall buildings. It was given the basic principle of pushover analysis method. Af_ter that it was analyzed a frame - shear wall structure and it be_longs to the tall building beyond code limits by pushover method. The result indicates that the pushover analysis method can evalu_ate the inelastic behavior of regular structure credibly. The pushover analysis method has high accuracy and wide foreground in application, can be a good reference for the same project.

  15. 振冲碎石桩加固高层建筑粉砂土地基实例分析%Case Study on Improving Silty Sand Foundation of Tall Building by Vibro-replacement Stone Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新宇; 应宏伟; 夏建中

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the case studies of two tall buildings built on silty sand improved by vibro-replacement stone column in Hangzhou are reported. The design and computation method for vibro-replacement stone column composite foundation are introduced. Based on field testing results,the construction techniques of vibro-replacement stone column and the appraisement of improvement effect are discussed. It is the first time that the vibro-replacement stone column method has been successfully applied to improve silty sand foundation of tall building in Hangzhou.%本文介绍杭州两座高层建筑物采用振冲碎石桩加固粉砂土地基的工程实例。结合有关现场测试成果,探讨了高层建筑振冲碎石桩地基设计计算、振冲碎石桩施工控制和加固效果评价等有关问题。为振冲碎石桩在同类地基中的推广应用提供一些成功经验。

  16. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chavez, Thomas A. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gilsanz, Vicente [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  17. Numerical study of natural turbulent convection of nanofluids in a tall cavity heated from below

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrouk Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a numerical study of natural turbulent convection in a tall cavity filled with nanofluids. The cavity has a heat source embedded on its bottom wall, while the left, right and top walls of the cavity are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The working fluid is a water based nanofluid having three nanoparticle types: alumina, copper and copper oxid. The influence of pertinent parameters such as Rayleigh number, the type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles on the cooling performance is studied. Steady forms of twodimensional Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations and conservation equations of mass and energy, coupled with the Boussinesq approximation, are solved by the control volume based discretisation method employing the SIMPLE algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. Turbulence is modeled using the standard k-ε model. The Rayleigh number, Ra, is varied from 2.491009 to 2.491011. The volume fractions of nanoparticles were varied in the interval 0≤φ≤ 6% . Stream lines, isotherms, velocity profiles and Temperature profiles are presented for various combinations of Ra, the type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results are reported in the form of average Nusselt number on the heated wall. It is shown that for all values of Ra, the average heat transfer rate from the heat source increases almost linearly and monotonically as the solid volume fraction increases. Finally the average heat transfer rate takes on values that decrease according to the ordering Cu, CuO and Al2O3.

  18. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probir Kumar Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane. Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C. Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08±0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73±0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04±0.01 mg/mL, total phenol (0.96±0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra, reducing power (40.49±1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra, and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77±0.06 mg/mL were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp..

  19. Tall Tower Wind Energy Monitoring and Numerical Model Validation in Northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koracin, D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kaplan, M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Smith, C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, G. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wolf, A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCord, T. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); King, K. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Belu, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horvath, K. [Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-10-01

    The main objectives of this project were to conduct a tall-tower and sodar field campaign in complex terrain, investigate wind properties relevant to wind energy assessment, and evaluate high-resolution models with fixed and adaptive grid structures. Two 60-m towers at Virginia Peak ridges near Washoe Valley, Nevada, were instrumented with cup and vane anemometers as well as sonic anemometers, and an acoustic sounder (hereafter sodar) was installed near one of the towers. The towers were located 2,700 m apart with a vertical distance of 140 m elevation between their bases. Each tower had a downhill exposure of rolling complex terrain, with the nearby valley floor 3,200 m to the west and 800 m below the summit. Cup anemometers were installed at both towers at 20, 40, and 60 m, wind vanes at 20 and 60 m, and sonic anemometers at 20 and 60 m. The sodar measurements were nominally provided every 10 m in vertical distance from 40 to 200 m with the quality of the data generally decreasing with height. Surface air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and radiation measurements were conducted at 1.5 m AGL at both of the towers. Although the plan was to conduct a 1-year period of data collection, we extended the period (October 5, 2012 through February 24, 2014) to cover for possible data loss from instrument or communication problems. We also present a preliminary analysis of the towers and sodar data, including a detailed inventory of available and missing data as well as outliers. The analysis additionally includes calculation of the Weibull parameters, turbulence intensity, and initial computation of wind power density at various heights.

  20. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  1. Polyphenol oxidase activity in subcellular fractions of tall fescue contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wanting; Lu, Xiaodan; Gao, Yanzheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Yandi

    2012-01-01

    Understanding enzyme responses to contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a key step in the elucidation of POP metabolic mechanisms in plants. However, there is little information available on enzyme activity in subcellular fractions of POP-contaminated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in cell fractions of plants under contamination stress from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a greenhouse batch technique. Three parameters, E(cell), E(cell-n), and P(cell), denoting the amount of PPO activity, cell fraction content-normalized PPO activity, and proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction, respectively, were used in this study. Contamination with phenanthrene, as a representative PAH, at a relatively high level (>0.23 mg L⁻¹) in culture solution generally stimulated PPO activity in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) roots and shoots and their cellular fractions. The amount and distribution proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction of phenanthrene-contaminated roots and shoots were (in descending order): cell solution > > cell wall > cell organelles. Cell solution was the dominant storage domain of PPO activity and contributed 84.0 and 82.8% of PPO activity in roots and shoots, respectively. The cell wall had the highest density of PPO activity in roots and shoots, based on the highest cell fraction content normalized PPO activity in this cell fraction. Our results provide new information on enzyme responses in plant intracellular fractions to xenobiotic POPs and fundamental information on within-plant POP metabolic mechanisms.

  2. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  3. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall-tower station in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalneh Berhanu, Tesfaye; Satar, Ece; Schanda, Rudiger; Nyfeler, Peter; Moret, Hanspeter; Brunner, Dominik; Oney, Brian; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CarboCount-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6, and 212.5 m above ground level, and it is equipped with a Picarro cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79 ppb, 0.05 ppm, and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2, and CH4, respectively, over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation. Since the installation of an air-conditioning system recently at the measurement cabin, we have acquired better temperature stability of the measurement system, but no significant improvement was observed in the measurement precision inferred from the target gas measurements. Therefore, it seems that the observed higher variation in CO measurements is associated with the instrumental noise, compatible with the precision provided by the manufacturer.

  4. Rural bioenergy: innovative integrated biosystem design for fuel and food from agrowastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvam, Pagandai V. Pannir; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de S. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)], email: pannirbr@gmail.com; Almeida, Louizy Minora C.A. de; Israel, Samy B.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEQ/CT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is the leader known for its ethanol biofuel development, but also for biomass charcoal, yet lacks in clean rural biofuel production. This paper deals with the system design for sustainable rural projects developments based on the the bioenergy production from biomass wastes using Innovative process equipment design and the process optimization. With the economic objective towards sustainable clean small scale rural energy production, and also the co-production of hot, cold thermal energy, at first, several preliminary projects had been developed and analysed. Then, a detailed project engineering and the results on economical viability were obtained. The dynamic material, energy and cash flow models of the complex integrated food processing and small scale energy productions, were at first constructed using excel electronic spread sheet for Windows. Computer aided system for process modeling and simulation using SUPERPRO, Intelligent Inc. Economic feasibilities studies using genetics algorithms are under developments. The preliminary analysis of cost and investments of the the integrated biomass utilisation projects which are included for this study are: biological aerobic treatment process, methane gas production using anaerobic digestion process, aerobic composting, drying of tropical fruits, effluent treatments, biogas and syngas production as well as cogeneration of energy production for drying and cooling using biogas. These models allowed us the identification of tech economical and scale up problems. The results obtained with several preliminary project development with few case studies are reported for integrated project developments for fuel and food using process and cost simulation models. Several economic problems related with implementation of the small scale rural energy system for sustained local developments based on tropical fruit producing rural areas are analysed and a concept of the integrated bio system for micro enterprise has been

  5. A Combination of Plant NDVI and LiDAR Measurements Improve the Estimation of Pasture Biomass in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea var. Fletcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Schaefer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The total biomass of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea var. Fletcher pasture was assessed by using a vehicle mounted light detection and ranging (LiDAR unit to derive canopy height and an active optical reflectance sensor to determine the spectro-optical reflectance index, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. In a random plot design, measurements of NDVI and pasture height were combined to estimate biomass with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP equal to ±455.28 kg green dry matter (GDM/ha, over a range of 286 kg to 3933 kg GDM/ha. The combination of NDVI and height measurements were observed to be more accurate in assessing total biomass than just the NDVI (RMSEP ± 846.51 kg/ha and height (RMSEP ± 708.13 kg/ha. Based on the results of the study it was concluded the use of combined LiDAR and active optical reflectance sensors can help unlock the complex interrelationship between green fraction and biomass in swards containing both green and senescent material.

  6. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...

  7. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  8. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  9. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  10. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  11. Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids.

  12. [Genetic variability of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the northern and southern limits of the natural distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation of six populations of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimean Mountains and of one population in Lebanon were investigated using 18 polymorphic allozyme loci as genetic markers. The high level of genetic variability of J. excelsa was established in the northern and the southern limits of its natural habitat. The mean values of the main indicators of genetic polymorphism were: P99 = 1,000, A = 3,167, H(E) = 0,370, H(o) = 0,405. Subdivision and differentiation of populations were low (F(ST) = 0,032, D(N) = 0,026) indicating similarity of their gene pools.

  13. The dual specificity PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PKI-587 displays efficacy against T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, Mohiuddin; Moharram, Sausan A; Marhäll, Alissa; Kazi, Julhash U

    2017-04-28

    Although significant improvements have been made in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), there is a substantial subset of high-risk T-cell ALL (T-ALL) patients with relatively poor prognosis. Like in other leukemia types, alterations of the PI3K/mTOR pathway are predominant in ALL which is also responsible for treatment failure and relapse. In this study, we show that relapsed T-ALL patients display an enrichment of the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Using a panel of inhibitors targeting multiple components of the PI3K/mTOR pathway, we observed that the dual-specific PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PKI-587 was the most selective inhibitor for T-ALL cells dependent on the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, we observed that PKI-587 blocked proliferation and colony formation of T-ALL cell lines. Additionally, PKI-587 selectively abrogated PI3K/mTOR signaling without affecting MAPK signaling both in in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway using PKI-587 delayed tumor progression, reduced tumor load and enhanced the survival rate in immune-deficient mouse xenograft models without inducing weight loss in the inhibitor treated mice. This preclinical study shows beneficial effects of PKI-587 on T-ALL that warrants further investigation in the clinical setting.

  14. Friend or foe: can activating mutations in NOTCH1 contribute to a favorable treatment outcome in patients with T-ALL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshtein, Aviya; Berger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes. Despite significant improvement in the treatment of T-ALL, approximately 20% of children and most adults succumb to resistant or relapsed disease. Transformation events occur during crucial steps of thymocyte development and have been related to the expression of certain oncogenes such as TAL2, TLX1, LYL1, LMO1, and NOTCH1. Mutations that lead to constitutive activation of NOTCH1 are most commonly found in human patients with T-ALL. Moreover, overexpression of the intracellular portion of NOTCH1 can lead to the initiation of T-ALL in mouse models. These findings suggest that NOTCH1 may promote tumorigenesis through the regulation of differentiation of leukemic cells, and, potentially, of leukemia-initiating cell identity and function. Multiple studies and clinical trials aimed at targeting NOTCH1 in T-ALL or using NOTCH1 mutations as a prognostic tool are currently underway. Recent studies unexpectedly found that activating mutations in NOTCH1 are correlated with better treatment outcome. Here we review these studies and discuss possible explanations for these findings.

  15. The clerodane diterpene casearin J induces apoptosis of T-ALL cells through SERCA inhibition, oxidative stress, and interference with Notch1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ford, C; Heidersdorf, B; Haun, F; Murillo, R; Friedrich, T; Borner, C; Merfort, I

    2016-01-28

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy that preferentially affects children and adolescents. Over 50% of human T-ALLs possess activating mutations of Notch1. The clerodane diterpene casearin J (CJ) is a natural product that inhibits the sarcoendoplasmatic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump and induces cell death in leukemia cells, but the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here we show that owing to SERCA pump inhibition, CJ induces depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pools, oxidative stress, and apoptosis via the intrinsic signaling pathway. Moreover, Notch1 signaling is reduced in T-ALL cells with auto-activating mutations in the HD-domain of Notch1, but not in cells that do not depend on Notch1 signaling. CJ also provoked a slight activation of NF-κB, and consistent with this notion a combined treatment of CJ and the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide (Pt) led to a remarkable synergistic cell death in T-ALL cells. Altogether, our data support the concept that inhibition of the SERCA pump may be a novel strategy for the treatment of T-ALL with HD-domain-mutant Notch1 receptors and that additional treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide may have further therapeutic benefits.

  16. Elastic-plastic dynamic time-history analysis of tall frame-corewall structure%某超限高层框筒结构弹塑性动力时程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程柯; 桂国强

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic elastic-plastic analyses are carried out for a tall frame-corewall structure by the commercial FE program MIDAS BUILDING. The structural dynamic response and member plastic developing process are investigated under practical earthquake effects, and seismic perform- ance of structure is meanwhile evaluated. Proposals are also put forward for improvement of engineering design.%应用MIDAS BUILDING结构软件对一个高层框筒结构进行了罕遇地震下的动力弹塑性分析,给出了结构在实际地震作用下的动力响应及各部位、构件的塑性发展情况,对结构的抗震性能做出评价,并对工程设计提出改进建议。

  17. Infestation of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. with Neotyphodium coenophialum and its influence on growth of chosen microorganisms in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Pańka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue cultivars cultivated in Poland and determination an endophyte inhibition effect on mycelium growth of chosen microorganisms in vitro were investigated. Seventeen seed lots of 11 cultivars of tall fescue were examined. The endophyte mycelium was dyed with bengal rose and microscopically examined to detect N. coenophialum. Occurrence of endophyte was checked with PCR method. Influence of endophyte on growth of 15 microorganisms was established in the laboratory conditions on Petri dishes with PDA medium at 10, 20 and 30°C. Neotyphodium coenophialum occurred only in two seed lots, 'Barrocco' - 42% and Terros - 2%. Living mycelium of endophyte was isolated only from 'Barrocco'. The highest mycelium growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium avenaceum, F. equiseti, Microdochium nivale and Gaeumannomyces graminis by endophyte at 30°C was recorded. The highest width of growth inhibition zone (4mm was detected for the last pathogen. Mycelium growth of B. sorokiniana and M. nivale was not inhibited at 10°C, and for F. avenaceum at 10 and 20°C.

  18. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-01-04

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  19. A Comparative Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in Tall Buildings Using Wireless and Wired Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.

  20. Spatial analysis and structure of a cross-timber stand in the TallGrass Prairie Preserve (Pawhuska, Oklahoma)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Ramón Arévalo

    2013-01-01

    I analyzed the spatial distribution and structure of trees in a cross timber forest in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (Pawhuska,Oklahoma,USA).I mapped and measured diameter of all stems,saplings (>1.5 m tall) and dead trees in a 4-ha plot.The stand was dominated by Quercus stellata and Q.marilandica.In total,I mapped 7,636 trees,consisting of 6,785 Q.stellata,846 Q.marilandica,2 Celtis occidentalis,1 Fraxinus pensilvanica and 2 Prunus americana.For saplings,I mapped 54 Q.stellata and 21 Q.marilandica.The size class distribution of the two dominant species did not differ.The dominant mortality class was "standing dead",while I only found saplings less than 2 m tall.The spatial distribution of the species indicated segregation in the use of the environment,generating a clumped univariate distribution of stems of the same species within radii of 30 m,but repulsion outside 30 m.This segregation can be explained by the different ecological requirements of each species.

  1. Tasco-Forage: I. Influence of a seaweed extract on antioxidant activity in tall fescue and in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, J H; Allen, V G; Schmidt, R E; Zhang, X; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Coelho, R W; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) is a known source of plant growth regulators, and application to turfgrasses has increased activity of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and specific vitamin precursors. Increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals diminishes oxidative stress. Two pasture experiments investigated effects of Tasco-Forage (a proprietary seaweed-based product) applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) on antioxidant activity in plants and in ruminants that grazed the forage. In Exp. 1, fescue was 70 to 100% infected with the endophyte fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin). Twenty-four wether lambs (initial BW 41 kg; SD = 5) grazed fescue treated with 0, 1.7, or 3.4 kg Tasco/ha applied in April and July, 1994, with four replications per treatment. Grazing occurred for 26 d beginning April 21 and for 22 d beginning July 19. In July, there was a linear increase in daily gains (P Prairie, MS, where 1/4 Brahman x 3/4 Angus steers were used. Forty-eight steers were included at each location in each year (n = 192 total steers for 1996 and 1997). Steers that grazed infected tall fescue in Mississippi had lower (P antioxidant activity in grazing steers, whereas Tasco seemed to increase antioxidant activity in both the forage and the grazing ruminant. Tasco may provide opportunities to reduce oxidative stress in plants and animals.

  2. T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL): New insights into the cellular origins and infiltration mechanisms common and unique among hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Eduardo; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa; Pelayo, Rosana; Schnoor, Michael

    2017-08-15

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) accounts for 15% and 25% of total childhood and adult ALL cases, respectively. During T-ALL, patients are at risk of organ infiltration by leukemic T-cells. Infiltration is a major consequence of disease relapse and correlates with poor prognosis. Transendothelial migration of leukemic cells is required to exit the blood stream into target organs. While mechanisms of normal T-cell transmigration are well known, the mechanisms of leukemic T-cell extravasation remain elusive; but involvement of chemokines, integrins and Notch signaling play critical roles. Here, we summarize current knowledge about molecular mechanisms of leukemic T-cell infiltration with special emphasis on the newly identified subtype early T-cell-progenitor (ETP)-ALL. Furthermore, we compare the extravasation potential of T-ALL cells with that of other hematologic malignancies such as B-ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Further investigation of equine fescue oedema induced by Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, S C; Munday, J S; Sutherland, B L; Vlaming, J B; Fletcher, L R

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To determine if equine fescue oedema (EFO) induced by grazing Mediterranean-type tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) could be prevented by treatment with the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone, and anti-histamine, cetirizine, and to determine concentrations of lolines, specifically N-acetyl norloline (NANL), in grasses grazed by horses that did and did not develop EFO. METHODS Four horses were grazed on AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue pasture (from Day 0) for 7 days prior to being subjected to euthanasia. Two of these horses were treated with 250 mg methylprednisolone and 300 mg cetirizine hydrochloride every 12 hours orally from Days 0-7. Two more horses grazed meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) infected with the naturally-occurring, common endophyte (Epichloë uncinata) for 21 days before euthanasia. All horses were observed closely for signs of EFO, and blood samples were taken daily for measurement of concentrations of total protein (TP) in serum. Following euthanasia post-mortem examinations were conducted on all horses. Pasture samples of meadow fescue and Mediterranean tall fescue from the current study, and endophyte-infected Mediterranean tall fescue from a previous study that were associated with EFO, were analysed for concentrations of lolines using gas chromatography. RESULTS By Day 7, the treated and untreated horses grazing AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue all developed signs of EFO, and concentrations of TP in serum of all horses were Mediterranean tall fescue. In the sample of meadow fescue, concentrations of total lolines and N-acetyl norloline (NANL) were 2,402 and 543 mg/kg, respectively. In the three samples of Mediterranean tall fescue associated with EFO, concentrations of total lolines were 308, 629 and 679 mg/kg, and concentrations of NANL were 308, 614 and 305 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue infected

  4. Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The subsystem design of the SEC-601 solar collector was evaluated. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet three inches wide and eight feet seven inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the subsystem performance specifications and the assembly and installation drawings of the solar collectors and manifold.

  5. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts

  6. Prevalence of pathogenetic MC4R mutations in Italian children with early Onset obesity, tall stature and familial history of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crinò Antonino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R mutations represent the most frequent genetic cause of non-syndromic early onset obesity. Children carrying MC4R mutations seem to show a particular phenotype characterized by early onset, severe obesity and high stature. To verify whether MC4R mutations are associated with this particular phenotype in the Italian pediatric population, we decided to screen the MC4R gene in a group of obese children selected on the basis of their phenotype. Methods To perform this study, a multicentric approach was designed. Particularly, to be enrolled in the study subjects needed to meet the following criteria: Body mass index ≥ 3 deviation scores according to age and sex, familiar history of obesity (at least one parent obese, obesity onset before the 10 years old, height ≥ 2 deviation scores. The coding region of MC4R gene was screened in 240 obese children (mean age 8.3 ± 3.1, mean BMI 30.8 ± 5.4 and in 200 controls (mean age 8.1 ± 2.8; mean BMI 14.2 ± 2.5. Results Three mutations have been found in five obese children. The S127L (C380T, found in three unrelated children, had been described and functionally characterized previously. The Q307X (C919T and the Y332H (T994C mutations were found in two patients. Functional studies showed that only Q307X impaired protein function. Conclusion The low prevalence of MC4R mutations (1.6% in this group of obese children selected according to the obesity degree, the tall stature and the family history of obesity was similar to the prevalence observed in previous screenings performed in obese adults and in not phenotypically selected obese children.

