WorldWideScience

Sample records for superplastic mechanical behavior

  1. Microstructure, mechanical behavior and low temperature superplasticity of ECAP processed ZM21 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostaed, Ehsan, E-mail: ehsan.mostaed@polimi.it [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Fabrizi, Alberto [Department of Management and Engineering, Università di Padova, Stradella S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Dellasega, David [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bonollo, Franco [Department of Management and Engineering, Università di Padova, Stradella S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Vedani, Maurizio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • We studied the effects of texture and grain size on ZM21 alloy mechanical behavior. • Yielding asymmetry was alleviated by either texture weakening or grain refining. • At room temperature and 150 °C fracture elongation was strongly texture dependent. • Superplasticity at 200 °C was influenced by grain size, appearing only in UFG alloy. - Abstract: In this study, ultra-fine grained ZM21 Mg alloy was obtained through two-stage equal channel angular pressing process (ECAP) at temperatures of 200 and 150 °C. For each stage four passes were used. Plastic behavior, mechanical asymmetry and low temperature superplasticity of ultra-fine grained ZM21 alloy were investigated as a function of processing condition with particular attention to microstructural and texture evolution. Microstructural observations showed that after the first stage of ECAP an equiaxed ultra-fine grain (UFG) structure with average size of 700 nm was obtained. Additional stage did not cause any further grain refinement. However, Electron Backscattered Diffraction analysis showed that the original extrusion fiber texture evolved into a new one featuring a favorable alignment of the basal planes along ECAP shear planes. Such a preferential alignment provided a considerably higher Schmid factor value of 0.32, resulting in a remarkable loss in tensile yield stress, from 212 to 110 MPa and an improvement of the tensile fracture elongation, from 24% to 40%. Tensile and compression tests at room temperature revealed that yielding asymmetry could be alleviated by either weakening of basal plane fiber texture or by grain refinement. Tensile tests at 150 °C showed that texture supplies a significant contribution to plastic flow and elongation, making dislocation slip the dominant mechanism for deformation, while grain boundary sliding was not actively operated at this temperature. However, at 200 °C the effect of texture on fracture elongation of UFG alloys was subtle and the impact

  2. Constitutive Equation with Varying Parameters for Superplastic Flow Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhiping; Ren, Mingwen; Jia, Hongjie; Zhao, Po; Ma, Pinkui

    2014-03-01

    In this study, constitutive equations for superplastic materials with an extra large elongation were investigated through mechanical analysis. From the view of phenomenology, firstly, some traditional empirical constitutive relations were standardized by restricting some strain paths and parameter conditions, and the coefficients in these relations were strictly given new mechanical definitions. Subsequently, a new, general constitutive equation with varying parameters was theoretically deduced based on the general mechanical equation of state. The superplastic tension test data of Zn-5%Al alloy at 340 °C under strain rates, velocities, and loads were employed for building a new constitutive equation and examining its validity. Analysis results indicated that the constitutive equation with varying parameters could characterize superplastic flow behavior in practical superplastic forming with high prediction accuracy and without any restriction of strain path or deformation condition, showing good industrial or scientific interest. On the contrary, those empirical equations have low prediction capabilities due to constant parameters and poor applicability because of the limit of special strain path or parameter conditions based on strict phenomenology.

  3. Mechanical and microstructural characteristics of an Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy during superplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, B.

    1991-01-01

    If the above alloys are heavily cold- or warm-worked prior to superplastic deformation, they are resistant to static recrystallization but dynamically recrystallize with a clear strain dependence, and are superplastic deformable at relative high strain rates in the approximate range of 10 -3 to 10 -1 s -1 . The microstructural source of superplasticity has been the subject of less-detailed study than the more classical fully recrystallized materials. In this study, an effort was made to provide a somewhat greater insight into the mechanical behavior during the dynamic recrystallization of an Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy, and to relate the mechanical behavior to the microstructure and its evolution. As part of the study, internal stresses were measured by the strain dip test, and effective stresses and their development were determined over a range of temperatures and strain rates. mechanisms for the superplastic flow and the internal-stress development during the initial stage of deformation were suggested. A variable-strain-rate model was developed based on the understanding of the mechanical behavior of this material

  4. A novel deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive creep tests with strain value up to -0.1 for a [beta]-spodumene glass ceramic are conducted at 1060 C. From the observation of microstructural changes between before and after the creep deformations, it is shown that the grain-boundary sliding takes place via cooperative movement of groups of grains rather than individual grains under the large-scale-deformation. The deformation process and the surface technique used in this work are not only applicable to explain the deformation and flow of two-phase ceramics but also the superplastic deformation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  5. Superplastic behavior of coarse-grained aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chezan, AR; De Hosson, JTM

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we concentrate on the superplastic behavior and the microstructural evolution of two coarse-grained Al alloys: Al-4.4w/oMg and Al-4.4w/oMg-0.4w/oCu. The values for the strain rate sensitivity index and activation energy suggest that solute drag on dislocation motion is an important

  6. Superplastic ceramics and intermetallics and their potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    Recent advances in the basic understanding of superplasticity and superplastic forming of ceramics and intermetallics are reviewed. Fine-grained superplastic ceramics, including yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, Y- or MgO-doped Al 2 O 3 Hydroxyapatite, β-spodumene glass ceramics, Al 2 0 3 -YTZP two-phase composites, SiC-Si 3 N 4 and Fe-Fe 3 C composites, are discussed. Superplasticity in the nickel-base (e.g., Ni 3 Al and Ni 3 Si) and titanium-base intermetallics (TiAl and T1 3 Al), is described. Deformation mechanisms as well as microstructural requirements and effects such as grain size, grain growth, and grain-boundary phases, on the superplastic deformation behavior am addressed. Factors that control the superplastic tensile elongation of ceramics are discussed. Superplastic forming, and particularly biaxial gas-pressure forming, of several ceramics and intermetallics are presented with comments on the likelihood of commercial application

  7. Superplasticity - A Fundamental Investigation on Deformation Mechanism and Cavitation Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-15

    1984) 18, 773-776. 5. T.G. Nieh, C.A. Henshall and J. Wadsworth, Scripta Metall., (1984) 8, 1405-1408. 6. C. Carry and A. Mocellin , Superplasticity, B...Baudelet and M. Suery eds., Centre Nationale de la Recherche, Paris, 1985, pp. 16.1-16.19. e 7. C. Carry and A. Mocellin , J. Amer. Cer. Soc., (1986

  8. Mechanical experiments on the superplastic material ALNOVI-1, including leak information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mechanical testing of superplastic materials, in particular ALNOVI-1. → Uniaxial tests to show the one-dimensional stress-strain behaviour and the high amount of strain rate sensitivity. → Void volume fractions have been observed. → Free bulge experiments to show the dependence on the backpressure during the forming stage. → Measuring leak tightness of superplastically formed sheets. → Experiments are used in order to develop a constitutive model in a later stage. - Abstract: In subatomic particle physics, unstable particles can be detected with a so-called vertex detector, placed inside a particle accelerator. A detecting unit close to the accelerator bunch of charged particles must be separated from the accelerator vacuum. A thin sheet with a complex 3D shape prevents the detector vacuum from polluting the accelerator vacuum. Therefore, this sheet has to be completely leak tight. However, this can conflict with restrictions concerning maximum sheet thickness of the product. To produce such a complex thin sheet, superplastic forming can be very attractive in cases where a small number of products is needed. In order to predict gas permeability of these formed sheets, many mechanical experiments are necessary, where the gas leak has to be measured. To obtain insight in the mechanical behaviour of the used material, ALNOVI-1, tensile experiments were performed to describe the uniaxial stress-strain behaviour. From these experiments, a high strain rate sensitivity was measured. The flow stress of this material under superplastic conditions was low and the material behaved in an isotropic manner upon large plastic strains. The results of these experiments were used to predict the forming pressure as a function of time in a free bulge experiment, such that a predefined target strain rate will not be exceeded in the material. An extra parameter within these bulging experiments is the application of a hydrostatic pressure during the

  9. The high temperature mechanical characteristics of superplastic 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.M.; Chokshi, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study was undertaken to characterize the deformation behavior of a superplastic 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (3YTZ) over a wide range of strain rates, temperatures and grain sizes. The experimental data were analyzed in terms of the following equation for high temperature deformation: SR ∝ FS n d -p exp(-Q/RT), where SR is the strain rate, FS is the flow stress, d is the grain size, Q is the activation energy, R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature, and n and p are constants termed the stress exponent and the inverse grain size exponent, respectively. The experimental data over a wide range of stresses revealed a transition in stress exponent. Deformation in the low and high stress regions was associated with n about 3 and p about 1, and n about 2 and p about 3, respectively. The transition stress between the two regions decreased with increasing grain size. The activation energy was similar for both regions with a value of about 550 kJ/mol. Microstructural measurements revealed that grains remained essentially equiaxed after the accumulation of large strains, and very limited concurrent grain growths occurred in most experiments. Assessment of possible rate controlling creep mechanisms and comparison with previous studied indicate that in the n=2 region, deformation occurs by a grain boundary sliding process whose rate is independent of impurity content. Deformation in the n=3 region is controlled by an interface reaction that is highly sensitive to impurity content. It is concluded that an increase in impurity content increases yttrium segregation to grain boundaries, which enhances the rate of the interface reaction, thereby decreasing the apparent transition stress between the n=2 and n=3 regions. This unified approach incorporating two sequential mechanisms can rationalize many of the apparently dissimilar results that have been reported previously for deformation of 3YTZ

  10. Creep study of mechanisms involved in low-temperature superplasticity of UFG Ti-6Al-4V processed by SPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kral, Petr, E-mail: pkral@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Dvorak, Jiri [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Blum, Wolfgang [Inst. f. Werkstoffwissenschaften, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kudryavtsev, Egor; Zherebtsov, Sergey; Salishchev, Gennady [Belgorod State University, Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Pobeda Str. 85, 308015 Belgorod (Russian Federation); Kvapilova, Marie; Sklenicka, Vaclav [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-15

    The deformation kinetics of ultrafine-grained Ti-6Al-4V with mean (sub)grain size about 150 nm (produced by isothermal multiaxial forging) and superplastic properties at the relatively low temperature of 873 K was investigated in compression and tension over a large range of strain rates from 10{sup −7} to 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Electron microscopic observations showed that the grains coarsen during deformation towards the quasi-stationary spacing w{sub qs} of strain induced boundaries. In spite of the grain coarsening the grains were generally smaller than w{sub qs} allowing high-angle boundaries to dominate the quasi-stationary strength. Texture measurements indicate that dislocation glide plays a large role in deformation. Glide in this alloy is significantly influenced by solid solution strengthening leading to a stress sensitivity of strain rate of n = 3. The present ultrafine-grained Ti alloy displays a stress sensitivity exponent n = 2 over an extended stress range where its superplastic behavior is optimal. While the deformation kinetics of present ultrafine-grained Ti alloy can be roughly explained by the traditional formula for superplastic flow, the significant discrepancy to the measured values suggests that solid solution strengthening must be taken into account to get a complete insight. - Highlights: • The UFG Ti-6Al-4V alloy behaves superplastically at low temperature of 873 K. • Grain coarsening at low stresses limits superplasticity of UFG Ti alloy. • Solute strengthening plays an important role in low-temperature superplasticity. • Acceleration of creep in UFG Ti alloy is caused by processes related to hab.

  11. Superplasticity behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Zr cold-rolled alloy sheet with minor Sc addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University (Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University), Changsha 410083 (China); Nonferrous Metal Oriented Advanced Structural Materials and Manufacturing Cooperative Innovation Center, Changsha 410083 (China); Pan, Q.L., E-mail: pql2016@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University (Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University), Changsha 410083 (China); Nonferrous Metal Oriented Advanced Structural Materials and Manufacturing Cooperative Innovation Center, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, X.H.; Huang, X.; Sun, X.; Wang, X.D.; Li, M.J.; Yin, Z.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University (Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University), Changsha 410083 (China); Nonferrous Metal Oriented Advanced Structural Materials and Manufacturing Cooperative Innovation Center, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-10-31

    A refined microstructure of Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy sheet was produced by simple hot and cold rolling to an average grain size of 3 µm. Experiments were completed in electro-fluid servo-fatigue tester and results were investigated by means of optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Superplastic deformation was conducted and superplastic ductility of ≥200% was achieved at a testing temperature range from 425 ºC to 500 ºC and relative high strain rate range of 1×10{sup −3} s{sup −1}~1×10{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The maximum elongation of 539% was obtained at 500 ºC and 1×10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. In addition, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses showed that the presence of Al{sub 3} (Sc, Zr) particles in pinning grain boundaries and dislocations had a great influence on the superplastic deformation. The analyses of superplastic test data calculated out the coherent strain rates sensitivity parameter of 0.43 and the average activation energy of 143.762 kJ/mol. The data interpreted that the dominant deformation mechanism was grain boundary sliding controlled by lattice self-diffusion.

  12. Analysis of the Transition in Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic 5083 Aluminum Alloys by Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrell, James

    2001-01-01

    Recently developed Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) methods have been applied to the analysis of microstructure and microtexture of 5083 aluminum alloy materials that have been processed to enable superplasticity...

  13. Thermo-mechanical treatment for improvement of superplasticity of SUS304; SUS304 no chososei kyodo kaizen no tame no kako netsu shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Torisaka, Y. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-25

    Thermo-mechanical treatment was given to improve further the superplastic behavior of SUS 304 stainless steel. In the SUS 304, martensite phase produced by the processing induced transformation may be reversely transformed to the primary austenite phase by high-temperature heating. Crystal grain size is micronized to 1 {mu} m by combining this reverse transformation and recrystallization of the austenite phase. However, the straining rate at that time is as extremely low as 1 times 10 {sup -4}/s or lower, which is insufficient for an industrial material. Therefore, the SUS 304 processed as described above was given again a series of thermo-mechanical treatment of the similar forced cold processing and annealing to ultra-micronize the crystalline particles. Majority of the crystalline particles have come to have a grain size of several hundred nm. This test piece showed a total elongation of 400% or more at a test temperature of 973 K and a straining rate of 1.8 times 10 {sup -3}/s or lower. In addition, the straining rate sensitivity index `m` at that time was 0.45 or higher. The superplastic deformation of the SUS 304 has a high possibility of being governed by dynamic recrystallization. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Excellent superplasticity and deformation mechanism of Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy processed via simple free forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Y.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xu, G.F., E-mail: csuxgf660302@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China. (China); Xiao, D.; Zhou, L.Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Deng, Y.; Yin, Z.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China. (China)

    2015-01-29

    A refined microstructure of Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy with an average grain size of ∼3.7 μm and a portion of high angle boundaries of 69.2% was produced by free forging. Excellent superplastic ductility of ≥500% was achieved at a wide temperature range of 450∼500 °C and relatively high strain rate range of 1×10{sup −3}∼5×10{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy. A maximum elongation of 1593% was obtained at 475 °C and 1×10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. Moreover, the electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that the excellent superplasticity can be attributed to the high fraction of high angle grain boundaries and the presence of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) dispersoids in the Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy microstructure. The analyses on the superplastic data revealed the presence of threshold stress, the coefficient of strain rate sensitivity of 0.5, and an activation energy of 83.9 kJ/mol{sup –1}. It indicated that the dominant deformation mechanism was grain boundary sliding. Based on this notion, a constitutive equation for Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy has been developed.

  15. Superplastic formability of Al-Cu-Li alloy Weldalite (TM) 049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bao-Tong; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive research during the past decade shows that several aluminum lithium alloys can be processed to attain a microstructure that enables superplasticity. The high tensile stress of Al-Cu-Li alloy Weldalite (TM) 049 in the T4 and T6 tempers offers tremendous potential for attaining exceptional post-SPF (superplastic formability) properties. The used SPF material is Weldalite, which was shown to induce SPF behavior in other Al-Cu-Li alloys. The superplastic behavior and resulting post-SPF mechanical properties of this alloy, which was designed to be the next major structural alloy for space applications, were evaluated. The results indicate that Weldalite alloy does indeed exhibit excellent superplasticity over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates and excellent post-SPF tensile strength at various potential service temperatures.

  16. Superplasticity of amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Yu.B.; Likhachev, V.L.; Sen'kov, O.N.

    1988-01-01

    Results of mechanical tests of Co 57 Ni 10 Fe 5 Si 11 B 17 amorphous alloy are presented and the effect of crystallization, occurring during deformation process, on plastic low characteristics is investiagted. Superplasticity of amorphous tape is investigated. It is shown, that this effect occurs only when during deformation the crystallization takes place. Process model, based on the usage disclination concepts about glass nature, is suggested

  17. Theoretical studies of the stretching behavior of carbon nanowires and their superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Physics Department, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University (China)], E-mail: lihuilmy@hotmail.com; Sun, F.W.; Li, Y.F. [Physics Department, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Liu, X.F. [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University (China); Liew, K.M. [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2008-09-15

    The tensile deformation of carbon nanowire (CNW) is examined by molecular dynamics method. Results indicate that the carbon nanowire undergoes superplastic deformation. The maximum tensile strain of the carbon nanowire could increase to nearly 245% before tensile failure. The maximum stress for a CNW is 16.65 GPa which is lower than carbon nanotube. During the deformation, the carbon nanowire is found to be drawn a single atomic chain.

  18. Effect of anisotropy on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in superplastic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahed, MA; Gupta, AK; Singh, SK; Kotkunde, N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the flow stress behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at elevated temperatures and very low strain rate. Though Ti-6Al-4V alloy is very hard to deform at room temperature, having only about 16 % elongation, it exhibits super-plasticity at elevated temperatures. To investigate this, the tensile tests were conducted from 700°C to 900°C temperatures at an interval of 50°C and at a very low strain rate 0.0001/s along three different directions: rolling direction, 45° to rolling direction and transverse direction. The experimental study shows more than 50% elongation in all the cases and particularly more than 250% elongation at 0.0001 / s strain rate and at 750°C to 900°C temperature in all directions, which is an indication of super-plasticity in the material. This is also corroborated by the microstructural study of the fractured specimens.

  19. Cryogenic mechanical properties of low density superplastically formable Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzasconi, S. L.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The aerospace industry is considering the use of low density, superplastically formable (SPF) materials, such as Al-Li alloys in cryogenic tankage. SPF modifications of alloys 8090, 2090, and 2090+In were tested for strength and Kahn tear toughness. The results were compared to those of similar tests of 2219-T87, an alloy currently used in cryogenic tankage, and 2090-T81, a recently studied Al-Li alloy with exceptional cryogenic properties (1-9). With decreasing temperature, all materials showed an increase in strength, while most materials showed an increase in elongation and decrease in Kahn toughness. The indium addition to 2090 increased alloy strength, but did not improve the strength-toughness combination. The fracture mode was predominantly intergranular along small, recrystallized grains, with some transgranular fracture, some ductile rupture, and some delamination on large, unrecrystallized grains.

  20. Use of superplastic tin lead alloy to simulate the behavior of engineering materials in design of systems for occupant protection during car accident collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Abu-Mallouh, R.M.; Al-Habbali, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In every collision, the collision energy and forces developed during an accident have to be absorbed by someway to protect car occupants and reduce car damage. Different systems and devices have been designed and used for this purpose. The aim is to dissipate the kinetic energy irreversibly rather than convert it and store it elastically. Devices used are usually one shot items i.e. once having been deformed, they are discarded and replaced. The development and detail design of these mechanical devices and systems for dissipating the collision energy in controlled and predetermined rate is a prerequisite. The literature on these devices is voluminous but most of it deals with the problem under quasi-static rate condition due to the unavailability of equipment and complication of the testing under dynamic or high strain rate conditions. It is now well-established that the behavior of materials under dynamic loading is somewhat different from their behavior under the quasi-static condition. Therefore, a material having a rate sensitivity in the quasi-static range will be very useful in simulating the behavior of engineering materials at the high strain rate condition. In this paper superplastic tin-lead alloy which is rate sensitive in the range from 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -1/ Is was used to simulate the behavior of steel and other engineering materials, in absorbing the collision energy by allowing a cylindrical billet to be extruded through circular cross sectional die with a high extrusion ratio. The testing was carried out at three different strain rates, the force and energy consumed in the plastic work for the extrusion process were determined experimentally and compared with those predicted from the mechanical behavior of the alloy at the corresponding strain rate using Johnson formulae for forward extrusion. The experimental results were found in good agreement with the predicted values. (author)

  1. Forming of superplastic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-01

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of ceramic components are given. Recent work in biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics is provided. These include yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP), a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid ceramic-metal structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  2. Superplasticity and Micro-arrayed Deep-Drawing Behavior of Ni-Co/GO Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guofeng; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, You; Yang, Chao; Liu, Siyu

    2017-10-01

    In this article, Ni-Co/GO nanocomposite was fabricated by AC pulse electrodeposition method. The room temperature strength tests and the superplasticity of the nanocomposite were investigated by the tensile tests. A 5 × 5 micro-arrayed deep-drawing die was designed to explore the feasibility of micro-forming. The as-deposited material has a narrow grain size distribution with a mean grain size of 50 nm. The addition of GO as a reinforcing phase can effectively enhance the room temperature tensile strength of the nanocomposite, but reduce the plasticity. When adding GO to the plating bath, a maximum elongation of 467% was observed for the specimen with a GO content of 0.01 g/L at 773 K and a strain rate of 1.67 × 10-3 s-1 by tensile tests. Micro-arrayed deep-drawing tests were subsequently performed with male die diameter of 0.58 mm and female die diameter of 0.8 mm. The experimental relative drawing height values were measured and compared with the deep-drawing parts without GO additive. It is found that the micro-arrayed deep-drawing with rigid male die at high temperature was feasible and forming parts with good shape could be got. The thickness distribution analysis of the deep-drawing parts showed that wall thickness changed ranging from 53 to 95 μm, and the thickness reduction at the punch fillet is the most obvious.

  3. Microstructure and superplasticity of TA15 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.J., E-mail: cruzesun@nchu.edu.cn; Wang, G.C.

    2014-06-01

    Superplasticity of TA15 alloy was investigated by constant strain rate tensile method in this work. In order to enhance superplasticity, thermo-mechanical techniques were applied for refining the grains of the alloy first. The superplastic tensile tests were carried out on a SANS CMT4104 electronic tensile testing machine at temperatures ranging from 780 to 950 °C and strain rates from 3.3×10{sup −4} to 1.1×10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The tensile elongation-to-failure values between 188% and 1074% were obtained. Microstructure evolution after superplastic deformation was also analyzed by optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The micrographs show that the grains were coarsened after deformation, and α→β phase transformation took place at 950 °C, which resulted in the worst superplasticity. Extensive strain hardening stages were observed in the true stress–strain curves due to high dense dislocations in the thermo-mechanically processed alloy and dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation. The strain rate sensitivity m and the activation energy values at various deformation conditions were calculated, respectively. Based on an analysis of the above studies, it may be inferred that grain boundary sliding (GBS) in TA15 alloy is accommodated by grain boundary diffusion at high temperatures and low strain rates, and the accommodation process involves dislocation glide creep at low temperatures and high strain rates.

  4. Micromechanical approach of the fatigue behavior in a superplastic single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patoor, E.; Siredey, N.; Eberhardt, A.; Berveiller, M.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical cycling of superelastic alloys leads to significant change in their observed behavior. Critical stress needed to induce the martensitic transformation is reduced while the tangent transformation modulus is increased. Microstructural observations have shown that a mechanical cycling produced a strongly oriented pattern of dislocations. This dislocation network is associated to an internal stress field. It seems reasonable to relate this internal stress field to the observed evolution of the mechanical response. This is phenomenologically performed in this work considering the thermodynamical potential associated to the martensitic transformation of a single crystal of parent phase in presence of a microstructure of defects. Evolutions of the microstructural state are defined using the volume fraction associated to the variant of martensite and additional volume fractions of defects related to the dislocation pattern. Results such obtained well-captured experimental observations. (orig.)

  5. Superplastic Deformation of TC6 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Ling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The superplastic tensile tests of TC6 alloy were conducted in the temperature range of 800-900℃ by using the maximum m value superplasticity deformation (Max m SPD method and the constant strain rate deformation method at the strain rate range of 0.0001-0.1 s-1. The stress-strain curve of the tensile tests was obtained and the microstructure near the fracture were analyzed by metallographic microscope. The result shows that the superplasticity of TC6 alloy is excellent, and the elongation increases first and then decreases with the increase of strain rate or temperature. When the temperature is 850℃ and strain rate is 0.001 s-1 at constant stain rate tensile tests, the elongation reaches up to 993%. However, the elongation using Max m SPD method at 850℃ is 1353%. It is shown that the material can achieve better superplasticity by using Max m SPD tensile compared to constant stain rate tensile under the same temperature. The superplastic deformation of TC6 alloy can enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior significantly, the dynamic recrystallization behavior is promoted when strain rate and temperature are increased.

  6. Superplasticity in powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.S.; Bieler, T.R.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Superplasticity in powder metallurgy Al alloys and composites has been reviewed through a detailed analysis. The stress-strain curves can be put into 4 categories: classical well-behaved type, continuous strain hardening type, continuous strain softening type and complex type. The origin of these different types of is discussed. The microstructural features of the processed material and the role of strain have been reviewed. The role of increasing misorientation of low angle boundaries to high angle boundaries by lattice dislocation absorption is examined. Threshold stresses have been determined and analyzed. The parametric dependencies for superplastic flow in modified conventional aluminum alloys, mechanically alloyed alloys and Al alloy matrix composites is determined to elucidate the superplastic mechanism at high strain rates. The role of incipient melting has been analyzed. A stress exponent of 2, an activation energy equal to that for grain boundary diffusion and a grain size dependence of 2 generally describes superplastic flow in modified conventional Al alloys and mechanically alloyed alloys. The present results agree well with the predictions of grain boundary sliding models. This suggests that the mechanism of high strain rate superplasticity in the above-mentioned alloys is similar to conventional superplasticity. The shift of optimum superplastic strain rates to higher values is a consequence of microstructural refinement. The parametric dependencies for superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of 313 kJ/mol best describes the composites having SiC reinforcements. The role of shape of the reinforcement (particle or whisker) and processing history is addressed. The analysis suggests that the mechanism for superplasticity in composites is interface diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding

  7. Wonderland of ceramics superplasticity; Ceramics chososei no sekai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, F. [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    It has been ten years since it was found that ceramics, which is strong and hard at room temperatures and does not deform at all, may exhibit a superplasticity phenomenon at high temperatures that it endlessly elongates when pulled as if it were chewing gum. This phenomenon is one of peculiar behaviours which nano-crystal ceramics, pulverized to an extent that the crystalline particle size is on the order of nanometers, show. The application of superplasticity made the material engineers`s old dream come true that hard ceramics are arbitrarily deformed and machined like metal. Using as models materials such as silicone nitride, alumina and zirconia, this paper describes the history and deformation mechanism of ceramics superplasticity, material design aiming at superplasticization and application of ceramics superplasticity to the machining technology. Furthermore, it describes the trend and future development of international joint researches on the basic surveys on ceramics superplasticity. 25 refs., 11 figs.

  8. High-temperature extrusion behavior of a superplastic zirconia-based ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, B.J.; Carry, C.; Mocellin, A.

    1990-01-01

    Workability of 3-mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO 2 has been gauged through a series of extrusion experiments performed under vacuum with graphite dies at 1500 degrees C and 35 MPa piston stress. It is shown that dense and smooth extrustions can be obtained from solid billets when graphite paper is used as a lubricant. Sigmoidal dies and conical dies with cone angles of 18.4 degrees, 26.6 degrees, and 45 degrees and diameter ratios of 1.5, 2, and 3 were used to explore extrusion behavior. Observed piston velocities correspond to what may be predicted from the experimental uniaxial constitutive creep equation and a simple slab analysis. A precise analysis, however, is not attempted because of lack of steady-state behavior of the material itself

  9. Superplasticity: basic character and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suery, M.; Baudelet, B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the fundamental aspects and the industrial applications of superplasticity. Correlations between structure and mechanical properties are considered and it is shown that a material with fine grains may exhibit very large elongations as long as no structural evolution leads either to earlier failure or to a change in the deformation mechanism. This large plastic stability is the consequence of the high strain rate sensitivity resulting from particular deformation mechanisms which may operate in materials with a very fine structure. The advantages of superplastic materials for which forming operations derived from processes for thermoplastics have been applied, justify the industrial applications. Superplasticity is then mainly used for the production of low and intermediate series of pieces which are often complex in shape and difficult to form through an other technique. However, the disadvantages especially correlated to the low forming rates and the need of special metallurgical structures lead to the search of new processes synchronizing the elaboration of the alloy and the forming operation under superplastic conditions [fr

  10. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding: Progress and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarized recent progress in metal superplasticity and the application of Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB or SPF/Welding in typical structures. Various aerospace components such as three dimensional lattice structures made by SPF/DB have been demonstrated. In addition, some newly developed technologies, such as melt droplet spreading/thermo-mechanical forming (MDS/TMF, were also included. Finally, the future potential of SPF/DB technology was predicted.

  11. Superplasticity in a lean Fe-Mn-Al steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongho; Kang, Seok-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kawasaki, Megumi; Lee, Han-Joo; Ponge, Dirk; Raabe, Dierk; Lee, Young-Kook

    2017-09-29

    Superplastic alloys exhibit extremely high ductility (>300%) without cracks when tensile-strained at temperatures above half of their melting point. Superplasticity, which resembles the flow behavior of honey, is caused by grain boundary sliding in metals. Although several non-ferrous and ferrous superplastic alloys are reported, their practical applications are limited due to high material cost, low strength after forming, high deformation temperature, and complicated fabrication process. Here we introduce a new compositionally lean (Fe-6.6Mn-2.3Al, wt.%) superplastic medium Mn steel that resolves these limitations. The medium Mn steel is characterized by ultrafine grains, low material costs, simple fabrication, i.e., conventional hot and cold rolling, low deformation temperature (ca. 650 °C) and superior ductility above 1300% at 850 °C. We suggest that this ultrafine-grained medium Mn steel may accelerate the commercialization of superplastic ferrous alloys.Research in new alloy compositions and treatments may allow the increased strength of mass-produced, intricately shaped parts. Here authors introduce a superplastic medium manganese steel which has an inexpensive lean chemical composition and which is suited for conventional manufacturing processes.

  12. Deformation of superplastic alloys at relatively low strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivas, D.

    1978-02-01

    The superplastic and sub-superplastic creep properties of Pb-Sn eutectic and Al-Zn eutectoid alloys were studied. Various thermomechanical treatments we tested to check the possibilities of whether the subsuperplastic deformation mechanism is affected by these treatments. All thermomechanical histories were found to reveal the same stress exponent, which is believed to be indicative of the predominant mechanism. The mechanical data in the low stress region lead us to suggest that dislocation glide is the predominant mechanism in this region. At higher stresses extensive grain boundary sliding takes place and the dislocation movement is directed to relieve the stress concentration developed by the grain movement

  13. Effect of composition on the superplasticity of aluminium scandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.L. III; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Several aluminum alloys have been shown to exhibit superplasticty in the as-rolled condition. Previous work has shown that aluminum-scandium alloys also exhibit this behavior, but only with the addition of ternary alloying elements such as lithium and magnesium. These additions raised the strain-rate sensitivity of these alloys to 0.4-0.5 for selected strain rates at temperatures above 400 degrees C. A systematic study was undertaken of five Al-Sc alloys with varying lithium and magnesium concentrations in order to fully characterize the high temperature deformation mechanism. Specimens were deformed at a constant strain rate to predetermined true strains for textural and microstructural characterization. In this paper work is presented that will elucidate the effect of these different ternary additives on the superplastic deformation mechanism in these alloys

  14. High strain rate superplasticity in an Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy processed via simple rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengjia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Pan, Qinglin, E-mail: csupql@163.com [Nonferrous Metal Oriented Advanced Structural Materials and Manufacturing Cooperative Innovation Center, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shi, Yunjia; Sun, Xue; Xiang, Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-02-27

    The superplastic behavior of Al–Mg–Sc–Zr samples with standard gauge size (18 mm by 6 mm) were prepared using simple rolling and were tested in the temperature range from 450 °C to 525 °C at strain rates ranging from 1.67×10{sup –3} s{sup −1} to 1×10{sup –1} s{sup −1}. With proper deformation parameters, the Al–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy has an elongation to failure much higher than 300% and the maximum elongation is 740%. The Microstructure and dislocation substructure investigation using optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a dynamic recrystallization in it. The grain size and activation energy on the deformation mechanisms of superplastic is discussed. Results also show that these nano-scale Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x}Zr{sub x}) particles play an important role in the superplastic process. Al{sub 6}FeMn particles were found to induce the formation and growth of cavities, which can lead to the fracture of specimens.

