WorldWideScience

Sample records for superpower arms control

  1. In the shadow of giants: Superpower arms transfers and Third World conflict during the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsella, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    This is an investigation of the impact of superpower arms transfers on interstate rivalry in the Third World during the Cold War. The study is anchored in a theoretical framework which conceives of interstate rivalry as the basis for the development of security complexes in the international system. In the case of Third World rivalries, these security complexes tend to be local in scope. The superpower security complex was global. The theoretical framework emphasizes the tendency of one security complex to encroach upon another. This study focuses on the extent to which the Cold War was externalized through the process of superpower arms transfers to local rivals. The empirical investigation consists of statistical analysis of four enduring rivalries in the Third World: those between the Arab states and Israel, Iran and Iraq, India and Pakistan, and Ethiopia and Somalia. The author employs a time-series methodology - vector autoregression - which permits a rather rigorous discrimination between cause and effect. A rigorous methodology is essential to decipher the relationship between arms transfer and interstate conflict since there is reason to suspect that causality may be mutual. Historical narratives for each of of the four rivalries facilitate an interpretation of the statistical results, but also serve to highlight anomalies. The results suggest that the impact of superpower arms transfers was most pronounced in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf. Soviet arms transfers to Egypt and Syria tended to exacerbate the Arab-Israeli rivalry. In the case of the Iran-Iraq rivalry, it was American arms transfers to Iran that were influential, but the effect appears to have been a restraining one. An action-reaction dynamic in superpower arms transfers is evident in both these cases. The statistical results are not enlightening for either the India-Pakistan or Ethiopia-Somalia rivalries. Some theoretical refinements to the security-complexes framework are suggested.

  2. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT, 12 Oct 85) . 14 GDR Commentary on Geneva Talks (Various sources,various dates) 19 Military...USSR GENEVA TALKS FRG DEFENSE UNDERSECRETARY SUPPORTS U.S. VIEW ON ARMS CONTROL Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT in German 12 Oct 85 p 3

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of publication be...Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-025 14 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS U.S.-USSR GENEVA TALKS, USSR: Possibility for...34Vreyma" newscast] [Excerpts] A Moscow premiere. Our correspondent reports: The audience is hurrying to a premiere at the Moscow Satire Theater. What

  5. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    world war, a nuclear inferno , for over 40 years. A sober assessment of the situation in world politics was conducted at the meet- ing of the...there is success in stopping the arms race, or those forces accelerating the arms race and driving humanity to the edge of a nuclear inferno will gain...dialogue with all forces fighting against a nuclear inferno , affirmed by the Warsaw Pact countries, is being seen more and more as the only practicable

  6. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  7. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    like tired runners exposed to the sights of millions of viewers. The fear of oxygen starvation was handled by the U.S. President on several levels...and to present the U.S. attitudes as the only way out of the maze of the arms race. It is an attempt to push through the old principles of U.S

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Soviet Laser Expert (N. G. Bazov Interview; CAMBIO 16, 11-18 Feb 85) 86 Unnamed General Urges French ’Star Wars’ Effort (Hoplites; LE MONDE, 6...1024 85 JPRS-TAC-85-002 1 April 1985 SPACE ARMS SPANISH MAGAZINE CITES SOVIET LASER EXPERT PM211619 [Editorial Report] Madrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish

  11. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-12

    Paris AFP 29 Jan] 40 FRANCE Potential of Iraqi CBW, Nuclear Arms Evaluated [E. Marcuse ; L’EXPRESS INTERNATIONAL 18 Jan] 40 Firm Denies...18 Jan 91 p 13 [Article by Elie Marcuse : "Iraq’s Dirty Weapons"] [Excerpts] [passage omitted] There are three possible actions in Iraq’s battle...example, culture media for breeding plague, cholera, and anthrax. Even minor quan- tities of mycotoxins, which can cause cancer even when strongly

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SINMUN in Korean 19 Jan 90 p 2 [ Editorial : "Arms Reduction Amid East-West Reconcil- iation"] [Text] It appears that with the end of cold-war, the...Navigation Radar Deployment PY1701143090 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 17 Jan 90 [Text] Aeronautics Minister Luis Gonzales...airspace and that it can guarantee our sovereignty. Aeronautics Military Under Secretary Installed PY1701125290 La Paz La Red Panamericana in

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    put their feet on the table.... But that Is not the USSR’s problem. It is not for the USSR to teach the rules of etiquette vh~nh are broken in the...34 /12858 CSO: 5200/2634 • 138 - RELATED ISSUES LABOR PARTY DISTRICT CONGRESS: BAN NUCLEAR ARMED SHIPS Oslo AFTENPOSTEN in Norwegian 27 Jan 86 p 3 [Article...that countries which send warships into Norwegian ports should guarantee that these ships are not carry- ing nuclear weapons. The requirement would

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-21

    Mecanica de Vuelo, Intersoft- ware Fagor Electronica , Phier, Standard Entel, G. Mecanica de Vuelo, Intersoft- ware Entel, G. Mecanica de Vuelo...Intersoft- ware, Logic Control Control y Aplicaciones, Dielsa, Eliop, EISA, Sainco CTNE, Fagor Electronica , Standard CTNE, Fagor Electronica , Piher...requirement has provoked a large-scale malaise in the Spanish electronics and data processing sector. The specialized magazine ACTUALIDAD ELECTRONICA

  15. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-19

    the United States and Israel herein creates the danger of the escala - tion of regional conflicts into a global catastrophe. The Imperatives of the...controllable. The suspen- sion of the "Nivomatik" is hydropneumatic. An eight- cylinder liquid-cooled Daimler-Benz diesel engine, the OM 422A, is

  16. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-23

    them. The U.S. version of this surreal vision (or conduct) of military diplomacy could be: It is easy to withdraw tanks (especially if we force them...world, they are also in charge of controlling dreams . It may sound incredible, but the truth is that all dreams other than those about the ideal

  17. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    small schoolchildren learning their com- puter ABCs . The "turtle" is plugged into a computer and the robot rolls over a paper-covered floor drawing...conclusion: "There will always be unresolvable problems concerning the reliability of computer programs. This makes it highly probable that the ( ABM ...data as if tossing tiny balls that are shot down by another computer running an ABM control system program. But even if it is possible to conduct

  18. JPRS Report Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-08

    at meetings like this, soviet, American, West German, British and other experts represent only them- selves and their research centres . But I...under de Gaulle and G. Pompidou . As long as the factors which gave birth to the Atlantic system exist, it will continue to exist and to have a...Although American-French relations improved at first under G. Pompidou , this was only a temporary thaw. When Washington was unable to gain control of

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    68 FRG’s Kohlý xpresses Support for Geneva Summit(Hambur DPA, 6 Dc85) 69. (amburg DP,6 Dec 8)................... • ............ 6 Norwegian Papers...from a In their view, those who com- battle-support role to its overall mand outer space will exercise militarization. Furthermore, their global control...Zagladin, doctor of philosophical sciences, "specialist for questions of the communist and workers movement, international relations, and global problems of

  20. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  1. Dual arm master controller concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  2. Dual arm master controller development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin

    2014-01-01

    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  4. Arms control and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkowicz, R. (ed.); Joeck, N.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers delivered at a symposium held at the University of California, in 1983. It provides the discussions upon the value and importance of arms debate. The paper presents an expression of personal views rather than an analysis of the arguments of the primary presentations.

  5. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  6. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  7. Information Warfare Arms Control: Risks and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    legal system and the modern concept of arms control were able to provide for national and international collective security during the Cold War...information warfare presents many challenges that question their viability. The most significant challenges are to the international legal system , which

  8. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  9. The USA: Challenges of the Superpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ketevan Rostiashvili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Soviet Union function and mission of the United States in the contemporary world system is one of the most debatable problems of academic litera-ture. This article is an attempt to analyze most recent socioeconomic and political tendencies of the USA for better understanding the scale of ongoing transformation of the society. As the level of integration of contemporary world is very high, transfor-mation of the USA provokes tectonic changes and transformation of the world system, its structure and nature. This study argues that, although the US primacy in the world is significantly challenged and shaken by external and internal factors, the USA still preserves its traditional function of economic, financial, military and political superpow-er, but in a quite different environment. The article predominantly uses materials drawn from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, The World Fact book 2012; U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the USA - 2012, the US Federal Budgets 2010-2012, and other valuable literature and sources.

  10. Virtual superheroes: using superpowers in virtual reality to encourage prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Robin S; Baughman, Shawnee L; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that playing prosocial video games leads to greater subsequent prosocial behavior in the real world. However, immersive virtual reality allows people to occupy avatars that are different from them in a perceptually realistic manner. We examine how occupying an avatar with the superhero ability to fly increases helping behavior. Using a two-by-two design, participants were either given the power of flight (their arm movements were tracked to control their flight akin to Superman's flying ability) or rode as a passenger in a helicopter, and were assigned one of two tasks, either to help find a missing diabetic child in need of insulin or to tour a virtual city. Participants in the "super-flight" conditions helped the experimenter pick up spilled pens after their virtual experience significantly more than those who were virtual passengers in a helicopter. The results indicate that having the "superpower" of flight leads to greater helping behavior in the real world, regardless of how participants used that power. A possible mechanism for this result is that having the power of flight primed concepts and prototypes associated with superheroes (e.g., Superman). This research illustrates the potential of using experiences in virtual reality technology to increase prosocial behavior in the physical world.

  11. Virtual superheroes: using superpowers in virtual reality to encourage prosocial behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin S Rosenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that playing prosocial video games leads to greater subsequent prosocial behavior in the real world. However, immersive virtual reality allows people to occupy avatars that are different from them in a perceptually realistic manner. We examine how occupying an avatar with the superhero ability to fly increases helping behavior. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a two-by-two design, participants were either given the power of flight (their arm movements were tracked to control their flight akin to Superman's flying ability or rode as a passenger in a helicopter, and were assigned one of two tasks, either to help find a missing diabetic child in need of insulin or to tour a virtual city. Participants in the "super-flight" conditions helped the experimenter pick up spilled pens after their virtual experience significantly more than those who were virtual passengers in a helicopter. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that having the "superpower" of flight leads to greater helping behavior in the real world, regardless of how participants used that power. A possible mechanism for this result is that having the power of flight primed concepts and prototypes associated with superheroes (e.g., Superman. This research illustrates the potential of using experiences in virtual reality technology to increase prosocial behavior in the physical world.

  12. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  13. REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN 2011REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN 2011%REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN2011REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Schulte

    2011-01-01

    @@ The first vision for removing the threat of nuclear weapons, within a year of their first use, was the far-reaching agenda of the Acheson Lilienthal Report on the International Control of Atomic Energy in 1946[1] proposing that all fissile material should be transferred to a new international agency (the Atomic Development Authority) which would release small amounts to individual nations for peaceful uses.This proposal, like many others, fell victim to the ideologically aggravated suspicions of the Cold War.But, over time, and even during periods of intense east-west suspicion, a substantial body of negotiated agreements has been achieved.Almost all necessarily involved the nuclear superpowers, who led the way in the expansion of nuclear weapons, and whose arsenals therefore needed to be limited as a precondition for achieving wider global nuclear stability.

  14. Embedded Ethernet Controller using ARM LPC2138

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Magadum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available — With the development of network technology and communication technology needs that industrial control can be completed via network has become a trend. Here the proposed system consists of an ARM processor LPC2148 with an external Ethernet interface controller WIZ810MJ and the whole system can function as a web server. In the system the data can be transmitted transparently between host and serial device. The host can communicate with any serial device connected Ethernet without knowing each other’s physical location. Since ARM processor has fast execution capability and Ethernet standard can provide internet access with reasonable speed, this system is suitable for enhancing security in industrial conditions by remotely monitoring various industrial appliances where high safety and care is a necessity. There is no doubt that this system will be useful for a wide variety of industrial applications.

  15. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  16. Compendium of Arms Control Verification Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    ICBM launchers and not being able to see them at all times, witness the counting of SLBM launchers. The proposed MX basing scheme will probably be...national control agency* conducting on-site inspection of the destruc- tion process. It would witness and confirm both the completeness of the destruction...34NPT Safeguards: The Limits of Credibility". Arms Control 1, no. 2 (September 1980): 177-198. B17 (A80) India. CD/PV.47, 2 August 1979. (CTB). 135(179

  17. Adaptive Control of Robotic arm with Hysteretic Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Somasundar; Bezzaoucha, Souad; Quintanar Guzman, Serket; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of control of robotic arm with a hysteretic joint behavior. The mechanical design of the one-degree of freedom robotic arm is presented where the joint is actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire. The SMA wire based actuation of the joint makes the robotic arm lightweight but at the same time introduces hysteresis type nonlinearities. The nonlinear dynamic model of the robotic arm is introduced and an Adaptive control solution is pres...

  18. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  19. Robust coordinated control of a dual-arm space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingling; Kayastha, Sharmila; Katupitiya, Jay

    2017-09-01

    Dual-arm space robots are more capable of implementing complex space tasks compared with single arm space robots. However, the dynamic coupling between the arms and the base will have a serious impact on the spacecraft attitude and the hand motion of each arm. Instead of considering one arm as the mission arm and the other as the balance arm, in this work two arms of the space robot perform as mission arms aimed at accomplishing secure capture of a floating target. The paper investigates coordinated control of the base's attitude and the arms' motion in the task space in the presence of system uncertainties. Two types of controllers, i.e. a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) and a nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (MPC) are verified and compared with a conventional Computed-Torque Controller (CTC) through numerical simulations in terms of control accuracy and system robustness. Both controllers eliminate the need to linearly parameterize the dynamic equations. The MPC has been shown to achieve performance with higher accuracy than CTC and SMC in the absence of system uncertainties under the condition that they consume comparable energy. When the system uncertainties are included, SMC and CTC present advantageous robustness than MPC. Specifically, in a case where system inertia increases, SMC delivers higher accuracy than CTC and costs the least amount of energy.

  20. Arms control and the rule of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  1. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  2. Embedded ARM Control Robotic Arm using BoaWeb server – a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sirisha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s market, the competing microprocessors are ARM (Advanced Risc Microprocessor, Intel, AMD. ARM is preferred since it has been powering portable devices for decades and has simple architecture to keep the energy waste to be minimum. The electronics advancements and embedded technology advancements have become a challenging field in today’s techno world. In paper, the diligent features of embedded systems are introduced. It deals about how a robot is controlled using embedded operating system and ARM. Based on the combination of ARM, DSP and ARM Linux, the robot is controlled. The paper introduces development of embedded robot control system using Wi-Fi and also IOT. The embedded control system design includes four aspects. i.e., system structure, functions, hardware design and software design. By using these aspects (hardware and software adjustments, many robotic applications can be developed. Due to the fast execution speed and reasonable Ethernet speed in ARM processor, this system can be used in industrial oriented applications where there is very much necessity of safety and security.

  3. Modelling and control of two coordinated robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the two arms as working on the same object simultaneously and as a closed kinematic chain. In both formulations, a novel dynamic control method is used which is based on feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling.

  4. The International Arms Control and Disarmament Situation in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Yidan; Yu Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    In 2015,the situation of the international arms control and disarmament was in the overall stability,the United States and Russia continued to promote the performance process of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty(New START),the final agreement on the Iran nuclear issue was signed.But the ninth Review

  5. Hydraulically controlled flexible arm can bend in any direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, F. D.

    1966-01-01

    Arm assembly consisting of four flexible tubes controlled by a four-way hydraulic or pneumatic valve can bend in any direction. The flexible arm could be used for probing areas that cannot be reached by ordinary tools, handling hazardous materials, and for graph recording.

  6. US-Russian relations: the arms control agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, W

    2001-07-01

    At a time when US-Russian relations are widely regarded to be in a state of flux, it is appropriate to examine the degree of continuity and change in the sphere of nuclear arms control. More specifically, this brief essay identifies a number of propositions about nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation that increasingly reflect the conventional wisdom in Washington, although these propositions may be neither true nor wise; and assesses the prospects for arms control progress in the areas of strategic and non-strategic nuclear weapons and nonproliferation in light of these prevailing views. (author)

  7. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  8. Control of flexible arms with friction in the joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, V. [E.T.S.I. Industriales de la UNED, Madrid (Spain). Dept. Ingenieria Electrica; Rattan, K.S. [Wright State Univ. Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Brown, H.B. Jr. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.

    1993-08-01

    The control of flexible arms with friction in the joints is studied. A method to identify the dynamics of a flexible arm from its frequency response (which is strongly distorted by Coulomb`s friction) is proposed. A robust control scheme that minimizes the effects of this friction is presented. The scheme consists of two nested feedback loops: an inner loop to control the motor position and an outer loop to control the tip position. It is shown that a proper design of the inner loop eliminates the effect so friction while controlling the tip position and significantly simplifies the design of the outer loop. The proposed scheme is applied to a class of lightweight flexible arms, and the experiments show that the control scheme results in a simple controller. As a result, the computations are minimized and, thus, high sampling rates may be used.

  9. Modelling and Control of 5 dof Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Gökhan Adar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic modeling of a 5 DOF Robotic Arm was carried out. The Robotic Arm totally had 5 DOF spatial articulated arm which consist of 3 parts. The modeling of dynamic equations of motion were based on Lagrange-Euler equations. The equations were taked into matrix-vector form. The parts of Robotic Arm had been in free fall to see the accuracy of the equations of motion and each joint graphs were obtained. A control algorithm was designed to achieve the position of the joint corresponding to the desired scenario. PID control algorithm is used in this study. As a result of the simulation of the orbits of the cubic joint position had been followed up successfully.

  10. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  11. Weintek interfaces for controlling the position of a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Ilia, M.; Ilut, T.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Dragan, F.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the use of Weintek panels to control the position of a robotic arm, operated step by step on the three motor axes. PLC control interface is designed with a Weintek touch screen. The HMI Weintek eMT3070a is the user interface in the process command of the PLC. This HMI controls the local PLC, entering the coordinate on the axes X, Y and Z. The subject allows the development in a virtual environment for e-learning and monitoring the robotic arm actions.

  12. Robot Arm Control Exploiting Natural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    and the approach taken in this thesis is the role of the robot dynamics . In traditional control, the robot is viewed as a general purpose manipulator...robot, and the robot control enforces that command. The robot dynamics are generally ignored or canceled, and certainly do not play a part in how the...task is planned. The approach taken in this thesis is the opposite: the robot dynamics are crucial for the performance of the task as they determine

  13. Visual Recognition and Its Application to Robot Arm Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Gau Juang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of optical word recognition and fuzzy control to a smartphone automatic test system. The system consists of a robot arm and two webcams. After the words from the control panel that represent commands are recognized by the robot system, the robot arm performs the corresponding actions to test the smartphone. One of the webcams is utilized to capture commands on the screen of the control panel, the other to recognize the words on the screen of the tested smartphone. The method of image processing is based on the Red-Green-Blue (RGB and Hue-Saturation-Luminance (HSL color spaces to reduce the influence of light. Fuzzy theory is used in the robot arm’s position control. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR technique is applied to the word recognition, and the recognition results are then checked by a dictionary process to increase the recognition accuracy. The camera which is used to recognize the tested smartphone also provides object coordinates to the fuzzy controller, then the robot arm moves to the desired positions and presses the desired buttons. The proposed control scheme allows the robot arm to perform different assigned test functions successfully.

  14. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  15. Conventional Arms Export Control Reform: Cutting the Gordian Knot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-06

    United States Munitions List ( USML ) of specific controlled items and the appropriate regulations, International Trade in Arms Regulations, (ITAR), to...establish and enforce the regulations and USML in coordination with the other departments with export control responsibilities or interests.11 The...because their control may be for foreign policy or economic reasons.14 The CCL is a separate and distinct list from the USML . Most in government and

  16. Photoelectric radar servo control system based on ARM+FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yeqiu; Dai, Qin; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to get smaller, faster, and more responsive requirements of the photoelectric radar servo control system. We propose a set of core ARM + FPGA architecture servo controller. Parallel processing capability of FPGA to be used for the encoder feedback data, PWM carrier modulation, A, B code decoding processing and so on; Utilizing the advantage of imaging design in ARM Embedded systems achieves high-speed implementation of the PID algorithm. After the actual experiment, the closed-loop speed of response of the system cycles up to 2000 times/s, in the case of excellent precision turntable shaft, using a PID algorithm to achieve the servo position control with the accuracy of + -1 encoder input code. Firstly, This article carry on in-depth study of the embedded servo control system hardware to determine the ARM and FPGA chip as the main chip with systems based on a pre-measured target required to achieve performance requirements, this article based on ARM chip used Samsung S3C2440 chip of ARM7 architecture , the FPGA chip is chosen xilinx's XC3S400 . ARM and FPGA communicate by using SPI bus, the advantage of using SPI bus is saving a lot of pins for easy system upgrades required thereafter. The system gets the speed datas through the photoelectric-encoder that transports the datas to the FPGA, Then the system transmits the datas through the FPGA to ARM, transforms speed datas into the corresponding position and velocity data in a timely manner, prepares the corresponding PWM wave to control motor rotation by making comparison between the position data and the velocity data setted in advance . According to the system requirements to draw the schematics of the photoelectric radar servo control system and PCB board to produce specially. Secondly, using PID algorithm to control the servo system, the datas of speed obtained from photoelectric-encoder is calculated position data and speed data via high-speed digital PID algorithm and coordinate models. Finally, a

  17. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M

    2015-12-01

    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling.

  18. Arms control verification: The technologies that make it possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipis, K.; Hafemeister, D.W.; Janeway, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on arms control verification. Topics considered include the politics of treaty verification and compliance, national security, remote sensing, image processing, image enhancement by digital computer, charge-coupled device image sensors, radar imaging, infrared surveillance, monitoring, seismological aspects, satellite verifications, seismic verification, and verifying a fissile material production freeze.

  19. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  20. Walking Posture Control of Transmission Line Single Arm Inspection Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Li, Jinliang; Ou, Yuexiong

    2017-07-01

    To control the walking posture according to transmission line single arm inspection robot, the robot is divided into normal walking and climbing walking two state, and gives the definition, then based on the state space method of state variable feedback and PD control method is used to control the two states, two kinds of control method of simulation by using Matlab, in the end, the two control methods proposed is validated in the actual circuit structures. The results show that, the proposed control method is rapid and effective, and can meet the needs of practical application.

  1. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. editor

    1998-12-04

    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  2. Robust control of a hydraulically driven flexible arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang LI; Khajepour AMIR

    2004-01-01

    A new robust controller is proposed to regulate both flexural vibrations and rigid body motion of a hydraulically driven flexible arm. The controller combines backstepping control and sliding mode to arrive at a controller capable of dealing with a nonlinear system with uncertainties. The sliding mode technique is used to achieve an asymptotic joint angle and vibration regulation in the presence of payload uncertainty by providing a virtual torque input at the joint while the backstepping technique is used to regulate the spool position of a hydraulic valve to provide the required torque. It is shown that there is no chatter in the hydraulic valve, which results in smoother operation of the system.

  3. Current Situation of International Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong; Xianfu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Currently,international nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament process is showing both encouraging and frustrating signs,with a stress on the latter.The following is a general picture:First,the new U.S.-Russian nuclear disarmament process faces challenges and prospect of a new round of nuclear disarmament negotiation is grim.As a result of implementing the New START signed in February 2011,as of March 1,2014,the United States has 1585

  4. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ROBOTICS ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Margun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model of the control object. Systems of equations describing the behavior of considered dynamical system are obtained according to the Newton and Euler-Lagrange laws. Expressions are offered, defining the inertia tensor and the position of the system center of mass depending on the current position of the manipulator, and the torque acting on the quadrocopter from the manipulator. Feedback linearization with arm influence compensation on quadrocopter is applied for the resulting nonlinear coupled system. As a result, robot dynamics equations have been converted to a linear stationary system. Converted system control is achieved by a proportional-differential controller. Examined system simulation is done with control method described in the paper and the classical method based on a proportional-differential controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides higher accuracy of the tracking error, than control method by means of proportional-differential regulator.

  5. Prosthetic arm monitoring system using a programmable interface controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, B A; Schoenberg, J S; Self, B P; Bagley, A

    2001-01-01

    Children with upper extremity limb deficiency are often prescribed a prosthetic arm to assist with daily function. Three types of prostheses are available: passive, active body-powered, and active myoelectric; costs range from $3,000 to $15,000. Clinicians rely on parent and child feedback regarding the usefulness of the prosthesis, and may assess the child's skill in using the device in a controlled setting. However, these methods do not provide an objective quantification of the wear and use of the device during daily activities. The purpose of this project is to develop a sensor to record the amount of time per day the prosthetic arm is worn, and to count the number of times per day the child activates (closes) the prosthetic hand (or terminal device). The system that has been developed can be integrated unobtrusively into a child's prosthetic arm. A programmable interface controller (PIC) with interface circuitry and memory was developed to record the daily wear pattern and hand usage of the prosthesis at 15-minute intervals. Memory and battery capacities are sufficient to record data over a three-month period. A personal computer interface downloads the collected data and may be used to reprogram the device for different time periods of data collection. All components, including the battery, have a mass of 87 grams and fit inside the forearm cavity of a 9-year old's prosthesis. Controlled trials are underway at Shriners Hospital for Children, Northern California, to determine system reliability.

  6. VFI-based Robotic Arm Control for Natural Adaptive Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosung Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since neural oscillator based control methods can generate rhythmic motion without information on system dynamics, they can be a promising alternative to traditional motion planning based control approaches. However, for field application, they still need to be robust against unexpected forces or changes in environments so as to be able to generate “natural motion” like most biological systems. In this study a biologically inspired control algorithm that combines neural oscillators and virtual force is proposed. This work gives the condition with respect to parameters tuning to stably activate the neural oscillators. This is helpful to achieve motion adaptability to environmental changes keeping the motion repeatability. He efficacy and efficiency of the proposed methods are tested in the control of a planar three-linkage robotic arm. It is shown that the proposed controller generates a given circular path stably and repeatedly, even with unexpected contact with a wall. The adaptivity of motion control is also tested in control of a robotic arm with redundant degrees of freedom. The proposed control algorithm works throughout the simulations and experiments.

  7. Riot Control Agents and Chemical Weapons Arms Control in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Giovanello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of riot control agents as it relates to the subject of chemical weapons arms control at the international level and, more specifically, implications for the United States. The article examines how the issue of riot control agents has complicated efforts for the United States to enter into and ratify chemical weapons-related arms control agreements. The article provides an overview of chemical weapons, examines the relevant arms control agreements, explores why and how riot control agents influence debates over the merits of these treaties, and explains why riot control agents remain a contentious issue in chemical weapons arms control and foreign policy in the United States.

  8. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam

    1989-01-01

    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  9. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

  10. Tags and seals to strengthen arms control verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-10-03

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags are intended as single-point markers, seals for two-point couplings, and nets for volume containment. Seals usually bind two separate components, such as a hatch or flange that provides access to a secure compartment or a valve that controls fluid flow. A tamper-revealing net might be comprised of a coupled fiberoptic bundle wrapped around an object. Sometimes the term ``seal`` is used to denote the tamper-revealing feature of a tag that is attached to a surface, but in this paper the tamper-indicating connection is considered to be part of the tag concept itself.

  11. Light Duty Utility Arm interface control document plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, J.W.

    1994-12-27

    This document describes the interface control documents that will be used to identify and control interface features throughout all phases of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) development and design. After the system is built, delivered and installed in the Cold Test Facility and later at the tank farm, the Interface Control Documents can be used in maintaining the configuration control process. The Interface Control Document will consist of Interface Control Drawings and a data base directly tied to the Interface Control Drawings. The data base can be used as an index to conveniently find interface information. Design drawings and other text documents that contain interface information will appear in the database. The Interface Control Drawings will be used to document and control the data and information that define the interface boundaries between systems, subsystems and equipment. Also, the interface boundaries will define the areas of responsibility for systems and subsystems. The drawing will delineate and identify all the physical and functional interfaces that required coordination to establish and maintain compatibility between the co-functioning equipment, computer software, and the tank farm facilities. An appendix contains the Engineering interface control database system riser manual.

  12. Kinect-Based Sliding Mode Control for Lynxmotion Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ben Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the technological development of manipulator robot increases very quickly and provides a positive impact to human life. The implementation of the manipulator robot technology offers more efficiency and high performance for several human’s tasks. In reality, efforts published in this context are focused on implementing control algorithms with already preprogrammed desired trajectories (passive robots case or trajectory generation based on feedback sensors (active robots case. However, gesture based control robot can be considered as another channel of system control which is not widely discussed. This paper focuses on a Kinect-based real-time interactive control system implementation. Based on LabVIEW integrated development environment (IDE, a developed human-machine-interface (HMI allows user to control in real time a Lynxmotion robotic arm. The Kinect software development kit (SDK provides a tool to keep track of human body skeleton and abstract it into 3-dimensional coordinates. Therefore, the Kinect sensor is integrated into our control system to detect the different user joints coordinates. The Lynxmotion dynamic has been implemented in a real-time sliding mode control algorithm. The experimental results are carried out to test the effectiveness of the system, and the results verify the tracking ability, stability, and robustness.

  13. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meek, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs

  14. Uncalibrated Neuro-Visual Servoing Control for Multiple Robot Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García-Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse image-based tracking schemes for a robot moving in free motion have been proposed and experimentally validated. However, few visual servoing schemes have addressed the tracking of the desired trajectory and the contact forces for multiple robot arms. The main difficulty stems from the fact that camera information cannot be used to drive force trajectories. Recognizing this fact, a unique error manifold that includes position-velocity and force errors in orthogonal complements is proposed. A synergistic scheme that fuses camera, encoder and force sensor signals into a unique error manifold allows proposing a control system which guarantees exponential tracking errors under parametric uncertainty. Additionally a small neural network driven by a second order sliding mode surface is derived to compensate robot dynamics. Residual errors that arise because of the finite size of the neural network are compensated via an orthogonalized second order sliding mode. The performance of the proposed scheme, in two significant applications of the multiple robot arms, is validated through numerical simulations.

  15. Control interfaces to actively support the arm function of men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo Prat, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Adults with DMD can benefit from active arm supports that augment their residual functional capabilities. However, intuitively controlled and fully actuated arm supports are currently not commercially available and adults with DMD are limited to use external robotic arms which contribute to the disu

  16. Modeling, design, and control of flexible manipulator arms: Status and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for higher performance manipulators has lead to dynamic behavior in which the flexibility is an essential aspect. The mathematical representations commonly used in modeling flexible arms and arms with flexible drives are examined first. Then design considerations directly arising from the flexible nature of the arm are discussed. Finally, controls of joints for general and tip motion are discussed.

  17. Templating as a Chain of Custody Tool for Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2013-06-01

    Historically, templates have been considered for use as a treaty accountable item (TAI) authentication tool, alongside item attributes. Because of this, the use of templates has fallen by the wayside due to the perceived intrusiveness of and handling/storage of template data; especially when compared to the negotiability of unclassified attribute threshold values. However, as a chain of custody tool, templates potentially have a large and important role to play in maintaining confidence in the authenticity of the treaty accountable items as they progress through an arms control regime. In general terms, templating is the process of creating a unique, measurable, and repeatable signature which is representative of the TAI. At any point in time, the signature can be re-measured or re-inspected to verify the signature has not changed. Chain of custody is the process by which a controlled boundary is established and maintained around a TAI to both deter and detect unauthorized access to the item. Typically, this is accomplished by putting a tamper indicating device (TID) on the item or container. The TID now acts as a surrogate for the item itself, and is continually checked to ensure the unique identifier and tamper indicating mechanisms have not changed since last inspection. This in and of itself is a form of templating. A stronger template is one that utilizes a signature of the combined item and container. There are many potential signatures which may be exploited, including radiation-, electromagnetic-, and acoustic-based signatures. This paper/presentation will explore the technology and mechanisms in which templating can be applied to create a more robust chain of custody over treaty accountable items as part of a future arms control regime.

  18. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G K

    2005-06-10

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages.

  19. Lyapunov function-based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness, and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of joint level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to a recently proposed energy-like Liapunov function approach, except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. This approach gives way to a much simpler analysis and leads to a new class of control designs which guarantee both global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and parameter uncertainty are present as model perturbations, a sliding mode-like modification of the control law results in a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is formulated within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by simply replacing unknown model parameters by their estimates (i.e., certainty equivalence adaptation).

  20. Lyapunov function-based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness, and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of joint level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to a recently proposed energy-like Liapunov function approach, except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. This approach gives way to a much simpler analysis and leads to a new class of control designs which guarantee both global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and parameter uncertainty are present as model perturbations, a sliding mode-like modification of the control law results in a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is formulated within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by simply replacing unknown model parameters by their estimates (i.e., certainty equivalence adaptation).

  1. The Redundant Arm Self-motion Control Based on Self-tuning Fuzzy PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu(刘宇); Sun Lining; Du Zhijiang

    2004-01-01

    A fuzzy control algorithm based on self-tuning PID proportional factor is presented. To a certain degree, it overcomes robot motion control's nonlinearity and uncertainty caused by joints coupled and friction, and decreases overshoot of end manipulator's tracking desired curves. The controller's structure is very simple but effective. With this control method, a 7-DOF redundant arm's self-motion developed by the authors is investigated. Research results show that the said controller restrains track overshoot and possesses preferable merits.

  2. Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    adopted a number of agreements that address non-nuclear weapons. The CFE Treaty and Open Skies Treaty sought to stabilize the conventional balance in...38 Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty ( CFE ) ....................................................... 38...Armed Forces in Europe Treaty ( CFE ) and the Open Skies Treaty were a part of the late-Cold War effort to enhance stability and predictability in

  3. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  4. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  5. 75 FR 28848 - Determination and Certification Under Section 40a of the Arms Export Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under Section 40a of the Arms Export Control Act Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2781), and Executive Order 11958, as amended, I hereby determine...

  6. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  7. 77 FR 31909 - Determination and Certification Under the Arms Export Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under the Arms Export Control Act Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2781), and Executive Order 11958, as amended, I hereby determine and certify to...

  8. 76 FR 818 - Bureau of Nonproliferation; Determination Under the Arms Export Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Bureau of Nonproliferation; Determination Under the Arms Export Control Act AGENCY: Department of State... determination pursuant to Section 73 of the Arms Export Control Act and has concluded that publication of...

  9. Anthropometric considerations for a 4-axis side-arm flight controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debellis, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A data base on multiaxis side-arm flight controls was generated. The rapid advances in fly-by-light technology, automatic stability systems, and onboard computers have combined to create flexible flight control systems which could reduce the workload imposed on the operator by complex new equipment. This side-arm flight controller combines four controls into one unit and should simplify the pilot's task. However, the use of a multiaxis side-arm flight controller without complete cockpit integration may tend to increase the pilot's workload.

  10. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    numerical coefficients or weights. Although the function development may require much computational time and many training cases, the resulting discrimination functions can run in realtime on modest computers. These results suggest that myoelectric signals might be a feasible teleoperation medium, allowing an operator to use his or her own hand and arm as a master to intuitively control an anthropomorphic robot in a remote location such as outer space.

  11. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Naturalization Service. This section does not apply to individuals who may be traveling with a prisoner and armed... aircraft operator may provide a prisoner under the control of a law enforcement officer— (1) With food or beverage or metal eating utensils unless authorized to do so by the armed law enforcement officer. (2) With...

  12. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  13. Dynamic Balance Control of Multi-arm Free-Floating Space Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of the dynamic balance control of multi-arm free-floating space robot during capturing an active object in close proximity. The position and orientation of space base will be affected during the operation of space manipulator because of the dynamics coupling between the manipulator and space base. This dynamics coupling is unique characteristics of space robot system. Such a disturbance will produce a serious impact between the manipulator hand and the object. To ensure reliable and precise operation, we propose to develop a space robot system consisting of two arms, with one arm (mission arm for accomplishing the capture mission, and the other one (balance arm compensating for the disturbance of the base. We present the coordinated control concept for balance of the attitude of the base using the balance arm. The mission arm can move along the given trajectory to approach and capture the target with no considering the disturbance from the coupling of the base. We establish a relationship between the motion of two arm that can realize the zeros reaction to the base. The simulation studies verified the validity and efficiency of the proposed control method.

  14. Design and Implementation of Prosthetic Arm using Gear Motor Control Technique with Appropriate Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Neogi, Biswarup; Ghosal, Soumya; Das, Achintya; Tibarewala, D N

    2011-01-01

    Any part of the human body replication procedure commences the prosthetic control science. This paper highlights the hardware design technique of a prosthetic arm with implementation of gear motor control aspect. The prosthetic control arm movement has been demonstrated in this paper applying processor programming and with the successful testing of the designed prosthetic model. The architectural design of the prosthetic arm here has been replaced by lighter material instead of heavy metal, as well as the traditional EMG (electro myographic) signal has been replaced by the muscle strain.

  15. Coordinated Resolved Motion Control of Dual-arm Manipulators with Closed Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Tianliang Liu; Yan Lei; Liang Han; Wenfu Xu; Huaiwu Zou

    2016-01-01

    When applied to some tasks, such as payload handling, assembling, repairing and so on, the two arms of a humanoid robot will form a closed kinematic chain. It makes the motion planning and control for dual‐arm coordination very complex and difficult. In this paper, we present three types of resolved motion control methods for a humanoid robot during coordinated manipulation. They are, respectively, position‐level, velocity‐level and acceleration‐level resolved motion control methods. The desi...

  16. Cutaneous vascular control in the arms of women with postmastectomy oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, A W; Levick, J R; Mortimer, P S

    1996-05-01

    The control of forearm skin blood flow was examined in the swollen arms of twelve women with oedema caused by breast cancer treatment. The swollen arm was compared with the opposite unaffected (control) arm. Using laser Doppler flux (LDF) and continuous finger blood pressure (BP) measurements, vascular control was tested by applying a range of provocations previously shown to alter cutaneous vascular resistance (CVR) in healthy subjects. The tests and the accepted mechanism were: post-ischaemic hyperaemia (locally mediated vasodilatation), inspiratory gasp and cool reflex (both sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction), arm dependency (locally mediated vasoconstriction), and core heat load (sympathetically mediated vasodilatation). CVR was calculated as BP/(LDF-biological zero). Three differences between the control and swollen arms were identified. (i) The laser Doppler biological zero signal was significantly higher on the swollen side (P = 0.005, Student's paired t test). (ii) Baseline LDF was significantly lower on the swollen side (P = 0.002), and apparent CVR correspondingly higher. (iii) Cumulative reactive hyperaemia (area under the LDF curve above baseline) was significantly less on the swollen side (P = 0.03), although peak flux was not significantly different. Inspiratory gasp, cool reflex, arm dependency and core heat load produced changes of similar magnitude in both arms. It appears that sympathetic neural control and local vasoconstrictor control in arm dependency are normal in arm lymphoedema but that locally mediated vasodilator control is impaired. In addition, baseline skin blood flow may be reduced in this condition. The results provide no support for impairment of vascular tone as a contributory factor to the oedematous state.

  17. Admittance Control of a Multi-Finger Arm Based on Manipulability of Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Hori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the previous studies, admittance control and impedance control for a finger‐arm robot using the manipulability of the finger were studied and methods of realizing the controls have been proposed. In this study, two 3‐DOF fingers are attached to the end‐effector of a 6‐DOF arm to configure a multi‐finger arm robot. Based on the previous methods, the authors have proposed an admittance control for a multi‐finger arm robot using the manipulability of the fingers in this study. Algorithms of the averaging method and the mini‐max method were introduced to establish a manipulability criterion of the two fingers in order to generate a cooperative movement of the arm. Comparison of the admittance controls combined with the top search method and local optimization method for the multi‐finger arm robot was made and features of the control methods were also discussed. The stiffness control and damping control were experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  18. Integrated Optimal Model of Structure and Control of the Single Arm Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Deng-lin; JIANG Tao; WEI Jun-hua; WANG An-lin; WANG Shi-gang

    2006-01-01

    The integrated optimal design of mechanical and control system is discussed in terms of the performance requirement and configuration for the single arm flexible manipulator. By combination of dynamics of flexible structure and control theory, a PD feedback control system, which minimizes the settling time, has been designed. Then, the viable region of poles of the PD closed-loop control system is decided according to overshoot and the settling time, and an integrated optimal model of structure and control of single arm manipu lator is presented. Finally, the parameters of structure and control system are simultaneously optimized withrespect to objective function including the moment of inertia and the control effort of system.