  7. CO2, CO and CH4 measurements from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; de Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    A robust in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary layer trace gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures and flow rates that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. These algorithms provide detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates for all of the gases and could be adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off the shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  8. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  9. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L. Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC, Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mendes Loiola

    Full Text Available The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF, Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe and West African Tall (WAT; the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT; the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT; and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT, Tonga Tall (TONT and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  10. Experimental and numerical results on three-dimensional instabilities in a rotating disk-tall cylinder flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Gelfgat, A. Yu; Naumov, I. V.;

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional axisymmetry-breaking instability of axisymmetric flow between a rotating lid and a stationary cylinder is analyzed both numerically and experimentally for the case of tall cylinders with the height/radius aspect ratio between 3.3 and 5.5. A complete stability diagram...... for each mode. The onset of three-dimensional flow behavior is measured by combining the high spatial resolution of particle image velocimetry and the temporal accuracy of laser Doppler anemometry. The results are compared to the numerical stability analysis. The measured onset of three dimensionality...... is in a good agreement with the numerical results. Disagreements observed in supercritical regimes can be explained by secondary bifurcations that are not accounted for by linear stability analysis of the primary base flow. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...

  11. Spectral analysis of long term measurements of wind and turbulence from tall masts –land and sea based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    , in such situations, make load calculations based on contemporary turbulence model schemes questionable. We also attempt to use the full lateral spectrum to estimate wake meandering for different atmospheric conditions, using reasonable estimates of β, the ratio between the Lagrangian – Eulerian timescales......In a continuing study we are analyzing wind speed data from tall masts with the purpose of providing answers to some of the outstanding questions concerning the flow in the atmospheric boundary layer. The right answers are essential for one of the NEWA key activities: The building of the model...... chain and its use for computing the high resolution time series at every grid point which will be an important part of the final wind atlas database. The dataset then allows us to investigate one of the most crucial issues in the concept of the model chain namely that of linking the two...

  12. CFD and Wind Tunnel Analysis for Mounted-Wind Turbine in a Tall Building for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Perwita Sari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A mounted wind turbine on the top of a tall building may provide high wind power in regions of high wind speed and low turbulence. The objective of this study is to evaluate wind speed on roof top models to optimize the wind turbine performance for power generation. Comparative analyses from three different roof top models were conducted. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation and wind tunnel testing were performed to evaluate the performance of wind turbine. Wind speed on the building model with a geometric scale of 1:150 was measured in CFD simulation then it was validated in wind tunnel test. Results presented in this paper suggest that an increase of wind speed could be achieved with ¼ circular shapes around the rooftop which can provide additional wind speed of 55.24%, respectively.

  13. Effect of Intumescent Flame Retardants on the Properties of Polyurethanes Based on Tall Oil Fatty Acids Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yakushin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The efficiency of using intumescent flame retardants in polyurethane coatings based on tall oil fatty acids esters was assessed. The influence of the content of each of the flame retardants (ammonium polyphosphate, melamine and pentaerythriol separately on the flammability parameters of wood samples with polyurethane coatings in a cone calorimeter test, as well as on the thermal and mechanical properties of the polyurethane itself, were investigated. the effect of the ratios of double and triple combinations of the mentioned flame retardants on the specified properties was studied. It has been found that, for the given type of polyester urethane, ammonium polyphosphate decreases the flammability of polyurethane to the greatest extent. Melamine, and melamine in combination with ammonium polyphosphate, decrease the smoke release upon polyurethane combustion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5784

  14. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lara; Neufeld, Howard S; Chappelka, Arthur H; Burkey, Kent O; Davison, Alan W

    2006-05-01

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as either ozone-sensitive or insensitive based on the amount of foliar injury. Sensitive plants developed injury earlier in the season and to a greater extent than insensitive plants. Older leaf cohorts were more likely to belong to high injury classes by the end of each of the two growing seasons. In addition, leaf loss was more likely for older cohorts (2000) and lower leaf positions (2001) than younger cohorts and upper leaves, respectively. Most leaves abscised without prior ozone-like stippling or chlorosis. Failure to take this into account can result in underestimation of the effects of ozone on these plants.

  15. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated ruminal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in VFA absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extr...

  16. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  17. Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

  18. Glyphosate resistance in tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) from Mississippi is due to both altered target-site and nontarget-site mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tall waterhemp population in a glyphosate-resistant soybean field, Washington County, Missisippi, was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in growth of treated plants) values of 1.28 and 0....

  19. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean hulls (SBHs), a co-product of soybean meal milling, have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants contain...

  20. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  1. The Physiological, Morphological and Bio-Chemical Comparison of the Current Grass Shiraz City’s Green Space withTall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zadehbagheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of Shiraz city’s green space is the change of color and visual quality of turf during cold months. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate tall fescue in order to find if it is suitable for replacement. This experiment was in the form of complete random blocks and it was done during two consecutive years. Each treatment had 4 repetitions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.0, and the means were compared using t or LSD tests at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that tall fescue was superior to normal sport grass in cold months with respect to its chlorophyll, catalase, protein, prolin, and soluble sugar content, as well as its visual quality and root depth. Prolin fluctuations in tall fescue were very high which showed that these types of grass can increase the plant’s prolin content under stress. Therefore, there is a fivefold increase in the prolin content of the grass in cold months (cold tension compared to the beginning of spring (best condition for growth. However, this change does not exist in sport grass. Based on the obtained results we can conclude that tall fescue can resist environmental tension, especially coldness, using different mechanisms, and is a good substitute for normal sport grass.

  2. Influence of harvest time and frequency on light interception and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2016-01-01

    tIn this study, we report efficiencies of light capture and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cul-tivated on a riparian fen in Denmark under different harvesting managements. Green biomass targetedfor biogas production was harvested either as two cuts (2C) or three cuts (3C) in a year....

  3. An activating mutation in the kinase homology domain of the natriuretic peptide receptor-2 causes extremely tall stature without skeletal deformities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Hannema (Sabine); H.A. van Duyvenvoorde (Hermine); P. Thomas (Premsler); R.-B. Yang (Ruey-Bing); T.D. Mueller (Thomas); I.J. Gassner (Ingrid); H. Oberwinkler (Heike); F. Roelfsema (Ferdinand); G.W.E. Santen (Gijs); T. Prickett (Timothy); S.G. Kant (Sarina); A. Verkerk; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); E. Espiner (Eric); C.A. Ruivenkamp (Claudia); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); A.M. Pereira (Alberto); M. Losekoot (Monique); M. Kuhn (Michael); J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)/natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) signaling is essential for long bone growth. Enhanced CNP production caused by chromosomal translocations results in tall stature, a Marfanoid phenotype, and skeletal abnormalities.Asimilar phenotype was d

  4. Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, Coastal and Marine Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural coastal (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) sites. The variability in the wind field among the sites is ex...

  5. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  6. Spectral mapping of savanna tree species at canopy level, with focus on tall trees, using an integrated CAO Hyperspectral & LiDAR sensor approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available of food production and fuel wood for the local populace and communities. Economically viable tree species can thus be sustainably monitored while the pest species can be targeted and removed. The aim of this study was to identify spectrally and map 5 tall...

  7. Optimum distribution between autumn-applied and spring-applied nitrogen in seed production of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Kristensen, Kristian;

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different autumn and spring nitrogen (N) application rates on plant establishment, plant development, and seed yield were tested in a field experiment using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Results clearly showed that the optimum distribution of N between autumn and spring...

  8. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality.

  9. Alkaloid Quantities in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue are Affected by the Plant-Fungus Combination and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, M; Phillips, T; Faeth, S H; Bush, L P; McCulley, R; Saloniemi, I; Saikkonen, K

    2016-02-01

    Many grass species are symbiotic with systemic, vertically-transmitted, asymptomatic Epichloë endophytic fungi. These fungi often produce alkaloids that defend the host against herbivores. We studied how environmental variables affect alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) from three Northern European wild origins and the widely planted US cultivar 'Kentucky-31' (KY31). The plants were grown in identical common garden experiments in Finland and Kentucky for two growing seasons. Plants were left as controls (C) or given water (W), nutrient (N) or water and nutrient (WN) treatments. For 8-10 replications of each plant origin and treatment combination in both experiments, we analyzed ergot alkaloids, lysergic acid, and lolines. In Finland, tall fescue plants produced 50 % more ergot alkaloids compared to plants of the same origin and treatments in Kentucky. Origin of the plants affected the ergot alkaloid concentration at both study sites: the wild origin plants produced 2-4 times more ergot alkaloids than KY31, but the ergot alkaloid concentration of KY31 plants was the same at both locations. Overall lysergic acid content was 60 % higher in plants grown in Kentucky than in those grown in Finland. Nutrient treatments (N, WN) significantly increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in plants from Finland but not in plants from Kentucky. These results suggest that the success of KY31 in US is not due to selection for high ergot alkaloid production but rather other traits associated with the endophyte. In addition, the environmental effects causing variation in alkaloid production of grass-endophyte combinations should be taken into account when using endophyte-infected grasses agriculturally.

  10. Assessment of the spatial variability in tall wheatgrass forage using LANDSAT 8 satellite imagery to delineate potential management zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicore, Pablo; Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sousa, Adelia; Costa, José Luis; da Silva, José Rafael Marques

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on the degree of within-field variability of potential production of Tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) forage under unirrigated conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of the accumulated biomass (AB) without nutritional limitations through vegetation indexes, and then use this information to determine potential management zones. A 27-×-27-m grid cell size was chosen and 84 biomass sampling areas (BSA), each 2 m(2) in size, were georeferenced. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied after an initial cut at 3 cm height. At 500 °C day, the AB from each sampling area, was collected and evaluated. The spatial variability of AB was estimated more accurately using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from LANDSAT 8 images obtained on 24 November 2014 (NDVInov) and 10 December 2014 (NDVIdec) because the potential AB was highly associated with NDVInov and NDVIdec (r (2)  = 0.85 and 0.83, respectively). These models between the potential AB data and NDVI were evaluated by root mean squared error (RMSE) and relative root mean squared error (RRMSE). This last coefficient was 12 and 15 % for NDVInov and NDVIdec, respectively. Potential AB and NDVI spatial correlation were quantified with semivariograms. The spatial dependence of AB was low. Six classes of NDVI were analyzed for comparison, and two management zones (MZ) were established with them. In order to evaluate if the NDVI method allows us to delimit MZ with different attainable yields, the AB estimated for these MZ were compared through an ANOVA test. The potential AB had significant differences among MZ. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that NDVI obtained from LANDSAT 8 images can be reliably used for creating MZ in soils under permanent pastures dominated by Tall wheatgrass.

  11. Transport and retention of TiO2 and polystyrene nanoparticles during drainage from tall heterogeneous layered columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggan, James L.; Sabatini, David A.; Kibbey, Tohren C. G.

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in nanotechnology have seen an increase in the use of manufactured nanomaterials. Although their unique physicochemical properties are desirable for many products and applications, concern continues to exist about their environmental fate and potential to cause risk to human and ecological health. The purpose of this work was to examine one aspect of nanomaterial environmental fate: transport and retention in the unsaturated zone during drainage. The work made use of tall segmented columns packed with layers of two different porous media, one medium sand and one fine sand. The use of tall columns allowed drainage experiments to be conducted where the water table remained within the height of the column, permitting control of final saturation profiles without the need for capillary barrier membranes which can potentially complicate analyses. Experiments were conducted with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polystyrene nanomaterials. For the strongly negatively-charged polystyrene nanomaterials, little retention was observed under the conditions studied. For the TiO2 nanomaterials, results of the work suggest that while saturated fine sand layers may retain more nanomaterials than saturated coarse sand layers, significantly greater retention is possible in unsaturated media. Furthermore, unsaturated medium sand layers exhibited significantly greater retention than adjacent saturated fine sand layers when present at low saturations high above the water table. Retention by unsaturated media were found to correlate strongly with elevation. Free drainage experiments including both primary and secondary drainages in homogeneous columns showed evidence of redistribution during imbibition and secondary drainage, but still showed substantial unsaturated retention of TiO2 nanoparticles high in the column, despite re-saturation with- and drainage of nanoparticle-free water.

  12. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V Messias

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5. S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts.

  13. Pathological changes seen in horses in New Zealand grazing Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) causing equine fescue oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J S; Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; Fletcher, L R

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2). Blood samples were taken up to 7 days after the start of feeding to detect changes in concentrations of total protein in serum and packed cell volume. Any horse showing clinical evidence of disease was subject to euthanasia and necropsy. Within 6 days, both horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 became depressed and lethargic. One horse grazing fescue infected with endophyte AR584 became depressed within a 5-day feeding period while another horse in this group died shortly after being removed from the AR584 pasture. The third horse in this group did not develop clinical signs within the 5-day feeding period. However, haemoconcentration and hypoproteinaemia was detected in all horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 endophyte. No abnormalities were observed in horses grazing fescue that was endophyte-free. Necropsy examination was performed on two horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 and one horse grazing fescue infected with AR584. All three horses had marked oedema of the gastrointestinal tract. Histologically, the oedema was accompanied by large numbers of eosinophils, but no necrosis. Horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 developed hypoproteinaemia and haemoconcentration, most likely due to leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract. This suggests that these selected endophytes produce a compound that is toxic to horses, although the toxic principle

  14. Aspects of Using CFD for Wind Comfort Modeling Around Tall Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Andersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The Light*House complex is investigated for uncomfortable wind climate and dangerous winds at pedestrian level. A CFD model is used for simulating the wind effect for 12 different directions and correlated to the wind statistics of a nearby meteorological station. Comparing to practical standards...... for safety and comfort, the results indicates that the building is safe for pedestrians. However, when designing surrounding builds, care shall be taken to avoid interaction between buildings....

  15. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. CO2 sinks and sources from the record obtained in the atmospheric Tall Tower station in LMU (La Muela, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcoll, R.; Morguí, J.-A.; Font, A.; Rodríguez, M.-A.; Rodó, X.

    2009-04-01

    Continuous in-situ atmospheric CO2 measurements at La Muela Tall Tower (LMU 41°36'N, 1°6'W, in the middle of the Ebre watershed) are carried out since May 2006 at three different altitudes (79, 57 and 41 m above ground level; ground level 570 m above sea level). Local and advected CO2 influence the diurnal CO2 atmospheric signal in LMU. A method for analyzing both the diurnal cycle release and capture of CO2 has been developed. The atmospheric CO2 series can be splitted into the daily source and the daily sink series. Four-days-backwards GFS-NOAA-NCEP/FLEXPART Lagrangian Dispersion Model simulations have been used to calculate back trajectories of air and the residence time on the Footprint Layer (0-300 magl) for air masses arriving at LMU at 0 and 12 a.m. each day. Four-days-back trajectories allow identifying the possible main influence areas for the air masses arriving at LMU. Therefore, coupling these two methods allows estimating sources, sinks, and trends at the different time scales for the different main upcoming wind trajectories arriving in La Muela. 2008 CO2 mixing ratios in LMU have been evaluated in relationship to well definited source areas and different synoptic conditions.

  17. Thin film PV standing tall side-by-side with multi-crystalline silicon: also in terms of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Ward, Allan; Wieting, Robert; Guha, Subhendu; Dhere, Ramesh G.

    2015-09-01

    Triple junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) have shown exceptionally good reliability and durability. Cadmium telluride, CdTe PV modules have shown the lowest production cost without subsidies. Copper-indium gallium selenide sulfide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells and modules have been showing efficiencies equal or greater than those of multi-crystalline, (mx-Si), PV modules. Early generation CIGS and CdTe PV modules had a different qualification standard 61646 as compared to 61215 for crystalline silicon, (c-Si), PV modules. This, together with small vulnerability in harsh climates, was used to create doubts about their reliability. Recently CdTe and CIGS glass-to-glass modules have passed the rigorous accelerated tests, especially as long as the edge seals are not compromised. Moreover, the cumulative shipment of these modules is more than 12 GW demonstrating the customer confidence in these products. Hence it can be stated that also in terms of the reliability and durability all the thin film PV modules stand tall and compare favorably with mx-Si.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a Phragmites australis phytochelatin synthase (PaPCS and achieving Cd tolerance in tall fescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhu Zhao

    Full Text Available The production of phytochelatins (PCs provides an important means for plants to achieve tolerance to cadmium (Cd toxicity. A reed gene encoding PC synthase (PaPCS was isolated and its function tested through its heterologous expression in a strain of yeast sensitive to Cd. Subsequently, the Cd sensitive and high biomass accumulating species tall fescue was transformed either with PaPCS or PaGCS (a glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene of reed on their own (single transformants, or with both genes together in the same transgene cassette (double transformant. The single and double transformants showed greater Cd tolerance and accumulated more Cd and PC than wild type plants, and their Cd leaf/root ratio content was higher. The ranking in terms of Cd and PC content for the various transgenic lines was double transformants>PaGCS single transformants>PaPCS single transformants>wild type. Thus PaGCS appears to exert a greater influence than PaPCS over PC synthesis and Cd tolerance/accumulation. The double transformant has interesting potential for phytoremediation.

  19. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Lara [Department of Biology, 572 Rivers Street, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States)]. E-mail: lsouza@utk.edu; Neufeld, Howard S. [Department of Biology, 572 Rivers Street, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States); Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, 108 M White-Smith Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Burkey, Kent O. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Science Research Unit and Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, 3908 Inwood Road, Raleigh, NC 26703 (United States); Davison, Alan W. [School of Biology, Ridley Building, University of Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts and individual tall milkweeds (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Plants were classified as either ozone-sensitive or insensitive based on the amount of foliar injury. Sensitive plants developed injury earlier in the season and to a greater extent than insensitive plants. Older leaf cohorts were more likely to belong to high injury classes by the end of each of the two growing seasons. In addition, leaf loss was more likely for older cohorts (2000) and lower leaf positions (2001) than younger cohorts and upper leaves, respectively. Most leaves abscised without prior ozone-like stippling or chlorosis. Failure to take this into account can result in underestimation of the effects of ozone on these plants. - Leaf loss was not necessarily accompanied by symptoms of foliar ozone injury.

  20. Structure of the Notch1-negative regulatory region: implications for normal activation and pathogenic signaling in T-ALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Wendy R.; Roy, Monideepa; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; Garfinkel, Megan; Mansour, Marc R.; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; (BWH); (Wellesley); (UCL)

    2009-09-02

    Proteolytic resistance of Notch prior to ligand binding depends on the structural integrity of a negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor that immediately precedes the transmembrane segment. The NRR includes the 3 Lin12/Notch repeats and the juxtamembrane heterodimerization domain, the region of Notch1 most frequently mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia lymphoma (T-ALL). Here, we report the x-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR in its autoinhibited conformation. A key feature of the Notch1 structure that maintains its closed conformation is a conserved hydrophobic plug that sterically occludes the metalloprotease cleavage site. Crystal packing interactions involving a highly conserved, exposed face on the third Lin12/Notch repeat suggest that this site may normally be engaged in intermolecular or intramolecular protein-protein interactions. The majority of known T-ALL-associated point mutations map to residues in the hydrophobic interior of the Notch1 NRR. A novel mutation (H1545P), which alters a residue at the crystal-packing interface, leads to ligand-independent increases in signaling in reporter gene assays despite only mild destabilization of the NRR, suggesting that it releases the autoinhibitory clamp on the heterodimerization domain imposed by the Lin12/Notch repeats. The Notch1 NRR structure should facilitate a search for antibodies or compounds that stabilize the autoinhibited conformation.

  1. Fire safety assessment of super tall buildings: A case study on Shanghai Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai Tower is an existing super high-rise building composed of mega frame-core-outrigger lateral resisting systems. Its structural safety in fire has been given great attention. This paper presents an independent review of the performance of Shanghai Tower in case of fire. Two fire scenarios: standard fires and parametric fires have been considered. The fire resistance of key component, including the concrete core, mega columns, the composite floor, outrigger trusses and belt trusses were examined first. Their real fire resistance periods proved to be far beyond the design fire resistance. The components with weak fire resistance such as peripheral steel columns and web members of belt trusses were then removed to study the resistance of the residual structure against progressive collapse. The results show that Shanghai Tower has a minimum of 3 h fire resistance against fire-induced progressive collapse. The concrete components have smaller residual displacements compared to the steel components. It is recommended, for the design of other similar structures, that effective fire protection should be provided for the outrigger trusses to guarantee the connection between the core and mega columns.