  15. Superplastic deformation of P/M and I/M Al-Li based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Incremental strain-rate and constant strain-rate cone-forming tests have been carried out at 450-550 C to investigate the superplastic forming characteristics of Al-Li-Cu-Mn, Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr, and Al-Li-Zn-Mg alloys processed by powder-metallurgy (P/M) and ingot-metallurgy (I/M) techniques. It is found that P/M Al-Li alloys containing 0.2 pct Zr are inherently superplastically formable without the need for extensive thermomechanical processing. I/M Al-Li alloys containing Zr are also superplastically formable. The mechanical properties of the superplastically formed and solution-treated-and-aged alloys are comparable to those of solution-treated-and-aged alloys before superplastic forming. 6 references

  16. Overview of superplastic forming research at ford motor company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, P. A.; Luckey, S. G.; Copple, W. B.; Allor, R.; Miller, C. E.; Young, C.

    2004-12-01

    In an effort to reduce vehicle weight, the automotive industry has switched to aluminum sheet for many closure panels. Although the application of aluminum is compatible with existing manufacturing processes and has attractive qualities such as low density, good mechanical properties, and high corrosion resistance, it has less room-temperature formability than steel. The expanded forming limits that are possible with superplastic forming can significantly improve the ability to manufacture complex shapes from materials with limited formability. Aluminum closure panels produced by superplastic forming have been used by Ford Motor Company for over a decade. However, applications have been limited to low-volume, specialty vehicles due to the relatively slow cycle time and the cost penalty associated with the specially processed sheet alloys. While there has been substantial research on the superplastic characteristics of aluminum alloys, the bulk of this work has focused on the development of aerospace alloys, which are often too costly and perhaps inappropriate for automotive applications. Additionally, there has been a limited amount of work done to develop the technologies required to support the higher production volumes of the automotive industry. This work presents an automotive perspective on superplastic forming and an overview of the research being performed at Ford Motor Company to increase the production volume so superplastic forming can be cost competitive with more traditional forming technologies.

  17. Microstructures and superplasticity in near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampton, C.C.; Martin, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructure control by thermomechanical processing in near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys has recently progressed to a point where the authors are able to reliably produce a wide range of microstructures in a single alloy. The authors are now studying the basic superplastic deformation microstructures. Correlations are made between microstructural details and flow stress, strain hardening, strain-rate hardening, necking, cavitation and failure. Special emphasis is given to the cavitation behavior since this phenomenon may constitute a major limitation to the useful application of superplastic forming for gamma TiAl structures

  18. Phase state of a Bi-43 wt % Sn superplastic alloy and its changes under the effect of external mechanical stresses and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshak, V. F.; Chushkina, R. A.; Shapovalov, Yu. A.; Mateichenko, P. V.

    2011-07-01

    Samples of a Bi-43 wt % Sn superplastic alloy have been studied by X-ray diffraction in the ascast state, after compression of as-cast samples to ˜70% on a hydraulic press, after aging in the as-cast and preliminarily compressed state, and using samples deformed under superplastic conditions. The X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out using a DRON-2.0 diffractometer in Cu Kα radiation. The samples aged and deformed under superplasticity conditions have been studied using electron-microprobe analysis in a JSM-820 scanning electron microscope equipped with a LINK AN/85S EDX system. It has been found that the initial structural-phase state of the alloy was amorphous-crystalline. Causes that lead to a change in this state upon deformation and aging are discussed. A conclusion is made that the superplasticity effect manifests itself against the background of processes that are stipulated by the tendency of the initially metastable alloy to phase equilibrium similarly to what is observed in the Sn-38 wt % Pb eutectic alloy studied earlier.

  19. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  20. Superplastic Creep of Metal Nanowires From Rate-Dependent Plasticity Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiwei; Cao, Penghui; Park, Harold S

    2018-04-30

    Understanding the time-dependent mechanical behavior of nanomaterials such as nanowires is essential to predict their reliability in nanomechanical devices. This understanding is typically obtained using creep tests, which are the most fundamental loading mechanism by which the time-dependent deformation of materials is characterized. However, due to existing challenges facing both experimentalists and theorists, the time-dependent mechanical response of nanowires is not well-understood. Here, we use atomistic simulations that can access experimental time scales to examine the creep of single crystal FCC metal (Cu, Ag, Pt) nanowires. We report that both Cu and Ag nanowires show significantly increased ductility and superplasticity under low creep stresses, where the superplasticity is driven by a rate-dependent transition in defect nucleation from twinning to trailing partial dislocations at the micro or millisecond timescale. The transition in deformation mechanism also governs a corresponding transition in the stress-dependent creep time at the microsecond (Ag) and millisecond (Cu) timescales. Overall, this work demonstrates the necessity of accessing timescales that far exceed those seen in conventional atomistic modeling for accurate insights into the time-dependent mechanical behavior and properties of nanomaterials.

  1. Effect of thermal processing practices on the properties of superplastic Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J.; Lippard, Henry E.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the mechanical properties of superplastically formed structural components fabricated from three aluminum-lithium alloys was evaluated. The starting materials consisted of 8090, 2090, and X2095 (Weldalite(TM) 049), in the form of commercial-grade superplastic sheet. The experimental test matrix was designed to assess the impact on mechanical properties of eliminating solution heat treatment and/or cold water quenching from post-forming thermal processing. The extensive hardness and tensile property data compiled are presented as a function of aging temperature, superplastic strain and temper/quench rate for each alloy. The tensile properties of the materials following superplastic forming in two T5-type tempers are compared with the baseline T6 temper. The implications for simplifying thermal processing without degradation in properties are discussed on the basis of the results.

  2. Creep study of mechanisms involved in low-temperature superplasticity of UFG Ti-6Al-4V processed by SPD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Blum, W.; Kudryavtsev, E.; Zherebtsov, S.; Salishchev, G.; Kvapilová, Marie; Sklenička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, JUN (2016), s. 84-90 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Creep behavior * Solute strengthening * Titanium alloy * Ultrafine-grained microstructure Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  3. Superplastic forging nitride ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, P.C.; Seydel, E.R.; Raj, R.

    1988-03-22

    A process is disclosed for preparing silicon nitride ceramic parts which are relatively flaw free and which need little or no machining, said process comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a starting powder by wet or dry mixing ingredients comprising by weight from about 70% to about 99% silicon nitride, from about 1% to about 30% of liquid phase forming additive and from 1% to about 7% free silicon; (b) cold pressing to obtain a preform of green density ranging from about 30% to about 75% of theoretical density; (c) sintering at atmospheric pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 1,400 C to about 2,200 C to obtain a density which ranges from about 50% to about 100% of theoretical density and which is higher than said preform green density, and (d) press forging workpiece resulting from step (c) by isothermally uniaxially pressing said workpiece in an open die without initial contact between said workpiece and die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing and so that pressed workpiece does not contact die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing, to substantially final shape in a nitrogen atmosphere utilizing a temperature within the range of from about 1,400 C to essentially 1,750 C and strain rate within the range of about 10[sup [minus]7] to about 10[sup [minus]1] seconds[sup [minus]1], the temperature and strain rate being such that surface cracks do not occur, said pressing being carried out to obtain a shear deformation greater than 30% whereby superplastic forging is effected.

  4. Control of superplastic cavitation by hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampton, C.C.; Ghosh, A.K.; Hamilton, C.H.; Mahoney, M.W.; Raj, R.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that the application of hydrostatic gas pressures during superplastic deformation of fine grained 7475 Al can prevent the intergranular cavitation normally encountered at atmospheric pressure. A critical ratio of hydrostatic pressure to flow stress may be defined for each superplastic forming condition above which virtually no cavitation occurs. In deformation conditions where intergranular cavitation plays a significant part in final tensile rupture, superplastic ductility may be improved by the application of hydrostatic pressures. Similarly, detrimental effects of large superplastic strains on service properties may be reduced or eliminated by the application of suitable hydrostatic pressures during superplastic forming. In this case, superplastically formed material may have the same design allowables as conventional 7475 Al sheet

  5. Superplastically foaming method to make closed pores inclusive porous ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Akira; Hayashi, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    Porous ceramics incorporates pores to improve several properties including thermal insulation maintaining inherenet ceramic properties such as corrosion resistance and large mechanical strength. Conventional porous ceramics is usually fabricated through an insufficient sintering. Since the sintering accompanies the exclusion of pores, it must be terminated at the early stage to maintain the high porosity, leading to degraded strength and durability. Contrary to this, we have innovated superplastically foaming method to make ceramic foams only in the solid state. In this method, the previously inserted foam agent evaporates after the full densification of matrix at around the sintering temperature. Closed pores expand utilizing the superplastic deformation driven by the evolved gas pressure. The typical features of this superplastically foaming method are listed as follows, 1. The pores are introduced after sintering the solid polycrystal. 2. Only closed pores are introduced, improving the insulation of gas and sound in addition to heat. 3. The pore walls are fully densified expecting a large mechanical strength. 4. Compared with the melt foaming method, this method is practical because the fabrication temperature is far below the melting point and it does not need molds. 5. The size and the location pores can be controlled by the amount and position of the foam agent.

  6. Friction stir processing: a new grain refinement technique to achieve high strain rate superplasticity in commercial alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.S. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Mahoney, M.W. [Rockwell International Corp., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States). Science Center

    2001-07-01

    Friction stir processing is a new thermo-mechanical processing technique that leads to a microstructure amenable for high strain rate superplasticity in commercial aluminum alloys. Friction stirring produces a combination of very fine grain size and high grain boundary misorientation angles. Preliminary results on a 7075 Al demonstrate high strain rate superplasticity in the temperature range of 430-510 C. For example, an elongation of >1000% was observed at 490 C and 1 x 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}. This demonstrates a new possibility to economically obtain a superplastic microstructure in commercial aluminum alloys. Based on these results, a three-step manufacturing process to fabricate complex shaped components can be envisaged: cast sheet or hot-pressed powder metallurgy sheet + friction stir processing + superplastic forging or forming. (orig.)

  7. Superplastic forming of 7475 Al sheet after friction stir processing (FSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, M.; Bingel, W.H.; Fuller, C. [Rockwell Scientific Co., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Barnes, A.J. [Superform USA, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Since the invention of friction stir welding (FSW) in 1991, an increasing number of successful applications have been found for this unique solid-state welding technique. More recently, attention has been given to utilizing the mechanics of friction stirring to thermo-mechanically modify the microstructure of aluminum alloys to create or enhance superplasticity. Until now, superplasticity induced by friction stir processing (FSP) has only been demonstrated in small samples and evaluated by hot tensile elongation testing. The present work describes what we believe to be the first biaxial testing and full size component superplastic forming of friction stir processed aluminum sheet. The remarkable formability demonstrated in these 'first time' trials is described in detail. (orig.)

  8. An investigation of neutron irradiation test on superplastic zirconia-ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Ishihara, Masahiro; Baba, Shinichi; Hayashi, Kimio

    2000-05-01

    A neutron irradiation test on superplastic ceramic materials at high temperature has been proposed as an innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). For the effective execution of the test, we reviewed the superplastic deformation mechanism of ceramic materials and discussed neutron irradiation effects on the superplastic deformation process of stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal (TZP), which is a representative superplastic ceramic material. As a result, we pointed out that the decrease in the activation energy for superplastic deformation is expected by the radiation-enhanced diffusion. We selected a fast neutron fluence of 5x10 20 n/cm 2 and an irradiation temperature of about 600degC as test conditions for the first irradiation test on TZP and decided to perform a preliminary irradiation test by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Moreover, we estimated the radioactivity of irradiated TZP and indicated that it is in the order of 10 10 Bq/g (about 0.3 Ci/g) immediately after irradiation to a thermal neutron fluence of 3x10 20 n/cm 2 and that it decays to about 1/100 in a year. (author)

  9. Superplasticity in fine-grained ceramics. Final report, 1 July 1993--31 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieh, T.G.

    1994-01-31

    Progress has been summarized in three papers: biaxial gas-pressure forming of a superplastic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/YTZP; mechanical properties of a 20 vol% SiC whisker-reinforced yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia composite at elevated temperatures; and gas- pressure forming of ceramic sheet.

  10. Development of Weldable Superplastic Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheet Final Report CRADA No. TC-1086-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, T. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Numerous applications could exist for superplastic formable, weldable aluminum alloys in the automotive, aerospace, architectural, and construction industries. In this project, LLNL and Kaiser worked with the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems to develop and evaluate weldable superplastic alloys.

  11. Microstructural influence on low-temperature superplasticity of ultrafine-grained Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Young Gun; Kim, Woo Gyeom; Lee, Chong Soo; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural influence on low-temperature superplastic behavior of ultrafine-grained Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated. The deformed structures were analyzed with the increment of strain by transmission electron microscopy. Also, a series of tensile tests were carried out on ultrafine-grained (UFG) samples to measure elongation at temperature of 973 K and at strain rates of 10 -4 to 10 -2 s -1 . The results indicated that elongation was significantly increased with increasing ECAP straining from 4 to 8 revealing more high-angle grain boundaries. Deformation mechanisms for UFG structure were analyzed in the context of inelastic deformation theory, which consisted of dislocation glide and grain boundary sliding

  12. Thermal and thermomechanical effects on the Al-Ca-Zn superplastic alloy studied on the positrons annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.; Somoza, A.; Silvetti, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Superplastic metallic materials are characterized by the presence of an unusual plastic behaviour, within a certain temperature range, with high ductility and low flow stress. This makes them suitable for their shaping with compressed air, for instance. On the other hand they behave similarly to any other metallic alloy at room temperature. One of the main problems found in superplastic alloys during deformation is the formation of cavities that may deteriorate the properties of a piece which was manufactured with this method. As an attempt to understand the origin of the cavitation, the effect of thermal and thermo-mechanical treatments was studied on superplastic alloy Al-5%wtCa-5%wtZn using a measurement technique based on positron annihilation. (Author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  13. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of Ultrafine Ti-6Al-4V During Low Temperature Superplastic Deformation (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    J. Cui, L. Ma, A cavity nucleation model during high temperature creep deformation of metals, Acta Metall. Mater. 41 (1993) 539e542. [49] A.H. Chokshi...dislocation activity, and diffusional creep [2]. However, the contribution of these elease (PA): distribution unlimited. S.V. Zherebtsov et al. / Acta...interval 2 105 s1e2 103 s1 at 550 C. The strain rate sensitivity m was evaluated using the slope of log s log _ε curves or strain-rate-change

  14. Statistical analysis of the description accuracy of dependence of flow stresses upon the deformation rate in the state of superplasticity by phenomenological equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojtsov, V.V.; Tsepin, M.A.; Karpilyanskij, N.N.; Ershov, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Results of statistical analysis of the description accuracy of superplasticity S-form curve by different analytic expressions, suggested on the basis of phenomenological and metallophysical concepts about the nature of superplastic deformation, are given. Experimental investigations into the dependence of flow stresses on the deformation rate were conducted on VT3-1 two-phase titanium alloy. Test samples were cut out of a rod, 30 mm in diameter, produced by lengthwise rolling in α+#betta#-region. Optimal temperature of superplasticity manifestation was determined by the method of stress relaxation from a relaxation time value to a given stress. It was established that the Smirnov phemonemological equation describes in the best way the rate dependence of flow stress of superplastic material. This equation can be used for solution of problems of studying mechanism, physical nature of superplastic deformation, analysing strain-stress state and the structure of deformation zone during the processes of pressure shaping of superplastic materials, when considerably wide range (in the limits of 7-8 orders) of deformation rate variation takes place

  15. Mechanical behavior of superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreen, S.

    1986-04-01

    Recent developments affecting the mechanical behavior of superalloys over three ranges of operating temperatures are reviewed. At lower temperatures, activity has been focused on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in light water reactor and sour gas well environments. The susceptibility to intergranular crack growth is critically dependent upon the grain boundary chemistry, and a method of minimizing the sensitivity of the boundaries to attack has been pursued. At intermediate temperatures, considerable effort has been directed toward increasing the tensile and fatigue strengths. The higher strength materials, however, show increased fracture sensitivity. In particular, embrittlement due to diffusion into the grain boundaries of aggressive species, such as oxygen or sulfur from the environments, becomes a problem. Minor element alloying additions of boron, zirconium, magnesium, etc., are helpful in retarding the degradation caused by the environment. At higher temperatures, the major thrust is toward improving the creep strength. The weak link in the materials, which is the transverse grain boundaries, has been eliminated by the use of specialized processing steps to produce either directionally solidified materials with minimum transverse grain boundaries, or single crystal materials. Single crystal materials permit alloying and heat treating modifications that further enhance the creep strength. The materials are very anisotropic in properties, but are successfully used in turbine blades and could be useful in other special applications

  16. A grain-boundary diffusion model of dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Nam; Hiraga, Keijiro; Sakka, Yoshio; Ahn, Byung-Wook

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation is modelled on the basis of a grain-boundary diffusion mechanism. On the grain boundary where a static and a dynamic potential difference coexist, matter transport along the boundary is assumed to contribute to dynamic grain growth through depositing the matter on the grain surface located opposite to the direction of grain-boundary migration. The amount of the diffusive matter during deformation is calculated for an aggregate of spherical grains and is converted to the increment of mean boundary migration velocity. The obtained relationship between the strain rate and the dynamic grain growth rate is shown to be independent of deformation mechanisms, provided that the grain growth is controlled by grain-boundary diffusion. The strain dependence, strain-rate dependence and temperature dependence of grain growth predicted from this model are consistent with those observed in superplastic ZrO 2 -dispersed Al 2 O 3

  17. Mechanical behavior and modelisation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvin, Q.; Velay, V.; Bonnaire, R.; Penazzi, L.

    2017-10-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is widely used for the manufacture of aeronautical and automotive parts (solid parts). In aeronautics, this alloy is employed for its excellent mechanical behavior associated with low density, outstanding corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties up to 600°C. It is especially used for the manufacture of fuselage frames, on the pylon for carrying out the primary structure (machining forged blocks) and the secondary structure in sheet form. In this last case, the sheet metal forming can be done through various methods: at room temperature by drawing operation, at very high temperature (≃900°C) by superplastic forming (SPF) and at intermediate temperature (≥750°C) by hot forming (HF). In order to reduce production costs and environmental troubles, the cycle times reduction associated with a decrease of temperature levels are relevant. This study focuses on the behavior modelling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at temperatures above room temperature to obtained greater formability and below SPF condition to reduce tools workshop and energy costs. The displacement field measurement obtained by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is based on innovative surface preparation pattern adapted to high temperature exposures. Different material parameters are identified to define a model able to predict the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under hot stamping conditions. The hardening plastic model identified is introduced in FEM to simulate an omega shape forming operation.

  18. Superplasticity-like deformation of a coarse-grained Al5052 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, K.K.; Chan, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper, hot forming properties of a commercially available coarse-grained Al5052 alloy under uniaxial and biaxial stress states were examined. In hot tensile tests, the alloy exhibits a superplastic-like behaviour with a maximum tensile elongation of 194% at a temperature of 873 K and at an initial strain rate of 2.08 x 10 -1 s -1 . Dislocation slip and grain boundary sliding were considered to be the deformation mechanisms. The alloy was also bulged at a constant polar strain-rate of 2.0 x 10 -1 s -1 and at an optimum temperature of 873 K using elliptical dies with aspect ratios of 1:1, 4:3, 2:1, 8:3 and 4:1. The strain distributions revealed that the strain gradient obtained in the minor axis was much greater than that in major axis. Moreover, it was shown that the deformation behavior of the alloy was basically isotropic and the volume strain of the alloy sheet did not equal to zero which was considered to relate to its cavitation behaviour. (orig.)

  19. Processing and characterization of aluminium alloys or composites exhibiting low-temperature or high-rate superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Wide applications of superplastic forming still face several problems, one is the high temperature that promotes grain growth, another is the low forming rate that makes economically inefficient. The current study is intended to develop a series of fabrication and thermomechanical processing, so as to result in materials possessing either low temperature superplasticity (LTSP) or high rate superplasticity (HRSP). The former has been achieved in the cast Al alloys, while the latter was accomplished in powder-metallurgy aluminium matrix composites. The aluminium alloys, after special thermomechanical processes, exhibited LTSP from 300 to 450 degree C with elongations varying from 300 to 700 %. The LTSP sheets after 700 % elongation at 350 degree C still possessed fine grains 3.7 μm size and narrow surface solute depletion zones 11 μm in with, resulting in a post-SP T6 strength of 500 MPa, significantly higher than that of the HTSP superplasticity alloys tested at 525 degree C or above. Meanwhile, it was found that LTSP materials may be transferred into HTSP materials simply by adding a preloading at 300-400 degree C for a small amount of work. As for the endeavor in making HRSP materials, 2024Al/SiC, 6061Al/SiC and Al/Al 3 Ti systems processed by powder metallurgy or mechanical alloying methods are under investigation. The average sizes of the reinforcing SiC or A13Ti particles, as well as the grain size are all around 1 μm. The aluminium composites have exhibited HRSP at 525-620 degree C and 10 -2 -10 -1 s -l , with elongations varying from 150 to 350 %. This ultimate goal is to produce an alloy or composite exhibiting low temperature and high strain rate superplasticity (LT and HRSP). (author)

  20. Study of granulated nickel alloy superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoshkin, N.F.; Fatkullin, O.Kh.; Ermanok, M.Z.; Sharshagin, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Peculiarities of the structure and properties of compact material obtained from granules of the EhI 698 and ZhS6U alloys in the form of pressed rods are investigated. It is shown, that granule metallurgy is the most rational technology method, ensuring the receipt of stable fine-grained structure in the initial blank. After appropriate thermal treatment the products obtained by the method of granule metallyrgy have more high strength characteristics at the room temperature and heat resistance, than typical for the products produced by traditional technology. Creation of specialized vertical presses providing low rates of deformation as well as their equipment by vacuum mechanizms which permit to use a tool from molybdenum alloys is necessary for successful introduction into production of the processes of plastic metal working under conditions of superplasticity

  1. Method of thermally processing superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloys to obtain optimum strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Claire E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Optimum strengthening of a superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloy structure is achieved via a thermal processing technique which eliminates the conventional step of solution heat-treating immediately following the step of superplastic forming of the structure. The thermal processing technique involves quenching of the superplastically formed structure using static air, forced air or water quenching.

  2. Plastic flow instability and multiple necking of Ti-6Al-4V during superplastic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arieli, A.; Rosen, A.

    1976-01-01

    Stress-strain curves obtained at constant crosshead velocity tensile tests of Ti--6Al--4V sheets at different temperatures show different behavior. The flow stress does not decrease continuously, suggesting that necking occurs at various locations along the gauge length. Metallography showed regions of small, diffused necks. It is suggested that the superplasticity is related to the resistance to neck growth rather than the resistance to neck formation, and that neck formation/growth is controlled by the mutual action of strain hardening and strain rate sensitivity

  3. Superplastic Forming of Duplex Stainless Steel for Aerospace Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Yoon, Jong-Hoon; Yoo, Joon-Tae; Yi, Young-Moo

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the high temperature forming behavior of duplex stainless steel has been characterized and the outer shell of a combustion chamber was fabricated with pressure difference of hot gas. It consists of two parts which are the outer skin made of stainless steel to sustain the internal pressure and the inner shell made of copper alloy for regenerative cooling channels. Two outer skins partitioned to half with respect to the symmetric axis was prepared by hot gas forming process with a maximum pressure of 7 MPa following to FEM analysis. For inner layer, copper alloy was machined for cooling channels and then placed in the gas pressure welding fixture. It is shown that the optimum condition of gas pressure welding is 7 MPa at 890 °C, for one hour. EDX analysis and scanning electron microscope micrograph confirm the atomic diffusion process is observed at the interface and copper atoms diffuse into steel, while iron and chrome atoms diffuse into copper. The result shows that the manufacturing method with superplastic forming and gas pressure welding of steel and copper alloy has been successful for near net shape manufacturing of scaled combustion chamber of launch vehicle.

  4. Cavity closure during compression between semi-closed die using superplastic tin-lead alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.; Al-Tamimi, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Superplasticity is a feature of a material or alloy, which allows the material to deform plastically to an extremely large strain at low values of stress under certain loading conditions of strain rate and temperature. Eutectic tin-lead alloy is a practical material for research investigations as it possesses a superplastic behavior at room temperature and low strain rate which makes it a useful tool in simulating the ordinary engineering materials at high strain rate and temperature, and has been extensively used as a model material. In this paper, superplastic tin-lead alloy was used at room temperature to simulate the closure of cavities in steels at high temperatures in the hot region under dynamic loading (high strain rate) under the effect of compressive loads using semi-closed dies (modified dies) with 45 degree inclination and compare the results from these dies with those of flat platens (open dies) published previously. Hollow specimens having different values of bore diameter (Db) to outer diameter (Dout), of the same height and volume were investigated under 40% height reduction. The cavity closure for each specimen was determined. Comparison is made between flat platens and semi-closed dies regarding cavity closure based on bore diameter, bore volume, reduction percentage in bore diameter and reduction percentage in bore volume, at the 40% reduction in height. It was found that modifying the platens (45 degree inclination) resulted in lower values of bore diameters and volume i.e. higher values of reduction in bore diameters and volumes percentages irrespective of the value of bore diameter and the ratio of Db/Dout. (author)

  5. Superplasticity and joining of zirconia-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Chaim, R.; Routbort, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state creep and joining of alumina/zirconia composites containing alumina volume fractions of 20, 60, and 85% have been investigated between 1,250 and 1,350 C. Superplasticity of these compounds is controlled by grain-boundary sliding and the creep rate is a function of alumina volume fraction, not grain size. Using the principles of superplasticity, pieces of the composite have been joined by applying the stress required to achieve 5 to 10% strain to form a strong interface at temperatures as low as 1,200 C

  6. Superplasticity and joining of zirconia-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Chaim, R.; Ravi, G.B.; Routbort, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Steady-state creep and joining of alumina/zirconia composites containing alumina volume fractions of 20, 60 and 85% have been investigated between 1,250 and 1,350 C. Superplasticity of these compounds is controlled by grain-boundary sliding and the creep rate is a function of alumina volume fraction, not grain size. Using the principles of superplasticity, pieces of the composite have been joined by applying the stress required to achieve 5 to 10% strain to form a strong interface at temperatures as low as 1,200 C

  7. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  8. Integrated Manufacturing of Aerospace Components by Superplastic Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving and fuel efficiency. It is known that superplastic characteristics of some materials provide significant opportunity for forming complicated, lightweight components of aerospace structure. One of the most important advantages of using superplastic forming process is its simplicity to form integral parts and economy in tooling[1]. For instance, it can be applied to blow-forming, in which a metal sheet is deformed due to the pressure difference of hydrostatic gas on both sides of the sheet. Since the loading medium is gas pressure difference, this forming is different from conventional sheet metal forming technique in that this is stress-controlled rather than strain and strain rate controlled. This method is especially advantageous when several sheet metals are formed into complex shapes. In this study, it is demonstrated that superplastic forming process with titanium and steel alloy can be applied to manufacturing lightweight integral structures of aerospace structural parts and rocket propulsion components. The result shows that the technology to design and develop the forming process of superplastic forming can be applied for near net shape forming of a complex contour of a thrust chamber and a toroidal fuel tank.

  9. Stability analysis and finite element simulations of superplastic forming in the presence of hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    It is established that some superplastic materials undergo significant cavitation during deformation. In this work, stability analysis for the superplastic copper based alloy Coronze-638 at 550 °C based on Hart's definition of stable plastic deformation and finite element simulations for the balanced biaxial loading case are carried out to study the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cavitation evolution during superplastic forming. The finite element results show that imposing hydrostatic pressure yields to a reduction in cavitation growth.

  10. The effect of inhomogeneity of microstructure on ducility in superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manonukul, A.; Dunne, F.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element cell models have been developed to represent inhomogeneous grain size fields that occur in commercial Ti-6Al-4V. The models are used to investigate the influence of microstructure on superplastic stress-strain behaviour, inhomogeneity of deformation, and on ductility in superplastic deformation. It is shown that increasing the level of initial microstructural inhomogeneity leads to increasing flow stress for given strain, and that the microstructural inhomogeneity leads to inhomogeneous deformation. As superplasticity proceeds, the level of microstructural inhomogeneity diminishes, but the inhomogeneity itself is preserved during the deformation. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of microstructure leads to strain localisation which increases in severity with deformation until material necking and failure occur. Increasing the initial microstructural inhomogeneity is shown to lead to a decrease in ductility, but the effect diminishes for grain size ranges in excess of 30 μm. An empirical relationship is presented that relates the ductility to the initial grain size range through a power law. (orig.)

  11. Boronization and Carburization of Superplastic Stainless Steel and Titanium-Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Matsushita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bronization and carburization of fine-grain superplastic stainless steel is reviewed, and new experimental results for fine grain Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 are reported. In superplastic duplex stainless steel, the diffusion of carbon and boron is faster than in non-superplastic duplex stainless steel. Further, diffusion is activated by uniaxial compressive stress. Moreover, non-superplastic duplex stainless steel shows typical grain boundary diffusion; however, inner grain diffusion is confirmed in superplastic stainless steel. The presence of Fe and Cr carbides or borides is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which indicates that the diffused carbon and boron react with the Fe and Cr in superplastic stainless steel. The Vickers hardness of the carburized and boronized layers is similar to that achieved with other surface treatments such as electro-deposition. Diffusion of boron into the superplastic Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 alloy was investigated. The hardness of the surface exposed to boron powder can be increased by annealing above the superplastic temperature. However, the Vickers hardness is lower than that of Ti boride.

  12. Effect of strain rate on cavity closure during compression between flat platens using superplastic tin-lead alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Al-Tamimi, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Superplasticity is a feature of a material or alloy which allows the material to deform plastically to an extremely large strain at low values of stress under certain loading conditions of strain rate and temperature. Eutectic tin-lead alloy is a practical material for research investigations as it possesses a superplastic behavior at room temperature and low strain rate which makes it a useful tool in simulating the ordinary engineering materials at high strain rate and temperature. This alloy has been extensively used as a model material to simulate behavior of engineering materials at high strain rates and temperatures. In this paper, superplastic tin-lead alloy was used at room temperature to simulate the closure of cavities in steels at high temperatures in the hot region under dynamic loading (high strain rate) under the effect of compressive loads using flat platens (open dies). Hollow specimens having different values of bore diameter (D/sub b/) to outer diameter (D/sub out/), of the same height and volume were investigated under different values of height reduction percentages ranging from 20% to 80% , and the percentage of cavity closure at each reduction percentage was determined. It was found that the cavity closure percentage increases or decreases at slow rate for reduction percentage in height less than 40% and increases more rapidly for reduction percentages in height above this value. Furthermore, specimens having smaller values of ratio (D/sub b//D/sub out/) resulted in higher percentage of cavity closure than specimens having higher ratios at the same value of reduction in height percentage. Complete cavity closure has occurred in specimens having the ratios of 0.1 and 0.2 at 75% reduction in height. (author)

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Microelectromechanical Microshutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin Edward; Jones, Justin Scott; Li, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    A custom micro-mechanical test system was constructed using off-the-shelf components to characterize the mechanical properties of microshutters. Microshutters are rectangular microelectromechanical apertures which open and close about a narrow torsion bar hinge. Displacement measurements were verified using both capacitive and digital image correlation techniques. Repeatable experiments on Si3N4 cantilever beams verified that the test system operates consistently. Using beam theory, the modulus of elasticity of the low stress Si3N4 was approximately 150 GPa, though significant uncertainty exists for this measurement due primarily to imprecise knowledge of the cantilever thickness. Tests conducted on microshutter arrays concluded that reducing the Si3N4 thickness from 250 nm to 500 nm reduces the torsional stiffness by a factor of approximately four. This is in good agreement with analytical and finite element models of the microshutters.

  14. Superplastic boronizing of duplex stainless steel under dual compression method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauhari, I.; Yusof, H.A.M.; Saidan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Superplastic boronizing. → Dual compression method has been developed. → Hard boride layer. → Bulk deformation was significantly thicker the boronized layer. → New data on boronizing could be expanded the application of DSS in industries. - Abstract: In this work, SPB of duplex stainless steel (DSS) under compression method is studied with the objective to produce ultra hard and thick boronized layer using minimal amount of boron powder and at a much faster boronizing time as compared to the conventional process. SPB is conducted under dual compression methods. In the first method DSS is boronized using a minimal amount of boron powder under a fix pre-strained compression condition throughout the process. The compression strain is controlled in such a way that plastic deformation is restricted at the surface asperities of the substrate in contact with the boron powder. In the second method, the boronized specimen taken from the first mode is compressed superplastically up to a certain compressive strain under a certain strain rate condition. The process in the second method is conducted without the present of boron powder. As compared with the conventional boronizing process, through this SPB under dual compression methods, a much harder and thicker boronized layer thickness is able to be produced using a minimal amount of boron powder.