  19. Continuous neuronal ensemble control of simulated arm reaching by a human with tetraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, E. K.; Blana, D.; Simeral, J. D.; Lambrecht, J.; Kim, S. P.; Cornwell, A. S.; Taylor, D. M.; Hochberg, L. R.; Donoghue, J. P.; Kirsch, R. F.

    2011-06-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES), the coordinated electrical activation of multiple muscles, has been used to restore arm and hand function in people with paralysis. User interfaces for such systems typically derive commands from mechanically unrelated parts of the body with retained volitional control, and are unnatural and unable to simultaneously command the various joints of the arm. Neural interface systems, based on spiking intracortical signals recorded from the arm area of motor cortex, have shown the ability to control computer cursors, robotic arms and individual muscles in intact non-human primates. Such neural interface systems may thus offer a more natural source of commands for restoring dexterous movements via FES. However, the ability to use decoded neural signals to control the complex mechanical dynamics of a reanimated human limb, rather than the kinematics of a computer mouse, has not been demonstrated. This study demonstrates the ability of an individual with long-standing tetraplegia to use cortical neuron recordings to command the real-time movements of a simulated dynamic arm. This virtual arm replicates the dynamics associated with arm mass and muscle contractile properties, as well as those of an FES feedback controller that converts user commands into the required muscle activation patterns. An individual with long-standing tetraplegia was thus able to control a virtual, two-joint, dynamic arm in real time using commands derived from an existing human intracortical interface technology. These results show the feasibility of combining such an intracortical interface with existing FES systems to provide a high-performance, natural system for restoring arm and hand function in individuals with extensive paralysis. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting.

  20. Arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies, global relations, and agreements pertaining to arms control. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), security affairs, proliferation due to commercial uses of nuclear energy, and deterrence and disarmament are among the topics discussed. The military uses of space and the control and distribution of chemical warfare agents are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Solid modelling for the manipulative robot arm (power) and adaptive vision control for space station missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrand, V.; Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of a flexible arm derived from concatenation of the Stewart-Table-based links were studied. Solid modeling provides not only a realistic simulation, but is also essential for studying vision algorithms. These algorithms could be used for the adaptive control of the arm, using the well-known algorithms such as shape from shading, edge detection, orientation, etc. Details of solid modeling and its relation to vision based adaptive control are discussed.

  2. Beyond arms control? Looking for the lost paradigm..; Au-dela de l'arms control? A la recherche du paradigme perdu..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahan, P

    2002-07-01

    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the international relations have become more complex and the arms control concept, born during the cold war and implemented during the 3 last decades is today marking time. Disarmament and non-proliferation, which were the keystones of arms control and international negotiations, are today undergoing erosion. This article analyzes the change of situation between the end of the 20. century and the beginning of the 21. century. Three steps are defined by the author: a 'flux' step with the signature of a huge number of international agreements about non-proliferation and arms control, a stagnation step marked by the difficulties of implementing some of the existing treaties and by the violation by some states of some of them, and a 'reflux' step marked by a freezing up of the bilateral US-Russian disarmament process and a general renouncement of the multilateral arms control concept. (J.S.)

  3. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydes, Matthew R; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Mason, Malcolm D; Clarke, Noel W; Amos, Claire; Anderson, John; de Bono, Johann; Dearnaley, David P; Dwyer, John; Green, Charlene; Jovic, Gordana; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Russell, J Martin; Sanders, Karen; Thalmann, George; James, Nicholas D

    2012-09-15

    Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1) stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2) adding a new research arm during the trial. STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility), three intermediate 'activity' stages (focus: failure-free survival), and a final 'efficacy' stage (focus: overall survival). Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. (1) Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the initial trial design.(2) Adding New Therapy: An application to

  4. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydes Matthew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1 stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2 adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility, three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival, and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival. Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1 Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the

  5. Robot Arm Control and Having Meal Aid System with Eye Based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kohei; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    Robot arm control and having meal aid system with eye based HCI is proposed. The proposed system allows disabled person to select desirable food from the meal tray by their eyes only. Robot arm which is used for retrieving the desirable food is controlled by human eye. At the tip of the robot arm, tiny camera is equipped. Disabled person wear a glass of which a single Head Mount Display: HMD and tiny camera is mounted so that disabled person can take a look at the desired food and retrieve it by looking at the food displayed onto HMD. Experimental results show that disabled person can retrieve the desired food successfully. It also is confirmed that robot arm control by eye based HCI is much faster than that by hands.

  6. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  7. Anticipatory postural adjustments to arm movement reveal complex control of paraspinal muscles in the thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda-Joy; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2009-02-01

    Anatomical and empirical data suggest that deep and superficial muscles may have different functions for thoracic spine control. This study investigated thoracic paraspinal muscle activity during anticipatory postural adjustments associated with arm movement. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were made from the right deep (multifidus/rotatores) and superficial (longissimus) muscles at T5, T8, and T11 levels using fine-wire electrodes. Ten healthy participants performed fast unilateral and bilateral flexion and extension arm movements in response to a light. EMG amplitude was measured during 25ms epochs for 150ms before and 400ms after deltoid EMG onset. During arm flexion movements, multifidus and longissimus had two bursts of activity, one burst prior to deltoid and a late burst. With arm extension both muscles were active in a single burst after deltoid onset. There was differential activity with respect to direction of trunk rotation induced by arm movement. Right longissimus was most active with left arm movements and right multifidus was most active with right arm movements. All levels of the thorax responded similarly. We suggest that although thoracic multifidus and longissimus function similarly to control sagittal plane perturbations, these muscles are differentially active with rotational forces on the trunk.

  8. Design and Vibration Control of Safe Robot Arm with MR-Based Passive Compliant Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Seong-Sik; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang

    In this paper, vibration control of a safe arm with passive compliant joints and visco-elastic covering for a human-friendly service robot is presented. The passive compliant joint (PCJ) is designed to passively attenuate the applied force. The rotary spring gives the arm compliant property, and yet it can be a source of vibration. We use an input-preshaping method which is motivated by the input shaping technique (IST) based on impulse responses. Experiments prove that both of fast motion and force attenuation of the safe arm can be achieved.

  9. A Vibration Control Method for the Flexible Arm Based on Energy Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vibration control method based on energy migration is proposed to decrease vibration response of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A type of vibration absorber is suggested and gives rise to the inertial coupling between the modes of the flexible arm and the absorber. By analyzing 1 : 2 internal resonance, it is proved that the internal resonance can be successfully created and the exchange of vibration energy is existent. Due to the inertial coupling, the damping enhancement effect is revealed. Via the inertial coupling, vibration energy of the flexible arm can be dissipated by not only the damping of the vibration absorber but also its own enhanced damping, thereby effectively decreasing vibration. Through numerical simulations and analyses, it is proven that this method is feasible in controlling nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.

  10. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system.

  11. A Vibration Control Method for the Flexible Arm Based on Energy Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Yushu Bian; Zhihui Gao; Ming Fan

    2015-01-01

    A vibration control method based on energy migration is proposed to decrease vibration response of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A type of vibration absorber is suggested and gives rise to the inertial coupling between the modes of the flexible arm and the absorber. By analyzing 1 : 2 internal resonance, it is proved that the internal resonance can be successfully created and the exchange of vibration energy is existent. Due to the inertial coupling, the damping enhancement effect...

  12. Real-Time Discrete Adaptive Control of Robot Arm Based on Digital Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A discrete model reference adaptive controller of robot arm is obtained by integrating the reduced dynamic model of robot, model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and digital signal processing (DSP) computer system into an electromechanical system. With the DSP computer system, the control signal of each joint of the robot arm can be processed in real time and independently. The simulation and experiment results show that with the control strategy, the robot achieved a good trajectory following precision, a good decoupling performance and a high real-time adaptivity.

  13. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  14. Real Time FPGA-Based Ethernet Control Communication for Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Mohamad Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for real time control communication using Ethernet is proposed. The strategy to support this at the network level and include Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA implementation on the Ethernet platform for robotic arm. An embedded Ethernet controller is designed to send data packet via Ethernet Local Area Network (LAN. The transferring data also employs Arduino Mega as the medium of communication between FPGA board and the robotic arm. It is used as the receiver to receive data packet from FPGA board with the interface of Arduino Ethernet shield. The control operation on the robotic arm is performed once the desired data packet length is reached to the Arduino Mega. SolidWorks and MATLAB software are used to design the robotic arm and simulate the robotic arm working flexibility in real world respectively. The result of the average data packet delay between FPGA boards is lower in comparison to Arduiono board. The data packet can send successfully in through the network to test the robotic arm.

  15. Failure of Arm Movement Control in Stroke Patients, Characterized by Loss of Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Han, Kyungreem; Ryu, Jehkwang; Kim, Seonjin; Choi, MooYoung

    2015-01-01

    We study the mechanism of human arm-posture control by means of nonlinear dynamics and quantitative time series analysis methods. Utilizing linear and nonlinear measures in combination, we find that pathological tremors emerge in patient dynamics and serve as a main feature discriminating between normal and patient groups. The deterministic structure accompanied with loss of complexity inherent in the tremor dynamics is also revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism of the arm-posture dynamics, we further analyze the coupling patterns between joints and components, and discuss their roles in breaking of the organization structure. As a result, we elucidate the mechanisms in the arm-posture dynamics of normal subjects responding to the gravitational force and for the reduction of the dynamic degrees of freedom in the patient dynamics. This study provides an integrated framework for the origin of the loss of complexity in the dynamics of patients as well as the coupling structure in the arm-posture dynamics.

  16. A limit-cycle self-organizing map architecture for stable arm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Wei; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Katz, Garrett E; Reggia, James A

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the oscillatory nature of cerebral cortex activity, we recently proposed and studied self-organizing maps (SOMs) based on limit cycle neural activity in an attempt to improve the information efficiency and robustness of conventional single-node, single-pattern representations. Here we explore for the first time the use of limit cycle SOMs to build a neural architecture that controls a robotic arm by solving inverse kinematics in reach-and-hold tasks. This multi-map architecture integrates open-loop and closed-loop controls that learn to self-organize oscillatory neural representations and to harness non-fixed-point neural activity even for fixed-point arm reaching tasks. We show through computer simulations that our architecture generalizes well, achieves accurate, fast, and smooth arm movements, and is robust in the face of arm perturbations, map damage, and variations of internal timing parameters controlling the flow of activity. A robotic implementation is evaluated successfully without further training, demonstrating for the first time that limit cycle maps can control a physical robot arm. We conclude that architectures based on limit cycle maps can be organized to function effectively as neural controllers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Tuning Vibration Control of a Rotational Flexible Timoshenko Arm Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-tuning vibration control of a rotational flexible arm using neural networks is presented. To the self-tuning control system, the control scheme consists of gain tuning neural networks and a variable-gain feedback controller. The neural networks are trained so as to make the root moment zero. In the process, the neural networks learn the optimal gain of the feedback controller. The feedback controller is designed based on Lyapunov's direct method. The feedback control of the vibration of the flexible system is derived by considering the time rate of change of the total energy of the system. This approach has the advantage over the conventional methods in the respect that it allows one to deal directly with the system's partial differential equations without resorting to approximations. Numerical and experimental results for the vibration control of a rotational flexible arm are discussed. It verifies that the proposed control system is effective at controlling flexible dynamical systems.

  18. Curbing international transfers of arms and military technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayrynen, R.

    1978-07-01

    The magnitude of the value and quantity of transfers of arms and military technology, the internationalization and commercialization of armaments industry (through vastly increased direct investments, through co-production, licensing and sub-contracting arrangements), the supply of training and technical services as adjuncts of arms supply, the blurring of the dividing line between military and civilian technology--all have made control measures infinitely more complicated and difficult. What compounds the difficulty is the fact that, since an overwhelmingly preponderant portion of arms transfers is made up of government-to-government transactions, control measures must emanate from supplying and/or receiving governments. But even if by some miracle these measures were forthcoming and proved effective, they will have touched only a small part of the problem of disarmament, because the share of international transfers of arms and military technology amounts to only 5 to 6% of the total world military expenditure. The other, far larger and more intractable, part relates to the staggering stockpiles of both conventional and nuclear weapon systems, almost wholly concentrated in the hands of the two superpowers. Both transfers and stockpiles of armaments are inextricably enmeshed in the existing international structure, epitomized in a dominance-dependency relationship. This paper examines the measures that the supplier nations and recipient nations can take unilaterally, bilaterally, and multilaterally to curb arms transfers, and comes to the conclusion that unilateral initiatives, especially on the part of receiving nations, are more feasible. Not to take such initiatives on the ground that they cannot succeed unless taken in concert is only an excuse for doing nothing.

  19. Control System Simulation for a Single-Link Flexible Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    17 2.5 A n overall Plant .................................................. 22 3.1 A Schematic Diagram of the Feedback Control System .................. 27...tip is not measured for the simple feedback control system . The tip displacement V(O) is the only generalized coordinate chosen for small motions. Then...incorporated into the main computer program for solving the dynamic equation of motion. 23 III. CONTROL SCHEME A. REQUIRED TORQUE In feedback control system , desired

  20. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the many…

  1. Dynamic Structure Optimization Design of Lower Control Arm Based on ESL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Structure optimization techniques under static load conditions have been widely used in automotive industry for lightweight and performance improvement of modern cars. However, these static load conditions could not represent all the severe situations of automobile parts which subjected to complex loads varying with time, especially for lower control arm of front suspension. In this study, dynamic optimization of lower control arm was performed by combing traditional static load optimization techniques and multi-body dynamics by Equivalent Static Load (ESL. And the best draw-bead distribution of the stamped lower control arm was attained. Comparing the MBD analysis results of the new design derived from dynamic optimization and original structure, results show that the strength and stiffness was increased significantly while the mass was almost unchanged.

  2. Control of a Lightweight Flexible Robotic Arm Using Sliding Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibone Lizarraga; Arantza Sanz; Victor Etxebarria

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a robust control scheme for flexible link robotic manipulators, which is based on considering the flexible mechanical structure as a system with slow (rigid) and fast (flexible) modes that can be controlled separately. The rigid dynamics is controlled by means of a robust sliding-mode approach with wellestablished stability properties while an LQR optimal design is adopted for the flexible dynamics. Experimental results show that this composite approach achieves good close...

  3. Control of a Lightweight Flexible Robotic Arm Using Sliding Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Etxebarria; Arantza Sanz; Ibone Lizarraga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a robust control scheme for flexible link robotic manipulators, which is based on considering the flexible mechanical structure as a system with slow (rigid) and fast (flexible) modes that can be controlled separately. The rigid dynamics is controlled by means of a robust sliding-mode approach with well-established stability properties while an LQR optimal design is adopted for the flexible dynamics. Experimental results show that this composite approach achieves good clos...

  4. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Rau Aparow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force.

  5. Vibration suppression of robot arm feedforward control with on-line parameter identification; Online kansei dotei ni yoru robot arm no feedforward shindo yokusei seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M.; Kuze, Y.; Otsuka, K.; Matsui, N. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    Generally, robot arms with flexible joints are multi-mass resonant systems, thus causing mechanical vibration. Since the vibration deteriorates the arm position control accuracy, the vibration suppression is indispensable to achieve the high performance arm motion. The authors have already proposed a feedforward vibration suppression scheme using an optimal control command shaping. The scheme is suitable for practical industrial use because of its simple control algorithm, however, there still remains a problem inherent in feedforward techniques that parameter setting errors in controller have significant effects on the suppression control accuracy. This paper presents an adaptive feedforward control of the vibration suppression with on-line mechanical parameter identifier, based on the proposed command shaping. In this scheme, the on-line identification of arm inertia using a method of least squares is performed during acceleration in arm motion. The identified parameter is used during deceleration to suppress the residual vibration. Experimental results using a prototype show the effectiveness of the proposed control. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A Comparison between Two Force-Position Controllers with Gravity Compensation Simulated on a Humanoid Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gerardo Muscolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a comparison between two force-position controllers with gravity compensation simulated on the DEXTER bioinspired robotic arm. The two controllers are both constituted by an internal proportional-derivative (PD closed-loop for the position control. The force control of the two systems is composed of an external proportional (P closed-loop for one system (P system and an external proportional-integrative (PI closed-loop for the other system (PI system. The simulation tests performed with the two systems on a planar representation of the DEXTER, an eight-DOF bioinspired arm, showed that by varying the stiffness of the environment, with a correct setting of parameters, both systems ensure the achievement of the desired force regime and with great precision the desired position. The two controllers do not have large differences in performance when interacting with a lower stiffness environment. In case of an environment with greater rigidity, the PI system is more stable. The subsequent implementation of these control systems on the DEXTER robotic bioinspired arm gives guidance on the design and control optimisation of the arms of the humanoid robot named SABIAN.

  7. Filtering sensory information with XCSF: improving learning robustness and robot arm control performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissler, Jan; Stalph, Patrick O; Drugowitsch, Jan; Butz, Martin V

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the control of a robot arm can be efficiently learned using the XCSF learning classifier system, which is a nonlinear regression system based on evolutionary computation. So far, however, the predictive knowledge about how actual motor activity changes the state of the arm system has not been exploited. In this paper, we utilize the forward velocity kinematics knowledge of XCSF to alleviate the negative effect of noisy sensors for successful learning and control. We incorporate Kalman filtering for estimating successive arm positions, iteratively combining sensory readings with XCSF-based predictions of hand position changes over time. The filtered arm position is used to improve both trajectory planning and further learning of the forward velocity kinematics. We test the approach on a simulated kinematic robot arm model. The results show that the combination can improve learning and control performance significantly. However, it also shows that variance estimates of XCSF prediction may be underestimated, in which case self-delusional spiraling effects can hinder effective learning. Thus, we introduce a heuristic parameter, which can be motivated by theory, and which limits the influence of XCSF's predictions on its own further learning input. As a result, we obtain drastic improvements in noise tolerance, allowing the system to cope with more than 10 times higher noise levels.

  8. Cooperative Remote Monitoring, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Fourth quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, G M [ed.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE`s Cooperative Remote Monitoring programs integrate elements from research and development and implementation to achieve DOE`s objectives in arms control and nonproliferation. The contents of this issue are: cooperative remote monitoring--trends in arms control and nonproliferation; Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS); Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring Systems (ATMS); Tracking and Nuclear Materials by Wide-Area Nuclear Detection (WAND); Cooperative Monitoring Center; the International Remote Monitoring Project; international US and IAEA remote monitoring field trials; Project Dustcloud: monitoring the test stands in Iraq; bilateral remote monitoring: Kurchatov-Argonne-West Demonstration; INSENS Sensor System Project.

  9. Control of a Lightweight Flexible Robotic Arm Using Sliding Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibone Lizarraga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust control scheme for flexible link robotic manipulators, which is based on considering the flexible mechanical structure as a system with slow (rigid and fast (flexible modes that can be controlled separately. The rigid dynamics is controlled by means of a robust sliding-mode approach with wellestablished stability properties while an LQR optimal design is adopted for the flexible dynamics. Experimental results show that this composite approach achieves good closed loop tracking properties both for the rigid and the flexible dynamics.

  10. Research on the man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lifeng; Peng, Jinbao

    2017-03-01

    The Man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control research complex real-world environment, which requires the operator to continuously control and adjust the remote manipulator, as the background, completes the specific mission human in the loop entire system as the research object. This paper puts forward a kind of robot arm control system of Man in the loop based on gesture control, by robot arm control system based on gesture control and Virtual reality scene feedback to enhance immersion and integration of operator, to make operator really become a part of the whole control loop. This paper expounds how to construct a man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control. The system is a complex system of human computer cooperative control, but also people in the loop control problem areas. The new system solves the problems that the traditional method has no immersion feeling and the operation lever is unnatural, the adjustment time is long, and the data glove mode wears uncomfortable and the price is expensive.

  11. Internet remote control interface for a multipurpose robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Dunnigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Internet remote control interface for a MITSUBISHI PA10-6CE manipulator established for the purpose of the ROBOT museum exhibition during spring and summer 2004. The robotic manipulator is a part of the Intelligent Robotic Systems Laboratory at Heriot ? Watt University, which has been established to work on dynamic and kinematic aspects of manipulator control in the presence of environmental disturbances. The laboratory has been enriched by a simple vision system consisting of three web-cameras to broadcast the live images of the robots over the Internet. The Interface comprises of the TCP/IP server providing command parsing and execution using the open controller architecture of the manipulator and a client Java applet web-site providing a simple robot control interface.

  12. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  13. Mirror therapy for patients with severe arm paresis after stroke--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Holm; Bayn, Maria; Wurg, Marco; Zange, Christian; Pohl, Marcus; Behrens, Johann

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of individual or group mirror therapy on sensorimotor function, activities of daily living, quality of life and visuospatial neglect in patients with a severe arm paresis after stroke. Randomized controlled trial. Inpatient rehabilitation centre. Sixty patients with a severe paresis of the arm within three months after stroke. Three groups: (1) individual mirror therapy, (2) group mirror therapy and (3) control intervention with restricted view on the affected arm. Motor function on impairment (Fugl-Meyer Test) and activity level (Action Research Arm Test), independence in activities of daily living (Barthel Index), quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale) and visuospatial neglect (Star Cancellation Test). After five weeks, no significant group differences for motor function were found (P > 0.05). Pre-post differences for the Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Test: individual mirror therapy: 3.4 (7.1) and 3.2 (3.8), group mirror therapy: 1.1 (3.1) and 5.1 (10.0) and control therapy: 2.8 (6.7) and 5.2 (8.7). However, a significant effect on visuospatial neglect for patients in the individual mirror therapy compared to control group could be shown (P < 0.01). Furthermore, it was possible to integrate a mirror therapy group intervention for severely affected patients after stroke. This study showed no effect on sensorimotor function of the arm, activities of daily living and quality of life of mirror therapy compared to a control intervention after stroke. However, a positive effect on visuospatial neglect was indicated.

  14. Trajectory and Force Control of a Direct Drive Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    fixed-point arithmetic. Written in the C lan- guage, the controller, including the full computation of the robot dynamics , runs at a 133 Hz sampling...Featherstone, R, 1984, Robot Dynamics Algorithms, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh. Franklin, G.F. and Powel, J.D., 1980, Digital Control of Dynamic...Proceedings, 64, pp. 1198-1208. Neuman, C.P., and Khosla, P.K., 1985, "Identification of robot dynamics : an ap- plication of recursive estimation

  15. Noninvasive Electroencephalogram Based Control of a Robotic Arm for Reach and Grasp Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Shuying; Bekyo, Angeliki; Olsoe, Jaron; Baxter, Bryan; He, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies aim to provide a bridge between the human brain and external devices. Prior research using non-invasive BCI to control virtual objects, such as computer cursors and virtual helicopters, and real-world objects, such as wheelchairs and quadcopters, has demonstrated the promise of BCI technologies. However, controlling a robotic arm to complete reach-and-grasp tasks efficiently using non-invasive BCI has yet to be shown. In this study, we found that a group of 13 human subjects could willingly modulate brain activity to control a robotic arm with high accuracy for performing tasks requiring multiple degrees of freedom by combination of two sequential low dimensional controls. Subjects were able to effectively control reaching of the robotic arm through modulation of their brain rhythms within the span of only a few training sessions and maintained the ability to control the robotic arm over multiple months. Our results demonstrate the viability of human operation of prosthetic limbs using non-invasive BCI technology.

  16. Walking Pattern Generation of Dual-Arm Mobile Robot Using Preview Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the stability request of robot’s moving on the ground, the motion planning of dual-arm mobile robot when moving on the ground is studied and the preview control system is applied in the robot walking pattern generation. Direct question of robot kinematics in the extended task space is analyzed according to Degrees of Freedom configuration of the dual-arm mobile robot. It is proved that the preview control system could be used in the generation of robot Center of Mass forward trajectory through the building of double linear inverted pendulum model of dual-arm mobile robot. The sector gridding search algorithm is proposed and the reachable workspace which meets the Zero Moment Point stability principle when the robot moving on the ground is obtained. Tip Trajectory is generated through polynomial interpolation. Each joint curve is calculated using MATLAB which is imported to virtual physical model. The feasibility of gait generation is verified.

  17. Control of a myoelectric arm considering cooperated motion of elbow and shoulder joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Kazuo; Hayashi, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of life of persons who lost their limb due to an accident or a sickness, many myoelectric artificial arms have been proposed. To control the motion of the elbow joint of the myoelectric arm, the EMG signals of the biceps brachii and the triceps brachii muscles are frequently used as input signals. However, since both muscles are the biarticular muscles between the shoulder joint and elbow joint, the amount of the EMG signals of these muscles are affected by the motion of the shoulder joint. In this paper, a control method for a myoelectric arm is proposed in order to cancel the influence of the shoulder joint motion on EMG signals is removed by using the neuro-fuzzy modifier in order to realize proper elbow motion. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been evaluated by performing experiments.

  18. 3D joystick for robotic arm control by individuals with high level spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Pendergast, Martin; Duerstock, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    An innovative 3D joystick was developed to enable quadriplegics due to spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to more independently and efficiently operate a robotic arm as an assistive device. The 3D joystick was compared to two different manual input modalities, a keyboard control and a traditional joystick, in performing experimental robotic arm tasks by both subjects without disabilities and those with upper extremity mobility impairments. Fitts's Law targeting and practical pouring tests were conducted to compare the performance and accuracy of the proposed 3D joystick. The Fitts's law measurements showed that the 3D joystick had the best index of performance (IP), though it required an equivalent number of operations and errors as the standard robotic arm joystick. The pouring task demonstrated that the 3D joystick took significantly less task completion time and was more accurate than keyboard control. The 3D joystick also showed a decreased learning curve to the other modalities.

  19. Torsional Arming of Thiomannosyl Donors & Conformational Control of Hexahydropyridazines via pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jacob Ingemar

    be controlled by manipulating the stereochemistry. There are many examples of conformational arming, where an equatorial rich donor is forced towards its more axial rich conformation resulting in a significant increase in reactivity. In order to study this conformational arming further, attempts at synthesizing......H. A relationship between conformation and pKa was established by showing that the pKa directly reflects the conformational equilibrium of conformers. Unfortunately, attaching the hexahydropyridazine to the secondary rim of an α-cyclodextrine was not achieved. Chapter 5 describes the attempted synthesis of seven...... 1). This is due to the higher degree of oxocarbenium ion stabilization exerted by the axial substituents. Therefore, the reactivity of a glycoside donor can be controlled by manipulating the stereochemistry. There are many examples of conformational arming, where an equatorial rich donor is forced...

  20. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lewis, L.C. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

    1998-07-07

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  1. Impedance Controller Tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization for Robotic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and fast method for fine tuning the controller parameters of robot manipulators in constrained motion. The stability of the robotic system is proved using a Lyapunov‐based impedance approach whereas the optimal design of the controller parameters are tuned, in offline, by a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. For designing the PSOmethod,differentindexperformancesare considered in both joint and Cartesian spaces. A 3DOF manipulator constrained to a circular trajectory is finally used to validate the performances of the proposed approach. The simulation results show the stability and the performances of the proposed approach.

  2. Virtual reality in the rehabilitation of the arm after hemiplegic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, J H; Lennon, S; McGoldrick, M C; McNeill, M D J; McDonough, S M

    2012-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of a trial to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality-mediated therapy compared to conventional physiotherapy in the motor rehabilitation of the arm following stroke, and to provide data for a power analysis to determine numbers for a future main trial. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical research facility. Eighteen people with a first stroke, 10 males and 8 females, 7 right and 2 left side most affected. Mean time since stroke 10.8 months. Participants were randomized to a virtual reality group or a conventional arm therapy group for nine sessions over three weeks. The upper limb Motricity Index and the Action Research Arm Test were completed at baseline, post intervention and six weeks follow-up. Outcome data were obtained from 95% of participants at the end of treatment and at follow-up: one participant withdrew. Compliance was high; only two people reported side-effects from virtual reality exposure. Both groups demonstrated small (7-8 points on upper limb Motricity Index and 4 points on the Action Research Arm Test), but non-significant, changes to their arm impairment and activity levels. A randomized controlled trial of virtual reality-mediated therapy comparable to conventional therapy would be feasible, with some suggested improvements in recruitment and outcome measures. Seventy-eight participants (39 per group) would be required for a main trial.

  3. Torque control in lingual orthodontics with lever arm mechanics: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, M; Shivaprakash, G; Ramesh, G C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to illustrate treatment mechanics for torque control in lingual mechanotherapy using a lever arm and transpalatal arch (TPA) tab system during en masse retraction of anterior teeth. An 18-year-old female with bimaxillary dentoalveolar proclination with crowding was treated with a lever arm-TPA tab system. The retraction tabs bent into the TPA placed across the maxillary second molars were used as anchorage. The retraction force on the maxillary anterior teeth was applied using lever arm hooks soldered between the lateral incisors and canines on a lingual mushroom archwire. By applying a retraction force to the lever arm hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced greater palatal root movement as compared to the conventional retraction forces applied at the crown level. The tabs, placed high in the TPA, produced a distal tipping moment on the maxillary second molars, reinforcing their anchorage. The retraction force applied to the long lever arm hooks from the TPA tabs at the level of center of resistance (CRes) of anterior and posterior teeth is advantageous mainly in two aspects. First, it reinforces the anchorage, and second, it favors the palatal root movement of anterior teeth, thus obtaining better control over the torque during en masse retraction.

  4. Coordinated Resolved Motion Control of Dual-arm Manipulators with Closed Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When applied to some tasks, such as payload handling, assembling, repairing and so on, the two arms of a humanoid robot will form a closed kinematic chain. It makes the motion planning and control for dual‐arm coordination very complex and difficult. In this paper, we present three types of resolved motion control methods for a humanoid robot during coordinated manipulation. They are, respectively, position‐level, velocity‐level and acceleration‐level resolved motion control methods. The desired pose, velocity and acceleration of each end‐effector are then resolved according to the desired motion of the payload and the constraints on the closed‐chain system without consideration of the internal force. Corresponding to the three cases above, the joint variables of each arm are then calculated using the inverse kinematic equations, at position‐level, velocity‐level or acceleration‐level. Finally, a dynamic modelling and simulation platform is established based on ADAMS and Matlab software. The proposed methods are verified by typical cases. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can realize the dual‐arm coordinated operation and the internal force of the closed chain during the operation is controlled in a reasonable range at the same time.

  5. Optimization of Casting Design Parameters on Fabrication of Reliable Semi-Solid Aluminum Suspension Control Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Kh. A.; Bouaicha, A.; Bouazara, M.

    2017-09-01

    The semi-solid casting process has the advantage of providing reliable mechanical aluminum parts that work continuously in dynamic as control arm of the suspension system in automotive vehicles. The quality performance of dynamic control arm is related to casting mold and gating system designs that affect the fluidity of semi-solid metal during filling the mold. Therefore, this study focuses on improvement in mechanical performance, depending on material characterization, and casting design optimization, of suspension control arms made of A357 aluminum semi-solid alloys. Mechanical and design analyses, applied on the suspension arm, showed the occurrence of mechanical failures at unexpected weak points. Metallurgical analysis showed that the main reason lies in the difficult flow of semi-solid paste through the thin thicknesses of a complex geometry. A design modification procedure is applied to the geometry of the suspension arm to avoid this problem and to improve its quality performance. The design modification of parts was carried out by using SolidWorks design software, evaluation of constraints with ABAQUS, and simulation of flow with ProCast software. The proposed designs showed that the modified suspension arm, without ribs and with a central canvas designed as Z, is considered as a perfect casting design showing an increase in the structural strength of the component. In this case, maximum von Mises stress is 199 MPa that is below the yield strength of the material. The modified casting mold design shows a high uniformity and minim turbulence of molten metal flow during semi-solid casting process.

  6. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  7. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Ninth Annual Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This annual report surveys activities of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and summarizes disarmament developments for the calendar year 1968. An act of Congress states that ACDA must have such a position within the Government that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, other officials of the executive branch, and the…

  8. The Development of BCI Using Alpha Waves for Controlling the Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shinsuke; Akiyama, Yoko; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    The highly accurate BCI using alpha waves was developed for controlling the robot arm, and real-time operation was succeeded by using noninvasive electrodes. The significant components of the alpha wave were identified by spectral analysis and confirmation of the amplitude of the alpha wave. When the alpha wave was observed in the subject, the subjects were instructed to select the multiple decision branches, concerning 7 motions (including “STOP”) of a robot arm. As a result, high accuracy (70-95%) was obtained, and the subject succeeded in transferring a small box by controlling the robot arm. Since high accuracy was obtained by use of this method, it can be applied to control equipments such as a robot arm. Since the alpha wave can be easily generated, the BCI using alpha waves does not need more training than that using other signals. Moreover, we tried to reduce the false positive errors by effectively detecting artifacts using spectral analysis and detecting signals of 50μV or more. As a result, the false positive errors could be reduced from 25% to 0%. Therefore, this technique shows great promise in the area of communication and the control of other external equipments, and will make great contribution in the improvement of Quality of Life (QOL) of mobility disabled.

  9. Robotic Arm Control Algorithm Based on Stereo Vision Using RoboRealm Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZABO, R.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a stereo computer vision algorithm intended to control a robotic arm. Specific points on the robot joints are marked and recognized in the software. Using a dedicated set of mathematic equations, the movement of the robot is continuously computed and monitored with webcams. Positioning error is finally analyzed.

  10. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  11. Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Leigh R.; Bacher, Daniel; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y.; Simeral, John D.; Vogel, Joern; Haddadin, Sami; Liu, Jie; Cash, Sydney S.; van der Smagt, Patrick; Donoghue, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI), brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to carry out volitional movements. A neural interface system (NIS)1–5 could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with longstanding tetraplegia can use an NIS to move and click a computer cursor and to control physical devices6–8. Able-bodied monkeys have used an NIS to control a robotic arm9, but it is unknown whether people with profound upper extremity paralysis or limb loss could use cortical neuronal ensemble signals to direct useful arm actions. Here, we demonstrate the ability of two people with long-standing tetraplegia to use NIS-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. Participants controlled the arm over a broad space without explicit training, using signals decoded from a small, local population of motor cortex (MI) neurons recorded from a 96-channel microelectrode array. One of the study participants, implanted with the sensor five years earlier, also used a robotic arm to drink coffee from a bottle. While robotic reach and grasp actions were not as fast or accurate as those of an able-bodied person, our results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after CNS injury, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals. PMID:22596161

  12. Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Leigh R; Bacher, Daniel; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y; Simeral, John D; Vogel, Joern; Haddadin, Sami; Liu, Jie; Cash, Sydney S; van der Smagt, Patrick; Donoghue, John P

    2012-05-16

    Paralysis following spinal cord injury, brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to perform volitional movements. A neural interface system could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with long-standing tetraplegia can use a neural interface system to move and click a computer cursor and to control physical devices. Able-bodied monkeys have used a neural interface system to control a robotic arm, but it is unknown whether people with profound upper extremity paralysis or limb loss could use cortical neuronal ensemble signals to direct useful arm actions. Here we demonstrate the ability of two people with long-standing tetraplegia to use neural interface system-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. Participants controlled the arm and hand over a broad space without explicit training, using signals decoded from a small, local population of motor cortex (MI) neurons recorded from a 96-channel microelectrode array. One of the study participants, implanted with the sensor 5 years earlier, also used a robotic arm to drink coffee from a bottle. Although robotic reach and grasp actions were not as fast or accurate as those of an able-bodied person, our results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after injury to the central nervous system, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals.

  13. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award: Science Matters - Technical Dimensions of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, James

    2017-01-01

    Agreements to reduce nuclear arms and prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons are technical as well as political documents. They must be both technically sound and politically acceptable. This presentation illustrates technical aspects of arms control and non-proliferation agreements, with examples from SALT I, INF, the HEU Agreement, START, and the Iran nuclear negotiations, drawing on 44 years of personal experience in the negotiation of these agreements. The lecture is designed to convey an appreciation of the role that individuals with technical training can play in diplomatic efforts to reduce nuclear forces and prevent nuclear proliferation.

  14. Supervisory Control of the Right Arm of the Beam Assembly Teleoperator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    arm; 2) know the final configuration of the arm; 3) compute a trajectory; 4) transmit the appropriate command to the joint/actuator control system. The...value for maximum torque (T) was computed using the maximum torque for the shoulder yaw motor and the gear train dimensions between the shoulder and the...command will not saturate the actuator. To find T , the equation for the torque and drag force is used and solved for T T = JT 6 + Drag Moment where T

  15. Control and Calibration of a Staubli RX130 Robotic Arm for Construction of Surface Current Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmeter, Patrick; Crawford, Christopher; Guler, Emre; Fugal, Mario; Irvin, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Precision low energy neutron experiments require extremely uniform magnetic fields for manipulating the neutron spin. Such fields can be generated with surface current coils-precision 3-dimensional printed circuits. We are developing a facility to etch out these circuits on copper-plated curved forms using a high-speed spindle attached to the end-effector of a Staubli RX130 six-axis robotic arm. We describe our mathematical model of the robotic links and the software system we designed to control the motion of the arm and to prevent collisions during actuations. We developed a calibration procedure to achieve accuracy of 30 microns in the position of drill.

  16. The Struggle for Territorial Control in Colombia: An Analysis of the Dynamics of the Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Henao Duque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the theory of armed conflict and examines its application to the insurgents´ struggle with the State for political and territorial control in Colombia during 1999-2010.  The analysis examines three sub-periods during this period and several geographic regions to analyze the effect of varying levels of participant capability on the dynamics of the conflict, as measured by the intensity of the conflict over time.  We conclude that as long as there are asymmetries between the State and the insurgency, armed confrontation is likely to continue.

  17. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1993-01-01

    Inertial devices, including sensors and actuators, offer the potential of improving the tracking of telerobotic commands for space-based robots by smoothing payload motions and suppressing vibrations. In this paper, inertial actuators (specifically, torque-wheels and reaction-masses) are studied for that potential application. Batch simulation studies are presented which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed which samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. Currently, two manipulator models, a two-link, rigid arm and a single-link, flexible arm, have been studied. Results are presented which show that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s using only a hub motor. A hardware apparatus, which consists of a single-link, highly flexible arm with a hub motor and a torque-wheel, has been assembled to evaluate the concept and is described herein.

  18. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  19. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  20. Trial-to-trial adaptation in control of arm reaching and standing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienciak-Siewert, Alison; Horan, Dylan P; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-12-01

    Classical theories of motor learning hypothesize that adaptation is driven by sensorimotor error; this is supported by studies of arm and eye movements that have shown that trial-to-trial adaptation increases with error. Studies of postural control have shown that anticipatory postural adjustments increase with the magnitude of a perturbation. However, differences in adaptation have been observed between the two modalities, possibly due to either the inherent instability or sensory uncertainty in standing posture. Therefore, we hypothesized that trial-to-trial adaptation in posture should be driven by error, similar to what is observed in arm reaching, but the nature of the relationship between error and adaptation may differ. Here we investigated trial-to-trial adaptation of arm reaching and postural control concurrently; subjects made reaching movements in a novel dynamic environment of varying strengths, while standing and holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm. We found that error and adaptation increased with perturbation strength in both arm and posture. Furthermore, in both modalities, adaptation showed a significant correlation with error magnitude. Our results indicate that adaptation scales proportionally with error in the arm and near proportionally in posture. In posture only, adaptation was not sensitive to small error sizes, which were similar in size to errors experienced in unperturbed baseline movements due to inherent variability. This finding may be explained as an effect of uncertainty about the source of small errors. Our findings suggest that in rehabilitation, postural error size should be considered relative to the magnitude of inherent movement variability.