  2. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of ozone injury on foliage of black cherry (Prunus serotina) and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A; Renfro, J; Somers, G; Nash, B

    1997-01-01

    The incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on black cherry (Prunus serotina) seedlings and saplings and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) plants in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by surveys along selected trails conducted during late summer 1992. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury on black cherry was 47% and the percent injured leaves/injured plant and average leaf area injured were 43 and 6%, respectively. Maximum severity (avg. leaf area of the most severely injured leaf) was 12%. Black cherry seedlings and saplings exhibiting ozone injury were taller than non-injured plants. When insect feeding was present, it occurred 96% of the time on plants with ozone injury. Significantly more injury (p=0.007) on black cherry (% injured leaves/injured black cherry) occurred in the NW section of GRSM compared with the other Park sections. Regression analyses showed no relationships in ozone injury with respect to aspect, slope or elevation. Tall milkweed was evaluated twice during August for ozone injury. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury was 74 and 79% for the first and second survey, respectively. The percentage of injured leaves per plant from the first to second survey was 63 to 79%, respectively. Tall milkweeds showing ozone injury were taller than the non-injured plants. The percentage of insect-damaged plants was 50% among plants without ozone injury and 60% among ozone-injured plants. Non-injured tall milkweed had fewer flowers and/or pods than the injured plants. Mean leaf area injured increased over time, and mean maximum leaf area injured increased from 8 to 11% during the same period. Regression analyses showed no differences in ozone injury regarding aspect, slope or elevation. Our findings indicate that ozone injury is widespread throughout the Park on sensitive vegetation.

  4. Influence of BIM Technology on Fire Command Rescue For Tall Buildings%BIM技术对高层建筑消防指挥救援的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 皇甫冬梅; 贾真

    2015-01-01

    Based on the worldwide problem about the tall buildings fire, with the application of BIM technology research in the field of fire protection and the fire command system of GIS, and through the comparison between BIM technology and fire GIS data, advantages of the combining of BIM technology and fire GIS platform used in tall buildings fire control are analyzed. Moreover, based on the GIS fire control flow chart, the flow chart of BIM technology applied in the construction of fire command is put forward. Finally, the three aspects of influence on the tall buildings fire command and rescue with the development of BIM technology applied to tall buildings were further discussed.%结合高层建筑火灾这样一个世界性难题和BIM技术在消防领域的研究方向以及消防GIS指挥系统的应用,通过对BIM技术和消防GIS技术的数据信息进行比较,分析BIM技术与消防GIS技术平台结合应用与高层建筑消防所具有的数据信息优势。并且基于地理信息系统消防流程图,提出BIM技术应用于建筑消防指挥的流程图。最后,进一步探讨了BIM技术的发展应用给高层建筑消防指挥救援带来的3方面影响。

  5. 高层建筑砼结构的裂缝问题%Problem of Concrete Structural Crack in Tall Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the structural non-load effect,The causes of common concrete structural crack in tall buildings are analysed. The control method of crack development is discussed.%从结构的非荷载效应着眼,通过对目前高层建筑砼结构中常见的裂逢成因分析,提出控制裂缝扩展的相应对策.

  6. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Damage from Heat Stress in the Photosystem II of Tall Fescue in Both the Photochemical and Thermal Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available L-Ascorbate (Asc plays important roles in plant development, hormone signaling, the cell cycle and cellular redox system, etc. The higher content of Asc in plant chloroplasts indicates its important role in the photosystem. The objective of this study was to study the roles of Asc in tall fescue leaves against heat stress. After a heat stress treatment, we observed a lower value of the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (φPo, which reflects the inhibited activity of the photochemical phase of photosystem II (PSII. Moreover, we observed a higher value of efficiency of electron transfer from QB to photosystem I acceptors (δR0, which reflects elevated activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem of the tall fescue. The addition of Asc facilitate the behavior of the photochemical phase of the PSII by lowering the ROS content as well as that of the alternative electron donor to provide electron to the tyrosine residue of the D1 protein. Additionally, exogenous Asc reduces the activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem, which could contribute to the limitation of energy input into the photosystem in tall fescue against heat stress. Synthesis of the Asc increased under heat stress treatment. However, under heat stress this regulation does not occur at the transcription level and requires further study.

  7. Interaction of SiO2 Nanoparticles with Seed Prechilling on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron Elongatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi Reyhane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of six SiO2 nanosized concentrations (0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L-1 and three seed prechilling treatments (control, seed prechilling before nano SiO2 treatments, treatments of seed with nano SiO2 before prechilling on germination and seedling growth of tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum L. were studied. Results indicated that application of SiO2 nanoparticles significantly increased seed germination of tall wheatgrass from 58 percent in control group to 86.3 and 85.7 percent in 40 and 60 mg L-1, respectively. Applying SiO2 nanoparticles increased dry weight of shoot, root and seedling of tall wheatgrass. Increasing concentration of nanoparticle from 0 up to 40 mg L-1 increased seedling weight around 49 percent compared to the control, nevertheless decreased under 60 and 80 mg L-1 treatments. In conclusion, seed prechilling in combination with SiO2 nanoparticles largely broke the seed dormancy for A. elongatum.

  8. New perspectives on emergency management on tall buildings in Italy%意大利高层建筑应急处理的新观点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    克里斯汀诺·费末尼; 格化尼·嗄里纳

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute in the development of safety in tall buildings to be used as offices.It illustrates with reference to a real case in Italy, the construction and structural characteristics of the building and the procedures adopted for managing emergencies. In particular, it outlines the Italian normative aspects concerning tall buildings in the framework of their application, especially of those to be used as offices.The Pirelli skyscraper accident has brought about a deep reflection and the need for a reconsideration of the whole safety, prevention and protection system with particular reference to terrorist attacks or hardly predictable with the traditional procedures adopted for the protection and defence of buildings' occupants. Investments are foreseen in the near future to finance researches and studies about the possible scenarios related to safety in tall buildings.%为了促进高层办公建筑安全的发展,介绍了建筑物的结构和结构特点及应急处理所采取的措施.Pirellil摩天大楼事故提醒我们,需要考虑大厦的整体安全,尤其是应对恐怖分子袭击的防御系统.

  9. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E. C.; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O.; Santos, Pedro Henrique A. D.; Ramos, Helaine Christine C.; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R. Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall—Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall—Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  10. Experimental study on small group behavior and crowd dynamics in a tall office building evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaping; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that a large percentage of occupants in a building are evacuated together with their friends, families, and officemates, especially in China. Small group behaviors are therefore critical for crowd movement. This paper aims to study the crowd dynamic considering different social relations and the impacts of small groups on crowd dynamics in emergency evacuation. Three experiments are conducted in an 11-storey office building. In the first two experiments, all participants are classmates and know each other well. They are evacuated as individuals or pairs. In the third experiment, social relations among the participants are complex. Participants consist of 8 families, 6 lovers and several individuals. Space-time features, speed characteristics and density-speed relations for each experiment are analyzed and compared. Results conclude that small group behaviors can make positive impacts on crowd dynamics when evacuees know each other and are cooperative. This conclusion is also testified by four verified experiments. In the third experiment, speeds of evacuees are lowest. Small groups form automatically with the presence of intimate social relations. Small groups in this experiment slow down the average speed of the crowd and make disturbance on the crowd flow. Small groups in this case make negative impacts on the movement of the crowd. It is because that evacuees do not know each other and they are competitive to each other. Characteristics of different types of small groups are also investigated. Experimental data can provide foundational parameters for evacuation model development and are helpful for building designers.

  11. 高层建筑抗震结构设计研究%Design Research on High-rise Building Aseismic Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡成文

    2014-01-01

    The aseismic design of tall buildings before the construction of high-rise building has become a necesarry work.And the aseismic design of tall buildings is also becoming complicated,in this paper it is analyzed briefly.%高楼的抗震设计已经成了建设高楼之前必须进行的一项工作。而高楼的抗震结构设计也变得复杂多样,该文针对高层建筑的抗震结构设计进行了简要分析。

  12. FBN1 gene mutation defines the profibrillin to fibrillin processing site and segregates with tall stature in a family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossfield, J.; Cao, S.; Milewicz, D. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Dermal fibroblasts from a 13-year-old boy with skeletal features of the Marfan syndrome were used to study fibrillin synthesis and processing. Synthesis and secretion of profibrillin was normal but only half of the secreted profibrillin was converted to fibrillin, an extracellular proteolytic processing that removes a 20 kDa fragment from the protein. All the secreted profibrillin was processed to fibrillin in control cells. Only the processed form of fibrillin was deposited into the extracellular matrix in both the proband`s and the control cells. Electron microscopic examination of rotary shadowed microfibrils made by the proband`s fibroblasts were indistinguishable from control cells. Screening exons in the 3{prime} end of the FBN1 gene revealed a heterozygous C to T transition at nucleotide 5482 of the FBN1 cDNA changing R 1828 to W. This mutation disrupts a known consensus sequence recognized by a cellular protease and is located in the carboxy terminus at a site predicted to remove a 19 kD fragment. The proband and his 22-year-old brother, also heterozygous for the mutation, have had normal echocardiograms and ophthalmologic exams. The mutation segregated in the proband`s three generation family with autosomal dominant inheritance of height (> 90th percentile) and no known cardiovascular or ocular problems, including the 67-year-old grandmother (exams pending). The mutation was not found in 90 chromosomes from unrelated individuals. In summary, (1) the mutation identifies the cleavage site for the conversion of profibrillin to fibrillin; (2) the characterized mutation segregates in the family with tall stature without known cardiovascular or ocular problems; (3) this mutation potentially defines the phenotype associated with a {open_quotes}null{close_quotes} allele for the FBN1 gene.

  13. Tall or short? Slender or thick? A plant strategy for regulating elongation growth of roots by low concentrations of gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Eiichi

    2012-07-01

    Since the plant hormone gibberellin (GA) was discovered as a fungal toxin that caused abnormal elongation of rice shoots, the physiological function of GA has mainly been investigated in relation to the regulation of plant height. However, an indispensable role for GA in root growth has been elucidated by using severely GA-depleted plants, either with a gene mutation in GA biosynthesis or which have been treated by an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. The molecular sequence of GA signalling has also been studied to understand GA functions in root growth. This review addresses research progress on the physiological functions of GA in root growth. Concentration-dependent stimulation of elongation growth by GA is important for the regulation of plant height and root length. Thus the endogenous level of GA and/or the GA sensitivity of shoots and roots plays a role in determining the shoot-to-root ratio of the plant body. Since the shoot-to-root ratio is an important parameter for agricultural production, control of GA production and GA sensitivity may provide a strategy for improving agricultural productivity. The sequence of GA signal transduction has recently been unveiled, and some component molecules are suggested as candidate in planta regulatory sites and as points for the artificial manipulation of GA-mediated growth control. This paper reviews: (1) the breakthrough dose-response experiments that show that root growth is regulated by GA in a lower concentration range than is required for shoot growth; (2) research on the regulation of GA biosynthesis pathways that are known predominantly to control shoot growth; and (3) recent research on GA signalling pathways, including GA receptors, which have been suggested to participate in GA-mediated growth regulation. This provides useful information to suggest a possible strategy for the selective control of shoot and root growth, and to explain how GA plays a role in rosette and liana plants with tall or short, and slender

  14. Aerosol particle number size distributions and particulate light absorption at the ZOTTO tall tower (Siberia, 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Heintzenberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses aerosol particle number size distributions, particulate absorption at 570 nm wavelength and carbon monoxide (CO measured between September 2006 and January 2010 at heights of 50 and 300 m at the Zotino Tall Tower Facility (ZOTTO in Siberia (60.8° N; 89.35° E. Average number, surface and volume concentrations are broadly comparable to former studies covering shorter observation periods. Fits of multiple lognormal distributions yielded three maxima in probability distribution of geometric mean diameters in the Aitken and accumulation size range and a possible secondary maximum in the nucleation size range below 25 nm. The seasonal cycle of particulate absorption shows maximum concentrations in high winter (December and minimum concentrations in mid-summer (July. The 90th percentile, however, indicates a secondary maximum in July/August that is likely related to forest fires. The strongly combustion derived CO shows a single winter maximum and a late summer minimum, albeit with a considerably smaller seasonal swing than the particle data due to its longer atmospheric lifetime. Total volume and even more so total number show a more complex seasonal variation with maxima in winter, spring, and summer. A cluster analysis of back trajectories and vertical profiles of the pseudo-potential temperature yielded ten clusters with three levels of particle number concentration: Low concentrations in Arctic air masses (400–500 cm−3, mid-level concentrations for zonally advected air masses from westerly directions between 55° and 65° N (600–800 cm−3, and high concentrations for air masses advected from the belt of industrial and population centers in Siberia and Kazakhstan (1200 cm−3. The observational data is representative for large parts of the troposphere over Siberia and might be particularly useful for the validation of global aerosol transport models.

  15. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; Reproductive tract scores, pelvic area, and AI pregnancy rates were not different between treatments ( > 0.05). Overall, feeding a protein supplement or providing extra forage increased gain and interacted to increase BCS but did not have an effect on reproductive performance. Supplementing with protein and providing extra forage are strategies that can increase gain in heifers, which could aid heifers in reaching puberty before estrous synchronization.

  16. Comparative measurements of water vapor fluxes over a tall forest using open- and closed-path eddy covariance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eddy covariance using infrared gas analyses has been a useful tool for gas exchange measurements between soil, vegetation and atmosphere. So far, comparisons between the open- and closed-path eddy covariance (CP system have been extensively made on CO2 flux estimations, while lacking in the comparison of water vapor flux estimations. In this study, the specific performance of water vapor flux measurements of an open-path eddy covariance (OP system was compared against a CP system over a tall temperate forest in Northeast China. The results show that the fluxes from the OP system (LEop were generally greater than the (LEcp though the two systems shared one sonic anemometer. The tube delay of closed-path analyser depended on relative humidity, and the fixed median time lag contributed to a significant underestimation of (LEcp between the forest and atmosphere, while slight systematic overestimation was also found for covariance maximization method with single broad time lag search window. After the optimized time lag compensation was made, the average difference between the 30 min (LEop and (LEcp was generally within 6%. Integrated over the annual cycle, the CP system yielded a 5.1% underestimation of forest evapotranspiration as compared to the OP system measurements (493 vs. 469 mm yr−1. This study indicates the importance to estimate the sampling tube delay accurately for water vapor flux calculations with closed-path analysers, and it also suggests that when discuss the energy balance closure problem in flux sites with closed-path eddy covariance systems, it has to be aware that some of the imbalance is possibly caused by the systematic underestimation of water vapor fluxes.

  17. Abnormal B-cell activation associated with TALL-1 over-expression and SOCS-1 suppression during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Jonathan; Dong, Zhi P; Ni, Lei; Zhang, Chunlan; Borthwick, Thomas; Yao, Zhi Q

    2009-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with cirrhosis, autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative disorders. We have previously reported a differential regulation of T and B lymphocytes by HCV core protein in vitro. In this report, we employed a translational approach to characterize the activation status of peripheral B cells from individuals with chronic HCV infection and to explore potential mechanisms for B-cell dysregulation in the setting of HCV infection. In contrast to the T-cell suppression observed in HCV-infected individuals, B cells exhibit a non-specific polyclonal activation phenotype, characterized by significantly higher levels of (1) the early activation marker, CD69, (2) the costimulatory molecule, CD86, and (3) the CCR5 chemokine receptor, CD195, when compared with B cells from healthy donors in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation. Importantly, tumour necrosis factor- and Apo-L-related leucocyte-expressed ligand-1 (TALL-1), also known as B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLYS), was found to be up-regulated on the surface of B cells from HCV patients in response to PHA as well as HCV core antigen stimulation. This up-regulation of TALL-1 was associated with vigorous memory B-cell responses to viral antigenic stimulation. Additionally, suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative feedback immunoregulator that is inhibited in B lymphocytes by HCV core in vitro, was also inhibited in B cells from HCV patients when compared with healthy donors. These findings suggest that TALL-1 over-expression and SOCS-1 suppression are associated with aberrant B-cell activation, providing a plausible basis for the B-cell clonal expansion underlying the lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune phenomena observed during chronic HCV infection.

  18. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face.

  19. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Aiken, G E; Johnson, J M; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacologic profiling of serotonin (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline, 5HT, 5HT2A, and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT receptor activity of tall fescue alkaloids is affected by grazing endophyte-free (EF), wild-type [Kentucky-31 (KY31)], novel endophyte AR542-infected (MAXQ), or novel endophyte AR584-infected (AR584) tall fescue, contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing these different fescue-endophyte combinations were evaluated in presence or absence of antagonists for 5HT2A (ketanserin) or 5HT7 (SB-269970) receptors. Biopsies were conducted over 2 yr on 35 mixed-breed steers (361.5 ± 6.3 kg) grazing EF (n = 12), KY31 (n = 12), MAXQ (n = 6), or AR584 (n = 5) pasture treatments (3 ha) between 84 and 98 d (Yr 1) or 108 to 124 d (Yr 2). Segments (2 to 3 cm) of vein were surgically biopsied, sliced into 2- to 3-mm cross-sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O2/5% CO2; pH = 7.4; 37°C). Veins were exposed to increasing concentrations of 5HT, ergovaline, and ergovaline + 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin or + 1 × 10(-6) M SB-269970 in Yr 1. In Yr 2, ergotamine and ergocornine were evaluated in presence or absence of 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin. Contractile response data were normalized to a reference addition of 1 × 10(-4) M norepinephrine. In Yr 1, contractile response to 5HT and ergovaline were least (P endophyte-fescue combinations.

  20. Stress memory induced rearrangements of HSP transcription, photosystem II photochemistry and metabolism of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. in response to high-temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eHu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When plants are pre-exposed to stress, they can produce some stable signals and physiological reactions that may be carried forward as ‘stress memory’. However, there is insufficient information about is known about plants’ stress memory responses mechanisms. Here, two tall fescue genotypes, heat-tolerant PI 574522 and heat-sensitive PI 512315, were subjected to recurring high-temperature pre-acclimation treatment. Two heat shock protein (HSP genes, LMW-HSP and HMW-HSP, exhibited transcriptional memory for their higher transcript abundance during one or more subsequent stresses (S2, S3, S4 relative to the first stress (S1, and basal transcript levels during the recovery states (R1, R2 and R3. Activated transcriptional memory from two trainable genes could persist up to 4 days, and induce higher thermotolerance in tall fescue. This was confirmed by greater turf quality and lower electrolyte leakage. Pre-acclimation treatment inhibited the decline at steps of O-J-I-P and energy transport fluxes in active Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC for both tall fescue genotypes. The heat stress memory was associated with major shifts in leaf metabolite profiles. Furthermore, there was an exclusive increase in leaf organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, tris phosphoric acid, threonic acid, sugars (sucrose, glucose, idose, allose, talose, glucoheptose, tagatose, psicose, amino acids (serine, proline, pyroglutamic acid, glycine, alanine and one fatty acid (butanoic acid in pre-acclimated plants. These discoveries involved in transcriptional memory, PSII RC energy transport and metabolite profiles could provide new insights into the plant high–temperature response process.

  1. The Tall Wind project - exploring the wind profile and boundary-layer height in the atmosphere's first kilometer over flat terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryning, S. E.; Batchvarova, E.; Pena, A.; Mikkelsen, T.; Brümmer, B.; Emeis, S.; Gulstad, L.; Lee, N.

    2010-09-01

    Predicting the wind at typical heights of present and future wind turbines is a considerable scientific challenge. Presently applied models are accurate within the surface layer. New measurements and instrument synergies are necessary as basis for developing new wind models and understanding the physical processes that form the wind profile in order to describe the wind profile above it. Analysis of the wind and turbulence profiles from a meteorological mast at heights up to 160 meters and wind lidars up to 300 meters at the National test station at Høvsøre, Denmark, shows deviations of the wind profile above 80 meters the from the profile used so far near the surface. It also reveals the importance of the boundary-layer height as a physical parameter for the description of the wind profile. In the Tall Wind project, mast and lidar measurements of wind and fluxes will be combined with monitoring of the boundary-layer height by use of an aerosol lidar. At the main project monitoring sites (Høvsøre in Denmark and Hamburg in Germany) long term monitoring programmes on tall masts (160 and 300 meters) already exists and will be intensified. As part of the project the wind profile will be measured up to 1000 meters by a wind lidar (windcube) and the boundary-layer height by an aerosol lidar. The new data sets can be used for theoretical developments and evaluation of meso-scale meteorological models. The project is an international collaboration between academia (Risoe-DTU, HU and KIT) and industry (Vestas and DONG), funded by the Danish Research Agency, the Strategic Research Council (Sagsnr. 2104-08-0025). In the paper the set-up of the Tall Wind project will be described and some first results and experience will be presented.

  2. Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits of a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schuldt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In a throughfall displacement experiment on Sulawesi, Indonesia, three 0.16 ha stands of a premontane perhumid rainforest were exposed to a two-year soil desiccation period that reduced the soil moisture in the upper soil layers beyond the conventional wilting point. About 25 variables, including leaf morphological and chemical traits, stem diameter growth and hydraulic properties of the xylem in the trunk and terminal twigs, were investigated in trees of the tall-growing tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae by comparing desiccated roof plots with nearby control plots. We tested the hypotheses that this tall and productive species is particularly sensitive to drought, and the exposed upper sun canopy is more affected than the shade canopy. Hydraulic conductivity in the xylem of terminal twigs normalised to vessel lumen area was reduced by 25%, leaf area-specific conductivity by 10–33% during the desiccation treatment. Surprisingly, the leaves present at the end of the drought treatment were significantly larger, but not smaller in the roof plots, though reduced in number (about 30% less leaves per unit of twig sapwood area, which points to a drought effect on the leaf bud formation while the remaining leaves may have profited from a surplus of water. Mean vessel diameter and axial conductivity in the outermost xylem of the trunk were significantly reduced and wood density increased, while annual stem diameter increment decreased by 26%. In contradiction to our hypotheses, (i we found no signs of major damage to the C. acuminatissima trees nor to any other drought sensitivity of tall trees, and (ii the exposed upper canopy was not more drought susceptible than the shade canopy.