  15. Superplastic boronizing of duplex stainless steel under dual compression method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhari, I., E-mail: iswadi@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yusof, H.A.M.; Saidan, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-25

    Highlights: {yields} Superplastic boronizing. {yields} Dual compression method has been developed. {yields} Hard boride layer. {yields} Bulk deformation was significantly thicker the boronized layer. {yields} New data on boronizing could be expanded the application of DSS in industries. - Abstract: In this work, SPB of duplex stainless steel (DSS) under compression method is studied with the objective to produce ultra hard and thick boronized layer using minimal amount of boron powder and at a much faster boronizing time as compared to the conventional process. SPB is conducted under dual compression methods. In the first method DSS is boronized using a minimal amount of boron powder under a fix pre-strained compression condition throughout the process. The compression strain is controlled in such a way that plastic deformation is restricted at the surface asperities of the substrate in contact with the boron powder. In the second method, the boronized specimen taken from the first mode is compressed superplastically up to a certain compressive strain under a certain strain rate condition. The process in the second method is conducted without the present of boron powder. As compared with the conventional boronizing process, through this SPB under dual compression methods, a much harder and thicker boronized layer thickness is able to be produced using a minimal amount of boron powder.

  16. A two-step superplastic forging forming of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step technology combined forging with superplastic forming has been developed to enhance the forgeability of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy and realize the application of the as-cast magnesium alloy in large deformation bullet shell. In the first step, fine-grained microstructure preforms that are suitable for superplastic forming were obtained by reasonably designing the size of the initial blanks with the specific height-to-diameter ratio, upsetting the blanks and subsequent annealing. In the second step, the heat treated preforms were forged into the end products at the superplastic conditions. The end products exhibit high quality surface and satisfied microstructure. Consequently, this forming technology that not only avoids complicating the material preparation but also utilizes higher strain rate superplastic provides a near net-shaped novel method on magnesium forging forming technology using as-cast billet.

  17. Superplastic characteristics and microstructure of neutron irradiated 3Y-TZP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Motohashi, Yoshinobu; Ishihara, Masahiro; Baba, Shinichi; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Fast neutrons (energy > 1.6 x 10 -13 J) were irradiated to 3Y-TZP specimens, typical superplastic ceramics, at the fluence of 2.5 x 10 24 and 4.3 x 10 24 m -2 at JMTR of JAEA. The Vickers hardness with indentation load of 4.9 and 9.8 N at room temperature was seemed to be slightly increased by the irradiation. Through the superplastic tensile tests in a temperature range from 1623 to 1773 K with initial strain rates of 5.0 x 10 -4 and 1.0 x 10 -3 s -1 , it was found that the superplastic flow stress is decreased with increasing the neutron fluence. The microstructural features of the fractured specimens were observed by a SEM. It implies that the grain boundary microstructure of the irradiated specimens would be changed by annealing in the superplastic tests are elevated temperatures. It is quite probable that the irradiation-induced vacancy clusters might play an important role to weaken the grain boundary cohesion which may be an important factor to determine the superplastic properties, and hence they would decrease the superplastic flow stress. (author)

  18. On the theory of behavioral mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzendolet, E

    1999-12-01

    The Theory of Behavioral Mechanics is the behavioral analogue of Newton's laws of motion, with the rate of responding in operant conditioning corresponding to physical velocity. In an earlier work, the basic relation between rate of responding and sessions under two FI schedules and over a range of commonly used session values had been shown to be a power function. Using that basic relation, functions for behavioral acceleration, mass, and momentum are derived here. Data from other laboratories also support the applicability of a power function to VI schedules. A particular numerical value is introduced here to be the standard reference value for the behavioral force under the VI-60-s schedule. This reference allows numerical values to be calculated for the behavioral mass and momentum of individual animals. A comparison of the numerical values of the momenta of two animals can be used to evaluate their relative resistances to change, e.g., to extinction, which is itself viewed as a continuously changing behavioral force being imposed on the animal. This overall numerical approach allows behavioral force-values to be assigned to various experimental conditions such as the evaluation of the behavioral force of a medication dosage.

  19. Neural Circuit Mechanisms of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Patrick; Hong, Weizhe

    2018-04-04

    We live in a world that is largely socially constructed, and we are constantly involved in and fundamentally influenced by a broad array of complex social interactions. Social behaviors among conspecifics, either conflictive or cooperative, are exhibited by all sexually reproducing animal species and are essential for the health, survival, and reproduction of animals. Conversely, impairment in social function is a prominent feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Despite the importance of social behaviors, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. How is social sensory information processed and integrated in the nervous system? How are different social behavioral decisions selected and modulated in brain circuits? Here we discuss conceptual issues and recent advances in our understanding of brain regions and neural circuit mechanisms underlying the regulation of social behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms of Superplastic Deformation of Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing ...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information...NM 87110 1 INTERNATIONAL RSRCH ASSOCIATES INC D ORPHAL CAGE 06EXO 5274 BLACKBIRD DR PLEASANTON CA 94566 1 BOB SKAGGS

  1. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth G Vichaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While chemotherapeutic agents have yielded relative success in the treatment of cancer, patients are often plagued with unwanted and even debilitating side-effects from the treatment which can lead to dose reduction or even cessation of treatment. Common side effects (symptoms of chemotherapy include (i cognitive deficiencies such as problems with attention, memory and executive functioning; (ii fatigue and motivational deficit; and (iii neuropathy. These symptoms often develop during treatment but can remain even after cessation of chemotherapy, severely impacting long-term quality of life. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of these behavioral toxicities, however, neuroinflammation is widely considered to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced symptoms. Here, we critically assess what is known in regards to the role of neuroinflammation in chemotherapy-induced symptoms. We also argue that, based on the available evidence neuroinflammation is unlikely the only mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. We evaluate two other putative candidate mechanisms. To this end we discuss the mediating role of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs activated in response to chemotherapy-induced cellular damage. We also review the literature with respect to possible alternative mechanisms such as a chemotherapy-induced change in the bioenergetic status of the tissue involving changes in mitochondrial function in relation to chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of fatigue, neuropathy, and cognitive difficulties is vital to better treatment and long-term survival of cancer patients.

  2. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...... and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such effects may...... account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  3. Effects of superplastic deformations on thermophysical properties of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Y.; Wan, C.; Sakuma, T.; Harjo, S.; Shibata, T.; Ishihara, M.; Baba, S.; Hoshiya, T.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron irradiation studies on superplastic zirconia-based ceramics are now in progress as an innovative basic project using the High-temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan. The characteristics of the zirconia-based engineering components, made through the formation of superplastic, may be strongly affected by their response to transient or steady-state heat flow. Reliable thermophysical properties such as the coefficients of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity are, therefore, needed to estimate and predict the influence of a high-temperature environment. Accordingly, one of this project's targets is to study the thermophysical properties of superplastic zirconia-based ceramics. The first stage of the research addresses the effects of superplastic deformations on the thermophysical properties of a typical superplastic ceramic, 3 mol% yttria-stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP), in its un-irradiated state. First, superplastic tensile deformations were conducted on 3Y-TZP specimens under different conditions in order to obtain specimens with different microstructural characteristics. Afterwards, the following actions were taken: - Specific heat measurements were conducted on the specimens at temperatures ranging from 473 K to 1273 K. - The thermal diffusivity was measured using a laser flash method. The thermal conductivity was then calculated from the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat and density. - The linear thermal expansion was measured by a push-rod type dilatometer from 300 K to 1473 K. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) was estimated from the thermal expansion data. The results obtained from the above measurements are discussed, as is the microstructural evolution caused by the superplastic deformations. It was found that the specific heat was almost independent of microstructural evolution, whereas the thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion were quite sensitive to

  4. Roll-to-Roll Nanoforming of Metals Using Laser-Induced Superplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debkalpa; Munera, Juan C; Pal, Aniket; Sadri, Behnam; Scarpetti, Caio Lui P G; Martinez, Ramses V

    2018-05-24

    This Letter describes a low-cost, scalable nanomanufacturing process that enables the continuous forming of thin metallic layers with nanoscale accuracy using roll-to-roll, laser-induced superplasticity (R2RLIS). R2RLIS uses a laser shock to induce the ultrahigh-strain-rate deformation of metallic films at room temperature into low-cost polymeric nanomolds, independently of the original grain size of the metal. This simple and inexpensive nanoforming method does not require access to cleanrooms and associated facilities, and can be easily implemented on conventional CO 2 lasers, enabling laser systems commonly used for rapid prototyping or industrial cutting and engraving to fabricate uniform and three-dimensional crystalline metallic nanostructures over large areas. Tuning the laser power during the R2RLIS process enables the control of the aspect ratio and the mechanical and optical properties of the fabricated nanostructures. This roll-to-roll technique successfully fabricates mechanically strengthened gold plasmonic nanostructures with aspect ratios as high as 5 that exhibit high oxidation resistance and strong optical field enhancements. The CO 2 laser used in R2RLIS can also integrate the fabricated nanostructures on transparent flexible substrates with robust interfacial contact. The ability to fabricate ultrasmooth metallic nanostructures using roll-to-roll manufacturing enables the large scale production, at a relatively low-cost, of flexible plasmonic devices toward emerging applications.

  5. The mechanical behavior of microcellular foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkul, M.H.; Mark, J.E. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA)); Aubert, J.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of microcellular open-cell foams prepared by a thermally induced phase separation process are investigated. The foams studied were prepared from isotactic polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (rigid foams), and polyurethane and Lycra (elastomeric foams). Their densities were in the range 0.04--0.27 g/cm3. Conventional polystyrene foams were used for comparison. The moduli and collapse stresses of these foams were measured in compression and compared with the current constitutive laws which relate mechanical properties to densities. A reinforcement technique based on the in-situ precipitation of silica was used to improve the mechanical properties. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Ceramic research on transformational superplasticity and stoichiometry effects on fracture. Research progress report, June 1, 1975--May 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradt, R.C.; Hoke, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    The progress of the program is reviewed by treating each of the areas separately. In the superplasticity investigation, the results of the Bi 2 WO 6 and Bi 2 MoO 3 systems are discussed both in terms of the transformational deformation and also the thermal cycling growth phenomenon. The growth phenomenon on thermal cycling through the phase transition shows some interesting bulk and microstructural features in terms of specimen strain and highly anisotropic grain growth. The stoichiometry effects on the fracture (K/sub Ic/ and K-V behavior) of TiO/sub 2-x/ and Fe/sub 1-x/ are reviewed as that study has been completed. Progress on the MgO . X Al 2 O 3 system is discussed

  7. Improved formability of aluminum--germanium near eutectic compositions through the application of superplasticity principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pech, G.J.

    1977-12-01

    The 80-20 and 70-30 atomic percent Al-Ge compositions, which are used in the Nb 3 (Al,Ge) superconducting material, were investigated. These alloys are brittle at room temperature, but have been deformed plastically in this study by simulating conditions that have produced superplasticity in similar materials. The microstructure of these Al-Ge compositions was controlled to produce an inherently ductile structure of Ge spheroids dispersed throughout an Al matrix. A very fast cooling rate followed by a short anneal of 7 minutes at 400 0 C has been found to produce a fine homogenous spheroidal structure in 0.5'' diameter castings. Vickers microhardness tests were performed on castings of lamellar and fibrous microstructures after anneals at temperatures from 300 to 400 0 C. The deformation behavior of castings subjected to various conditions is reported. Parameters such as microstructure, temperature, % reduction, and anneals were investigated, and the results were used to successfully reduce Al-Ge castings to wire

  8. Influence of hydrogen additions on high-temperature superplasticity of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the addition of up to 1.0 wt pct hydrogen as a transient alloying element on the superplastic formability (SPF) of fine-grained, equiaxed Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) and duplex-annealed Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6242) were determined. Small amounts of internal hydrogen greatly improve the SPF of the alloys. Formability at 720-900 C was evaluated by an instrumented cone-forming test with continuous monitoring of strain with time. Argon/1 pct hydrogen and argon/4 pct hydrogen gas mixtures were used for charging the alloys with hydrogen as well as for superplastic forming. Hydrogen additions lower the beta-transus temperature of alpha-beta titanium alloys, and the proportions of the alpha and beta phases required for optimum superplasticity can thus be obtained at lower temperatures in hydrogen-modified alloys than in standard alloys. The increased amount of beta phase in the hydrogen-modified titanium alloys reduces the grain growth rates at forming temperature, thus reducing the time-dependent decrease in superplastic strain rate at constant stress or the increase in flow stress at constant strain rate. Process parameters for superplastic forming of Ti-64 and Ti-6242 using argon-hydrogen gas mixtures were determined. 8 references

  9. Effect of Heating Rate on Grain Structure and Superplasticity of 7B04 Aluminum Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Min

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine-grained 7B04 aluminum alloy sheets were manufactured through thermo-mechanical treatment. The effects of anneal heating rate on grain structure and superplasticity were investigated using electron back scattering diffraction(EBSD and high temperature tensile test. The results show that at the heating rate of 5.0×10-3K/s, the average grain sizes along the rolling direction(RD and normal direction(ND are 28.2μm and 13.9μm respectively, the nucleation rate is 1/1000. With the increase of heating rate, the average grain size decreases, and the nucleation rate increases. When the heating rate increases to 30.0K/s, the average grain sizes along the RD and ND decrease respectively to 9.9μm and 5.1μm, and the nucleation rate increases to 1/80. Besides, with the increase of heating rate, the elongation of sheets also increases. The elongation of the specimens increases from 100% to 730% under the deforming condition of 773K/8×10-4s-1.

  10. Fundamental Electronic Structure Characteristics and Mechanical Behavior of Aerospace Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Arthur J; Kontsevoi, Oleg Y; Gornostyrev, Yuri N; Medvedeva, Nadezhda I

    2008-01-01

    To fulfill the great potential of intermetallic alloys for high temperature structural applications, it is essential to understand the mechanisms controlling their mechanical behavior on the microscopic level...

  11. Superplastic flow of two-phase ceramics containing rigid inclusions-zirconia/mullite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, C.K.; Chen, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    A continuum theory for non-newtonian flow of a two-phase composite containing rigid inclusions is presented. It predicts flow suppression by a factor of (1 - V) q , where V is the volume fraction of the rigid inclusion and q depends on the stress exponent and the inclusion shape. Stress concentrations in the rigid inclusion have also been evaluated. As the stress exponent increases, flow suppression is more pronounced even though stress concentration is less severe. To test this theory, superplastic flow of zirconia/mullite composites, in which zirconia is a soft, non-Newtonian super-plastic matrix and mullite is a rigid phase of various size, shape, and amount, is studied. The continuum theory is found to describe the two-phase superplastic flow reasonably well

  12. Strain and strain-rate hardening characteristics of a superplastic Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, B.A.; Hamilton, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A number of alloys based on the composition of Al-Li-Zr have been shown to be superplastic under at least one of two different microstructural conditions: 1. fully recrystallized to a fine, stable grain size, and 2. warm- or cold-worked and unrecrystallized prior to superplastic deformation. For the latter case, static recrystallization was impaired by the presence of fine Al 3 Zr particles, and dynamic recrystallization was observed to occur during superplastic deformation in which the heavily worked microstructure evolved into a fine grained fully recrystallized microstructure. This process is observed in other Al alloys as well, such as the Al-Cu-Zr alloys (Supral alloys), Al-Zn-Mg-Zr alloys, Al-Mn-Zr alloys, and Al-Mg-Mn alloys where the dynamic recrystallization has been suggested to be a continuous reaction in which recrystallization occurs by a gradual and homogeneous process during deformation rather than by the more common nucleation and growth process. Experimental observations of continuous recrystallization show development of a subgrain structure which coarsens continuously while deformation proceeds, with a concurrent increase in the misorientation angle between adjacent subgrains which ultimately approaches that of a high-angle boundary, characteristic of a fully- recrystallized microstructure. During the first 50 to 300% deformation, the microstructure evolves from the heavily worked to a fully recrystallized microstructure after which the fully recrystallized microstructure apparently exhibits the typical micro-grain superplastic characteristics. Superplasticity under continuous dynamic recrystallization is of interest both from scientific and technological standpoints since the rates at which superplastic deformation can be obtained are often higher than those for the fully recrystallized microstructures

  13. Experimental and FE simulation validation of sheet thickness optimization in superplastic forming of Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaresan, G.; Jothilingam, A. [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-07-15

    Superplasticity is the ability of a polycrystalline materials to exhibit very large elongations without necking prior to failure. In this paper, the superplastic forming potential of fine grained 7075 aluminium alloy was studied. The process parameters like pressure, forming time and initial sheet thickness were selected, using the design of experiments technique. The same condition of formation process was attempted in the finite element simulation using ABAQUS software. The deviation of the thickness distribution between the simulation and experiment was made and the variation lies within 8%.

  14. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  15. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Duy Thuong; Dormieux, Luc; Lemarchand, Eric; Skoczylas, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillite is a very low permeability geo-material widely encountered: that is the reason why it is an excellent candidate for the storage of long-term nuclear waste depositories. This study focuses on argillites from Meuse-Haute-Marne (East of France) which forms a geological layer located approximately 400 m and 500 m depth. We know that this material is made up of a mixture of shale, quartz and calcite phases. The multi-scale definition of this material suggests the derivation of micro-mechanics reasonings in order to better account for the mechanisms occurring at the local (nano and micro-) scale and controlling the macroscopic mechanical behavior. In this work, up-scaling techniques are used in the context of thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings. The first step consists in clarifying the morphology of the microstructure at the relevant scales (particles arrangement, pore size distribution) and identifying the mechanisms that take place at those scales. These local informations provide the input data of micro-mechanics based models. Schematic picture of the microstructure where the argillite material behaves as a dual-porosity, with liquid in both micro-pores and interlayer space in between clay solid platelets, seems a reasonable starting point for this micro-mechanical modelling of clay. This allows us to link the physical phenomena (swelling clays) and the mechanical properties (elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio). At the pressure applied by the fluid on the solid platelets appears as the sum of the uniform pressure in the micro-pores and of a swelling overpressure depending on the distance between platelets and on the ion concentration in the micro-pores. The latter is proved to be responsible for a local elastic modulus of physical origin. This additional elastic component may strongly be influenced by both relative humidity and temperature. A first contribution of this study is to analysing this local elastic

  16. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Mechanical behavior of porous ceramic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucheu, M.A; Sandoval, M.L; Tomba Martinez, A.G; Camerucci, M.A

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of green and sintered porous ceramic materials, obtained by processing control, in relation to the microstructure developed was studied. Disks in green state were prepared by direct thermal consolidation of aqueous suspensions of kaolin, talc and alumina (preliminary mixture of cordierite) with the addition of different starches as consolidating/binding agents and as formers of pores at high temperature. Commercial kaolin (C-80 washed kaolin, Piedra Grande S.A., Argentina), micronized talc (Talc 40, China), calcinated alumina (A2G ALCOA, USA) and commercial potato, manioc, modified potato and corn starches were used as raw materials. The preliminary ceramic mixture was prepared based on the composition in oxides of the ceramic raw materials, in a relationship that was as close as possible to stoichiometric cordierite. Aqueous suspensions of the powders (65% solids; 0.5% sodium naphtolenosulfonate; 1% Dolapix with 17% of each kind of starch were prepared by intensive mechanical mixing, homogenization (ball mills, 2h) and extracting the air with vacuum 20 min. Disks were prepared (diameter=20-30 mm; thickness=3-4 mm) by thermal consolidation of the suspensions in steel molds at the maximum swelling factor temperature (Tms) for each starch (75- 85 o C) for 4h and, later drying at 50 o C, 12h. The porous materials of cordierite were obtained by calcination and reaction-sintering using a controlled thermal cycle: 1 o C/min up to 650 o C, 2h; 3 o C/min up to 1330 o C, 4h and 5 o C/min to room temperature. The characterization of the porous materials in green and sintered state was done by measuring density and apparent porosity, distribution of pore sizes and SEM. The mechanical resistance of the materials in green and sintered state was evaluated in diametrical compression (Instron universal testing machine servo hydraulic model 8501), in position control (0.1-0.2 mm/min) with a statistical number of test pieces, at room air temperature. The

  18. Superplastic Forming/Adhesive Bonding of Aluminum (SPF/AB) Multi-Sheet Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor); Will, Jeff D.; Cotton, James D.

    2003-01-01

    A significant fraction of airframe structure consists of stiffened panels that are costly and difficult to fabricate. This program explored a potentially lower-cost processing route for producing such panels. The alternative process sought to apply concurrent superplastic forming and adhesive bonding of aluminum alloy sheets. Processing conditions were chosen to balance adequate superplasticity of the alloy with thermal stability of the adhesive. As a first objective, an air-quenchable, superplastic aluminum-lithium alloy and a low-volatile content, low-viscosity adhesive with compatible forming/curing cycles were identified. A four-sheet forming pack was assembled which consisted of a welded two-sheet core separated from the face sheets by a layer of adhesive. Despite some preliminary success, of over 30 forming trials none was completely successful. The main problem was inadequate superplasticity in the heat-affected zones of the rib welds, which generally fractured prior to completion of the forming cycle. The welds are a necessary component in producing internal ribs by the 'four-sheet' process. Other challenges, such as surface preparation and adhesive bonding, were adequately solved. But without the larger issue of tearing at the weld locations, complex panel fabrication by SPF/AB does not appear viable.

  19. Superplasticity of Inconel 718 after processing by high-pressure sliding (HPS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takizawa, Y.; Kajita, T.; Král, Petr; Masuda, T.; Watanabe, K.; Yumoto, M.; Otagiri, Y.; Sklenička, Václav; Horita, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 682, JAN (2017), s. 603-612 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : High-pressure sliding (HPS) * Severe plastic deformation (SPD) * Ni-based superalloy * Superplasticity * Grain boundary sliding * Lattice diffusion Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  20. A constitutive model for the superplastic material ALNOVI-1 including leak risk information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Corijn H.C.; Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Pietzyk, M.; Kusiak, J.; Majta, J.; Hartley, P.; Lin, J.; Mori, K.

    2008-01-01

    For some applications, it is important that a formed sheet of material is completely gas tight, therefore it is beneficial to be able to predict whether a formed sheet will be leak tight for gases or not. Superplastic materials show the ability to attain very high plastic strains before failure.

  1. Superplasticity and grain boundary character distribution in overaged Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramovic-Cingara, G.; Aust, K.T.; Perovic, D.D.; McQueen, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of 8091 alloy were subjected to a thermomechanical processing (TMP) treatment that included the following stages: overaging before deformation, multistage deformation at 300 deg C and strain rate change tests for superplasticity. Torsional deformation was utilized both to develop the refined microstructure and to test for superplasticity. The strain rate sensitivity, m, of the material ranged between 0.30 and 0.45 at 450 deg C for strain rates between 8 x 10 -2 and 10 -3 s -1 . The grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) of thermomechanically processed Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr (8091) alloy, which develops good superplastic response, has been determined by an electron backscattering diffraction technique (EBSD). All grain boundaries have been classified into one of three categories in terms of Σ values : low angle, coincidence site lattice and random high angle boundaries. Quantitative studies of grain boundary character were done after various processing stages to obtain evidence about structure evolution and indicate an increase in Σ boundary frequency following TMP. Selected area electron diffraction examination (SAD) gave evidence about the refined structure, in which the grain boundary misorientation increased EBSD how the grain boundary character was changed to high Σ values. TEM analyses indicate that the T 2 phase is responsible for substructure stabilization. There is no evidence of cavity formation during superplastic deformation by torsion, which suggests that cavity nucleation is strongly influenced by the nature of stress. (author). 32 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  2. A superplastic Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr powder alloy with high hardness and modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Structure/property studies were made on an experimental Al-3.18% Li-4.29% Cu-1.17% Mg-0.18% Zr powder alloy, which is of the low density/high modulus type. Alloy powder was made by the P and W/GPD rapid solidification rate (RSR) process, canned, and extruded to bar. The density was 2.458 x 10/sup 6/ g/m/sup 3/. The material was solution-treated, and aged at 149 0 C(300 0 F), 171 0 C(340 0 F), and 193 0 C(380 0 F), using hardness tests to determine the aging curves. Testpieces solution-treated at 516 0 C(961 0 F) showed an average yield strength (0.2% offset) of 43.3 ksi (299 MPa) and ultimate tensile strength of 50.0 ksi (345 MPa), with 1% elongation, which increased to 73.0 ksi (503 MPa) and 73.1 ksi (504 MPa), respectively, with only 0.2% elongation, on peak aging at 193 0 C(380 0 F), with a modulus of elasticity of 11.4 x 10/sup 6/ psi (78.3 GPa). Hardness values reached 90-92 R/sub B/ on aging at 149-193 0 C(300-380 0 F). The as-extruded alloy showed superplastic behavior at 400-500 0 C(752-932 0 F) with elongations of 80-185% on 25.6 mm, peaking at 450 0 C(842 0 F). An RSR Al-2.53% Li-2.82% Mn-0.02% Zr extruded allow showed only 18-23% elongation at 400-500 0 C(752-932 0 F)

  3. Structure and mechanical behavior of bird beaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasuaki

    The structure and mechanical behavior of Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) and Wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) beaks were examined. The structure of Toco toucan and Wreathed hornbill beak was found to be a sandwich composite with an exterior of keratin and a fibrous bony network of closed cells made of trabeculae. A distinctive feature of the hornbill beak is its casque formed from cornified keratin layers. The casque is believed to have an acoustic function due to the complex internal structure. The toucan and hornbill beaks have a hollow region that extends from proximal to mid-section. The rhamphotheca is comprised of super-posed polygonal scales (45 mum diameter and 1 mum thickness) fixed by some organic adhesive. The branched intermediate filaments embedded in keratin matrix were discovered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The diameter of intermediate laments was ~10 nm. The orientation of intermediate filaments was examined with TEM tomography and the branched filaments were homogeneously distributed. The closed-cell foam is comprised of the fibrous structure of bony struts with an edge connectivity of three or four and the cells are sealed off by the thin membranes. The volumetric structure of bird beak foam was reproduced by computed tomography for finite element modeling.

  4. Superplastic properties of an Al-2.4Mg-1.8Li-0.5Sc alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.L. III; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that there is a need in the aerospace industry for structural, superplastic aluminum alloys that are formable at strain-rates greater than 10 -3 s -1 in order for the economic benefits of superplastic forming to be realized. The standard, structural, superplastic aluminum alloy in the aerospace industry is 7475, which has an optimum forming strain-rate near 10 -4 s -1 . Thus, research has been focused on modifying the microstructures of wrought Al-Li alloys such as 2090 and 8090 into superplastically formable (SPF) microstructures with improved properties, but the results have not been completely successful. Superplastic alloys with high strengths have been produced from the Al-Mg-Sc system. These alloys are strengthened by thermomechanical processing which precipitates small, coherent Al 3 Sc particles and increases the dislocation density of the material. The Mg is in solid solution and improves the work hardening capability of these alloys. Because superplastic forming is carried out at relatively high temperatures, recovery processes eliminate the dislocation strengthening resulting from the rolling and overage the precipitates. Lithium provides the most promising choice since it forms the ordered coherent precipitate δ (Al 3 Li), lowers the density, and increases the stiffness of aluminum alloys

  5. Quasi-superplasticity of a banded-grained Al-Mg-Y alloy processed by continuous casting-extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Furong, E-mail: cfr-lff@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhu, Xiaotong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Huaian Dekema Semiconductor Co., Ltd., Huaian 223300 (China); Wang, Shuncheng [Institute of Materials Processing and Forming Technology, Guangdong General Research Institute of Industrial Technology, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Shi, Lu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xu, Guangming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wen, Jinglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-04-06

    The continuous casting-extrusion (CTE) process is a short-route technology for fabricating aluminum and aluminum alloy wires. A novel Al-1.44Mg-1.09Y alloy was prepared by CTE, and its mechanical properties and microstructure evolution were investigated at elevated temperatures to explore the hot tensile ductility of aluminum alloy wire. A true strain to failure of 1.159 was obtained at 773 K and 1.67×10{sup −2} s{sup −1}, and the present alloy exhibits high strain rate quasi-superplasticity. Microstructure observations reveal that it is difficult to realize the equiaxedness of elongated or textured grains through hot tensile deformation. A new deformation mechanism map (DMM) was constructed which predicts that dislocation climb at high stress dominates the high-temperature deformation process. This theoretical prediction using the DMM is in good agreement with experimental transmission-electron-microscopy results and with the estimated true stress exponent of 5 and the activation energy for deformation in the range 127.378―141.536 kJ mol{sup −1}. A new three-dimensional histogram containing a dynamic recovery (DRV) or dynamic recrystallization factor was constructed to demonstrate that the DRV mechanism dominates the deformation. Most experimental results are consistent with prediction using this histogram.

  6. Quasi-superplasticity of a banded-grained Al-Mg-Y alloy processed by continuous casting-extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Furong; Zhu, Xiaotong; Wang, Shuncheng; Shi, Lu; Xu, Guangming; Wen, Jinglin

    2017-01-01

    The continuous casting-extrusion (CTE) process is a short-route technology for fabricating aluminum and aluminum alloy wires. A novel Al-1.44Mg-1.09Y alloy was prepared by CTE, and its mechanical properties and microstructure evolution were investigated at elevated temperatures to explore the hot tensile ductility of aluminum alloy wire. A true strain to failure of 1.159 was obtained at 773 K and 1.67×10 −2 s −1 , and the present alloy exhibits high strain rate quasi-superplasticity. Microstructure observations reveal that it is difficult to realize the equiaxedness of elongated or textured grains through hot tensile deformation. A new deformation mechanism map (DMM) was constructed which predicts that dislocation climb at high stress dominates the high-temperature deformation process. This theoretical prediction using the DMM is in good agreement with experimental transmission-electron-microscopy results and with the estimated true stress exponent of 5 and the activation energy for deformation in the range 127.378―141.536 kJ mol −1 . A new three-dimensional histogram containing a dynamic recovery (DRV) or dynamic recrystallization factor was constructed to demonstrate that the DRV mechanism dominates the deformation. Most experimental results are consistent with prediction using this histogram.

  7. Superplastic forming of rapid solidification processed Al-4Li-0.2Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschter, P.J.; Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum-4 wt pct lithium alloys are attractive as structural materials because they are 13 to 14 pct less dense and have 25 pct larger elastic moduli than high-strength 2XXX-and 7XXX-series aluminum alloys. These low-density alloys can be produced only by rapid solidification processing (RSP). Successful RSP of Al-4Li-0.2Zr, Al-4Li-1Mg-0.2Zr, and Al-4Li-1Cu-0.2Zr alloys with strengths similar to that of 7075-T76 has recently been demonstrated. Net-shaped processing techniques such as superplastic forming are capable of producing complex structural elements while minimizing usage of expensive material; thus, these techniques are particularly applicable to Al-Li alloys. The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions of strain rate and temperature under which RSP Al-4Li alloys could be superplastically formed

  8. Orientation-related phenomena in Al-Li sheet during superplastic forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, V.; Wilshire, B.

    1996-01-01

    The microtexture of superplastically deformed 8090 Al-Li sheet has been measured using electron back-scatter diffraction, for true strains of 0, 0.25, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.4. The data have been interpreted in terms of individual texture variants, grain boundary types (low angle or high angle) and grain junction types (I-lines or U -lines, as defined by an extension to the 0-lattice theory)

  9. The multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization, of a superplastic forming process, using ansys®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebenişan Gavril

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial practice, the product is intended to be flawless, with no technological difficulty in making the profile shapes. If this product results without defects, then any Finite Elements Method (FEM based simulation can support that technology. A technology engineer does not propose, very often to analyze the simulation of the design technology, but rather to try to optimize a solution that he feels feasible. Experiments used as the basis for numerical optimization analysis support their research in the field of superplastic forming. Determining the influence of input parameters on the output parameters, Determining the optimal shape of the product and the optimal initial geometry, the prediction of the cracks and possibly the fractures, the prediction of the final thickness of the sheet, these are the objectives of the research and optimization for this project. The results of the numerical simulations have been compared with the measurements made on parts and sections of the parts obtained by superplastic forming. Of course, the consistency of the results, costs, benefits, and times required to perform numerical simulations are evaluated, but they are not objectives for optimizing the superplastic forming process.