  1. Evaluation of a graphic interface to control a robotic grasping arm: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Isabelle; Biard, Nicolas; Chalubert, Gérard; Delahoche, Laurent; Marhic, Bruno; Boyer, François C; Leroux, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    Laffont I, Biard N, Chalubert G, Delahoche L, Marhic B, Boyer FC, Leroux C. Evaluation of a graphic interface to control a robotic grasping arm: a multicenter study. Grasping robots are still difficult to use for persons with disabilities because of inadequate human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of a graphic interface enhanced by a panoramic camera to detect out-of-view objects and control a commercialized robotic grasping arm. Multicenter, open-label trial. Four French departments of physical and rehabilitation medicine. Control subjects (N=24; mean age, 33y) and 20 severely impaired patients (mean age, 44y; 5 with muscular dystrophies, 13 with traumatic tetraplegia, and 2 others) completed the study. None of these patients was able to grasp a 50-cL bottle without the robot. Participants were asked to grasp 6 objects scattered around their wheelchair using the robotic arm. They were able to select the desired object through the graphic interface available on their computer screen. Global success rate, time needed to select the object on the screen of the computer, number of clicks on the HMI, and satisfaction among users. We found a significantly lower success rate in patients (81.1% vs 88.7%; chi(2)P=.017). The duration of the task was significantly higher in patients (71.6s vs 39.1s; Probotic arms for disabled people, with numerous potential applications in daily life.

  2. ADAPTIVE FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM OF ARMED HELICOPTER USING WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHURong-gang; JIANGChangsheng; FENGBin

    2004-01-01

    A discussion is devoted to the design of an adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method. Firstly, the control loop of the attitude angle is designed with a dynamic inversion scheme in a quick loop and a slow loop. respectively. Then, in order to compensate the error caused by dynamic inversion, the adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method is put forward, so the BP wavelet neural network and the Lyapunov stable wavelet neural network are used to design the helicopter flight control system. Finally, the typical maneuver flight is simulated to demonstrate its validity and effectiveness. Result proves that the wavelet neural network has an engineering practical value and the effect of WNN is good.

  3. Control of a Step Walking Combined to Arms Swinging for a Three Dimensional Humanoid Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Aloulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Present researches focus to make humanoid robots more and more autonomous so they can assist human in daily works like taking care of children, aged or disabled persons. In such social activities, the contemporary humanoid robots are expected to have human like morphology and gait. Studies on bipedal locomotion for humanoid robots are then part of the hottest topics in the field of robotic researches. Knowing the benefits of arm swinging for human gait, we propose in this study a new prototype of female humanoid robot morphology having the capabilities to swing arms during step walking. Approach: A new humanoid robot prototype had been introduced based on a human morphology corresponding to a woman whose weight is 70 kg and height is 1,73 m and using realistic gait parameters of a women. The female humanoid robot prototype was composed of fifteen links associated to twenty-six degrees of freedom. Winter statistical model had been applied to determine all physical parameters corresponding to each link. Modeling the proposed humanoid robot implies first to establish the kinematic model basically founded on Euler’s transformation matrix and then to set the dynamic model computed using the Newton-Euler method. To show how the arms played an important role in bipedal gait, we had chosen to consider the whole body as two independent robotic systems: the upper body and the lower body. Results: Both three dimensional kinematic and dynamic models of the humanoid robot had been developed. The three dimensional humanoid robot was controlled via a feedback linearization control during the single support, impact and double support phases. The simulation results showed the arm swing during the step of walking. Conclusion: The humanoid robot proposed has a human like morphology and ensures the function of a step walking with arm swinging. The applied control laws have ensured to the robot desired performances during a step walking.

  4. On nonlinear dynamics and control of a robotic arm with chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix J. L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a robotic arm is modelled by a double pendulum excited in its base by a DC motor of limited power via crank mechanism and elastic connector. In the mathematical model, a chaotic motion was identified, for a wide range of parameters. Controlling of the chaotic behaviour of the system, were implemented using, two control techniques, the nonlinear saturation control (NSC and the optimal linear feedback control (OLFC. The actuator and sensor of the device are allowed in the pivot and joints of the double pendulum. The nonlinear saturation control (NSC is based in the order second differential equations and its action in the pivot/joint of the robotic arm is through of quadratic nonlinearities feedback signals. The optimal linear feedback control (OLFC involves the application of two control signals, a nonlinear feedforward control to maintain the controlled system to a desired periodic orbit, and control a feedback control to bring the trajectory of the system to the desired orbit. Simulation results, including of uncertainties show the feasibility of the both methods, for chaos control of the considered system.

  5. Computed torque control of a free-flying cooperat ing-arm robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningstein, Ross; Ullman, Marc; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The unified approach to solving free-floating space robot manipulator end-point control problems is presented using a control formulation based on an extension of computed torque. Once the desired end-point accelerations have been specified, the kinematic equations are used with momentum conservation equations to solve for the joint accelerations in any of the robot's possible configurations: fixed base or free-flying with open/closed chain grasp. The joint accelerations can then be used to calculate the arm control torques and internal forces using a recursive order N algorithm. Initial experimental verification of these techniques has been performed using a laboratory model of a two-armed space robot. This fully autonomous spacecraft system experiences the drag-free, zero G characteristics of space in two dimensions through the use of an air cushion support system. Results of these initial experiments are included which validate the correctness of the proposed methodology. The further problem of control in the large where not only the manipulator tip positions but the entire system consisting of base and arms must be controlled is also presented. The availability of a physical testbed has brought a keener insight into the subtleties of the problem at hand.

  6. Application of model reference adaptive control to a flexible remote manipulator arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, D. R.; Balas, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    An exact modal state-space representation is derived in detail for a single-link, flexible remote manipulator with a noncollocated sensor and actuator. A direct model following adaptive controller is designed to control the torque at the pinned end of the arm so as to command the free end to track a prescribed sinusoidal motion. Conditions that must be satisfied in order for the controller to work are stated. Simulation results to date are discussed along with the potential of the model following adaptive control scheme in robotics and space environments.

  7. Canada as an energy superpower : how clean, how powerful, how super?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, M. [Canadian Gas Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Policy and Economics

    2007-12-15

    In 2006, Canada's Prime Minister declared Canada to be an emerging energy superpower due to its vast reserves of oil, gas, and uranium. This article clarified the attributes of a superpower and explained how they can be used to evaluate Canada's situation. The attributes of a superpower include a capability to potentially influence the behaviour of other countries and the course of world events; the capacity to deploy that capability when it can be effective; a clear understanding of one's national interests and policies; and, a will to use the energy capacity when called upon. This framework was used to test the hypothesis of Canada as a power in energy. It was agreed that in terms of reserves, production and exports, Canada is a significant player by world standards. Canada has technological leadership in some parts of the fuel cell industry, possibly nuclear energy and the deployment of advanced technology in resource extraction. However, it was argued that deployment capacity must be maintained and enhanced. The author claimed that Canada's ability to exercise power through unilateral deployment of energy resources is modest, although Canada does have an implicit policy expressed through international treaties such as its membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Energy Agency (IEA), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Canada also benefits from pipeline and powerline regulations for shared regulation of electricity reliability. It was suggested that Canada has the capability to be a voice in support of market-based approaches to energy and an open international trade and investment regime. It was determined that Canada is committed to market-based energy policies and to North American partnership in a broader international context. The author suggested that although Canada has many capabilities regarding energy resources and the capacity to deliver them to markets, it lacks energy policy at the national

  8. Failure of Arm Movement Control in Stroke Patients, Characterized by Loss of Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available We study the mechanism of human arm-posture control by means of nonlinear dynamics and quantitative time series analysis methods. Utilizing linear and nonlinear measures in combination, we find that pathological tremors emerge in patient dynamics and serve as a main feature discriminating between normal and patient groups. The deterministic structure accompanied with loss of complexity inherent in the tremor dynamics is also revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism of the arm-posture dynamics, we further analyze the coupling patterns between joints and components, and discuss their roles in breaking of the organization structure. As a result, we elucidate the mechanisms in the arm-posture dynamics of normal subjects responding to the gravitational force and for the reduction of the dynamic degrees of freedom in the patient dynamics. This study provides an integrated framework for the origin of the loss of complexity in the dynamics of patients as well as the coupling structure in the arm-posture dynamics.

  9. Singular perturbation composite control of a free-floating flexible dual-arm space robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhanwu; Wang Congqing

    2008-01-01

    The Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamics system. In this paper, the dynamic model is derived of a Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot holding a rigid payload. Furthermore, according to the singular perturbation method, the system is separated into a slow subsystem representing rigid body motion of the robot and a fast subsystem representing the flexible link dynamics. For the slow subsystem, based on the second method of Lyapunov, using simple quantitative bounds on the model uncertainties, a robust tracking controller design is used during the trajectory tracking phase. The optimal control method is designed in the fast subsystem to guarantee the exponential stability. With the combination of the two above, the system can track the expected trajectory accurately, even though with uncertainty in model parameters, and its flexible vibration gets suppressed, too. Finally, some simulation tests have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  10. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  11. Arm Orthosis/Prosthesis Movement Control Based on Surface EMG Signal Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suberbiola, Aaron; Zulueta, Ekaitz; Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows experimental results on electromyography (EMG)-based system control applied to motorized orthoses. Biceps and triceps EMG signals are captured through two biometrical sensors, which are then filtered and processed by an acquisition system. Finally an output/control signal is produced and sent to the actuators, which will then perform the actual movement, using algorithms based on autoregressive (AR) models and neural networks, among others. The research goal is to predict the desired movement of the lower arm through the analysis of EMG signals, so that the movement can be reproduced by an arm orthosis, powered by two linear actuators. In this experiment, best accuracy has achieved values up to 91%, using a fourth-order AR-model and 100ms block length.

  12. Topology Optimization and Performance Calculation for Control Arms of a Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Control Arm (CA) of a suspension plays an important role in the automotive ride comfort and handling stability. In this paper, the topology optimization model including ball joints and bushing for topology optimization of an aluminium CA is established, where a ball joint is simplified as rigid elements and the elastic properties of a rubber bushing are estimated using Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law. A method for treating with multiple loads in topology optimization of CA is presented. Inerti...

  13. Cognitive Targeting: A Coercive Air Power Theory for Conventional Escalation Control Against Nuclear Armed Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    COGNITIVE TARGETING: A COERCIVE AIR POWER THEORY FOR CONVENTIONAL ESCALATION CONTROL AGAINST NUCLEAR- ARMED ADVERSARIES BY PAUL A. GOOSSEN, MAJ...process with both critical analysis and with encouragement. Most importantly, I want to express my most sincere appreciation to my family. Their love...regional powers such as North Korea, the post-Cold War geo-political environment characterized by U.S. hegemony is fading away. In the emerging

  14. Evolution in nuclear strategy in US and Russia and its implications in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokov, N

    2003-07-01

    Today, there is a growing tendency in war-fighting scenarios to include limited use of nuclear weapons. New developments in nuclear policy could be attributed to changes in the international situation like the multiplication of low level conflicts and the threat of terrorism. This paper analyzes the evolution of the Russian nuclear doctrine, the transformation of the US nuclear policy and their consequences on arms control. (J.S.)

  15. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  16. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Approach. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Main results. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  <6°. An upper cervical SCI patient, empowered by the exoskeleton, successfully carried a ball to a goal in all 10 trials. Significance. A BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of

  17. A MYOELECTRIC PROSTHETIC ARM CONTROLLED BY A SENSOR-ACTUATOR LOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kutílek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new methods and systems designed for application in upper extremity prostheses. An artificial upper limb with this system is a robot arm controlled by EMG signals and a set of sensors. The new multi-sensor system is based on ultrasonic sensors, infrared sensors, Hall-effect sensors, a CO2 sensor and a relative humidity sensor. The multi-sensor system is used to update a 3D map of objects in the robot’s environment, or it directly sends information about the environment to the control system of the myoelectric arm. Occupancy grid mapping is used to build a 3D map of the robot’s environment. The multi-sensor system can identify the distance of objects in 3D space, and the information from the system is used in a 3D map to identify potential collisions or a potentially dangerous environment, which could damage the prosthesis or the user. Information from the sensors and from the 3D map is evaluated using a fuzzy expert system. The control system of the myoelectric prosthetic arm can choose an adequate reaction on the basis of information from the fuzzy expert system. The systems and methods were designed and verified using MatLab/Simulink. They are aimed for use as assistive technology for disabled people.

  18. On Control of Reaching Movements for Musculo-Skeletal Redundant Arm Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Tahara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a dynamic sensory-motor control mechanism of reaching movements for a musculo-skeletal redundant arm model. The formulation of a musculo-skeletal redundant arm system, which takes into account non-linear muscle properties obtained by some physiological understandings, is introduced and numerical simulations are perfomed. The non-linear properties of muscle dynamics make it possible to modulate the viscosity of the joints, and the end point of the arm converges to the desired point with a simple task-space feedback when adequate internal forces are chosen, regardless of the redundancy of the joint. Numerical simulations were performed and the effectiveness of our control scheme is discussed through these results. The results suggest that the reaching movements can be achieved using only a simple task-space feedback scheme together with the internal force effect that comes from non-linear properties of skeletal muscles without any complex mathematical computation such as an inverse dynamics or optimal trajectory derivation. In addition, the dynamic damping ellipsoid for evaluating how the internal forces can be determined is introduced. The task-space feedback is extended to the ‘virtual spring-damper hypothesis’ based on the research by Arimoto et al. (2006 to reduce the muscle output forces and heterogeneity of convergence depending on the initial state and desired position. The research suggests a new direction for studies of brain-motor control mechanism of human movements.

  19. Intelligent control of robotic arm/hand systems for the NASA EVA retriever using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive/general learning algorithms using varying neural network models are considered for the intelligent control of robotic arm plus dextrous hand/manipulator systems. Results are summarized and discussed for the use of the Barto/Sutton/Anderson neuronlike, unsupervised learning controller as applied to the stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a cart system. Recommendations are made for the application of the controller and a kinematic analysis for trajectory planning to simple object retrieval (chase/approach and capture/grasp) scenarios in two dimensions.

  20. Attitude control of an object commonly held by multiple robot arms - A Lyapunov approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Kenneth; Wen, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple robot arms moving a commonly held object can be viewed as complex actuators whose purpose is to provide net forces and moments to the object. These forces and moments can be used to control the orientation, or attitude, of the object via the Euler equation describing attitude evolution in response to applied moments at the mass center. In contrast to the common approach that feedback-linearizes the attitude dynamics to a double integrator form with respect to some three-parameter local representation of orientation, the authors control the object using a globally nonsingular representation. Using an energy-motivated Liapunov function, globally stable control of attitude is shown.

  1. An embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongyun, Wang; Xinpiao, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Laser marking is an important branch of the laser information processing technology. The existing laser marking machine based on PC and WINDOWS operating system, are large and inconvenient to move. Still, it cannot work outdoors or in other harsh environments. In order to compensate for the above mentioned disadvantages, this paper proposed an embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors. Based on the principle of laser galvanometer scanning marking, the hardware and software were designed for the application. Experiments showed that this new embedded laser marking controller controls the galvanometers synchronously and could achieve precise marking.

  2. An Embedded Laser Marking Controller Based on ARM and FPGA Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dongyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser marking is an important branch of the laser information processing technology. The existing laser marking machine based on PC and WINDOWS operating system, are large and inconvenient to move. Still, it cannot work outdoors or in other harsh environments. In order to compensate for the above mentioned disadvantages, this paper proposed an embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors. Based on the principle of laser galvanometer scanning marking, the hardware and software were designed for the application. Experiments showed that this new embedded laser marking controller controls the galvanometers synchronously and could achieve precise marking.

  3. Attitude control of an object commonly held by multiple robot arms - A Lyapunov approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Kenneth; Wen, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple robot arms moving a commonly held object can be viewed as complex actuators whose purpose is to provide net forces and moments to the object. These forces and moments can be used to control the orientation, or attitude, of the object via the Euler equation describing attitude evolution in response to applied moments at the mass center. In contrast to the common approach that feedback-linearizes the attitude dynamics to a double integrator form with respect to some three-parameter local representation of orientation, the authors control the object using a globally nonsingular representation. Using an energy-motivated Liapunov function, globally stable control of attitude is shown.

  4. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  5. Adaptive Strategies for Controls of Flexible Arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bau-San

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive controller for a modern manipulator has been designed based on asymptotical stability via the Lyapunov criterion with the output error between the system and a reference model used as the actuating control signal. Computer simulations were carried out to test the design. The combination of the adaptive controller and a system vibration and mode shape estimator show that the flexible arm should move along a pre-defined trajectory with high-speed motion and fast vibration setting time. An existing computer-controlled prototype two link manipulator, RALF (Robotic Arm, Large Flexible), with a parallel mechanism driven by hydraulic actuators was used to verify the mathematical analysis. The experimental results illustrate that assumed modes found from finite element techniques can be used to derive the equations of motion with acceptable accuracy. The robust adaptive (modal) control is implemented to compensate for unmodelled modes and nonlinearities and is compared with the joint feedback control in additional experiments. Preliminary results show promise for the experimental control algorithm.

  6. Recommendations on multiple testing adjustment in multi-arm trials with a shared control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Dena R; Brown, Julia M; Todd, Susan; Gregory, Walter M

    2016-09-19

    Multi-arm clinical trials assessing multiple experimental treatments against a shared control group can offer efficiency advantages over independent trials through assessing an increased number of hypotheses. Published opinion is divided on the requirement for multiple testing adjustment to control the family-wise type-I error rate (FWER). The probability of a false positive error in multi-arm trials compared to equivalent independent trials is affected by the correlation between comparisons due to sharing control data. We demonstrate that this correlation in fact leads to a reduction in the FWER, therefore FWER adjustment is not recommended solely due to sharing control data. In contrast, the correlation increases the probability of multiple false positive outcomes across the hypotheses, although standard FWER adjustment methods do not control for this. A stringent critical value adjustment is proposed to maintain equivalent evidence of superiority in two correlated comparisons to that obtained within independent trials. FWER adjustment is only required if there is an increased chance of making a single claim of effectiveness by testing multiple hypotheses, not due to sharing control data. For competing experimental therapies, the correlation between comparisons can be advantageous as it eliminates bias due to the experimental therapies being compared to different control populations.

  7. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  8. Adaptive gravity and joint stiffness compensation methods for force-controlled arm supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo Prat, J.; Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Stienen, Arno; Veltink, Petrus H.; Braun, D.; Yu, H.; Campolo, D.

    2015-01-01

    People with muscular weakness can benefit from arm supports that compensate the weight of their arms. Due to the disuse of the arms, passive joint stiffness increases and providing only gravity compensation becomes insufficient to support the arm function. Hence, joint stiffness compensation is also

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Adapted Form of Individual Critical Incident Stress Debriefing for Victims of an Armed Robbery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchand, Andre; Guay, Stephane; Boyer, Richard; Iucci, Soledad; Martin, Annick; St-Hilaire, Marie-Helene

    2006-01-01

    Victims of an armed robbery are at great risk of psychological distress. This research is a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial of an adapted form of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD...

  10. Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Grossman, Paul; Schwarzer, Barbara; Jena, Susanne; Naumann, Johannes; Walach, Harald

    2011-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured 8-week group program teaching mindfulness meditation and mindful yoga exercises. MBSR aims to help participants develop nonjudgmental awareness of moment-to-moment experience. Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome with chronic pain, fatigue, and insomnia as major symptoms. Efficacy of MBSR for enhanced well-being of fibromyalgia patients was investigated in a 3-armed trial, which was a follow-up to an earlier quasi-randomized investigation. A total of 177 female patients were randomized to one of the following: (1) MBSR, (2) an active control procedure controlling for nonspecific effects of MBSR, or (3) a wait list. The major outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 2 months post-treatment. Secondary outcomes were disorder-specific quality of life, depression, pain, anxiety, somatic complaints, and a proposed index of mindfulness. Of the patients, 82% completed the study. There were no significant differences between groups on primary outcome, but patients overall improved in HRQoL at short-term follow-up (P=0.004). Post hoc analyses showed that only MBSR manifested a significant pre-to-post-intervention improvement in HRQoL (P=0.02). Furthermore, multivariate analysis of secondary measures indicated modest benefits for MBSR patients. MBSR yielded significant pre-to-post-intervention improvements in 6 of 8 secondary outcome variables, the active control in 3, and the wait list in 2. In conclusion, primary outcome analyses did not support the efficacy of MBSR in fibromyalgia, although patients in the MBSR arm appeared to benefit most. Effect sizes were small compared to the earlier, quasi-randomized investigation. Several methodological aspects are discussed, e.g., patient burden, treatment preference and motivation, that may provide explanations for differences. In a 3-armed randomized controlled trial in female patients suffering from fibromyalgia, patients benefited modestly from a mindfulness

  11. Major upgrade of the articulated inspection arm control system to fulfill daily operation requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, P., E-mail: patrick.pastor@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Villedieu, E.; Allegretti, L.; Vincent, B.; Barbuti, A.; Bruno, V.; Coquillat, P.; Dechelle, C.; Gargiulo, L.; Le, R.; Malard, P.; Martinez, A.; Nouailletas, R. [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Yuntao, Song; Yong, Cheng; Chen, Liu; Hansheng, Feng; Shanshuang, Shi [ASIPP, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We propose an overview of the work which has been done to upgrade the control system of the AIA robot (articulated inspection arm) to fulfill daily operation requirements for tokamak inspection. • The control system is based on the use of new position sensors, new electronics design and new supervisor software. • Final tests are ongoing in the EAST scale 1 tokamak mock-up. Routine operation of the robot at EAST will start in the beginning of 2015. - Abstract: An articulated inspection arm (AIA) has been developed by CEA for visual inspection between pulses inside the Tore Supra tokamak vacuum vessel without breaking temperature and vacuum conditions. The eight meters length robot is composed of a shuttle and six articulated segments with a video camera at its end. A demonstration prototype has been achieved in 2008 at Tore Supra (Gargiulo, 2007; Houry, 2008; Perrot, 2003). A project to upgrade the AIA into a fully operational robot has been undertaken by IRFM and ASIPP in an Associated Laboratory. It will be in operation first in the EAST machine and afterwards in Tore Supra in its WEST (W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) configuration where it is of paramount importance to survey possible degradation of W component surface. The control system of the robot has been extensively upgraded. The effort has been focused on three areas: (1) improvement of the arm position accuracy, (2) increase of the operational robustness, (3) use of a powerful graphical user interface including simulation of trajectories and robot deployment capabilities in a 3D viewer environment. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the AIA control system.

  12. A low cost virtual reality system for home based rehabilitation of the arm following stroke: A randomised controlled feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    Standen, P.; Threapleton, K; Richardson, A; Connell, L; Brown, D.; Battersby, S; Platts, F; Burton, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial of a home-based virtual reality system for rehabilitation of the arm following stroke. Design: Two group feasibility randomised controlled trial of intervention versus usual care. Setting: Patients’ homes. Participants: Patients aged 18 or over, with residual arm dysfunction following stroke and, no longer receiving any other intensive rehabilitation. Interventions: Eight weeks’ use of a low cost home-based virtu...

  13. Towards Rehabilitation Robotics: Off-the-Shelf BCI Control of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xygonakis, Ioannis; Pandria, Niki; Kartsidis, Panagiotis; Arfaras, George; Kavazidi, Kyriaki Rafailia; Foroglou, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Advances in neural interfaces have demonstrated remarkable results in the direction of replacing and restoring lost sensorimotor function in human patients. Noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are popular due to considerable advantages including simplicity, safety, and low cost, while recent advances aim at improving past technological and neurophysiological limitations. Taking into account the neurophysiological alterations of disabled individuals, investigating brain connectivity features for implementation of BCI control holds special importance. Off-the-shelf BCI systems are based on fast, reproducible detection of mental activity and can be implemented in neurorobotic applications. Moreover, social Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is increasingly important in rehabilitation robotics development. In this paper, we present our progress and goals towards developing off-the-shelf BCI-controlled anthropomorphic robotic arms for assistive technologies and rehabilitation applications. We account for robotics development, BCI implementation, and qualitative assessment of HRI characteristics of the system. Furthermore, we present two illustrative experimental applications of the BCI-controlled arms, a study of motor imagery modalities on healthy individuals' BCI performance, and a pilot investigation on spinal cord injured patients' BCI control and brain connectivity. We discuss strengths and limitations of our design and propose further steps on development and neurophysiological study, including implementation of connectivity features as BCI modality. PMID:28948168

  14. Towards Rehabilitation Robotics: Off-the-Shelf BCI Control of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Alkinoos; Xygonakis, Ioannis; Pandria, Niki; Kartsidis, Panagiotis; Arfaras, George; Kavazidi, Kyriaki Rafailia; Foroglou, Nicolas; Astaras, Alexander; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    Advances in neural interfaces have demonstrated remarkable results in the direction of replacing and restoring lost sensorimotor function in human patients. Noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are popular due to considerable advantages including simplicity, safety, and low cost, while recent advances aim at improving past technological and neurophysiological limitations. Taking into account the neurophysiological alterations of disabled individuals, investigating brain connectivity features for implementation of BCI control holds special importance. Off-the-shelf BCI systems are based on fast, reproducible detection of mental activity and can be implemented in neurorobotic applications. Moreover, social Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is increasingly important in rehabilitation robotics development. In this paper, we present our progress and goals towards developing off-the-shelf BCI-controlled anthropomorphic robotic arms for assistive technologies and rehabilitation applications. We account for robotics development, BCI implementation, and qualitative assessment of HRI characteristics of the system. Furthermore, we present two illustrative experimental applications of the BCI-controlled arms, a study of motor imagery modalities on healthy individuals' BCI performance, and a pilot investigation on spinal cord injured patients' BCI control and brain connectivity. We discuss strengths and limitations of our design and propose further steps on development and neurophysiological study, including implementation of connectivity features as BCI modality.

  15. Two-Loop Control of Redundant Manipulators: Analysis and Experiments on a 3-DOF Planar Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A redundant robot has more degrees of freedom (DOF than those required to accomplish a given motion task. This fact allows the possibility of achieving an additional task, such as avoidance of joint limits or singularities, besides the primary one. Different criteria have been proposed in the literature for the selection of such a secondary task. This paper first recalls some of those criteria and then proposes a two‐loop scheme for the motion control of redundant robots. In order to validate the proposed scheme, some experiments are carried out in a direct‐drive redundant planar arm which has been designed and built in our laboratory.

  16. Russia and Arms Control: Are There Opportunities for the Obama Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Kaliningrad area. They are located both at and in the vicinity of units belonging to the Russia fleet.” For better or worse, arms control and its agenda...tactical nuclear weapons in the Kaliningrad area. They are located both at and in the vicinity of units belonging to the Russia fleet.”7 In other words... Kaliningrad if NATO does not take up Russian complaints about these treaties.141 In early August 2008, there was a flurry of reports that Russia

  17. Increasing Inspectability of Hardware and Software for Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2001-07-18

    As the U.S. and the Russian Federation get closer to deploying systems for monitoring nuclear material within arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes, the level of inspectability of the system hardware and software must increase beyond the systems demonstrated to date. These systems include the Trilateral Initiative prototype, the Fissile Material Transparency Technology Demonstration (FMTTD) system, and the Trusted Radiation Attribute Demonstration System (TRADS). Toward this goal, several alternative technologies will be discussed along with ways in which they would increase inspectability. Some examples of such technologies include the use of microcontrollers instead of fully capable computers, open source operating systems, rantime environments, and compilers.

  18. Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky: Scientist and Arms-Control Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüth, Vera G.

    2013-10-01

    Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky is remembered as the legendary founder and first director of SLAC, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. He devoted his life to teaching and research in accelerator and particle physics, to science policy, to his work as a science advisor to both the US and foreign governments, and to world peace as an expert on arms control and international security. He was admired by all who had a chance to meet and interact with him, and who simply called him Pief.

  19. A New Approach to Control Single-Link Flexible Arms. Part 2. Control of the Tip Position in the Presence of Joint Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    July 1989 Copyright @ 1989 Carnegie Mellon University ’Visiting Professor, Dpto Ingenieria Eldctrica, Electr6nica y Control , UNED, Ciudad Universitaria...A NEW APPROACH TO CONTROL SINGLE-LINK FLEXIBLE ARMS. PART II: Control of the Tip Position in the Presence of Joint Friction Vicente Feliu 1, Kuldip S...TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO NO. ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) A New Approach to Control Single-Link Flexible Arms. Part II

  20. Embed System for Robotic Arm with 3 Degree of Freedom Controller Using Computational Vision on Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cortinhas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Paper deals with robotic arm embed controller system, with distributed system based on protocol communication between one server supportin g multiple points and mobile applications trough sockets .The proposed system utilizes hand with glove gesture in three-dimensional recognition using fuzzy implementation to set x,y,z coordinates. This approach present all implementation over: two raspberry PI arm based com puter running client program, x64 PC running server program, and one robot arm controlle d by ATmega328p based board.

  1. Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

    2007-11-01

    Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

  2. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  3. Recommendations for the analysis of individually randomised controlled trials with clustering in one arm – a case of continuous outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Flight

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an individually randomised controlled trial where the treatment is delivered by a health professional it seems likely that the effectiveness of the treatment, independent of any treatment effect, could depend on the skill, training or even enthusiasm of the health professional delivering it. This may then lead to a potential clustering of the outcomes for patients treated by the same health professional, but similar clustering may not occur in the control arm. Using four case studies, we aim to provide practical guidance and recommendations for the analysis of trials with some element of clustering in one arm. Methods Five approaches to the analysis of outcomes from an individually randomised controlled trial with clustering in one arm are identified in the literature. Some of these methods are applied to four case studies of completed randomised controlled trials with clustering in one arm with sample sizes ranging from 56 to 539. Results are obtained using the statistical packages R and Stata and summarised using a forest plot. Results The intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC for each of the case studies was small (<0.05 indicating little dependence on the outcomes related to cluster allocations. All models fitted produced similar results, including the simplest approach of ignoring clustering for the case studies considered. Conclusions A partially clustered approach, modelling the clustering in just one arm, most accurately represents the trial design and provides valid results. Modelling homogeneous variances between the clustered and unclustered arm is adequate in scenarios similar to the case studies considered. We recommend treating each participant in the unclustered arm as a single cluster. This approach is simple to implement in R and Stata and is recommended for the analysis of trials with clustering in one arm only. However, the case studies considered had small ICC values, limiting the generalisability

  4. The modernization of the Russian strategic forces and the future of the US-Russian arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miasnikov, Eugene [The Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    The bilateral U.S.-Russian strategic arms control di alog was at its peak at the end of the Cold War, when the very successful Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) and Strategic Arms Reduction (START) Treaties were succeeded. Unfortunately, it is almost non-existent these days. With the end of START in 2009, an important verification mechanism, that currently provides transparency of U.S. and Russian strategic forces and their activities, might be lost, if the sides fail to work out a replacement for it. At the same time the role of transparent nuclear arms reductions by nuclear states is growing for the future of the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) regime, and this factor should stimulate U.S. and Russia to renew the strategic arms control dialog. The talk focuses on modern trends in the evolution of U.S. and Russian nuclear forces and doctrines of their implementation as well as on the impact of these tendencies on attitudes toward arms control. A framework of a new bilateral strategic arms reduction agreement that might replace START and enforce Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT) is proposed.

  5. Torsional Arming of Thiomannosyl Donors & Conformational Control of Hexahydropyridazines via pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jacob Ingemar

    demonstrated their ability to change conformation under different conditions. These conformational changes are connected to various intramolecular interactions and can to some extent, be controlled by pH (Chapter 3). Fusing these conformationally labile compounds to the rim of a cyclodextrin would create...... and can to some extent, be controlled by pH (Chapter 3). Fusing these conformationally labile compounds to the rim of a cyclodextrin would create compounds that could release molecules at a specified change in pH conditions. To investigate this, four hexahydropyridazines were synthesized and investigated......The overall objective of the research presented in this PhD thesis was to investigate torsional arming of thiogalacto- and thiomannosyl donors (part 1) and to investigate the possible synthesis and attachment of a pH regulated conformational switch to an α-cyclodextrin (part 2). Part 1: It is well...

  6. Mechanical Design, Control Choices and first Return of Use of a Prosthetic Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Thomann, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    In the world of upper limb prostheses, few companies dominate the majority of the market. They propose different kinds of hand, wrist and elbow prostheses but their control is often difficult to understand by the patients. We have decided to develop new myoelectric prosthetic arm (elbow, wrist and hand) by axing our development on the use of new technologies and facility of use for the patient. In this paper, we are explaining in details the different kinds of prostheses currently proposed to the amputees, their advantages and their drawbacks, the descriptions of the patients' needs and the possible improvements of the product. We will develop the designing choices of our prosthesis and the movements it can realize. Then we will explain the simplified control of the product by the patient and its first reactions. Finally, we will conclude by the news ideas and the next researches to concretize.

  7. The role of unattended ground sensors (UGS) in regional confidence building and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

    1997-03-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the world has not become more peaceful. Without the stability provided by an international system dominated by two super-powers, local conflicts are more likely to escalate. Agreements to counter destabilizing pressures in regional conflicts can benefit from the use of cooperative monitoring. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing, and sharing of information among parties to an agreement. Ground sensor technologies can contribute to the collection of relevant information. If implemented with consideration for local conditions, cooperative monitoring can build confidence, strengthen existing agreements, and set the stage for continued progress. This presentation describes two examples: the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai agreements of the 1970s and a conceptual example for the contemporary Korean Peninsula. The Sinai was a precedent for the successful use of UGS within the context of cooperative monitoring. The Korean Peninsula is the world`s largest military confrontation. Future confidence building measures that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for a peace agreement.

  8. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  9. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  10. Emulating a robotic manipulator arm with an hybrid motion-control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-González, G.; León-Galicia, A.; Noriega-Hernández, M.; Salazar-Hueta, A.

    2015-01-01

    A motion control system with four and 1/2 degrees of freedom, designed to move small objects within a 0.25 m3 space, parallel to a horizontal table, with high speed and performance similar to a robotic manipulator arm was built. The machine employs several actuators and control devices. Its main characteristic is to incorporate a servomotor, steeper motors, electromechanical and fluid power actuators and diverse control resources. A group of actuators arranged on a spherical coordinates system is attached to the servomotor platform. A linear pneumatic actuator with an angular grip provides the radial extension and load clamping capacity. Seven inductive proximity sensors and one encoder provide feedback, for operating the actuators under closed loop conditions. Communication between the sensors and control devices is organized by a PLC. A touch screen allows governing the system remotely, easily and interactively, without knowing the specific programming language of each control component. The graphic environment on the touch screen guides the user to design and store control programs, establishing coordinated automatic routines for moving objects in space, simulation and implementation of industrial positioning or machining processes.

  11. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Joshua M; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies--correlated muscle activations--to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption--when available--can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the mechanisms

  12. Simulation of neutron multiplicity measurements using Geant4. Open source software for nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuett, Moritz

    2016-07-07

    Nuclear arms control, including nuclear safeguards and verification technologies for nuclear disarmament typically use software as part of many different technological applications. This thesis proposes to use three open source criteria for such software, allowing users and developers to have free access to a program, have access to the full source code and be able to publish modifications for the program. This proposition is presented and analyzed in detail, together with the description of the development of ''Open Neutron Multiplicity Simulation'', an open source software tool to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The description includes physical background of the method, details of the developed program and a comprehensive set of validation calculations.

  13. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C. [eds.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  14. Nuclear weapons, scientists, and the post-Cold War challenge selected papers on arms control

    CERN Document Server

    Drell, Sidney D

    2007-01-01

    This volume includes a representative selection of Sidney Drell's recent writings and speeches (circa 1993 to the present) on public policy issues with substantial scientific components. Most of the writings deal with national security, nuclear weapons, and arms control and reflect the author's personal involvement in such issues dating back to 1960. Fifteen years after the demise of the Soviet Union, the gravest danger presented by nuclear weapons is the spread of advanced technology that may result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Of most concern would be their acquisition by hostile governments and terrorists who are unconstrained by accepted norms of civilized behavior. The current challenges are to prevent this from happening and, at the same time, to pursue aggressively the opportunity to escape from an outdated nuclear deterrence trap.

  15. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  16. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winstein Carolee J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP, compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC. Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only usual and customary (UCC therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Methods/design Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS hand domain is a secondary outcome measure. The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary

  17. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  18. Accidental nuclear war: Modifications to superpower arsenals and to procedures for handling them could substantially reduce the risk of unintended Armageddon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, B.G.; Kendall, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    If nuclear war breaks out in the coming decade or two, it will probably be by accident. The threat of a cold-blooded, calculated first strike is vanishing, but beneath the calm surface of constructive diplomacy among the traditional nuclear rivals lurks the danger of unpremeditated use of nuclear weapons. The accidental, unauthorized or inadvertent use of these weapons has become the most plausible path to nuclear war. Both superpowers, as well as France, Great Britain and China - long-standing members of the nuclear club - are potential sources of accidental missile launch. The emergence of fledgling nuclear powers such as India, Pakistan and Israel - some armed with ballistic missiles - pushes nuclear safeguards even closer to the top of the international security agenda. The chances of unwanted nuclear war would be reduced significantly if tamper proof, coded locks were installed on all nuclear weapons and if methods were put in place to disarm nuclear forces even after launch. In addition, the US and the Soviet Union should reduce their reliance on the dangerous policy of launch on warning and reduce the launch readiness of their nuclear forces. The social and political upheavals in the Soviet Union underscore fears of unintended nuclear war. Civil turmoil raises the possibility that rebellious ethnic groups or splinter organizations could capture nuclear weapons. Other, deeper fault lines run through the whole of Soviet society and may be capable of cracking the foundations of its nuclear command system. Although the US faces no such civil unrest, the country's system of nuclear command carries some risk that nuclear weapons might be used contrary to the intentions of legitimate authorities.

  19. Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.

  20. Formation of superpower volume discharges and their application for modification of surface of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The results of experimental investigations of a volume avalanche discharge initiated by an e-beam (VADIEB) and surface layer of Cu and AlBe foils modifications at the plasma action of VADIEB are given. The volume discharge in the air of atmosphere pressure formed in the gap with the cathode having small curvature radius and with high voltage pulses of nanosecond duration and positive and negative polarity. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with formation conditions in gases under atmospheric pressure have been investigated. It is proved that the surface layer is cleared of carbon at foil treatment, and atoms of oxygen penetrate into a foil. It is show that the cleaning depth depends on polarity of voltage pulses. At positive polarity of a copper foil electrode the cleaning is observed at the depth over 50 nm, and atoms of oxygen penetrate at the depth up to 25 nm. Plasma of the superpower volume discharge of nanosecond duration with a specific excitation power of hundreds of MW/cm3, and SAEB, and the discharge plasma radiation of various spectral ranges (including UV, VUV and X-ray) has the influence on the anode. The supershort avalanche electronic beam is generated only at negative polarity of a voltage pulse on an electrode with a small radius of curvature. SAEB influence on modifications of the copper foil surface is registered. VADIEB is easily realized in various gases and at various pressures, and, at gas pressure decrease the density of the beam current in helium can achieve 2 kA/cm2. It allows predicting an opportunity of VADIEB application for metal surface modifications in various technological processes, and for surface dielectric modifications at the certain design of the anode.