  3. A Tall Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Rccent news has made the Chinese public concerned that the country's ambition to build universities that compete with the freest in the world could take longer to materialize than expected.On May 4,1998,at the 100th founding anniversary of Peking University,then Chinese President Jiang Zemin announced "China will build several world-class universities to meet the demands of the country's modemization drive."

  4. H2 vertical profiles in the continental boundary layer: measurements at the Cabauw tall tower in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zahorowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In-situ, quasi-continuous measurements of atmospheric hydrogen (H2 have been performed since October 2007 at the Cabauw tall tower station in the Netherlands. Mole fractions of H2, CO and several greenhouse gases are determined simultaneously in air sampled successively at four heights, between 20 and 200 m above ground level. 222Rn measurements are performed in air sampled at 20 and 200 m. This H2 dataset represents the first in-situ, quasi-continuous long-term measurement series of vertical profiles of H2 in the lower continental boundary layer. Seasonal cycles are present at all heights in both H2 and CO, and their amplitude varies with the sampling height. The seasonality is evident in both the "baseline" values and in the short term (diurnal to synoptic time scales variability, the latter being significantly larger during winter. The observed H2 short term signals and vertical gradients are in many cases well correlated to other species, especially to CO. On the other hand, H2 has at times a unique behaviour, due to its particular distribution of sources and sinks. Our estimation for the regional H2 soil uptake flux, using the radon tracer method, is (−1.89 ± 0.26 × 10−5 g/(m2 h, significantly smaller than other recent results from Europe. H2/CO ratios of the traffic emissions computed from our data, with an average of 0.54 ± 0.07 mol:mol, are larger and more variable than estimated in some of the previous studies in Europe. This difference can be explained by a different driving regime, due to the frequent traffic jams in the influence area of Cabauw. The H2/CO ratios of the large scale pollution events have an average of 0.36 ± 0.05 mol:mol; these ratios were observed to slightly increase with sampling height, possibly due to a stronger influence of soil uptake at the lower sampling heights.

  5. Observations of molecular hydrogen mixing ratio and stable isotopic composition at the Cabauw tall tower in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Popa, M. E.; Vermeulen, A. T.; van den Bulk, W. C. M.; Jongejan, P. A. C.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E. G.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopic composition (δD(H2) or δD) of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2) are a useful addition to mixing ratio (χ(H2)) measurements for understanding the atmospheric H2 cycle. δD datasets published so far consist mostly of observations at background locations. We complement these with observations from the Cabauw tall tower at the CESAR site, situated in a densely populated region of the Netherlands. Our measurements show a large anthropogenic influence on the local H2 cycle, with frequently occurring pollution events that are characterized by χ(H2) values that reach up to ≈1 ppm and low δD values. An isotopic source signature analysis yields an apparent source signature below -400‰, which is much more D-depleted than the fossil fuel combustion source signature commonly used in H2 budget studies. Two diurnal cycles that were sampled at a suburban site near London also show a more D-depleted source signature (≈-340‰), though not as extremely depleted as at Cabauw. The source signature of the Northwest European vehicle fleet may have shifted to somewhat lower values due to changes in vehicle technology and driving conditions. Even so, the surprisingly depleted apparent source signature at Cabauw requires additional explanation; microbial H2 production seems the most likely cause. The Cabauw tower site also allowed us to sample vertical profiles. We found no decrease in χ(H2) at lower sampling levels (20 and 60 m) with respect to higher sampling levels (120 and 200 m). There was a significant shift to lower median δD values at the lower levels. This confirms the limited role of soil uptake around Cabauw, and again points to microbial H2 production during an extended growing season, as well as to possible differences in average fossil fuel combustion source signature between the different footprint areas of the sampling levels. So, although knowledge of the background cycle of H2 has improved over the last decade, surprising

  6. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Penner, G B; Walpole, M E; Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Harmon, D L

    2014-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (G t ). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and G t (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that

  7. A mouse model for inducible overexpression of Prdm14 results in rapid-onset and highly penetrant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi L. Carofino

    2013-11-01

    PRDM14 functions in embryonic stem cell (ESC maintenance to promote the expression of pluripotency-associated genes while suppressing differentiation genes. Expression of PRDM14 is tightly regulated and typically limited to ESCs and primordial germ cells; however, aberrant expression is associated with tumor initiation in a wide variety of human cancers, including breast cancer and leukemia. Here, we describe the generation of a Cre-recombinase-inducible mouse model for the spatial and temporal control of Prdm14 misexpression [ROSA26 floxed-stop Prdm14 (R26PR]. When R26PR is mated to either of two Cre lines, Mx1-cre or MMTV-cre, mice develop early-onset T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL with median overall survival of 41 and 64 days for R26PR;Mx1-cre and R26PR;MMTV-cre, respectively. T-ALL is characterized by the accumulation of immature single-positive CD8 cells and their widespread infiltration. Leukemia is preceded by a dramatic expansion of cells resembling hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid-committed progenitors prior to disease onset, accompanied by a blockage in B-cell differentiation at the early pro-B stage. Rapid-onset PRDM14-induced T-ALL requires factors that are present in stem and progenitor cells: R26PR;dLck-cre animals, which express Prdm14 starting at the double-positive stage of thymocyte development, do not develop disease. PRDM14-induced leukemic cells contain high levels of activated NOTCH1 and downstream NOTCH1 targets, including MYC and HES1, and are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of NOTCH1 with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Greater than 50% of human T-ALLs harbor activating mutations in NOTCH1; thus, our model carries clinically relevant molecular aberrations. The penetrance, short latency and involvement of the NOTCH1 pathway will make this hematopoietic R26PR mouse model ideal for future studies on disease initiation, relapse and novel therapeutic drug combinations. Furthermore, breeding R26PR to additional Cre

  8. Avaliação de bananeiras tipo prata, de porte alto, no semiárido Evaluation of banana prata, tall type, in the semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbenes Fernandes de Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho avaliar, agronomicamente, em dois ciclos de produção, sete genótipos (tratamentos de bananeira tipo Prata, de porte alto, no semiárido. A variedade Pacovan (AAB, seus híbridos 'PacovanKen', PV42-53, 'Preciosa', 'Japira' e PV79-34 (AAAB e o híbrido 'Garantida' (AAAB, derivado da 'Prata São Tomé' foram avaliados. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com 10 repetições e espaçamento de plantio de 3,0 x 2,5 metros. Consideraram-se, na época do florescimento e da colheita, descritores fenotípicos vegetativos: de ciclo, de rendimento e de avaliação da severidade da Sigatoka-amarela. Submeteram-se os dados à análise de variância e agruparam-se as médias pelo Critério de Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Os valores das características aumentaram entre os ciclos de produção. Há variabilidade nas características entre os genótipos pertencentes ao mesmo grupo genômico e subgrupo, inclusive entre híbridos originados da mesma genitora. Os híbridos são mais vigorosos que a variedade Pacovan. A cultivar Garantida é a menos produtiva. A 'Pacovan' é a mais suscetível (nota seis, o híbrido PV79-34 apresenta suscetibilidade intermediária (nota três e os demais híbridos são resistentes à Sigatoka-amarela (nota um. O híbrido PV79-34 apresenta características favoráveis ao seu cultivo comercial, evidenciadas pelo menor porte, maior vigor, menor ciclo e maior número de pencas e de frutos.This work aimed to evaluate, agronomically, in two production cycles, seven genotypes (treatments of banana Prata, tall type, in the semi-arid. Pacovan (AAB variety and hybrids 'Pacovan-Ken', PV42-53, 'Preciosa', 'Japira' and PV79-34 (AAAB and the 'Garantida' (AAAB, from the 'Prata São Tomé' hybrid were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with 10 replicates in the planting spacing 3.0 x 2.5 meters. At the time of flowering and harvesting, vegetative

  9. Responses of two tall buildings in Tokyo, Japan, before, during, and after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hisada, Yoshiuaki; Omrani, Roshanak; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated significant long duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of tall buildings at several hundred km from the epicenter of the main shock and other events show tall buildings were affected by long-period motions of events at distant sources. This study presents behavioral aspects of 29-story and 30-story neighboring buildings in the Shinjuku area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from records retrieved from a sparse array of accelerometers deployed in the superstructures, at ground and 100 m below the ground level over a time interval covering before, during, and after the main shock. Such long-period effects are common in several regions of Japan as well as in the United States and in other seismically active countries. Permanent shifts in fundamental frequencies are observed. Drift ratios indicate possible structural nonlinear behavior occurred during the main shock. The need to consider risks to built environments from distant sources, including those in neighboring countries, is emphasized.

  10. Improvement of open and semi-open core wall system in tall buildings by closing of the core section in the last story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyroddin, A.; Abdollahzadeh, D.; Mastali, M.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing number of tall buildings in urban population caused development of tall building structures. One of the main lateral load resistant systems is core wall system in high-rise buildings. Core wall system has two important behavioral aspects where the first aspect is related to reduce the lateral displacement by the core bending resistance and the second is governed by increasing of the torsional resistance and core warping of buildings. In this study, the effects of closed section core in the last story have been considered on the behavior of models. Regarding this, all analyses were performed by ETABS 9.2.v software (Wilson and Habibullah). Considering (a) drift and rotation of the core over height of buildings, (b) total and warping stress in the core body, (c) shear in beams due to warping stress, (d) effect of closing last story on period of models in various modes, (e) relative displacement between walls in the core system and (f) site effects in far and near field of fault by UBC97 spectra on base shear coefficient showed that the bimoment in open core is negative in the last quarter of building and it is similar to wall-frame structures. Furthermore, analytical results revealed that closed section core in the last story improves behavior of the last quarter of structure height, since closing of core section in the last story does not have significant effect on reducing base shear value in near and far field of active faults.

  11. Effects of environmental heat and intake of tall fescue seed infested with Acremonium coenophialum on the acid-base status of young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L L; Vogt, D W; Lipsey, R J; Garner, G B; Cornell, C N

    1996-04-01

    Effects of high environmental temperature and dietary intake of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) seed containing the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on bovine acid-base status were studied using 3 groups of bull calves (2 Simmental, 1 Angus). Experimental animals were housed in controlled-climate chambers and subjected to gradual increases in environmental temperature, first while being fed an endophyte-free diet and then while being fed a diet containing 17% endophyte-infested fescue seed. Marked acid-base disturbances were not observed in any animals. In general, Pco2, HCO3-, base excess, and arterial blood pH values were reduced in response to heat stress, both with endophyte-free and endophyte-containing diets. In most individuals anion gap increased. These results reflected metabolic compensation for mild chronic alveolar hyperventilation and retention of organic acids. These findings suggest that, under conditions similar to those found during the summer in central Missouri, normal cattle should not be at great risk of developing respiratory alkalosis or other severe acid-base disturbances as a result of heat stress and/or intake of tall fescue endophyte.

  12. Effect of root death and decay on dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of yellow sweet clover and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Zakia D; Banks, M Katherine; Schwab, A Paul

    2005-01-01

    A 12-mo greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of root death and decay on the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rhizosphere soil. The contaminated soil was previously treated by land-farming, but residual PAHs remained after treatment. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.) were the target plants. To specifically evaluate the effect of root decay on contaminant dissipation, plants were treated with glyphosate, a broad spectrum herbicide, to induce root decay. Although tall fescue treatments had the highest root and shoot biomass and root surface area, this plant did not result in the highest contaminant degradation rates. Significant differences were noted between treatments for seven PAHs, with the active yellow sweet clover resulting in 60 to 75% degradation of these compounds. Induced root death and decay did not produce a significant enhancement of PAH degradation. The PAH microbial degrader populations in the vegetated treatments were more than 100 times greater than those in the unvegetated control. The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) structural group profile shifted over the growing period, indicating a change in the community structure. In conclusion, phytoremediation was shown to be an effective polishing tool for PAH-affected soil previously subjected to biological treatment.

  13. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (Pcarcass weights (Pcarcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  14. Novel use of an exchange catheter to facilitate intubation with an Aintree catheter in a tall patient with a predicted difficult airway: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruenbaum Shaun E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Aintree intubating catheter (Cook® Medical Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA has been shown to successfully facilitate difficult intubations when other methods have failed. The Aintree intubating catheter (Cook® Medical Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA has a fixed length of 56 cm, and it has been suggested in the literature that it may be too short for safe use in patients who are tall. Case presentation We present the case of a 32-year-old, 180 cm tall Caucasian woman with a predicted difficult airway who presented to our facility for an emergency cesarean section. After several failed intubation attempts via direct laryngoscopy, an airway was established with a laryngeal mask airway. After delivery of a healthy baby, our patient's condition necessitated tracheal intubation. A fiber-optic bronchoscope loaded with an Aintree intubating catheter (Cook® Medical Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA was passed through the laryngeal mask airway into the trachea until just above the carina, but was too short to safely allow for the passage of an endotracheal tube. Conclusions We present a novel technique in which the Aintree intubating catheter (Cook® Medical Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA was replaced with a longer (100 cm exchange catheter, over which an endotracheal tube was passed successfully into the trachea.

  15. Responses of a tall building with U.S. code-type instrumentation in Tokyo, Japan, to events before, during and after the Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Kashima, Toshihide; Ghahari, S. Farid; Abazarsa, Fariba; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated long-duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected tall buildings in urban areas several hundred kilometers from the epicenter of the main shock. Recorded responses show that tall buildings were affected by long-period motions. This study presents the behavior and performance of a 37-story building in the Tsukuda area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from modal analyses of records retrieved for a time interval covering a few days before, during, and for several months after the main shock. The U.S. “code-type” array comprises three triaxial accelerometers deployed at three levels in the superstructure. Such a sparse array in a tall structure limits a reliable assessment, because its performance must be based on only the average drift ratios. Based on the inferred values of this parameter, the subject building was not structurally damaged.

  16. Effect of enhanced nitrogen input on release of nutrients and nutrient availability in stands of tall fern Athyrium distentifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tå¯Ma, Ivan; Holuib, Petr; Záhora, Jaroslav; Fiala, Karel

    2010-05-01

    Improved light conditions, after destruction of tree canopy, soil acidification and increased nitrogen availability, support intensive spreading of acidophilous perennial grasses and stands of tall fern (Athyrium distentifolium) on deforested sites in the Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mts. (the Czech Republic). The aim of the study was to determine how higher inputs of nitrogen affect the release of nutrients during decomposition processes of fern litter. The experimental site was chosen on a southwest-facing slope of the Kněhyně Mt. (49o31´ N, 18o 32´E, 1170 m a.s.l.) in the Moravian-Silesin Beskydy Mts. in the Czech Republic. The area is characterized by an annual mean air temperature of 5.6 oC and annual precipitation of 1110 mm. A large fern stand was divided in four blocks (5x3 m) and on two of them higher doses of nitrogen were applied (50 kgN/ha in five doses in the course of the growing season). Similarly, mesh-bags with fresh natural litter of fern were used to determine rate of litter decomposition during one year. Samples were inserted in both nitrogen treated and untreated fern stands in autumn 2006 and 2007 collected in autumn 2007 and 2008. On the basis of litter amount estimated at the start and at the end of exposure and of actual content of minerals in original and exposed litter, the release and/or accumulation of minerals during decomposition were calculated. The availability (more or less in the case of ammonia-nitrogen) and movement of percolated nitrogen (mainly in the case of nitrate-nitrogen) was estimated in situ by the trapping of mineral N into the ion exchange resin (IER) inserted into special cover. The decomposition rate of native A. distentifolium litter was approximately the same (29-30 %) at both nitrogen availability, however the element release from decomposed litter was higher for N, P and Ca in both years and for K and Mg in the first year as well. However, decomposition rate of cellulose was two times greater in fern stands

  17. H2 vertical profiles in the continental boundary layer: measurements at the Cabauw tall tower in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zahorowski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In-situ, quasi-continuous measurements of atmospheric hydrogen (H2 have been performed since 2007 at the Cabauw tall tower station in the Netherlands. Mole fractions of H2, CO and several greenhouse gases are determined simultaneously in air sampled successively at four heights, between 20 and 200 m above ground level. 222Rn measurements are performed in air sampled at 20 and 200 m. This H2 dataset represents the first in-situ, quasi-continuous measurement series of vertical profiles of H2 in the lower continental boundary layer. From the three-year long time series, we characterize the main features and variability patterns of H2 and CO on various time scales; the time series is too short to justify an attempt to determine multi-annual trends. Seasonal cycles are present in both H2 and CO, and their amplitude varies with the sampling height. The seasonality is evident in both the "baseline" values and in the short term (diurnal to synoptic time scales variability, the latter being significantly larger during winter. The observed H2 short term signals and vertical gradients are in many cases well correlated to other species, especially to CO. On the other hand, H2 has at times a behaviour which differentiates it from all the other species measured, due to its particular distribution of sources and sinks, that is, with the main source in our area (anthropogenic emissions and the main sink (soil uptake both near ground level. The local to regional soil sink of H2 is observable as H2 depletion at the lower sampling levels in some of the stable nights, although the signals at Cabauw are smaller than observed at other stations. Positive vertical gradients are another consequence of the soil uptake. Our estimation for the regional H2 soil uptake flux, using the radon tracer method, is (−1.89 ± 0.26 × 10−5 g/(m2h, significantly smaller than other recent results from Europe. Local soil and weather characteristics might be responsible for the very

  18. High-rise buildings under multi-hazard environment assessment and design for optimal performance

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses performance-based seismic and wind-resistant design for high-rise building structures, with a particular focus on establishing an integrated approach for performance-based wind engineering, which is currently less advanced than seismic engineering. This book also provides a state-of-the-art review of numerous methodologies, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD), extreme value analysis, structural optimization, vibration control, pushover analysis, response spectrum analysis, modal parameter identification for the assessment of the wind-resistant and seismic performance of tall buildings in the design stage and actual tall buildings in use. Several new structural optimization methods, including the augmented optimality criteria method, have been developed and employed in the context of performance-based design. This book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and engineers in the field of civil and structural engineering.

  19. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  20. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  1. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from the washed reticulorumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Kristensen, N B; Klotz, J L; Kim, D H; Koontz, A F; McLeod, K R; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n=8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum; E+) seed (0.015 mg ergovaline·kg BW(-1)·d(-1)) or endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) seed via the rumen cannula 2x daily for 7 d at thermoneutral (TN; 22°C) and heat stress (HS; 32°C) conditions. On d 8, the rumen was emptied and rinsed. A buffer containing VFA was incubated in the following sequence: control (CON), 15 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (1×EXT) from a tall fescue seed extract, and 45 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (3×EXT). For each buffer treatment there were two 30-min incubations: a 30-min incubation of a treatment buffer with no sampling followed by an incubation of an identical sampling buffer with the addition of Cr-EDTA and deuterium oxide (D2O). Epithelial blood flow was calculated as ruminal clearance of D2O corrected for influx of physiological water and liquid outflow. Feed intake decreased with dosing E+ seed at HS but not at thermoneutral conditions (TN; P0.05). Inclusion of the extract in the buffer caused at least a 50% reduction in epithelial blood flow at TN (P=0.004), but there was no difference between 1×EXT and 3×EXT. There was a seed × buffer treatment interaction at HS (P=0.005), indicating that the reduction of blood flow induced by incubating the extract was larger for steers receiving E- seed than E+ seed. Volatile fatty acid flux was reduced during the 1×EXT and 3×EXT treatments (P0.80), indicating that observed differences are due to the presence of ergot alkaloids in the rumen. A decrease in VFA absorption could contribute to the signs of fescue toxicosis including depressed growth and performance.

  2. Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits in a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schuldt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale replicated throughfall exclusion experiment was conducted in a pre-montane perhumid rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia exposing the trees for two years to pronounced soil desiccation. The lack of regularly occurring dry periods and shallow rooting patterns distinguish this experiment from similar experiments conducted in the Amazonian rainforest. We tested the hypotheses that a tree's sun canopy is more affected by soil drought than its shade crown, making tall trees particularly vulnerable even under a perhumid climate, and that extended drought periods stimulate an acclimation in the hydraulic system of the sun canopy. In the abundant and tall tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae, we compared 31 morphological, anatomical, hydraulic and chemical variables of leaves, branches and the stem together with stem diameter growth between drought and control plots.

    There was no evidence of canopy dieback. However, the drought treatment led to a 30 % reduction in sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity of sun canopy branches, possibly caused by the formation of smaller vessels and/or vessel filling by tyloses. Drought caused an increase in leaf size, but a decrease in leaf number, and a reduction in foliar calcium content. The δ13C and δ18O signatures of sun canopy leaves gave no indication of a permanent down-regulation of stomatal conductance during the drought, indicating that pre-senescent leaf shedding may have improved the water status of the remaining leaves. Annual stem diameter growth decreased during the drought, while the density of wood in the recently produced xylem increased in both the stem and sun canopy branches (marginally significant. The sun canopy showed a more pronounced drought response than the shade crown indicating that tall trees with a large sun canopy are more vulnerable to drought stress.