  10. Consumer behavior as a mechanism for identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kuzmuk

    2015-03-01

    Given this vital question is presence of  ukrainian society manifestations of contemporary consumer culture in which consumption can be considered as social­communicative function that has qualitative and quantitative characteristics and is mechanism for constructing person’s identity.

  11. Animal behavior models of the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic atypicality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyer, M.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This review describes the animal behavior models that provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the critical differences between the actions of typical vs. atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although many of these models are capable of differentiating between antipsychotic and other psychotropic

  12. A prototype of behavior selection mechanism based on emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Zushu

    2007-12-01

    In bionic methodology rather than in design methodology more familiar with, summarizing the psychological researches of emotion, we propose the biologic mechanism of emotion, emotion selection role in creature evolution and a anima framework including emotion similar to the classical control structure; and consulting Prospect Theory, build an Emotion Characteristic Functions(ECF) that computer emotion; two more emotion theories are added to them that higher emotion is preferred and middle emotion makes brain run more efficiently, emotional behavior mechanism comes into being. A simulation of proposed mechanism are designed and carried out on Alife Swarm software platform. In this simulation, a virtual grassland ecosystem is achieved where there are two kinds of artificial animals: herbivore and preyer. These artificial animals execute four types of behavior: wandering, escaping, finding food, finding sex partner in their lives. According the theories of animal ethnology, escaping from preyer is prior to other behaviors for its existence, finding food is secondly important behavior, rating is third one and wandering is last behavior. In keeping this behavior order, based on our behavior characteristic function theory, the specific functions of emotion computing are built of artificial autonomous animals. The result of simulation confirms the behavior selection mechanism.

  13. The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Xie, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Huang, P.; Xu, K. W.; Lu, T. J.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers (NMMs) has attracted much attention from both scientific and practical views. Compared with their monolithic counterparts, the large number of interfaces existing in the NMMs dictates the unique behavior of this special class of structural composite materials. While there have been a number of reviews on the mechanical mechanism of microlaminates, the rapid development of nanotechnology brought a pressing need for an overview focusing exclusively on a property-based definition of the NMMs, especially their size-dependent microstructure and mechanical performance. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the microstructure, mechanical property and plastic deformation physics of NMMs. We hope this review could accomplish two purposes: (1) introducing the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis to scientists and engineers working on NMM systems, and (2) providing a better understanding of interface behavior and the exceptional qualities the interfaces in NMMs display at atomic scale.

  14. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance

  15. Theory of superplastic flow in two-phase materials: roles of interphase-boundary dislocations, ledges, and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new theory is developed to explain superplastic flow in two-phase materials. It is postulated that boundary-dislocations, piled up in dislocation-Interphase-Boundaries (IPBs) climb away into disordered regions of the IPB. Sliding then occurs at an IPB as dislocations glide toward the head of the pile up to replace those which have climbed into disordered regions of the boundary. An energy barrier which would otherwise render sliding virtually impossible on dislocation-IPBs can, it is shown, be largely eliminated if the dislocations glide in pairs. The disorder (actually an antiphase domain boundary) which is created by the passage of the leading dislocation is then repaired by passage of its successor. The threshold stress for superplastic flow is provisionally identified with the stress which pins IPB dislocations to boundary ledges. The activation energy is theoretically that for IPB diffusion. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical equation for superplastic flow and the results of published experiments

  16. Mechanical behavior of mullite-zirconia composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahnoune F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mechanical properties of mullite–zirconia composites synthesised through reaction sintering of Algerian kaolin, α-Al2O3, and ZrO2 were characterized. Phases present and their transformations were characterized using x-ray diffraction. Hardness H and fracture toughness KIC were measured by Vickers indentation using a Zwick microhardness tester. The flexural strength was measured through three point bending test using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. It was found that the increase of ZrO2 content (from 0 to 32wt.% decreased the microhardness of the composites from 14 to 10.8 GPa. However, the increase of ZrO2 content (from 0 to 24wt.% increased the flexural strength of the composites from 142 to 390 MPa then decreased it with further increase of ZrO2 content. Also, the fracture toughness increased from 1.8 to 2.9 MPa.m1/2 with the increase of ZrO2 content from 0 to 32 wt.%; and the rate of the increase decreased at higher fractions of ZrO2 content. The average linear coefficient of thermal expansion (within the range 50 to 1450°C for samples containing 0 and 16 wt.% ZrO2 sintered at 1600°C for 2 hours was 4.7 x10-6 K-1 and 5.2 x 10-6 K-1 respectively.

  17. Dynamic mechanical behaviors of Fangshan marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic strength parameters are extensively used in mining engineering and rock mechanics. However, there are no widely accepted dynamic failure models for rocks. In this study, the dynamic punching shear strength, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS and tensile strength of fine-grained Fangshan marble (FM are first measured by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB system. The pulse-shaping technique is then implemented to maintain the dynamic force balance in SHPB tests. Experimental results show that the dynamic punching shear strength, UCS and tensile strength increase with the loading rate. A recently developed dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory is then used to interpret the testing data. In this model, the angle of internal friction ϕ is assumed to be independent of loading rate and is obtained using the static strength values. According to the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory, the dynamic UCS and the dynamic tensile strength are predicted from the dynamic punching shear strength. Furthermore, based on this dynamic theory, the dynamic UCS is predicted from the dynamic tensile strength. The consistency between the predicted and measured dynamic strengths demonstrates that the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory is applicable to FM.

  18. Mechanical Behavior of Additively Manufactured Uranium-6 wt. pct. Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wraith, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Burke, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamza, A. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, D. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hsiung, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McKeown, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sedillo, E. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Teslich, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Torres, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Urabe, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Freeman, D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alexander, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Iniguez, M. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ancheta, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lotscher, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Young, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Evans, C. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Florando, J. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gallegos, G. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Margraff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hrousis, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, G. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This report describes an effort to process uranium-6 weight% niobium using laser powder bed fusion. The chemistry, crystallography, microstructure and mechanical response resulting from this process are discussed with particular emphasis on the effect of the laser powder bed fusion process on impurities. In an effort to achieve homogenization and uniform mechanical behavior from different builds, as well as to induce a more conventional loading response, we explore post-processing heat treatments on this complex alloy. Elevated temperature heat treatment for recrystallization is evaluated and the effect of recrystallization on mechanical behavior in laser powder bed fusion processed U-6Nb is discussed. Wrought-like mechanical behavior and grain sizes are achieved through post-processing and are reported herein.

  19. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the mechanical behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimus, F.

    2003-12-01

    Zirconium alloys cladding tubes containing nuclear fuel of the Pressurized Water Reactors constitute the first safety barrier against the dissemination of radioactive elements. Thus, it is essential to predict the mechanical behavior of the material in-reactor conditions. This study aims, on the one hand, to identify and characterize the mechanisms of the plastic deformation of irradiated zirconium alloys and, on the other hand, to propose a micro-mechanical modeling based on these mechanisms. The experimental analysis shows that, for the irradiated material, the plastic deformation occurs by dislocation channeling. For transverse tensile test and internal pressure test this channeling occurs in the basal planes. However, for axial tensile test, the study revealed that the plastic deformation also occurs by channeling but in the prismatic and pyramidal planes. In addition, the study of the macroscopic mechanical behavior, compared to the deformation mechanisms observed by TEM, suggested that the internal stress is higher in the case of irradiated material than in the case of non-irradiated material, because of the very heterogeneous character of the plastic deformation. This analysis led to a coherent interpretation of the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials, in terms of deformation mechanisms. The mechanical behavior of irradiated materials was finally modeled by applying homogenization methods for heterogeneous materials. This model is able to reproduce adequately the mechanical behavior of the irradiated material, in agreement with the TEM observations. (author)

  20. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of weld-cracking and improvement of the weld-repair process of superplastic forming tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchosal, A.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Lours, P.; Haro, S.; Fras, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterisation of the microstructure of a heat-resistant austenitic cast steel. ► Failure analysis using in situ tensile tests and isothermal fatigue tests. ► Analyses of weld cracking mechanism during shielded metal arc welding process. ► Improvement of weld-repair method by re-melting of the base material surface with GTAW process. - Abstract: Superplastic forming (SPF) dies are generally made of using heat resistant cast steels, which are very sensitive to weld cracking. In order to improve the weld-repair process of such dies to prevent weld-cracking, the microstructure and the mechanical behaviour of a typical heat-resistant cast steel was first studied, using isothermal low-cycle fatigue tests and in situ tensile tests. The welding behaviour of such steel was also investigated, using a shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process and welding conditions similar to those employed for weld repair industrial dies. The comparison of the aspect of weld-cracking with the fracture mechanisms observed at room temperature or during isothermal low-cycle fatigue tests suggests a similar brittle failure mechanism, due to the presence of large interdendritic carbides in the cast steel. The melting of the cast steel surface using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process allowed to refine the primary carbides, and then to reduce the weld-cracking sensitivity. The refining method with GTAW before welding has been successfully tested to weld-repair a sample representative of SPF dies, and is recommended for subsequent repairs of such dies

  2. An evolutionary framework for studying mechanisms of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Hans A; Beery, Annaliese K; Blumstein, Daniel T; Couzin, Iain D; Earley, Ryan L; Hayes, Loren D; Hurd, Peter L; Lacey, Eileen A; Phelps, Steven M; Solomon, Nancy G; Taborsky, Michael; Young, Larry J; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2014-10-01

    Social interactions are central to most animals and have a fundamental impact upon the phenotype of an individual. Social behavior (social interactions among conspecifics) represents a central challenge to the integration of the functional and mechanistic bases of complex behavior. Traditionally, studies of proximate and ultimate elements of social behavior have been conducted by distinct groups of researchers, with little communication across perceived disciplinary boundaries. However, recent technological advances, coupled with increased recognition of the substantial variation in mechanisms underlying social interactions, should compel investigators from divergent disciplines to pursue more integrative analyses of social behavior. We propose an integrative conceptual framework intended to guide researchers towards a comprehensive understanding of the evolution and maintenance of mechanisms governing variation in sociality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Semiclassical asymptotic behavior and the rearrangement mechanisms for Coulomb particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.; Dubrovskii, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The semiclassical asymptotic behavior of the eikonal amplitude of the resonance rearrangement in a system of three Coulomb particles is studied. It is shown that the general formula for the amplitude correctly describes two classical mechanisms (pickup and knockout) and one nonclassical mechanism (stripping). The classical mechanisms predominate at high energies, while the stripping mechanism predominates at lower energies. In the region of medium energies the dominant mechanism is the pickup (or Thomas) mechanism, which is realized by nonclassical means. For such transitions the classical cross section diverges, and the amplitude must be computed on a complex trajectory. The physical reasons for introducing the approximate complex trajectories are discussed. The contributions of all the mechanisms to the rearrangement cross section are found in their analytic forms

  4. Anisotropic ionic conductivity observed in superplastically deformed yttria-stabilized zirconia/alumina composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drennan, J.; Swain, M.V.; Badwal, S.P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ionic conductivity measurements on a yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal/alumina composite subjected to superplastic deformation demonstrate anisotropic character. Parallel to the pressing direction, the grain-boundary resistance to oxygen ion mobility is 25% to 30% higher than that measured perpendicular to the pressing direction. The same directional dependency on the volume conductivity is observed but is less pronounced, showing approximately a 9% difference. Microstructural evidence reveals an agglomeration and elongation of alumina particles perpendicular to the pressing direction, and it is suggested that this phenomenon restricts the passage of ions parallel to the compression direction, giving rise to the anisotropic nature of the conductivity measurements

  5. Composition and grain size effects on the structural and mechanical properties of CuZr nanoglasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibi, Sara; Branicio, Paulo S.; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Joshi, Shailendra P.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoglasses (NGs), metallic glasses (MGs) with a nanoscale grain structure, have the potential to considerably increase the ductility of traditional MGs while retaining their outstanding mechanical properties. We investigated the effects of composition on the structural and mechanical properties of CuZr NG films with grain sizes between 3 to 15 nm using molecular dynamics simulations. Results indicate a transition from localized shear banding to homogeneous superplastic flow with decreasing grain size, although the critical average grain size depends on composition: 5 nm for Cu 36 Zr 64 and 3 nm for Cu 64 Zr 36 . The flow stress of the superplastic NG at different compositions follows the trend of the yield stress of the parent MG, i.e., Cu 36 Zr 64 yield/flow stress: 2.54 GPa/1.29 GPa and Cu 64 Zr 36 yield/flow stress: 3.57 GPa /1.58 GPa. Structural analysis indicates that the differences in mechanical behavior as a function of composition are rooted at the distinct statistics of prominent atomic Voronoi polyhedra. The mechanical behavior of NGs is also affected by the grain boundary thickness and the fraction of atoms at interfaces for a given average grain size. The results suggest that the composition dependence of the mechanical behavior of NGs follows that of their parent MGs, e.g., a stronger MG will generate a stronger NG, while the intrinsic tendency for homogeneous deformation occurring at small grain size is not affected by composition.

  6. Inclusions and mechanical behavior in the short transverse direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.; Bouleau, M.; Laniesse, J.; Lelong, C.; Pigoury, M.

    1977-01-01

    The variables liable to characterize the distribution of inclusions in plates, and the relationships between the mechanical properties and the fatigue behavior in, on the one hand, the short transverse direction, and, on the other hand, the inclusions are studied. A decoherence is shown between inclusions and matrix as the cause of the failure by lamellar tearing [fr

  7. Mechanical Behavior of Fully Expanded Commercially Available Endovascular Coronary Stents

    OpenAIRE

    Tambaca, Josip; Canic, Suncica; Kosor, Mate; Fish, R. David; Paniagua, David

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of endovascular coronary stents influences their therapeutic efficacy. Through computational studies, researchers can analyze device performance and improve designs. We developed a 1-dimensional finite element method, net-based algorithm and used it to analyze the effects of radial loading and bending in commercially available stents. Our computational study included designs modeled on the Express, Cypher, Xience, and Palmaz stents.

  8. Numerical simulation of mechanical behavior of composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    An original mechanical formulation to treat nonlinear orthotropic behavior of composite materials is presented in this book. It also examines different formulations that allow us to evaluate the behavior of composite materials through the composition of its components, obtaining a new composite material. Also two multiple scale homogenization methods are given, one based on the analytical study of the cells (Ad-hoc homogenization), and other one, more general based on the finite element procedure applied on the macro scale (upper-scale) and in the micro scale (sub-scale). A very general formulation to simulate the mechanical behavior for traditional composite structures (plywood, reinforced concrete, masonry, etc.), as well as the new composite materials reinforced with long and short fibers, nanotubes, etc., are also shown in this work. Typical phenomena occurring in composite materials are also described in this work, including fiber-matrix debounding, local buckling of fibers and its coupling with the over...

  9. Mechanical behavior of recycled polyethylene/piassava fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzubair, Amal, E-mail: amal@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco F, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miguez Suarez, Joao Carlos, E-mail: jmiguez@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The use of natural fibers for reinforcement of thermoplastics (which are found in domestic waste) is desirable since it is based on abundant and renewable resources and can be ecologically correct. Leopoldinia piassaba Wallace (commonly known as piassava), a palm tree native of Amazon-Brazil, is cheap, easily found in Brazilian markets and the main component of home appliances and decorative goods. The subject of the present work is a study of mechanical properties of composites of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE-r) reinforced with untreated, and treated (silane and NaOH) piassava fibers, in proportions varying from 0% to 20% and injection molded under fixed processing conditions. The influence of increasing amounts of piassava fibers and of surface treatment on the mechanical behavior of the composites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical testing (tensile and flexure) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The topography of the fractured surfaces of tested tensile specimens of unfilled and filled recycled HDPE was also observed by SEM and correlated with the mechanical behavior. As the fiber content increases, the composites show a gradual change in the mechanical properties and in the fracture mechanisms. Composites with 15% and 20% of piassava fibers were found to exhibit the best mechanical performance.

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms in experience-driven memory formation and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Rosemary E; Lubin, Farah D

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have long been associated with the regulation of gene-expression changes accompanying normal neuronal development and cellular differentiation; however, until recently these mechanisms were believed to be statically quiet in the adult brain. Behavioral neuroscientists have now begun to investigate these epigenetic mechanisms as potential regulators of gene-transcription changes in the CNS subserving synaptic plasticity and long-term memory (LTM) formation. Experimental evidence from learning and memory animal models has demonstrated that active chromatin remodeling occurs in terminally differentiated postmitotic neurons, suggesting that these molecular processes are indeed intimately involved in several stages of LTM formation, including consolidation, reconsolidation and extinction. Such chromatin modifications include the phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and the methylation of associated DNA to subsequently affect transcriptional gene readout triggered by learning. The present article examines how such learning-induced epigenetic changes contribute to LTM formation and influence behavior. In particular, this article is a survey of the specific epigenetic mechanisms that have been demonstrated to regulate gene expression for both transcription factors and growth factors in the CNS, which are critical for LTM formation and storage, as well as how aberrant epigenetic processing can contribute to psychological states such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. Together, the findings highlighted in this article support a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in the adult CNS serving as potential key molecular regulators of gene-transcription changes necessary for LTM formation and adult behavior. PMID:22126252

  11. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, F.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to model Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical behavior of fractured rock mass regarding a nuclear waste re-depository. For this, a methodology of modeling was proposed and was applied to a real underground site (EDF site at Nouvelle Romanche). This methodology consists, in a first step, to determine hydraulic and mechanical REV. Beyond the greatest of these REV, development of a finite element code allows to model all the fractures in an explicit manner. The homogenized mechanical properties are determined in drained and undrained boundary conditions by simulating triaxial tests that represent rock mass subject to loading. These simulations allow to study the evolution of hydraulic and mechanical properties as a function of stress state. Drained and undrained boundary conditions enable to discuss the validity of assimilation of a fractured rock mass to a porous medium. The simulations lead to a better understanding of the behavior of the fractured rock masses and allow to show the dominant role of the shear behavior of the fractures on the hydraulic and mechanical homogenized properties. From a thermal point of view, as long as conduction is dominant, thermal properties of the rock mass are almost the same as those the intact rock. (author)

  12. Positron annihilation studies of the Al-Ca-Zn superplastic alloy: thermal and thermomechanical contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayciriex, M.D.; Romero, R.; Somoza, A.; Silvetti, S.P.; Villagra, O.

    1993-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is an established method for the study of electronic structure and defect properties in metals and alloys. The application of this technique to the study of positron trapping in grain boundaries and related phenomena, however, is relatively scarce. The physical basis for the application of PAS to the study of grain boundaries is the fact that grain boundaries are regions of low atomic density which result in attractive sites to the trap positions. The superplastic alloys are particularly suitable materials to be studied with PAS; they have a fine-grained structure, and therefore a high density of grain boundaries. Moreover, in the annealed condition, they have a low density of other types of defects capable of trapping positrons, such as dislocations. This type of polycrystalline material can undergo extremely high deformations (up to hundreds and thousands percent) in a certain temperature-strain rate range without macroscopic failure. This paper is part of a whole study of the thermal and thermomechanical effects on the positron lifetime parameters and their relation with microstructural changes and the phenomenon of structural superplasticity in a Al-Ca-Zn alloy

  13. Variation of strain rate sensitivity index of a superplastic aluminum alloy in different testing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Omid; Jahazi, Mohammad; Bombardier, Nicolas; Samuel, Ehab

    2017-10-01

    The strain rate sensitivity index, m-value, is being applied as a common tool to evaluate the impact of the strain rate on the viscoplastic behaviour of materials. The m-value, as a constant number, has been frequently taken into consideration for modeling material behaviour in the numerical simulation of superplastic forming processes. However, the impact of the testing variables on the measured m-values has not been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the m-value for a superplastic grade of an aluminum alloy (i.e., AA5083) has been investigated. The conditions and the parameters that influence the strain rate sensitivity for the material are compared with three different testing methods, i.e., monotonic uniaxial tension test, strain rate jump test and stress relaxation test. All tests were conducted at elevated temperature (470°C) and at strain rates up to 0.1 s-1. The results show that the m-value is not constant and is highly dependent on the applied strain rate, strain level and testing method.

  14. High strain rate superplasticity in a friction stir processed 7075 Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.S.; Mahoney, M.W.; McFaden, S.X.; Mara, N.A.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1999-12-31

    In this paper, the authors report the first results using friction stir processing (FSP). In the last ten years, a new technique of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has emerged as an exciting solid state joining technique for aluminum alloys. This technique, developed by The Welding Institute (TWI), involves traversing a rotating tool that produces intense plastic deformation through a stirring action. The localized heating is produced by friction between the tool shoulder and the sheet top surface, as well as plastic deformation of the material in contact with the tool. This results in a stirred zone with a very fine grain size in a single pass. Mahoney et al. observed a grain size of 3 {micro}m in a 7075 Al alloy. This process can be easily adopted as a processing technique to obtain fine grain size. FSP of a commercial 7075 Al alloy resulted in significant enhancement of superplastic properties. The optimum superplastic strain rate was 10{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} at 490 C in the FSP 7075 Al alloy, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude in strain rate. The present results suggest an exciting possibility to use a simple FSP technique to enhance grain size dependent properties.

  15. The effect of the matrix superplastic deformation on interface reaction in fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astanin, V.V.; Imayeva, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that superplastic deformation affects the processes o solid phases bonding. In particular, the effect of a character of matrix flow upon nucleation and growth of the reaction products at the fiber/matrix interface should be expected during consolidation of the fiber-reinforced composites under superplastic conditions. The matrix material flow in thin clearance (about 20μm) between strengthening fibers is a special feature of composite consolidation. In previous papers, it was shown that the character of the flow in thin specimens, when the specimen thickness is equal to several grain sizes, is very different from that in thick specimens. In this manner the question of the effect of the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface formation is complicated and one should consider the peculiarities of matrix deformation during the composite fabrication and the effect of localization of the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface reaction. In this paper, the authors shall focus on these two problems

  16. Effect of regimes of equal-channel angular pressing on the superplasticity of aluminium alloy 1420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islamgaliev, R.K.; Yunusova, N.F.; Valiev, R.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Investigation results on the influence of conditions of equal-channel angular pressing (EAP) on structure and superplasticity of aluminium alloy 1420 (Al-5.5%Mg-2.2%Li-0.12%Zr) are reported. It is revealed that the superplasticity of alloy 1420 is determined not only by fine grains (less than 1 μm), but its structural and phase state as well. The structural phase state is shown to be greatly dependent on EAP conditions. In particular, the structure of specimens prepared using the optimal EAP conditions is characterized by a mean grain size (0.8 μm) of the matrix with predominantly high-angle disorientations as well as by presence of secondary phase Al 2 MgLi and AlLi particles with of 0.3 μm and 0.4 μm size respectively. It is shown that the rods with an optimal structural phase state exhibit record-breaking for the alloy elongation to fracture equal to 1620% at 400 Deg C and at strain rate of 10 -2 s -1 [ru

  17. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  18. Mechanical behavior and stress effects in hard superconductors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.C.; Easton, D.S.

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2 0 K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb 3 Sn and V 3 Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb 3 Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed

  19. Mechanical behavior of the ATLAS B0 model coil

    CERN Document Server

    Foussat, A; Acerbi, E; Alessandria, F; Berthier, R; Broggi, F; Daël, A; Dudarev, A; Mayri, C; Miele, P; Reytier, M; Rossi, L; Sorbi, M; Sun, Z; ten Kate, H H J; Vanenkov, I; Volpini, G

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS B0 model coil has been developed and constructed to verify the design parameters and the manufacture techniques of the Barrel Toroid coils (BT) that are under construction for the ATLAS Detector. Essential for successful operation is the mechanical behavior of the superconducting coil and its support structure. In the ATLAS magnet test facility, a magnetic mirror is used to reproduce in the model coil the electromagnetic forces of the BT coils when assembled in the final Barrel Toroid magnet system. The model coil is extensively equipped with mechanical instrumentation to monitor stresses and force levels as well as contraction during a cooling down and excitation up to nominal current. The installed set up of strain gauges, position sensors and capacitive force transducers is presented. Moreover the first mechanical results in terms of expected main stress, strain and deformation values are presented based on detailed mechanical analysis of the design. (7 refs).

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Sears, John S.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion, usually of equal atomic percent, they have high configurational entropy, and thus, they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and alloy stability. The present study investigates the mechanical behavior, fracture characteristics, and microstructure of two single-phase FCC HEAs CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn with some detailed attention given to melting, homogenization, and thermo-mechanical processing. Ingots approaching 8 kg in mass were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent to small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was given to both alloys in order to eliminate any solidification segregation. The alloys were then fabricated in the usual way (forging, followed by hot rolling) with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters employed. Transmission electron microscopy was subsequently used to assess the single-phase nature of the alloys prior to mechanical testing. Tensile specimens (ASTM E8) were prepared with tensile mechanical properties obtained from room temperature through 800 °C. Material from the gage section of selected tensile specimens was extracted to document room and elevated temperature deformation within the HEAs. Fracture surfaces were also examined to note fracture failure modes. The tensile behavior and selected tensile properties were compared with results in the literature for similar alloys.

  1. Mechanical behavior of silicon carbide nanoparticles under uniaxial compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qiuxiang; Fei, Jing; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin; Meng, Lijun, E-mail: ljmeng@xtu.edu.cn [Xiangtan University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Faculty of School of Physics and Optoelectronics (China)

    2016-03-15

    The mechanical behavior of SiC nanoparticles under uniaxial compression was investigated using an atomic-level compression simulation technique. The results revealed that the mechanical deformation of SiC nanocrystals is highly dependent on compression orientation, particle size, and temperature. A structural transformation from the original zinc-blende to a rock-salt phase is identified for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [001] direction at low temperature. However, the rock-salt phase is not observed for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [110] and [111] directions irrespective of size and temperature. The high-pressure-generated rock-salt phase strongly affects the mechanical behavior of the nanoparticles, including their hardness and deformation process. The hardness of [001]-compressed nanoparticles decreases monotonically as their size increases, different from that of [110] and [111]-compressed nanoparticles, which reaches a maximal value at a critical size and then decreases. Additionally, a temperature-dependent mechanical response was observed for all simulated SiC nanoparticles regardless of compression orientation and size. Interestingly, the hardness of SiC nanocrystals with a diameter of 8 nm compressed in [001]-orientation undergoes a steep decrease at 0.1–200 K and then a gradual decline from 250 to 1500 K. This trend can be attributed to different deformation mechanisms related to phase transformation and dislocations. Our results will be useful for practical applications of SiC nanoparticles under high pressure.

  2. Basic description of tailings from Aitik focusing on mechanical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanbhro, Riaz; Knutsson, Roger; Rodriguez, Juan; Edeskär, Tommy; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Tailings are artificial granular materials that behave different as compared to natural soil of equal grain sizes. Tailings particle sizes, shapes, gradation and mechanical behavior may influence the performance of tailings dams. Hence it is essential to understand the tailings materials in depth. This article describes present studies being carried out on Aitik tailings. Basic tailings characteristics including specific gravity, phase relationships, particle sizes, particle shapes and direct...

  3. Regular behaviors in SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoming

    1997-01-01

    In order to study regular behaviors in high-energy nucleon-nucleon collisions, a representation of the vector potential A i a is defined with respect to the (a,i)-dependence in the SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics. Equations of the classical infrared field as well as effective potentials are derived for the elastic or inelastic collision of two plane wave in a three-mode model and the decay of an excited spherically-symmetric field

  4. Volume Resistivity and Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelkarim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and mechanical properties of polymer composite materials are investigated through the determination of resistivity and hardness for composites samples. Epoxy composite samples have been prepared with different concentrations of certain inorganic fillers such as; Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and Silica (SiO2, of various size (micro, nano and hybrid to study the electrical and mechanical behavior. The volume resistivity reaches 3.23×1014 ohm.cm for the micro silica composite. Surface of composite material has been mechanically examined by hardness test. The results show that the resistivity of microcomposites and nanocmposites are increased with the decrease of filler concentration. But the resistivity of hybrid composites is increased with the increase of filler concentration. Maximum hardness value was obtained from hybrid silica composite with 0.1% filler concentration.

  5. Mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance of addictive-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassoler, F M; Sadri-Vakili, G

    2014-04-04

    Genetic factors are implicated in the heritability of drug abuse. However, even with advances in current technology no specific genes have been identified that are critical for the transmission of drug-induced phenotypes to subsequent generations. It is now evident that epigenetic factors contribute to disease heritability and represent a link between genes and the environment. Recently, epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to underlie drug-induced structural, synaptic, and behavioral plasticity by coordinating the expression of gene networks within the brain. Therefore, the epigenome provides a direct mechanism for drugs of abuse to influence the genetic events involved in the development of addiction as well as its heritability to subsequent generations. In this review we discuss the mechanisms underlying intergenerational epigenetic transmission, highlight studies that demonstrate this phenomenon with particular attention to the field of addiction, and identify gaps for future studies. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes.

  7. Random walk analysis of grain motion during superplastic deformation of TZP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, T; Yasuda, K; Shiota, T

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on grain motion in TZP (Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal) ceramics during superplastic deformation. The specimen was 16 times elongated repeatedly at 1400 0 C in air. The increment of true plastic strain was set to be 2%, and the specimen was deformed up to 30.3% true plastic strain finally. After each deformation, displacement vectors of specified 748 grains were measured from their position vectors determined by FE-SEM micrographs. As a result, the grains move to the tensile loading direction in zigzag way. And also, the zigzag motion changes with plastic strain: The grains move randomly (random walk motion) by the first 15% true plastic strain, and then grain motion becomes spatially uniform gradually. It is related to changes of constraint of surrounding matrix.

  8. Transient thermal-mechanical coupling behavior analysis of mechanical seals during start-up operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. C.; Meng, X. K.; Shen, M. X.; Peng, X. D.

    2016-05-01

    A transient thermal-mechanical coupling model for a contacting mechanical seal during start-up has been developed. It takes into consideration the coupling relationship among thermal-mechanical deformation, film thickness, temperature and heat generation. The finite element method and multi-iteration technology are applied to solve the temperature distribution and thermal-mechanical deformation as well as their evolution behavior. Results show that the seal gap transforms from negative coning to positive coning and the contact area of the mechanical seal gradually decreases during start-up. The location of the maximum temperature and maximum contact pressure move from the outer diameter to inside diameter. The heat generation and the friction torque increase sharply at first and then decrease. Meanwhile, the contact force decreases and the fluid film force and leakage rate increase.

  9. Effects of elastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the deformation and fracture behavior of ordered intermetallic compounds are examined within the framework of linear anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and cracks. The orientation dependence and the tension/compression asymmetry of yield stress are explained in terms of the anisotropic coupling effect of non-glide stresses to the glide strain. The anomalous yield behavior is related to the disparity (edge/screw) of dislocation mobility and the critical stress required for the dislocation multiplication mechanism of Frank-Read type. The slip-twin conjugate relationship, extensive faulting, and pseudo-twinning (martensitic transformation) at a crack tip can be enhanced also by the anisotropic coupling effect, which may lead to transformation toughening of shear type

  10. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  11. Toward a quantitative understanding of mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, M.; Lu, L.; Asaro, R.J.; Hosson, J.T.M. de; Ma, E.

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on nanocrystalline (nc) pure face-centered cubic metals, where systematic experimental data are available, this paper presents a brief overview of the recent progress made in improving mechanical properties of nc materials, and in quantitatively and mechanistically understanding the underlying mechanisms. The mechanical properties reviewed include strength, ductility, strain rate and temperature dependence, fatigue and tribological properties. The highlighted examples include recent experimental studies in obtaining both high strength and considerable ductility, the compromise between enhanced fatigue limit and reduced crack growth resistance, the stress-assisted dynamic grain growth during deformation, and the relation between rate sensitivity and possible deformation mechanisms. The recent advances in obtaining quantitative and mechanics-based models, developed in line with the related transmission electron microscopy and relevant molecular dynamics observations, are discussed with particular attention to mechanistic models of partial/perfect-dislocation or deformation-twin-mediated deformation processes interacting with grain boundaries, constitutive modeling and simulations of grain size distribution and dynamic grain growth, and physically motivated crystal plasticity modeling of pure Cu with nanoscale growth twins. Sustained research efforts have established a group of nanocrystalline and nanostructured metals that exhibit a combination of high strength and considerable ductility in tension. Accompanying the gradually deepening understanding of the deformation mechanisms and their relative importance, quantitative and mechanisms-based constitutive models that can realistically capture experimentally measured and grain-size-dependent stress-strain behavior, strain-rate sensitivity and even ductility limit are becoming available. Some outstanding issues and future opportunities are listed and discussed

  12. Shock loading influence on mechanical behavior of high purity iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, Francois; Voltz, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for high purity iron. The method developed is based on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked material. Shock effect is generated through plate impact tests performed in the range of 4 GPa to 39 GPa on a single stage light gas gun or a powder gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized. A formalism proposed by J.R.Klepaczko and based on physical relations has been adopted to describe stress strain curves

  13. Dynamic Mechanical Behaviors of 6082-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yibo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural components of high speed trains are usually made of aluminum alloys, for example, 6082. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the material is one of key factors considered in structural design and safety assessment. In this paper, dynamic mechanical experiments were conducted with strain rate ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 100 s−1 using Instron tensile testing machine. The true stress-strain curves were fitted based on experimental data. Johnson-Cook model of 6082-T6 aluminum alloy was built to investigate the effect of strain and strain rate on flow stress. It has shown that the flow stress was sensitive to the strain rate. Yield strength and tensile strength increased with a high strain rate, which showed strain rate effect to some extent. Fracture analysis was carried out by using Backscattered Electron imaging (BSE. As strain rate increased, more precipitates were generated in fracture.