  1. Power considerations for trials of two experimental arms versus a standard active control or placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselblad, Vic

    2016-10-01

    The power of the two-experimental arm trial depends on three choices: (1) when one arm is dropped (if at all); (2) the final testing procedure, assuming no dropping; and (3) the sampling ratio for the three arms. Multiple-arm designs require critical values which were calculated using Mathematica. Power calculations were exact based on probabilities from binomial distributions. The "drop the loser" strategy is optimal for the primary endpoint. The equal sized two treated arm trial gives reasonable power for the primary as well as good power to select the best treated arm. The best power was provided by the 3:3:4 sampling, but it was only marginally better.

  2. Towards Brain-Computer Interface Control of a 6-Degree-of-Freedom Robotic Arm Using Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Astaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of a robotic arm that can be operated using an exoskeletal position sensing harness as well as a dry electrode brain-computer interface headset. Design priorities comprise an intuitive and immersive user interface, fast and smooth movement, portability, and cost minimization. Materials and Methods. A robotic arm prototype capable of moving along 6 degrees of freedom has been developed, along with an exoskeletal position sensing harness which was used to control it. Commercially available dry electrode BCI headsets were evaluated. A particular headset model has been selected and is currently being integrated into the hybrid system. Results and Discussion. The combined arm-harness system has been successfully tested and met its design targets for speed, smooth movement, and immersive control. Initial tests verify that an operator using the system can perform pick and place tasks following a rather short learning curve. Further evaluation experiments are planned for the integrated BCI-harness hybrid setup. Conclusions. It is possible to design a portable robotic arm interface comparable in size, dexterity, speed, and fluidity to the human arm at relatively low cost. The combined system achieved its design goals for intuitive and immersive robotic control and is currently being further developed into a hybrid BCI system for comparative experiments.

  3. Brain-machine interface via real-time fMRI: preliminary study on thought-controlled robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Ryu, Jeongwon; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Cho, Zang-Hee; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2009-01-23

    Real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) has been used as a basis for brain-computer interface (BCI) due to its ability to characterize region-specific brain activity in real-time. As an extension of BCI, we present an rtfMRI-based brain-machine interface (BMI) whereby 2-dimensional movement of a robotic arm was controlled by the regulation (and concurrent detection) of regional cortical activations in the primary motor areas. To do so, the subjects were engaged in the right- and/or left-hand motor imagery tasks. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal originating from the corresponding hand motor areas was then translated into horizontal or vertical robotic arm movement. The movement was broadcasted visually back to the subject as a feedback. We demonstrated that real-time control of the robotic arm only through the subjects' thought processes was possible using the rtfMRI-based BMI trials.

  4. Ahb Compatible DDR Sdram Controller Ip Core for Arm Based Soc

    CERN Document Server

    Shashikumar, Dr R; Nagendrakumar, M; Hemanthkumar, C S

    2010-01-01

    DDR SDRAM is similar in function to the regular SDRAM but doubles the bandwidth of the memory by transferring data on both edges of the clock cycles. DDR SDRAM most commonly used in various embedded application like networking, image or video processing, Laptops ete. Now a days many applications needs more and more cheap and fast memory. Especially in the field of signal processing, requires significant amount of memory. The most used type of dynamic memory for that purpose is DDR SDRAM. For FPGA design the IC manufacturers are providing commercial memory controller IP cores working only on their products. Main disadvantage is the lack of memory access optimization for random memory access patterns. The data path part of those controllers can be used free of charge. This work propose an architecture of a DDR SDRAM controller, which takes advantage of those available and well tested data paths and can be used for any FPGA device or ASIC design.(5). In most of the SOC design, DDR SDRAM is commonly used. ARM pro...

  5. Virtual environment for local and remote control of a robot arm for support in engineering teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José T. Buitrago-Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a virtual platform that allows simulation and local and remote command and control of the SCARA robot arm called UV-CERMA, which is installed at the Robotics Laboratory of the Escuela de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Valle. The robot has been underutilized for some years due to the obsolete control system. The platform, focused on the engineering education methodology, consists of two applications which simulate the robot and permit its remote and local command and control. One of the applications was implemented on LabVIEW software of National Instruments and the other application was programmed on free software using the open source language Java. Both applications implement forward kinematics and inverse kinematics, have a module for trajectories planning and operation, a module for monitoring the values of the variables and a three dimensional model of the robot. To manipulate the robot, an interface with a joystick was developed, enhancing the versatility of the platform. The applications communicate with the real robot using the National Instruments data acquisition card NI USB-6211, and for the remote connection they have a client-server architecture using TCP/IP sockets.

  6. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

  7. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

  8. Robust trajectory tracking control of a dual-arm space robot actuated by control moment gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yinghong; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-08-01

    It is a new design concept to employ control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) as reactionless actuators for space robots. Such actuation has several noticeable advantages such as weak dynamical coupling and low power consumption over traditional joint motor actuation. This paper presents a robust control law for a CMG-actuated space robot in presence of system uncertainties and closed-chain constraints. The control objective is to make the manipulation variables to track the desired trajectories, and reduce the possibility of CMG saturation simultaneously. A reduced-order dynamical equation in terms of independent motion variables is derived using Kane's equations. Desired trajectories of the independent motion variables are derived by minimum-norm trajectory planning algorithm, and an adaptive sliding mode controller with improved adaptation laws is proposed to drive the independent motion variables tracking the desired trajectories. Uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed loop system is proven using Lyapunov method. The redundancy of the full-order actual control torques is utilized to generate a null torque vector which reduces the possibility of CMG angular momentum saturation while producing no effect on the reduced-order control input. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of weak dynamical coupling of the CMG-actuated system.

  9. The Impact of Arms Limitation Agreements and Export Control Regulations of International Commercial Launch Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The commercial launch industry is by its very nature a global sector dominated by multinationals that operate across national boundaries. Since the end of the Cold War, new launch operators have become increasingly reliant on existing space and propulsion technology from Russia and other former constituent republics of the Soviet Union. With this in mind, the impact of export controls imposed by various countries under various internationally agreements, especially those of Australia, Russia and the United States, has become an increasingly important factor in the day-to-day operation of commercial launch operators. This is particularly true for launch operators utilising converted ballistic missiles as launch vehicles, as they have to consider also the impact of arms reduction treaties, such as START, on their launch operations. This paper explores the legal and administrative operations of the START and export control regimes operated by Russia and the United States, as well as emerging launching States such as Australia, and how they impact on the logistical operations of domestic or multinational commercial launch operators.

  10. Sympathetic vasomotor control does not explain the change in femoral artery shear rate pattern during arm-crank exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J; Steendijk, Sjoerd; Hopman, Maria T E

    2009-01-01

    During lower limb exercise, blood flow through the resting upper limbs exhibits a change characterized by increased anterograde flow during systole, but also large increases in retrograde diastolic flow. One explanation for the retrograde flow is that increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone and concomitant increased peripheral resistance generate a rebound during diastole. To examine whether the SNS contributes to retrograde flow patterns, we measured femoral artery blood flow during arm-crank exercise in 10 healthy men (31 +/- 4 yr) and 10 spinal cord-injured (SCI) subjects who lack sympathetic innervation in the legs (33 +/- 5 yr). Before, and every 5 min during 25-min arm-crank exercise at 50% maximal capacity, femoral artery blood flow and peak anterograde and retrograde shear rate were assessed using echo Doppler sonography. Femoral artery baseline blood flow was significantly lower in SCI compared with controls. Exercise increased femoral artery blood flow in both groups (ANOVA, P change during exercise in either group. Mean shear rate was lower in SCI than in controls (P rate was higher in SCI than in controls (P rate did not differ between groups. Arm-crank exercise induced an increase in peak anterograde and retrograde shear rate in the femoral artery in controls and SCI subjects (P change the flow pattern in inactive regions during exercise. Local mechanisms may play a role in the arm-crank exercise-induced changes in flow pattern in the femoral artery.

  11. Upper-limb motor control in patients after stroke: Attentional demands and the potential beneficial effects of arm support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Steenbergen, B.; Prange, G.B.; Buurke, J.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the attentional load of using the upper limb in moderately and mildly affected patients after stroke, with and without arm support. Ten patients with stroke (4 mild and 6 moderate paresis) and ten healthy, gender- and age-matched control subjects performed a

  12. Upper-limb motor control in patients after stroke: Attentional demands and the potential beneficial effects of arm support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Steenbergen, B.; Prange, G.B.; Buurke, J.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the attentional load of using the upper limb in moderately and mildly affected patients after stroke, with and without arm support. Ten patients with stroke (4 mild and 6 moderate paresis) and ten healthy, gender- and age-matched control subjects performed a

  13. Motor imagery, P300 and error-related EEG-based robot arm movement control for rehabilitation purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saugat; Konar, Amit; Tibarewala, D N

    2014-12-01

    The paper proposes a novel approach toward EEG-driven position control of a robot arm by utilizing motor imagery, P300 and error-related potentials (ErRP) to align the robot arm with desired target position. In the proposed scheme, the users generate motor imagery signals to control the motion of the robot arm. The P300 waveforms are detected when the user intends to stop the motion of the robot on reaching the goal position. The error potentials are employed as feedback response by the user. On detection of error the control system performs the necessary corrections on the robot arm. Here, an AdaBoost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used to decode the 4-class motor imagery and an SVM is used to decode the presence of P300 and ErRP waveforms. The average steady-state error, peak overshoot and settling time obtained for our proposed approach is 0.045, 2.8% and 44 s, respectively, and the average rate of reaching the target is 95%. The results obtained for the proposed control scheme make it suitable for designs of prosthetics in rehabilitative applications.

  14. Increasing speed to improve arm movement and standing postural control in Parkinson's disease patients when catching virtual moving balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuei-Jung; Hwang, Wen-Juh; Wu, Ching-yi; Fang, Jing-Jing; Leong, Iat-Fai; Ma, Hui-Ing

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that moving targets help Parkinson's disease (PD) patients improve their arm movement while sitting. We examined whether increasing the speed of a moving ball would also improve standing postural control in PD patients during a virtual reality (VR) ball-catching task. Twenty-one PD patients and 21 controls bilaterally reached to catch slow-moving and then fast-moving virtual balls while standing. A projection-based VR system connected to a motion-tracking system and a force platform was used. Dependent measures included the kinematics of arm movement (movement time, peak velocity), duration of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA), and center of pressure (COP) movement (movement time, maximum amplitude, and average velocity). When catching a fast ball, both PD and control groups made arm movements with shorter movement time and higher peak velocity, longer APA, as well as COP movements with shorter movement time and smaller amplitude than when catching a slow ball. The change in performance from slow- to fast-ball conditions was not different between the PD and control groups. The results suggest that raising the speed of virtual moving targets should increase the speed of arm and COP movements for PD patients. Therapists, however, should also be aware that a fast virtual moving target causes the patient to confine the COP excursion to a smaller amplitude. Future research should examine the effect of other task parameters (e.g., target distance, direction) on COP movement and examine the long-term effect of VR training.

  15. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the "UCM reference feedback control." To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change

  16. A passivity based control methodology for flexible joint robots with application to a simplified shuttle RMS arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The main goal is to develop a general theory for the control of flexible robots, including flexible joint robots, flexible link robots, rigid bodies with flexible appendages, etc. As part of the validation, the theory is applied to the control law development for a test example which consists of a three-link arm modeled after the shoulder yaw joint of the space shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS). The performance of the closed loop control system is then compared with the performance of the existing RMS controller to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The theoretical foundation of this new approach to the control of flexible robots is presented and its efficacy is demonstrated through simulation results on the three-link test arm.

  17. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Carlos M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF, both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Methods Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB® environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP. The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Results Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. Conclusion The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present.

  18. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Natalia M; di Sciascio, Fernando; Soria, Carlos M; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2009-02-25

    Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA) and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF), both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present.

  19. Performance Study of PID and Fuzzy Controllers for Position Control of 6 DOF arm Manipulator with Various Defuzzification Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharidege Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s arm manipulators are more and more demanding in terms of productivity. Conventional controllers are not always able to provide good and accurate results. To complete a position movement of the manipulator’s end-effector, a set of joint angles of manipulator first required to be converted to the position coordinates by using the forward kinematics method, and each joint rotation is executed using a servomotor feedback control. The kinematic model has been validated using MATLAB® robotics toolbox. An end-effector based 6 degree of freedom (6-DOF platform is proposed in this work which uses DC servomotor for actuation of the three revolute joints. PID controller is used as a reference benchmark. And FLC controller with different defuzzification strategies was employed. Results were compared in terms of time response criteria. Simulation results using MATLAB are demonstrated that PID has superior performance in terms of transient parameters. In Steady state response, both PID and FLC manage to converge to the desired output but in terms of overshot FLC is outperformed.

  20. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  1. Iyengar yoga for distressed women: a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group.

  2. Iyengar Yoga for Distressed Women: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Michalsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n=24 with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n=24 with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n=24. The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL, profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P=0.003, state trait anxiety (P=0.021 and P=0.003, depression (P=0.008, psychological QOL (P=0.012, mood states being (P=0.007, and bodily complaints well(P=0.012 when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1. Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group.

  3. Clinical effectiveness of osteopathic treatment in chronic migraine: 3-Armed randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerritelli, Francesco; Ginevri, Liana; Messi, Gabriella; Caprari, Emanuele; Di Vincenzo, Marcello; Renzetti, Cinzia; Cozzolino, Vincenzo; Barlafante, Gina; Foschi, Nicoletta; Provinciali, Leandro

    2015-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of OMT on chronic migraineurs using HIT-6 questionnaire, drug consumption, days of migraine, pain intensity and functional disability. 3-Armed randomized controlled trial setting: all patients admitted in the Department of Neurology of Ancona's United Hospitals, Italy, with a diagnosis of migraine and without chronic illness, were considered eligible for the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: (1) OMT+medication therapy, (2) sham+medication therapy and (3) medication therapy only. Patients received 8 treatments in a study period of 6 months. Changing from baseline HIT-6 score. 105 subjects were included. At the end of the study, ANOVA showed that OMT significantly reduced HIT-6 score (mean change scores OMT-conventional care: -8.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) -12.96 to -4.52; pOMT-sham: -6.62; 95% CI -10.85 to -2.41; pOMT-sham: RR=0.22, 95% CI 0.11-0.40; OMT-control: RR=0.20, 95% CI 0.10-0.36), days of migraine (OMT-conventional care: M=-21.06; 95% CI -23.19 to -18.92; pOMT-sham: -17.43; 95% CI -19.57 to -15.29; pOMT-sham: RR=0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.69; OMT-control: RR=0.31, 95% CI 0.19-0.49) and functional disability (pOMT may be considered a valid procedure for the management of migraineurs. The present trial was registered on www.ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01851148). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  5. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection.

  6. Comparing treatment fidelity between study arms of a randomized controlled clinical trial for stroke family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennon, Susan M; Hancock, Rebecca D; Redelman, Kathleen; Scarton, Lisa J; Riley, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Bobbie; Habermann, Barbara; Jessup, Nenette M; Bakas, Tamilyn

    2016-05-01

    To compare treatment fidelity among treatment arms in the Telephone Assessment and Skill-Building Kit study for stroke caregivers (TASK II) with respect to: 1) protocol adherence; 2) intervention dosage and 3) nurse intervener perspectives. A randomized controlled clinical trial design. Urban, community, midwestern United States. A total of 254 stroke caregivers (mean ±SD age, 54.4 ±11.8 years), 55 (22.0%) males and 199 (78.4%) females) randomized to the TASK II intervention (n=123) or an Information, Support, and Referral comparison group (n=131). TASK II participants received the TASK II Resource Guide; Information, Support, and Referral participants received a standard caregiver brochure. At approximately 8 weeks after discharge, both groups received 8 weekly calls from a nurse, with a booster call 4 weeks later. Protocol adherence was evaluated with the TASK II Checklist for Monitoring Adherence. Intervention dosage was measured by the number of minutes caregivers spent reading materials and talking with the nurse. Nurse intervener perspectives were obtained through focus groups. Protocol adherence was 80% for the TASK II and 92% for the Information, Support, and Referral. As expected, intervention dosage differed between TASK II and Information, Support, and Referral with respect to caregiver time spent reading materials (t=-6.49; Pstroke caregiver intervention trial (NIH R01NR010388; ClinicalTrials.govNCT01275495). © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Effect on arm function and cost of robot-assisted group therapy in subacute patients with stroke and a moderately to severely affected arm: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Stefan; Heß, Anke; Werner C, Cordula; Kabbert, Nadine; Buschfort, Rüdiger

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of robot-assisted arm group therapy (RAGT) versus individual arm therapy (IAT) to restore motor function in the moderately to severely affected patient after stroke. Single blind randomized controlled trial. Two in-patient neurological rehabilitation centers. Fifty first time subacute patients with stroke and a non-functional hand. The patients practiced either 30 minutes of RAGT + 30 minutes of IAT (group A) or 2x30 minutes of IAT (group B), per workday for four weeks. The RAGT consisted of six workstations enabling repetitive practice of finger, wrist, forearm and shoulder movements. Patients practiced according to their impairment level on at least two workstations per session. The IAT followed the Motor Relearning Programme, enriched by elements of the impairment-oriented training. Changes of the Fugl Meyer Score (FM, 0-66) between baseline and after 4 weeks, incremental cost effectiveness. Patients were homogeneous at study onset. All patients improved their upper limb motor function over time, but there were no between group differences. The initial (terminal) FM scores were 14.6±9.4 (25.7±16.5) in group A and 16.5±9.8 (31.1±19.1) in group B. The treatment of a single patient with RAGT cost 4.15 €, compared to 10.00 € for a patient to receive IAT. RAGT in combination with IAT was equally effective as a double session of IAT regarding the restoration of upper limb motor functions in moderate to severely affected subacute patients with stroke. The treatment costs for RAGT were less. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  9. Evaluating on-line control of goal-directed arm movement while standing in virtual visual environment

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Olivier; Julian, Benjamin; Boissieux, Laurence; Gascuel, Jean-Dominique; Prablanc, Claude

    2002-01-01

    International audience; The control of visually guided movement has been showed to be optimised when motor programming quickly integrated the visual information to update on-going motor commands. The purpose of this study was to verify this proposition for movement executed in virtual visual environment (VE), by exploring the effect of immersion on the on-line visuomotor control of goal-directed arm movement. Six subjects participated in the experiment, in which hand reaching toward a station...

  10. Robust adaptive control modeling of human arm movements subject to altered gravity and mechanical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfonidis, Michail

    It has been observed that during orbital spaceflight the absence of gravitation related sensory inputs causes incongruence between the expected and the actual sensory feedback resulting from voluntary movements. This incongruence results in a reinterpretation or neglect of gravity-induced sensory input signals. Over time, new internal models develop, gradually compensating for the loss of spatial reference. The study of adaptation of goal-directed movements is the main focus of this thesis. The hypothesis is that during the adaptive learning process the neural connections behave in ways that can be described by an adaptive control method. The investigation presented in this thesis includes two different sets of experiments. A series of dart throwing experiments took place onboard the space station Mir. Experiments also took place at the Biomechanics lab at MIT, where the subjects performed a series of continuous trajectory tracking movements while a planar robotic manipulandum exerted external torques on the subjects' moving arms. The experimental hypothesis for both experiments is that during the first few trials the subjects will perform poorly trying to follow a prescribed trajectory, or trying to hit a target. A theoretical framework is developed that is a modification of the sliding control method used in robotics. The new control framework is an attempt to explain the adaptive behavior of the subjects. Numerical simulations of the proposed framework are compared with experimental results and predictions from competitive models. The proposed control methodology extends the results of the sliding mode theory to human motor control. The resulting adaptive control model of the motor system is robust to external dynamics, even those of negative gain, uses only position and velocity feedback, and achieves bounded steady-state error without explicit knowledge of the system's nonlinearities. In addition, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate that

  11. Measurements of human force control during a constrained arm motion using a force-actuated joystick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J; Gurfinkel, E V; Lipshits, M I; Droulez, J; Gurfinkel, V S

    1995-03-01

    1. When interacting with the environment, human arm movements may be prevented in certain directions (i.e., when sliding the hand along a surface) resulting in what is called a "constrained motion." In the directions that the movement is restricted, the subject is instead free to control the forces against the constraint. 2. Control strategies for constrained motion may be characterized by two extreme models. Under the active compliance model, an essentially feedback-based approach, measurements of contact force may be used in real time to modify the motor command and precisely control the forces generated against the constraint. Under the passive compliance model the motion would be executed in a feedforward manner, using an internal model of the constraint geometry. The feedforward model relies on the compliant behavior of the passive mechanical system to maintain contact while avoiding excessive contact forces. 3. Subjects performed a task in which they were required to slide the hand along a rigid surface. This task was performed in a virtual force environment in which contact forces were simulated by a two-dimensional force-actuated joystick. Unknown to the subject, the orientation of the surface constraint was varied from trial to trial, and contact force changes induced by these perturbations were measured. 4. Subjects showed variations in contact force correlated with the direction of the orientation perturbation. "Upward" tilts resulted in higher contact forces, whereas "downward" tilts resulted in lower contact forces. This result is consistent with a feedforward-based control of a passively compliant system. 5. Subject responses did not, however, correspond exactly to the predictions of a static analysis of a passive, feedforward-controlled system. A dynamic analysis reveals a much closer resemblance between a passive, feedforward model and the observed data. Numerical simulations demonstrate that a passive, dynamic system model of the movement captures

  12. Anticipatory control of center of mass and joint stability during voluntary arm movement from a standing posture: interplay between active and passive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Aftab E; Ishac, Milad G; Winter, David A

    2002-04-01

    Anticipatory control of upright posture is the focus of this study that combines experimental and modeling work. Individuals were asked to raise or lower their arms from two initial postures such that the final posture of the arm was at 90 degrees with respect to the body. Holding different weights in the hand varied the magnitude of perturbation to postural stability generated by the arm movement. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Inverse dynamic analysis was used to determine the internal joint moments at the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, and reaction forces at the shoulder. Center of mass (COM) of the arm, posture (rest of the body without the arms) and whole body (net COM) were also determined. Changes in joint moment at the hip, knee and ankle revealed a significant effect of the direction of movement. The polarities of the joint moment response were appropriate for joint stabilization. Net COM change showed a systematic effect of the direction of movement even though the arm COM was displaced by the same amount and in the same direction for both arm raising and lowering conditions. In order to determine the effects of the passive forces and moments on the posture COM, the body was modeled as an inverted pendulum. The model was customized for each participant; the relevant model parameters were estimated from data obtained from each trial. The ankle joint stiffness and viscosity were adjusted to ensure postural equilibrium prior to arm movement. Joint reactive forces and moments generated by the arm movements were applied at the shoulder level of this inverted pendulum; these were the only inputs and no active control was included. The posture COM profile from the model simulation was calculated. Results show that simulated posture COM profile and measured posture COM profile are identical for about 200 ms following the onset of arm movement and then they deviate. Therefore, the initial control of COM is passive in nature and the

  13. SDI: Fallacy of last move in arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakoff, S. (Univ. of California, San Diego (United States))

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), sold to the American people by a persuasive president as the weapons system to end all weapons systems, turned out to be only another step in the continuing arms race, contends the author. It might already have been terminated if President Bush did not fear the conservatives who see SDI as the strategic centerpiece of the Reagan legacy. He says the project was ill-conceived from the start because it was grounded in the simple-minded faith that technology can provide the answer to the arms race. The reason it got as far as it did was because this simple-minded faith had an adherent in an exceptionally popular president who sensed correctly that the voters shared the same naive confidence. He lists several factors that contributed to the unraveling of SDI: technical opposition based upon growing evidence that the system would not work; loss of the 1986 congressional elections and a subsequent drop in appropriations; and the dramatic improvement of relations between the superpowers. He concludes that SDI is but the latest in a series of fundamentally misguided efforts by both superpowers to achieve advantage; if it proves to be the final instance of the fallacy of the last move in the annals of the Cold War, at least it will not have been altogether in vain.

  14. Active Force with Fuzzy Logic Control of a Two-Link Arm Driven by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Jahanabadi; M. Mailah; M. Z. Md Zain; H. M. Hooi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the practicality and feasibility of Active Force Control (AFC) integrated with Fuzzy Logic(AFCAFL) appliedto a two link planar arm actuated by a pair of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) is investigated.The study emphasizes on the application and control of PAM actuators which may be considered as the new generation of actuators comprising fluidic muscle that has high-tension force,high power to weight ratio and high strength in spite of its drawbacks in the form of high nonlinearity behaviour,high hysteresis and time varying parameters.Fuzzy Logic (FL) is used as a technique to estimate the best value of the inertia matrix of robot arm essential for the AFC mechanism that is complemented with a conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control at the outermost loop.A simulation study was first performed followed by an experimental investigation for validation.The experimental study was based on the independent joint tracking control and coordinated motion control of the arm in Cartesian or task space.In the former,the PAM actuated arm is commanded to track the prescribed trajectories due to harmonic excitations at the joints for a given frequency,whereas for the latter,two sets of trajectories with different loadings were considered.A practical rig utilizing a Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulation (H1LS) configuration was developed and a number of experiments were carried out.The results of the experiment and the simulation works were in good agreement,which verified the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed AFCAFL scheme actuated by PAM.

  15. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  16. Singular perturbation composite control of a free-floating flexible dual-arm space robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamics system. In this paper, the dynamic model is derived of a Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot holding a rigid payload. Furthermore, according to the singular perturbation method, the system is separated into a slow subsystem representing rigid body motion of the robot and a fast subsystem representing the flexible link dynamics. For the slow subsystem, based on the second method of Lyapunov, using simple quanti...

  17. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  18. Bobath Concept versus constraint-induced movement therapy to improve arm functional recovery in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseyinsinoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak; Krespi, Yakup

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of the Bobath Concept and constraint-induced movement therapy on arm functional recovery among stroke patients with a high level of function on the affected side. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy department of a stroke unit. A total of 24 patients were randomized to constraint-induced movement therapy or Bobath Concept group. The Bobath Concept group was treated for 1 hour whereas the constraint-induced movement therapy group received training for 3 hours per day during 10 consecutive weekdays. Main measures were the Motor Activity Log-28, the Wolf Motor Function Test, the Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients and the Functional Independence Measure. The two groups were found to be homogeneous based on demographic variables and baseline measurements. Significant improvements were seen after treatment only in the 'Amount of use' and 'Quality of movement' subscales of the Motor Activity Log-28 in the constraint-induced movement therapy group over the the Bobath Concept group (P = 0.003; P = 0.01 respectively). There were no significant differences in Wolf Motor Function Test 'Functional ability' (P = 0.137) and 'Performance time' (P = 0.922), Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients (P = 0.947) and Functional Independence Measure scores (P = 0.259) between the two intervention groups. Constraint-induced movement therapy and the Bobath Concept have similar efficiencies in improving functional ability, speed and quality of movement in the paretic arm among stroke patients with a high level of function. Constraint-induced movement therapy seems to be slightly more efficient than the Bobath Concept in improving the amount and quality of affected arm use.

  19. Beyond the Cold-War Reprise of the Arctic Super-Powers. Decoding the Structural Meaning of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McMurtry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Ukraine crisis” repeats a script as old as the Cold War, of which the Arctic was one of its main theatres and that, as suggested by Irina Zhilina in her 2013 study about NATO in the far north for issue 8(1 of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, could regain such a role, were frictions between East and West to resurface. And they have resurfaced. The ongoing Cold-War-like narrative vis-à-vis Ukraine features rising attacks by corporate states and media on the traditional whipping boy of Russia. As usual, “escalating the crisis” is the other Arctic super-power: the US. As usual, alarm about “increasing lawless aggression” is projection of US policy itself.

  20. Postdeployment Battlemind Training for the U.K. Armed Forces: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Fear, Nicola T.; Jones, Norman; Alvarez, Helen; Hull, Lisa; Naumann, Ulrike; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Combat exposure can increase the risk of subsequent psychological ill-health in armed forces (AF) personnel. A U.S. postdeployment psycho-educational intervention, Battlemind, showed a beneficial effect on mental health in U.S. military personnel exposed to high combat levels. We evaluated the effectiveness of an anglicized version of…

  1. Experimental Test Rig for Optimal Control of Flexible Space Robotic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    arm slew, camera slewing, or solar panel deployment can impart vibrations on the entire spacecraft. Vibrations on a spacecraft affect the components...71 viii 2. Refined Post-process Development ............................................73 E. IMU ANGLE MEASUREMENTS...Model for Simple Mass-Spring System .....................................34 Figure 17. Angle and Rate Response of Flexible System Model when

  2. The Situation of International Arms Control and Non-proliferation in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou; Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    The international non-proliferation efforts have achieved some positive results. The Iran nuclear issue has taken the first step towards solution; the abolition of Syrian chemical weapon is going ahead according the plan and the UN has adopted the Arms Trade Treaty. However, the DPRK nuclear issue has made no progress yet.

  3. The Design of a Small UAV's Flight Controller Based on ARM11+CPLD%基于ARM11+CPLD的小型无人机飞行控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑积仕; 蒋新华; 陈兴武

    2012-01-01

    本文针对小型无人机控制精度低、实时性不足的问题,设计了基于ARM11+ CPLD的飞行控制器.阐述该飞行控制器的硬件总体架构,各传感器与ARM11接口设计,CPLD并行多路PWM输入、输出设计;阐述硬件的驱动,导航控制、姿态控制的算法设计与实现.该飞行控制器的飞行测试结果理想.%The design of the flight controller based on ARM11+CPLD is presented in this paper aiming to solve the low accuracy and the inadequacy of real time in the control of UAV (Unamed Aircraft Veheicle). The overall frame of the flight controller hardware, the design of the interface between ARM11 and several sensors and the design of multi parallel PWM controls in CPLD are all presented. Furthermore, this paper also elaborates the hardware drive and the algorithm design and fulfillment of the navigation control and the attitude control. The flight test shows the flight controller works well.

  4. Synergic Effect of Compression Therapy and Controlled Active Exercises Using a Facilitating Device in the Treatment of Arm Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria Regina Pereira, Antonio Helio Oliani, Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trial design: A randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effect of the combination of compression therapy with active exercising using a facilitating apparatus on arm lymphedema. Method: Twenty women with a mean age of 63.3 years were evaluated; all had lymphedema resulting from breast cancer treatment. The inclusion criterion was a difference of 200 mL in size between arms. The apparatus used, called 'pulley system', is a vertical iron wheel fixed on a support at a distance of 10 cm from the patient's body. Participants were submitted to two series of active exercises using this facilitating device, one series using a compression sleeve and the other without. Each series consisted of four 12-minute sessions of exercises separated by 3-minute rest intervals. Volumetry was performed before and after each series of exercises. The paired t-test was utilized for statistical analysis (p-value < 0.05. Results: A significant mean reduction (p-value < 0.007 and non-significant mean increase (p-value < 0.2 in volumes were observed during exercising with and without compression, respectively. Conclusion: Controlled active exercising utilizing a facilitating apparatus while wearing a compression sleeve reduces the size of lymphedematous arms.

  5. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  6. dSPACE real time implementation of fuzzy PID position controller for vertical rotating single link arm robot using four-quadrant BLDC drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Ramasamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automation has been growing in recent years for the manufacturing industries to increase productivity. Multiple robotic arms are used to handle materials for lifting in flexible directions. The vertical rotation of a 360 degree single arm is considered in this research on a position servo drive with brushless DC motor. The load torque of an arm varies depending upon the angular displacement due to gravity, so it requires four-quadrant operation of the drive with a robust feedback controller. This paper deals with the design and performance comparison of a conventional PID feedback controller with a fuzzy-based PID controller and suggests the most suitable controller. The design was implemented in real time through the dSPACE DS1104 controller environment to verify the dynamic behaviors of the arm.

  7. Object Control on Production Line with Image Processing and Five Axis Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ahmet Şenel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Developed and developing countries of the world are seeking high quality, low cost and less time parameters for products which produced with evolving industrial technology. Hence, nowadays instead of manpower machine power is preferred for many industrial applications. In today's industrial applications, robots and robotic arms are widely used because of the amount of high load, continuous operation and features such as low error. In this study, the products which are passing over production line classified with the help of the robot arm and developed embedded system software. In this study, 60 products in total which 45 of them have no manufacturing fault and 15 of them have manufacturing defect have been classified with a very high success rate with 100%.

  8. Conventional Arms Control and American Policy in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Norfolk, Virginia , 2 June 1999, p. 7. 24 General Wesley K. Clark. Waging Modern War. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), pp. 293-294. 25 Frankfurter...Weapons in U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy. (Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1993), p. 27. 87 Amy F. Woolf , ―Nonstrategic...99 Ibid. See also Woolf , p. 12. 100 Dorn Crawford. Conventional Armed

  9. Numerical Investigation of an Industrial Robot Arm Control Problem Using Haar Wavelet Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nandhakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An error minimization in robot arm dynamics improves operations and performance of production systems. Many contributions have been made in area of robot dynamics since the earliest study more than two decades, but, a number of researchers are still contributing various principles and new techniques for the best use of robots in reality, especially in the field of industry, as this field of study is inexhaustible. This study attempted to analyze the performance of an industrial robot by comparing solutions obtained using RK method and Single-Term Haar Wavelet Series (STHWS method. Exact solution of system of equations representing arm model of a robot had been compared with corresponding discrete solution at different time intervals. Absolute error between exact and discrete solutions had also been determined to suggest the method of improving performance of a robot. Approach: Haar wavelet had been applied extensively for signal processing in communications and proved to be a useful mathematical tool for dynamical systems. In this study, STWHS method had been used for solving differential equations. Result had been obtained and compared with exact solutions. Results: Error had been compared by exact solutions, RK and STHWS solutions were reported for non-singular systems and estimated as almost zero. The validation had been carried out with reference to earlier research output appeared in this field of study. Conclusion/Recommendations: For robot arm model selected for study, solution obtained by STHWS was found to be accurate from results.

  10. Impairment-oriented training or Bobath therapy for severe arm paresis after stroke: a single-blind, multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, T; Eickhof, C; van Kaick, S; Engel, U; Pinkowski, C; Kalok, S; Pause, M

    2005-10-01

    To study the effects of augmented exercise therapy time for arm rehabilitation as either Bobath therapy or the impairment-oriented training (Arm BASIS training) in stroke patients with arm severe paresis. Single blind, multicentre randomized control trial. Three inpatient neurorehabilitation centres. Sixty-two anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients. Random assignment to three group: (A) no augmented exercise therapy time, (B) augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy and (C) augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training. Fugl-Meyer arm motor score. Secondary measure: Action Research Arm Test (ARA). Ancillary measures: Fugl-Meyer arm sensation and joint motion/pain scores and the Ashworth Scale (elbow flexors). An overall effect of augmented exercise therapy time on Fugl-Meyer scores after four weeks was not corroborated (mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) of change scores: no augmented exercise therapy time (n=20) 8.8, 5.2-12.3; augmented exercise therapy time (n=40) 9.9, 6.8-13.9; p = 0.2657). The group who received the augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training (n=20) had, however, higher gains than the group receiving the augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy (n=20) (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath 7.2, 2.6-11.8; BASIS 12.6, 8.4-16.8; p = 0.0432). Passive joint motion/pain deteriorated less in the group who received BASIS training (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath -3.2, -5.2 to -1.1; BASIS 0.1, -1.8-2.0; p = 0.0090). ARA, Fugl-Meyer arm sensation, and Ashworth Scale scores were not differentially affected. The augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training enhanced selective motor control. Type of training was more relevant for recovery of motor control than therapeutic time spent.

  11. Robot-assisted reaching exercise promotes arm movement recovery in chronic hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymer W Zev

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Providing active assistance to complete desired arm movements is a common technique in upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke. Such active assistance may improve recovery by affecting somatosensory input, motor planning, spasticity or soft tissue properties, but it is labor intensive and has not been validated in controlled trials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of robotically administered active-assistive exercise and compare those with free reaching voluntary exercise in improving arm movement ability after chronic stroke. Methods Nineteen individuals at least one year post-stroke were randomized into one of two groups. One group performed 24 sessions of active-assistive reaching exercise with a simple robotic device, while a second group performed a task-matched amount of unassisted reaching. The main outcome measures were range and speed of supported arm movement, range, straightness and smoothness of unsupported reaching, and the Rancho Los Amigos Functional Test of Upper Extremity Function. Results and discussion There were significant improvements with training for range of motion and velocity of supported reaching, straightness of unsupported reaching, and functional movement ability. These improvements were not significantly different between the two training groups. The group that performed unassisted reaching exercise improved the smoothness of their reaching movements more than the robot-assisted group. Conclusion Improvements with both forms of exercise confirmed that repeated, task-related voluntary activation of the damaged motor system is a key stimulus to motor recovery following chronic stroke. Robotically assisting in reaching successfully improved arm movement ability, although it did not provide any detectable, additional value beyond the movement practice that occurred concurrently with it. The inability to detect any additional value of robot-assisted reaching

  12. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius eVerrel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel freezing analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude, stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude. Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19-32 years, at least 10 years of practice and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at (freezing individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts’ bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance.

  13. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the

  14. 基于ARM9的机场应急救援拖车同步控制研究%Research of airport emergency rescue trailer synchronous control based on ARM9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张积洪; 周同旭

    2012-01-01

    A synchronous electrical control system of airport emergency rescue trailer is designed. Based on the ARM-Linux platform, the GUI and programming design of host and master PC is completed by using Qt/Embedded and Ladder, and the host and the master computer take ARM9 and PLC as the core respectively, and they communicate through 485. By connecting the testing model and control system, the simultaneously turning function controlled by remote controller is achieved. The feasibility of the system has been confirmed by testing the model.%研究了一种机场应急救援拖车的同步电气控制系统.基于ARM-Linux平台,上位机以ARM9为核心,下位机以PLC为核心,使用Qt/Embedded和梯形图完成对上、下位机的GUI和程序设计,上下位机采用485通讯.连接试验模型和控制系统,实现了用遥控器控制机场应急救援拖车同步转向,通过对模型的测试,其可行性已被初步的实验证实.

  15. ESO-Based Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Control for a 3-DOF Serial-Parallel Hybrid Humanoid Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a unique ESO-based fuzzy sliding-mode controller (FSMC-ESO for a 3-DOF serial-parallel hybrid humanoid arm (HHA for the trajectory tracking control problem. The dynamic model of the HHA is obtained by Lagrange method and is nonlinear in dynamics with inertia uncertainty and external disturbance. The FSMC-ESO is based on the combination of the sliding-mode control (SMC, extended state observer (ESO theory, and fuzzy control (FC. The SMC is insensitive to both internal parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The motivation for using ESO is to estimate the disturbance in real-time. The fuzzy parameter self-tuning strategy is proposed to adjust the switching gain on line according to the running state of the system. The stability of the system is guaranteed in the sense of the Lyapunov stability theorem. The effectiveness and robustness of the designed FSMC-ESO are illustrated by simulations.

  16. EXAMINING THE ROLE AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL TREATY VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2014-05-13

    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  17. Validation of the NATO Armaments Ballistic Kernel for use in small-arms fire control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Corriveau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In support for the development of a new small-arm ballistic computer based on the NATO Armaments Ballistic Kernel (NABK for the Canadian snipers, DRDC Valcartier Research Centre was asked to carry out high-fidelity 6 degree-of-freedom (6-DOF trajectory simulations for a set of relevant vignettes for the snipers, and to compare the direct fire 6-DOF simulation results with those obtained with the 4-DOF NATO Armaments Ballistic Kernel (NABK adapted to simulate small-arm ammunition trajectories. To conduct this study, DRDC Valcartier Research Centre used BALCO v1.0b. This paper presents (1 the process and the methodology employed to carry out the sniper direct fire solution study, (2 the modeling and the simulation of the sniper projectile, the approach used in calculating the firing solutions, and the results of direct fire simulations for the sniper vignettes, and (3 an analysis of firing solutions obtained with the BALCO engine versus those of NABK. The work presented in this paper serves to validate the use of NABK for the new sniper ballistic computer.