    We conclude that the extended drought prompted a number of

  3. Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits in a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, B.; Leuschner, C.; Horna, V.; Moser, G.; Köhler, M.; van Straaten, O.; Barus, H.

    2011-08-01

    A large-scale replicated throughfall exclusion experiment was conducted in a pre-montane perhumid rainforest in Sulawesi (Indonesia) exposing the trees for two years to pronounced soil desiccation. The lack of regularly occurring dry periods and shallow rooting patterns distinguish this experiment from similar experiments conducted in the Amazonian rainforest. We tested the hypotheses that a tree's sun canopy is more affected by soil drought than its shade crown, making tall trees particularly vulnerable even under a perhumid climate, and that extended drought periods stimulate an acclimation in the hydraulic system of the sun canopy. In the abundant and tall tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae), we compared 31 morphological, anatomical, hydraulic and chemical variables of leaves, branches and the stem together with stem diameter growth between drought and control plots. There was no evidence of canopy dieback. However, the drought treatment led to a 30 % reduction in sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity of sun canopy branches, possibly caused by the formation of smaller vessels and/or vessel filling by tyloses. Drought caused an increase in leaf size, but a decrease in leaf number, and a reduction in foliar calcium content. The δ13C and δ18O signatures of sun canopy leaves gave no indication of a permanent down-regulation of stomatal conductance during the drought, indicating that pre-senescent leaf shedding may have improved the water status of the remaining leaves. Annual stem diameter growth decreased during the drought, while the density of wood in the recently produced xylem increased in both the stem and sun canopy branches (marginally significant). The sun canopy showed a more pronounced drought response than the shade crown indicating that tall trees with a large sun canopy are more vulnerable to drought stress. We conclude that the extended drought prompted a number of medium- to long-term responses in the leaves, branches and the trunk

  4. CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; De Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-02-01

    A reliable and precise in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary-layer trace-gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates, that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. Detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates have been constructed for all of the gases, and the uncertainty framework could be readily adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off-the-shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high-accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  5. Fbxw7 acts as a critical fail-safe against premature loss of hematopoietic stem cells and development of T-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Sahoko; Oike, Yuichi; Onoyama, Ichiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Arai, Fumio; Takubo, Keiyo; Mashimo, Yoichi; Oguro, Hideyuki; Nitta, Eriko; Ito, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Kana; Yoshiwara, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Nakamura, Yuka; Gomei, Yumiko; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Nakayama, Keiko; Ikeda, Yasuo; Hata, Akira; Chiba, Shigeru; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Suda, Toshio

    2008-04-15

    Common molecular machineries between hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance and leukemia prevention have been highlighted. The tumor suppressor Fbxw7 (F-box and WD-40 domain protein 7), a subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase complex, induces the degradation of positive regulators of the cell cycle. We demonstrate that inactivation of Fbxw7 in hematopoietic cells causes premature depletion of HSCs due to active cell cycling and p53-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, Fbxw7 deletion also confers a selective advantage to cells with suppressed p53 function, eventually leading to development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Thus, Fbxw7 functions as a fail-safe mechanism against both premature HSC loss and leukemogenesis.

  6. Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma, USA J.P.S. Neel USDA ARS, El Reno, OK A reduction in enteric CH4 production in ruminants is associated with improved production effic...

  7. Intensive measurements of gas, water, and energy exchange between vegetation and troposphere during the MONTES Campaign in a vegetation gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in the NW Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTES (“Woodlands”) was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at measuring energy, water and especially gas exchange between vegetation and atmosphere in a gradient from short semi-desertic shrublands to tall wet temperate forests in NE Spain in the North Wester...

  8. Inferences from CO2 and CH4 concentration profiles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO on local summer-time ecosystem fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Winderlich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian region is still sparsely covered by ecosystem observatories, which motivates to exploit existing datasets to gain spatially and temporally better-resolved carbon fluxes. The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, 60°48' N, 89°21' E observations of CO2 and CH4 mole fractions as well as meteorological parameters from six different heights up to 301 m allow for an additional estimate of surface-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for the Middle-Siberian region since 2009. The total carbon flux is calculated from the storage and the turbulent flux component. The gradients between the different tower levels determine the storage flux component, which dominates the local fluxes, especially during night. As a correction term, the turbulent flux component was estimated by the modified Bowen ratio method based on the sensible heat flux measurements at the top of the tower. The gained average night time fluxes (23:00 to 04:00 local time are 2.7 ± 1.1 μmol (m2 s−1 for CO2 and 5.6 ± 4.5 nmol (m2 s−1 for CH4 during the summer months June-September in 2009 and 2011. During day, the method is limited due to numeric instabilities from vanishing vertical gradients; however, the derived CO2 fluxes exhibit reasonable diurnal shape and magnitude compared to the eddy covariance technique, which become available at the site in 2012. Therefore, the tall tower data facilitates the extension of the new eddy covariance flux dataset back in time. The diurnal signal of the CH4 flux is predominantly characterized by a strong morning transition, which is explained by local topographic effects.

  9. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41 was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.

  10. Optimum design of TMD for suppressing vibration of tall buildings subjected to wind%高层建筑TMD风振控制优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春祥; 刘艳霞

    2001-01-01

    本文探讨了高层建筑TMD风振控制优化设计方法.研究了高层建筑TMD风振控制最优参数取值问题.给出了高层建筑TMD风振控制设计步骤.最后给出了算例说明及其应用.

  11. Designing and Implementing an Interactive Social Robot from Off-the-shelf Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Duan, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and development of the social robot called iSocioBot, which is designed to achieve long-term interaction between humans and robots in a social context. iSocioBot is 149cm tall and the mechanical body is built on top of the TurtleBot platform and designed to make...... people feel comfortable in its presence. All electrical components are standard off-the-shelf commercial products making a replication possible. Furthermore, the software is based on Robot Operating Software (ROS) and is made freely available.We present our experience with the design and discuss possible...

  12. 污泥对高羊茅抗旱性的影响研究%Influences of biosolids on drought resistance of tall fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩朝; 刘洋; 董慧; 常智慧

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids contain biologically active substances,such as humus and auxin,which will influence plant growth.The influences of biosolids on drought resistance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)were studied at the same nitrogen level.Split-plot treatments included well-watered and drought stress.Subplot treatments all had nitrogen applied at 75 mg/kg.The control had 75 mg N/kg soil completely provided by NH4NO3 solu-tion).The biosolids 0.5× rate had 37.5 mg N/kg soil provided by biosolids,and 37.5 mg N/kg soil provided by NH4 NO3 solution.The biosolids 1× rate had 75 mg N/kg soil completely provided by biosolids).Nitrogen treatments at biosolids 1× and 0.5× rates improved turfgrass quality,leaf relative water content,leaf chloro-phyll content,and reduced leaf wilting rate under drought stress (P<0.05)indicating that biosolids improved the aboveground growth condition of tall fescue under drought stress.Treatment with the biosolids 1 × rate al-so increased leaf water use efficiency of tall fescue and maintained better water metabolism at 50% container ca-pacity (P<0.05).Treatments at biosolids 1× and 0.5×rates increased root dry weight of tall fescue under both moisture conditions and improved root viability under severe drought stress.Proline accumulation was al-so promoted by bisolids under both water conditions (P<0.05).It is suggested that biologically active sub-stances in biosolids can enhance drought tolerance of tall fescue.%污泥中含有腐殖质和生长素等生物活性类物质,会对植物的生长产生影响。本试验在相同氮肥条件下,研究了污泥对高羊茅抗旱性的影响。采用裂区实验设计,主处理包括充分浇水和干旱2个水平;副处理为不同的氮源:对照(75.0 mg/kg的氮素由硝酸铵提供)、半污泥(硝酸铵和污泥各提供37.5 mg/kg的氮素)、全污泥(75.0 mg/kg的氮素由污泥提供)。结果表明,干旱条件下全污泥和半污泥处理能够显著提

  13. Tall Tales about Older Americans [and] Never Too Old to Earn: A Guide for Community College Placement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Ruth; Hamer, Lois V.

    Designed as informational aids for community college practitioners, these two booklets examine the counseling and job placement needs of older adult students. The first booklet addresses itself to community college counselors. After profiling the composition of the older adult population in terms of "young-old" persons (those of 55 to 75 years…

  14. Relationship Between Super-tall Buildings and the Economic Development%国内外超高层建筑与经济发展间关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景芳; 王冬雁; 耿娇

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between both domestic and foreign super-tall buildings and economic development was analyzed in this paper, which focused on the United States, the United Arab Emirates and China, and concluded the law between the super-tall buildings evolution and economic developing, which reflected the development of construction techniques in a certain period, as well as the economic and demographic development. It can be concluded that the super-tall buildings emerge in a region only the gross domestic product ( GDP) reached around US S|150 billion, the super-tall buildings boom only the national economy stays in a steady level of development. The future growth of the super-tall buildings was analyzed and predicted, from the emergence, the height and number continue to achieve new breakthroughs along with the economic development, therefore the super-tall buildings have been a microcosm of the national economy.%对国内外超高层建筑与经济发展关系进行了对比分析,主要分析了美国、阿联酋、中国等国家300m以上超高层建筑发展状况与经济发展的相互关系。总结了超高层建筑与经济发展间的规律:超高层建筑不但反映了建造技术在一定时期内的发展情况,也反映了经济、人口发展状况,只有国民生产总值GDP达到1500亿美元左右,且国民经济持续一个平稳的发展水平,该地区才开始建造超高层建筑,才能出现超高层建筑的蓬勃发展,GDP的积累和经济发展速度缺一不可,对未来超高层建筑发展进行了分析预测。超高层建筑从产生伊始,其高度和数量就随着经济的发展不断取得新的突破,因此超高层建筑俨然成了经济发展的一个缩影。

  15. In-situ tests on settlement of large-area thick raft foundation under tall buildings%高层建筑下大面积整体筏板基础沉降原位测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫剑飞; 石金龙; 朱红波; 周圣斌

    2012-01-01

    原位测试结果表明,大底盘高层建筑的受力状态及变形特征与相连的第一跨裙房基础密切相关,其具备在两个刚度及荷载相差较大的结构形式下所形成的不同地基应力状态之间进行平缓调整的能力。对于常规工程而言,大底盘高层建筑下地基压缩层计算深度可取高层建筑基础宽度的1-2倍;整体大面积筏板基础变形控制条件可按以下限值控制:高层下整体挠曲最大限值不超过0.5‰,与高层整体连接的第一跨裙房与高层建筑的沉降差最大限值不超过0.001l,裙房其它柱间沉降差最大限值不超过0.0021。%The results of in-situ tests show that the stress state and deformation characteristics of a tall building with large-area raft foundation are closely related to the foundation of the first span podium. The building has the ability to adjust different ground stress states caused by different structural rigidities and loads between the tall building and podiums. For the conventional projects, the calculated depth of subsoil compressible stratum under large-area thick raft foundation under the tall building is about 1.2 times the width of its foundation. The deformation control conditions of large-area thick raft foundation can take the following limits: the overall largest flexure limit under tall buildings is no more than 0.5%0, and the maximum settlement difference limit between the tall building and the first span podium connecting with the tall building does not exceed 0.001l, and the maximum settlement difference limit among the annexs other columns does not exceed 0.002l.

  16. 高温胁迫下高羊茅草坪草生理特性研究%Physiological response to heat stress in tall fescue turfgrasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余高镜; 林文雄

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-nine tall fescue varieties introduced from America were devided into five ecotypes, from which five cultivars were collected for testing the changes of turf quality, root activity, soluble sugar content around years,meanwhile antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid proxidation etc under heat stress conditions were tested too in 1999-2000.The results indicated that changes of root activity and content of soluble sugar in the leaves were to some extent responsible for adjusting the stress-resistance in heat stresses, It implied that the two parameters had a great effect on the turf quality of tall fescue around the year.It was also indicated that the increasing rate of MDA content was significantly positively correlated with the changes of electrolyte leakage in the leaves of turf grass. When exposed to 40 ℃ heat stress,the relative activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and peroxidase(POD) in the leaf of turf cultivars concerned were significantly negatively correlated with malonaldehyde(MDA) and electrolyte leakage.Based on the index of active oxygen and electrolyte leakage, the ability of heat tolerance in the five ecotypes of tall fescue was in order:Gooden>Regiment>Tomahawk>SR-8210>Brandy. Finally, a rapid accurate laboratory procedure of measuring turf grass tolerance to heat was also disscussed.%从美国引进的39个高羊茅草坪草种分成了5个生态类型,在1999-2000年从每类中找出一个具有典型性状的草种,测定其周年草坪坪质表现、根系活力、叶片可溶性糖含量变化,同时测定各类草种在高温胁迫下保护酶活性与质膜透性的变化.结果表明,根系活力及可溶性糖含量在一定程度上影响着草坪坪质的周年变化.同时,草坪草叶片MDA含量的增长率和草坪草叶片的质膜透性增长率具有显著的正相关效应.在40 ℃高温胁迫下,草坪草叶片SOD与POD相对活性和MDA含量的增长率及PMP增长率具有显著的负相关效应,5个草种对

  17. Use of different levels of ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed during heat stress to separate characteristics of fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, D E; Wax, L E; Eichen, P A; Rottinghaus, G E; Evans, T J; Keisler, D H; Ellersieck, M R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of fescue toxicosis using whole seed diets show reduced feed intake and thermoregulatory ability, but much of the seed passes undigested through the animal. Cattle were fed ground tall fescue seed at different levels to potentially facilitate digestion and absorption of toxins and identify toxin sensitivity for major characteristics of the condition [i.e., hyperthermia, reduced feed intake (FI), reduced blood prolactin]. Steers (n = 18; 350 kg BW) were housed in the Brody Climatology Laboratory at thermoneutrality (TN; 19°C) and randomly assigned to daily diet treatments with either ground endophyte-infected [E+; low and high doses at 20 and 40 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d), respectively] or endophyte-free [E-; control at 0 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d)] tall fescue seed. After 12 d at TN, animals received 2 d of transition to heat stress (HS; 36°C daytime, 25°C nighttime) and maintained for 14 more days. Cattle were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h, with water ad libitum. Feed intake was measured at 0700 h, with skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate at 0600, 1100, 1600, and 2100 h. Blood was sampled on selected days for prolactin and leptin determinations. Steers fed ground E+ diet decreased (P ≤ 0.0001) FI below controls at TN, with no dose effect. Maximum FI reduction with E+ treatment was 25% at TN, with an additional 46% decrease during HS (P ≤ 0.05). By the end of HS, E+ FI increased (P > 0.05) to that of E-, suggesting recovery. Prolactin was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in high E+ cattle below controls at study end. Leptin blood concentrations were unaffected by E+ treatment (P > 0.05) but was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by the end of HS. Pattern of rectal temperature response to HS showed a more rapid initial increase and decline for both E+ groups compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Skin temperature was the only variable that identified E+ dose differences. Although there were no treatment differences at TN, skin temperature was lower (P ≤ 0

  18. A new UK Greenhouse Gas measurement network providing ultra high-frequency measurements of key radiatively active trace gases taken from a network of tall towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A. J.; Simmonds, P. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Moncrieff, J. B.; Sturges, W. T.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric concentrations of gases is important in assessing the impact of international policies related to the atmospheric environment. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocols. For over 15 years the UK Government have funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases and ozone depleting gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These continuous, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate regional (country-scale) emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using an inversion methodology (NAME-Inversion) that links the Met Office atmospheric dispersion model (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment - NAME) with the Mace Head observations. This unique inversion method acts to independently verify bottom up emission estimates of radiatively active and ozone-depleting trace gases. In 2011 the UK government (DECC) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to provide enhanced resolution emission maps and decrease uncertainty of regional emission estimates produced using the NAME-Inversion. One station included in this new UK network was already established in Scotland and was used in collaboration with Edinburgh University. The two other new stations are in England and were set-up early in 2012, they contain brand new instrumentation for measurements of greenhouse gases. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (20 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new tall tower UK measurement network in detail. Using high-frequency measurements at new operational sites, including Mace

  19. Plant Stems: Functional Design and Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Thomas; Burgert, Ingo

    2011-08-01

    Plant stems are one of nature's most impressive mechanical constructs. Their sophisticated hierarchical structure and multifunctionality allow trees to grow more than 100 m tall. This review highlights the advanced mechanical design of plant stems from the integral level of stem structures down to the fiber-reinforced-composite character of the cell walls. Thereby we intend not only to provide insight into structure-function relationships at the individual levels of hierarchy but to further discuss how growth forms and habits of plant stems are closely interrelated with the peculiarities of their tissue and cell structure and mechanics. This concept is extended to a further key feature of plants, namely, adaptive growth as a reaction to mechanical perturbation and/or changing environmental conditions. These mechanical design principles of plant stems can serve as concept generators for advanced biomimetic materials and may inspire materials and engineering sciences research.

  20. Response of a tall building far from the epicenter of the 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake and aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet; Okawa, Izuru; Kashima, Toshidate; Koyama, Shin; Iiba, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake generated significant long-duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of a tall building at 770 km from the epicenter of the mainshock and other related or unrelated events show how structures sensitive to long-period motions can be affected by distant sources. Even when the largest peak input motions to the building is about 3% g, the strong-shaking duration was about 140 s. The 300- to 1000-s prolonged responses of the building are primarily due to a combination of site resonance (e.g. structural fundamental frequency ~0.15 Hz and site frequency ~0.13–0.17 Hz) and low damping (~1–2%) of the structure. Response modification technologies can improve the response of the building during future earthquakes. The need-to-consider risks to such built environments from distant sources are emphasized.

  1. Wind Tunnel Test of Wind Load Acting on a Tall Building%高层建筑等效风荷载风洞试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓峰

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented the analysis results of wind load acting on a tall building determined in the wind tun-nel test by synchronous multi-pressure sensing system.The equivalent static wind load was calculated based on the ran-dom vibration theory.The variation of wind load with wind direction was analyzed.The peak acceleration response at the top of the structure was calculated.The comfort of occupant was evaluated.%分析了某高层建筑的多通道同步测压风洞试验。利用随机振动理论计算了结构等效静力风荷载,分析了风荷载随风向的变化关系,计算了结构顶部峰值加速度响应,对居住者舒适度进行了评价。

  2. A comparison of the clinicopathological features and prognoses of the classical and the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianwen; Guo, Yawen; Zhang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 80–90% of all thyroid malignancies. The tall cell variant (TCV) is a rare aggressive histotype of PTC. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of TCV with those of classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). A literature search was performed using the PubMed and EMBASE databases using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. Twenty studies that included 1871 patients with TCV and 75323 patients with cPTC were included in our meta-analysis. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for each study. Patients with TCV were associated with multifocality, higher TNM stage, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, BRAF mutation, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. We found that TCV cases were associated with more aggressive clinicopathological characteristics and poorer prognoses than cPTC cases were. Our results suggest that TCV is a high-risk PTC that warrants aggressive treatment and follow-up strategies. PMID:28009980

  3. Parvovirus B19 presenting with persistent pancytopenia in a patient of T-ALL post induction chemotherapy diagnosed on bone marrow examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya S Gadage

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manifestations of parvovirus B19 vary even in the normal host from asymptomatic or subclinical infection to a spectrum of illness with symptoms during viremic and immune complex mediated stage of disease. We report the morphological findings of parvovirus B19 infection (confirmed on serology in a patient of T-acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-ALL who underwent induction phase of chemotherapy (MCP 842 protocol. Persistent pancytopenia in the bone marrow aspirate with mild increase in blasts was thought to be due to failure to achieve marrow remission. However, giant pronormoblasts with prominent intranuclear inclusions confirmed on trephine biopsy led to the suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was later confirmed on serology. This case is presented to report the rarely seen classical morphological feature of parvovirus infection on bone marrow examination which was incidentally the first investigation to diagnose the viremic phase of the infection, indicating that a high index of suspicion needs to be kept in mind while examining bone marrows of susceptible patients.

  4. An Adjoint-Based Analysis of the Sampling Footprints of Tall Tower, Aircraft and Potential Future Lidar Observations of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlyn; Kawa, Randy; Zhu, Zhengxin; Burris, John; Abshire, Jim

    2004-01-01

    A detailed mechanistic understanding of the sources and sinks of CO2 will be required to reliably predict future CO2 levels and climate. A commonly used technique for deriving information about CO2 exchange with surface reservoirs is to solve an 'inverse problem', where CO2 observations are used with an atmospheric transport model to find the optimal distribution of sources and sinks. Synthesis inversion methods are powerful tools for addressing this question, but the results are disturbingly sensitive to the details of the calculation. Studies done using different atmospheric transport models and combinations of surface station data have produced substantially different distributions of surface fluxes. Adjoint methods are now being developed that will more effectively incorporate diverse datasets in estimates of surface fluxes of CO2. In an adjoint framework, it will be possible to combine CO2 concentration data from longterm surface and aircraft monitoring stations with data from intensive field campaigns and with proposed future satellite observations. We have recently developed an adjoint for the GSFC 3-D Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model (PCTM). Here, we will present results from a PCTM Adjoint study comparing the sampling footprints of tall tower, aircraft and potential future lidar observations of CO2. The vertical resolution and extent of the profiles and the observation frequency will be considered for several sites in North America.