  14. Continuum mechanical and computational aspects of material behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, Eliot; Gurtin, Morton E.

    2000-02-10

    The focus of the work is the application of continuum mechanics to materials science, specifically to the macroscopic characterization of material behavior at small length scales. The long-term goals are a continuum-mechanical framework for the study of materials that provides a basis for general theories and leads to boundary-value problems of physical relevance, and computational methods appropriate to these problems supplemented by physically meaningful regularizations to aid in their solution. Specific studies include the following: the development of a theory of polycrystalline plasticity that incorporates free energy associated with lattice mismatch between grains; the development of a theory of geometrically necessary dislocations within the context of finite-strain plasticity; the development of a gradient theory for single-crystal plasticity with geometrically necessary dislocations; simulations of dynamical fracture using a theory that allows for the kinking and branching of cracks; computation of segregation and compaction in flowing granular materials.

  15. Mechanical behavior and fatigue in polymeric composites at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Y.; Bussiba, A.; Mathias, H.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are often suggested as structural materials at low temperature. In this study, graphite epoxy and Kevlar-49/epoxy systems were investigated. Fatigue behavior was emphasized after establishing the standard monotonic mechanical properties, including fracture resistance parameters at 77, 190, and 296 K. Tension-tension fatigue crack propagation testing was carried out at nominal constant stress intensity amplitudes using precracked compact tensile specimens. The crack tip damage zone was measured and tracked by an electro-potential device, opening displacement gage, microscopic observation, and acoustic emission activity recording. Fractograhic and metallographic studies were performed with emphasis on fracture morphology and modes, failure processes, and description of sequential events. On the basis of these experimental results, the problem of fatigue resistance, including low temperature effects, is analyzed and discussed. The fundamental concepts of fatigue in composites are assessed, particularly in terms of fracture mechanics methods

  16. Behavior of LWR fuel elements under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Bocek, M.; Erbacher, F.; Fiege, A.; Fischer, M.; Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Holleck, H.; Karb, E.; Leistikow, S.; Melang, S.; Ondracek, G.; Thuemmler, F.; Wiehr, K.

    1977-01-01

    In the frame of the German reactor safety research program, the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe is carrying out a comprehensive program on the behavior of LWR fuel elements under a variety of power cooling mismatch conditions in particular during loss-of-coolant accidents. The major objectives are to establish a detailed quantitative understanding of fuel rod failures mechanisms and their thresholds, to evaluate the safety margins of power reactor cores under accident conditions and to investigate the feedback of fuel rod failures on the efficiency of emergency core cooling systems. This detailed quantitative understanding is achieved through extensive basic and integral experiments and is incorporated in a fuel behavior code. On the basis of these results the design of power reactor fuel elements and of safety devices can be further improved. The results of investigations on the inelastic deformation (ballooning) behavior of Zircaloy 4 cladding at LOCA temperatures in oxidizing atmosphere are presented. Depending upon strain rate and temperature superplastic deformation behavior was observed. In the equation of state of Zry 4 the strain rate sensitivity index depends strongly upon strain and in the superplastic region upon sample anisotropy. Oxidation kinetics experiments with Zry-tubes at 900-1300 0 C showed that the Baker-Just correlation describes the reality quite conservative. Therefore a reduction of the amount of Zry oxidation can be assumed in the course of a LOCA. The external oxidation of Zry-cladding by steam as well as internal oxidation by the oxygen in oxide fuel and fission products (Cs, I, Te) have an influence on the strain and rupture behavior of Zry-cladding at LOCA temperatures. In out-of-pile and inpile experiments the mechanical and thermal behavior of fuel rods during the blowdown, the heatup and the reflood phases of a LOCA are investigated under representative and controlled thermohydraulic conditions. The task of the inpile experiments is

  17. Mechanical Properties and Brittle Behavior of Silica Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sets of silica gels: aerogels, xerogels and sintered aerogels, have been studied in the objective to understand the mechanical behavior of these highly porous solids. The mechanical behaviour of gels is described in terms of elastic and brittle materials, like glasses or ceramics. The magnitude of the elastic and rupture modulus is several orders of magnitude lower compared to dense glass. The mechanical behaviours (elastic and brittle are related to the same kinds of gel characteristics: pore volume, silanol content and pore size. Elastic modulus depends strongly on the volume fraction of pores and on the condensation reaction between silanols. Concerning the brittleness features: rupture modulus and toughness, it is shown that pores size plays an important role. Pores can be considered as flaws in the terms of fracture mechanics and the flaw size is related to the pore size. Weibull’s theory is used to show the statistical nature of flaw. Moreover, stress corrosion behaviour is studied as a function of environmental conditions (water and alcoholic atmosphere and temperature.

  18. Superplastic forming of the Cd-17.4Zn alloy; Conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llanes-Briceno, J. A.; Torres-Villasenor, G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    In the present work the necessary steps to carry on the superplastic forming of the Cd-17.4Zn alloy are defined. The use of either atmospheric pressure or gas pressure as forming tools is analyzed. The optimum values of the variable involved (temperature, maximum strain and sensitivity index) are determined while a method for the characterization of futures superplastic alloys is set forth. The experimental characterization of the superplastic forming is achieved with free bulging of circular membranes of 12, 16, 24, 32 and 40 mm in diameter and with three different membrane thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm). [Spanish] Se definen los pasos necesarios para el conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4 Zn. Se comparan la presion atmosferica y el gas a presion como herramientas de conformado. Se determinan los valores optimos de la variables involucradas (temperatura, deformacion maxima e indice de sensibilidad) y se plantea una metodologia para la caracterizacion de futuras aleaciones superplasticas. El conformado superplastico se caracteriza experimentalmente mediante el inflado libre de membranas circulares de 12, 16, 24, 32 y 40 mm de diametro y tres diferentes espesores (0.4, 0.6 y 0.8 mm). Se muestra la estructura perlitica (enfuiada al aive Cd-17.4Zn) y la estructura grano fino. Se muestra la profundidad de deformacion en tres espesores (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm) a P=200 Kpa y T = 200 y a T = 230.

  19. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PRESTRESSED VISCOELASTIC ADHESIVE AREAS UNDER COMBINING LOADINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Murat Enginsoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, mechanical behaviors of adhesive tape VHB 4950 elastomeric material, which is an element of acrylic polymer group and which is in viscoelastic behavior, under different pre-stress conditions and complex forces of different geometric parameters created by combining loadings have been experimentally and numerically investigated. In experimental studies, loading-unloading cyclic tests, one of the different standardized tests for the mechanical characterization of viscoelastic material, have been applied which give the most suitable convergent optimization parameters for the finite element model. Different material models were also investigated by using the data obtained from loading-unloading test results in all numerical models. According to the experimental results, the most suitable material parameters were determined with the Abaqus Parallel Rheological Framework Model (PRF for 4 Yeoh Networks with Bergstrom-Boyce Flow model created in the Mcalibration software for finite element analysis. Subsequently, using these material parameters, finite element analysis was performed as three dimension non-linear viscoelastic with a commercial finite element software Abaqus. The finite element analysis results showed good correlation to the Force (N-Displacement (mm experimental data for maximum load-carrying capacity of structural specimens.

  20. On the Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Composite Material Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Jack

    During the period between 1993 and 2004, the author, as well as some colleagues and graduate students, had the honor to be supported by the Office of Naval Research to conduct research in several aspects of the behavior of structures composed of composite materials. The topics involved in this research program were numerous, but all contributed to increasing the understanding of how various structures that are useful for marine applications behaved. More specifically, the research topics focused on the reaction of structures that were made of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites when subjected to various loads and environmental conditions. This included the behavior of beam, plate/panel and shell structures. It involved studies that are applicable to fiberglass, graphite/carbon and Kevlar fibers imbedded in epoxy, polyester and other polymeric matrices. Unidirectional, cross-ply, angle ply, and woven composites were involved, both in laminated, monocoque as well as in sandwich constructions. Mid-plane symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates were studied, the latter involving bending-stretching coupling and other couplings that only can be achieved with advanced composite materials. The composite structures studied involved static loads, dynamic loading, shock loading as well as thermal and hygrothermal environments. One major consideration was determining the mechanical properties of composite materials subjected to high strain rates because the mechanical properties vary so significantly as the strain rate increases. A considerable number of references are cited for further reading and study for those interested.

  1. Chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposites: morphology and mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, C.R.C.; Melo, F.M.A. de; Vitorino, I.F.; Fook, M.V.L.; Silva, S.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This study chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposite films were prepared by solution intercalation process, seeking to investigate the effect of the chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 e 10/1) on the morphology and mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposites. It was used as nanophase, Argel sodium bentonite (AN), was provided by Bentonit Uniao Nordeste-BUN (Campina Grande, Brazil) and as biopolymer matrix the chitosan of low molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of 86,7% was supplied by Polymar (Fortaleza, Brazil). The bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction and tensile properties. According to the results, the morphology and the mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposite was affected by the ratio of chitosan/bentonite. The chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 and 10/1) indicated the formation of an intercalated nanostructure and of the predominantly exfoliated nanostructure, respectively. And the considerable increases in the resistance to the traction were observed mainly for the bionanocomposite with predominantly exfoliated morphology. (author)

  2. Influence of temperature on the mechanical behavior of polyvinylidene fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, Viviane; Pasqualino, Ilson Paranhos; Costa, Marysilvia Ferreira da

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a semicrystalline polymer that presents four crystalline phases being the non polar alpha phase the most common. Due to the very good chemical stability as well a good mechanical properties, PVDF is successfully employed as pressure barrier layers in risers. Meanwhile, its long time behavior in the presence of temperature and in direct contact with fluids is not yet well established. In this work, PVDF stress-strain behavior and stress relaxation with temperature were investigated. It was observed a decrease in elasticity modulus with increasing temperature although the decrease was not linear with temperature increase. The temperature increase also caused the decrease in the relaxation modulus (G(t)). It was also observed that samples strained up to 10% showed a more drastic decrease in modulus compared to samples strained up to 5% regardless the temperature. This behavior was expected and it was attributed to the fact that larger deformation associated to temperature facilitates mobility of the amorphous chains. Through the analysis of x-ray diffraction (XRD) it was observed that the structure was not change after relaxation tests regardless of the test temperature. Experimental results were used to validate the numerical model developed where good correlation with the experimental results were observed. (author)

  3. Collective mechanical behavior of multilayer colloidal arrays of hollow nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Retsch, Markus; Thomas, Edwin L; Boyce, Mary C

    2012-04-03

    The collective mechanical behavior of multilayer colloidal arrays of hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) is explored under spherical nanoindentation through a combination of experimental, numerical, and theoretical approaches. The effective indentation modulus E(ind) is found to decrease with an increasing number of layers in a nonlinear manner. The indentation force versus penetration depth behavior for multilayer hollow particle arrays is predicted by an approximate analytical model based on the spring stiffness of the individual particles and the multipoint, multiparticle interactions as well as force transmission between the layers. The model is in good agreement with experiments and with detailed finite element simulations. The ability to tune the effective indentation modulus, E(ind), of the multilayer arrays by manipulating particle geometry and layering is revealed through the model, where E(ind) = (0.725m(-3/2) + 0.275)E(mon) and E(mon) is the monolayer modulus and m is number of layers. E(ind) is seen to plateau with increasing m to E(ind_plateau) = 0.275E(mon) and E(mon) scales with (t/R)(2), t being the particle shell thickness and R being the particle radius. The scaling law governing the nonlinear decrease in indentation modulus with an increase in layer number (E(ind) scaling with m(-3/2)) is found to be similar to that governing the indentation modulus of thin solid films E(ind_solid) on a stiff substrate (where E(ind_solid) scales with h(-1.4) and also decreases until reaching a plateau value) which also decreases with an increase in film thickness h. However, the mechanisms underlying this trend for the colloidal array are clearly different, where discrete particle-to-particle interactions govern the colloidal array behavior in contrast to the substrate constraint on deformation, which governs the thickness dependence of the continuous thin film indentation modulus.

  4. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength.

  5. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nong; Zhang, Chenghao; Qian, Deyu; Han, Changliang; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-01

    The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength. PMID:29337897

  6. Silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: Physiochemical behavior and antimicrobial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chiqian; Hu, Zhiqiang; Deng, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Nanosilver (silver nanoparticles or AgNPs) has unique physiochemical properties and strong antimicrobial activities. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the physicochemical behavior (e.g., dissolution and aggregation) and antimicrobial mechanisms of nanosilver in aquatic environments. The inconsistency in calculating the Gibbs free energy of formation of nanosilver [ΔGf(AgNPs)] in aquatic environments highlights the research needed to carefully determine the thermodynamic stability of nanosilver. The dissolutive release of silver ion (Ag(+)) in the literature is often described using a pseudo-first-order kinetics, but the fit is generally poor. This paper proposes a two-stage model that could better predict silver ion release kinetics. The theoretical analysis suggests that nanosilver dissolution could occur under anoxic conditions and that nanosilver may be sulfidized to form silver sulfide (Ag2S) under strict anaerobic conditions, but more investigation with carefully-designed experiments is required to confirm the analysis. Although silver ion release is likely the main antimicrobial mechanism of nanosilver, the contributions of (ion-free) AgNPs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation to the overall toxicity of nanosilver must not be neglected. Several research directions are proposed to better understand the dissolution kinetics of nanosilver and its antimicrobial mechanisms under various aquatic environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HDM model magnet mechanical behavior with high manganese steel collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WEC) is presently under contract to the SSCL to design, develop, fabricate, and deliver superconducting dipole magnets for the High Energy Booster (HEB). As a first step toward these objectives SSCL supplied a design for short model magnets of 1.8 m in length (DSB). This design was used as a developmental tool for all phases of engineering and fabrication. Mechanical analysis of the HDM (High Energy Booster Dipole Magnets) model magnet design as specified by SSCL was performed with the following objectives: (1) to develop a thorough understanding of the design; (2) to review and verify through analytical and numerical analyses the SSCL model magnet design; (3) to identify any deficiencies that would violate design parameters specified in the HDM Design Requirements Document. A detailed analysis of the model magnet mechanical behavior was pursued by constructing a quarter section finite element model and solving with the ANSYS finite element code. Collar materials of Nitronic-40 and High-Manganese steel were both considered for the HEB model magnet program with the High-Manganese being the final selection. The primary mechanical difference in the two materials is the much lower thermal contraction of the High-Manganese steel. With this material the collars will contract less than the enclosing yoke producing an increased collar yoke interference during cooldown

  8. Novel mechanical behaviors of wurtzite CdSe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Bing [Shanghai Normal University, Department of Physics (China); Chen, Li [MCPHS University, School of Arts and Sciences (United States); Xie, Yiqun; Feng, Jie; Ye, Xiang, E-mail: yexiang@shnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Normal University, Department of Physics (China)

    2015-09-15

    As an important semiconducting nanomaterial, CdSe nanowires have attracted much attention. Although many studies have been conducted in the electronic and optical properties of CdSe NWs, the mechanical properties of Wurtzite (WZ) CdSe nanowires remain unclear. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the tensile mechanical properties and behaviors of [0001]-oriented Wurtzite CdSe nanowires. By monitoring the stretching processes of CdSe nanowires, three distinct structures are found: the WZ wire, a body-centered tetragonal structure with four-atom rings (denoted as BCT-4), and a structure that consists of ten-atom rings with two four-atom rings (denoted as TAR-4) which is observed for the first time. Not only the elastic tensile characteristics are highly reversible under unloading, but a reverse transition between TAR-4 and BCT-4 is also observed. The stretching processes also have a strong dependence on temperature. A tubular structure similar to carbon nanotubes is observed at 150 K, a single-atom chain is formed at 300, 350 and 450 K, and a double-atom chain is found at 600 K. Our findings on tensile mechanical properties of WZ CdSe nanowires does not only provide inspiration to future study on other properties of CdSe nanomaterials but also help design and build efficient nanoscale devices.

  9. Effect of Various SPD Techniques on Structure and Superplastic Deformation of Two Phase MgLiAl Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jan; Bobrowski, Piotr; Rusz, Stanislav; Hilser, Ondrej; Tański, Tomasz A.; Borek, Wojciech; Łagoda, Marek; Ostachowski, Paweł; Pałka, Paweł; Boczkal, Grzegorz; Kuc, Dariusz; Mikuszewski, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    MgLiAl alloy containing 9 wt% Li and 1.5% Al composed of hexagonal α and bcc β phases was cast under protecting atmosphere and hot extruded. Various methods of severe plastic deformation were applied to study their effect on structure and grain refinement. Rods were subjected to 1-3 passes of Twist Channel Angular Pressing TCAP (with helical component), cyclic compression to total strain ɛ = 5 using MAXStrain Gleeble equipment, both performed at temperature interval 160-200 °C and, as third SPD method, KOBO type extrusion at RT. The TCAP pass resulted in grain refinement of α phase from 30 μm down to about 2 μm and that of β phase from 12 to 5 μm. Maxstrain cycling 10 × up to ɛ = 5 led to much finer grain size of 300 nm. KOBO method performed at RT caused average grain size refinement of α and β phases down to about 1 μm. Hardness of alloy decreased slightly with increasing number of TCAP passes due to increase of small void density. It was higher after MAXStrain cycling and after KOBO extrusion. TEM studies after TCAP passes showed higher dislocation density in the β region than in the α phase. Crystallographic relationship (001) α|| (110) β indicated parallel positioning of slip planes of both phases. Electron diffraction technique confirmed increase of grain misorientation with number of TCAP passes. Stress/strain curves recorded at temperature 200 °C showed superplastic forming after 1st and 3rd TCAP passes with better superplastic properties due to higher elongation with increasing number of passes. Values of strain rate sensitivity coefficient m were calculated at 0.29 after 3rd TCAP pass for strain rate range 10-5 to 5 × 10-3 s-1. Deformation by MAXStrain cycling caused much more effective grain refinement with fine microtwins in α phase. Superplastic deformation was also observed in alloy deformed by KOBO method, however the value of m = 0.21 was obtained at lower temperature of deformation equal to 160 °C and deformation rate in the

  10. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Challenges in mechanical modeling of SFR fuel rod transient behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E.

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of SFR fuel rod mechanical behavior under transient conditions entails the development of a creep law to predict cladding viscoplastic strain. In this regard, this work is focused on defining a proper clad creep law structure as the basis to set a suitable model under SFR off-normal conditions as transient overpower and loss of fluid. To do so, a review of in-codes clad creep models has been done by using SAS-SFR, SCANAIR and ASTEC. The proposed creep model has been structured in two parts: viscoplastic behaviour before the failure (primary and secondary creep) and the failure due to viscoplastic collapse (tertiary creep). In order to model the first part, Norton creep law has been proposed as a conservative option. An irradiation hardening factor should be included for best estimate calculations. The recommendation for the second part is to apply a failure criterion based on strain limit or rupture time, which allows achieving conservative results.

  13. Study of the Mechanical Behavior of a Hyperelastic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbaba Houaria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits in emloying plastics material in microfluidic devices manufactures are extremely attractive that include reduced cost and simplified manufacturing procedures, particularly when compared to silicon. An additional benefit is the wide range of available plastic materials which allow the manufacturer to choose materials' properties suitable for their specific application. The Polydimethylsiloxane is commonly used in a wide range of microfluidic applications due to its flexibility and low cost. In addition the properties of the Polymethyl methacrylate such as the low cost, high transparency, and good chemical properties are needed in microfluidics applications. In this paper, we have used Finit Elements method to simulate the mechanical behavior of Polydimethylsiloxane and Polymethylmethacrylate using hyper elastic and linear elastic model. Sevral parameters have been studied; such as, thickness and number of mesh in order to optimize the dimension of the membrane. Also, we have studied the impact of the mesh form on the membrane’s displacement.

  14. Mechanical behavior of nanocellulose coated jute/green epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, A.; Militký, J.; Ali, A.; Usman Javed, M.

    2017-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of nanocellulose coating on the mechanical behavior of jute/green epoxy composites. Cellulose was purified from waste jute fibers, converted to nanocellulose by acid hydrolysis and subsequently 3, 5 and 10 wt % of nanocellulose suspensions were coated over woven jute reinforcement. The composites were prepared by hand layup and compression molding technique. The surface topologies of treated jute fibers, jute cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), nanocellulose coated jute fabrics and fractured surfaces of composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared composites were evaluated for tensile, flexural, fatigue and fracture toughness properties. The results revealed the improvement in tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, fatigue life and fracture toughness of composites with the increase in concentration of nanocellulose coating over jute reinforcement except the decrease in tensile strength.

  15. Mechanical behavior of multipass welded joint during stress relief annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Fukuda, Keiji; Nakacho, Keiji; Takahashi, Eiji; Sakamoto, Koichi.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation into mechanical behavior of a multipass welded joint of a pressure vessel during stress relief annealing was conducted. The study was performed theoretically and experimentally on idealized research models. In the theoretical analysis, the thermal elastic-plastic creep theory developed by the authors was applied. The behavior of multipass welded joints during the entire thermal cycle, from welding to stress relief annealing, was consistently analyzed by this theory. The results of the analysis show a good, fundamentally coincidence with the experimental findings. The outline of the results and conclusions is as follows. (1) In the case of the material (2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel) furnished in this study, the creep strain rate during stress relief annealing below 575 0 C obeys the strain-hardening creep law using the transient creep and the one above 575 0 C obeys the power creep law using the stational creep. (2) In the transverse residual stress (σsub(x)) distribution after annealing, the location of the largest tensile stress on the top surface is about 15 mm away from the toe of weld, and the largest at the cross section is just below the finishing bead. These features are similar to those of welding residual stresses. But the stress distribution after annealing is smoother than one from welding. (3) The effectiveness of stress relief annealing depends greatly on the annealing temperature. For example, most of residual stresses are relieved at the heating stage with a heating rate of 30 0 C/hr. to 100 0 C/hr. if the annealing temperature is 650 0 C, but if the annealing temperature is 550 0 C, the annealing is not effective even with a longer holding time. (4) In the case of multipass welding residual stresses studied in this paper, the behaviors of high stresses during annealing are approximated by ones during anisothermal relaxation. (auth.)

  16. Mechanical behavior and coupling between mechanical and oxidation in alloy 718: effect of solide solution elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Alloy 718 is the superalloy the most widely used in industry due to its excellent mechanical properties, as well as oxidation and corrosion resistance in wide range of temperatures and solicitation modes. Nevertheless, it is a well-known fact that this alloy is sensitive to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation assisted cracking under loading in the range of temperatures met in service. Mechanisms explaining this phenomenon are not well understood: nevertheless, it is well established that a relation exists between a change in fracture mode and the apparition of plastic instabilities phenomenon. During this study, the instability phenomenon, Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, in alloy 718 was studied by tensile tests in wide ranges of temperatures and strain rates. Different domains of plastic instabilities have been evidenced. Their characteristics suggest the existence of interactions between dislocations and different types of solute elements: interstitials for lower temperatures and substitutionals for higher testing temperatures. Mechanical spectroscopy tests have been performed on alloy 718 and various alloys which composition is comparable to that of alloy 718. These tests prove the mobility of molybdenum atoms in the alloy in the studied temperature range. Specific tests have been performed to study interaction phenomenon between plasticity and oxidation. These results highlight the strong effect of plastic strain rate on both mechanical behavior and intergranular cracking in alloy 718. The subsequent discussion leads to propose hypothesis on coupling effects between deformation mechanisms and oxidation assisted embrittlement in the observed cracking processes. (author)

  17. Mechanical behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, J.; Verzasconi, S.L.; Sawtell, R.R.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The cryogenic mechanical properties of aluminum-lithium alloys are of interest because these alloys are attractive candidate materials for cryogenic tankage. Previous work indicates that the strength-toughness relationship for alloy 2090-T81 (Al-2.7Cu-2.2Li-0.12Zr by weight) improves significantly as temperature decreases. The subject of this investigation is the mechanism of this improvement. Deformation behavior was studied since the fracture morphology did not change with temperature. Tensile failures in 2090-T81 and -T4 occur at plastic instability. In contrast, in the binary aluminum-lithium alloy studied here they occur well before plastic instability. For all three materials, the strain hardening rate in the longitudinal direction increases as temperature decreases. This increase is associated with an improvement in tensile elongation at low temperatures. In alloy 2090-T4, these results correlate with a decrease in planar slip at low temperatures. The improved toughness at low temperatures is believed to be due to increased stable deformation prior to fracture

  18. Patch Departure Behavior of Bumble Bees: Rules and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale E. Taneyhill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I present an increment-decay model for the mechanism of bumble bees' decision to depart from inflorescences. The probability of departure is the consequence of a dynamic threshold level of stimuli necessary to elicit a stereotyped landing reaction. Reception of floral nectar lowers this threshold, making the bee less likely to depart. Concurrently the threshold increases, making departure from the inflorescence more probable. Increments to the probability of landing are an increasing, decelerating function of nectar volume, and are worth less, in sequence, for the same amount of nectar. The model is contrasted to threshold departure rules, which predict that bees will depart from inflorescences if the amount of nectar in the last one or two flowers visited is below a given level. Field tests comparing the two models were performed with monkshood (Aconitum columbianum. Treated flowers contained a descending series of nectar volumes (6 to 0 L of 30 % sucrose solution. The more nectar that bees encountered in the treated flowers, the more likely they were to remain within the inflorescence after subsequently visiting one to three empty flowers. I discuss the differences between rules and mechanisms in regard to cognitive models of foraging behavior.

  19. Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet-Gendrot, S [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Dept. of Materials Study; Gilles, P; Migne, C [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France)

    1997-04-01

    Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural integrity of the components is studied. In order to assess the real severity of the casting defects under mechanical loadings, an experimental program was carried out. It consisted of testing, under both cyclic and monotonic solicitations, three-point bend specimens containing either a natural defect (in the form of a localized cluster of cavities) or a machined notch having the dimensions of the cluster`s envelope. The tests are analyzed in order to develop a method that takes into account the behavior of castings defects in a more realistic fashion than by an envelope crack. Various approaches are investigated, including the search of equivalent defects or of criteria based on continuum mechanics concepts, and compared with literature data. This study shows the conservatism of current safety analyses in modelling casting defects by envelope semi-elliptical cracks and contributes to the development of alternative approaches. (author) 18 refs.

  20. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of uranium on wood fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhe; Yi Facheng; Feng Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption performance of uranium on wood fiber was studied with static experiment. The influence factors on the U(Ⅵ) removal rate such as wood fiber particle size, adsorption time, dosage, temperature, pH and initial concentration were researched, and the adsorption process was analyzed in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics. The results show that the adsorption equilibrium time is 4 hours. When the pH reaches 3 for uranium-containing wastewater, uranium can be removed with the decrease of the size of adsorbent and with the increase of adsorbent dosage and temperature. The equilibrium adsorption data fit to Langmuir isotherms. The kinetic analysis shows that the adsorption rate is mainly controlled by chemical adsorption. The adsorption process can be described by an equation of pseudo 2nd-order model. The thermodynamic data indicate that the synergistic uranium bio-sorption by wood fiber is a spontaneous and endothermal adsorption process. The adsorption mechanism was analyzed with SEM, FT-IR and EDS. The results show that the surface form of wood fiber is changed and uranium mainly chelates with active groups on the fiber-s surface and forms the complexes. These indicate that the adsorption of uranium should be of surface coordination. The analyses of EDS before and after adsorption of uranium prove that the behavior of adsorption is ion exchange. The above results indicate that the adsorption mechanism is mainly surface coordination and ion exchange adsorption, followed by physical absorption. (authors)

  1. Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are ceramic materials, such as SiC, that have been reinforced by high strength fibers, such as carbon. Designers are interested in using ceramic matrix composites because they have the capability of withstanding significant loads while at relatively high temperatures (in excess of 1,000 C). Ceramic matrix composites retain the ceramic materials ability to withstand high temperatures, but also possess a much greater ductility and toughness. Their high strength and medium toughness is what makes them of so much interest to the aerospace community. This work concentrated on two different tasks. The first task was to do an extensive literature search into the mechanical behavior of ceramic matrix composite materials. This report contains the results of this task. The second task was to use this understanding to help interpret the ceramic matrix composite mechanical test results that had already been obtained by NASA. Since the specific details of these test results are subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), they are reported in a separate document (Jordan, 1997).

  2. Ultrafine-grained magnesium–lithium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion: Low-temperature superplasticity and potential for hydroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunoshita, Hirotaka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Edalati, Kaveh, E-mail: kaveh.edalati@zaiko6.zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Furui, Mitsuaki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Horita, Zenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-07-29

    A Mg–Li alloy with 8 wt% Li was processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) through the process of high-pressure torsion (HPT) to achieve ultrafine grains with an average grain size of ~500 nm. Tensile testing with an initial strain rate of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} showed that the alloy exhibited superplasticity at a temperature of 323 K or higher. Tensile testing in boiling water confirmed that the specimens were elongated to 350–480% at 373 K under the initial strain rates of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} to {sup 1}0{sup −2} s{sup −1} with a strain rate sensitivity of ~0.3. The current study suggests that not only superplastic forming but also superplastic hydroforming should be feasible after the grain refinement using the HPT method.

  3. Ultrafine-grained magnesium–lithium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion: Low-temperature superplasticity and potential for hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunoshita, Hirotaka; Edalati, Kaveh; Furui, Mitsuaki; Horita, Zenji

    2015-01-01

    A Mg–Li alloy with 8 wt% Li was processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) through the process of high-pressure torsion (HPT) to achieve ultrafine grains with an average grain size of ~500 nm. Tensile testing with an initial strain rate of 10 −3 s −1 showed that the alloy exhibited superplasticity at a temperature of 323 K or higher. Tensile testing in boiling water confirmed that the specimens were elongated to 350–480% at 373 K under the initial strain rates of 10 −3 s −1 to 1 0 −2 s −1 with a strain rate sensitivity of ~0.3. The current study suggests that not only superplastic forming but also superplastic hydroforming should be feasible after the grain refinement using the HPT method

  4. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  5. Nucleation and growth characteristics of cavities during the early stages of tensile creep deformation in a superplastic zirconia-20 wt% alumina composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.M.; Chokshi, A.H.; Nutt, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Constant-stress tensile creep experiments on a superplastic 3-mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia composite with 20 wt% alumina revealed that cavities nucleate relatively early during tensile deformation. The number of cavities nucleated increases with increasing imposed stress. The cavities nucleate at triple points associated largely with an alumina grain, and then grow rapidly in a cracklike manner to attain dimensions on the order of the grain facet size. It is suggested that coarser-grained superplastic ceramics exhibit lower ductility due to the ease in formation of such grain boundary facet-cracks and their interlinkage to form a macroscopic crack of critical dimensions

  6. Indirect Versus Direct Heating of Sheet Materials: Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding Using Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelyn, Alan; Kar, Aravinda; Fanourakis, Alexander; Flower, Terence; Ackerman, Mike; Keevil, Allen; Way, Jerome

    2010-06-01

    Many from within manufacturing industry consider superplastic forming (SPF) to be ‘high tech’, but it is often criticized as too complicated, expensive, slow and, in general, an unstable process when compared to other methods of manipulating sheet materials. Perhaps, the fundamental cause of this negative perception of SPF, and also of diffusion bonding (DB), is the fact that the current process of SPF/DB relies on indirect sources of heating to produce the conditions necessary for the material to be formed. Thus, heat is usually derived from the electrically heated platens of hydraulic presses, to a lesser extent from within furnaces and, sometimes, from heaters imbedded in ceramic moulds. Recent evaluations of these isothermal methods suggest they are slow, thermally inefficient and inappropriate for the process. In contrast, direct heating of only the material to be formed by modern, electrically efficient, lasers could transform SPF/DB into the first choice of designers in aerospace, automotive, marine, medical, architecture and leisure industries. Furthermore, ‘variable temperature’ direct heating which, in theory, is possible with a laser beam(s) may provide a means to control material thickness distribution, a goal of enormous importance as fuel efficient, lightweight structures for transportation systems are universally sought. This paper compares, and contrasts, the two systems and suggests how a change to laser heating might be achieved.