  18. Survival Outcomes of Sipuleucel-T Phase III Studies: Impact of Control-Arm Cross-Over to Salvage Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel J; Nabhan, Chadi; DeVries, Todd; Whitmore, James B; Gomella, Leonard G

    2015-09-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy for asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). After disease progression, control-arm patients on three double-blind, randomized phase III sipuleucel-T trials were offered, in nonrandomized open-label protocols, APC8015F, an autologous immunotherapy made from cells cryopreserved at the time of control manufacture. These exploratory analyses evaluated potential effects on survival outcomes associated with such treatment. Of 249 control-treated patients, 165 (66.3%) received APC8015F. We explored the effects of APC8015F on the overall survival (OS; Cox regression) of control-arm patients and treatment effects of sipuleucel-T versus control adjusted for APC8015F treatment [iterative parameter estimation model (IPE)]. The median time to first APC8015F infusion was 5.2 months (range, 1.8-33.1) after randomization and 2.2 months (0.5-14.6) after progression. After disease progression, median survival was longer for APC8015F-treated versus control-only treated patients [20.0 vs. 9.8 months; HR, 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.74; P sipuleucel-T versus control adjusted for APC8015F treatment was 3.9 months if APC8015F had no effect and was 8.1 months if APC8015F was equally as effective as sipuleucel-T. Exploratory analyses indicate that APC8015F treatment may have extended patient survival, suggesting the sipuleucel-T OS advantage in CRPC may be more robust than previously estimated.

  19. Adaptive neural control for dual-arm coordination of humanoid robot with unknown nonlinearities in output mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Chen, Ci; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C L P

    2015-03-01

    To achieve an excellent dual-arm coordination of the humanoid robot, it is essential to deal with the nonlinearities existing in the system dynamics. The literatures so far on the humanoid robot control have a common assumption that the problem of output hysteresis could be ignored. However, in the practical applications, the output hysteresis is widely spread; and its existing limits the motion/force performances of the robotic system. In this paper, an adaptive neural control scheme, which takes the unknown output hysteresis and computational efficiency into account, is presented and investigated. In the controller design, the prior knowledge of system dynamics is assumed to be unknown. The motion error is guaranteed to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin by Lyapunov's stability theory. Simultaneously, the internal force is kept bounded and its error can be made arbitrarily small.

  20. A Strategic Planning Framework for Predicting and Evaluating Soviet Interests in Arms Control. Volume 2: The Strategic Arms Reduction Talks, 1981- 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    The Story of the First Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, (Garden City: Doubleday, 1980), p. 91. 22 Nathaniel Davis, "’Equality and Equal Security’ in... Nathaniel Davis, "’Equality and Equal Security’ in Soviet Foreign Policy," Essays on Strategy and Diplonacy, No. 5 (Claremont, CA: Keck Center for...Underlying Soviet Strategic Forces." in William R. Kintner, ed. Safeguard: Why ABM Makes Sense. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1969, pp. 142- 78. . "The

  1. Sample size determinations for group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Litwin, Alain H; Blackstock, Oni; Kim, Namhee; Arnsten, Julia H

    2017-02-01

    We derived sample size formulae for detecting main effects in group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms. Such designs are necessary when experimental interventions need to be administered to groups of subjects whereas control conditions need to be administered to individual subjects. This type of trial, often referred to as a partially nested or partially clustered design, has been implemented for management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and is beginning to emerge more commonly in wider clinical settings. Depending on the research setting, the level of hierarchy of data structure for the experimental arm can be three or two, whereas that for the control arm is two or one. Such different levels of data hierarchy assume correlation structures of outcomes that are different between arms, regardless of whether research settings require two or three level data structure for the experimental arm. Therefore, the different correlations should be taken into account for statistical modeling and for sample size determinations. To this end, we considered mixed-effects linear models with different correlation structures between experimental and control arms to theoretically derive and empirically validate the sample size formulae with simulation studies.

  2. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the

  3. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  4. Effects of neck flexion on contingent negative variation and anticipatory postural control during arm movement while standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Tomita, Hidehito; Maeda, Kaoru; Kunita, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the effects of neck flexion on contingent negative variation (CNV) and anticipatory postural control using an arm flexion task in standing. CNV was adopted to evaluate the state of activation of brain areas related to anticipatory postural control. Subjects were required to flex the arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Two different intervals (2.0 and 3.5s) between these two stimuli were used in neck position in quiet standing (neck resting) and neck position at 80% angle of maximal neck flexion. The mean amplitude of CNV 100-ms before the response stimulus, recorded from a Cz electrode, was calculated. Onset timing of activation of the postural muscles (lumbar paraspinal, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius) with respect to the anterior deltoid was analyzed. Reaction time at the anterior deltoid was significantly shorter in the 2.0s period than in the 3.5s period, and in the neck flexion than in the neck resting in both periods. In the 2.0s, but not in the 3.5s period, neck flexion resulted in an increased CNV amplitude and an increased duration of preceding activation of the postural muscles, and the correlation between these increases was significant.

  5. Design of control system of combine harvester louver sieve angle based on ARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Cai, Yangyang; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Xuelei; Wang, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    In view of the disadvantages of the traditional control methods of combine harvester louver sieve, an electronic control system of louver sieve is designed to replace the traditional mechanical regulation structure, and it changes the old way of manipulating louver sieve. In order to achieve the goal control effect more accurately and quickly, the fuzzy adaptive PID control method and the key control design method based on the finite state machine is proposed during the control process. The tests show that the control system can reach louver sieve electric control goals, and can obtain accurate and stable control effect.

  6. Effectiveness of alcohol brief intervention delivered by community pharmacists: study protocol of a two-arm randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhital Ranjita

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence to support the effectiveness of Brief Intervention (BI in reducing alcohol consumption in primary healthcare. Methods and design This study is a two-arm randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of BI delivered by community pharmacists in their pharmacies. Eligible and consenting participants (aged 18 years or older will be randomised in equal numbers to either a BI delivered by 17 community pharmacists or a non-intervention control condition. The intervention will be a brief motivational discussion to support a reduction in alcohol consumption and will take approximately 10 minutes to deliver. Participants randomised to the control arm will be given an alcohol information leaflet with no opportunity for discussion. Study pharmacists will be volunteers who respond to an invitation to participate, sent to all community pharmacists in the London borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Participating pharmacists will receive 7 hours training on trial procedures and the delivery of BI. Pharmacy support staff will also receive training (4 hours on how to approach and inform pharmacy customers about the study, with formal trial recruitment undertaken by the pharmacist in a consultation room. At three month follow up, alcohol consumption and related problems will be assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT administered by telephone. Discussion The UK Department of Health’s stated aim is to involve community pharmacists in the delivery of BI to reduce alcohol harms. This will be the first RCT study to assess the effectiveness of BI delivered by community pharmacists. Given this policy context, it is pragmatic in design. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95216873

  7. Comparing smooth arm movements with the two-thirds power law and the related segmented-control hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J E; Flash, Tamar

    2002-09-15

    The movements of the human arm have been extensively studied for a variety of goal-directed experimental tasks. Analyses of the trajectory and velocity of the arm have led to many hypotheses for the planning strategies that the CNS might use. One family of control hypotheses, including minimum jerk, snap and their generalizations to higher orders, comprises those that favor smooth movements through the optimization of an integral cost function. The predictions of each order of this family are examined for two standard experimental tasks: point-to-point movements and the periodic tracing of figural forms, and compared both with experiment and the two-thirds power law. The aim of the analyses is to generalize previous numerical observations as well as to examine movement segmentation. It is first shown that contrary to recent statements in the literature, the only members of this family of control theories that match reaching movement experiments well are minimum jerk and snap. Then, for the case of periodic drawing, both the ellipse and cloverleaf are examined and the experimentally observed power law is derived from a first-principles approach. The results for the ellipse are particularly general, representing a unification of the two-thirds power law and smoothness hypotheses for ellipses of all reasonable eccentricities. For complex shapes it is shown that velocity profiles derived from the cost-function approach exhibit the same experimental features that were interpreted as segmented control by the CNS. Because the cost function contains no explicit segmented control, this result casts doubt on such an interpretation of the experimental data.

  8. A control system of mobile navigation robot for precise spraying based ultrasonic detecting and ARM embedded technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Yue, Xinpeng; Peng, Yankun

    2011-06-01

    This paper described a control system of mobile navigation robot for precision spraying in greenhouse environment, which were composed of main control module, motor driving module, ultrasonic detecting module and wirless remote control module. The hard circuits of control system were built. The main control module used ARM7TDMI-S-based LPC2210 micro-processing controller. The motor driving module consisted of voltage amplifier circuit based SN74LS245N and DM74LS244N chips, RC filter circuit, and HM-YZ-30 DC brush motor driver. The ultrasonic detecting module consisted of four standard ultrasonic ranging modules which were arranged on the four sides around the mobile navigation robot, and used GM8125 chip to expand serial communication interfaces. An obstacle-avoiding strategy and its algorithm were proposed and the control programs of mobile navigation robot were programmed. The mobile navigation robot for spraying can realize the actions such as starting and stopping, forward and backward moving, accelerate and decelerate motion, and right and left turn. Finally, the functional experiments of the mobile navigation robot were conducted in the laboratory environment. The results showed that the ultrasonic detecting distance of the robot was 50.5mm-1832.0mm and detecting blind zone was less than 50mm, the ultrasonic detecting angle of individual ultrasonic detecting module of robot was similar to U-shaped and its vaule was about 45.66°, and the moving path of navigation robot was approximately linear.

  9. A new learning strategy for the two-time-scale neural controller with its application to the tracking control of rigid arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W.; Wen, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A novel fast learning rule with fast weight identification is proposed for the two-time-scale neural controller, and a two-stage learning strategy is developed for the proposed neural controller. The results of the stability analysis show that both the tracking error and the fast weight error will be uniformly bounded and converge to a bounded region which depends only on the accuracy of the slow learning if the system is sufficiently excited. The efficiency of the two-stage learning is also demonstrated by a simulation of a two-link arm.

  10. Effects of neck flexion on discriminative and cognitive processing in anticipatory postural control during bilateral arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Yaguchi, Chie; Kunita, Kenji; Mammadova, Aida

    2012-06-19

    We investigated the effect of neck flexion on discriminative and cognitive processing in postural control during bilateral arm movement while standing, using event-related potential (ERP) and electromyogram. Fourteen healthy subjects flexed their arms to the target stimuli with a 20% probability in neck resting and flexion positions. Amplitude and latency of N2 and P3, anterior deltoid (AD) reaction time, onset time of postural muscles with respect to AD activation, and peak amplitude and latency of all muscles were measured. With neck flexion, N2 and P3 amplitudes increased, N2 and P3 latencies and AD reaction time shortened, and onset times of all postural muscles became earlier. No significant differences in peak amplitude and latency of each muscle were found between neck positions. Significant positive correlations were found in changes with neck flexion between P3 latency and AD reaction time, and between N2 latency and onset time of erector spinae. These suggest that with neck flexion, attention allocation to discriminative and cognitive processing increased, and the processing speed increased with shortening of reaction time in focal muscles. In addition, the onset time of postural muscles became earlier without changing the activation pattern, which was associated with the hastened discriminative processing.

  11. On the improvement of the control force readiness of students engaged arm sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov A.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the most informative tests and test exercises to assess force readiness athletes. Material : the study involved 23 students of mass sports categories. Ascertaining experiment involved testing athletes force readiness, analysis of their competitive activity and determination of strength and reliability of correlation tests with the results of the competition. There were 19 trials and two anthropometric measurements. Results : it was found that traditional tests to determine the strength abilities athletes enough authentic. A significant positive correlation with the results of competitive activity indicators carpal dynamometry (in two different weight classes, and on both hands in the categories of more than 85 kg. And pull-ups on the maximum number of times. A high degree of correlation between the results of competitive activity and holding a dumbbell on a special bench capture below. This exercise is effective for assessing the level of preparedness of special strength in the weight category up to 80 kg and 85 kg. Conclusions : the most informative tests and benchmarks to determine the exercise of power readiness 1-2 athletes in sports categories arm sport.

  12. Combining rTMS and Task-Oriented Training in the Rehabilitation of the Arm after Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiqun

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique for promoting rehabilitation of arm function after stroke. The feasibility and impact of rTMS as an adjunct to traditional task-oriented training to improve arm function have not yet been demonstrated. Objective. Evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial aimed at determining the efficacy of rTMS as an adjunct to task-oriented therapy in facilitating restoration of arm function after stroke. Methods. Stratified block-randomized controlled trial set in the general community. Eleven stroke persons with mild to severe arm deficits were recruited and randomized to receive 8 sessions of real-rTMS or sham-rTMS followed by ninety minutes of arm tasks designed to improve function. Results. Medium to large, statistically significant effect sizes (0.49 to 1.63) were observed in both groups on several measures of arm function at the postintervention evaluation. Three out of four subjects in the real-TMS condition showed increased levels of corticomotor excitability after the first stimulation session. Conclusions. Preliminary evidence suggests that an rTMS protocol potent enough to induce transient increases in cortical excitability of the lesioned hemisphere is feasible but did not show promising results as an adjunct to task-specific training. This trial is registration with Clinical Trials.gov NCT00850408. PMID:24363954

  13. Dynamics and adaptive control of a dual-arm space robot with closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ying-Hong; Hu, Quan; Xu, Shi-Jie

    2014-02-01

    A dynamics-based adaptive control approach is proposed for a planar dual-arm space robot in the presence of closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters of the payload. The controller is capable of controlling the position and attitude of both the satellite base and the payload grasped by the manipulator end effectors. The equations of motion in reduced-order form for the constrained system are derived by incorporating the constraint equations in terms of accelerations into Kane's equations of the unconstrained system. Model analysis shows that the resulting equations perfectly meet the requirement of adaptive controller design. Consequently, by using an indirect approach, an adaptive control scheme is proposed to accomplish position/attitude trajectory tracking control with the uncertain parameters being estimated on-line. The actuator redundancy due to the closed-loop constraints is utilized to minimize a weighted norm of the joint torques. Global asymptotic stability is proven by using Lyapunov's method, and simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Evaluation of EMG, force and joystick as control interfaces for active arm supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Prat, J.; Keemink, A.Q.L.; Stienen, A.H.A.; Schouten, A.C.; Veltink, P...H...; Koopman, B.F.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The performance capabilities and limitations of control interfaces for the operation of active movement-assistive devices remain unclear. Selecting an optimal interface for an application requires a thorough understanding of the performance of multiple control interfaces. Methods: In

  15. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  16. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  17. Evaluation of Arm Processor-based Bionic Intelligent Controller for a Buck-boost Converte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on performance-comparison of different tuning methods for a PI controller applied to a buck-boost converter. Comparison between the controllers is made by analysis of design methodology implementation issues and empirically measured performance. Design of PI controller is based on frequency response of the converter. The optimization of PI controller is based on ant colony algorithm. Experimental results show that, tuning the PI controller using ACO algorithm gave better performance than the conventional algorithm. This is mainly due to the fact ACO is capable of reducing the overshoot without oscillation.

  18. Forces and moments generated by the human arm: Variability and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Terekhov, AV; Latash, ML; Zatsiorsky, VM

    2012-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the accurate endpoint force vector production by the human arm in isometric conditions. We formulated three common-sense hypotheses and falsified them in the experiment. The subjects (n=10) exerted static forces on the handle in eight directions in a horizontal plane for 25 seconds. The forces were of 4 magnitude levels (10 %, 20%, 30% and 40% of individual MVC). The torsion moment on the handle (grasp moment) was not specified in the instruction. The two force components and the grasp moment were recorded, and the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint torques were computed. The following main facts were observed: (a) While the grasp moment was not prescribed by the instruction, it was always produced. The moment magnitude and direction depended on the instructed force magnitude and direction. (b) The within-trial angular variability of the exerted force vector (angular precision) did not depend on the target force magnitude (a small negative correlation was observed). (c) Across the target force directions, the variability of the exerted force magnitude and directional variability exhibited opposite trends: In the directions where the variability of force magnitude was maximal, the directional variability was minimal and vice versa. (d) The time profiles of joint torques in the trials were always positively correlated, even for the force directions where flexion torque was produced at one joint and extension torque was produced at the other joint. (e) The correlations between the grasp moment and the wrist torque were negative across the tasks and positive within the individual trials. (f) In static serial kinematic chains, the pattern of the joint torques distribution could not be explained by an optimization cost function additive with respect to the torques. Plans for several future experiments have been suggested. PMID:23080084

  19. Kinematics and control algorithm development and simulation for a redundant two-arm robotic manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael P.; Huang, Paul C.; Bunnell, Charles T.

    1989-01-01

    An efficient approach to cartesian motion and force control of a 7 degree of freedom (DOF) manipulator is presented. It is based on extending the active stiffness controller to the 7 DOF case in general and use of an efficient version of the gradient projection technique for solving the inverse kinematics problem. Cooperative control is achieved through appropriate configuration of individual manipulator controllers. In addition, other aspects of trajectory generation using standard techniques are integrated into the controller. The method is then applied to a specific manipulator of interest (Robotics Research T-710). Simulation of the kinematics, dynamics, and control are provided in the context of several scenarios: one pertaining to a noncontact pick and place operation; one relating to contour following where contact is made between the manipulator and environment; and one pertaining to cooperative control.

  20. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  1. Control of multi-joint arm movements for the manipulation of touch in keystroke by expert pianists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayose Haruhiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of a variety of finger-key touches in the piano is essential for expressive musical performance. However, it remains unknown how expert pianists control multi-joint finger and arm movements for manipulating the touch. The present study investigated differences in kinematics and kinetics of the upper-limb movements while expert pianists were depressing a key with two different touches: pressed and struck. The former starts key-depression with the finger-tip contacting the key, whereas the latter involves preparatory arm-lift before striking the key. To determine the effect of individual muscular torque (MUS as well as non-muscular torques on joint acceleration, we performed a series of inverse and forward dynamics computations. Results The pressed touch showed smaller elbow extension velocity, and larger shoulder and finger flexion velocities during key-depression compared with the struck touch. The former touch also showed smaller elbow extension acceleration directly attributed to the shoulder MUS. In contrast, the shoulder flexion acceleration induced by elbow and wrist MUS was greater for the pressed touch than the struck touch. Towards the goal of producing the target finger-key contact dynamics, the pressed and struck touches effectively took advantage of the distal-to-proximal and proximal-to-distal inter-segmental dynamics, respectively. Furthermore, a psychoacoustic experiment confirmed that a tone elicited by the pressed touch was perceived softer than that by the struck touch. Conclusion The present findings suggest that manipulation of tone timbre depends on control of inter-segmental dynamics in piano keystroke.

  2. Evaluation of EMG, force and joystick as control interfaces for active arm supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Prat, J.; Keemink, A.Q.L.; Stienen, A.H.A.; Schouten, A.C.; Veltink, P...H...; Koopman, B.F.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The performance capabilities and limitations of control interfaces for the operation of active movement-assistive devices remain unclear. Selecting an optimal interface for an application requires a thorough understanding of the performance of multiple control interfaces. Methods: In th

  3. Active controlled muscles in numerical model of human arm for movement in two degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budziszewski, P.; Nunen, E. van; Mordaka, J.K.; Kȩdzior, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of numerical model of human upper extremity able to perform movements and stabilization tasks in two degrees of freedom as a result of muscle activation controlled by a PID-based controller. These tasks are defined by functions of specified angle for every degree

  4. Evaluation of EMG, force and joystick as control interfaces for active arm supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Prat, Joan; Keemink, Arvid Q.L.; Stienen, Arno H.A.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Veltink, Peter H.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The performance capabilities and limitations of control interfaces for the operation of active movement-assistive devices remain unclear. Selecting an optimal interface for an application requires a thorough understanding of the performance of multiple control interfaces. Methods: In t

  5. Design and Nonlinear Control of a 2-DOF Flexible Parallel Humanoid Arm Joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leijie Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the design and nonlinear control of the humanoid wrist/shoulder joint based on the cable-driven parallel mechanism which can realize roll and pitch movement. In view of the existence of the flexible parts in the mechanism, it is necessary to solve the vibration control of the flexible wrist/shoulder joint. In this paper, a cable-driven parallel robot platform is developed for the experiment study of the humanoid wrist/shoulder joint. And the dynamic model of the mechanism is formulated by using the coupling theory of the flexible body’s large global motion and small flexible deformation. Based on derived dynamics, antivibration control of the joint robot is studied with a nonlinear control method. Finally, simulations and experiments were performed to validate the feasibility of the developed parallel robot prototype and the proposed control scheme.

  6. Territorial Service as part of the social and territorial control of the Salvadoran State during the armed conflict (1972-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historiography study done with a narrative approach, based on documentary research and consulting oral sources. A historical review of the social and territorial control developed by the Salvadoran State during the internal armed conflict (1972-1992 is made. This is an academic effort to bring relevant elements that could be useful for contemporary contexts, especially in stages where irregular armed groups have a presence in the territory and exercise powers. The Territorial Service was a strategy to recover the State’s presence in the territory and exercise social control over vulnerable populations.

  7. Digital system for automatic control of multi-arm neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, P.K.; Srivastava, H.M.L.; Chawla, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    A flexible system for automatic and Simultaneous control of a Multiarm Neutron Spectrometer has been designed, developed and installed at CIRUS Reactor at Trombay. It controls digitally up to a maximum of nine angular/linear position variable to an accuracy of 0.01/sup 0/. Each variable is associated with one slow speed fractional horsepower bidirectional induction motor. The system receives control data pertaining to the positions of these variable from a preprogrammed paper tape and generates the necessary movement of the motors to set the variable to the desired values. The system employs IC Technology, is computer compatible and has varied applications.

  8. Control of reach extent with the paretic and nonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor stroke: kinematic differences based on side of brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jill Campbell; Gordon, James; Winstein, Carolee J

    2014-07-01

    Scaling of reach kinematics to targets that vary in distance is indicative of the use of planning and feedback-based adjustments. The control of reach extent, however, has not been reported for the paretic arm after stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals post-stroke utilized planning (scaling acceleration magnitude) and feedback-based adjustments (scaling acceleration duration) to reach to targets that varied in distance. Individuals with mild-to-moderate motor impairment after stroke and nondisabled adults reached with both arms to targets presented at three distances (8, 16, 24 cm). Kinematic data were used to determine scaling of peak acceleration magnitude and duration to target distance and compared between arms (control, nonparetic, paretic). Despite differences in the magnitude of movement variables, individuals post-stroke utilized both planning and feedback-based adjustments to meet the demands of the task with the nonparetic and paretic arms in a similar manner as controls. However, there was variability in the use of planning with the paretic arm, some individuals utilized planning while others did not. After right brain damage, differences in reach control related to the specialized role this hemisphere plays in endpoint control were found in both arms; no hemisphere-specific changes were found after left brain damage (LBD). The appearance of hemispheric-specific effects after right but not LBD were not due to age, degree of motor impairment, or time post-stroke, but, instead, may be related to relative differences in visual-motor processing ability, lesion characteristics, or interhemispheric inhibition changes between groups.

  9. Research on BACnet Building Controller Based on ARM9 and Embedded Linux%基于ARM9和嵌入式Linux的BACnet楼宇控制器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健仓

    2012-01-01

    Application of BACnet/IP technology building controller, building control center via high-speed Ethernet connections in different floors, the application of different functional controller. In hardware, from the cost, performance and other aspects identified ARM9 hardware platform, according to the system need to design the various functional modules of hardware circuit; in software, embedded Linux system by transplantation, the controller provides a stable operating environment software and network environment. This paper focuses on the completion of the use of C language realization BACnet protocol stack, through the protocol stack, the controller with other BACnet devices for data exchange functions, proposes the application methods of controller in practical projects.%应用BACnet/IP技术的楼宇控制器,楼宇控制中心通过以太网高速连接位于不同楼层、不同功能的应用控制器.通过ARM9的硬件平台设计出硬件的各个功能模块电路,通过移植嵌入式Linux系统,为控制器提供了软件的稳定运行环境、网络环境.重点完成了BACnet协议栈,通过协议栈,控制器与其他BACnet设备进行数据交换.提出了控制器在具体工程中的应用方法.

  10. Mechanical Impedance Control in the Human Arm While Manually Transporting an Open-Top Fluid Filled Dish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navit Roth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with stabilizing aspects of a hand-held dish filled with liquid while walking steadily. This is an attempt to decipher the neuro-muscular strategies employed and the mechanical responses of the arm during certain tasks of manual materials handling. The experimental configuration included a cup and the test-subject’s hand as an ‘end-effector’ of a serial three-link system representing the upper limb. These links are connected together by the wrist, elbow and shoulder joints. The tested subjects walked at constant speed on a treadmill while aiming to minimize liquid spillage from the cup. The motion of the limb and shoulder girdle served as inputs to a model to reveal the impedance adjustments during the simultaneous control of grasping and walking under ordinary conditions, and when one of the joints is affected. A regressive function used to express stiffness, included first-order dependence on angle and on angular velocity. The function used for damping included first-order dependence on angular velocity. Redundancies in the numerical solution were eliminated using multicollinearity diagnostic algorithms. The results revealed that the wrist joint was found to have constant stiffness and damping and no regulation of these coefficients was necessary during gait. Both in the elbow and shoulder joints stiffness included a constant coefficient as well as an angular velocity-dependent coefficient. Although all tested subjects demonstrated ability to prevent spillage of liquid, there was a considerable variability among the results obtained, indicating that the compensatory mechanisms employed by each subject to regulate the mechanical impedance were subjective. These results can help in the optimization of manual materials handeling tasks in industrial settings as well as future design of prosthetic arms, robotic appliances and man machine interfacing devices.

  11. RNA interference: a new strategy in the evolutionary arms race between human control strategies and insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vilmar; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Galan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between humans and the insect pests of cultivated plants may be considered to be an indirect coevolutionary process, i.e., an arms race. Over time, humans have developed several strategies to minimize the negative impacts of insects on agricultural production. However, insects have made adaptive responses via the evolution of resistance to insecticides, and more recently against Bacillus thuriengiensis. Thus, we need to continuously invest resources in the development of new strategies for crop protection. Recent advances in genomics have demonstrated the possibility of a new weapon or strategy in this war, i.e., gene silencing, which involves blocking the expression of specific genes via mRNA inactivation. In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy in the control of different species of insects. However, several technical difficulties need to be overcome to transform this potential into reality, such as the selection of target genes, the concentration of dsRNA, the nucleotide sequence of the dsRNA, the length of dsRNA, persistence in the insect body, and the life stage of the target species where gene silencing is most efficient. This study analyzes several aspects related to the use of gene silencing in pest control and it includes an overview of the inactivation process, as well as the problems that need to be resolved to transform gene silencing into an effective pest control method.

  12. To Lose China’s Support is to Lose Superpower Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    leaving) many visitors to depart Shanghai in a maximum bullish mode. But one thing that struck me driving past the impressive skyscrapers of Pudong...stakeholder” language that characterized recent U.S. China policy, but their overall approach appears compatible with that concept . Initial policy...relief, infectious disease control, counter- piracy, energy security, and many others, China can be a significant help if cooperation vice conflict

  13. Split-brain monkeys : cerebral control of contralateral and ipsilateral arm, hand and finger movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brinkman (Jacoba)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study, an investigation has been made of the visuomotor control exerted by one half of the brain over each of the two upper extremities in the rhesus monkey. The hypothesis that one half of the brain can steer movements of each of the two extremities relatively independent

  14. Covariant formulation for the optimal control of jointed arm robots: an alternative to Pontryagin's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Quintero, J A Rojas; Gazeau, J P; Seguin, P

    2013-01-01

    We elaborate algorithms able to efficiently command the actuators of an articulated robot. Our time discretization method is based on cubic and quintic Hermite Finite Elements. The suggested control optimization consists in minimizing directly the selected criterium by a conjugate gradient type algorithm. A generic example illustrates the super convergence of the Hermite's technique.

  15. Gaming and conventional exercises for improvement of arm function after stroke: a randomised controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottink, A.I.R.; Prange, G.B.; Krabben, T.; Rietman, J.S.; Buurke, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The use of new technologies in rehabilitation, such as virtual reality and/or computerized gaming exercises, may be useful to enable patients to practice intensively in a motivating way. The objective of the present randomized controlled pilot study was to compare the effect of reach trai

  16. 基于ARM Cortex M3内核TFT触摸屏无线遥控设计%On Wireless Remote Control System Design Based on the ARM Cortex M3 core TFT Touch Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金赐; 梁九兴

    2012-01-01

    The designing is based on Bluetooth communication through the ARM Contex M3 core microprocessor STM32F103VET6 and TEF color LCD touch screen to design a touch-screen remote control.This kind of remote control,through touching the controls displayed on the TFT color LCD of the host computer,triggers variety of control signals and then wireless Bluetooth module sends control signals.%本设计是建立在蓝牙通信下通过ARM Cortex M3内核的微处理器STM32F103VET6与TFT彩色液晶触摸屏来设计一种触摸屏遥控器。该遥控器通过触摸上位机TFT彩色液晶触摸屏上显示的各个控件来触发各种控制信号;无线蓝牙模块发送各种控制信号。

  17. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA) and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF), both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Methods Tested in five volunteers, a redunda...

  18. Path Planning of Mobile Elastic Robotic Arms by Indirect Approach of Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharam Habibnejad Korayem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding optimal trajectory is critical in several applications of robot manipulators. This paper is applied the open-loop optimal control approach for generating the optimal trajectory of the flexible mobile manipulators in point-to-point motion. This method is based on the Pontryagin-s minimum principle that by providing a two-point boundary value problem is solved the problem. This problem is known to be complex in particular when combined motion of the base and manipulator, non-holonomic constraint of the base and highly non-linear and complicated dynamic equations as a result of flexible nature of links are taken into account. The study emphasizes on modeling of the complete optimal control problem by remaining all nonlinear state and costate variables as well as control constraints. In this method, designer can compromise between different objectives by considering the proper penalty matrices and it yields to choose the proper trajectory among the various paths. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed approach are demonstrated through simulation studies. Finally, to verify the proposed method, the simulation results obtained from the model are compared with the results of those available in the literature.

  19. Oilwell Monitoring and Control based on Wireless Sensor Networks using ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Viknesh Velavan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing oil-pumping unit (OPU system has a high power consuming process. It has the incapability of OPU’s structural health monitoring. A sensor network based intelligent control is proposed for power economy and efficient oilwell health monitoring using wireless sensor network. The proposed system consists of three-level sensors: First level sensors (FLS – designed with a temperature sensor, a voltage sensor, a current sensor, level sensor, gas sensor and a pressure sensor used for oilwell data sensing. Intelligent sensors (IS - designed mainly for an oilwell’s data elementary processing, main fault alarm indication, typical storage/indication, data/status transmission up to the third level sensor (TLS, data/status transmission between IS, and command transmission down to the OPU motor. Third level sensors (TLS - Software-defined (SD control centres with an embedded database. The TLS are designed for hundreds of oilwell’s data storage/management, data processing malfunction detection, malfunction alarm/indication; stroke-adjustment command transmission down to a specific IS for power economy and the malfunction report to the maintenance staff. Timer, Keyboard, A/D, communicationinterruptions are controlled by intelligent sensor. Delay aware data collection network structure is used for power economy and to reduce time delay in wireless sensor networks.

  20. Reflex control of posterior shoulder muscles from arm afferents in healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S C; Hanson, J R; Wellington, J; Alexander, C M

    2011-12-01

    In order to position the hand during functional tasks, control of the shoulder is required. Heteronymous reflexes from the upper limb to shoulder muscles are used to assist in this control. To investigate this further, the radial and ulnar nerves were stimulated at elbow level whilst surface electromyographic activity of posterior deltoid, infraspinatus and latissimus dorsi muscles were recorded. In addition, the cutaneous branch of the radial nerve and the skin of the fifth digit were stimulated in order to investigate any cutaneous contribution to reflex activity. Reflexes were evoked in all three of these shoulder muscles from hand and/or forearm afferents. However, the reflexes differed; whereas both excitatory and inhibitory reflexes were evoked in posterior deltoid and infraspinatus, the reflexes in latissimus dorsi were mainly excitatory. Cutaneomuscular reflexes were seldom evoked here, but when they were present they were generally evoked at longer latencies than the reflexes evoked by mixed nerve stimulation. The results suggest a role for reflexes originating from the forearm and/or hand in the control of the shoulder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of Programmable Automation Controller Based on ARM and Linux%基于ARM-Linux的可编程自动化控制器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 陈富林; 李森; 王凯

    2011-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the PAC s function and programming method, a kind of PAC proto-type is discussed in detail. The main structure is introduced first, and later the operation system is deduced thor-oughly , both in hardware and software. Its hardware platform is based on a ARM board, while its software is based on linux as OS, Qt as HMI and Sqlite as database. Finally, analysis indicates that this PAC is of great scalability and portability, and can meet the industry requirements sufficiently.%在理解PAC系统的功能、组成和编程方法基础上,从整体上介绍了一种PAC的实现方案.首先对PAC总体结构作了简要介绍,然后主要对运行系统的整体构架的设计做了详细研究,包括软件及硬件系统的设计.运行系统的硬件平台是基于ARM的嵌入式控制器,软件方面使用linux作为操作系统,Qt作为界面,并支持Sqlite数据库.最后对软PLC系统的性能进行分析,分析结果表明:系统具备了良好的扩展性和移植性,达到了工业领域中的控制要求.

  2. Parametric motion control of robotic arms: A biologically based approach using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, O.; D'Eleuterio, G. M. T.; Lipitkas, J.; Grodski, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A neural network based system is presented which is able to generate point-to-point movements of robotic manipulators. The foundation of this approach is the use of prototypical control torque signals which are defined by a set of parameters. The parameter set is used for scaling and shaping of these prototypical torque signals to effect a desired outcome of the system. This approach is based on neurophysiological findings that the central nervous system stores generalized cognitive representations of movements called synergies, schemas, or motor programs. It has been proposed that these motor programs may be stored as torque-time functions in central pattern generators which can be scaled with appropriate time and magnitude parameters. The central pattern generators use these parameters to generate stereotypical torque-time profiles, which are then sent to the joint actuators. Hence, only a small number of parameters need to be determined for each point-to-point movement instead of the entire torque-time trajectory. This same principle is implemented for controlling the joint torques of robotic manipulators where a neural network is used to identify the relationship between the task requirements and the torque parameters. Movements are specified by the initial robot position in joint coordinates and the desired final end-effector position in Cartesian coordinates. This information is provided to the neural network which calculates six torque parameters for a two-link system. The prototypical torque profiles (one per joint) are then scaled by those parameters. After appropriate training of the network, our parametric control design allowed the reproduction of a trained set of movements with relatively high accuracy, and the production of previously untrained movements with comparable accuracy. We conclude that our approach was successful in discriminating between trained movements and in generalizing to untrained movements.

  3. Russian Defense and Arms Control Policy and its Prospects after the Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Savelyev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora los posibles escenarios en las políticas de desarme y control de armamentos de Rusia tras la toma de posesión del presidente Medvedev. El autor analiza la experiencia de la presidencia de Putin y de los acuerdos EE.UU.-URSS durante la Guerra Fría, conluyendo que los sistemas ABM y el principio de “estabilidad estratégica” se han convertido en el problema central. Por tanto, Rusia y EE.UU. necesitan revisar sus posiciones y aceptar las nuevas realidades de sus relaciones estratégicas en el siglo XXI.

  4. High-dose rifampicin, moxifloxacin, and SQ109 for treating tuberculosis: a multi-arm, multi-stage randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeree, M.J.; Heinrich, N.; Aarnoutse, R.; Diacon, A.H.; Dawson, R.; Rehal, S.; Kibiki, G.S.; Churchyard, G.; Sanne, I.; Ntinginya, N.E.; Minja, L.T.; Hunt, R.D.; Charalambous, S.; Hanekom, M.; Semvua, H.H.; Mpagama, S.G.; Manyama, C.; Mtafya, B.; Reither, K.; Wallis, R.S.; Venter, A.; Narunsky, K.; Mekota, A.; Henne, S.; Colbers, A.; Balen, G.P. van; Gillespie, S.H.; Phillips, P.P.; Hoelscher, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the world's leading infectious disease killer. We aimed to identify shorter, safer drug regimens for the treatment of tuberculosis. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled, open-label trial with a multi-arm, multi-stage design. The trial was done in seven sites in South A

  5. Flexible Arm Splints in the Control of a Lesch-Nyhan Victim's Finger Biting and a Profoundly Retarded Client's Finger Sucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Thomas S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Flexible arm splints permitting the control of hand-to-mouth contacts without restricting range of motion effectively suppressed the self-injurious finger biting of a child with Lesch-Nyhan disease and a profoundly retarded adult's stereotypic finger sucking. They offered an easily applied and much less restrictive alternative to soft-tie and…

  6. Defense Planning and Arms Control. Proceedings of a Special NSAI Conference, 12-14 June 1980, National Defense University, Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    selected defense issues. * The President, whose schizophrenia on arms control and defense policy Issues has been demonstrated repeatedly, and whose...are politically unavoidable and overdue, may eventually have their desired effect. Meanwhile, they may also stimulate traditional Russian paranoia , of

  7. Design of a Pneumatic Robotic Arm for Solar Cell Tester System By using PLC controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif I. Al Mashhadany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell testers sort photovoltaic cells according to their electrical performance, tested under simulated sunlight. A variety of testers exist, but they all face a common challenge of handling cells that are very small and thin, which makes it difficult to transport the cells from the conveyer to the storage box. This paper presents a new design for a handling robot with vacuum end-effectors, which uses a PLC controller to govern the movement of the cells and the testing process. The design applies to solar cell testers for monocrystalline, polycrystalline, cadmium telluride (CdTe, and copper indium diselenide (CIS cells. Each cell is tested for efficiency and categorized accordingly into four groups (A to D. A Virtual Reality (VR model was built to simulate the system, keeping in mind real world constraints. Two photoelectric sensors were used to make detections for both the testing process and the robot movement. The PLC controller guides the trajectory of the robot according to the results of the efficiency testing. It was seen that the system worked very well, with the testing process and the robot movement interacting smoothly. The robot trajectory was seen to be highly accurate, and the pick and place operations were done with great precision.