  5. Non-synonymous FGD3 Variant as Positional Candidate for Disproportional Tall Stature Accounting for a Carcass Weight QTL (CW-3 and Skeletal Dysplasia in Japanese Black Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takasuga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recessive skeletal dysplasia, characterized by joint- and/or hip bone-enlargement, was mapped within the critical region for a major quantitative trait locus (QTL influencing carcass weight; previously named CW-3 in Japanese Black cattle. The risk allele was on the same chromosome as the Q allele that increases carcass weight. Phenotypic characterization revealed that the risk allele causes disproportional tall stature and bone size that increases carcass weight in heterozygous individuals but causes disproportionately narrow chest width in homozygotes. A non-synonymous variant of FGD3 was identified as a positional candidate quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN and the corresponding mutant protein showed reduced activity as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42. FGD3 is expressed in the growth plate cartilage of femurs from bovine and mouse. Thus, loss of FDG3 activity may lead to subsequent loss of Cdc42 function. This would be consistent with the columnar disorganization of proliferating chondrocytes in chondrocyte-specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice. This is the first report showing association of FGD3 with skeletal dysplasia.

  6. Breast Tumor Resembling Tall Cell Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Solid Papillary Neoplasm With Characteristic Immunohistochemical Profile and Few Recurrent Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Florea, Anca V; Pelmus, Manuela; Jones, Miroslawa W; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Wald, Abigail; Nikiforova, Marina

    2017-04-01

    Breast tumor resembling tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (BTRPTC) is a rare breast lesion that is unrelated to thyroid carcinoma. Morphologically, it shows a solid papillary lesion with bland cytology, eosinophilic/amphophilic secretions, nuclear grooves, reversal of nuclear polarity (recently described), and nuclear inclusions. Clinical course is often uneventful with few exceptions reported in the literature. Herein, we report three additional cases. Immunohistochemical staining and next-generation sequencing was performed on all three cases. The lesional cells on all cases were positive for cytokeratin 5 and S100, with weak expression/lack of estrogen receptor. No staining was observed for myoepithelial markers (p63 and myosin heavy chain) around the lesion. IDH2 mutations were identified in two cases at nucleotide 172 (cases 1 and 3). ATM gene mutation was identified in cases 2 and 3 and PIK3CA mutation in case 3. All patients are currently without disease. BTRPTC is a slow-growing neoplastic lesion that needs to be distinguished from other papillary lesions for optimizing therapy.

  7. Oxygen and radiation effects on C02 exchange in fight and in darkness of decaploid and hexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy W. Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of apparent photosynthesis (APS. photorespiration (PR, CO2 compensation (I and dark respiration (DR were determined on attached shoots of decaploid (70 chromosomes and a hexaploid (42 chromosomes genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. using an infra red CO2 analyzer arranged in a closed circuit system. Plants were grown at a photon flux density 500 µmol m-2s-1 (400-700 nm and at 25°C. Measurements were made at 25°C in O2 concentrations of l, 21 and 100% and at irradiance of 500 or 1800 µmol m-2s-1. The decaploid exhibited rates of APS that was from 26 to 46% higher in 1 and 21% O2 but not in 100% O2, than those of hexaploid. Rates of PR were positively related to rates of APS. Values of r were very similar for both genotypes, they were little affected by irradiance, and were a linear function of O2 Concentration. The percentages of PR in true photosynthesis (TPS = APS+ PR were also similar for the two genotypes, and were a linear function of O2 concentration. Alternatively, rates of DR were by 16-26% higher in the hexaploid than decaploid genotype, and were little affected by O2 concentration or by previous rates of APS.

  8. Metabolite analysis of the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the association between tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and its fungal symbiont Neotyphodium coenophialum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Geraldine D; Rasmussen, Susanne; Xue, Hong; Parsons, Anthony J; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is expected to increase to between 550 ppm and 1000 ppm in the next century. CO2-induced changes in plant physiology can have ecosystem-wide implications and may alter plant-plant, plant-herbivore and plant-symbiont interactions. We examined the effects of three concentrations of CO2 (390, 800 and 1000 ppm) and two concentrations of nitrogen fertilizer (0.004 g N/week versus 0.2 g N/week) on the physiological response of Neotyphodium fungal endophyte-infected and uninfected tall fescue plants. We used quantitative PCR to estimate the concentration of endophyte under altered CO2 and N conditions. We found that elevated CO2 increased the concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates and decreased the concentration of plant total amino acids in plants. Fungal-derived alkaloids decreased in response to elevated CO2 and increased in response to nitrogen fertilization. Endophyte concentration (expressed as the number of copies of an endophyte-specific gene per total genomic DNA) increased under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. The correlation between endophyte concentration and alkaloid production observed at ambient conditions was not observed under elevated CO2. These results suggest that nutrient exchange dynamics important for maintaining the symbiotic relationship between fungal endophytes and their grass hosts may be altered by changes in environmental variables such as CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

  9. Gene expression profiling indicates an increased capacity for proline, serine, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial mass by the liver of steers grazing high vs. low endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2015-12-01

    Grazing -infected forages results in a variety of reduced animal performance parameters, collectively known as "fescue toxicosis." The initial, limited evaluations of hepatic mechanisms affected by fescue toxicosis have used transcriptomic expression profiling of experimental phenotypes developed by short-term feeding of concentrated ergot alkaloids or fescue seeds to rodents and steers. To assess the effects of fescue toxicosis in growing cattle using a commercially relevant phenotype, we induced fescue toxicosis in beef steers by summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a single high toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0.746 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 10; BW = 267 ± 14.5 kg) vs. a low toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture (LE; 0.023 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 9; BW = 266 ± 10.9 kg). High toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had decreased BW (313 vs. 338 kg) and an increased potential for hepatic gluconeogenesis from AA-derived carbons. To gain a greater perspective into fescue toxicosis-induced hepatic metabolism and identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, the goal of the current research was to examine liver samples for changes in gene (mRNA) expression profiles using a Bovine Affymetrix microarray and selected reverse-transcription PCR and immunoblot analyses. The expression (false discovery rate endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had increased ( ≤ 0.022) expression of genes critical for increased (1) Pro () and Ser () synthesis, (2) shunting of AA carbons into pyruvate () and ATP synthesis (, , , COX4, , and ), and (3) mitochondrial mass (COX4). Targeted reverse-transcribed PCR or immunoblot assays corroborated ( ≤ 0.035) these latter microarray findings for , , , , and COX4. Moreover, network analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor-mediated signaling as the most probable mechanism to coordinate the above findings. These results greatly extend our knowledge of the consequences of summer-long grazing of

  10. Super-tall Tower Structure Pushover Performance Analysis%超高层塔楼结构pushover性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海燕; 陈兆荣

    2015-01-01

    Pushover分析方法是一种结构非线性响应的简化计算方法,其结果具有相对稳定收敛的优点而广泛被采用。本文结合广州某超限高层结构进行分析,分析表明:Pushover分析方法在超限高层结构设计中,主要受第一振型的影响,同时从宏观上的层剪力、层间位移和层间位移角可以发现结构在罕遇地震作用下的危险位置。从而对薄弱部位进行有针对性的加强,进一步提高结构的安全性。%Pushover analysis method is a simplified method for calculating the nonlinear response of the structure, the result has the advantage of relatively stable convergence and widely adopted. This paper combine on a Guangzhou high-rise structure analysis, Analysis shows:Pushover analysis method in tal structural design, mainly due to the impact of the first mode, from the macroscopic shear layer, the interlayer displacement and drift angle can find the hazard position of the structure in rare earthquake. Thus against the weak parts targeted to strengthen, To further improve the of structural safety.

  11. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Tapered Tall Buildings with Square Section%锥度化方形截面高层建筑的气动力特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正维; 全涌; 顾明; 熊勇

    2014-01-01

    用高频测力天平技术,对不同锥度比的方形截面高层建筑进行了风洞试验,分析了锥度比、湍流度和风向角对方形截面高层建筑基底弯(扭)矩系数、基底弯(扭)矩谱密度与基底弯(扭)矩间相关性的影响.试验结果表明:锥度化措施能减小方形截面高层建筑基底弯(扭)矩系数幅值25%以上,但不能改变基底气动力随风向角的变化规律;锥度化措施能减小所有折减频率范围内顺风向与扭转向基底弯矩谱,但只能减小低频区域横风向基底弯矩谱和谱峰高度,却增大旋涡脱落频率和高频区横风向基底弯矩谱;随来流湍流度增大,锥度化措施对风荷载的抑制效果减弱;折减频率在0.10到0.15时,锥度化措施能增大横风向基底弯矩与基底扭矩间的相关性.%Square tall buildings with different taper ratios were tested using the high frequency force balance (HFFB ) technique in two different simulated wind fields. The effects of taper ratio, turbulence intensity and wind direction on aerodynamic base moment and torque coefficients,the power spectrum densities (PSD)of along- and across-wind base moments and torques,and the correlation between base moment and torque were analyzed systematically. The test results indicate that tapering of square tall buildings can reduce the amplitudes of the aerodynamic base moment and torque coefficients by 25% or more,but can not change the law of aerodynamic wind loads varying with wind directions. The tapering measure can reduce the PSDs of along-wind base moment and torque within all the reduced frequencies,but it can only reduce the spectral peak value of the PSD of across-wind base moment in low frequency region,and increase the frequency of the vortex shedding and the PSD value in high frequency region. With the turbulence intensity increasing,the effect of the tapering measure becomes weak. The coherence between across

  12. You can be too thin (but not too tall): Social desirability bias in self-reports of weight and height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mary A; Carman, Katherine G

    2017-07-13

    Previous studies of survey data from the U.S. and other countries find that women tend to understate their body weight on average, while both men and women overstate their height on average. Social norms have been posited as one potential explanation for misreporting of weight and height, but lack of awareness of body weight has been suggested as an alternative explanation, and the evidence presented to date is inconclusive. This paper is the first to offer a theoretical model of self-reporting behavior for weight and height, in which individuals face a tradeoff between reporting an accurate weight (or height) and reporting a socially desirable weight (or height). The model generates testable implications that help us to determine whether self-reporting errors arise because of social desirability bias or instead reflect lack of awareness of body weight and/or other factors. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010, we find that self-reports of weight offer robust evidence of social desirability bias. However, lack of awareness of weight may also contribute to self-reporting biases, and this factor appears to be more important within some demographic groups than others. Among both women and men, self-reports of height exhibit significant social desirability bias only among those of below-average height, and very few individuals underreport their height. Implied self-reports of BMI exhibit gender-specific patterns similar to those observed for self-reporting of weight, and the inferred social norms for BMI (20.8 for women and 24.8 for men) are within the "normal" range established by public health institutions. Determining why individuals misreport their weight has important implications for survey design as well as for clinical practice. For example, our findings suggest that health care providers might take additional steps to increase self-awareness of body weight. The framework also helps to explain previous

  13. Soil Carbon and Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio Change under Tree Canopy, Tall Grass, and Turf Grass Areas of Urban Green Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, S J; Ossola, A; Threlfall, C G; Hahs, A K; Williams, N S G

    2016-01-01

    Soils in urban green spaces are an important carbon (C) store, but urban soils with a high carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio can also buffer N eutrophication from fertilizer use or atmospheric deposition. The influence of vegetation management practices on soil C cycling and C/N ratios in urban green spaces is largely unknown. In 2013, we collected replicate ( = 3) soil samples from tree canopy, tall grass, and short turf grass areas ( = 3) at four random plot locations ( = 4) established in 13 golf courses ( = 13). At each sample point, soil was separated into 0- to 0.1-, 0.1- to 0.2-, and 0.2- to 0.3-m depths (total = 1404). Linear mixed models investigated the relationships between soil properties, vegetation attributes, and green space age. Tree canopy soil was less compacted (1.07 g cm) than grassy areas (1.32 g cm). Similarly, tree canopy soil had mean C/N ratios of 17.2, as compared with between 14.2 and 15.3 in grassy areas. Soil properties in tree canopy areas were best explained by tree basal area and understory vegetation volume. Soil C/N increased with increasing understory vegetation, and the difference in soil C/N between tree canopy and short turf grass areas increased over time. The soil properties in tree canopy areas of urban green space mean they can increasingly buffer the localized use of N fertilizers and atmospheric N deposition. Managers of urban green spaces concerned about N pollution of groundwater and waterways could consider planting trees in suitable topographic locations and promoting understory vegetation and surface litter accumulation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappell, Nancy W; Flythe, Michael D; Aiken, Glen E

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0-8.5 ng Eqs g(-1) DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL(-1), based on 2.3 kg SBHs d(-1), 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL(-1), P phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects of dietary supplementation with SBHs or estrogenic implants.

  15. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity. Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical

  16. Seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal-scale variability of biogeochemical trace gases and O2 from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, Elena A.; Manning, Andrew C.; Kisilyakhov, Yegor; Seifert, Thomas; Heimann, Martin

    2008-12-01

    We present first results from 19 months of semicontinuous concentration measurements of biogeochemical trace gases (CO2, CO, and CH4) and O2, measured at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in the boreal forest of central Siberia. We estimated CO2 and O2 seasonal cycle amplitudes of 26.6 ppm and 134 per meg, respectively. An observed west-east gradient of about -7 ppm (in July 2006) between Shetland Islands, Scotland, and ZOTTO reflects summertime continental uptake of CO2 and is consistent with regional modeling studies. We found the oceanic component of the O2 seasonal amplitude (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen, or APO) to be 51 per meg, significantly smaller than the 95 per meg observed at Shetlands, illustrating a strong attenuation of the oceanic O2 signal in the continental interior. Comparison with the Tracer Model 3 (TM3) atmospheric transport model showed good agreement with the observed phasing and seasonal amplitude in CO2; however, the model exhibited greater O2 (43 per meg, 32%) and smaller APO (9 per meg, 18%) amplitudes. This seeming inconsistency in model comparisons between O2 and APO appears to be the result of phasing differences in land and ocean signals observed at ZOTTO, where ocean signals have a significant lag. In the first 2 months of measurements on the fully constructed tower (November and December 2006), we observed several events with clear vertical concentration gradients in all measured species except CO. During "cold events" (below -30°C) in November 2006, we observed large vertical gradients in CO2 (up to 22 ppm), suggesting a strong local source. The same pattern was observed in CH4 concentrations for the same events. Diurnal vertical CO2 gradients in April to May 2007 gave estimates for average nighttime respiration fluxes of 0.04 ± 0.02 mol C m-2 d-1, consistent with earlier eddy covariance measurements in 1999-2000 in the vicinity of the tower.

  17. 超高层建筑结构 benchmark 模型及其地震反应分析%A Benchmark Model of Mega-tall Buildings and Analysis of its Seismic Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕西林; 姜淳; 蒋欢军

    2015-01-01

    参照上海中心,根据设定的性能目标设计了一个超高层建筑结构的 benchmark 模型用于超高层建筑结构抗震研究。该结构总高度为606.1 m,抗震设防烈度为7度,场地类别为 IV 类,设计分组为第一组。该结构采用巨型框架-核心筒-伸臂桁架钢-混凝土混合结构体系,8道环带桁架将结构分为9个区,环带桁架与型钢混凝土巨柱共同构成了巨型框架结构体系,并通过6道伸臂桁架与核心筒相连,共同承受水平荷载。利用 PERFORM-3D 软件建立了结构的非线性数值计算模型,对结构进行了弹塑性地震反应分析,验证了结构的抗震性能。计算结果表明,满足现行设计规范的该超高层结构在大震作用下具有较大的安全余量。%This paper proposes a benchmark model of mega-tall buildings for investigating the seismic performance.The structure is designed based on the prototype of Shanghai Tower with the specific seismic performance objective.The total height of the structure is 606.1 m,with the seismic fortification of intensity of 7.The soil type is IV,and the seismic design class is the 1st class.The mega frame-core tube with outriggers steel-concrete composite structure system is adopped.The structure is divided into 9 zones by 8 belted trusses which form the mega frame system together with SRC mega-columns.The mega frame is connected to the core tube with 6 outrigger trusses,resisting the lateral load together.The elasto-plastic analysis of the model is conducted to validate the seismic performance by using PERFORM-3D software.The result shows that the structure which meets the requirements of the current design code has a considerable safety margin under severe earthquakes.

  18. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...... Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers....

  19. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods....... Focusing on fibre reinforced composites, this book sustains an exploration into the design and making of elastically tailored architectural structures that rely on the use of computational design to predict sensitive interdependencies between geometry and behaviour. Developing novel concepts...

  20. Application of the nonlinear antenna theory model to a tall tower struck by lightning for the evaluation of return stroke channel current and radiated electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. H. S.; Moini, R.; Sadeghi, S. H. H.; Kordi, B.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper an improved antenna theory (AT) model with nonlinearly varying resistive loading and fixed inductive loading is used to electromagnetically simulate lightning strikes to tall structures. Measurement data captured from Toronto's CN tower are used to verify the validity of the new model. Both the return stroke channel (RSC) and the tower are modeled by straight thin conducting wires. The wire model of the channel is assumed to have distributed nonlinear resistive elements as a function of current and time, adopted from the numerical models of a spark channel and consequent shockwave from a lightning discharge, yielding a varying value of the channel radius from the base to the cloud along the RSC. Such distributed elements are used to take into account the current attenuation while propagating along the channel and varying propagation speeds lower than the speed of light. RSC current distribution and radiated electromagnetic fields in near, intermediate, and far range distances predicted by the proposed model are compared with those obtained from the measurement data and with those of the original AT model and the AT with fixed inductive loading (ATIL-F) model. Current wave propagation speed profile in RSC and tower is investigated as a function of height as well. The effects of applying different tower geometry models are also studied. It is shown that the new model is able to reproduce one of the characteristic features of the electromagnetic fields radiated by lightning, namely, the far-field inversion of polarity with a zero crossing occurring in the tens of microseconds range. We have also investigated the effect of nonlinearity of the channel assumed in the new model. It is shown that among the electromagnetic models, distributed nonlinear resistance along the channel leads to a zero crossing in the tens of microseconds range even for large values of resistance. It is also shown that decreasing the nonlinearity results in the predictions

  1. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy W. Shappell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SBHs have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2 and progesterone (IMP, feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen, estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0 to 8.5 ng Eqs g-1 DM (mean 6.5, n=4 different commercial sources of SBHs. At the rate fed, theoretical calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~ 80 pg mL-1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d-1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption. Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05 with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase. Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH+IMP group (188 ng mL-1, P < 0.05, concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 vs 76 and 60 ng mL-1, respectively. Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects of dietary supplementation with SBHs or estrogenic

  2. Travellers: Design Collaboration and Digital Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Bahoric; P. Nicholas; G. Ormston

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of 3D electronic medium as a tool for procuring detailed design in-formation for the Sandridge Bridge Travellers project. The Sandridge Bridge Travellers project required the production of 10 7.5 m of tall x 5 - 12 m of wide figures under very tight programme and budget constraints.This was achieved through a synthesis of art and engineering, whereby structure and sculpture become one and the same. Traditional procurement routes would have entailed the production and interpretation of draw-ings and design details at all discipline interfaces before fabrication; an approach that was unfeasible given the constraints. Instead, The Travellers project saw a single electronic file pass backwards and forwards from client to architect, engineer, and fabricator, with information from the initial artistic concept work phases through to analysis, design, member scheduling and fabrication all integrated and facilitated by a single electronic medium. Key to the delivery was the use of 3D modeling and scripting programs that enabled the efficient use and development of design information through all stages of the design process. This enabled total integration of all trades requiring a collaborative approach where each party maintained joint ownership of the 3D design information from inception to conception.