  7. Dynamic grain growth in superplastic Y-TZP and Al2O3/YTZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieh, T.G.; Tomasello, C.M.; Wadsworth, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that both static and dynamic grain growth have been studied during superplastic deformation of fine-grained yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) and alumina reinforced yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Al 2 O 3 /YTZ). Grain growth was observed in both materials at temperatures above 1350 degrees C. In the case of Y-TZP, both static and dynamic grain growth were found to obey a similar equation of the form: D 3 -D 0 3 = kt where D is the instantaneous grain size, D 0 is the initial grain size, t is the time, and k is a kinetic constant which depends primarily on temperature and grain boundary energy. The activation energies for Y-TZP were approximately 580 and 520 kJ/mol, for static and dynamic grain growth, respectively. In the case of Al 2 O 3 /YTZ, it was found that the grain growth rate for the Al 2 O 3 phase was slower than that for the ZrO 2 phase. The growth rate of the ZrO 2 phase in Al 2 O 3 /YTZ is, however, similar to that in monolithic ZrO 2 i.e., Y-TZP

  8. Mechanical experiments on the superplastic material ALNOVI-1, including leak information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2010-01-01

    In subatomic particle physics, unstable particles can be detected with a so-called vertex detector, placed inside a particle accelerator. A detecting unit close to the accelerator bunch of charged particles must be separated from the accelerator vacuum. A thin sheet with a complex 3D shape prevents

  9. Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet-Gendrot, S.; Gilles, P.

    2000-01-01

    Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural integrity of the components is studied under the most severe assumptions: presence of a large defect, accidental loadings and end-of-life material properties accounting for its thermal aging embrittlement at the service temperature. The casting defects are idealized as semi-circular surface cracks or notches that have envelope dimensions. In order to assess the real severity of the casting defects under mechanical loadings, an experimental program was carried out. It consisted of testing, under both cyclic and monotonic solicitations, three-point bend specimens containing either a natural defect (in the form of a localized cluster of cavities) or a machined notch having the dimensions of the cluster's envelope. The results show that shrinkage cavities are far less harmful than envelope notches thanks to the metal bridges between cavities. Under fatigue loadings, the generalized initiation of a cluster of cavities (defined when the cluster becomes a crack of the same global size) is reached for a number of cycles that is much higher than the one leading to the initiation of a notch. In the case of monotonic loadings, specimens with casting defects offer a very high resistance to ductile tearing. The tests are analyzed in order to develop a method that takes into account the behavior of casting defects in a more realistic fashion than by an envelope crack. Various approaches are investigated, including the search of equivalent defects or of criteria based on continuum mechanics concepts, and compared with literature data. This study shows the conservatism of current safety analyses in modeling casting defects by envelope semi-elliptical cracks and contributes to the development of alternative approaches. (orig.)

  10. The behavior of the planetary rings under the Kozai Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucerquia, M. A.; Ramírez, C. V.; Zuluaga, J. I.

    2017-07-01

    Rings are one of the main feature of almost all giant planets in the Solar System. Even though thousands of exoplanets have been discovered to date, no evidence of exoplanetary rings have been found despite the effort made in the development and enhancing of techniques and methods for direct or indirect detection. In the transit of a ringed planet, the dynamic of the ring itself could play a meaningful role due to the so called Kozai Mechanism (KM) acting on each particle of it. When some specific initial conditions of the ring are fulfilled (as a ring inclination greater than ˜ 39°), KM generates short periodic changes in the inclination and eccentricity of each particle, leading to a meaningful characteristic collective behavior of the ring: it changes its width, inclination and optical depth. These changes induce periodic variations on the eclipsed area of the parent star, generating slight changes in the observed transit signal. Under this mechanism, light curves depths and shapes oscillate according to the fluctuations of the ring. To show this effect we have performed numerical simulations of the dynamic of a system of particles to asses the ring inclination and width variations over time. We have calculated the expected variations in the transit depth and finally, we have estimated the effect on the light curve of a hypothetical ringed exoplanet affected by the KM. The detection of this effect could be used as an alternative method to detect/confirm exoplanetary rings, and also it could be considered as a way to explain anomalous light curves patterns of exoplanets, as the case of KIC 8462852 star.

  11. In situ TEM investigation of microstructural behavior of superplastic Al-Mg-Sc alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dám, Karel; Lejček, Pavel; Michalcová, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2013), s. 69-75 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA MŠk LM2011026; GA AV ČR KAN300100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : aluminium alloy s * ultrafine-grained alloy s * in situ TEM * equal-channel angular pressing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.925, year: 2013

  12. High-resolution analysis of the mechanical behavior of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, Alexa W.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical behavior and properties of biomaterials, such as tissue, have been directly and indirectly connected to numerous malignant physiological states. For example, an increase in the Young's Modulus of tissue can be indicative of cancer. Due to the heterogeneity of biomaterials, it is extremely important to perform these measurements using whole or unprocessed tissue because the tissue matrix contains important information about the intercellular interactions and the structure. Thus, developing high-resolution approaches that can accurately measure the elasticity of unprocessed tissue samples is of great interest. Unfortunately, conventional elastography methods such as atomic force microscopy, compression testing, and ultrasound elastography either require sample processing or have poor resolution. In the present work, we demonstrate the characterization of unprocessed salmon muscle using an optical polarimetric elastography system. We compare the results of compression testing within different samples of salmon skeletal muscle with different numbers of collagen membranes to characterize differences in heterogeneity. Using the intrinsic collagen membranes as markers, we determine the resolution of the system when testing biomaterials. The device reproducibly measures the stiffness of the tissues at variable strains. By analyzing the amount of energy lost by the sample during compression, collagen membranes that are 500 μm in size are detected.

  13. Mechanical behavior of high strength ceramic fibers at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressler, R. E.; Pysher, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of commercially available and developmental ceramic fibers, both oxide and nonoxide, has been experimentally studied at expected use temperatures. In addition, these properties have been compared to results from the literature. Tensile strengths were measured for three SiC-based and three oxide ceramic fibers for temperatures from 25 C to 1400 C. The SiC-based fibers were stronger but less stiff than the oxide fibers at room temperature and retained more of both strength and stiffness to high temperatures. Extensive creep and creep-rupture experiments have been performed on those fibers from this group which had the best strengths above 1200 C in both single filament tests and tests of fiber bundles. The creep rates for the oxides are on the order of two orders of magnitude faster than the polymer derived nonoxide fibers. The most creep resistant filaments available are single crystal c-axis sapphire filaments. Large diameter CVD fabricated SiC fibers are the most creep and rupture resistant nonoxide polycrystalline fibers tested to date.

  14. Mechanical behavior analysis on electrostatically actuated rectangular microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhikang; Zhao, Libo; Jiang, Zhuangde; Ye, Zhiying; Dai, Lu; Zhao, Yulong

    2015-03-01

    Microplates are widely used in various MEMS devices based on electrostatic actuation such as MEMS switches, micro pumps and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). Accurate predictions for the mechanical behavior of the microplate under electrostatic force are important not only for the design and optimization of these electrostatic devices but also for their operation. This paper presents a novel reduced-order model for electrostatically actuated rectangular and square microplates with a new method to treat the nonlinear electrostatic force. The model was developed using Galerkin method which turned the partial-differential equation governing the microplates into an ordinary equation system. Using this model and cosine-like deflection functions, explicit expressions were established for the deflection and pull-in voltage of the rectangular and square microplates. The theoretical results were well validated with the finite element method simulations and experimental data of literature. The expressions for the deflection analysis are able to predict the deflection up to the pull-in position with an error less than 5.0%. The expressions for the pull-in voltage analysis can determine the pull-in voltages with errors less than 1.0%. Additionally, the method to calculate the capacitance variation of the electrostatically actuated microplates was proposed. These theoretical analyses are helpful for design and optimization of electrostatically actuated microdevices.

  15. Mechanical behavior analysis on electrostatically actuated rectangular microplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhikang; Zhao, Libo; Jiang, Zhuangde; Ye, Zhiying; Zhao, Yulong; Dai, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Microplates are widely used in various MEMS devices based on electrostatic actuation such as MEMS switches, micro pumps and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). Accurate predictions for the mechanical behavior of the microplate under electrostatic force are important not only for the design and optimization of these electrostatic devices but also for their operation. This paper presents a novel reduced-order model for electrostatically actuated rectangular and square microplates with a new method to treat the nonlinear electrostatic force. The model was developed using Galerkin method which turned the partial-differential equation governing the microplates into an ordinary equation system. Using this model and cosine-like deflection functions, explicit expressions were established for the deflection and pull-in voltage of the rectangular and square microplates. The theoretical results were well validated with the finite element method simulations and experimental data of literature. The expressions for the deflection analysis are able to predict the deflection up to the pull-in position with an error less than 5.0%. The expressions for the pull-in voltage analysis can determine the pull-in voltages with errors less than 1.0%. Additionally, the method to calculate the capacitance variation of the electrostatically actuated microplates was proposed. These theoretical analyses are helpful for design and optimization of electrostatically actuated microdevices. (paper)

  16. Adsorption Behavior of Uranium and Mechanism Analysis on Banyan Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liangshu; Tan Kaixuan; Wang Xiao; Zheng Weina

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of uranium on banyan leaves was studied with static experiments. The adsorption process was analyzed in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, and the adsorption mechanism was analyzed with FTIR and SEM. In the studied condition, the equilibrium adsorption data fit to Freundlich isotherms, with a relation coefficient greater than 0.99. The adsorption of uranium on banyan leaves is an endothermic process. Kinetic analysis shows that the adsorption rate is mainly controlled by surface adsorption. The process of adsorption can be described by an equation of Pseudo 2nd-order model. The calculation data are in good agreement with the experimental data,and the relation coefficient is 0.9998. The thermodynamic data indicate that the synergistic uranium biosorption by banyan leaves is a spontaneous and endothermal adsorption process. The adsorption of uranium on banyan leaves changes the cell's surface form of banyan leaves.In the adsorption process, UO 2 2+ mainly chelates with -OH,C=O,P-O and Si=O etc. on the cell's surface and forms the complexes. The adsorption of uranium should be of surface coordination. (authors)

  17. Behavioral flexibility as a mechanism for coping with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik; Hall, L. Embere; Varner, Johanna; Loosen, Anne E.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gahl, Megan K.; Smith, Felisa A.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2017-01-01

    Of the primary responses to contemporary climate change – “move, adapt, acclimate, or die” – that are available to organisms, “acclimate” may be effectively achieved through behavioral modification. Behavioral flexibility allows animals to rapidly cope with changing environmental conditions, and behavior represents an important component of a species’ adaptive capacity in the face of climate change. However, there is currently a lack of knowledge about the limits or constraints on behavioral responses to changing conditions. Here, we characterize the contexts in which organisms respond to climate variability through behavior. First, we quantify patterns in behavioral responses across taxa with respect to timescales, climatic stimuli, life-history traits, and ecology. Next, we identify existing knowledge gaps, research biases, and other challenges. Finally, we discuss how conservation practitioners and resource managers can incorporate an improved understanding of behavioral flexibility into natural resource management and policy decisions.

  18. The Mechanical Behaviors of Various Dental Implant Materials under Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Bayata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of materials has a considerable role on long-term stability of implants. The materials having high resistance to fatigue are required for dental implant applications since these implants are subjected to cyclic loads during chewing. This study evaluates the performance of different types of materials (AISI 316L stainless steel, alumina and its porous state, CoCr alloys, yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA, and cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface by finite element analysis (FEA under real cyclic biting loads and researches the optimum material for implant applications. For the analysis, the implant design generated by our group was utilized. The mechanical behavior and the life of the implant under biting loads were estimated based on the material and surface properties. According to the condition based on ISO 14801, the FEA results showed that the equivalent von Mises stress values were in the range of 226.95 MPa and 239.05 MPa. The penetration analysis was also performed, and the calculated penetration of the models onto the bone structure ranged between 0.0037389 mm and 0.013626 mm. L-605 CoCr alloy-assigned implant model showed the least penetration, while cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface led to the most one. However, the difference was about 0.01 mm, and it may not be evaluated as a distinct difference. As the final numerical evaluation item, the fatigue life was executed, and the results were achieved in the range of 4 × 105 and 1 × 109 cycles. These results indicated that different materials showed good performance for each evaluation component, but considering the overall mechanical performance and the treatment process (implant adsorption by means of surface properties, cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface material was evaluated as the suitable one, and it may also be implied that it displayed enough performance in the designed dental implant model.

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Commercially Pure Titanium Weldments at Lower Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Anil Kumar, V.; Xavier, X. Roshan

    2018-05-01

    Commercially pure titanium is used for low-temperature applications due to good toughness attributed to single-phase microstructure (α). Electron beam welding (EBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes have been used for welding two grades of commercially pure titanium (Grade 2 and Grade 4). Martensitic microstructure is found to be finer in the case of EBW joint as compared to GTAW joint due to faster rate of cooling in the former process. Weldments have been characterized to study the mechanical behavior at ambient (298 K) and cryogenic temperatures (20 and 77 K). Strength of weldments increases with the decrease in temperature, which is found to be more prominent in case of Grade 4 titanium as compared to Grade 2. Weld efficiency of Grade 4 is found to be higher at all the temperatures (ambient, 77 and 20 K). However, ultimate tensile strength/yield strength ratio is higher for Grade 2 as compared to Grade 4. % Elongation is found to increase/retained at cryogenic temperatures for Grade 2, and it is found to decrease for Grade 4. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy of deformed samples confirmed the presence of extensive twinning in Grade 2 and the presence of finer martensitic structure in Grade 4. Fractography analysis of tested specimens revealed the presence of cleavage facets in Grade 4 and dimples in specimens of Grade 2. Higher strength in Grade 4 is attributed to higher oxygen restricting the twin-assisted slip, which is otherwise prominent in Grade 2 titanium.

  20. Manufacture of a four-sheet complex component from different titanium alloys by superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allazadeh, M. R.; Zuelli, N.

    2017-10-01

    A superplastic forming (SPF) technology process was deployed to form a complex component with eight-pocket from a four-sheet sandwich panel sheetstock. Six sheetstock packs were composed of two core sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-5Al-4Cr-4Mo-2Sn-2Zr titanium alloy and two skin sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo titanium alloy in three different combinations. The sheets were welded with two subsequent welding patterns over the core and skin sheets to meet the required component's details. The applied welding methods were intermittent and continuous resistance seam welding for bonding the core sheets to each other and the skin sheets over the core panel, respectively. The final component configuration was predicted based on the die drawings and finite element method (FEM) simulations for the sandwich panels. An SPF system set-up with two inlet gas pipe feeding facilitated the trials to deliver two pressure-time load cycles acting simultaneously which were extracted from FEM analysis for specific forming temperature and strain rate. The SPF pressure-time cycles were optimized via GOM scanning and visually inspecting some sections of the packs in order to assess the levels of core panel formation during the inflation process of the sheetstock. Two sets of GOM scan results were compared via GOM software to inspect the surface and internal features of the inflated multisheet packs. The results highlighted the capability of the tested SPF process to form complex components from a flat multisheet pack made of different titanium alloys.

  1. Tribological behavior and film formation mechanisms of carbon nanopearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad Nicholas

    Carbon nanopearls (CNPs) are amorphous carbon spheres that contain concentrically-oriented nanometer-sized graphitic flakes. Because of their spherical shape, size (˜150 nm), and structure consisting of concentrically oriented nano-sized sp2 flakes, CNPs are of interest for tribological applications, in particular for use in solid lubricant coatings. These studies were focused on investigating mechanisms of CNP lubrication, development of methods to deposit CNP onto substrates, synthesizing CNP-gold hybrid films using Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) and magnetron sputtering, and studying plasmas and other species present during film deposition using an Electrostatic Quadrupole Plasma (EQP) analyzer. CNPs deposited onto silicon using drop casting with methanol showed good lubricating properties in sliding contacts under dry conditions, where a transfer film was created in which morphology changed from nano-sized spheres to micron-sized agglomerates consisting of many highly deformed CNPs in which the nano-sized graphene flakes are sheared from the wrapped layer structure of the CNPs. The morphology of carbon nanopearl films deposited using a MAPLE system equipped with a 248 nm KrF excimer laser source was found to be influenced by multiple factors, including composition of the matrix solvent, laser energy and repetition rate, background pressure, and substrate temperature. The best parameters for depositing CNP films that are disperse, droplet-free and have the maximum amount of material deposited are as follows: toluene matrix, 700 mJ, 1 Hz, 100°C substrate temperature, and unregulated vacuum pressure. During depositions using MAPLE and sputtering in argon, electron ionization of toluene vapor generated from the MAPLE target and charge exchange reactions between toluene vapor and the argon plasma generated by the magnetron caused carbon to be deposited onto the gold sputter target. Thin films deposited under these conditions contained high

  2. Mechanisms Linking Ethical Leadership to Ethical Sales Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chi

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior. A total of 248 matched surveys with participant responses from insurance agents and their customers were collected. The insurance agents were asked to rate the ethical leadership of their leaders, the ethical climate in their organization, and their individual moral identity. Customers were asked to rate the perceived ethical sales behavior of the insurance agents. This empirical study utilized moderated mediation techniques to analyze the data. Results indicated that ethical climate mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior when moral identity was high, however, did not when moral identity was low. The research framework including contextual effects (i.e., ethical climate) and individual differences in moral judgment (i.e., moral identity) can provide a comprehensive picture of how ethical leadership influences ethical sales behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  3. All-acrylic superelastomers: facile synthesis and exceptional mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei; Goodwin, Andrew; Wang, Yangyang; Yin, Panchao; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Jiahua; Wu, Ting; Lu, Xinyi; Hu, Bin; Hong, Kunlun; Kang, Nam-Goo; Mays, Jimmy (Tennessee-K); (ORNL)

    2018-01-01

    All-acrylic multigraft copolymers made by a facile synthesis procedure exhibit elongation at break >1700% and strain recovery behavior far exceeding those of commercial acrylic and styrenic triblock copolymers.

  4. Thermal behaviors of mechanically activated pyrites by thermogravimetry (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huiping; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Zhang Pingmin

    2003-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of mechanically activated and non-activated pyrites were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at the heating rate of 10 K min -1 in argon. Results indicate that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T di ) in TG curves for mechanically activated pyrites decreases gradually with increasing the grinding time. The specific granulometric surface area (S G ), the structural disorder of mechanically activated pyrites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction laser particle size analyzer, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The results show that the S G of mechanically activated pyrites remains almost constant after a certain grinding time, and lattice distortions (ε) rise but the crystallite sizes (D) decrease with increasing the grinding time. All these results imply that the decrease of T di in TG curves of mechanically activated pyrites is mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions ε and the decrease of the crystallite sizes D of mechanically activated pyrite with increasing the grinding time. The differences in the reactivity between non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites were observed using characterization of the products obtained from 1 h treatment of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites at 713 K under inert atmosphere and characterization of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites exposed to ambient air for a certain period

  5. Exploring Managerial Mechanisms That Influence Innovative Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2014-01-01

    Increasing employees’ innovative work behaviour is a complex process of developing an internal climate supportive of idea generation and realization through use of financial, participative, and decentralization mechanisms. This article investigates the effectiveness of these managerial mechanisms...... as extra-role behaviour to be compensated for. Private employees recognize innovative work behaviour as necessary behaviour for career advancement....

  6. Mechanics of Granular Materials : Constitutive Behavior and Pattern Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.

    2012-01-01

    From pharmaceutical to mining or traveling desert dunes to earthquakes, granular materials are at the heart of many industries and natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of the machines handling them or, constructing safer buildings requires a critical understanding of their behavior. However,

  7. Parental Familism and Antisocial Behaviors: Development, Gender, and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Carmen; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Blanco, Carlos; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between parental familism (strong values of attachment to nuclear and extended family members) and youth antisocial behaviors over time. Method: Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York (n = 1,138) and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas,…

  8. Underlying mechanisms of improving physical activity behavior after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, H.P.; Streppel, K.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; van Harten, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  9. Underlying Mechanisms of Improving Physical Activity Behavior after Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Streppel, Kitty R.M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Woude, Luc H.V.; van Harten, Willem H.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  10. Mechanical behavior of fluoroelastomer considering long term ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Mukhopadhyay, R., E-mail: rm@ktp.jkmail.com [Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer and Tyre Research Institute (HASETRI), J. K. Tyre and Industries Ltd., Kankroli, Rajasthan 313342 (India); Raj, Baldev, E-mail: dr.baldev@psg.org.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tensile stress-strain of aged (32 weeks; 140/170/200 Degree-Sign C) Viton A-401C specimens at RT, 110 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress-softening negligible at 50/500 mm/min and RT/110 Degree-Sign C because of low black filler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RT relaxation at lower strain rate; 110 Degree-Sign C curve stiffening from Joule-Gough effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two zone stress-elongation behavior (cross-link, ionic domains) proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extendable to peroxide cured fluoroelastomers with Iodine at mid and end of chains. - Abstract: Stress-elongation behavior of a Viton A-401C based compound established for backup seals of 500 MW(e), Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor is depicted. Stress-softening effects are negligible during room temperature (RT) or 110 Degree-Sign C measurements on unaged samples at strain rates of 50 mm/min and 500 mm/min because of low filler content. Relaxation is observed during RT property determination at lower strain rate. Stiffening of behavior at 50 mm/min and 110 Degree-Sign C is attributed to Joule-Gough effect and absence of relaxation because of increased molecular chain mobility. The two zone stress-elongation behavior (determined by chemical cross-links up to {approx}85% strain and by ionic interactions beyond) propounded in the article by combining air-aged specimen data (32 weeks at 140/170/200 Degree-Sign C) provides a behavior map of bisphenol cured, low filler, fluoroelastomers made of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene. This could be extended to peroxide cured fluorocarbon rubbers for verifications and providing qualified compounds of better grades for critical nuclear elastomeric sealing applications.

  11. Fracture behavior and deformation mechanisms under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutard, J.L.; Dupouy, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    We have established the out-of-pile and in-pile deformation mechanism maps of a 316 stainless steel irradiated in a fast reactor. The knowledge of the dominating deformation mechanism either in post irradiation creep experiments or during the in-pile steady state operating conditions allows to rationalize the apparent discrepancy between the very low out-of-pile ductility and the rather high plastic diametral strains which are obtained in the fast reactor environment without fracture

  12. On the mechanical behavior of the human biliary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Luo; Wenguang Li; Nigel Bird; Swee Boon Chin; NA Hill; Alan G Johnson

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the biliary system.Gallstones and diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, i.e. acute pancreatitis and obstructive jandice, can be lethal, and patients with acalculous gallbladder pain often pose diagnostic difficulties and undergo repeated ultrasound scans and oral cholecystograms. Moreover, surgery to remove the gallbladder in these patients, in an attempt to relieve the symptoms, gives variable results. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the physiological and pathological functions of the biliary system, but the mechanism of the pathogenesis of gallstones and pain production still remain poorly understood. It is believed that the mechanical factors play an essential role in the mechanisms of the gallstone formation and biliary diseases. However, despite the extensive literature in clinical studies, only limited work has been carried out to study the biliary system from the mechanical point of view. In this paper, we discuss the state of art knowledge of the fluid dynamics of bile flow in the biliary tract, the solid mechanics of the gallbladder and bile ducts, recent mathematical and numerical modelling of the system,and finally the future challenges in the area.

  13. Behavioral addictions in addiction medicine: from mechanisms to practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Barbara C; Yip, Sarah W; Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in our understanding of nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions, although these conditions and their most appropriate classification remain debated and the knowledge basis for understanding the pathophysiology of and treatments for these conditions includes important gaps. Recent developments include the classification of gambling disorder as a "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorder" in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder in Section 3 of DSM-5. This chapter reviews current neuroscientific understandings of behavioral addictions and the potential of neurobiological data to assist in the development of improved policy, prevention, and treatment efforts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical behavior of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, J.Y.; Martin, A.; Llorca, J.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: W appears to be one of the candidate materials being considered for making plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a future fusion power reactor because of its refractory characteristics, low tritium retention and low sputtering yielding. However, its use in PFCs requires the development of W materials that, in addition to these properties, maintains good mechanical properties at high temperatures. In W, high temperature strength and creep resistance may be effectively increased by solid-solution and dispersion strengthening. Sintering could be a suitable method to produce solid-solution and dispersion strengthening in W alloys for these applications if their recrystallization temperature is high enough and the grain growth is restrained. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of W materials produced by liquid phase sintering using Ti as sintering activator and nanoparticles of Y 2 O 3 as strengthening dispersoids. The mechanical behaviour of pure W and W alloys, having 0.5 wt % Y 2 O 3 , X Wt % Ti and 0.5 wt % Y 2 O 3 + X wt % Ti prepared by powder metallurgy have been studied (0≤X≤4). Three point bending tests have been performed on 2 x 2 x 25 mm 3 specimens cut from ingots consolidated by a two-stage hot isostatic pressing process. The bending strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been determined as a function of temperature. The fracture surfaces have been analyzed to find the fracture mode and investigate the temperature dependence of the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The effect of the Y 2 O 3 dispersion and Ti content on the mechanical properties is also investigated. (authors)

  15. Mechanical behavior of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, J.Y.; Martin, A.; Llorca, J. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, Dept de Ciencia de Materiales (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Madrid Univ. Carlos 3, Dept. de Fisica (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: W appears to be one of the candidate materials being considered for making plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a future fusion power reactor because of its refractory characteristics, low tritium retention and low sputtering yielding. However, its use in PFCs requires the development of W materials that, in addition to these properties, maintains good mechanical properties at high temperatures. In W, high temperature strength and creep resistance may be effectively increased by solid-solution and dispersion strengthening. Sintering could be a suitable method to produce solid-solution and dispersion strengthening in W alloys for these applications if their recrystallization temperature is high enough and the grain growth is restrained. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of W materials produced by liquid phase sintering using Ti as sintering activator and nanoparticles of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as strengthening dispersoids. The mechanical behaviour of pure W and W alloys, having 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, X Wt % Ti and 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} + X wt % Ti prepared by powder metallurgy have been studied (0{<=}X{<=}4). Three point bending tests have been performed on 2 x 2 x 25 mm{sup 3} specimens cut from ingots consolidated by a two-stage hot isostatic pressing process. The bending strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been determined as a function of temperature. The fracture surfaces have been analyzed to find the fracture mode and investigate the temperature dependence of the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The effect of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion and Ti content on the mechanical properties is also investigated. (authors)

  16. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  17. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  18. Size effects in the mechanical behavior of cellular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekoglu, C; Onck, PR

    Effective mechanical properties of cellular materials depend strongly on the specimen size to the cell size ratio. Experimental studies performed on aluminium foams show that under uniaxial compression, the stiffness of these materials falls below the corresponding bulk value, when the ratio of the

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Bio-inspired Model Suture Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Lin, Erica; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary

    2012-02-01

    Suture joints of varying degrees of geometric complexity are prevalent throughout nature as a means of joining structural elements while providing locally tailored mechanical performance. Here, micromechanical models of general trapezoidal waveforms of varying hierarchy are formulated to reveal the role of geometric complexity in governing stiffness, strength, toughness and corresponding deformation and failure mechanisms. Physical constructs of model composite suture systems are fabricated via multi-material 3D printing (Object Connex500). Tensile tests are conducted on samples covering a range in geometry, thus providing quantitative measures of stiffness, strength, and failure. The experiments include direct visualization of the deformation and failure mechanisms and their progression, as well as their dependence on suture geometry, showing the interplay between shear and tension/compression of the interfacial layers and tension of the skeletal teeth and the transition in failure modes with geometry. The results provide quantitative guidelines for the design and tailoring of suture geometry to achieve the desired mechanical properties and also facilitate understanding of suture growth and fusion, and evolutionary phenotype.

  20. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Mechanical behavior of a composite interface: Calcium-silicate-hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palkovic, Steven D.; Moeini, Sina; Büyüköztürk, Oral, E-mail: obuyuk@mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yip, Sidney [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The generalized stacking fault (GSF) is a conceptual procedure historically used to assess shear behavior of defect-free crystalline structures through molecular dynamics or density functional theory simulations. We apply the GSF technique to the spatially and chemically complex quasi-layered structure of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the fundamental nanoscale binder within cementitious materials. A failure plane is enforced to calculate the shear traction-displacement response along a composite interface containing highly confined water molecules, hydroxyl groups, and calcium ions. GSF simulations are compared with affine (homogeneous) shear simulations, which allow strain to localize naturally in response to the local atomic environment. Comparison of strength and deformation behavior for the two loading methods shows the composite interface controls bulk shear deformation. Both models indicate the maximum shear strength of C-S-H exhibits a normal-stress dependency typical of cohesive-frictional materials. These findings suggest the applicability of GSF techniques to inhomogeneous structures and bonding environments, including other layered systems such as biological materials containing organic and inorganic interfaces.

  2. Mechanical Model for Dynamic Behavior of Concrete Under Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanxiang

    Concrete is a geo-material which is used substantively in the civil building and military safeguard. One coupled model of damage and plasticity to describe the complex behavior of concrete subjected to impact loading is proposed in this research work. The concrete is assumed as homogeneous continuum with pre-existing micro-cracks and micro-voids. Damage to concrete is caused due to micro-crack nucleation, growth and coalescence, and defined as the probability of fracture at a given crack density. It induces a decrease of strength and stiffness of concrete. Compaction of concrete is physically a collapse of the material voids. It produces the plastic strain in the concrete and, at the same time, an increase of the bulk modulus. In terms of crack growth model, micro-cracks are activated, and begin to propagate gradually. When crack density reaches a critical value, concrete takes place the smashing destroy. The model parameters for mortar are determined using plate impact experiment with uni-axial strain state. Comparison with the test results shows that the proposed model can give consistent prediction of the impact behavior of concrete. The proposed model may be used to design and analysis of concrete structures under impact and shock loading. This work is supported by State Key Laboratory of Explosion science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology (YBKT14-02).

  3. Mechanical properties and impact behavior of a microcellular structural foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avalle

    Full Text Available Structural foams are a relatively new class of materials with peculiar characteristics that make them very attractive in some energy absorption applications. They are currently used for packaging to protect goods from damage during transportation in the case of accidental impacts. Structural foams, in fact, have sufficient mechanical strength even with reduced weight: the balance between the two antagonist requirements demonstrates that these materials are profitable. Structural foams are generally made of microcellular materials, obtained by polymers where voids at the microscopic level are created. Although the processing technologies and some of the material properties, including mechanical, are well known, very little is established for what concerns dynamic impact properties, for the design of energy absorbing components made of microcellular foams. The paper reports a number of experimental results, in different loading conditions and loading speed, which will be a basis for the structural modeling.

  4. Mechanical behavior of chemically treated Jute/Polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of jute , a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, jute composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Mechanical properties of jute/polymer and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that jute can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Al-Li-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wego; Wells, M.G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical properties of two Al-Li-Zr alloys, A and B, are determined at various heat treatment conditions. Alloy B was found to have superior mechanical properties. It shows improvements in yield strength by 31.2-56.2 MPa and in ultimate tensile strength by 14.7-40.7 MPa, and yet still has a 20-25 percent better elongation value. The microstructure and fracture surface were studied by SEM and TEM. A fracture surface with mixed ductile samples and brittle facets was observed in both tensile and notch tensile samples. The fracture was more localized in alloy A than alloy B. Both alloys exhibited good notch toughness with a notch tensile strength to yield a strength ratio larger than one for all heat treatment conditions. 32 refs

  6. Mechanical Deformation Behavior of Lean Duplex 329LA Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung-Jun [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeom-Yong [POSCO Technical Research Lab., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung-Tae [Hanvat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Seong [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The tensile response of Lean Duplex 329LA stainless steel was investigated over various strain rates. It was observed that the mechanical response, including in particular the total elongation of the tested alloy, was strongly affected by the strain rate. As the strain rate decreased from 10-1 s-1 to 10-4 s-1, the elongation increased. As the strain rate increased, the deformation mode in an austenite phase was dominated by dislocation glide, resulting in deterioration of the elongation. The substructure of the ferritic phase showed a dislocation cell structure, independent of the applied strain rate. The optimum mechanical properties of lean duplex stainless steel thus can be obtained by controlling the deformation mode in the austenitic phase.