  8. The psychophysiological effects of Tai-chi and exercise in residential schizophrenic patients: a 3-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung; Wan, Adrian Ho Yin; Au-Yeung, Friendly So Wah; Lo, Phyllis Hau Yan; Siu, Pantha Joey Chung Yue; Wong, Cathy Pui Ki; Ng, Winnie Yuen Han; Cheung, Irene Kit Man; Ng, Siu Man; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2014-09-27

    Patients with schizophrenia are characterized by high prevalence rates and chronicity that often leads to long-term institutionalization. Under the traditional medical model, treatment usually emphasizes the management of psychotic symptoms through medication, even though anti-psychotic drugs are associated with severe side effects, which can diminish patients' physical and psychological well-being. Tai-chi, a mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, emphasizes the motor coordination and relaxation. With these potential benefits, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the effects of Tai-chi intervention on the cognitive and motor deficits characteristic of patients with schizophrenia. A 3-arm RCT with waitlist control design will be used in this study. One hundred and fifty three participants will be randomized into (i) Tai-chi, (ii) exercise or (iii) waitlist control groups. Participants in both the Tai-chi and exercise groups will receive 12-weeks of specific intervention, in addition to the standard medication and care received by the waitlist control group. The exercise group will serve as a comparison, to delineate any unique benefits of Tai-chi that are independent of moderate aerobic exercise. All three groups will undergo three assessment phases: (i) at baseline, (ii) at 12 weeks (post-intervention), and (iii) at 24 weeks (maintenance). All participants will be assessed in terms of symptom management, motor coordination, memory, daily living function, and stress levels based on self-perceived responses and a physiological marker. Based on a promising pilot study conducted prior to this RCT, subjects in the Tai-chi intervention group are expected to be protected against deterioration of motor coordination and interpersonal functioning. They are also expected to have better symptoms management and lower stress level than the other treatment groups. The trail has been registered in the Clinical Trials Center of the

  9. Nonlinear modeling and identification of the electro-hydraulic control system of an excavator arm using BONL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Li, Bo; Guo, Gang; Zeng, Yonghua; Zhang, Meijun

    2013-11-01

    Electro-hydraulic control systems are nonlinear in nature and their mathematic models have unknown parameters. Existing research of modeling and identification of the electro-hydraulic control system is mainly based on theoretical state space model, and the parameters identification is hard due to its demand on internal states measurement. Moreover, there are also some hard-to-model nonlinearities in theoretical model, which needs to be overcome. Modeling and identification of the electro-hydraulic control system of an excavator arm based on block-oriented nonlinear(BONL) models is investigated. The nonlinear state space model of the system is built first, and field tests are carried out to reveal the nonlinear characteristics of the system. Based on the physic insight into the system, three BONL models are adopted to describe the highly nonlinear system. The Hammerstein model is composed of a two-segment polynomial nonlinearity followed by a linear dynamic subsystem. The Hammerstein-Wiener(H-W) model is represented by the Hammerstein model in cascade with another single polynomial nonlinearity. A novel Pseudo-Hammerstein-Wiener(P-H-W) model is developed by replacing the single polynomial of the H-W model by a non-smooth backlash function. The key term separation principle is applied to simplify the BONL models into linear-in-parameters structures. Then, a modified recursive least square algorithm(MRLSA) with iterative estimation of internal variables is developed to identify the all the parameters simultaneously. The identification results demonstrate that the BONL models with two-segment polynomial nonlinearities are able to capture the system behavior, and the P-H-W model has the best prediction accuracy. Comparison experiments show that the velocity prediction error of the P-H-W model is reduced by 14%, 30% and 75% to the H-W model, Hammerstein model, and extended auto-regressive (ARX) model, respectively. This research is helpful in controller design, system

  10. Finite Element Analysis of the Control Arm beneath Vehicle' s Suspension%汽车悬架下控制臂的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小静; 上官文斌

    2012-01-01

    The finite element model of lower control arm beneath vehicle' s suspension was established. In static analysis of the model, inertia relief principle was introduced to eliminate the stress concentration effect of the constraint reaction force on the structural strength of the control arm. In this method, the acceleration due to the unbalanced loads was calculated. The static stiffness properties of the control arm were analyzed. The breaking load and buckling load of the suspension control arm under the conditions of tension and compression were calculated respectively. The results demonstrate that the static stiffness and strength characteristics of the control arm can meet the design requirements.%以某一具体的悬架下控制臂为研究对象,建立悬架控制臂有限元仿真模型.在有限元静力分析过程中,引入惯性释放原理,计算不平衡外力作用下结构的运动(加速度),通过惯性力构造一个平衡的力系,从而消除约束点反力对控制臂结构强度计算造成的应力集中影响.分析汽车悬架控制臂的静刚度特性,对悬架控制臂分别在拉、压工况下进行拉溃力和压溃力有限元分析.分析结果表明,此悬架控制臂满足静刚度特件和强度特性设计要求.

  11. Bio-Inspired Control of an Arm Exoskeleton Joint with Active-Compliant Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Folgheraiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology followed on the design of a multi-contact point haptic interface that uses a bio-inspired control approach and a novel actuation system. The combination of these components aims at creating a system that increases the operability of the target, and, at the same time, enables an intuitive and safe tele-operation of any complex robotic system of any given morphology. The novelty lies on the combination of a thoughtful kinematic structure driven by an active-compliant actuation system and a bio-inspired paradigm for its regulation. Due to the proposed actuation approach, the final system will achieve the condition of wearable system. On that final solution, each joint will be able to change its stiffness depending on the task to be executed, and on the anatomical features of each individual. Moreover, the system provides a variety of safety mechanisms at different levels to prevent causing any harm to the operator. In future, the system should allow the complete virtual immersion of the user within the working scenario.

  12. Reliability Assessment Based on Design and Manufacturing Tolerances for Control Burst Mechanism of Small Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Basu

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Very often specified tolerance is made greater than process tolerance, depending upon (i the manufacturing process capability, and (ii the 'aspiration level' of the designer in effecting a specified tolerance. This applies to multiple components merging into an assembly. In assembly tolerance, errors due to mating are inherent. Common errors arise due to clearance, misalignment in planes and distortion that may cause side stack. Such errors affect the functional performance of the subsystem and consequently become the main cause of failure. Probability distribution of the assembly tolerance and probability distribution of stacked up tolerance of the Components in actual practice leave a common zone of interaction, based on which the in-built reliability changes. From the designer's tolerance, one may have an idea about the 'aspiration level' of assembly tolerance stacking error. Assuming both these parameters, viz., actual stacking error and designer's aspiration level of stacking error to follow the normal probability distribution, it is possible to get the reliability of the product assembly. The paper presents a real life case study for assessing the reliability of sub-assembly at the initial stages of development for control burst mechanism (CBM of rifle.

  13. Fatigue damage analysis and life prediction for vehicle control arm%车辆控制臂疲劳损伤分析与寿命预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永臣; 王国林; 孙丽

    2013-01-01

      为提高车辆结构疲劳耐久性、完善车辆结构设计方法,该文对车辆控制臂进行了的疲劳损伤分析与寿命预测研究。通过有限元分析法,建立控制臂有限元分析模型,分析其结构应力,确定疲劳损坏热点。实测获得试验场条件下控制臂的应变载荷,进行频谱分析与低通滤波等数据处理,利用雨流计数法,编制控制臂载荷谱。利用局部应力应变法与Miner准则,考虑结构应力集中修正,完成控制臂的疲劳损伤分析与寿命预估。结果表明,控制臂损伤热点主要分布在与转向节连接的过渡处,控制臂载荷信号频域能量主要集中在15 Hz以内,与车体结构的实际频率分布相符,控制臂的疲劳损伤分布与实际路况条件的受力状况相符,得出控制臂试验场预期寿命为3.96万h。研究结果可为车辆疲劳耐久研究提供重要参考。%In order to improve the vehicle structure fatigue durability, and to perfect vehicle structure design method, In this paper, fatigue damage analysis and life prediction on the vehicle control arm were done by three parts, namely, finite element modeling and analysis, load spectrum testing and establishment, fatigue damage analysis and life prediction. A fatigue life prediction method of vehicle control arm was put forward. Firstly, the finite element analysis model of the vehicle control arm was built in ANSYS software, and its construction stress was calculated and analyzed under the action of lateral and longitudinal forces respectively. Two hot points on the control arm were determined, which could bring about fatigue damage. The location of each hot point is respectively at the transition of the control arm connected to the steering knuckle and to the subframe. Both locations were identified as load testing points of P1 and P2 that strain gauges were pasted. Secondly, the strain load of the control arm was measured under the condition

  14. Pilates vs. Balance Training in Health Community-Dwelling Seniors: a 3-arm, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Hürlimann, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2016-03-01

    The study examined effects of traditional balance vs. mat-based Pilates training on balance and trunk strength in healthy community dwellers. Forty-eight seniors were either stratified to a balance training group (BAL, n=16, 69.1 (SD 5.8) y), Pilates training group (PIL, n=17, 70.8 (6.5) y) or control group (CON, n=15, 69.2 (6.1) y). BAL performed traditional balance training, while PIL conducted mat-based Pilates-exercises (8 weeks, 2 sessions/week 66 min each). Balance performance (single limb stance and perturbed kneeling, Y-Balance test), dynamic and isometric trunk flexion and extension were assessed during pre- and post-testing. According to the magnitude-based inference approach, substantial positive effects in favor of BAL compared to CON were found for the Y-balance score (right leg, effect size (d)=0.68; left leg, d=0.56), trunk extension (d=0.68) and single leg stance (right leg, d=0.61; left leg, d=0.38). Dynamic (d=0.32) and isometric (d=0.15) trunk flexion revealed unclear effects. For the Y-balance score (right leg, d=0.48, left leg, d=0.75) and single leg stance (right leg, +d=0.61%; left leg, d=0.67), interestingly, BAL substantially exceeded PIL. PIL vs. CON revealed unclear effects for most parameters (0.05training did not cause relevant adaptations in trunk strength and balance performance, whereas balance training substantially improved balance and trunk strength.

  15. A controlled pilot trial of two commercial video games for rehabilitation of arm function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Hsiang; Huang, Lan-Ling; Lee, Chang-Franw; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Yu-Chao; Liu, Hsiuchih; Chen, Ming-I; Lu, Wen-Shian

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the acceptability and potential efficacy of two commercial video games for improving upper extremity function after stroke in order to inform future sample size and study design. A controlled clinical trial design using sequential allocation into groups. A clinical occupational therapy department. Twenty-four first-stroke patients. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: conventional group, Wii group, and XaviX group. In addition to regular one-hour conventional rehabilitation, each group received an additional half-hour of upper extremity exercises via conventional devices, Wii games, or XaviX games, for eight weeks. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment of motor function, Box and Block Test of Manual Dexterity, Functional Independence Measure, and upper extremity range of motion were used at baseline and postintervention. Also, a questionnaire was used to assess motivation and enjoyment. The effect size of differences in change scores between the Wii and conventional groups ranged from 0.71 (SD 0.59) to 0.28 (SD 0.58), on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of motor function (d = 0.74) was larger than that between the XaviX and conventional groups, ranged from 0.44 (SD 0.49) to 0.28 (SD 0.58) (d = 0.30). Patient enjoyment was significantly greater in the video game groups (Wii mean 4.25, SD 0.89; XaviX mean 4.38, SD 0.52) than in the conventional group (mean 2.25, SD 0.89, F = 18.55, p rehabilitation. A sample size of 72 patients (24 per group) would be appropriate for a full study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  17. Feedback Control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKlauer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European project MUNDUS, an assistive framework was developed for the support of arm and hand functions during daily life activities in severely impaired people. Potential users of this system are patients with high-level spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative neuromuscular diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich ataxia, and multiple sclerosis. This contribution aims at designing a feedback control system for Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES to enable reaching functions in people with no residual voluntary control of the arm due to upper motor neuron lesions after spinal cord injury. NMES is applied to the deltoids and the biceps muscles and integrated with a three degrees of freedom (DoFs passive exoskeleton, which partially compensates gravitational forces and allows to lock each DOF. The user is able to choose the target hand position and to trigger actions using an eyetracker system. The target position is selected by using the eyetracker and determined by a marker-based tracking system using Microsoft Kinect. A central controller, i.e. a finite state machine, issues a sequence of basic movement commands to the real-time arm controller. The NMES control algorithm sequentially controls each joint angle while locking the other DoFs. Daily activities, such as drinking, brushing hair, pushing an alarm button, etc., can be supported by the system. The robust and easily tunable control approach was evaluated with five healthy subjects during a drinking task. Subjects were asked to remain passive and to allow NMES to induce the movements. In all of them, the controller was able to perform the task, and a mean hand positioning error of less than five centimeters was achieved. The average total time duration for moving the hand from a rest position to a drinking cup, for moving the cup to the mouth and back, and for finally returning the arm to the rest position was 71 seconds.

  18. Feedback control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Christian; Schauer, Thomas; Reichenfelser, Werner; Karner, Jakob; Zwicker, Sven; Gandolla, Marta; Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Hack, Marco; Jedlitschka, Andreas; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Gföhler, Margit; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Within the European project MUNDUS, an assistive framework was developed for the support of arm and hand functions during daily life activities in severely impaired people. This contribution aims at designing a feedback control system for Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) to enable reaching functions in people with no residual voluntary control of the arm and shoulder due to high level spinal cord injury. NMES is applied to the deltoids and the biceps muscles and integrated with a three degrees of freedom (DoFs) passive exoskeleton, which partially compensates gravitational forces and allows to lock each DOF. The user is able to choose the target hand position and to trigger actions using an eyetracker system. The target position is selected by using the eyetracker and determined by a marker-based tracking system using Microsoft Kinect. A central controller, i.e., a finite state machine, issues a sequence of basic movement commands to the real-time arm controller. The NMES control algorithm sequentially controls each joint angle while locking the other DoFs. Daily activities, such as drinking, brushing hair, pushing an alarm button, etc., can be supported by the system. The robust and easily tunable control approach was evaluated with five healthy subjects during a drinking task. Subjects were asked to remain passive and to allow NMES to induce the movements. In all of them, the controller was able to perform the task, and a mean hand positioning error of less than five centimeters was achieved. The average total time duration for moving the hand from a rest position to a drinking cup, for moving the cup to the mouth and back, and for finally returning the arm to the rest position was 71 s.

  19. 基于 ARM 的桌面型3D打印机控制系统设计%Design of desktop 3D printer control system based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀腾; 郭小定; 李小龙; 余亮

    2014-01-01

    针对基于单片机为控制器的桌面型3D打印机控制系统中存在的处理速度慢、片外芯片多、电路复杂、打印质量不高等问题,设计了基于ARM为控制器的桌面型3D打印机控制系统。系统采用了NXP公司推出的基于ARM Cortex-M3内核的LPC1768微控制器,用它进行与上位机通信、数据处理、模拟量采集与处理、信号控制,选用A4988专用两相步进电机驱动器实现步进电机细分驱动,简化步进电机细分驱动的设计,行程开关电路采用GK152红外光电传感器。软件采用了PID方式调节加热床、挤出机加热温度。文中论述了控制系统主要硬件电路设计和软件的实现流程,系统测试表明性能良好。%The desktop 3D printer control systems with a sigle-chip controller have problems of slow processing speed, more pieces of outside chips, circuit complexity and poor quality of printing.To solve these problems, a desktop 3D printer control system with an ARM controller is designed.The system employs the LPC1768 microcon-troller based on ARM Cortex-M3 core which is introduced by the NXP and used to communicate with the host com-puter, data processing, analog acquisition and processing, signal control, used A4988 special two-phase stepper motor driver to implement stepper motor subdivision drive and to simplify the drive design for stepping motor.The travel switch circuit adopts GK152 infrared photoelectric sensor.The software adopted PID method in order to adjust the heating temperature of heating bed and extruder.This paper discusses the main hardware circuit design and soft-ware realization process of the control system.The System testing shows good performance.

  20. Control circuit for air-jet loom solenoid valve based on ARM7%基于ARM7的喷气织机电磁阀控制电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭张军; 吴震宇; 刘凤臣

    2012-01-01

    In order to complete the real-time control of air-jet loom high frequency solenoid valve, and to promote the fault detection ability of solenoid valve when they work, a control system of high speed driving and current detecting feedback of solenoid valve with ARM7 was designed. ARM7 process chip LPC2478 was used as microcontroller, then an output line expansion circuit was designed with complex programmable logic device( CPLD) on the basis of microprocessor date/address bus. A high speed driving circuit was designed by the high, low voltage composite technology with the characteristic of air-jet loom solenoid valve. Current detecting part was added for judging the working performance of solenoid valve. The test results show that the system has stable operation, high efficiency. The production quality and efficiency of air-jet loom are improved by the research of current detecting feedback data.%为完成喷气织机高频电磁阀的实时控制,提升对电磁阀工作时的故障检测能力,设计了基于ARM7的电磁阀高速驱动和电流检测反馈控制系统.以ARM7处理器的芯片LPC2478为微控制器,并在数据、地址总线基础上,通过采用复杂可编程逻辑器件(CPLD)扩展了输出口线;针对喷气织机电磁阀高频特性,设计了高、低压复合的驱动控制电路;为判断电磁阀工作性能的优劣,增加了电流检测环节.试验结果表明,该系统运行稳定、高效,通过对电流检测反馈数据的分析,提高了喷气织机生产的质量和效率.

  1. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    tested have crossed this borderline dividing mod- ernized missiles fromm missiles of a new type. The other criteria have been agreed upon: For...were taken out by the same means that was used to take Erich Honecker to the USSR—on Soviet military aircraft, from Soviet military airfields

  2. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Roberto Lopes] [Text] Brazil has received permission from Great Britain to import small quantities of the CAM (Chemical Agent Monitor), a portable...Bautista Vasquez and Jorge Montenegro in Tegucigalpa; date not given—live or recorded] [Text] [Reporter] What will be your initial policy to achieve...constitutional mandate to be an apolitical institution that is obedient rather than deliberative? [Cantarero] Good morning, Mr Jorge Montenegro . Yes, the

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-28

    seven white carnations onto the waves. A search for wreckage from the shattered Challenger continues day and nirht in the waters of the Atlantic over an...clearly visible on the screens of the telemonitors on earth, the computer VDUs, summarizing the information coming in from Challenger were printing...undermine!European security — whatever the quality of the space ABM shield above the United states. The existence of "holes" in it., as already noted

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Carl Sagan , well-known American astronomer: "Probably the most critical moment in the development of American-Soviet rela- tions has arrived, and it is...chaired by Theodore Hesburgh in Atlanta, president of Notre Dame University. The other participants include: Carl Sagan (Atlantic), well-known U.S...eradicated. The same argument was advanced over slavery and was proved wrong. Action must be taken now. Arbatov adds: "I think that Carl [ Sagan

  5. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    There is a serious amount of money involved here, and as a consequence American industry is furiously raking in the orders. It is not only industry...role in our security. At first glance, West European government leaders and heads of state are not entirely happy with SDI. Once again it presents...caricatured as a trigger- happy cowboy, is moved by the prospect of a nuclear-free world as described by Mr Gorbachev. This dream is part of his puritan

  6. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-13

    Addresses UN on Disarmament [AGERPRES 24 Oct] 21 LATIN AMERICA MEXICO USSR’s Marcha Praises Anti-Nuclear Policy [UNOMASUNO 27 Oct] 23 NEAR...23 MEXICO USSR’s Marcha Praises Anti-Nuclear Policy PA0111002389 Mexico City UNOMASUNO in Spanish 27 Oct 89 p 6 [Text] Soviet Vice President... Marcha I. Snegur ratified the Soviet’s intention of ridding the world of the threat of nuclear war and highly praised Mexico’s contribution to this

  7. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    initiates the week of numerous friendly meetings with Soviet soldiers throughout the country. He said that 140 years ago, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ...of being destroyed, this scientifically founded optimism of Marx and Engels is becoming more of a material force than it has ever been before. In

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Koivisto Advocates Nordic Nuclear-Free Zone (Helsinki Domestic Service, 20 Apr 85) 98 Norwegian MP’s: Change Government To Set Up Zone (BJorn Talen ...new way the need, for the United States to create a large- scale ABM system with elements of space basing, to work out the technology of "star wars...cienPce8and technology , and so on and so forth, but in general the FRG Government 31 attracted much attention during the visit of the USSR Supreme

  9. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    8217 Fairy Tales ’ About SDI 28 ’Star Wars’ Concept 29 UN Resolution 30 ’Star Peace’ Proposal 31 15 Nov Politburo Meeting 31 Question of Missiles in...our being either ill-informed or naive, the U.S. President seemed to be attempting to lull both his allies and us with fairy - tales about how noble and...give up the so-called Strategic Defense Inititiative, which in the press has been given the figurative title of the "star wars" program. ’ Fairy

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-19

    G. Peces-Barba and Congress of Deputies Presidium members L. Torres, A. Carro , J. Verde y Aldea, S. de Vicente, M. Fernandez Espana, and J.M...experiment was conducted to deploy (and take down) in orbit a large panel of solar batteries (31.5 m long and 4 m wide) (Fig. 6 [figure not

  11. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-13

    Conference on Disarmament has come to a close at the UN headquarters. The sessxon a^ tenaed Dy delegations of 40 socialist, non-aligned and Western countrxes...Second World War. Chairman of the Government of Spain Felipe Gonzalez, now on an official visit here at the invitation of the head of the Swedish

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Progreso Network Ministry has stated that the DPRK proposal is a great in Spanish 1625 GMT 20 Aug 91 contribution to world peace since the United...the needs that are arising, counting on the moral responsibility of the society toward those who are defending it. These demands came into contact

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    U.S. Pushkin specialists have gathered here. Throughout the United States, naturally, they are preparing for tomorrow when Martin Luther King ...militarism. It is well known that speeches are still coming today from some of the highest rostrums in the West — speeches aimed at dispelling the "spirit...nuclear weapons throughout the world is no idealist’s fragile dream , but a real possibility. Mutual understanding was achieved 2 months ago at the

  14. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-26

    commanders who took part in the Patriotic War of 1944-45, who, side by side with the Soviet Army, routed Hitler’s armies, advanced as far as the Alps, and...in a firm which goes by the name of Gamma and in which Schoeffel also holds the executive secretary’s post or in PBG- Projekt - betreuung [Project

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    this country, and 11; . par cent are indifferent or undecided. :- • The poll by CROP — Centre de recherche Bur 1’ opinion publique , a Quebec...are intended to divert public opinion from the factual side of the matter. For it is the United States which is actively preparing the...to influence public opinion . All real efforts to limit nuclear weapons began with a ban on tests — just recall the 1963 treaty which was a first

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Moscow to continue; then, with a clear attempt at sarcasm that poorly concealed frank irritation, he added: "The Soviets, of course, are masters of...Danish journalist attracts attention by its emotional character and frank concern for the fate of peace in Europe. It reflects the broadening

  17. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    to France, Polish President L. Walesa made the following statement in an interview with the newspaper LA CROIX L’EVENEMENT on the subject of Soviet...was closed by French President Francois Mitterrand, was organised by the French Ecole Superieure de Guerre , an army officers’ think tank. ’Common...Land Forces [Ecole Superieure de Guerre ], was devoted to this extremely topical issue. It was also attended by students from the higher military

  18. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of the helium-cooled high-temperature uranium-graphite reac- tor, the VTGR. I learned this from a nonsecret publica - tion. And A. N. Protsenko, new...of government present at the summit. RNE’s [Spanish radio] correspon- dent in the European capital Luz Rodriguez has the details: [Rodriguez...afternoon. Felipe Gonzalez’s statements confirm, in more detail, this first optimistic impression reported by Luz Rodriguez. According to Felipe

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SERVICE REPRODUCED BY NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 I0 NOTE JPRS publications contain...firms interested in Eureka—firms whose sole interlocutor he will be for the drawing up of their dossiers. [Text] [Paris ELECTRONIQUE ACTUALITES in

  20. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    mis- siles, and 30 Pluton ground-to-ground missiles. Considering this imbalance, senate rapporteur Xavier de Villepin (Centrist Union, representing...senator also discussed the Hades, a prestrategic ground-to-ground missile with a range of 450 km, which is expected to replace the Pluton after...34] [Text] In 1991, the French Army will have only four regiments equipped with the prestrategic Pluton nuclear missile, compared to the five it has

  1. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    GMT 26 Sep 85 [Text] Paris, Sept 26 (AFP) — The French missile Hades, which is to replace the Pluton within the country’s nuclear artillery arsenal...350 kms (210 miles) compared with 120 kms (72 miles) for the Pluton , is characterized by "its aptitude to meet the technical demands at- tached to

  2. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    cantankerous person hiding the comb of the bride with the object of preventing the marriage from taking place. The engineering firms in India have the...relations with them. Only the leaders of Venezuela, Mexico , and Panama, however, responded to the Peruvian Government’s proposal. In December 1974...the use of 20 percent of the savings for the creation of an assistance fund for developing states.5 In 1978 and then again in 1984, Mexico proposed

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Manufacturing Engineers at the Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim, California in January, as well as meetings on ceramic materials and high technology last year...development of political relations, to economic and cultural cooperation, and to the solution of humanitarian problems. The two German states have...Japanese Government officials said Tokyo will choose a representative in the near future. During Wednesday morning discussions which focused on cultural

  4. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact was announced in Berlin, there were voices here and there wanting [passage indistinct] as their theory . We...have every reason to think about the discrepancy between word and deed. It was really grotesque how Washington tried to play the "world gendarme" at...Official on Warsaw Pact Strength Data LD3101101889 Budapest Television Service in Hungarian 2022 GMT 30 Jan 89 [From the " Panorama " program

  5. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-09

    ask itself whether they did not trigger off the wrong conflict at the wrong time, SUEDDEUTSCHE ZEITUNG states. MUENCHNER MERKUR in its editorial...prevention of a compromise with the NATO partners, the MUENCHNER MERKUR states. The RHEINZEITUNG from Koblenz holds the opposite opinion: Mrs

  6. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    techniques, and fine mechanics. Another primary supplier is the CSSR." Todenhoefer said with indignation: "It is a political scandal . While Western...the Enron *. rePresents European self-assertion. The jobs of tomorrow will depend on IZll * Jr?"^ caPab±lities vis-a-vis the United States and Japan

  7. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-19

    fuels for missiles and banning of existing fuels which contaminate the environment. (Ecologically pure fuels for the Soviet Energia space carrier...principle. Also additional one-time expenses of up to five billion rubles will be required for building and renovating everyday social and cultural...completely renovated by the year 2008, when the program will be completed. The M5 ballistic missile is being developed specially for the new generation of

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Conference Analyzes Soviet Naval Power PY2504192090 Madrid EFE in Spanish 0540 GMT 25 Apr 90 [Text] Santiago , 24 April (EFE)—The commanders in chief of...northwest of Santiago . It is being attended by the Argentine, Bolivian, Brazilian, Canadian, Colombian, Ecuadoran, Salvadoran, U.S., Guatemalan...for analysis. (Joan Barrios ) has an up-to-the-minute report from the Belgian capital. [ Barrios ] This spring meeting of the WEU Council is the

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    highly toxic mycotoxins , which experts describe as particularly suited for acts of sabotage and terrorism, [passage omitted] A few aspects of how FRG...Saxonian city of Neustadt am Ruebengerge proved to be useful for the Iraqis in their search for mycotoxins . Josef Kuehn, 40, is doing all kinds of export...small. At a price of DM60,000 Iraq received 100 milligrams of HT-2 mycotoxin and over 100 milli- gram of T-2 mycotoxin . Kuehn now says he does not

  10. Worldwide Report. Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    own region. Mr Hayden said Australia could and must make a contribution to nuclear disarmament. It could not retreat into isolationism and tell the...economies would have been affected by the protectionism of this club of 10, while joining the EC would mean a financial burden, increase the pressure

  11. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    same old policy to achieve decisive military superiority with all the ensuing implications for peace and international security. I believe this...prospect of years of fruitless dis- cussion; there are calls not to yield to the "Geneva hypnosis " but to continue an acce- lerated buildup of nuclear...peoples to resolve global economic and ecological problems. Incidentally, I believe this also answers the second part of your question. A positive

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    put forward will be attractive or West European political figures. The statement by the Soviet leader has become a major !c ion consonant with...of the visit, notwithstanding a certain dissonance , which is quite understandable taking into account various trends in the Western world, these

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of dollars have already been assigned and the f uryTT m°n0p0lieS are alreadv warming round this smell of roast meat-a term used by U.S. NEWS & WORLD...are globa _»«P»«-^« £J.f^~f^t^ matter where . paper of seientlsts on the so-called nneiear win t catastrophic con- Lelear war -* ’^„MS "£ „"„ penin

  14. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    will read the statement of the DPRK Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The statement of the DPRK Ministry of Foreign Affairs: To prevent the danger of...place in German territory.""’ JPRS-TAC-89-038 21 November 1989 WEST EUROPE 27 Hades Flexibility What that means in plain language is that those...than her complement of 128 warheads. Warhead shortages also mean that deployment of the secon Trident submarine will have to be delayed. Until now

  15. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    links the United States with West Europe’s security. The former child of the Cold War now wants to become the "admin- istrator of change" and is...Report by Lars Porne ] [Text] Four new so-called hydrophone buoy ships, which will be used to eavesdrop using passive hydrophones, are to be added

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Nov 85) 34 Peru: Daily Notes Mixed Results of Summit (Editorial;Lima EL COMERCIO , 23 Nov 85) 36 Peruvian Newspaper Views Summit’s Main...U.S.-USSR GENEVA TALKS PERU: DAILY NOTES MIXED RESULTS OF SUMMIT PY292320 Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 23 Nov 85 p 42 [Editorial: "The Reagan

  17. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-04

    believes that in the coming 10 to 20 years gene engineering can help resolve the problems facing the world today, such as the combatting of cancer , the...ratify them and the Reagan administration is as afraid of these treaties as, if one can so express oneself, the Devil fears incense . If these treaties

  18. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    infinitely increase their might, but because of this the security of each side vanishes like a shagreen leather . Therefore, it is not only useless today to...nuclear " mushroom " igniting everything animate and inanimate many hundreds of kilometers away—nothing, precisely nothing happened. And one thing had

  19. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-15

    no danger will whether President Vaclav Havel and Jiri Dienstbier, our threaten from its side. The united Germany should foreign minister, discussed...exist in Europe at present and Czechoslovakia belongs to the Warsaw Treaty. He quoted President Vaclav Havel’s Briefs on Military Spending, Deployment...document gation at the Vienna negotiations on conventional forces continues. According to the draft of the coalition agree- in Europe, Ambassador Klaus

  20. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    centers for studying the destructive power of chemical and bacteri- ological weapons staffed by over 10,000 people were spread across Manchuria and...China. The atrocities of the Japanese "doctors" from Detachment 781 based near the Chinese city of Harbin have become widely known to world society

  1. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    one more launch as successful as that of Sonda IV, fired off last weekend at the Barreira do Inferno launch base close to Natal, RN, Brazil will be...computers for performance anal- ysis. Also, the precision radar system—at Barreira do Inferno there are two, should one fail—monitored the entire...already built, and require only the installation of equipment. This does not mean, though, that the launch base at Barreira do Inferno will be

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    independent states of Oceania were colonies. Nations of the region have suffered great damage from American nuclear tests on the atolls of Enewetak and...Ocean ~ one on the Kwajalein atoll and the other — on Johnston Island. As is noted in the booklet, the United States made its sharp turn towards...the Australian the Sururoa Atoll and by plans to dump nuclear waste on the ocean floor. The treatv envisions that no country participating in the

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and chemist Isaac Asimov : »This is a piece of cheap, lousy science fiction in the spirit of Hollywood »star warriors.» It is P^Gise1^ thosev...writer Isaac Asimov . He considers the Soviet-U.S. summit in Geneva to have been the most portentous event of the old year, and expresses the hope that in

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-09

    sail under the humpbacked bridges across Amsterdam’s canals. In ancient Gouda , porters in national costume carry heavy trays of the famous local... cheeses to please the tourists. Excited children’s voices echo from Madurodam near The Hague, which is a model city consisting of miniature copies of

  5. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of Ban 18160003i Moscow MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHUDNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA in Russian No 10, Oct 88 pp 121-122 [ Letter from I.O. Polyakov : "Would a...Advantage for Violation of Ban [I.O. Polyakov ; MIROVA YA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA No 10, Oct] : 34 Conventional Should Accompany Nuclear...already been asked when he was drafted whether "in view of his special knowledge" he did not want to serve "in a special unit." At the Nuclear Physics

  6. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    manufacturing techniques and to increase computer software in auto- mation in enterprises in an effort to reverse the declining tendency of European...dotted with OTR-22 and OTR-23 like giant grasshoppers .... The chief "eliminator" is 56 years old. Stanislav Petrenko and his brother ran away to

  7. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    CFE Talks Opening 12 Woerner, Scholz Comments on Deterrence Hit [NEUES DEUTSCHLAND 9 Mar] 12 Gen Galvin’s Letter on FOFA Condemned [NEUES...that requires further analysis . The United States and the Soviet Union have sharply disagreed and been far apart on the issues of trust and...1050 GMT 9 Mar 89 ["News Analysis : Vienna Talks: Both a Chance and Challenge to U.S. (by Wei Guoqiang)"—XINHUA headline] [Text] Washington, March 8

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    awareness of the technological gap it has to bridge if it is to catch up with the United States and Japan. It was the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative...declining influence on the world economy is a result of this technological gap . The success of Eureka would restore Western Europe’s decisive influence on

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and ensigns. We need about 54,000 apartments for family men and hostels for 13,000 bachelors. As you can see, the agreement with the German side to...get down to the practical elaboration of defense sufficiency criteria. Further promotion of the European disarmament process is unthinkable without...taking the first steps to promote a general review of European and Western security problems is none other than France. GERMANY Daimler-Benz CEO

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    noteworthy for htPr abundance of factual materia characterising the ap nrSrh of the West the USA first and formost, to the militarisation of oX space...Soviet program has been drawn up with due consideration for the fact that the currently prevailing balance of forces in the world is to be...side have promoted a balance in trade exchange between the two countries. The Soviet side expressed a readiness to further boost the commodity

  11. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34 a warrant officer carrying an acetylene torch asked. He said jokingly: "So the Germans don’t freeze. But, seriously, we will sell the building...believe that this search will bear fruit in an Asian direction also. For a strengthening of security in the APR an improve- ment in Japanese-Soviet

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Powers About To Begin (Auckland THE NEW ZEALAND HERALD, 29 Jan 86) 80 Nordic Labor Unions Urge New Nuclear Free Zone Conference (Carl Otto Brix ...BERLINGSKE TIDENDE in Danish 17 Jan 86 p 7 [Article by Carl Otto Brix ] [Text] The Nordic labor movements want all political parties to participate

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    from the findings of the Kiev Institute of General and [word indistinct] Hygiene, these gases increase several times the number of pulmonic cases...nuclear tests at the Nevada in neighboring Nevada cause cancer among residents of this state. ^e ongoingnuclear tests harbor an obvious and

  14. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    shooting down enemy air- LIBYA craft at a height of 6 km (6,000 meters) and has a target hit ratio of 95 percent. The Anza-I has a speed of 250 meters...1,500 to 2,000 units, three helicopter programs-the EH- 101 (with Westland), mainly in the Pacific zone. Capable of carrying four the Tonal (with...slow in coming. definition, considerable energy sources for emitting high-powered radar pulses , a very large capacity for The NH-90 program, which is

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    DIE WELT Editorial, by Horst-Alexander Siebert 11 FRG’s Ruehe Discusses SDI Negotiations With U.S. ( Volker Ruehe Interview; Hamburg DER SPIEGEL, 23...warns about the pernicious consequences of the Pentagon’s militarization of space. As the newspaper THE GUARDIAN reports, he branded "Star Wars" as a...21-24 [Interview with CDU/CSU Group Chairman Deputy Volker Ruehe by unidentified SPIEGEL editor; date not given] [Text] SPIEGEL: Mr Ruehe, how do

  16. The effects of a home-based arm ergometry exercise programme on physical fitness, fatigue and activity in polio survivors: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Deirdre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Polio survivors have reduced mobility, pain and fatigue, which make access to conventional forms of aerobic exercise difficult. Inactivity leads to increased risk of health problems, many of which are prevalent among Polio survivors. Aerobic exercise programmes in Polio survivors should utilise stable muscle groups and should be designed to minimise exacerbation of pain and fatigue. A home-based arm ergometry aerobic exercise programme may represent an affordable and accessible exercise modality, incorporating exercise prescription principles in this group. Methods/design This is a prospective, single blinded, randomised controlled trial. There are two arms; exercise intervention using arm ergometers and control. Polio survivors meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive a small arm ergometer and a polar heart rate monitor. They will carry out a home-based moderate intensity (50-70% HRMax aerobic exercise programme for eight weeks, following instruction by the treating physiotherapist. Assessments will occur at baseline and after eight weeks and will include tests of physical fitness, activity, energy cost of walking, fatigue and quality of life. Clinically feasible assessment tools including the Six Minute Arm Test, the Physical Activity Scale for People with Physical Disabilities questionnaire, the Physiological Cost Index, Fatigue Severity Scale and the SF-36v2 will be utilised. Discussion The efficacy of a home-based arm ergometry programme in Polio survivors will be examined. No previous trial has examined such a programme using a wide range of outcome measures pertinent to Polio survivors. This study will provide new information on the impact of arm ergometry on physical fitness, activity, body composition, fatigue, pain, muscle strength, and health related quality of life. Also, the study

  17. Effects of Computer-Aided Interlimb Force Coupling Training on Paretic Hand and Arm Motor Control following Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chueh-Ho; Chou, Li-Wei; Luo, Hong-Ji; Tsai, Po-Yi; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the training effects of interlimb force coupling training on paretic upper extremity outcomes in patients with chronic stroke and analyzed the relationship between motor recovery of the paretic hand, arm and functional performances on paretic upper limb. A randomized controlled trial with outcome assessment at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University. Thirty-three subjects with chronic stroke were recruited and randomly assigned to training (n = 16) and control groups (n = 17). The computer-aided interlimb force coupling training task with visual feedback included different grip force generation methods on both hands. The Barthel Index (BI), the upper extremity motor control Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE), the Motor Assessment Score (MAS), and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). All assessments were executed by a blinded evaluator, and data management and statistical analysis were also conducted by a blinded researcher. The training group demonstrated greater improvement on the FMA-UE (pcontrol group after 4 weeks of intervention. In addition, a moderate correlation was found between the improvement of scores for hand scales of the FMA and other portions of the FMA UE (r = .528, p = .018) or MAS (r = .596, p = .015) in the training group. Computer-aided interlimb force coupling training improves the motor recovery of a paretic hand, and facilitates motor control and enhances functional performance in the paretic upper extremity of people with chronic stroke. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02247674.

  18. Automatic Control System for Refining Sugarcane Based on Embedded ARM-Linux and ZigBee%基于ARM-Linux和ZigBee的自动煮糖数据采集系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敦锋; 朱名日; 庾志衡; 周信东

    2011-01-01

    According to the special environment of refining; sugarcane production line,a RT data sugar-refine control platform of wireless sensor network based on Zigbee and arm-linux technology was built. The problems of traditional cable data acquisition system such as high cost.poor scalabiliiy of monitoring node,bad mobility were solved. A new way was achieved for the process automation of refinining sugar. The test result shows that the system runs well, and completely meets the requirements of produccion process.%针对糖厂煮糖制炼生产线的特殊环境,利用ZigBee和嵌入式ARM-Linux技术,构建了1个实时的蔗糖制炼无线传感器网络控制平台,有效解决传统的有线数据采集系统存在的成本较高、监控点扩充性差、移动性较差等问题,为实现煮糖过程的自动化提供了手段.测试表明,系统运行良好,能够满足工艺的要求.

  19. Hybrid neuroprosthesis for the upper limb: combining brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Grimm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related range of motion and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD and electromyography (EMG activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e. induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p=0.028 or EMG (p=0.021 modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related range of motion (p=0.009 and the movement-related brain modulation (p=0

  20. Feedback control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian eKlauer; Thomas eSchauer; Werner eReichenfelser; Jakob eKarner; Sven eZwicker; Marta eGandolla; Emilia eAmbrosini; Simona eFerrante; Marco eHack; Andreas eJedlitschka; Alexander eDuschau-Wicke; Margit eGfoehler; Alessandra ePedrocchi

    2014-01-01

    Within the European project MUNDUS, an assistive framework was developed for the support of arm and hand functions during daily life activities in severely impaired people. Potential users of this system are patients with high-level spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative neuromuscular diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich ataxia, and multiple sclerosis. This contribution aims at designing a feedback control system for Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) to ena...

  1. Arms control is everyone`s business: The United States and the United Nations at the mid-point of the 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-03-01

    This presentation encourages current efforts in arms control, non- proliferation, and peacekeeping. Verification is heralded as a confidence building method to bring about more openness in international relations. It is purported that openness has already enhanced democratic forces around the world. The insistence on strict compliance with the decisions of the United Nations Security Council is a show of support for international law. It is recommended that international norms on human rights, non-proliferation, and non-aggression be strengthened.