  3. 2011-2012年广州高建筑物雷电磁场特征统计%Statistical Characteristics of Magnetic Field Produced by Tall-Object Lightning in Guangzhou During 2011-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智敏; 吕伟涛; 陈绿文; 齐奇; 杨欣怡; 张阳; 马颖; 陈绍东

    2015-01-01

    With the development of society and economy,more and more tall objects,such as tall towers,sky-scrapers and other kinds of high buildings are erected in China.It is a commonly used method to study physical mechanisms of lightning discharge by measuring the electromagnetic fields produced by the light-ning occurring on tall objects.Characteristics of electromagnetic fields and the influence on the electromag-netic environment induced by lightning flashes occurring on or around the tall objects are also widely stud-ied.Since 2009,a field experiment is conducted to study the physics process of lightning flashes striking on tall objects in Guangzhou.The Tall-Object Lightning Observatory in Guangzhou (TOLOG)is estab-lished on the top of a building with a height of approximately 100 m that belongs to Guangdong Provincial Meteorological Bureau to observe lightning flashes striking on tall objects with different heights in Guang-zhou.In this experiment,the height of observed lightning striking point is found to be within 90-600 m, while the distance between the lightning striking points and the observation point is within 140 m -3.3 km.Magnetic field data for 40 negative lightning flashes obtained during 2011 -2012 are analyzed. Statistical results show that tall objects have an enhancing effect on the magnetic field induced by the light-ning flashes striking on them.The taller the object is,the larger the enhancing effect will be.The geomet-ric mean (GM)value of the magnetic field peak values induced by the lightning flashes to the objects taller than 200 m is 2.4 times of that induced by lightning flashes to the objects lower than 200 m.Waveforms of the lightning magnetic field always exhibit multi-peak behavior.Regarding the magnetic field waveforms of the first return stroke,13 out of 20 cases in which the lightning flashes strikes objects lower than 200 m have the subsequent peak value that is greater than the initial peak value;8 out of 14 cases in which light

  4. 不同配方营养液对水培高羊茅的影响%Effects of Different Nutrient Solutions on Hydroponic Tall Fescue(Festuca arundinacea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董曙光; 郎法勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为了探索适合草坪水培栽培的营养液.[方法]以高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)为材料,进行不同营养液配方对水培高羊茅生长的影响研究.[结果]在5种营养液配方中,霍格兰营养液培养的高羊茅株高、单株叶片数、单株分蘖数、植株鲜干重(生物量)以及根系活力等各项指标最好,是高羊茅水培的最佳营养液配方,斯泰纳配方培养的高羊茅各项指标最差,与其他营养液配方之间差异显著,故不适宜作为高羊茅水培的营养液[结论]该研究可为水培建植草坪所需营养液选择提供参考,并为草坪水培技术的进一步研究提供参考.%[Objective] The aim was to explore the suitable nutrient solution for turf hydroponic. [ Method] The effects of five hydroponics nutrient solution formulas on tall fescue growth were studied. [ Result] The results showed that the indicators of tall fescue turfgrass cultivated by Hoagland solution formula, such as the plant height, leal number, plant biomass, number of tillers and root vigor, were the higher than those of the other formulas. The indicators of tall fescue turfgrass under Steiner formula were the lower than those of the other formulas. It was suggested that Hoagland formula was the best suitable for the tall fescue hydroponic in five formulas and Steiner formula was not suitable. [ Conclusion] The study provides a reference for selecting nutrient solutions planting lawn by hydroponic cultivation, and researching lawn hydroponic technology deeply.

  5. 某高层住宅外墙裂缝分析及加固方法%Cracks analysis and strengthening method of outside wall corner of certain tall building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾莉莉

    2013-01-01

    fter concrete structure completion before the decoration,some cracks are found on a outside wall corner of certain tall building.This text analyse the reason of forming cracks,account the strengthening method and matters needing attention.%某高层住宅在主体完工未进行建筑装修阶段,在外墙拐角处出现了一些裂缝。本文分析了裂缝的成因,阐述了加固方法及注意事项。

  6. Tasco-Forage: IV. Influence of a seaweed extract applied to tall fescue pastures on sensory characteristics, shelf-life, and vitamin E status in feedlot-finished steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J L; Allen, V G; Pond, K R; Miller, M F; Wester, D B; Brown, C P; Evans, R; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Fontenot, J P

    2001-04-01

    Tasco-Forage is an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product that has increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals. Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and uninfected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pastures in Virginia and Mississippi during 1997 were treated or not with 3.4 kg Tasco/ha in April and July. There were two replications of each treatment at each location. Forty-eight steers (6/replication) grazed pastures at each location (n = 96) from April to October prior to transportation to Texas Tech, Lubbock, for finishing during a 160-d period in the feedlot. Blood (antemortem) and liver (postmortem) samples were collected. After slaughter and chilling, the left strip loins (IMPS #180) were collected from three randomly selected steers from within each pasture replication (n = 48). Strip loins were vacuum-packaged and stored at 2 degrees C. At postmortem d 7, 14, 21, and 28, strip loins were removed from packaging and fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks. Following each fabrication day postmortem, the strip loins were repackaged and stored at 2 degrees C until the following postmortem time. After the prescribed fabrication, steaks were overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, subjected to simulated retail display at 2 degrees C for up to 3 d, and subjective and objective color were evaluated daily by a trained panel. Steaks from Mississippi steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue retained higher (P < 0.05) CIE a* color scores throughout retail display. Steaks were more uniform and had less discoloration and less browning (P < 0.05) if they were from steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue, and the effect was greatest for steers from Mississippi (location x Tasco interaction; P < 0.05). The endophyte in tall fescue may decrease uniformity and increase lean discoloration and two-toning of beef steaks when removed from vacuum packaging on or beyond d 21 postmortem (endophyte x

  7. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods...

  8. Load Distribution Patterns for Displacement-based Seismic Design of RC Framed Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Jiji Anna; Menon, Devdas; Meher Prasad, A.

    2014-12-01

    The behaviour of tall frames is characterized by the influence of higher modes in addition to the fundamental mode and thus the design procedures for Displacement-based Design (DBD) adopt several measures to control higher mode effects. The performances of 4, 9 and 15-storeyed frames, designed by DBD were verified using non-linear time history analyses. Higher values of inter-storey drift and damage index were seen near the top of tall frames, which shows the inefficiency of the design method in accounting for higher mode effect. As the principle of damage-limiting aseismic design is to get uniform damage along the height of the frame, several load distribution patterns were examined and the storey shear distributions were compared to identify the best pattern to get uniform damage. The Chao load distribution was found to give higher storey shear at top and thus the frames were redesigned using this load distribution. The efficiency of Chao load distribution in reducing higher mode effects is demonstrated using non-linear time history analyses.

  9. Wind Tunnel Test Study of Wind Power Generation Feasibility on Tall Building by Considering Group Effect%考虑群体效应的高层建筑风力发电可行性风洞试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国光; 武志玮; 徐有华

    2015-01-01

    为研究建筑群体效应对超高层建筑风荷载及风力发电能力的影响,对某250 m高大底盘、双塔体型不规则超高层建筑进行了缩尺模型风洞试验研究,通过风气候分析计算了建筑场地1年、5年和10年的低重现期风速及排除台风影响的设计风剖面,分别考虑了当前周边建筑群体和未来周边建筑群体两种群体效应工况,根据试验结果计算了该结构考虑群体效应的基底等效风荷载反力、各立面风压分布和风机发电效率。结果表明,建筑外形不规则的双塔对气流有明显的改变且作用效果不同于常规矩形超高层建筑,配合楼层平面尺寸逐层缩小,有效缓和了竖向风荷载在建筑高度上的分布。受群体效应影响,在当前和未来周边建筑群两种工况下,双塔两个主轴方向基底等效风荷载结果变化明显;裙房高度风压分布变化尤为显著,给该处风机取风口的设置造成困难;塔楼竖向风压分布发生改变,影响了风机发电效率。因此设计时须考虑群体效应影响,合理选择风机取风口位置以避免周边建筑群体改变对风力发电的不利影响。%In order to analyze the influences of building group effects on wind load and wind power generation for supper tall building, wind tunnel test of a 250 meters high building with huge basement and two irregular shaped towers was conducted by small-scale models. Low returned period wind speed of 1 year, 5year and 10 years of the construction ground and designed wind speed sections without the typhoon influences were achieved by wind climate analysis. And two group effects conditions of current surrounding buildings group and future buildings group were simulated and compared. By the wind tunnel test results, equivalent static wind loads of base level, wind pressure distributions and efficiency of wind power generation of the supper tall building were obtained. The results

  10. 复杂高层箱筏基础沉降变形预测方法研究%Prediction of complex tall building box raft foundation settlement deformation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟巍; 张会娟

    2015-01-01

    以某复杂高层工程为例,采用灰色理论,系统研究了复杂高层箱筏基础沉降变形特性,结果表明沉降随建筑结构高程增加而增大,建筑完工后沉降基本趋稳,指出灰色理论能较好地反映复杂高层箱筏基础沉降变形预测,其预测沉降变形与实测较为吻合。%In this paper,taking a complex high-rise building project as an example,the application of gray theory,the system of complex tall building box raft foundation settlement deformation characteristics,the results show that settlement with the building height increases,the settle-ment after construction is completed the basic stabilization. Gray theory can reflect the deformation prediction of complex tall building box raft foundation settlement,the settlement deformation agree well with the measured.

  11. How Expert Designers Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Carr; Dr. Peter Sloep; P. Kirschner; J. van Merrienboer

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses two studies - the one in a business context, the other in a university context - carried out with expert educational designers. The studies aimed to determine the priorities experts claim to employ when designing competence-based learning environments. Designers in both contexts

  12. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, Siberia, during a summer campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Mikhailov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ∼34% in the accumulation vs. ∼47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ∼70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ∼35% RH for submicron particles vs. ∼50% RH for supermicron particles. This ∼15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws fraction was estimated to be ∼0

  13. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J.-D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia (61° N, 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical compositions of aerosol particles were analyzed by x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38 % of particulate matter (PM) in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water-soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8 % of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34 % in the accumulation mode vs. ~ 47 % in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5-99.4 % RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same relative humidity (RH), starting at ~ 70 %, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35 % RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50 % RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15 % RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5-99.4 % RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv,ws value related to the water-soluble (ws

  14. Designing Communication Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes

    2016-01-01

    Innovating in the field of new media genres requires methods for producing designs that can succeed in being disseminated and used outside of design research labs. This article uses the author's experiences with the development of university courses in communication design to address the research...... emphasises rapid techniques for user research and ideation; genre analysis; use of pitching and storytelling as a form of prototyping; and humanist methods for evaluation and critique....

  15. 上海某小区高层住宅环境振动影响测试评估%Evaluation of Industrial Vibration Impact to Tall Residential Buildings in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈龙珠; 龚治国; 赵鹏

    2013-01-01

    上海某小区多幢高层住宅建筑受环境振动的影响明显引发居民集体投诉.本文通过2个阶段的现场振动测试(地脉动法)确认了振源为小区外附近多个厂家运行的石材加工设备,在时、频域分析了2幢高层住宅建筑的环境振动响应特征和幅值,将其与我国现行标准《城市区域环境振动标准》(GB10070-1988)和已处于报批阶段的新编国标《建筑工程容许振动标准》中有关住宅的振级限值进行了比较分析,并结合对居民舒适性振感的调查,提出了对这些标准中住宅振级限值的修改建议.本文测试分析结果不但对该小区高层住宅建筑确定减振目标,而且对检验和完善我国相关技术标准,均具有较大的实际应用价值.%Several tall residential buildings in a Shanghai residential community have been influenced by the environmental vibration obviously,which lead to a group of residents complained.Through two phases of vibration tests,it is confirmed that the vibration source is the stone processing equipment operated by multiple factories nearby the area.Vibration characteristic analysis is carried out in both time domain and frequency domain for the two tall residential buildings,and compared with the vibration limit under the Chinese standard "the standard of environmental vibration in urban area"(GB10070-1988) and the new national standard "the standard for allowable vibration of building engineering " which is under the approval stage.By further combining the investigation of vibration tolerance of residents,a proposal modification of standard housing vibration limits is put forward.The results could not only be used to decide the vibration mitigation target for this tall building' s residential community,but also provide application value for inspection and completion of relevant technical standards.

  16. Preparation of a modified tall oil dye dispersant and its performances research%一种改性塔罗油染料分散剂的制备及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄漂漂; 刘明华; 郭佳

    2011-01-01

    以塔罗油为原料合成高效染料分散剂,其制备工艺为:塔罗油经过氧化氢预处理后,以高锰酸钾为催化剂,以甲醛和亚硫酸钠混合物为磺化剂进行磺化反应,制备改性塔罗油染料分散剂,并将其应用于还原橄榄T染料,进行分散性能及耐热稳定性研究.结果表明,当磺化时间为3.5h,原料与磺化剂质量比为1∶3,预处理剂质量分数为4.0%,磺化温度为120℃,预处理时间为25 min,催化剂质量分数为0.2%时,所制备的分散剂的分散等级可达4.3级,其在130℃下能保持较好的耐热稳定性能,分散等级仍可达4.0级.%To prepare a high - performance dye dispersant by using tali oil as raw material, a modified tall oil dye dispersant was synthesized by sulfonation with hydrogen peroxide as pre - additive, potassi um hypermanganate as catalyst and sodium sulfite - formaldehyde mixture as sulfonating agent. And the dispersion performance and thermostability of the prepared dye dispersant applied in Vat Olive T were studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions were 3.5 h of the sulfonated time, 1 :3 of the mass ratio of tall oil and sulfonating agent, 4.0% (of the hass fraction) of the pre - additive dosage, 120 t of the sulfonated temperature, 25 min of the pre - reaction time and 0. 2% (of the hass fraction) of the catalyst dosage respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the dispersion level of the modified tall oil dye dispersant could reach 4. 3. In addition, it could maintain excellent thermo stability at 130 t with 4.0 of the dispersion level.

  17. Comportamento de leguminosas (Adesmia, Lotus, Trifolium em mistura com festuca Response of legumes (Adesmia, Lotus, Trifolium in mixture with tall fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2002-11-01

    temperate legumes (Adesmia latifolia (wild, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and Trifolium repens cv. Yi and cv. Regal was evaluated in mixture with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea. There was a period of 475 days between sowing date and the last cut and six cuts were made; on the autumn-winter/2000 only one cut was made, on the spring-summer, three cuts and on the autumn-winter/2001, two cuts. The intervals between cuts ranged between 43 and 91 days, being reduced in the warm season. During the total assay period, the average of the mixtures yielded 15038 kg/ha of DM; in the warm season 54% of this total was produced, with an average growth rate of 46 kg/ha/day of DM. In the cold season of 2000 and 2001 this rate was of 22 and 24 kg/ha/day of DM. The birdsfoot trefoil and white clover cv. Yi were the most productive legumes; the former was the best in the warm season (3500 kg/ha of DM and the last participated with 86,3% in the mixture in the autumn-winter/2001, with 2300 kg/ha/day of DM. The mixtures containing these legumes presented the smallest quantity of weeds and produced 13663 and 11,184 kg/ha of DM respectively, being 82% and 71% of these totals composed of legumes, fescue and ryegrass. A. latifolia did not have a good establishment and its contribution was only 0,84% in the first cut. The L. subbiflorus had a good establishment on the first year, but it disappeared from the mixture in the second year. L. uliginosus had a good establishment and persistence producing up to 1400 kg/ha of DM in the autumn/2001.

  18. Sources of methane and nitrous oxide in California's Central Valley estimated through direct airborne flux and positive matrix factorization source apportionment of groundbased and regional tall tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhinav

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two major greenhouse gases that contribute significantly to the increase in anthropogenic radiative-forcing causing perturbations to the earth's climate system. In a watershed moment in the state's history of environmental leadership and commitment, California, in 2006, opted for sharp reductions in their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adopted a long-term approach to address climate change that includes regulation of emissions from individual emitters and source categories. There are large CH4 and N2O emissions sources in the state, predominantly in the agricultural and waste management sector. While these two gases account for Transects) study. Next, a one-year continuous field campaign (WGC 2012-13, June 2012 - August 2013) was conducted at the Walnut Grove tall tower near the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in the Central Valley. Through analysis of these field measurements, this dissertation presents the apportionment of observed CH4 and N2O concentration enhancements into major source categories along with direct emissions estimates from airborne observations. We perform high-precision measurements of greenhouse gases using gas analyzers based on absorption spectroscopy, and other source marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using state of the art VOC measurement systems (e.g. proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry). We combine these measurements with a statistical source apportionment technique called positive matrix factorization (PMF) to evaluate and investigate the major local sources of CH4 and N2O during CalNex and Walnut Grove campaigns. In the CABERNET study, we combine measurements with an airborne approach to a well-established micrometeorological technique (eddy-covariance method) to derive CH4 fluxes over different source regions in the Central Valley. In the CalNex experiments, we demonstrate that dairy and livestock remains the largest source sector of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the San

  19. Prompting Designers to Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2006-01-01

    Recent research suggest that engineering designers need assistance to understand what information is relevant for their particular design problem. They require guidance in formulating their queries and also to understand what information is relevant for them. This paper presents an approach...... the system. The distinctive features of this approach is that all the concepts are elicited from the minds of engineering designers, and the system builds up knowledge as more documents enter the system. The approach is based on an understanding obtained from a number of empirical studies and also from...

  20. Prompting Designers to Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggest that engineering designers need assistance to understand what information is relevant for their particular design problem. They require guidance in formulating their queries and also to understand what information is relevant for them. This paper presents an approach...... the system. The distinctive features of this approach is that all the concepts are elicited from the minds of engineering designers, and the system builds up knowledge as more documents enter the system. The approach is based on an understanding obtained from a number of empirical studies and also from...

  1. Dosage of loading at elementary training technique of receptions of game volleyball of tall girls 13-14 years [Dozirovanie nagruzki pri nachal'nom obuchenii tekhnike priemov igry volejbol vysokoroslykh devochek 13-14 let

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selezneva O.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Considered features of the elementary training technique basic the reception of playing volley-ball of tall girls. These intensities of implementation of exercises are resulted on physical and technical preparation. It is marked that the trainings loadings must be determined the followings indexes: intensity of work, volume (by duration of work, duration and character of intervals of rest between separate exercises. It is set that on the first stage of teaching the index of intensity of implementation of exercises makes 100-120 shots/minute. It is marked that on the second stage this index makes 120-140 shots/minute. On the third stage - 140-160 shots/minute. In this period of exercise on physical preparation must be executed with maximal intensity.

  2. Modelling of the thermal solicitations of concrete structural elements in tall buildings under natural fires; Modelado de las solicitaciones de los elementos estructurales de hormigon en edificios de gran altura en incendios reales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote Abreu, J. A.; Alvear, D.; Lazaro, M.; Crespo, J.; Fletcher, I.; Welch, S.; Torero, J.

    2011-07-01

    The fire of the Windsor Building in Madrid represents a paradigm in High Rise Building Fires. The present Work analyzes the origin, growth and propagation conditions of natural fires in tall buildings. The Study has been focused on the determination of the thermal exposure conditions (temperatures T, heat fluxes q'', etc.) on the structural members of high rise buildings, at end use conditions, under natural fires using fire computer modeling techniques. Work allowed: 1) validate the predictive capacity of the fluid-dynamics computer models used, 2) apply these models to a specific fire scenario to assess the thermal and the mechanical response of the structural members of a high rise building. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Dansk Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Indhold: Hvad er design?; Hvor kommer dansk design fra?; Produktdesign; Tekstil- og tøjdesign; Design af møbler og boligindretning; Bygningen og design; Arbejdets design; Transportdesign; Offentligt design; Grafisk design; Nye tider og en ny slags design...

  4. Synthesis and Antirust Performance Study on Tall Oil Acid DIethanolamide%妥尔油酸二乙醇酰胺的合成及其润滑防锈性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕俊凡; 黄奋; 钟明

    2013-01-01

    Applied tall oil acid and diethanolamine as raw materials,tall oil acid diethanolamide was prepared.The ratio of raw materials,reaction temperature and time that affected the product properties were investigated.The optimum synthetical conditions were:the materials ratio was 1∶3, airless, temperature was 160℃for 5h.The antirust performance and surface activity of the prod-uct were determined.The results were good and the product was fit for many machining process and many metal materials.%以妥尔油酸和二乙醇胺为原料合成了妥尔油酸二乙醇酰胺防锈剂,探讨了原料量配比、反应温度、反应时间等对产品性质的影响。合成产品的最佳条件是:原料配比为1∶3,在隔绝空气的条件下,升温至160℃左右,反应时间5h。在此条件下合成产品,并配制溶液对其防锈性能及表面活性进行测定,实验结果表明,此产品具有良好的防锈性能,可作为金属加工液的添加剂材料。

  5. WAYS TO OBTAIN AMIDES CONTAINING SALTS 3D-METALS BASED ON TALL OIL ROSIN AND STUDYING THEI INFLUENCE ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE SYSTEM "RUBBER - BRASSED METAL CORD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Kolnogorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This article discusses how to obtain amide-containing salts of 3d-metals based on tall rosin. A scheme of obtaining amide containing salts 3dmetals. The scheme of obtaining amide-containing salts of 3d-metals presented here. Ammonolysis maleopimaric acid was carried out, the technological parameters of the process were identified. Found that the process of ammonolysis affected by the following controlled technological factors: the ratio of the components, the temperature of the reaction medium and the duration of holding ammonolysis. The results of studies of the effect of additives on the received technical and technological properties of the elastomer compositions, adhesion and corrosion resistance rubber-systems are presented. The most efficient promoters are metalcord-rubber adhesion systems for use in the manufacture of tires fitted. Providing the necessary technological properties of manufacturing rubber compounds achieved when using elastomeric compositions consisting of a cobalt salt of amide MTC. Found that necessary to adjust the composition of the vulcanizing system using the synthesized compounds. It was revealed that the elastomeric composition comprising cobalt salt of amide maleated rosin and cobalt naphthenate are less susceptible to oxygen and air at elevated temperature compared to rubber containing salts Mn (II and Cr (III amide MTC. The results of studies of bond strength rubber with steel showed that the adhesive properties of rubber-systems with the test components depend on the dosage and rubber compound. It was determined that the introduction of salts of Co (II, based on amide maleated tall oil rosin at a dosage of 1.5 wt. parts per 100 wt. phr produces indicators adhesion and corrosion properties at the level of those with industrial modifier cobalt naphthenate. The results of research of obtained compounds influence on the technical and technological properties of the elastomer compositions, adhesion and

  6. Teaching Universal Design in the Early Stages of a Design Curriculum: Involving End Users in a Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wendell; Choi, Young Mi; Jones, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introducing Universal Design (UD) early in the design curriculum provides design students with a basic foundational understanding of the Universal Design principles and processes. Additionally, by guiding students on the application of the UD principles and process in designing a solution to a real-world need, students experienced the challenges and tradeoffs such design requires. In Spring 2016, teams of Sophomore-level Industrial Design students were assigned an educational exercise to solve a real-world problem of barriers experienced by people with disabilities during grocery shopping. Students employed the UD process in designing a shopping device enhanced with mobile/wireless enabled features that would be usable by a wide range of users. The shopping device had to function effectively and meet the needs of the general public (men, women, tall, short, etc) while simultaneously meeting the needs of users who have other physical and perceptual limitations such as mobility limitations and visual impairments. In this paper, we discuss the key steps of the educational exercise, as well as lessons learned for improving the exercise for future courses.