  7. Mechanical Deformation Behavior of Lean Duplex 329LA Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung-Jun; Choi, Jeom-Yong; Park, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Ho Seong

    2015-01-01

    The tensile response of Lean Duplex 329LA stainless steel was investigated over various strain rates. It was observed that the mechanical response, including in particular the total elongation of the tested alloy, was strongly affected by the strain rate. As the strain rate decreased from 10-1 s-1 to 10-4 s-1, the elongation increased. As the strain rate increased, the deformation mode in an austenite phase was dominated by dislocation glide, resulting in deterioration of the elongation. The substructure of the ferritic phase showed a dislocation cell structure, independent of the applied strain rate. The optimum mechanical properties of lean duplex stainless steel thus can be obtained by controlling the deformation mode in the austenitic phase.

  8. Chaotic behavior of seismic mechanisms: experiment and observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Bezzeghoud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    To simulate the dynamics of earthquakes, a mechanical prototype was constructed that was inspired by the Burridge-Knopoff model and equipped with accurate instrumental devices. The data obtained by the prototype appeared to be consistent with seismic data from the San Andreas Fault, California, USA, which were analyzed using two different methodologies: seismology and modern developments of chaos theory. Perspectives for future work are also presented.

  9. A Multiscale Simulation Method and Its Application to Determine the Mechanical Behavior of Heterogeneous Geomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the micro/mesomechanical behaviors of heterogeneous geomaterials, a multiscale simulation method that combines molecular simulation at the microscale, a mesoscale analysis of polished slices, and finite element numerical simulation is proposed. By processing the mesostructure images obtained from analyzing the polished slices of heterogeneous geomaterials and mapping them onto finite element meshes, a numerical model that more accurately reflects the mesostructures of heterogeneous geomaterials was established by combining the results with the microscale mechanical properties of geomaterials obtained from the molecular simulation. This model was then used to analyze the mechanical behaviors of heterogeneous materials. Because kernstone is a typical heterogeneous material that comprises many types of mineral crystals, it was used for the micro/mesoscale mechanical behavior analysis in this paper using the proposed method. The results suggest that the proposed method can be used to accurately and effectively study the mechanical behaviors of heterogeneous geomaterials at the micro/mesoscales.

  10. Influence aqueous solutions on the mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakim, J.

    2005-12-01

    The hydration of the shale with an aqueous solution induces a swelling deformation which plays an important role in the behaviour of the structures excavated in this type of grounds. This deformation is marked by a three-dimensional and anisotropic character and involves several mechanisms like adsorption, osmosis or capillarity. Several researches were dedicated to swelling and were often much debated due to the complexity of the implied phenomena. The goal of this thesis is therefore to contribute to a better understanding of shale swelling when the rock is confined and hydrated with an aqueous solution. The main part of the work accomplished was related to the Lorraine shale and to the Tournemire shale. To characterize swelling and to identify the main governing parameters, it was necessary to start the issue with an experimental approach. Many apparatus were then developed to carry out tests under various conditions of swelling. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the tests and thereafter the modelling of the behaviour, the experimental procedure adopted consisted of studying first the mechanical aspect and then the chemical aspect of swelling. In the mechanical part, swelling was studied by imposing on the sample a mechanical loading while maintaining during the tests the same aqueous solution. The principal parameters which were studied are the effect of the lateral conditions on axial swelling (impeded strain or constant stress) as well as the influence of the axial stress on radial swelling. The anisotropy of swelling was studied by carrying out, for different orientations of the sample, tests of free swelling, impeded swelling and uniaxial swelling. These various mechanical tests allowed to study the three-dimensional anisotropic swelling in all the conditions and to select the most appropriate test to be used in the second phase of the research. The precise analysis performed to explain the mechanisms behind the swelling of an argillaceous rock

  11. Effect of cement fineness and polycarboxylate dosage on the rheological and mechanical behavior of a mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahia Didouche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of certain organic additives in the production of mortar and concrete influences the workability and the hydration kinetic of mortar. This results in a modification of some properties, namely rheological behavior and mechanical strength. The objective of this work is to evaluate the rheological and mechanical behavior of a mortar by varying the fineness of the cement and using the superplasticizer Polycarboxylate.

  12. A multi-scale investigation of the mechanical behavior of durable sisal fiber cement composites

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Flávio de Andrade; Toledo Filho, Romildo D.; Mobasher, Barzin; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2010-01-01

    Durable sisal fiber cement composites reinforced with long unidirectional aligned fibers were developed and their mechanical behavior was characterized in a multi-scale level. Tensile tests were performed in individual sisal fibers. Weibull statistics were used to quantify the degree of variability in fiber strength at different gage lengths. The fiber-matrix pull-out behavior was evaluated at several curing ages and embedded lengths. The composite's mechanical response was measured under dir...

  13. Defining Auditory-Visual Objects: Behavioral Tests and Physiological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizley, Jennifer K; Maddox, Ross K; Lee, Adrian K C

    2016-02-01

    Crossmodal integration is a term applicable to many phenomena in which one sensory modality influences task performance or perception in another sensory modality. We distinguish the term binding as one that should be reserved specifically for the process that underpins perceptual object formation. To unambiguously differentiate binding form other types of integration, behavioral and neural studies must investigate perception of a feature orthogonal to the features that link the auditory and visual stimuli. We argue that supporting true perceptual binding (as opposed to other processes such as decision-making) is one role for cross-sensory influences in early sensory cortex. These early multisensory interactions may therefore form a physiological substrate for the bottom-up grouping of auditory and visual stimuli into auditory-visual (AV) objects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanoscale mechanical stimulation method for quantifying C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kiso, Kaori; Sugi, Takuma; Okumura, Etsuko; Igarashi, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Here, we establish a novel economic system to quantify C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory by a controllable nanoscale mechanical stimulation. Using piezoelectric sheet speaker, we can flexibly change the vibration properties at a nanoscale displacement level and quantify behavioral responses and memory under the control of each vibration property. This system will facilitate understanding of physiological aspects of C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory.

  15. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  16. Mechanical behavior of nanotwinned materials – experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavas, Hakan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    Nanotwinned materials exhibit high strength combined with excellent thermal stability, making them potentially attractive for numerous applications. When deposited on cold substrates at high rates, for example, silver films can be prepared with a high-density of growth twins with an average twin boundary spacing of less than 10 nm. These films show a very strong {111} texture, with the twin boundaries being perpendicular to the growth direction. The origins of superior mechanical and thermal properties of nanotwinned materials, however, are not yet fully understood and need further improvements.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of an Ultrafine/Nano Grained Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Fatemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of magnesium alloys is greatly limited because of their relatively low strength and ductility. An effective way to improve the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy is to refine the grains. As the race for better materials performance is never ending, attempts to develop viable techniques for microstructure refinement continue. Further refining of grain size requires, however, application of extreme value of plastic deformation on material. In this work, an AZ31 wrought magnesium alloy was processed by employing multipass accumulative back extrusion process. The obtained microstructure, texture, and room temperature compressive properties were characterized and discussed. The results indicated that grains of 80 nm to 1 μm size were formed during accumulative back extrusion, where the mean grain size of the experimental material was reduced by applying successive ABE passes. The fraction of DRX increased and the mean grain size of the ABEed alloy markedly lowered, as subsequent passes were applied. This helped to explain the higher yield stress govern the occurrence of twinning during compressive loading. Compressive yield and maximum compressive strengths were measured to increase by applying successive extrusion passes, while the strain-to-fracture dropped. The evolution of mechanical properties was explained relying on the grain refinement effect as well as texture change.

  18. The mechanical behavior of two warm-mix asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Rondón-Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results stemming from a comparative experimental analysis of two warm-mix asphalts (WMA and a dense-graded hot-mix asphalt (HMA. In order to evaluate asphalt mixture behavior, physical and rheological tests were conducted, including tests on resilient modulus, resistance to moisture-induced damage, resistance to fatigue and resistance to permanent deformation. Samples studied were subjected to short (STOA and long-term (LTOA aging. As far as asphalt mixture composition is concerned, the same particle size distribution and coarse aggregate were employed for both mixture types. The control HMA mixture was produced with AC 60-70, and the WMAs used the same asphalt cement modified with two chemical additives (Rediset WMX® and Cecabase RT®. The modified mixtures exhibited better resistance to permanent deformation, aging and moisture-induced damage (versus the control mixture. Likewise, WMAs generally saw increased fatigue resistance under controlled-stress loading, which rheological characterization showed is mainly attributable to binder additives and their concomitant modifications.

  19. Mechanical properties and failure behavior of unidirectional porous ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuba, Jordi; Deville, Sylvain; Guizard, Christian; Stevenson, Adam J.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the honeycomb out-of-plane model derived by Gibson and Ashby can be applied to describe the compressive behavior of unidirectional porous materials. Ice-templating allowed us to process samples with accurate control over pore volume, size, and morphology. These samples allowed us to evaluate the effect of this microstructural variations on the compressive strength in a porosity range of 45-80%. The maximum strength of 286 MPa was achieved in the least porous ice-templated sample (P(%) = 49.9), with the smallest pore size (3 μm). We found that the out-of-plane model only holds when buckling is the dominant failure mode, as should be expected. Furthermore, we controlled total pore volume by adjusting solids loading and sintering temperature. This strategy allows us to independently control macroporosity and densification of walls, and the compressive strength of ice-templated materials is exclusively dependent on total pore volume.

  20. Anomalous behavior of q-averages in nonextensive statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    A generalized definition of average, termed the q-average, is widely employed in the field of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Recently, it has however been pointed out that such an average value may behave unphysically under specific deformations of probability distributions. Here, the following three issues are discussed and clarified. Firstly, the deformations considered are physical and may be realized experimentally. Secondly, in view of the thermostatistics, the q-average is unstable in both finite and infinite discrete systems. Thirdly, a naive generalization of the discussion to continuous systems misses a point, and a norm better than the L 1 -norm should be employed for measuring the distance between two probability distributions. Consequently, stability of the q-average is shown not to be established in all of the cases

  1. The mechanical behavior of GLARE laminates for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guocai; Yang, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    GLARE (glass-reinforced aluminum laminate) is a new class of fiber metal laminates for advanced aerospace structural applications. It consists of thin aluminum sheets bonded together with unidirectional or biaxially reinforced adhesive prepreg of high-strength glass fibers. GLARE laminates offer a unique combination of properties such as outstanding fatigue resistance, high specific static properties, excellent impact resistance, good residual and blunt notch strength, flame resistance and corrosion properties, and ease of manufacture and repair. GLARE laminates can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications by varying the fiber/resin system, the alloy type and thickness, stacking sequence, fiber orientation, surface pretreatment technique, etc. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of various GLARE laminates under different loading conditions.

  2. Understanding the Personality and Behavioral Mechanisms Defining Hypersexuality in Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raymond, Nancy; Janssen, Erick; MacDonald, Angus; Coleman, Eli

    2016-09-01

    Hypersexuality has been conceptualized as sexual addiction, compulsivity, and impulsivity, among others, in the absence of strong empirical data in support of any specific conceptualization. To investigate personality factors and behavioral mechanisms that are relevant to hypersexuality in men who have sex with men. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size mid-western city. Participants were assigned to a hypersexuality group or a control group using an interview similar to the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Self-report inventories were administered that measured the broad personality constructs of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint and more narrow constructs related to sexual behavioral control, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, sexual excitation, sexual inhibition, impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sexual behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the relation between these personality and behavioral variables and group membership. A hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age showed a significant positive relation between hypersexuality and negative emotionality and a negative relation with constraint. None of the behavioral mechanism variables entered this equation. However, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis predicting sexual behavioral control indicated that lack of such control was positively related to sexual excitation and sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance failure and negatively related to sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance consequences and general behavioral inhibition Hypersexuality was found to be related to two broad personality factors that are characterized by emotional reactivity, risk taking, and impulsivity. The associated lack of sexual behavior control is influenced by sexual

  3. Stress and Memory: Behavioral Effects and Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Pinelo-Nava

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory processes. Although there have been a few attempts in the literature to explain the diversity of effects (including facilitating, impairing, and lack of effects described for the impact of stress on memory function according to single classification criterion, they have proved insufficient to explain the whole complexity of effects. Here, we review the literature in the field of stress and memory interactions according to five selected classifying factors (source of stress, stressor duration, stressor intensity, stressor timing with regard to memory phase, and learning type in an attempt to develop an integrative model to understand how stress affects memory function. Summarizing on those conditions in which there was enough information, we conclude that high stress levels, whether intrinsic (triggered by the cognitive challenge or extrinsic (induced by conditions completely unrelated to the cognitive task, tend to facilitate Pavlovian conditioning (in a linear-asymptotic manner, while being deleterious for spatial/explicit information processing (which with regard to intrinsic stress levels follows an inverted U-shape effect. Moreover, after reviewing the literature, we conclude that all selected factors are essential to develop an integrative model that defines the outcome of stress effects in memory processes. In parallel, we provide a brief review of the main neurobiological mechanisms proposed to account for the different effects of stress in memory function. Glucocorticoids were found as a common mediating mechanism for both the facilitating and impairing actions of stress in different memory processes and phases. Among the brain regions implicated, the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex were highlighted as critical for the mediation of stress effects.

  4. Low-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel with Sigma Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kang, Ki-Yeob; Kim, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies in various aspects have to be conducted to maintain stable applications of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) because the occurrence rate of sigma phase, variable temperature and growth direction of sigma phase can influence mechanical performances of SDSS. Tensile tests of precipitated SDSS were performed under various temperatures to analyze mechanical and morphological behavior.

  5. Low-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel with Sigma Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Kee Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies in various aspects have to be conducted to maintain stable applications of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS because the occurrence rate of sigma phase, variable temperature and growth direction of sigma phase can influence mechanical performances of SDSS. Tensile tests of precipitated SDSS were performed under various temperatures to analyze mechanical and morphological behavior.

  6. An Examination of the Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…

  7. Linguistic Mechanisms Cause Rapid Behavior Change. Part Two: How Linguistic Frames Affect Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Written and spoken language contains inherent mechanisms driving motivation. Accessing and modifying psycholinguistic mechanisms, links language frames to changes in behavior within the context of motivational profiling. For example, holding an object like an imported apple feels safe until one is informed it was grown in a toxic waste dump.…

  8. The Effect of Nanoparticles Percentage on Mechanical Behavior of Silica-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Masoodi, R.; Rostami, H.

    2013-01-01

    Silica-epoxy nanocomposites are very common among nanocomposites, which makes them very important. Several researchers have studied the effect of nanoparticle’s size, shape, and loading on mechanical behavior of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. This paper reviews the most important research done on the effect of nanoparticle loading on mechanical properties of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. While the main focus is the tensile behavior of nanocomposite, the compressive behavior and flexural behavior were also reviewed. Finally, some of the published experimental data were combined in the graphs, using dimensionless parameters. Later, the best fitted curves were used to derive some empirical formulas for mechanical properties of silica-epoxy nanocomposites as functions of weight or volume fraction of nanoparticles.

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Nano Bio Composite for Orthopedic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, K., Dr.; Rajan, Sankar

    2018-04-01

    The bio-based polymer composites have been the focus of many scientific and research projects, as well as many commercial programs. In recent years, scientists and engineers have been working together to use the inherent strength and performance of the new class of bio-based composites which is compactable with human body and can act as a substitute for living cells. In this stage the polymer composites also stepped into human bone implants as a replacement for metallic implants which was problems like corrosion resistance and high cost. The polymer composite have the advantage that it can be molded to the required shape, the polymers have high corrosion resistance, less weight and low cost. The aim of this research is to develop and analyze the suitable bio compactable polymer composite for human implants. The nano particles reinforced polymer composites provides good mechanical properties and shows good tribological properties especially in the total hip and knee replacements. The graphene oxide powders are bio compactable and acts as anti biotic. GO nano powder where reinforced into High-density polyethylene in various weight percentage of 0.5% to 2%. The performance of GO nano powder shows better tribological properties. The material produced does not cause any pollution to the environment and at the same time it can be bio compactable and sustainable. The product will act environmentally friendly.

  10. Performance of mechanical behavior of kenaf fibre reinforced foamed composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzabin, Mst. Sadia; Hock, Lim Jee; Kang, Lim Siong; Jarghouyeh, Ehsan Nikbakht

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical properties of lightweight foamed composite (LFC) with the inclusion of kenaf fibres and superplasticizer. NaOH treated kenaf fibre contents of 0.4%, 0.45% and 0.5% (by weight of cement) with 5cm length were used in composite. The density of 1000kg/m3 to 2000kg/m3 foamed concrete was used for all the tested specimens. The ratio of cement, sand and water used was 1:1.5:0.45. All the experiments were set up in accordance with International standard methods of testing. In reference to the results and discussion, the different percentages of fibre used were proven to have a lesser contribution towards compressive strength or might even have reduced the result. The results also showed that water absorption and density of the composite mortar increased as the volume of fiber increased from 0.4% to 0.5% However, a higher percentage of fiber inclusions had been recorded to have a positive contribution towards flexural and tensile splitting properties of composites.

  11. Mechanism based evaluation of materials behavior and reference curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Saario, T.; Wallin, K.; Forsten, J.

    1984-01-01

    The safety assessment of nuclear pressure vessels and piping requires a quantitative estimation of defect growth by stable and unstable manner during service. This estimation is essential for determining whether the defect detected during inspection should be repaired or whether the size of the defect even after its expected growth is small enough to leave the integrity of the vessel unaffected. The most important stable defect growth mechanism is that of environmentally assisted cyclic crack growth. Recent results indicate that it is markedly affected by sulfur content and/or manganese sulfide morphology and distribution. This implies that an essential improvement in component safety has been gained by currently applied steelmaking practices, which result in extra low sulfur content, generally below 0.01 wt%, and in round shape and small size of inclusions, through, e.g., calcium treatment, hence considerably reducing the effect of environment on crack growth rate. This further implies that the ASME Section XI reference curves for environmentally accelerated cyclic crack growth are conservative for steels produced by current steelmaking practices. (orig./WL)

  12. Multi-layer composite mechanical modeling for the inhomogeneous biofilm mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Han, Jingshi; Li, Kui; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Mudong

    2016-08-01

    Experiments showed that bacterial biofilms are heterogeneous, for example, the density, the diffusion coefficient, and mechanical properties of the biofilm are different along the biofilm thickness. In this paper, we establish a multi-layer composite model to describe the biofilm mechanical inhomogeneity based on unified multiple-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model. By using our model, we develop finite element simulation procedure for biofilm tension experiment. The failure limit and biofilm extension displacement obtained from our model agree well with experimental measurements. This method provides an alternative theory to study the mechanical inhomogeneity in biological materials.

  13. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, whi...

  14. Thermo-mechanical response and fatigue behavior of shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusagawa, Masaki; Asada, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Toshiya

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical, thermo-mechanical and fatigue behaviors of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory alloy (SMA) have been studied to prepare material data for a design purpose. Presented are testing devices, testing procedure and test results of monotonic tensile, recovery of inelastic deformation due to post heating (thermo-mechanical recovery) and fatigue for future use of the SMA as a structural material of nuclear incore structures. (orig.)

  15. Thermo-mechanical response and fatigue behavior of shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusagawa, Masaki; Asada, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Toshiya [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Mechanical, thermo-mechanical and fatigue behaviors of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory alloy (SMA) have been studied to prepare material data for a design purpose. Presented are testing devices, testing procedure and test results of monotonic tensile, recovery of inelastic deformation due to post heating (thermo-mechanical recovery) and fatigue for future use of the SMA as a structural material of nuclear incore structures. (orig.)

  16. Application of discrete element method to study mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhiyong; Ying, Alice; Abdou, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the discrete element method (DEM) approach has been applied to study mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds. Directly simulating the contact state of each individual particle by the physically based interaction laws, the DEM numerical program is capable of predicting the mechanical behaviors of non-standard packing structures. The program can also provide the data to trace the evolution of contact characteristics and forces as deformation proceeds, as well as the particle movement when the pebble bed is subjected to external loadings. Our numerical simulations focus on predicting the mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds, which include typical fusion breeder materials in solid breeder blankets. Current numerical results clearly show that the packing density and the bed geometry can have an impact on the mechanical stiffness of the pebble beds. Statistical data show that the contact forces are highly related to the contact status of the pebbles

  17. In situ tests for investigating thermal and mechanical rock behaviors at an underground research tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sangki; Cho, Won-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the thermal and mechanical behaviors expected to be happened around an underground high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is important for a successful site selection, construction, operation, and closure of the repository. In this study, the thermal and mechanical behaviors of rock and rock mass were investigated from in situ borehole heater test and the studies for characterizing an excavation damaged zone (EDZ), which had been carried out at an underground research tunnel, KURT, constructed in granite for the validation of a HLW disposal concept. Thermal, mechanical, and hydraulic properties in EDZ could be predicted from various in situ and laboratory tests as well as numerical simulations. The complex thermo-mechanical coupling behavior of rock could be modeled using the rock properties. (author)

  18. The influence of electric charge transferred during electro-mechanical reshaping on mechanical behavior of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, Dimitry E.; Lim, Amanda; Wu, Edward C.; Manuel, Cyrus; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2011-03-01

    Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) of cartilage has been suggested as an alternative to the classical surgical techniques of modifying the shape of facial cartilages. The method is based on exposure of mechanically deformed cartilaginous tissue to a low level electric field. Electro-chemical reactions within the tissue lead to reduction of internal stress, and establishment of a new equilibrium shape. The same reactions offset the electric charge balance between collagen and proteoglycan matrix and interstitial fluid responsible for maintenance of cartilage mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between the electric charge transferred during EMR and equilibrium elastic modulus. We used a finite element model based on the triphasic theory of cartilage mechanical properties to study how electric charges transferred in the electro-chemical reactions in cartilage can change its mechanical responses to step displacements in unconfined compression. The concentrations of the ions, the strain field and the fluid and ion velocities within the specimen subject to an applied mechanical deformation were estimated and apparent elastic modulus (the ratio of the equilibrium axial stress to the axial strain) was calculated as a function of transferred charge. The results from numerical calculations showed that the apparent elastic modulus decreases with increase in electric charge transfer. To compare numerical model with experimental observation we measured elastic modulus of cartilage as a function of electric charge transferred in electric circuit during EMR. Good correlation between experimental and theoretical data suggests that electric charge disbalance is responsible for alteration of cartilage mechanical properties.

  19. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation Method for Quantifying C. elegans Mechanosensory Behavior and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Takuma; Okumura, Etsuko; Kiso, Kaori; Igarashi, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Withdrawal escape response of C. elegans to nonlocalized vibration is a useful behavioral paradigm to examine mechanisms underlying mechanosensory behavior and its memory-dependent change. However, there are very few methods for investigating the degree of vibration frequency, amplitude and duration needed to induce behavior and memory. Here, we establish a new system to quantify C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory using a piezoelectric sheet speaker. In the system, we can flexibly change the vibration properties at a nanoscale displacement level and quantify behavioral responses under each vibration property. This system is an economic setup and easily replicated in other laboratories. By using the system, we clearly detected withdrawal escape responses and confirmed habituation memory. This system will facilitate the understanding of physiological aspects of C. elegans mechanosensory behavior in the future.

  20. Evolution of mechanical behavior of 6XXX aluminium alloy due to the precipitation state during a thermo-mechanical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardel, Didier; Perez, Michel; Nelias, Daniel; Chaise, Thibaut; Garnier, Jerome; Bourlier, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to link the microstructural state and the mechanical properties of an age hardening alloy during a fast heat treatment such as encountered during welding. A coupled model between precipitation state and mechanical properties is used to predict the yield strength and hardening behavior that can be observed experimentally. The method permits the identification of the kinematic and isotropic contributions in the hardening model. The methodology is applied to a 6061-T6 aluminium alloy which is used in the Jules Horowitz reactor vessel. The general idea of this methodology is to couple an efficient microstructural model to a mechanical one based on the dislocation theory and ad'hoc experiments. The theoretical background is based on the work of Kampmann and Wagner, known as the KWN model, to account for nucleation, growth/dissolution and coarsening of precipitates. This analysis requires transient thermo-mechanical experimental data. The efficiency of these models and their coupling are shown for a series 6XXX aluminium alloy which contains β'' and β' precipitates. Ultimately these models are coupled to a FEA model and allows to predict the distribution of precipitates within each element of the mesh, and subsequently its mechanical behavior. (authors)

  1. Modeling the Coupled Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Amorphous Polymer Networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nguyen, Thao D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Xiao, Rui [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous polymers exhibit a rich landscape of time-dependent behavior including viscoelasticity, structural relaxation, and viscoplasticity. These time-dependent mechanisms can be exploited to achieve shape-memory behavior, which allows the material to store a programmed deformed shape indefinitely and to recover entirely the undeformed shape in response to specific environmental stimulus. The shape-memory performance of amorphous polymers depends on the coordination of multiple physical mechanisms, and considerable opportunities exist to tailor the polymer structure and shape-memory programming procedure to achieve the desired performance. The goal of this project was to use a combination of theoretical, numerical and experimental methods to investigate the effect of shape memory programming, thermo-mechanical properties, and physical and environmental aging on the shape memory performance. Physical and environmental aging occurs during storage and through exposure to solvents, such as water, and can significantly alter the viscoelastic behavior and shape memory behavior of amorphous polymers. This project – executed primarily by Professor Thao Nguyen and Graduate Student Rui Xiao at Johns Hopkins University in support of a DOE/NNSA Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering (PECASE) – developed a theoretical framework for chemothermo- mechanical behavior of amorphous polymers to model the effects of physical aging and solvent-induced environmental factors on their thermoviscoelastic behavior.

  2. Characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of human abdominal wall connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astruc, Laure; De Meulaere, Maurice; Witz, Jean-François; Nováček, Vit; Turquier, Frédéric; Hoc, Thierry; Brieu, Mathias

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall sheathing tissues are commonly involved in hernia formation. However, there is very limited work studying mechanics of all tissues from the same donor which prevents a complete understanding of the abdominal wall behavior and the differences in these tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between the mechanical properties of the linea alba and the anterior and posterior rectus sheaths from a macroscopic point of view. Eight full-thickness human anterior abdominal walls of both genders were collected and longitudinal and transverse samples were harvested from the three sheathing connective tissues. The total of 398 uniaxial tensile tests was conducted and the mechanical characteristics of the behavior (tangent rigidities for small and large deformations) were determined. Statistical comparisons highlighted heterogeneity and non-linearity in behavior of the three tissues under both small and large deformations. High anisotropy was observed under small and large deformations with higher stress in the transverse direction. Variabilities in the mechanical properties of the linea alba according to the gender and location were also identified. Finally, data dispersion correlated with microstructure revealed that macroscopic characterization is not sufficient to fully describe behavior. Microstructure consideration is needed. These results provide a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall sheathing tissues as well as the directions for microstructure-based constitutive model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Micro-mechanical investigation of the effect of fine content on mechanical behavior of gap graded granular materials using DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Habib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a micro-mechanical study of the effect of fine content on the behavior of gap graded granular samples by using numerical simulations performed with the Discrete Element Method. Different samples with fine content varied from 0% to 30% are simulated. The role of fine content in reinforcing the granular skeleton and in supporting the external deviatoric stress is then brought into the light.

  4. Mechanical behavior of mullite green disks prepared by thermal consolidation with different starches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talou, M.H.; Tomba Martinez, A.G.; Camerucci, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of porous green disks obtained by thermal consolidation of mullite suspensions with cassava and potato starches was studied by diametral compression testing. Disks (thickness/diameter ≤ 0.25) were prepared by thermal treatment (70-80 °C, 2h) of mullite (75 vol%)/starch (25 vol%) of suspensions (40 vol%) pre-gelled at 55-60 °C, and dried (40 °C, 24 h). Samples were characterized by porosity measurements (50-55%) and microstructural analysis (SEM). Several mechanical parameters were determined: mechanical strength, Young's modulus, strain to fracture and yield stress. Typical crack patterns were analyzed and the fractographic analysis was performed by SEM. Mechanical results were related to the developed microstructures, the behavior of the starches in aqueous suspension, and the properties of the formed gels. For comparative purposes, mullite green disks obtained by burning out the starch (650 °C, 2h) were also mechanically evaluated. (author)

  5. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  6. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Wang, Linbing; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Meng; Liu, Pengfei; Yu, Jianxin

    2017-02-21

    Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  7. Improvement in reliability of the long-term mechanical behavior of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Hirai, Takashi; Shiratake, Toshikazu

    2005-02-01

    On the R and D of the HLW repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to the buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, evaluation of mechanical behavior of the buffer is important to carry out safety assessment of EBS. In this report, the effects of mechanical behavior of the buffer to its safety performance are examined. As a result, the ability to filtrate colloids and the ability to keep diffusion-dominated environment are maintained for 100,000 years. Natural analogue of bentonite ore is also done to corroborate viscous parameter of the buffer. The results shows that the laboratory test data is reasonable compared with the analogized viscous parameters of the 15M years aged ore. Next, the mechanical parameters of the buffer under brine environment are examined. Then the mechanical behavior of the buffer is analyzed. Throughout these processes, the scheme for freshwater environment is confirmed to be valid under brine environment. At the last, the EBS field-test that is planned at Horonobe underground laboratory is analyzed. The analysis is encountered viscous behavior of the buffer and the surrounding rock under corrosion expansion of the overpack. The result offers the mechanical data to design the field test. (author)

  8. Influence of Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior of MWCNT Reinforced Thermoplastic Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the processing conditions and MWCNT content on the mechanical properties of PA6,6-based nanocomposites areinvestigated. In addition to the composition of the composites, the impact of manufacturing conditions such as dilution mechanism, twin-screwextruder mixing specifications......, and injection molding parameters on the behavior of the nanocomposites are evaluated. Results show that whilethe increase in the content of MWCNTs can lead to 40.0 % enhancement in the mechanical properties, changing the processing parametersvaries the values by 30.0 % in the same content. The mechanisms...... involved in the modulation of the nanocomposites properties are alsodiscussed...

  9. Anomalous Scaling Behaviors in a Rice-Pile Model with Two Different Driving Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Duanming; Sun Hongzhang; Li Zhihua; Pan Guijun; Yu Boming; Li Rui; Yin Yanping

    2005-01-01

    The moment analysis is applied to perform large scale simulations of the rice-pile model. We find that this model shows different scaling behavior depending on the driving mechanism used. With the noisy driving, the rice-pile model violates the finite-size scaling hypothesis, whereas, with fixed driving, it shows well defined avalanche exponents and displays good finite size scaling behavior for the avalanche size and time duration distributions.

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Deep Drawing DC04 Steel at Different Length Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Schreijäg, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The deformation behavior of steels is strongly influenced by their microstructure which is a result of the alloying elements and thermal treatments. In this work, the microstructure and the deformation behavior of a non-alloyed deep drawing DC04 steel was investigated. The microstructure was analyzed during heat treatment by EBSD, then microcompression experiments were performed on selected microstructural units and then bulk steel samples were mechanically tested by tensile experiments.

  11. An investigation of the mechanical behavior of initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2018-03-28

    In this article, we investigate the mechanical behavior of initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation. Microplates are essential components of many Micro-Electro-Mechanical System devices; however, they commonly undergo an initial curvature imperfection, due to the microfabrication process. Initial curvature imperfection significantly affects the mechanical behavior of microplates. In this work, we derive a dynamic analogue of the von Kármán governing equation for such plates. These equations are then used to develop a reduced order model based on the Galerkin procedure to simulate the static and dynamic behavior of the microplate. Two profiles of initial curvature commonly encountered in microfabricated structures are considered, where one assumes a variation in shape along one dimension of the plate only (cylindrical bending shape) while the other assumes a variation in shape along both dimensions of the plate. Their effects on both the static and dynamic responses of the microplates are examined and compared. We validate the reduced order model by comparing the calculated static behavior and the fundamental natural frequency with those computed by a finite element model over a range of the initial plate rise. The static behavior of the microplate is investigated when varying the DC voltage. Then, the dynamic behavior of the microplate is examined under the application of a harmonic AC voltage superimposed to a DC voltage.