  2. Feedback control system of the mechanical arm based on STM32%基于STM32的机械臂反馈控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查帅荣; 周海芳; 章杰

    2014-01-01

    为了解决机械臂开环控制精度低的问题,设计了一套基于 STM32微控制器的机械臂反馈控制系统。通过 QT 图形界面将控制数据输入上位机,控制数据经串口传输到微控制器后驱动机械臂运动;由加速度传感器和磁通传感器组成的惯性传感器节点采集机械臂运动数据传回微控制器,采用由多个相关的参数可变 PID 控制器构成的控制器组对机械臂各个部位进行反馈控制。测试结果表明,利用惯性传感器实现的改进型 PID 的反馈控制系统比无反馈控制系统精度有较大提高,可用于实现更高精度的机械臂控制。%The open loop mechanical arm control system has low accuracy, so a feedback control system on the STM32 for the mechanical arm is designed and implemented in this paper. The data of arm control is entered with QT graphic interfaces and transmitted to the embedded system through serial port to drive the steering engine. The system uses sensor nodes , which contain accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetic sensor, to collect motion data of the arm and transmit to the embedded system. An improved PID controller system with variable parameters is used to control different parts of the mechanical arm. The experimental tests show that the control accuracy of the feedback control system is significantly improved compared with the open loop system.

  3. A supplementary system for a brain-machine interface based on jaw artifacts for the bidimensional control of a robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Álvaro; Hortal, Enrique; Iáñez, Eduardo; Azorín, José M

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) are being used more and more these days to design systems focused on helping people with motor disabilities. Spontaneous BMIs translate user's brain signals into commands to control devices. On these systems, by and large, 2 different mental tasks can be detected with enough accuracy. However, a large training time is required and the system needs to be adjusted on each session. This paper presents a supplementary system that employs BMI sensors, allowing the use of 2 systems (the BMI system and the supplementary system) with the same data acquisition device. This supplementary system is designed to control a robotic arm in two dimensions using electromyographical (EMG) signals extracted from the electroencephalographical (EEG) recordings. These signals are voluntarily produced by users clenching their jaws. EEG signals (with EMG contributions) were registered and analyzed to obtain the electrodes and the range of frequencies which provide the best classification results for 5 different clenching tasks. A training stage, based on the 2-dimensional control of a cursor, was designed and used by the volunteers to get used to this control. Afterwards, the control was extrapolated to a robotic arm in a 2-dimensional workspace. Although the training performed by volunteers requires 70 minutes, the final results suggest that in a shorter period of time (45 min), users should be able to control the robotic arm in 2 dimensions with their jaws. The designed system is compared with a similar 2-dimensional system based on spontaneous BMIs, and our system shows faster and more accurate performance. This is due to the nature of the control signals. Brain potentials are much more difficult to control than the electromyographical signals produced by jaw clenches. Additionally, the presented system also shows an improvement in the results compared with an electrooculographic system in a similar environment.

  4. 22 CFR 123.15 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... South Korea of major defense equipment sold under a contract in the amount of $25,000,000 or more, or... INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.15 Congressional... for transactions, in the amounts described below, involving exports of any defense articles...

  5. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11... major defense equipment, as defined in § 120.8 of this subchapter shall also require a certification..., any member country of that Organization, or Australia, Japan, New Zealand, or South Korea or at...

  6. Design of embedded intelligent home control system based on Arm-Linux%基于Arm-Linux的嵌入式智能家居控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭涛; 徐晓辉; 黄晓亮; 王盟; 温阳

    2011-01-01

    随着嵌入式技术、网络及信息技术的发展,针对人们对智能家居的追求.提出了一种基于ARM9的嵌入式智能家居控制系统的解决方案.介绍了嵌入式Linux系统的软硬件平台,结合实例阐述了嵌入式QT图形界面系统、嵌入式数据库SQLite等关键技术在嵌入式智能家居控制系统中的应用.该方案解决了控制系统的可视化操作问题,提高了系统数据管理效率,并具有通用性可移植到其他硬件或软件平台应用.%With the development of embedded technology,network and information technology,for the pursuit for the intelligent home,a projection of embedded intelligent home controlling systems is proposed based on ARM9.It describes the software and hardware platforms of embedded Linux systems,explains the appliance on embedded intelligent home controlling systems of key technologies such as embedded QT graphical interface system and embedded database SQLite with examples. The projection solves the problem of visual operations,and improve the efficiency of data management,what's more,it is universal portable to other hardware and software platforms to be applied.

  7. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?; Le rejet du traite d'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires par le Senat Americain: un revers pour l'arms control nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitt, B. [Universite de Marne la Vallee, 77 (France)

    2000-07-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  8. Brain-Computer Interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Keng eAng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG-based Motor Imagery (MI Brain-Computer Interface (BCI coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA score 10-50, recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 minutes per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 hour of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 hour of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 minutes of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 hours of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper-extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12 and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  9. Brain-computer interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Zhou, Longjiang; Tang, Ka Yin; Ephraim Joseph, Gopal J; Kuah, Christopher Wee Keong; Chua, Karen Sui Geok

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG)-based Motor Imagery (MI) Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK) robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) score 10-50), recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT) groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 min per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 h of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 h of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 min of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 h of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12, and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  10. Homeopathy for Depression - DEP-HOM: study protocol for a randomized, partially double-blind, placebo controlled, four armed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich Stefan N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether individualized homeopathic Q-potencies and/or the type of the homeopathic case history have a specific therapeutical effect in acute depression as this has not yet been investigated. The study aims to assess the two components of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute depression, i.e., to investigate the specific effect of individualized Q-potencies versus placebo and to investigate the effect of different approaches to the homeopathic case history. Methods/Design A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient will be performed. 228 patients diagnosed with major depression (moderate episode by a psychiatrist will be included. The primary endpoint is the total score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale after six weeks. Secondary end points are: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score after two and four weeks; response and remission rates, Beck Depression inventory total score, quality of life and safety at two, four and six weeks. Statistical analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The main endpoint will be analysed by a two-factorial analysis of covariance. Within this model generalized estimation equations will be used to estimate differences between verum and placebo, and between both types of case history. Discussion For the first time this study evaluates both the specific effect of homeopathic medicines and of a homeopathic case taking in patients with depression. It is an

  11. 基于ARM的单周期控制逆变电源研究%Study on One-Cycle Control Inverter Based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚鹏超; 郑玉莲; 田晓燕; 孙频东

    2012-01-01

    One-cycle control is a kind of control strategy of analog power technology which is widely used. It has such merits as simple structure, rapid control speed and so on. Analog circuit is always used to form control circuit. In this paper ARM is used to realize one-cycle control. The components of one-cycle control circuit such as the integrator, comparator, RS flip-flop and other hardware circuits are realized by ARM. Finally, compared with one-cycle control which is realized by analog circuit, they are similar in the characteristics of dynamic performance.%单周期控制是模拟电源技术中一种被广泛使用的控制策略,它具有结构简单、调控速度快等优点,通常使用模拟电路构成控制电路,利用ARM控制芯片实现数字单周期控制,单周期控制电路中的积分器、电压比较器、RS触发器等硬件电路均用软件实现,最后与模拟电路构成的单周期电路相比较发现其在动态性能方面具有相似的特性.

  12. Study of factors controlling exposure dose and image quality of C-arm in operation room according to detector size of it (Mainly L-Spine AP study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Jo, Hwang Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Time of operation has been reduced and accuracy of operation has been improved since C-arm, which offer real-time image of patient, was introduced in operation room. However, because of the contamination of patient, C-arm could not be used more appropriately. Therefore, this study is to know factors of controlling exposure dose, image quality and the exposed dose of health professional in operation room. Height of Wilson frame (bed for operation) was fixed at 130 cm. Then, Model 76-2 Phantom, which was set by assembling manual of Fluke Company, was set on the bed. Head/Spine Fluoroscopy AEC mode was set for exposure condition. According to detector size of C-arm, the absorbed dose per min was measured in the 7 steps OFD (cm) from 10 cm to 40 cm (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 cm). In each step of OFD, the absorbed dose per min of same diameter of collimation was measured. Moreover, using Nero MAX Model 8000, exposure dose per min was measured according to 3 step of distance from detector (20 cm, 60 cm, 100 cm). Finally, resolution was measured by CDRH Disc Phantom and magnification of each OFD was measured by aluminum stick bar. According to detector size of C-arm, difference of absorbed dose shows that the dose of 20 cm OFD is 1.750 times higher than the dose of 40 cm OFD. It means that the C-arm, which has smaller size of detector, shows the bigger difference of absorbed dose per min (p<0.05). In the difference of absorbed dose in the same step of OFD (from 20 cm to 40 cm), the absorbed dose of 9 inch detect or C-arm was 1.370 times higher than 12 inch' s (p<0.05). When OFD was set to 20 cm OFD, the absorbed dose of non-collimation case was approximately 0.816 times lower than the absorbed dose of collimation cases (p<0.05). When the distance was 20 cm from detector, exposed does includes first-ray and scatter-ray. When the distance was 60 cm and 100 cm from detector, exposed does includes just scatter-ray. So, there was the 2.200 times difference of absorbed

  13. “I Want That”: Human-in-the-Loop Control of a Wheelchair-Mounted Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Tsui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheelchair-mounted robotic arms have been commercially available for a decade. In order to operate these robotic arms, a user must have a high level of cognitive function. Our research focuses on replacing a manufacturer-provided, menu-based interface with a vision-based system while adding autonomy to reduce the cognitive load. Instead of manual task decomposition and execution, the user explicitly designates the end goal, and the system autonomously retrieves the object. In this paper, we present the complete system which can autonomously retrieve a desired object from a shelf. We also present the results of a 15-week study in which 12 participants from our target population used our system, totaling 198 trials.

  14. Effects of stance width on postural movement pattern and anticipatory postural control associated with unilateral arm abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Tomita, Hidehito; Kurokawa, Nozomi; Asai, Hitoshi; Maeda, Kaoru

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the effects of stance width on postural movement pattern and activation timing of postural muscles during unilateral arm abduction. Thirty-two healthy subjects abducted the right arm at their own timing. Stance width was 0, 9, 18 or 27 cm. Movement angles of leg lateral inclination and trunk lateral flexion to the leg in the frontal plane were analyzed. Based on movement angles at 0 cm width, subjects were classified into three groups: contralateral whole body leaning (CWBLg); ipsilateral trunk flexion (ITFg); and contralateral trunk flexion (CTFg). A high correlation between the movement angles was obtained at 0 cm width (r=0.82). With increasing stance width, postural movement pattern in the ITFg shifted to patterns characterized by lateral flexion of the trunk toward the side opposite to arm movement, and movement angle of leg-inclination in ITFg and CWBLg decreased. At 0 cm width, left gluteus medius and tensor fascia latae were activated significantly about 40 ms ahead of the right middle deltoid in CWBLg and CTFg, but not in ITFg. However, preceding activation became prominent (about 20 ms) in ITFg for wide stances. Moreover, bilateral activation of the tensor fascia latae was observed in CTFg for all widths.

  15. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  16. Design of Networked Access Control and Attendance System Based on ARM-Linux and JavaEE%基于ARM-Linux与JavaEE网络化门禁考勤系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房好帅; 李志鹏; 郑哲豪; 王春景

    2014-01-01

    Proposes a design proposal of networked access control and attendance system, includes access control and attendance clients connect server via network. The hardware of access control and attendance client consists of ARM as the core processor, connects the RFID card reader, camera, LCD and access controller. Develops the service interfaces using JavaEE technology, and then deployed in Tomcat which the server has installed. The access control attendance record information can saved in database and by FTP file transferring. The overall architecture of this design has a preferable expansibility, only after a few secondary devel-opments, existing personnel management systems can be integrated with the design proposal.%提出了一种网络化门禁考勤系统的设计方案,由门禁考勤机和后台服务器通过网络连接构成。门禁考勤机以ARM处理器为核心,连接RFID读卡器、摄像头、LCD显示屏、门禁控制器等构成硬件系统,移植Linux作为嵌入式操作系统;采用JavaEE技术实现后台服务接口,部署在后台服务器安装的Tomcat中;利用数据库和FTP文件传输保存门禁考勤信息记录;整体架构设计扩展性较好,现有的人事管理系统经过少量的二次开发便可与本方案进行集成。

  17. The effects of yoga on shoulder and spinal actions for women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema of the arm: A randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Annette; Barnett, Tony; Piller, Neil; Immink, Maarten A; Visentin, Denis; Williams, Andrew D

    2016-09-02

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of an 8-week yoga intervention on the shoulder and spinal actions of women with breast cancer-related arm lymphoedema. A randomised controlled pilot trial. The intervention group (n = 12) completed eight weeks of daily yoga sessions while the control group (n = 11) continued with best current care including information on compression sleeves, skin care, risks of temperature variations and recommended safe use of affected arm. Lumbo-pelvic posture, range of motion (ROM) in the shoulder and spine, and strength in shoulder and pectoral major and minor, and serratus anterior were taken at baseline, week 8 and after a 4-week follow-up. Outcome assessors were blinded to allocation. At week eight the intervention group had an improvement in lumbo-pelvic posture, as indicated by a reduction in pelvic obliquity compared to the control group (mean difference = -8.39°, 95 % CI: -15.64 to -1.13°, p = 0.023). A secondary finding was that strength in shoulder abduction significantly increased following the yoga intervention in both the affected (9.5 kg; CI: 0.34 to 18.66, p = 0.042) and non-affected arm (11.58 kg; CI: 0.25 to 22.91; p = 0.045). There were no significant between group changes in any ROM measures as a result of the yoga intervention. This pilot study demonstrates that participation in yoga may provide benefits for posture and strength in women with Breast Cancer Related Lymphoedema. The improvements may be attributed to the focus of yoga on overall postural and functional movement patterns. Further trials with longer intervention that follow this methodology are warranted. The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000202965 .

  18. Brain-Machine Interface to Control a Prosthetic Arm with Monkey ECoGs during Periodic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro eMorishita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs are promising technologies to rehabilitate the function of upper limbs in severely paralyzed patients. We succeeded in developing a BMI prosthetic arm for a monkey implanted with electrocorticogram (ECoG electrodes and trained in a reaching task. It had stability in preventing the misclassification of ECoG patterns. However, the latency was about 200 ms as a trade-off for the stability. To improve the response of this BMI prosthetic arm, the generation of a trigger event by decoding muscle activity was adopted. It was performed to predict integrated electromyograms (iEMGs from the ECoGs. Experiments were conducted to verify the availability of this method, and the results confirmed that the proposed method was superior to the conventional one. In addition, a performance test of the proposed method with actually achieved iEMGs instead of predicted iEMGs was performed, and we found that the motor intention is finely expressed through estimated muscle activity from brain activity rather than actual muscle activity.

  19. 基于ARM的USB设备互连控制器设计%Design of the ARM Based Interconnection Controller for USB Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵可昭; 胡铭曦; 余文清; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    提出一种以USB控制器为核心、以手机为主控制端的方案,实现移动设备间的互连.采用TQ2440ARM9开发板和嵌入式Linux系统构建USB控制器,设计软件实现对手机操作系统的跨平合支持,实现手机和USB存储设备之间的文件传输、手机对USB打印机的控制.%An USB-controller managed by a mobile phone is proposed for the mobile digital devices to interconnect with each other. The USB-controller is designed and implemented on the TQ2440 ARM9 development board, which runs embedded Linux operating system. The corresponding software is developed for the crossplatform support of mobile phone operation system. The files can be transferred between the mobile phone and the USB storage devices accurately and efficiently. And the USB printer can be controlled by the mobile phone.

  20. Effects of Action Observational Training Plus Brain-Computer Interface-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation on Paretic Arm Motor Recovery in Patient with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, TaeHoon; Kim, SeongSik; Lee, ByoungHee

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether action observational training (AOT) plus brain-computer interface-based functional electrical stimulation (BCI-FES) has a positive influence on motor recovery of paretic upper extremity in patients with stroke. This was a hospital-based, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Thirty patients with a first-time stroke were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the BCI-FES group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The BCI-FES group administered to AOT plus BCI-FES on the paretic upper extremity five times per week during 4 weeks while both groups received conventional therapy. The primary outcomes were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity, Motor Activity Log (MAL), Modified Barthel Index and range of motion of paretic arm. A blinded assessor evaluated the outcomes at baseline and 4 weeks. All baseline outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. After 4 weeks, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity sub-items (total, shoulder and wrist), MAL (MAL-Activity of Use and Quality of Movement), Modified Barthel Index and wrist flexion range of motion were significantly higher in the BCI-FES group (p stroke rehabilitation. The limitations of the study are that subjects had a certain limited level of upper arm function, and the sample size was comparatively small; hence, it is recommended that future large-scale trials should consider stratified and lager populations according to upper arm function.

  1. High-Density Electromyography and Motor Skill Learning for Robust Long-Term Control of a 7-DoF Robot Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Mark; Vujaklija, Ivan; Whitsell, Bryan; Farina, Dario; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    Myoelectric control offers a direct interface between human intent and various robotic applications through recorded muscle activity. Traditional control schemes realize this interface through direct mapping or pattern recognition techniques. The former approach provides reliable control at the expense of functionality, while the latter increases functionality at the expense of long-term reliability. An alternative approach, using concepts of motor learning, provides session-independent simultaneous control, but previously relied on consistent electrode placement over biomechanically independent muscles. This paper extends the functionality and practicality of the motor learning-based approach, using high-density electrode grids and muscle synergy-inspired decomposition to generate control inputs with reduced constraints on electrode placement. The method is demonstrated via real-time simultaneous and proportional control of a 4-DoF myoelectric interface over multiple days. Subjects showed learning trends consistent with typical motor skill learning without requiring any retraining or recalibration between sessions. Moreover, they adjusted to physical constraints of a robot arm after learning the control in a constraint-free virtual interface, demonstrating robust control as they performed precision tasks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed man-machine interface as a viable alternative to conventional control schemes for myoelectric interfaces designed for long-term use.

  2. Effects of preparatory period on anticipatory postural control and contingent negative variation associated with rapid arm movement in standing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Katsuo

    2007-01-01

    We investigated CNS motor preparation state and anticipatory postural muscle activation while subjects performed bilateral rapid arm movement at various intervals between warning and response stimulus (preparatory period) during standing. Motor preparation state was evaluated by integrated values of the late components of the contingent negative variation (late CNV), obtained by averaging electroencephalograms during the last 100ms of the preparatory period. For quantifying anticipatory postural muscle activation, we measured the onset of burst activity in postural muscles (lumbar paraspinal, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius) with respect to anterior deltoid activity and integrated values of preceding activation. Subjects performed the arm movement with minimal delay in the warning stimulus-response stimulus-motor response paradigm under preparatory periods of 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5s. Late CNV did not differ between the 2.0-s and 3.0-s period, but was significantly smaller in the 3.5-s period than in the 2.0-s period, suggesting difficulty in predicting response timing in the 3.5-s period. No change was found on integrated values of preceding activations of postural muscles. Burst onset of all postural muscles significantly preceded anterior deltoid activation in all periods. Burst activity for gastrocnemius only occurred earlier in the 3.5-s period than in the 2.0-s and 3.0-s periods. Weak correlations were observed between late CNV and onset time of gastrocnemius activity. It is suggested that earlier activation of gastrocnemius is a strategy adopted when response stimulus timing is relatively difficult to predict.

  3. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  4. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  5. DE PODER NULO A SUPERPODER: O JUDICIÁRIO DE MONTESQUIEU, REVISITADO | FROM NULL TO SUPER-POWER: MONTESQUIEU’S JUDICIARY REVIEWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Luís Tomás Ballande Romanelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Judiciary within the doctrine of separation of powers, aiming to provide historical and political data that could explain judicial protagonism. This is achieved through book reviews of contemporary political science literature and classic authors from the 18 th century. Therefore, it aims to examine in depth some chapters of Montesquieu’s “Spirit of laws” classic book, expressing how its theory of judicial power was deeply linked with ancient régime’s judicial system, in a context where 18 th century French Judiciary Power was a great source of threat to both political and legislative powers. The paper addresses how the American Constitution bended the original theory, moving from an absolute separation of powers towards a super-powered Judiciary in defence of individual liberties, acting as counterbalance to state assemblies and local political powers. In conclusion, it stands that Judicial Power protagonism doesn’t violate the classic theory of separation of powers.

  6. Fostering emotional, social, physical and educational wellbeing in rural India: the methods of a multi-arm randomized controlled trial of Girls First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Katherine Sachs; DeMaria, Lisa M; Gillham, Jane; Andrew, Gracy; Peabody, John W; Leventhal, Steve

    2015-10-26

    There are 600 million girls in low and middle income countries (LMICs), many of whom are at great risk for poor health and education. There is thus great need for programs that can effectively improve wellbeing for these girls. Although many interventions have been developed to address these issues, most focus on health and education without integrating attention to social and emotional factors. This omission is unfortunate, as nascent evidence indicates that these factors are closely related to health and education. This paper describes the methods of a 4-arm randomized controlled trial among 3,560 adolescent girls in rural Bihar, India that tested whether adding an intervention targeting social-emotional issues (based on a "resilience framework") to an adolescent health intervention would improve emotional, social, physical, and educational wellbeing to a greater extent than its components and a control group. Study arms were: (1) Girls First, a combination of the Girls First Resilience Curriculum (RC) and the Girls First Health Curriculum (HC); (2) Girls First Resilience Curriculum (RC) alone; (3) Girls First Health Curriculum (HC) alone; and (4) a school-as-usual control group (SC). Seventy-six schools were randomized (19 per condition) and 74 local women with a tenth grade education were trained and monitored to facilitate the program. Quantitative data were collected from 3,560 girls over 4 assessment points with very low rates of participant attrition. Qualitative assessments were conducted with a subset of 99 girls and 27 facilitators. In this article, we discuss guiding principles that facilitated trial implementation, including integrating diverse local and non-local sources of knowledge, focusing on flexibility of planning and implementation, prioritizing systematic measurement selection, and striking a balance between scientific rigor and real-world feasibility. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02429661 . Registered 24 April 2015.

  7. Solar Automatic Tracking Double Fuzzy Control System Based on ARM%基于ARM的太阳自动跟踪双模糊控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景艳; 李玉东; 杨晓邦

    2012-01-01

    针对太阳自动跟踪系统采用常规的PID控制器存在着跟踪精度低,超调量大等缺点,提出了一种基于ARM的太阳自动跟踪双模糊控制系统的设计方案;以32位ARM嵌入式微处理器为核心,采用光电跟踪和太阳运动轨迹跟踪相结合的混合跟踪模式;在光电跟踪模式下.采用模糊控制;在太阳运动轨迹跟踪模式下,采用模糊PID分段式控制,并依据光强的大小自动切换控制器;采用两个同样规格的太阳能电池板,分别采用固定安装和太阳自动跟踪系统测试太阳能电池板的采光强度;实验结果表明,该系统具有较高的跟踪精度,实现了对太阳全天候的跟踪,有效地提高了光电转换效率.%The solar automatic tracking system adopting the conventional PID controller has low tracking precision and big overshoot. The solar automatic tracking double fuzzy control system based on ARM is put forward. Embedded microcontroller 32-bit ARM processor is the core. A kind of mixed tracking mode is adopted, and it combines photoelectric tracking mode and solar trajectory tracking mode. The double fuzzy control method is presented, the fuzzy control method is adopted in photoelectric tracking mode, and in solar trajectory tracking mode, the fuzzy PID segmented tracking control method is put forward. And the controller can be automatically switched control mode according to light intensity. The fixed installation and the automatic tracking system are respectively used to test the solar panels daylighting strength. The experimental results show that the solar automatic tracking system is possessed of high tracking precision, realizes the sun round-the-clock tracking and effectively improves the photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  8. A self-management program for employees with complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutting, Nathan; Staal, J Bart; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Engels, Josephine A; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-08-16

    Complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS) have a multifactorial origin and cause considerable work problems, including decreased work productivity, sickness absence, and, ultimately, job loss. There is a need for intervention programs for people with CANS. Self-management is an approach used in chronic disease care to improve self-efficacy and wellness behaviors to facilitate participants to make informed choices and carry them out. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a self-management program (including ehealth) and compare it to usual care among employees with chronic CANS (lasting >3 months). This is a randomized controlled trial in which 142 participants will be recruited and randomized (with pre-stratification) to either the intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). The IG will participate in a self-management program consisting of six group sessions and an ehealth module. The CG is allowed to use all usual care available. The primary outcome of the study is the self-reported disability of arm, shoulder, and hand, measured with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH). Secondary outcomes include: absenteeism, pain in the previous week, quality of life, catastrophizing pain, self-efficacy, workstyle, presenteeism, fatigue, the use of usual care, and limitations experienced on the job. Data are collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. Following the process of intervention mapping we developed a self-management program to suit and alleviate the problems and needs of employees with CANS. A strength of the study is that our intervention is specifically tailored to match the needs of employees with CANS. The study also has some potential weaknesses (for example, use of co-interventions, combination of group sessions and ehealth, self-reporting of data and possible contamination, Hawthorne effect, and recall or information bias) which are discussed. The trial is registered with the Dutch Trial

  9. Robust H(∞) positional control of 2-DOF robotic arm driven by electro-hydraulic servo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Yu, Tian; Jiang, Dan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an H∞ positional feedback controller is developed to improve the robust performance under structural and parametric uncertainty disturbance in electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS). The robust control model is described as the linear state-space equation by upper linear fractional transformation. According to the solution of H∞ sub-optimal control problem, the robust controller is designed and simplified to lower order linear model which is easily realized in EHSS. The simulation and experimental results can validate the robustness of this proposed method. The comparison result with PI control shows that the robust controller is suitable for this EHSS under the critical condition where the desired system bandwidth is higher and the external load of the hydraulic actuator is closed to its limited capability. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  11. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  12. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  13. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  14. Design of control for household cleaning robot based on ARM%基于arm的家用清洁机器人的控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 陈奕梅

    2014-01-01

    文章提出了一种基于ARM处理器的家用清洁机器人控制系统,包括硬件设计和软件设计。硬件部分包括主控器模块、电源及欠压检测模、传感器模块、人机交互模块、驱动模块以及清洁模块。软件部分设计了清洁机器人的主要控制流程。该控制系统以通用性和功能完备为目标,使机器人具备智能清洁能力。%This paper presents a kind of control system of home cleaning robot based on ARM processor which includes hardware and software design. The hardware part includes main controller module, power supply with undervoltage detection module, sensor module, human-computer interaction module, driving module and cleaning module. The software part designs the staple control procedure of cleaning robot. This control system aims at universal and integrated functions which ensure the robot have the ability to clean intelligently.

  15. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sagging. An arm lift might also boost your body image. As you get older, the skin on your upper arms changes — sagging and becoming loose. Significant weight loss also can cause the undersides of your upper arms to droop. While exercise can strengthen and improve muscle tone in the ...

  16. 迈克尔逊干涉仪的摆臂扫描控制%Arm Scanning Control of Michelson Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粘伟; 刘兆军; 林喆; 康建兵

    2012-01-01

    摆臂式迈克尔逊干涉仪可在相对较小空间内实现长光程差扫描,并具有对振动影响灵敏度低等优点,适用于完成空间光谱探测.为实现高信噪比、高光谱分辨率的光谱探测性能,干涉仪需对干涉光程完成精密等速扫描,并要求对扫描轴系上的力学扰动具有良好的鲁棒性能.首先描述了星载摆臂式迈克尔逊干涉仪的数学模型.在此基础上,针对挠性轴系存在的固有谐振频率,研究通过微分反馈有效调整被控对象的谐振特性.确定了系统阻尼比与反馈环节参数的关系,并提出了基于ISE的控制器参数优化方法.仿真试验表明,所提出的控制方法可实现高精度的干涉光程扫描,并对空间振动具有较好的抑制能力,可有效应用于空间迈克尔逊干涉仪控制中.%The swing arm Michelson interferometer can achieve long optical path difference scan in a relatively small space, and it is insensitive to the vibration impact. So it is applied to the spatial spectral detection. In order to complete spectral detection performance in high signal to noise ratio, high spectral resolution, the interferometer needs to complete precision scanning for the optical path and require a good robust performance for the mechanical perturbation on the scanning shaft. The mathematical model of the swing arm Michelson interferometer is formulated. On this basis, for the inherent resonant frequency of the flexible shaft, researching regulate the resonance characteristics of the controlled object through the differentical feedback which determines the relation of the system damping ratio parameter and the feedback part, and ISE-based controller parameters optimization method is put forward. The simulation results show that the proposed control method can achieve high-precision interference optical path scan and it has the better ability to inhibit the vibration of the space which could be better used in space Michelson

  17. 基于ARM的智能家居控制系统设计%Design of smart home control system based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓迪; 廖昕; 古丽米拉·克孜尔别克; 孙中华

    2015-01-01

    针对传统智能家居采用有线组建布线繁琐,增减设备需要重新布线,影响美观,且系统中的家电需要依靠家庭内部的PC,升级和维护均不方便。在此将ZigBee无线通信技术及嵌入式ARM技术结合在一起,利用Qt技术通过触摸屏进行人机交互,设计了一种既能利用PC机又能利用手持终端对家居进行控制的智能家居控制系统。以现有嵌入式ARM微处理器的开发和控制水平,开展基于ZigBee的网点部署的研究,以无线网实施家居电器的控制和管理。测试表明,该系统具有良好的实用性、可靠性和可扩展性。%Since the cumbersome wired formation is used in traditional smart home,rewiring is needed when equipment changes,its appearance is affected,the appliances in the system rely on the PC in the house,and upgrades and maintenance are not convenient. Therefore,a smart home control system controlled by PC or hand⁃held terminal was designed by combining the ZigBee wireless communication technology with the embedded ARM technology and Qt technology for human⁃computer in⁃teraction via the touch screen. Based on developing level and control ability of existing embedded ARM microprocessor,the re⁃search on network deployment based on ZigBee was carried out. The control and management of household electrical appliances are implemented through wireless network. Test results show that the system has good practicability,reliability and scalability.

  18. Design of water level control system based on ARM%基于ARM的水位控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党长青; 陈湘萍

    2014-01-01

    随着现代社会生产的发展和技术进步,微电子技术的飞速发展,水位控制的应用也越来越广泛。本文介绍了水位检测电路并进而控制水位高度的电路原理和电路的实际设计,系统以STM32微控制器作为系统的控制核心,以超声波电路作为检测传感电路,实现对水位的控制。该电路具有精度高,易于控制的特点。本文详细论述了按该原理进行水位控制的电路设计方案。%With the development of modern social production and technological,the increasingly rapid development of microeletronics technology,the application of water level control is becoming more and more widely.This paper introduces the circuit principle and the design of the circuit of the water level detection circuit which controls the height of the water level.The system uses STM32 microcontrol er as the control core of the system,and the ultrasonic circuit as the detecting sensor circuit,to control the system for the water level.The circuit has a high precision and is easy to control.This paper discusses the circuit design which controls the water level on the basis of above principle.

  19. [History of malaria control in the French armed forces: from Algeria to the Macedonian front during the first World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliani, R; Meynard, J-B; Milleliri, J-M; Verret, C; Rapp, C

    2014-01-01

    The French joint military health corps has long experience in malaria control. Many military physicians played an essential role in the 19th century: Maillot revolutionized malaria treatment by using quinine during the conquest of Algeria, and Laveran discovered the causal parasite (the genus Plasmodium) there. This experience continued under the direction of Laveran and the Sergent brothers on the eastern front in Greek Macedonia during World War I. The vast coordinated control plan established on this front from 1917 delivered the French infantrymen from malaria and led to victory over the Bulgarian forces, which capitulated in September 1918.

  20. CyARM: Haptic Sensing Device for Spatial Localization on Basis of Exploration by Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new type of perception aid device based on user's exploration action, which is named as CyARM (acronym of “Cyber Arm”. The user holds this device in her/his arm, the extension of the arm is controlled by tension in wires, which are attached to her/his body according to the distance to the object. This user interface has unique characteristics that give users the illusion of an imaginary arm that extends to existing objects. The implementations of CyARM and our two experiments to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of CyARM are described. The results show that we could confirm that CyARM can be used to recognize the presence of an object in front of the user and to measure the relative distance to the object.

  1. 基于ELM的机器人自适应跟踪控制%Adaptive tracking control of a rigid arm robot based on extreme learning machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 乃永强

    2015-01-01

    针对刚性臂机器人系统,提出基于极限学习机( ELM )的两种自适应神经控制算法。极限学习机随机选择单隐层前馈神经网络( SLFNs)的隐层节点及其参数,仅调整其网络的输出权值,以极快的学习速度可获得良好的推广性。在自适应控制算法中, ELM逼近系统的未知非线性函数,附加的鲁棒控制项补偿系统的逼近误差。 ELM神经控制器的参数自适应调整律及鲁棒控制项由Lyapunov稳定性理论分析得出,所设计的两种控制算法均不依赖于初始条件的约束且放松对参数有界的要求,同时保证闭环系统跟踪误差满足全局稳定而且渐近收敛于零。将所提出的ELM控制器应用于二连杆刚性臂机器人跟踪控制实例中,并与现有的径向基函数( RBF)神经网络自适应控制算法进行比较,仿真结果表明,在同等条件下,ELM控制器具有良好的跟踪控制性能,显示出其有效性和应用潜力。%Based on extreme learning machine ( ELM ) , two adaptive neural control algorithms for rigid arm robot system were presented. ELM for signle-hidden layer feedforward neural networks(SLFNs), which randomly chooses hidden node parameters and analytically determines the output weights of SLFNs, tends to provide good generalized performance at extremely fast learning speed. Within these adaptive control algorithms, ELM was employed to approximation the plant’ s unknown nonlinear function and ro-bust control term was used to compensate for approximation error. Parameter adaptive laws and robust control term of ELM controllers were derived based on Lyapunov stability analysis so that global stability and asymptotic convergence to zero of tracking errors can be guaranteed. Futhermore, two adaptive con-trollers do not depend on any parameter initialization conditions and relax the requirement of bounding pa-rameter values. The proposed adaptive ELM control algorithms were then applied to a tracking control in

  2. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  3. Efficacy of Continuing Education in Improving Pharmacists' Competencies for Providing Weight Management Service: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Weight management is a new public health role for community pharmacists in many countries. Lack of expertise is one of the key barriers to counseling obese patients. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of three alternative continuing education (CE) meetings on weight management. Methods: We designed a randomized controlled trial…

  4. The Development of German Doctrine and Command And Control and Its Application to Supporting Arms, 1832 - 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    as a management science because of the relationship between the German General Staff and the Commander. due in large part to their training. The two...AKA fires 75% Blue and Green Cross to 25% HE. -FEKA hits rear area conmand, control and comunnication targets and reserves. -All guns shift to enemy... managed this disparity through their Keil und Kessel tactics. The extended distances over which the Germans operated aggravated this problem, opening

  5. Ten-dimensional anthropomorphic arm control in a human brain-machine interface: difficulties, solutions, and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodlinger, B.; Downey, J. E.; Tyler-Kabara, E. C.; Schwartz, A. B.; Boninger, M. L.; Collinger, J. L.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. In a previous study we demonstrated continuous translation, orientation and one-dimensional grasping control of a prosthetic limb (seven degrees of freedom) by a human subject with tetraplegia using a brain-machine interface (BMI). The current study, in the same subject, immediately followed the previous work and expanded the scope of the control signal by also extracting hand-shape commands from the two 96-channel intracortical electrode arrays implanted in the subject’s left motor cortex. Approach. Four new control signals, dictating prosthetic hand shape, replaced the one-dimensional grasping in the previous study, allowing the subject to control the prosthetic limb with ten degrees of freedom (three-dimensional (3D) translation, 3D orientation, four-dimensional hand shaping) simultaneously. Main results. Robust neural tuning to hand shaping was found, leading to ten-dimensional (10D) performance well above chance levels in all tests. Neural unit preferred directions were broadly distributed through the 10D space, with the majority of units significantly tuned to all ten dimensions, instead of being restricted to isolated domains (e.g. translation, orientation or hand shape). The addition of hand shaping emphasized object-interaction behavior. A fundamental component of BMIs is the calibration used to associate neural activity to intended movement. We found that the presence of an object during calibration enhanced successful shaping of the prosthetic hand as it closed around the object during grasping. Significance. Our results show that individual motor cortical neurons encode many parameters of movement, that object interaction is an important factor when extracting these signals, and that high-dimensional operation of prosthetic devices can be achieved with simple decoding algorithms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01364480.

  6. Reducing substance involvement in college students: a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a computer-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Adriana de Oliveira; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of alcohol and other drug use is high among college students. Reducing their consumption will likely be beneficial for society as a whole. Computer and web-based interventions are promising for providing behaviorally based information. The present study compared the efficacy of three interventions (computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIc], non-computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIi], and screening only [control]) in college students in Curitiba, Brazil. A convenience sample of 458 students scored moderate and high risk on the ASSIST. They were then randomized into the three arms of the randomized controlled trial (ASSIST/MBIc, ASSIST/MBIi [interview], and assessment-only [control]) and assessed at baseline and 3 months later. The ASSIST involvement scores decreased at follow-up compared with baseline in the three groups, suggesting that any intervention is better than no intervention. For alcohol, the specific involvement scores decreased to a low level of risk in the three groups and the MBIc group showed a positive outcome compared with control, and the scores for each question were reduced in the two intervention groups compared to baseline. For tobacco, involvement scores decreased in the three groups, but they maintained moderate risk. For marijuana, a small positive effect was observed in the ASSIST/MBIi and control groups. The ASSIST/MBIc may be a good alternative to interview interventions because it is easy to administer, students frequently use such computer-based technologies, and individually tailored content can be delivered in the absence of a counselor.

  7. 基于ARM和GSM的家电远程控制系统设计%Based on the ARM and GSM appliances remote control system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋威; 孙运强; 黄进; 尹航; 庞志远

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a device. It utilizes S3C2440 ARM microprocessor as core, combining with an embedded Linux operating system, sending and receiving AT commands that connect with the serial GSM module TC35i ,it can communicate GSM network with mobile phone SMS, thus, it enable the control from phone to home appliances remote. This paper describes the hardware structure of the system, and embedded Linux system migration and application development process, it has been successful y applied in the intel igent home control system based on the GSM network.%  本文设计了一种以ARM微处理器S3C2440为核心,结合嵌入式Linux操作系统,向与串口连接的GSM模块TC35i发送接收AT指令,通过GSM网络与手机进行短信通信,从而实现了手机对家电的远程控制。文中描述了系统的硬件构成,嵌入式Linux系统移植及应用程序的开发流程,已成功应用在基于GSM网络的智能家居控制系统中。

  8. A single-session preliminary evaluation of an affordable BCI-controlled arm exoskeleton and motor-proprioception platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Elnady

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional, hospital-based stroke rehabilitation can be labour-intensive and expensive. Furthermore, outcomes from rehabilitation are inconsistent across individuals and recovery is hard to predict. Given these uncertainties, numerous technological approaches have been tested in an effort to improve rehabilitation outcomes and reduce the cost of stroke rehabilitation. These techniques include brain-computer interface (BCI, robotic exoskeletons, functional electrical stimulation (FES, and proprioceptive feedback. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have combined all these approaches into a rehabilitation platform that facilitates goal-directed motor movements. Therefore, in this paper, we combined all these technologies to test the feasibility of using a BCI-driven exoskeleton with FES (robotic training device to facilitate motor task completion among individuals with stroke. The robotic training device operated to assist a predefined goal-directed motor task. Because it is hard to predict who can utilize this type of technology, we considered whether the ability to adapt skilled movements with proprioceptive feedback would predict who could learn to control a BCI driven robotic device. To accomplish this aim, we developed a motor task that requires proprioception for completion to assess motor-proprioception ability. Next, we tested the feasibility of robotic training system in individuals with chronic stroke (n = 9 and found that the training device was well tolerated by all the participants. Ability on the motor-proprioception task did not predict the time to completion of the BCI driven task. Both participants who could accurately target (n = 6 and those who could not (n = 3, were able to learn to control the BCI device, with each BCI trial lasting on average 2.47 minutes. Our results showed that the participants’ ability to use proprioception to control motor output did not affect their ability to use the BCI

  9. Control de motores sin escobillas (bldc) y con sensores usando el microcontrolador arm cortex3 con 32 bits de lpcxpresso

    OpenAIRE

    Palma,Sergio; Toro, Geovanny; Carlos, Valdivieso

    2013-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo es el implementar técnicas y destrezas, aprendidas en nuestra vida académica especialmente en lo que se refiere al uso de microcontroladores aplicados al control de motores sin escobillas (BLDC) que utilizan sensores. Para lo cual se deberá tener en cuenta las características de los dispositivos a emplearse, la programación y la optimización de rutinas. Lográndose que este trabajo sirva de base para desarrollar varios otros proyectos que involucran el Con...