  7. Design of Reforma 509 with High Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stuart; Whitby, William; Easton, Marc

    Reforma 509 is a high-rise building located in the heart of the Central Business District of Mexico City. The building is comprised of office, hotel, residential and parking and forms part of a cluster of tall buildings in the area. If completed today, Reforma 509 would be the tallest building in Mexico, at 238m. All of the building's gravity and lateral (wind and seismic) loads are carried by an architecturally expressed perimeter frame that is formed from highly efficient Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) columns coupled together by steel tube perimeter bracing. This paper investigates the implications of substituting a grade 50 (fy=345 MPa) carbon steel with a higher strength micro-alloyed grade 70 (fy=480 MPa) steel in the design of Reforma 509.

  8. Casuística de pacientes com queixa principal de alta estatura atendidos em serviço de referência em Salvador, Bahia Analysis of patients with chief complaint of tall stature seen at a referral hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever uma casuística de pacientes atendidos em serviço de referência em endocrinologia pediátrica com queixa principal de alta estatura. MÉTODOS: Revisão de prontuários de 1.980 pacientes atendidos no período de janeiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2007, incluindo apenas os indivíduos cuja queixa principal, na primeira consulta, fosse sua alta estatura. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 16 pacientes (0,8% do total de primeiras consultas. Destes, 12 preenchiam critérios diagnósticos de alta estatura (escore Z do indicador estatura para idade-ZE/I>2. Sete (58% eram do sexo masculino. A idade em primeira consulta variou entre 3 anos e 4 meses e 13 anos e 3 meses. O ZE/I variou de 2,18 a 5,99 e a altura-alvo, de -1,10 a 1,24. Em relação às causas da alta estatura, concluiu-se que: sete pacientes (58% tinham alta estatura familiar; dois (17% idiopática e três (25% sofriam de causas patológicas (síndrome de Marfan em um e adenoma hipofisário em dois deles. Nos quatro demais, o ZE/I variou de 1,86 a 1,98, não preenchendo critérios para alta estatura. Nestes, a etiologia do crescimento excessivo foi idiopática em dois, familiar em um e causado pela síndrome de Weaver em outro. CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição das etiologias de pacientes avaliados com a queixa de alta estatura está de acordo com a literatura, que relata ser familiar a principal causa. Embora alta estatura seja uma queixa principal pouco freqüente no consultório de endocrinologia pediátrica, a investigação deve ser cuidadosa a fim de se afastarem causas patológicas, que constituíram 25% dos casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe patients followed at a referral service in pediatric endocrinology with the chief complaint of tall stature. METHODS: Chart review of 1,980 patients evaluated from January 2003 to January 2007, being selected only individuals whose main complaint in the first consultation was tall stature. RESULTS: 16 patients were selected (0.8% and 12 of them

  9. A Tall Tale Retold: The Influence of the Photographs of William Henry Jackson upon the Passage of the Yellowstone Park Act of 1872.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossen, Howard

    The photographs of William Henry Jackson taken during the 1871 survey of the Yellowstone region of Wyoming and Montana have often been cited as the first specific group of photographs used for successful persuasion. Many historians credit Jackson's photographs as being the most influential factor in persuading Congress to designate the Yellowstone…

  10. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasetty, Vikram Arkalgud

    2011-01-01

    This book provides insight into the practical design of VLSI circuits. It is aimed at novice VLSI designers and other enthusiasts who would like to understand VLSI design flows. Coverage includes key concepts in CMOS digital design, design of DSP and communication blocks on FPGAs, ASIC front end and physical design, and analog and mixed signal design. The approach is designed to focus on practical implementation of key elements of the VLSI design process, in order to make the topic accessible to novices. The design concepts are demonstrated using software from Mathworks, Xilinx, Mentor Graphic

  11. 干旱胁迫下内生真菌对高羊茅保护酶活性的影响%The Effect of Endophyte on Activities of Protective Enzyme of Tall Fescue Under ought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡桂馨; 王代军; 刘荣堂

    2001-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the soluble carbohydrate and the activities of protective enzyme of endophyte(Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones & Gams)-infected Crossfire II Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and endophyte-uninfected Crossfire II Tall Fescue under sustained drought stress in greenhouse. The activities of the protective enzymes in membrane systems of endophyte-infected Crossfire II and endophyte-uninfected plant were different under drought stress. The activities of CAT in sheath and leaf of the endophyte-infected the one were significantly higher than those of the endophyte-uninfected the one (P<0.05), and the differences of CAT in sheath were more remarkable (P<0.01). However, the activities of POD in the endophyte-infected plant were lower remarkably than those in the endophyte-uninfected plant (P<0.05). During testing it was also found that the morphological characters of drought tolerance of endophyte-infected Crossfire Ⅱ Tall Fescue were much better than that of endophyte-uninfected Crossfire Ⅱ. The recovery rate of the endophyte-infected plant , was above 70% after the treatment of drought stress, but the recovery rate of the endophyte-uninfected plant was lower than 2%.%研究对内生真菌(Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones & Gams)侵染(E+)和未侵染(E-)的交战Ⅱ(Crossfire Ⅱ)高羊茅,在温室持续干旱胁迫下膜系统保护酶活性变化连续测定,发现:在干旱胁迫过程中E+植株的茎、叶中过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性均显著高于E-植株CAT的活性(P<0.05),在茎中的变化差异极显著(P<0.01)。但E+植株与E-植株中的过氧化物酶(POD)的活性表现与CAT活性相反,也就是在干旱胁迫过程中E+植株POD酶活性显著低于E-植株POD活性(P<0.05)。干旱胁迫下,E+植株在抗旱形态特征表现均优于E+植株,其根量、卷叶率均高于不带菌植株;干旱后的恢复率带菌植株达到70%以

  12. 高羊茅在低氮胁迫下的蛋白组学分析%Proteomic analysis of nitrogen stress-responsive proteins in the leaves of tall fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小冬; 舒健虹; 于二汝; 吴佳海; 蔡一鸣; 王小利

    2016-01-01

    为了研究高羊茅在低氮胁迫条件下的蛋白水平变化,我们采用 iTRAP 技术分析了氮胁迫30 d 的高羊茅叶片中蛋白组学的变化。一共检测到595个差异蛋白(295个上调,300个下调),分别参与了多个不同的代谢途径。在高严谨筛选标准下,氮代谢、氧化还原反应以及胁迫相关代谢等多个途径的基因被明显上调表达。通过生理生化测定发现,叶绿素、可溶性蛋白以及游离氨基酸的含量显著下降,而过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)以及谷胱甘肽合成酶(GS)等活性氧清除酶活性显著升高。采用荧光定量 PCR 的方法验证蛋白组学数据发现所有挑选的基因都具有相同的变化趋势。分析显著富集的14-3-3基因家族的表达,发现其都能被低氮胁迫诱导,因此胁迫相关的基因可能是调节高羊茅抵抗多种不同逆境的关键基因。本文首次在高羊茅中采用蛋白组学的方法分析低氮胁迫条件下基因的表达变化,获得重要候选基因,并对其应用进行了讨论。%In order to thoroughly investigate the protein level changes of tall fescue in low-nitrogen conditions, we analyzed the proteome of the leaves from 30 day old plants exposed to low-nitrogen stress using the iTRAP technique.In total,595 proteins were differentially accumulated (295 up-regulated and 300 down-regulated), which participated in diverse metabolic pathways.According to a strict selection standard,we discovered that the genes related to redox reactions and stresses significantly increased.Physiological and biochemical analysis revealed that the contents of chlorophyll,soluble proteins and free amino acid dramatically decreased,while re-active oxygen-scavenging enzymes such as POD,SOD and GS were highly active.The expression pattern of af-fected genes,detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR,coincided with the proteomic data.No-tably,most of the 14

  13. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  14. Design Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Marianne Denise J.

    2006-01-01

    is needed. This paper describes a design concept, in line with the emerging understanding and use of design, and presents a simple tool for support of design management and cooperation in interdisciplinary and intercultural teams. The tool, named “Design Compass”, describes design, not as a profession......, but as a cross field of interacting contexts and places design as both product and process in the centre. It build on a combination of ancient Greek and Roman definitions of man the made and recent models of integrated design by “state of the art” design studios like IDEO. It deals with the interaction...... of contextual based knowledge and values in the design, where integration and optimization acts as the main drive of the process. With this tools design matters can be mapped, described and communicated and knowledge shared among participants in design booth within and among companies and design teams...

  15. TMD Control Research and Design of Tall Buildings Subjected to Seismic Excitat ion%地震作用下高层建筑TMD控制研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春祥

    1999-01-01

    根据导出的设置调谐质量阻尼器(TMD)高层建筑动力放大系数计算公式,利用数值迭代法给出了TMD最优参数设计表格,同时分析了TMD最优设计参数对振型参与系数的敏感性.给出了地震作用下高层建筑TMD控制优化设计方法.最后给出了仿真分析,以说明本设计方法的应用及TMD对地震反应控制的有效性.

  16. 高层钢结构建筑TMD风振舒适度控制设计%DESIGN OF TMD FOR WIND VIBRATION COMFORT CONTROL OF TALL STEEL STRUCTURE BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春祥; 黄金枝

    2000-01-01

    本文研究了TMD-高层钢结构系统的风振舒适度控制设计方法.导出了受控高层钢结构的风振加速度设计计算公式.给出了受控高层钢结构脉动增大系数及有关TMD系统参数实用设计表格.给出了高层结构-TMD系统风振舒适度控制设计过程.算例表明TMD对高层钢结构风振加速度的控制是十分有效的.

  17. Research Design and Statistical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Edna Mora

    1993-01-01

    Presents fourth editorial in series, this one describing research design and explaining its relationship to statistical design. Research design, validity, and research approaches are examined, quantitative research designs and hypothesis testing are described, and control and statistical designs are discussed. Concludes with section on the art of…

  18. Discussion and Research of Tall Buildings for Electrical Fire Prevention Technology Distribution Systems%高层民用建筑供配电系统的电气防火技术探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全乐

    2015-01-01

    In high-rise buildings, high-rise power supply and distribution system belongs to the risks in the projects of the highest, according to the requirements of the high-rise building fire, in power supply and distribution system to implement the electrical fire prevention technology, to avoid potential fire hazard. Senior civil power supply system involves a large number of lines, equipment, can easily lead to accidents, and increases the risk of fire. By studying the distribution system for the supply of tall buildings, we analyzed the application of electrical fire prevention technology.%高层民用建筑中的高层供配电系统属于风险隐患最高的项目,根据高层民用建筑的防火要求,在供配电系统中要落实电气防火技术,规避潜在的火灾隐患。高层民用建筑的供配电系统涉及到大量的线路、设备,很容易引起安全事故,增加了防火的风险。通过对高层民用建筑供配电系统的研究,分析了电气防火技术的应用。

  19. Mutagenesis of beta-1,3-Glucanase Genes in Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3 Results in Reduced Biological Control Activity Toward Bipolaris Leaf Spot of Tall Fescue and Pythium Damping-Off of Sugar Beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; Yuen, Gary Y; Jochum, C Christine; Tatum, Kristin; Kobayashi, Donald Y

    2005-06-01

    ABSTRACT Lysobacter enzymogenes produces extracellular lytic enzymes capable of degrading the cell walls of fungi and oomycetes. Many of these enzymes, including beta-1,3-glucanases, are thought to contribute to the biological control activity expressed by several strains of the species. L. enzymogenes strain C3 produces multiple extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases encoded by the gluA, gluB, and gluC genes. Analysis of the genes indicates they are homologous to previously characterized genes in the related strain N4-7, each sharing >95% amino acid sequence identity to their respective counterparts. The gluA and gluC gene products encode enzymes belonging to family 16 glycosyl hydrolases, whereas gluB encodes an enzyme belonging to family 64. Mutational analysis indicated that the three genes accounted for the total beta-1,3-glucanase activity detected in culture. Strain G123, mutated in all three glucanase genes, was reduced in its ability to grow in a minimal medium containing laminarin as a sole carbon source. Although strain G123 was not affected in antimicrobial activity toward Bipolaris sorokiniana or Pythium ultimum var. ultimum using in vitro assays, it was significantly reduced in biological control activity against Bipolaris leaf spot of tall fescue and Pythium damping-off of sugar beet. These results provide direct supportive evidence for the role of beta-1,3-glucanases in biocontrol activity of L. enzymogenes strain C3.

  20. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....

  1. Evidensbaseret design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Debatindlæg om evidensbaseret design, som argumenterer for at det dels er en gammeldags, modernistisk tilgang til design, dels ikke baserer sig på evidens.......Debatindlæg om evidensbaseret design, som argumenterer for at det dels er en gammeldags, modernistisk tilgang til design, dels ikke baserer sig på evidens....

  2. Transformative Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Kobiella, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural design method, which was tested in a master class for four times. It combines the education of complex digital tools with their simultaneous use in the whole design process of an architectural (experimental) building design. The design method contains four steps...

  3. Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand

    2007-01-01

    . Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design......In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand...

  4. FPGA design

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This book describes best practices for successful FPGA design. It is the result of the author's meetings with hundreds of customers on the challenges facing each of their FPGA design teams. By gaining an understanding into their design environments, processes, what works and what does not work, key areas of concern in implementing system designs have been identified and a recommended design methodology to overcome these challenges has been developed. This book's content has a strong focus on design teams that are spread across sites. The goal being to increase the productivity of FPGA design t

  5. Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand

    2007-01-01

    In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand....... Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design...

  6. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D K

    2014-01-01

    Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) design has moved from costly curiosity to an everyday necessity, especially with the proliferated applications of embedded computing devices in communications, entertainment and household gadgets. As a result, more and more knowledge on various aspects of VLSI design technologies is becoming a necessity for the engineering/technology students of various disciplines. With this goal in mind the course material of this book has been designed to cover the various fundamental aspects of VLSI design, like Categorization and comparison between various technologies used for VLSI design Basic fabrication processes involved in VLSI design Design of MOS, CMOS and Bi CMOS circuits used in VLSI Structured design of VLSI Introduction to VHDL for VLSI design Automated design for placement and routing of VLSI systems VLSI testing and testability The various topics of the book have been discussed lucidly with analysis, when required, examples, figures and adequate analytical and the...

  7. Mechanical design

    CERN Document Server

    Risitano, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    METHODOLOGICAL STATEMENT OF ENGINEERING DESIGNApproaches to product design and developmentMechanical design and environmental requirementsPROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALSMaterials for mechanical designCharacterization of metalsStress conditionsFatigue of materialsOptimum material selection in mechanical designDESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMSFailure theoriesHertz theoryLubrificationShafts and bearingsSplines and keysSpringsFlexible machine elementsSpur gearsPress and shrink fitsPressure tubesCouplingsClutchesBrakes

  8. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  9. Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    explored field, and offers a truly interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of design and the design process. It is valuable reading for students in disciplines such as design studies and theory, participatory design, informatics, arts based education, planning, sociology and interdisciplinary......Design Research is a new interdisciplinary research area with a social science orientation at its heart, and this book explores how scientific knowledge can be put into practice in ways that are at once ethical, creative, helpful, and extraordinary in their results. In order to clarify the common...... aspects – in terms of features and approaches – that characterize all strands of research disciplines addressing design, Design Research undertakes an in depth exploration of the social processes involved in doing design, as well as analyses of the contexts for design use. The book further elicits...

  10. ECO DESIGN IN DESIGN PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    PRALEA Jeni; SOLTUZ Elena

    2014-01-01

    Eco-design is a new domain, required by the new trends and existing concerns worldwide, generated by the necessity of adopting new design principles. New design principles require the designer to provide a friendly relationship between concept created, environment and consume. This "friendly" relationship should be valid both at present and in the future, generating new opportunities for product, product components or materials from which it was made. Awareness, by the designer, the imp...

  11. Design culture and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    2014-01-01

    to change the education of future designers. This is an emerging field at a number of design schools across the world, among these Design School Kolding in Denmark. In this paper we understand and discuss design education as part of a cultural phenomenon. The aim of our research is to develop new dialogue....... In this paper we discuss ways in which design education might contribute in changing the current professional culture in order to meet the need for more sustainable futures....

  12. Designing pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is organizational studies and especially theories about design and design processes in organizations. The concept of design is defined as a particular kind of work aimed at making arrangements in order to change existing situations into desired ones....... The illustrative case example is the introduction of clinical pathways in a psychiatric department. The contribution to a general core of design research is the development of the concept of design work and a critical discussion of the role of technological rules in design work....

  13. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  14. Designing pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is organizational studies and especially theories about design and design processes in organizations. The concept of design is defined as a particular kind of work aimed at making arrangements in order to change existing situations into desired ones....... The illustrative case example is the introduction of clinical pathways in a psychiatric department. The contribution to a general core of design research is the development of the concept of design work and a critical discussion of the role of technological rules in design work....

  15. Investigation of the Influence of Openings on the Wind Effect of Tall Buildings%大开洞对高层建筑风效应的影响研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伏彬; 李秋胜

    2015-01-01

    Force tests of tall buildings with openings at its two levels of 0.5H and 0.85H were conduc-ted in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel,and then the wind-induced base forces were obtained with different parameters,such as the dimension,height,location and amount of the openings.The influ-ences on the wind effects of tall buildings with different openings were investigated on the basis of the basement bending moment coefficients and basement first mode aerodynamic force spectrums.The results show that the basement mean bending moment can be reduced efficiently by the opening at along-wind di-rection,the reduction is more evident for the opening at higher location than that at lower location,and the larger opening also plays more effectual roles for the reduction of basement mean bending moment. The basement mean bending moment at across-wind direction is small,and the value increases in case of large opening,contrary to that for small opening.Furthermore,both of the openings at along-wind and at across-wind directions have influence on the basement fluctuating bending moment.The narrow band fre-quency with a peak value of 0.12,which is close to the reduced frequency of the vortex shedding,is found for both the cases of large opening and small opening.The difference of power spectrum value is more re-markable in lower-frequency section than that in high-frequency section for different cases.%在大气边界层风洞中开展了在0.5H 和0.85H 高度设置洞口的高层建筑刚性模型测力试验,获得不同洞口尺寸、高度、位置以及数量时的高层建筑风致基底反力.从基底弯矩系数和基底一阶广义气动力谱研究了不同洞口设置对高层建筑风效应的影响.研究结果表明:1)顺风向开洞能有效地降低顺风向基底平均弯矩,并且上部开洞效果优于下部开洞,开洞率越大效果越明显;横向基底平均弯矩比较小,大开洞提高基底横向平均弯矩,小开洞则相反

  16. Research Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Gunnar Scott Reinbacher (editor) Antology.  Research Design : Validation in Social Sciences. Gunnar Scott Reinbacher: Introduction. Research design and validity. 15p Ole Riis: Creative Research design. 16 p Lennart Nørreklit: Validity in Research Design. 24p Gitte Sommer Harrits: Praxeological...... knowledge: An integrated strategy for combining "explaining" and "understanding". 22p Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen & Viola Burau: Comparative research designs. 40p Rasmus Antoft & Heidi Houlberg Salomonsen: Studying organizations by a Pragmatic Research Design: the case of qualitative case study  designs. 31p...... Kenneth Mølbjerg Jørgensen: Research as storrytelling: constructing reflexive research practice. 21p Lars Ole Bonde: Reflections on the relationship between research questions, design and methods in the research project "Receptive music therapy with female cancer patients in rehabilitation. 35p Gunnar...

  17. Danish design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Hvordan dansk design bliver innovativt og verdensberømt igen som i storhedstiden i 1950- og 60'erne......Hvordan dansk design bliver innovativt og verdensberømt igen som i storhedstiden i 1950- og 60'erne...

  18. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research......How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...

  19. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research......How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...

  20. Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Design anthropology is a call for a different way of involving anthropology and participatory observation within practices of designing technologies, services, policies and infrastructure that does not aim towards changing human behavior. Here design is considered the process and not the object...... of inquiry. The paper presents a short history of design anthropology, its theoretical underpinnings and methodologies. Theoretically, the emerging field is influenced by processual, critical and action orientated approaches in anthropology. I argue that by combining anthropological methodology and knowledge...... with the future orientated imaginative praxis of design skill and collaborative design processes, anthropology and design could learn from each other. I conclude by referring to what theories, methods, and approaches are in use by practitioners of design anthropology....