  10. Bojungikgitang and banhabaekchulchonmatang in adult patients with tinnitus, a randomized, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled trial - study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon In-Hwan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is the perception of hearing a sound for which there is no external acoustic source. It is often associated with sudden, temporary hearing loss and has a clear impact on a patient's quality of life. Despite numerous trials, there are no treatments that can be considered well established in terms of providing replicable long-term tinnitus reduction. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been employed to relieve symptoms of tinnitus. Bojungikgitang and banhabaekchulchonmatang are among the most strongly preferred and widely used herbal medicines for tinnitus in Korea, as they cause very few serious adverse effects. We aim to establish basic clinical efficacy and safety data for bojungikgitang and banhabaekchulchonmatang, which are approved as herbal medications by the Korea Food and Drug Administration in adult patients with tinnitus. Methods/Design This study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with three parallel arms (bojungikgitang, banhabaekchulchonmatang, and a placebo. Participants included in the study met the following criteria: typical conditions of intermittent or continuous tinnitus, for more than three months, with involuntary perceptions of the concept of a sound in the absence of an external source. Participants received bojungikgitang, banhabaekchulchonmatang, or a placebo-drug for eight weeks. The total duration of each arm was eleven weeks. Each participant was examined for signs and symptoms of tinnitus before and after taking medication. Post-treatment follow-up was performed two weeks after the final administration of medication. Discussion This trial provided evidence for the efficacy and safety of bojungikgitang and banhabaekchulchonmatang in adult patients with tinnitus. The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, an assessment used to identify difficulties that may be experienced due to tinnitus. The secondary measures were included an

  11. A Single-Session Preliminary Evaluation of an Affordable BCI-Controlled Arm Exoskeleton and Motor-Proprioception Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Ahmed Mohamed; Zhang, Xin; Xiao, Zhen Gang; Yong, Xinyi; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional, hospital-based stroke rehabilitation can be labor-intensive and expensive. Furthermore, outcomes from rehabilitation are inconsistent across individuals and recovery is hard to predict. Given these uncertainties, numerous technological approaches have been tested in an effort to improve rehabilitation outcomes and reduce the cost of stroke rehabilitation. These techniques include brain-computer interface (BCI), robotic exoskeletons, functional electrical stimulation (FES), and proprioceptive feedback. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have combined all these approaches into a rehabilitation platform that facilitates goal-directed motor movements. Therefore, in this paper, we combined all these technologies to test the feasibility of using a BCI-driven exoskeleton with FES (robotic training device) to facilitate motor task completion among individuals with stroke. The robotic training device operated to assist a pre-defined goal-directed motor task. Because it is hard to predict who can utilize this type of technology, we considered whether the ability to adapt skilled movements with proprioceptive feedback would predict who could learn to control a BCI-driven robotic device. To accomplish this aim, we developed a motor task that requires proprioception for completion to assess motor-proprioception ability. Next, we tested the feasibility of robotic training system in individuals with chronic stroke (n = 9) and found that the training device was well tolerated by all the participants. Ability on the motor-proprioception task did not predict the time to completion of the BCI-driven task. Both participants who could accurately target (n = 6) and those who could not (n = 3), were able to learn to control the BCI device, with each BCI trial lasting on average 2.47 min. Our results showed that the participants' ability to use proprioception to control motor output did not affect their ability to use the BCI-driven exoskeleton

  12. A Single-Session Preliminary Evaluation of an Affordable BCI-Controlled Arm Exoskeleton and Motor-Proprioception Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Ahmed Mohamed; Zhang, Xin; Xiao, Zhen Gang; Yong, Xinyi; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional, hospital-based stroke rehabilitation can be labor-intensive and expensive. Furthermore, outcomes from rehabilitation are inconsistent across individuals and recovery is hard to predict. Given these uncertainties, numerous technological approaches have been tested in an effort to improve rehabilitation outcomes and reduce the cost of stroke rehabilitation. These techniques include brain–computer interface (BCI), robotic exoskeletons, functional electrical stimulation (FES), and proprioceptive feedback. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have combined all these approaches into a rehabilitation platform that facilitates goal-directed motor movements. Therefore, in this paper, we combined all these technologies to test the feasibility of using a BCI-driven exoskeleton with FES (robotic training device) to facilitate motor task completion among individuals with stroke. The robotic training device operated to assist a pre-defined goal-directed motor task. Because it is hard to predict who can utilize this type of technology, we considered whether the ability to adapt skilled movements with proprioceptive feedback would predict who could learn to control a BCI-driven robotic device. To accomplish this aim, we developed a motor task that requires proprioception for completion to assess motor-proprioception ability. Next, we tested the feasibility of robotic training system in individuals with chronic stroke (n = 9) and found that the training device was well tolerated by all the participants. Ability on the motor-proprioception task did not predict the time to completion of the BCI-driven task. Both participants who could accurately target (n = 6) and those who could not (n = 3), were able to learn to control the BCI device, with each BCI trial lasting on average 2.47 min. Our results showed that the participants’ ability to use proprioception to control motor output did not affect their ability to use the BCI

  13. Efficacy of a Multi-level Intervention to Reduce Injecting and Sexual Risk Behaviors among HIV-Infected People Who Inject Drugs in Vietnam: A Four-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian F Go

    Full Text Available Injecting drug use is a primary driver of HIV epidemics in many countries. People who inject drugs (PWID and are HIV infected are often doubly stigmatized and many encounter difficulties reducing risk behaviors. Prevention interventions for HIV-infected PWID that provide enhanced support at the individual, family, and community level to facilitate risk-reduction are needed.455 HIV-infected PWID and 355 of their HIV negative injecting network members living in 32 sub-districts in Thai Nguyen Province were enrolled. We conducted a two-stage randomization: First, sub-districts were randomized to either a community video screening and house-to-house visits or standard of care educational pamphlets. Second, within each sub-district, participants were randomized to receive either enhanced individual level post-test counseling and group support sessions or standard of care HIV testing and counseling. This resulted in four arms: 1 standard of care; 2 community level intervention; 3 individual level intervention; and 4 community plus individual intervention. Follow-up was conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes were self-reported HIV injecting and sexual risk behaviors. Secondary outcomes included HIV incidence among HIV negative network members.Fewer participants reported sharing injecting equipment and unprotected sex from baseline to 24 months in all arms (77% to 4% and 24% to 5% respectively. There were no significant differences at the 24-month visit among the 4 arms (Wald = 3.40 (3 df; p = 0.33; Wald = 6.73 (3 df; p = 0.08. There were a total of 4 HIV seroconversions over 24 months with no significant difference between intervention and control arms.Understanding the mechanisms through which all arms, particularly the control arm, demonstrated both low risk behaviors and low HIV incidence has important implications for policy and prevention programming.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01689545.

  14. Detachment of Tertiary Dendrite Arms during Controlled Directional Solidification in Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Observations from Ground-based and Microgravity Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Erdman, Robert; Van Hoose, James R.; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Electron Back Scattered Diffraction results from cross-sections of directionally solidified aluminum 7wt% silicon alloys unexpectedly revealed tertiary dendrite arms that were detached and mis-oriented from their parent arm. More surprisingly, the same phenomenon was observed in a sample similarly processed in the quiescent microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in support of the joint US-European MICAST investigation. The work presented here includes a brief introduction to MICAST and the directional solidification facilities, and their capabilities, available aboard the ISS. Results from the ground-based and microgravity processed samples are compared and possible mechanisms for the observed tertiary arm detachment are suggested.

  15. Arm tremor and precision of hand force control in a short and long term flight on the Mir-Space-Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, E.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Löscher, W. N.; Konev, A.; Kenner, T.

    To determine whether long and short time exposure of man in 0g alters normal physiological tremor patterns we recorded arm tremor using an accelerometer as well as hand forces and tremor during constant isometric contraction using a load cell. Arm tremor was decreased during both flights in amplitude and frequency. Shortly after the long term flight arm tremor amplitude was increased, indicating adaptive changes in the tonic reflex loop. Isometric hand tremor remained unchanged during the long and short time flight demonstrating that the contractile properties of hand muscles remained constant. Precision of hand force was decreased until the half duration of the long term flight.

  16. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  17. The evolving role of lyophilized plasma in remote damage control resuscitation in the French Armed Forces Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, Anne; Martinaud, Christophe; Cap, Andrew P; Civadier, Corinne; Clavier, Benoit; Deshayes, Anne-Virginie; Mendes, Anne-Christine; Pouget, Thomas; Demazeau, Nicolas; Chueca, Marine; Martelet, François-Régis; Ausset, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-dried plasma was developed by the US Army for the resuscitation of combat casualties during World War II. The French Military Blood Institute began producing French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 1949, in accordance with French blood product guidelines. Since 2010, a photochemical pathogen inactivation process has been implemented to reduce the remaining transfusion-related infectious risk. All quality controls for this procedure verify that the hemostatic properties of FLYP are conserved. FLYP is compatible with all blood types, can be stored at room temperature for 2 years, and its reconstitution requires less than 6 minutes. As a result, FLYP allows quick delivery of all the coagulation proteins and the application of a 1:1 ratio of FLYP and red blood cells in the context of a massive transfusion. Hemovigilance data collected in France since 1994 have included FLYP. Results indicate no reporting of infection related to the use of FLYP. Clinical monitoring with a focus on hemostasis was implemented in 2002 and expanded in 2010. The data, obtained from overseas operations, confirmed the indications, the safety and the clinical efficacy of FLYP. Further research is needed to determine specific indications for FLYP in the therapeutic management of civilian patients with severe hemorrhage.

  18. APSTNG: Associated particle sealed-tube neutron generator studies for arms control. Final report on NN-20 Project ST220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; Brunner, T.; Hess, A.; Tylinski, S.

    1994-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has performed research and development on the use of Associated Particle Sealed-Tube Neutron Generator (APSTNG) technology for treaty verification and non-proliferation applications, under funding from the DOE Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. Results indicate that this technology has significant potential for nondestructively detecting elemental compositions inside inspected objects or volumes. The final phase of this project was placement of an order for commercial procurement of an advanced sealed tube, with its high-voltage supply and control systems. Procurement specifications reflected lessons learned during the study. The APSTNG interrogates a volume with a continuous 14-MeV neutron flux. Each neutron is emitted coincident with an {open_quotes}associated{close_quotes} alpha-particle emitted in the opposite direction. Thus detection of an alpha-particle marks the emission of a neutron in a cone opposite to that defined by the alpha detector. Detection of a gamma ray coincident with the alpha indicates that the gamma was emitted from a neutron-induced reaction inside the neutron cone: the gamma spectra can be used to identify fissionable materials and many isotopes having an atomic number larger than that of boron. The differences in gamma-ray and alpha-particle detection times yield a coarse measurement of the distance along the cone axis from the APSTNG emitter to each region containing the identified nuclide. A position-sensitive alpha detector would permit construction of coarse three-dimensional images. The source and emission-detection systems can be located on the same side of the interrogated volume. The neutrons and gamma rays are highly penetrating. A relatively high signal-to-background ratio allows the use of a relatively small neutron source and conventional electronics.

  19. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial to assess the effects of homoeopathic medicines on chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is one of the most common illnesses interfering with patient′s quality of life and work. Observational studies conducted by the Council indicate positive outcome. This protocol has been developed to ascertain the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in comparison with control group in a randomised control setting. Objectives: Primary objective is to evaluate the changes in TSS (Total Symptoms Score and SNOT-22 (Sino-nasal Outcome Test-22 within the two groups of the study (Homoeopathy + Placebo. Secondary objective is to evaluate changes in SNOT-22 at end of the trial, changes in Lund and Mackay staging of CT scan, rhinoscopy grading, absolute eosinophil count, global assessment by investigator and patient, and number of acute exacerbations of CRS (for frequency, duration and intensity as per TSS scale compared to placebo. Methods/Design: This is a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial of 6 months (three months treatment and three months observation period with 14 days run-in period. The primary outcome is a composite of the changes in the TSS and SNOT-22 over 3 months from baseline with area under the curve and changes over 3 months in the Sinus Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22 from baseline. Prescription shall be made as per the homoeopathic principles. Efficacy data will be analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Discussion: This trial will help to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic individualised treatment using LM-potencies versus placebo in patients suffering from CRS as per the homoeopathic dictum.

  20. A Parallel-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Effects of a Far-Infrared-Emitting Collar on Neck Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a far-infrared-emitting collar (FIRC on the management of neck disorders. A neck disorder is generalized as neck muscle pain and its relative mental disorders because the etiologies of the neck’s multidimensional syndrome are either muscle impairment or psychiatric distress. This is the first study to determine the efficacy of a FIRC by evaluating objective physical evidence and psychometric self-reports using a parallel-arm randomized sham-controlled and single-blinded design. In this trial, 60 participants with neck disorders were observed at baseline and post-intervention. Compared to the placebo group after a 30-min intervention, the FIRC demonstrated a statistically significant biological effect in elevating skin temperature and promoting blood circulation with p-values 0.003 and 0.020, respectively. In addition, FIRC application significantly reduced neck muscle tension, relieved pain, ameliorated fatigue, improved depression, and decreased anxiety. The FIRC could therefore be a potential treatment for neck disorders.

  1. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Rasha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.

  2. Acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy to pharmacological treatment in patients with chronic pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee: a 3-armed, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommatis, Christos I; Argyra, Eriphili; Vadalouka, Athina; Vasilakos, Dimitrios G

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy to pharmacological treatment of chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis was studied with a 3-armed, single-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial; it compared acupuncture combined with pharmacological treatment, sham acupuncture including pharmacological treatment, and pharmacological treatment alone. A total of 120 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to 3 groups: group I was treated with acupuncture and etoricoxib, group II with sham acupuncture and etoricoxib, and group III with etoricoxib. The primary efficacy variable was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index and its subscales at the end of treatment at week 8. Secondary efficacy variables included the WOMAC index at the end of weeks 4 and 12, a visual analogue scale (VAS) at the end of weeks 4, 8, and 12, and the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) health survey at the end of week 8. An algometer was used to determine changes in a predetermined unique fixed trigger point for every patient at the end of weeks 4, 8, and 12. Group I exhibited statistically significant improvements in primary and secondary outcome measures, except for Short Form mental component, compared with the other treatment groups. We conclude that acupuncture with etoricoxib is more effective than sham acupuncture with etoricoxib, or etoricoxib alone for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

  3. New Superpower, The European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    196 from Japan and 210 from the EC; in the Super Fifty non-American 27 are from the common market. It is clear that the European Union will be one of...C687e). (page 31, bottom)4 Mastrivh treaty, articulo 6Mastrich treaty, articulo 6Janes 1994, pag 31. 8ii JRATOM and Nuclear Safeguards. Darryl A

  4. Brazil: a world energy superpower?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Freire Lucena

    2015-12-01

    O artigo discute algumas medidas tomadas pelo estado brasileiro para alcançar seu objetivo, que é tornar-se um ator protagonista na nova política energética mundial. Ao longo do artigo discutimos se o país tem perdido a oportunidade de se tornar uma potência energética mundial.

  5. High Accuracy Temperature Control System in Cliniea Chemistry Analyzer Based on ARM9%基于ARM9的高精度生化分析仪温度控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克平; 曹书权; 李岩

    2008-01-01

    全自动生化分析仪开发研制中的一个重要组成部分是温控系统的设计,被检样品和试剂只有在指定的温度下检测才能保证生化检验结果的可靠性.设计了一种基于ARM9处理器的温控系统,结合嵌入式Linux操作系统,实现模糊自整定PID控制算法,具有控制精度高,响应快,稳定性、实时性好等优点.

  6. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  7. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Qiang Lu

    2015-01-01

    The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs) are built and a 2-dimens...

  8. Using ecological momentary assessment in testing the effectiveness of an alcohol intervention: a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V Voogt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. METHODS: Data were used from a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial applying ecological momentary assessment (EMA with 30 data time-points in total. Students between 18 and 24 years old who reported heavy drinking in the past six months and who were ready to change their alcohol consumption were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 456: web-based brief alcohol intervention and control condition (n = 451: no intervention. Outcome measures were weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and heavy drinking status. RESULTS: According to the intention-to-treat principle, regression analyses revealed that intervention effects on alcohol consumption varied when exploring multiple follow-up time-points. Intervention effects were found for a weekly alcohol consumption at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 weeks follow-up, b frequency of binge drinking at 1, 2, 7, and 12 weeks follow-up, and c heavy drinking status at 1, 2, 7, and 16 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that the commonly used one and six month follow-up time-points are relatively arbitrary and not using EMA might bring forth erroneous conclusions on the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, future trials in alcohol prevention research and beyond are encouraged to apply EMA when assessing outcome measures and intervention effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665.

  9. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Two-Arm Clinical Study Evaluating the Efficacy of a Bioelectric Dressing System for Blister Management in US Army Ranger Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housler, Greggory J; Cross, Sue; Marcel, Vanessa; Kennedy, Daniel O; Husband, Michael; Register, Andrew; Roberts, Thomas; Grubbs, Seth; Dudewicz, Douglas; Setka, Nathan; Bay, Curt; Wendelken, Martin E; Izadjoo, Mina J

    This study focused on a clinically relevant healthcare problem in the military: acute soft tissue wounds, or blisters. The trial was a prospective, controlled, randomized two-arm study evaluating the efficacy of a bioelectric dressing, Procellera®, applied topically two to three times per week for 2 weeks to blisters developed in Ranger trainees during training at Fort Benning, Georgia. A total of 80 US Army Ranger recruits with blister wounds below the knee were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (n = 40/group). The primary goal was to assess the clinical efficacy (rate of healing) of administered Procellera in conjunction with the standard-of-care (SOC) treatment, moleskin and Tegaderm ®, on the healing rate of blisters compared with the SOC treatment alone. The secondary end points for efficacy were the quantities of wound fluid biomarkers and bacterial bioburden. The tertiary end point was assessment of pain in the treatment group compared with that of the control group during the 2-week study. The results showed no statistical difference between the SOC and SOC+Procellera groups in wound healing and pain. Wound fluid was reported for 24 participants (64.9%) in the SOC group and 21 participants (56.8%) in SOC+Procellera group at the baseline measurement (ρ = .475); however, the wounds were devoid of fluid on follow-up visits. The mild nature of the wounds in this study was apparent by the low pain scores at the beginning of the study, which disappeared by the follow-up visits. The average wound sizes were 2.2cm2 and 1.5cm2 for the SOC and SOC+Procellera groups, respectively. This trial protocol should be conducted on open softtissue wounds in severe heat. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical study conducted within the US Army Rangers training doctrine. 2017.

  10. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  11. Design of an Embedded Mobile Robot Remote Controller Based on ARM%基于ARM的嵌入式移动机器人遥控器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宪锋; 周风余; 王然; 王小龙

    2012-01-01

    Design of an embedded mobile robot remote controller based on ARM was introduced. The hardware system of the remote controller consists of five different modules: main controller module, power module, LCD module, communication module and button module. The real-time operating system--μC/OS-II is used in the system for multitask scheduling and operation of peripheral devices. According to different situations of the button module, the remote controller sends out different commands to the robot through the RF transceiver named JZ871. Meanwhile, it receives the information from the robot. The LCD module displays the conditions of commands sending, the running states of the robot and the status of the remote controller. A number of validations based on experimental data show this module has advantages of high stability, high accuracy, and long telecontrol distance.%介绍了一种以STM32为核心的嵌入式移动机器人无线遥控器的设计与实现。遥控器硬件部分包括电源模块、主控模块、LCD显示模块、无线数传模块、按键模块;软件上采用嵌入式μC/OS-Ⅱ来实现统一任务调度和外围设备管理。遥控器根据按键的不同状态通过无线收发模块JZ871发送不同指令,并且可以实时接收机器人本体返回的数据,液晶屏会对指令发送状态、机器人本体运行状态及遥控器自身状态进行提示。经过大量实验数据验证,本文设计的遥控器具有高稳定性、高准确性、遥控距离远的优点。

  12. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  13. Capacitor Voltage Balancing Control for Alternate Arm Multilevel Converter Based on Commutation Angle%基于换流角的桥臂交替导通多电平换流器电容电压控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亚东; 汪楠楠; 卢宇; 陈勇

    2016-01-01

    The arm of alternate arm multilevel converter ( AAMC ) is composed of full‐bridge sub‐modules in series and insulated gate bipolar transistors ( IGBTs) with inversed parallel diodes in series . AAMC conducts the upper arm and the lower arm in turn to output the multilevel waveform to approximate the positive half and the negative half of the sine wave . How to maintain the voltage of the capacitors of sub‐modules at a preset value is the key problem for the control of AAMC . Based on the energy balance principle of the bridge arm , an energy balance equation for bridge arm is established by commutation the conduction of the upper and down arms at a particular angle , and the calculation method of the commutation angle to balance the capacitor voltage of the sub modules is proposed . By study of the maximum conduction voltage of an arm , complementary property between the solution of two commutation angles and the reactive power is put forward . The optimization selection of commutation angle based on the direction of the reactive power effectively reduces the maximum conduction voltage of the arms and the number of sub‐modules needed by the arm . Through the research of the coupling mechanism of commutation angle and capacitor voltage , a local linear first‐order model of the capacitor voltage is proposed . Based on this , a capacitor voltage control strategy combined with feed‐forward control and proportional‐integral ( PI) control is proposed for improving the stability and adaptability of the voltage . By the PSCAD/EM TDC simulation , the effectiveness of sub‐module capacitor voltage control method based on the commutation angle is verified .%桥臂交替导通多电平换流器(AAMC)的桥臂由多个全桥子模块和带有反向并联二极管的绝缘栅双极型晶体管(IGB T )串联,通过上下桥臂轮流导通来输出多电平的正弦波。如何维持AAMC子模块电容电压稳定是AAMC研究的难点。从桥臂能量

  14. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging

  15. Arms Control and European Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    to evolve and military forces are modernized. As we consider the way ahead, it may be useful to examine the thoughts of Hans Morgenthau , one 49 of...the most celebrated scholars of international rela- tions in the 20th century. Morgenthau observed the following three points when considering...Russia and the West must avoid emotional rheto- ric. Both sides must rely on the kind of careful analysis Morgenthau suggests in order to discover if a

  16. Feasibility of articulated arm mounted Oculus Rift Virtual Reality goggles for adjunctive pain control during occupational therapy in pediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Hunter G; Meyer, Walter J; Ramirez, Maribel; Roberts, Linda; Seibel, Eric J; Atzori, Barbara; Sharar, Sam R; Patterson, David R

    2014-06-01

    For daily burn wound care and therapeutic physical therapy skin stretching procedures, powerful pain medications alone are often inadequate. This feasibility study provides the first evidence that entering an immersive virtual environment using very inexpensive (∼$400) wide field of view Oculus Rift Virtual Reality (VR) goggles can elicit a strong illusion of presence and reduce pain during VR. The patient was an 11-year-old male with severe electrical and flash burns on his head, shoulders, arms, and feet (36 percent total body surface area (TBSA), 27 percent TBSA were third-degree burns). He spent one 20-minute occupational therapy session with no VR, one with VR on day 2, and a final session with no VR on day 3. His rating of pain intensity during therapy dropped from severely painful during no VR to moderately painful during VR. Pain unpleasantness dropped from moderately unpleasant during no VR to mildly unpleasant during VR. He reported going "completely inside the computer generated world", and had more fun during VR. Results are consistent with a growing literature showing reductions in pain during VR. Although case studies are scientifically inconclusive by nature, these preliminary results suggest that the Oculus Rift VR goggles merit more attention as a potential treatment for acute procedural pain of burn patients. Availability of inexpensive but highly immersive VR goggles would significantly improve cost effectiveness and increase dissemination of VR pain distraction, making VR available to many more patients, potentially even at home, for pain control as well as a wide range of other VR therapy applications. This is the first clinical data on PubMed to show the use of Oculus Rift for any medical application.

  17. Efficacy and safety of bilateral continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus: design of a three-armed randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plontke Stefan K

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound and noise in absence of an auditory stimulus, has been shown to be associated with maladaptive neuronal reorganization and increased activity of the temporoparietal cortex. Transient modulation of tinnitus by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS indicated that these areas are critically involved in the pathophysiology of tinnitus and suggested new treatment strategies. However, the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS in tinnitus is still unclear, individual response is variable, and the optimal stimulation area disputable. Recently, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS has been put forward as an effective rTMS protocol for the reduction of pathologically enhanced cortical excitability. Methods 48 patients with chronic subjective tinnitus will be included in this randomized, placebo controlled, three-arm trial. The treatment consists of two trains of cTBS applied bilaterally to the secondary auditory cortex, the temporoparietal associaction cortex, or to the lower occiput (sham condition every working day for four weeks. Primary outcome measure is the change of tinnitus distress as quantified by the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Secondary outcome measures are tinnitus loudness and annoyance as well as tinnitus change during and after treatment. Audiologic and speech audiometric measurements will be performed to assess potential side effects. The aim of the present trail is to investigate effectiveness and safety of a four weeks cTBS treatment on chronic tinnitus and to compare two areas of stimulation. The results will contribute to clarify the therapeutic capacity of rTMS in tinnitus. Trial registration The trial was registered with the clinical trials register of http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00518024.

  18. Risk of newly detected infections and cervical abnormalities in women seropositive for naturally acquired human papillomavirus type 16/18 antibodies: analysis of the control arm of PATRICIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M; Salmerón, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-08-15

    We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15-25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242-794), 204 (95% CI, 129-480), and 480 (95% CI, 250-5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of melatonin in a human inflammatory pain model: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Gögenur, Ismail; Fenger, Andreas Q; Petersen, Marian C; Rosenberg, Jacob; Werner, Mads U

    2015-11-01

    Antinociceptive effects of melatonin have been documented in a wide range of experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic, antihyperalgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin using a validated burn injury (BI) model in healthy male volunteers. The design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study. Each volunteer participated in 3 identical study sessions with intravenous administration of placebo, melatonin 10 mg, or melatonin 100 mg. Sixty minutes after bolus injection of study medication, a BI was induced by a computerized contact thermode (47.0°C, 420 seconds, 5.0 × 2.5 cm). Pain ratings during the BI and quantitative sensory testing at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the BI were performed. Quantitative sensory testing included assessments of secondary hyperalgesia areas, mechanical and thermal thresholds in the BI area, and pressure algometry. Furthermore, markers of inflammation, skin-reflectance spectrophotometry, and high-resolution ultrasonography were applied to measure skin erythema and dermal thickness in the BI area. Pain during the BI and secondary hyperalgesia areas were defined as primary outcomes. Twenty-nine volunteers were randomized and completed the study. While the BI induced large secondary hyperalgesia areas and significantly increased the markers of inflammation, no significant effects of melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared with placebo. The administration of melatonin was not associated with any adverse effects. Melatonin did not demonstrate any analgesic, antihyperalgesic, or anti-inflammatory properties in the BI model.

  20. Web-based screening and brief intervention for poly-drug use among teenagers: study protocol of a multicentre two-arm randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mid to late adolescence is characterised by a vulnerability to problematic substance use since the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs is frequently initiated and increased in this life period. While the detrimental long- and short-term effects of problematic consumption patterns in adolescence pose a major public health concern, current prevention programs targeting alcohol- and other substance-using adolescents are scarce. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief intervention aimed at reducing problematic alcohol use and promoting abstinence from illegal drugs in adolescents with risky substance use aged 16 to 18 years old in four EU-countries. Methods/design To determine the effectiveness of our web-BI, we apply a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT study design, with baseline assessment at study entry and a three month follow-up assessment. Adolescents aged 16 to 18 years from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Sweden will be randomly assigned to either the fully electronically delivered brief intervention group (N = 400 or an assessment only control group (N = 400 depending on their screening for risky substance use (using the CRAFFT. Recruitment, informed consent, randomization, intervention and follow-up will be implemented online. Primary outcomes are reductions in frequency and quantity of use of alcohol and drugs other than alcohol over a 30 day period, as well as consumption per typical occasion. Secondary outcomes concern changes in substance use related cognitions including the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, implementation intentions, and stages of change. Moreover the study addresses a number of moderator variables, including age of first use, general psychopathology and quality of parent–child relationship. Discussion The trial is expected to contribute to the growing literature on theory- and web-based brief interventions

  1. 基于ARM9的锌空电池生产线调速控制系统的设计%The Design of Zinc-air Battery Production Line Speed Control System Based on ARM9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳军; 唐智; 刘伟; 关玉明

    2009-01-01

    在锌空电池"干嵌法"生产中,对于送料电机、皮带传送电机、轧制电机的速度匹配控制有着很高的要求,在此,我们提出了以ARM9为核心元件的速度匹配控制系统的设计.本文详细介绍了基于S3C2410X调速控制系统的工作原理、硬件的设计以及软件的结构与功能.该系统用传感器采集电池极片的厚度、致密度、主电机转速信号,通过信号调理后输入主控制器,主控制器经过模糊计算来控制三台伺服电机动作.

  2. MVACS Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  3. Hardware And Software For Development Of Robot Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usikov, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    System of modular, reusable hardware and software assembled for use in developing remotely controlled robotic arms. Includes (1) central computer and peripheral equipment at control and monitoring station and (2) remote mechanical platform that supports robotic arm. Central computer controls motor drives of robotic arm, but optically, platform holds on-board computer for autonomous operation. Consists mostly of commercial hardware and software. Simulated results of commands viewed in three dimensions.

  4. ARM-based Control System Design of Embedded Computerized Hosiery Machine%基于ARM的嵌入式电脑丝袜机控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张团善; 罗富文; 吴辉

    2014-01-01

    针对国内丝袜机计算机控制系统在稳定性、扩展性、可移植性等方面较差的问题,设计了一种基于ARM的嵌入式电脑丝袜机控制系统。在介绍控制系统的设计要求、基本原理及功能实现的基础上,提出了该系统采用ARM920T架构的32位工业级处理芯片S3C2440A作为主控制器,采用ARM Cortex-M3内核的32位微处理器STM32F103作为现场总线的从节点控制器;并详细分析控制系统的工作流程,以及主控制器和底层功能模块的软、硬件实现方法。实践证明,该控制系统具有集成度高、稳定性好、实时性强等优点。%In terms of the problem of bad stability, extensibility and transportability of control system of domes-tic hosiery machine, the paper designs a new kind of control system for embedded computerized hosiery machine based on ARM. Based on the introduction of design requirement, basic principle and function realization, it pro-vides that the 32-bit industrial-grade processing chip S3C2440A of ARM920T framework is the master controller, and the 32-bit microprocessor STM32F103 of ARM Cortex-M3 core is node controller of field bus; besides, it ana-lyzes in detail the working processing, as well as the achieving method of software and hardware of master con-troller and bottom function-realizing module. This control system presents some obvious advantages, such as high integration, good stability and strong real-time control and so on.

  5. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  6. Dynamics of Robotic Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhishek Chavan; Abhishek Bhuskute; Anmol Jain; Neha Shinde; M B Salunke

    2014-01-01

    ...'. Autonomous Systems are self-governed and does not require any manual interventions. This paper presents an overview of previous developments and the working of Robotic arms along with its mathematical aspects...

  7. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  8. Control system of electric bike based on ARM%基于ARM的电动自行车控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华明; 陆玲霞; 陈海洋

    2012-01-01

    针对传统电动自行车功能难以满足市场多元化需求的问题,分析了电动自行车基本功能和潜在功能的需求,设计了以ARM微控制器LPC2214为主控芯片,以无刷直流电机驱动的电动自行车控制系统,在实现电动自行车基本功能的基础上增强了其功能的扩展性;同时重点介绍了系统主要功能的硬件和软件实现方案,该系统采取优良的控制策略改善了电动自行车基本功能,具有电动、巡航、助力等模式,并利用TFT显示运行状态,改善了用户体验.研究结果表明,该系统电机速度调节平稳、快速,人机交互友好,硬件电路简洁,保护措施可靠.%Aiming at the diversified demands for the functions of e-bikes, the basic and potential functions of the e-bikes were analyzed, and a control system embedded with ARM microcontroller LPC2214 was designed for the e-bikes driven by brushless DC motor. With the system, the basic functions of e-bikes were realized and extensibility of functions was enhanced. The hardware and software for the key functions were expounded. Appropriate control strategy was applied to improve the basic functions. The bike could be set to work in electric, cruise or boost mode and its operating states were displayed on the TFT, thus the user experience was improved. The results indicate that the speed regulation is steady and rapid, the man-machine interface is friendly, the hardware is concise and the protection functions are reliable.

  9. The distal portion of the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Craig F; Beecher, Brian S

    2012-07-01

    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its developmental control is not completely known. We developed back-cross seven (BC(7)) near-isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. From the final back-cross, 46 BC(7)F(2) plants were isolated. These plants exhibited a complete and perfect association between kernel vitreosity (i.e. vitreous, non-vitreous or mixed) and Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) hardness. Observed segregation of 10:28:7 fit a 1:2:1 Chi-square. BC(7)F(2) plants classified as heterozygous for both SKCS hardness and kernel vitreosity (n = 29) were selected and a single vitreous and non-vitreous kernel were selected, and grown to maturity and subjected to SKCS analysis. The resultant phenotypic ratios were, from non-vitreous kernels, 23:6:0, and from vitreous kernels, 0:1:28, soft:heterozygous:hard, respectively. Three of these BC(7)F(2) heterozygous plants were selected and 40 kernels each drawn at random, grown to maturity and subjected to SKCS analysis. Phenotypic segregation ratios were 7:27:6, 11:20:9, and 3:28:9, soft:heterozygous:hard. Chi-square analysis supported a 1:2:1 segregation for one plant but not the other two, in which cases the two homozygous classes were under-represented. Twenty-two paired BC(7)F(2):F(3) full sibs were compared for kernel hardness, weight, size, density and protein content. SKCS hardness index differed markedly, 29.4 for the lines with a complete 5DS, and 88.6 for the lines possessing the deletion. The soft non-vitreous kernels were on average significantly heavier, by nearly 20%, and were slightly larger. Density and protein contents were similar, however. The results provide strong genetic evidence that gene(s) on distal 5DS control not only kernel hardness but also the manner in which the endosperm develops, viz. whether it is vitreous or non-vitreous.

  10. A 3-Arm randomised controlled trial of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Baur, Louise A; Hayes, Alison J; Xu, Huilan; Whelan, Anna; Hua, Myna; Shaw, Miranda; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2017-01-14

    With an increasing prevalence of obesity in young children globally, there is an urgent need for the development of effective early interventions. A previous Healthy Beginnings Trial using a nurse-led home visiting program has demonstrated that providing mothers with evidence-based advice can improve maternal practice regarding obesity prevention, and can reduce Body Mass Index (BMI) in the first few years of life. However, the costs for scale-up of home visiting limit its population reach. This trial aims to determine the efficacy of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants in improving infant feeding practices and preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. We propose a 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a consecutive sample of 1056 mothers with their newborn children in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. Pregnant women who are between weeks 28 and 34 of their pregnancy will be invited to participate in the CHAT trial. Informed consent will be obtained, and after baseline data collection, participants will be randomly allocated to the telephone intervention, text messaging intervention, or the control group. The intervention comprises telephone consultations or text messages, together with 6 intervention packages being mailed at specific times from the third trimester of pregnancy until 12 months post birth. The main trial outcome measures include a) duration of breastfeeding, b) timing of introduction of solids, c) nutrition behaviours, physical activity and television viewing, and d) weight and BMI z-score at 12 and 24 months, e) cost-effectiveness, as well as f) feasibility and acceptability of the interventions. The results will ascertain whether early intervention using telephone consultation or text messaging together with staged mailed intervention resources can be feasible and effective in improving infant feeding practices, physical activity and reducing children's BMI in the early

  11. Regulation of flexible arms under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, A. [Univ. di Roma, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica; Siciliano, B. [Univ. di Napoli Federico, Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica

    1993-08-01

    A simple controller is presented for the regulation problem of robot arms with flexible links under gravity. It consists of a joint PD feedback plus a constant feedforward. Global asymptotic stability of the reference equilibrium state is shown under a structural assumption about link elasticity and a mild condition on the proportional gain. The result holds also in the absence of internal damping of the flexible arm. A numerical case study is presented.

  12. 铝合金控制臂球头销旋铆工艺有限元分析%Simulation on the Ball Joint Sealing of Aluminum Control Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田浩彬; 李学磊; 刘晓航; 苑文婧; 鲁成伟

    2012-01-01

      汽车控制臂球头销封装是汽车底盘零件装配中的重要一环,其装配质量直接影响到汽车转向部件的寿命。采用有限元分析方法对铝合金控制臂球头销的旋铆封装技术进行了研究,对旋铆过程中铝合金控制臂的变形及受力情况进行了分析,并通过试验方法进行了验证,为汽车控制臂球头销的整体封装提供了有效的技术支持。%  Ball joint sealing of aluminum control arms is one of the key processes to the assembly of automobile chassis, which directly influents the life cycle of steering systems of automobiles. The revolving-reveting process for ball joint of control arms is studied by finite element method, and the deformation of housing is advanced and verified by experiments, which can provide technical support to the ball joint sealing of automobile control arms.

  13. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  14. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  15. A self-management program for employees with complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutting, N.; Staal, J.B.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Engels, J.A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS) have a multifactorial origin and cause considerable work problems, including decreased work productivity, sickness absence, and, ultimately, job loss. There is a need for intervention programs for people with CANS. Self-management is an app

  16. Movement Analysis and Servo Control of Exoskeleton Mechanical Arm%外骨骼机械手臂的运动分析及伺服控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军; 王世斌; 王利波

    2013-01-01

    用三维软件UG对外骨骼机械手臂的结构进行设计,根据外骨骼机械手臂结构进行力学分析以及稳定性研究,研制一套可穿戴的外骨骼机械手臂,可实现手臂的负重和残疾人手臂的康复训练;建立机械手臂的物理模型;研究平衡阀和伺服换向阀的工作稳定特性.对手臂控制的稳定性做一定分析.研究结果表明,设计的外骨骼机械手臂满足设计要求.%According to the fact that the United States and Japan developed exoskeleton robot features. The arm weight and disabled arm rehabilitation training can be achieved by designed Wearable exoskeleton robot; The physical model of the mechanical arm is established, which also studies the balance valve and servo valve working stability characteristic and makes some analysis on stability of the arm.

  17. Effect evaluation of a self-management programme for employees with complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutting, N.; Staal, J.B.; Engels, J.A.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Detaille, S.I.; Nijhuis, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a self-management intervention (including an eHealth module), compared with usual care, in employees with chronic non-specific complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder (persisting >3 months). METHODS: Participants were randomised into the self-management

  18. A self-management program for employees with complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutting, N.; Staal, J.B.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Engels, J.A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS) have a multifactorial origin and cause considerable work problems, including decreased work productivity, sickness absence, and, ultimately, job loss. There is a need for intervention programs for people with CANS. Self-management is an

  19. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  20. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.