  12. Amphetamine and cocaine suppress social play behavior in rats through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; Trezza, Viviana; Siviy, Stephen M; Schrama, Laurens; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2014-04-01

    Social play behavior is a characteristic form of social behavior displayed by juvenile and adolescent mammals. This social play behavior is highly rewarding and of major importance for social and cognitive development. Social play is known to be modulated by neurotransmitter systems involved in reward and motivation. Interestingly, psychostimulant drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, profoundly suppress social play, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological underpinnings of amphetamine- and cocaine-induced suppression of social play behavior in rats. The play-suppressant effects of amphetamine were antagonized by the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist RX821002 but not by the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol. Remarkably, the effects of cocaine on social play were not antagonized by alpha-2 noradrenergic, dopaminergic, or serotonergic receptor antagonists, administered either alone or in combination. The effects of a subeffective dose of cocaine were enhanced by a combination of subeffective doses of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR12909, and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Amphetamine, like methylphenidate, exerts its play-suppressant effect through alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors. On the other hand, cocaine reduces social play by simultaneous increases in dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin neurotransmission. In conclusion, psychostimulant drugs with different pharmacological profiles suppress social play behavior through distinct mechanisms. These data contribute to our understanding of the neural mechanisms of social behavior during an important developmental period, and of the deleterious effects of psychostimulant exposure thereon.

  13. Analysis of mechanical behavior and hysteresis heat generating mechanism of PDM motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Changshuai; Zhu, Xiaohua; Tang, Liping; Deng, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Positive displacement motor (PDM), which is prone to high temperature fatigue failure, can be weakened in its application in deep and superdeep well. In order to study the forced state, deformation regularity and thermal hysteresis of PDM motor, the paper established the three-dimensional thermal-mechanical coupled Finite element model (FEM). Based on the theoretical research, experimental study and numerical simulation, the study found that the displacement of stator lining shows a sinusoidal variation under internal pressure, when adapting the general form of sine function to fitting inner contour line deformation function. Then the paper analyzed the hysteresis heat generating mechanism of the motor, learning that hysteresis thermogenous of stator lining occurs due to the viscoelastic of rubber material and cyclic loading of stator lining. A heartburn happens gradually in the center of the thickest part of the stator lining as temperature increases, which means work efficiency and service life of PDM will be decreased when used in deep or superdeep well. In this paper, we established a theory equation for the choice of interference fit and motor line type optimization design, showing hysteresis heat generating analyzing model and method are reasonable enough to significantly improve PDM’s structure and help better use PDM in deep and surdeep well

  14. Analysis of mechanical behavior and hysteresis heat generating mechanism of PDM motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changshuai; Zhu, Xiaohua; Tang, Liping [Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Deng, Juan [Avic Chengdu Engine (Group) Co.,Ltd, Chengdu (China)

    2017-03-15

    Positive displacement motor (PDM), which is prone to high temperature fatigue failure, can be weakened in its application in deep and superdeep well. In order to study the forced state, deformation regularity and thermal hysteresis of PDM motor, the paper established the three-dimensional thermal-mechanical coupled Finite element model (FEM). Based on the theoretical research, experimental study and numerical simulation, the study found that the displacement of stator lining shows a sinusoidal variation under internal pressure, when adapting the general form of sine function to fitting inner contour line deformation function. Then the paper analyzed the hysteresis heat generating mechanism of the motor, learning that hysteresis thermogenous of stator lining occurs due to the viscoelastic of rubber material and cyclic loading of stator lining. A heartburn happens gradually in the center of the thickest part of the stator lining as temperature increases, which means work efficiency and service life of PDM will be decreased when used in deep or superdeep well. In this paper, we established a theory equation for the choice of interference fit and motor line type optimization design, showing hysteresis heat generating analyzing model and method are reasonable enough to significantly improve PDM’s structure and help better use PDM in deep and surdeep well.

  15. Mechanical properties and fracture behavior of single-layer phosphorene at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Ding, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene, a new two-dimensional (2D) material beyond graphene, has attracted great attention in recent years due to its superior physical and electrical properties. However, compared to graphene and other 2D materials, phosphorene has a relatively low Young’s modulus and fracture strength, which may limit its applications due to possible structure failures. For the mechanical reliability of future phosphorene-based nanodevices, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene. Previous studies on the mechanical properties of phosphorene were based on first principles calculations at 0 K. In this work, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. It is found that temperature has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of phosphorene. The fracture strength and strain reduce by more than 65% when the temperature increases from 0 K to 450 K. Moreover, the fracture strength and strain in the zigzag direction is more sensitive to the temperature rise than that in the armchair direction. More interestingly, the failure crack propagates preferably along the groove in the puckered structure when uniaxial tension is applied in the armchair direction. In contrast, when the uniaxial tension is applied in the zigzag direction, multiple cracks are observed with rough fracture surfaces. Our present work provides useful information about the mechanical properties and failure behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. (paper)

  16. Behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Travis P; Vurbic, Drina; Bouton, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and neural mechanisms of extinction as it is represented in both Pavlovian and instrumental learning. In Pavlovian extinction, repeated presentation of a signal without its reinforcer weakens behavior evoked by the signal; in instrumental extinction, repeated occurrence of a voluntary action without its reinforcer weakens the strength of the action. In either case, contemporary research at both the behavioral and neural levels of analysis has been guided by a set of extinction principles that were first generated by research conducted at the behavioral level. The review discusses these principles and illustrates how they have informed the study of both Pavlovian and instrumental extinction. It shows that behavioral and neurobiological research efforts have been tightly linked and that their results are readily integrated. Pavlovian and instrumental extinction are also controlled by compatible behavioral and neural processes. Since many behavioral effects observed in extinction can be multiply determined, we suggest that the current close connection between behavioral-level and neural-level analyses will need to continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential effects of ethanol on feline rage and predatory attack behavior: an underlying neural mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, K; Shaikh, M B; Han, Y; Poherecky, L; Siegel, A

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that, at certain dose levels, ethanol can exert a powerful, facilitatory effect on aggressive behavior in both animals and humans. In the cat, however, it was discovered that ethanol differentially alters two forms of aggression that are common to this species. Defensive rage behavior is significantly enhanced, whereas predatory attack behavior is suppressed by ethanol administration. One possible mechanism governing alcohol's potentiation of defensive rage behavior is that it acts on the descending pathway from the medial hypothalamus to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)-an essential pathway for the expression of defensive rage behavior that uses excitatory amino acids as a neurotransmitter. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the excitatory effects of alcohol on defensive rage behavior are blocked by administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist alpha-2-amino-7-phosphoheptanoic acid (AP-7) when microinjected into the periaqueductal gray, a primary neuronal target of descending fibers from the medial hypothalamus that mediate the expression of defensive rage behavior. Thus, the present study establishes for the first time a specific component of the neural circuit for defensive rage behavior over which the potentiating effects of ethanol are mediated.

  18. Behavioral Outcomes Differ Between Rotational Acceleration and Blast Mechanisms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Stemper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI can result from a number of mechanisms, including blunt impact, head rotational acceleration, exposure to blast, and penetration of projectiles. Mechanism is likely to influence the type, severity, and chronicity of outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the severity and time-course of behavioral outcomes following blast and rotational mTBI. The Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW Rotational Injury model and a shock tube model of primary blast injury were used to induce mTBI in rats and behavioral assessments were conducted within the first week, as well as 30 and 60 days following injury. Acute recovery time demonstrated similar increases over protocol-matched shams, indicating acute injury severity equivalence between the two mechanisms. Post-injury behavior in the elevated plus maze demonstrated differing trends, with rotationally injured rats acutely demonstrating greater activity, whereas blast-injured rats had decreased activity that developed at chronic time points. Similarly, blast-injured rats demonstrated trends associated with cognitive deficits that were not apparent following rotational injuries. These findings demonstrate that rotational and blast injury result in behavioral changes with different qualitative and temporal manifestations. Whereas rotational injury was characterized by a rapidly emerging phenotype consistent with behavioral disinhibition, blast injury was associated with emotional and cognitive differences that were not evident acutely, but developed later, with an anxiety-like phenotype still present in injured animals at our most chronic measurements.

  19. On the Control of Social Approach-Avoidance Behavior: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Koch, Saskia B J; Volman, Inge; Toni, Ivan; Roelofs, Karin

    The ability to control our automatic action tendencies is crucial for adequate social interactions. Emotional events trigger automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Although these actions may be generally adaptive, the capacity to override these emotional reactions may be key to flexible behavior during social interaction. The present chapter provides a review of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this ability and their relation to social psychopathologies. Aberrant social behavior, such as observed in social anxiety or psychopathy, is marked by abnormalities in approach-avoidance tendencies and the ability to control them. Key neural regions involved in the regulation of approach-avoidance behavior are the amygdala, widely implicated in automatic emotional processing, and the anterior prefrontal cortex, which exerts control over the amygdala. Hormones, especially testosterone and cortisol, have been shown to affect approach-avoidance behavior and the associated neural mechanisms. The present chapter also discusses ways to directly influence social approach and avoidance behavior and will end with a research agenda to further advance this important research field. Control over approach-avoidance tendencies may serve as an exemplar of emotional action regulation and might have a great value in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the development of affective disorders.

  20. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Inhibit Social Play Behavior through Prefrontal and Subcortical Limbic Mechanisms in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD. PMID:25568111

  1. An Overview of the Use of Mechanical Turk in Behavioral Sciences: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is a process in which a firm parcels out work to a "crowd" and offers payment for anyone within the crowd who completes the task determined by that firm. A growing number of behavioral scientists have begun using the Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to facilitate their research and practice, but there is apparently not one academic…

  2. Collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of porcine urinary bladder derived extracellular matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Thomas W.; Wognum, Silvia; Joyce, Erinn M.; Freytes, Donald O.; Sacks, Michael S.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    The collagen fiber alignment and biomechanical behavior of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are important considerations for the design of medical devices from these materials. Both should be considered in order to produce a device to meet tissue specific mechanical

  3. Impact of Conflict Management Strategies on the Generation Mechanism of Miners' Unsafe Behavior Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Zu; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Yao-Long; Wang, Tian-Ri

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the generation mechanism of miners' unsafe behavior tendency and conflict management strategies, including cooperative conflict management strategy, competitive conflict management strategy and avoidant conflict management strategy. Miners from 3 collieries in Shanxi province completed a…

  4. Recent advances in behavioral addiction treatments: focusing on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longabaugh, Richard; Magill, Molly

    2011-10-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, research on behavioral treatments for addictions aimed to develop and test effective treatments. Among the treatments found to be at least moderately effective, direct comparisons failed to reveal consistent superiority of one approach over another. This ubiquitous finding held true despite underlying theories that differed markedly in their proposed causal processes related to patient change. In the 21st century, the focus of treatment research is increasingly on how treatment works for whom rather than whether it works. Studies of active treatment ingredients and mechanisms of behavioral change, while promising, have yielded inconsistent results. Simple mediation analysis may need to be expanded via inclusion of models testing for moderated mediation, mediated moderation, and conditional indirect effects. Examples are offered as to how these more complex models can lead to increased understanding of the conditions under which specific treatment interventions will be effective and mechanisms of change operative in improving behavioral treatments for addictions.

  5. Artificial neural networks in prediction of mechanical behavior of concrete at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Nag Biswas, S.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of concrete structures that are exposed to extreme thermo-mechanical loading is an issue of great importance in nuclear engineering. The mechanical behavior of concrete at high temperature is non-linear. The properties that regulate its response are highly temperature dependent and extremely complex. In addition, the constituent materials, e.g. aggregates, influence the response significantly. Attempts have been made to trace the stress-strain curve through mathematical models and rheological models. However, it has been difficult to include all the contributing factors in the mathematical model. This paper examines a new programming paradigm, artificial neural networks, for the problem. Implementing a feedforward network and backpropagation algorithm the stress-strain relationship of the material is captured. The neural networks for the prediction of uniaxial behavior of concrete at high temperature has been presented here. The results of the present investigation are very encouraging. (orig.)

  6. Mechanical Behavior and Fracture Properties of NiAl Intermetallic Alloy with Different Copper Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Hsing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deformation behavior and fracture characteristics of NiAl intermetallic alloy containing 5~7 at% Cu are investigated at room temperature under strain rates ranging from 1 × 10−3 to 5 × 103 s−1. It is shown that the copper contents and strain rate both have a significant effect on the mechanical behavior of the NiAl alloy. Specifically, the flow stress increases with an increasing copper content and strain rate. Moreover, the ductility also improves as the copper content increases. The change in the mechanical response and fracture behavior of the NiAl alloy given a higher copper content is thought to be the result of the precipitation of β-phase (Ni,CuAl and γ'-phase (Ni,Cu3Al in the NiAl matrix.

  7. High-temperature creep of equiaxed Cd-26.5 at % Zn eutectic in the superplastic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonejc, Anton; Poirier, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    The temperature and stress dependence on the secondary creep rate of the Cd+26.5Zn eutectoid in the superplastic domain was studied in constant-stress compression creep. Experiments were performed in the following ranges of temperature, stress and grain size: 170C 2 , 1<10μm. In all cases secondary creep was established after a strain approximately equal to 4%. For temperatures higher than 200C all the techniques yielded the same value for m (m=0.49+-0.03) in the whole investigated range of stresses. For T=170C a lower value of m was found (m=0.33). The activation energy was determined and found equal to 25Kcal/mol. Micrographic examinations were performed on sectioned samples at several stages of deformation. The grain size was found to be identical for various conditions of temperature and stress and very stable with respect to deformation. The experimental results of the creep tests are discussed in relation with the microstructural aspects

  8. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs on Tribological and Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 6 (PA6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mindivan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet (GNP on mechanical and tribological properties of Polyamide 6 (PA6 were studied. The composites were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of microhardness, scratch hardness and Young’s modulus measurements and tensile test. The tribological behavior of composites was studied by using ball-on-disc reciprocating tribometer. Recent studies showed that the addition of GNP in PA6 matrix resulted in enhancement of mechanical and tribological properties.

  9. Corrosion behavior, mechanical properties, and long-term aging of nickel-plated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of nickel-plated uranium upon exposure to moist nitrogen was evaluated. Plating thicknesses of 0.051 mm (2 mil) were adequate to prevent corrosion. Specimens with thinner coats showed some corrosion and some reduction in mechanical properties during subsequent testing. Plated samples exposed to dry air at ambient pressure for 10 y showed no corrosion and no degradation of mechanical properties. Surface and bulk hydrogen content, as well as free hydrogen generated during the test, were measured to determine the extent of corrosion. Results support an earlier proposed mechanism for uranium corrosion at low humidities

  10. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Corrugated Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayyani, Iman; Ziaei-Rad, Saeed; Salehi, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Tensile and flexural characteristics of corrugated laminate panels were studied using numerical and analytical methods and compared with experimental data. Prepreg laminates of glass fiber plain woven cloth were hand-laid by use of a heat gun to ease the creation of the panel. The corrugated panels were then manufactured by using a trapezoidal machined aluminium mould. First, a series of simple tension tests were performed on standard samples to evaluate the material characteristics. Next, the corrugated panels were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests. The force-displacement graphs were recorded. Numerical and analytical solutions were proposed to simulate the mechanical behavior of the panels. In order to model the energy dissipation due to delamination phenomenon observed in tensile tests in all members of corrugated core, plastic behavior was assigned to the whole geometry, not only to the corner regions. Contrary to the literature, it is shown that the three-stage mechanical behavior of composite corrugated core is not confined to aramid reinforced corrugated laminates and can be observed in other types such as fiber glass. The results reveal that the mechanical behavior of the core in tension is sensitive to the variation of core height. In addition, for the first time, the behavior of composite corrugated core was studied and verified in bending. Finally, the analytical and numerical results were validated by comparing them with experimental data. A good degree of correlation was observed which showed the suitability of the finite element model for predicting the mechanical behavior of corrugated laminate panels.

  11. On the Impact of Intraluminal Thrombus Mechanical Behavior in AAA Passive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Fabián; Martufi, Giampaolo; Gasser, T Christian; Rodriguez-Matas, Jose F

    2015-09-01

    Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is a pseudo-tissue that develops from coagulated blood, and is found in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) of clinically relevant size. A number of studies have suggested that ILT mechanical characteristics may be related to AAA risk of rupture, even though there is still great controversy in this regard. ILT is isotropic and inhomogeneous and may appear as a soft (single-layered) or stiff (multilayered fibrotic) tissue. This paper aims to investigate how ILT constitution and topology influence the magnitude and location of peak wall stress (PWS). In total 21 patient-specific AAAs (diameter 4.2-5.4 cm) were reconstructed from computer tomography images and biomechanically analyzed using state-of-the-art modeling assumptions. Results indicated that PWS correlated stronger with ILT volume (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.05) and minimum thickness of ILT layer (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.001) than with maximum AAA diameter (ρ = 0.05, p = 0.82). On average PWS was 20% (SD 12%) higher for FE models that used soft instead of stiff ILT models (p AAA diameter and was independent from ILT stiffness. In addition, ILT heterogeneity, i.e., the spatial composition of soft and stiff thrombus tissue, can considerably influence stress in the AAA wall. The present study is limited to identification of influential biomechanical factors, and how its findings translate to an AAA rupture risk assessment remains to be explored by clinical studies.

  12. Constitutive behavior and progressive mechanical failure of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Xu, Jun; Cao, Lei; Wu, Zenan; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2017-07-01

    The electrodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are known to be brittle and to fail earlier than the separators during an external crush event. Thus, the understanding of mechanical failure mechanism for LIB electrodes (anode and cathode) is critical for the safety design of LIB cells. In this paper, we present experimental and numerical studies on the constitutive behavior and progression of failure in LIB electrodes. Mechanical tests were designed and conducted to evaluate the constitutive properties of porous electrodes. Constitutive models were developed to describe the stress-strain response of electrodes under uniaxial tensile and compressive loads. The failure criterion and a damage model were introduced to model their unique tensile and compressive failure behavior. The failure mechanism of LIB electrodes was studied using the blunt rod test on dry electrodes, and numerical models were built to simulate progressive failure. The different failure processes were examined and analyzed in detail numerically, and correlated with experimentally observed failure phenomena. The test results and models improve our understanding of failure behavior in LIB electrodes, and provide constructive insights on future development of physics-based safety design tools for battery structures under mechanical abuse.

  13. [Individual differences in behavior and mechanisms of ecological differentiation with fishes as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, S V; Mikheev, V N; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of individual differences in animal behavior exemplified by fishes. Main approaches to these differences investigation are outlined. Such terms as temperament can be used to describe consistent characteristics of individuality in animals. It should be emphasized that consistency over time and across situations is the main classification characteristic of the temperament trait. We also briefly review genetic and physiological mechanisms of individuality in fish, factors affecting their development in the ontogeny, and effects of the individual experience. Significant adaptive value of temperament is shown: in many cases the natural selection maintains alternative behavioral tactics. We also consider the main quantitative models accounting for the coexistence of individuals with different behavioral patterns. Finally, it is demonstrated that patterns of behavioral individuality may significantly affect population dynamics.

  14. Mechanical behavior of fast reactor fuel pin cladding subjected to simulated overpower transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.

    1978-06-01

    Cladding mechanical property data for analysis and prediction of fuel pin transient behavior were obtained under experimental conditions in which the temperature ramps of reactor transients were simulated. All cladding specimens were 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel and were cut from EBR-II irradiated fuel pins. It was determined that irradiation degraded the cladding ductility and failure strength. Specimens that had been adjacent to the fuel exhibited the poorest properties. Correlations were developed to describe the effect of neutron fluence on the mechanical behavior of the cladding. Metallographic examinations were conducted to characterize the failure mode and to establish the nature of internal and external surface corrosion. Various mechanisms for the fuel adjacency effect were examined and results for helium concentration profiles were presented. Results from the simulated transient tests were compared with TREAT test results

  15. Interneuronal Mechanism for Tinbergen’s Hierarchical Model of Behavioral Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Zsolt; Crossley, Michael; László, Zita; Naskar, Souvik; Kemenes, György; O’Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2014-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of behavioral choice support the notion that the decision to carry out one behavior rather than another depends on the reconfiguration of shared interneuronal networks [1]. We investigated another decision-making strategy, derived from the classical ethological literature [2, 3], which proposes that behavioral choice depends on competition between autonomous networks. According to this model, behavioral choice depends on inhibitory interactions between incompatible hierarchically organized behaviors. We provide evidence for this by investigating the interneuronal mechanisms mediating behavioral choice between two autonomous circuits that underlie whole-body withdrawal [4, 5] and feeding [6] in the pond snail Lymnaea. Whole-body withdrawal is a defensive reflex that is initiated by tactile contact with predators. As predicted by the hierarchical model, tactile stimuli that evoke whole-body withdrawal responses also inhibit ongoing feeding in the presence of feeding stimuli. By recording neurons from the feeding and withdrawal networks, we found no direct synaptic connections between the interneuronal and motoneuronal elements that generate the two behaviors. Instead, we discovered that behavioral choice depends on the interaction between two unique types of interneurons with asymmetrical synaptic connectivity that allows withdrawal to override feeding. One type of interneuron, the Pleuro-Buccal (PlB), is an extrinsic modulatory neuron of the feeding network that completely inhibits feeding when excited by touch-induced monosynaptic input from the second type of interneuron, Pedal-Dorsal12 (PeD12). PeD12 plays a critical role in behavioral choice by providing a synaptic pathway joining the two behavioral networks that underlies the competitive dominance of whole-body withdrawal over feeding. PMID:25155505

  16. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  17. Dynamic behavior of the mechanical systems from the structure of a hybrid automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, Popa; Irina, Tudor; Nicolae-Doru, Stănescu

    2017-10-01

    In introduction are presented solutions of planetary mechanisms that can be used in the construction of the hybrid automobiles where the thermal and electrical sources must be coupled. The systems have in their composition a planetary mechanism with two degrees of mobility at which are coupled a thermal engine, two revertible electrical machines, a gear transmission with four gears and a differential mechanism which transmits the motion at the driving wheels. For the study of the dynamical behavior, with numerical results, one designs such mechanisms, models the elements with solids in AutoCAD, and obtains the mechanical properties of the elements. Further on, we present and solve the equations of motion of a hybrid automotive for which one knows the dynamical parameters.

  18. Mechanism by which BMI influences leisure-time physical activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Gaston; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Nolin, Bertrand

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to clarify the mechanism by which BMI influences leisure-time physical activity. This was achieved in accordance with the assumptions underlying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), considered as one of the most useful theories to predict behavior adoption. At baseline, a sample of 1,530 respondents completed a short questionnaire to measure intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC), the two proximal determinants of behavior of TPB. Past behavior, sociodemographic variables, and weight and height were also assessed. The dependent variable, leisure-time physical activity was assessed 3 months later. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that BMI is a direct predictor of future leisure-time physical activity, not mediated by the variables of TPB. Additional hierarchical analyses indicated that BMI was not a moderator of the intention-behavior and PBC-behavior relationships. The results of this study suggest that high BMI is a significant negative determinant of leisure-time physical activity. This observation reinforces the importance of preventing weight gain as a health promotion strategy for avoiding a sedentary lifestyle.

  19. Three-dimensional FE analysis of the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yijie; Cui Yi; Huo Yongzhong; Ding Shurong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We establish three-dimensional finite element models for nuclear fuel rods. → The thermal-mechanical behaviors at the initial stage of burnup are obtained. → Several parameters on the in-pile performances are investigated. → The parameters have remarkable effects on the in-pile behaviors. → This study lays a foundation for optimal design and irradiation safety. - Abstract: In order to implement numerical simulation of the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the nuclear fuel rods, a three-dimensional finite element model is established. The thermal-mechanical behaviors at the initial stage of burnup in both the pellet and the cladding are obtained. Comparison of the obtained numerical results with those from experiments validates the developed finite element model. The effects of the constraint conditions, several operation and structural parameters on the thermal-mechanical performances of the fuel rod are investigated. The research results indicate that: (1) with increasing the heat generation rates from 0.15 to 0.6 W/mm 3 , the maximum temperature within the pellet increases by 99.3% and the maximum radial displacement at the outer surface of the pellet increases by 94.3%. And the maximum Mises stresses in the cladding all increase; while the maximum values of the first principal stresses within the pellet decrease as a whole; (2) with increasing the heat transfer coefficients between the cladding and the coolant, the internal temperatures reduce and the temperature gradient remains similar; when the heat transfer coefficient is lower than a critical value, the temperature change is sensitive to the heat transfer coefficient. The maximum temperature increases only 7.13% when h changes from 0.5 W/mm 2 K to 0.01 W/mm 2 K, while increases up to 54.7% when h decreases from 0.01 W/mm 2 K to 0.005 W/mm 2 K; (3) the initial gap sizes between the pellet and the cladding significantly affect the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the fuel rod; when the

  20. Finite Element Modeling of Dieless Tube Drawing of Strain Rate Sensitive Material with Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furushima, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Takashi; Manabe, Ken-ichi

    2004-06-01

    Dieless drawing is a unique deformation process without conventional dies, which can achieve a great reduction of wire and tube metals in single pass by means of local heating and cooling approach. In this study, for microtube forming, the dieless drawing process applying superplastic behavior was analyzed by finite element method (FEM) in order to clarify the effect of dieless tube drawing conditions such as tensile speed, moving speed of heating and cooling system, and material properties on deformation behavior of the tube. In the calculation, the material properties were dealt in a special subroutine, whose constitutive equation was defined as σ = Kɛnɛ˙m, and was linked to the solver. A coupled thermo-mechanical analysis was performed for the dieless tube drawing using the FEM. In the thermal analysis of dieless tube drawing, heat transfer was introduced to calculate the heat flux between heating coil and tube surface, and heat conduction in a tube. The influence of dieless tube drawing conditions on deformation behavior was clarified. As a result, for the strain rate sensitive material, the maximum reduction of area and the minimum outer diameter in single pass attain to 90.9% and 2.56mm, respectively. From the result, it is concluded that the dieless tube drawing is essential to produce an extrafine microtube by reason of keeping cylindrical tube diameter ratio constant with extremely high reduction.

  1. Aging and loading rate effects on the mechanical behavior of equine bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulin, Robb M.; Jiang, Fengchun; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2008-06-01

    Whether due to a sporting accident, high-speed impact, fall, or other catastrophic event, the majority of clinical bone fractures occur under dynamic loading conditions. However, although extensive research has been performed on the quasi-static fracture and mechanical behavior of bone to date, few high-quality studies on the fracture behavior of bone at high strain rates have been performed. Therefore, many questions remain regarding the material behavior, including not only the loading-rate-dependent response of bone, but also how this response varies with age. In this study, tests were performed on equine femoral bone taken post-mortem from donors 6 months to 28 years of age. Quasi-static and dynamic tests were performed to determine the fracture toughness and compressive mechanical behavior as a function of age at varying loading rates. Fracture paths were then analyzed using scanning confocal and scanning-electron microscopy techniques to assess the role of various microstructural features on toughening mechanisms.

  2. How does tissue regeneration influence the mechanical behavior of additively manufactured porous biomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Janbaz, S; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-01-01

    Although the initial mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials are intensively studied during the last few years, almost no information is available regarding the evolution of the mechanical properties of implant-bone complex as the tissue regeneration progresses. In this paper, we studied the effects of tissue regeneration on the static and fatigue behavior of selective laser melted porous titanium structures with three different porosities (i.e. 77, 81, and 85%). The porous structures were filled with four different polymeric materials with mechanical properties in the range of those observed for de novo bone (0.7GPamanufactured and filled porous structures were then determined. The static mechanical properties and fatigue life (including endurance limit) of the porous structures were found to increase by factors 2-7, even when they were filled with polymeric materials with relatively low mechanical properties. The relative increase in the mechanical properties was much higher for the porous structures with lower porosities. Moreover, the increase in the fatigue life was more notable as compared to the increase in the static mechanical properties. Such large values of increase in the mechanical properties with the progress of bone tissue regeneration have implications in terms of mechanical stimulus for bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gambling behavior in Parkinson's Disease: Impulsivity, reward mechanism and cortical brain oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Angioletti, Laura; Siri, Chiara; Meucci, Nicoletta; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2018-03-20

    Psychopathological components, such as reward sensitivity and impulsivity, and dopaminergic treatment are crucial characteristics related to the development of Pathological Gambling (PG) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The aim of the present study is to investigate the differences in decision-making in PD patients with or without PG considering both neurophysiological and behavioral aspects. The IOWA Gambling Task (IGT) and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were considered to elucidate the decision and post-feedback processes in PG. The sample included fifty-two PD patients, divided in three groups: 17 PD patients with active gambling behavior (PD Gamblers, PDG); 15 PD patients who remitted from PG (PD Non-Gamblers, PDNG); and a Control Group (CG) composed by 20 patients with PD only. EEG and IGT performance were recorded during decision and post-feedback phase. Results showed worse performance and an increase of the low frequency bands in the frontal area for the PDG group compared to the other two groups. In addition, higher BAS (Behavioral Activation System) and BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) personality components were correlated to groups' behavioral response. These results show an anomalous behavioral (IGT) and cortical response of PDG patients related to their inability to use adequate control mechanisms during a decision-making task where reward mechanisms (BAS) and impulsivity (BIS-11) are relevant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of progressive nucleation mechanism for the citation behavior of individual papers of different authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwal, Keshra

    2012-09-01

    The basic concepts and equations of the progressive nucleation mechanism (PNM) are presented first for the growth and decay of items. The mechanism is then applied to describe the cumulative citations L and citations ΔL per year of the individual most-cited papers i of four selected Polish professors as a function of citation duration t. It was found that the PNM satisfactorily describes the time dependence of cumulative citations L of the papers published by different authors with sufficiently high citations ΔL, as represented by the highest yearly citations ΔL(max) during the entire citation period t (normal citation behavior). The citation period for these papers is less than 15 years and it is even 6-8 years in several cases. However, for papers with citation periods exceeding about 15 years, the growth behavior of citations does not follow the PNM in the entire citation period (anomalous citation behavior), and there are regions of citations in which the citation data may be described by the PNM. Normal and anomalous citation behaviors are attributed, respectively, to the occurrence and nonoccurrence of stationary nucleation of citations for the papers. The PNM also explains the growth and decay of citations ΔL per year of papers exhibiting normal citation behavior.

  5. Mechanical work as a determinant of prey-handling behavior in the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, C; Bertram, J E

    1997-01-01

    In this study an in vitro analysis of the force and mechanical work required to bite prey items of different size and physical character is combined with an in vivo analysis of prey-handling behavior in the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). The force required to bite and the work of biting increase with prey size, but the rate of increase is prey specific, with crickets (Acheta domestica) requiring substantially more force and work per bite than larvae (Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta) for all but the smallest prey. Prey-handling behavior is also prey specific. Geckos exert more bites per feeding event on small crickets than on small insect larvae, but the number of bites increases faster with prey mass for larvae than for crickets. Combination of the in vitro mechanical measurements with the in vivo behavior analysis allows the calculation of total mechanical work per feeding event and indicates that total work increases with prey size but that the difference between prey types is far less than predicted from the differences in structural properties of the prey. This occurs because the number of bites and work per bite relationships tend to cancel the differences in the total work necessary to process each prey type. Thus, when considering the effect of prey size, a 13-fold greater rate of increase in bite force and an 18-fold greater rate of increase of work per bit for crickets over larvae was partially compensated for by a threefold increase in the number of bites used on larvae relative to crickets. These results can be interpreted in two ways. The effect of mechanical work in feeding behavior suggests that the energetics of jaw adductor musculature could play a greater role in governing the feeding behavior of this lizard than has previously been expected. Alternatively, the scaling of work in feeding over a range of prey sizes suggests distinct differences in the geometric features of the prey that determine how they are processed.

  6. Characterization of mechanical behavior of an epithelial monolayer in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruiguo; Chen, Jennifer Y.; Xi, Ning; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Qu, Chengeng; Fung, Carmen Kar Man; Penn, Lynn S.; Xi, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Cell signaling often causes changes in cellular mechanical properties. Knowledge of such changes can ultimately lead to insight into the complex network of cell signaling. In the current study, we employed a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to characterize the mechanical behavior of A431 cells in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. From AFM, which probes the upper portion of an individual cell in a monolayer of cells, we observed increases in energy dissipation, Young's modulus, and hysteresivity. Increases in hysteresivity imply a shift toward a more fluid-like mechanical ordering state in the bodies of the cells. From QCM-D, which probes the basal area of the monolayer of cells collectively, we observed decreases in energy dissipation factor. This result suggests a shift toward a more solid-like state in the basal areas of the cells. The comparative analysis of these results indicates a regionally specific mechanical behavior of the cell in response to EGFR signaling and suggests a correlation between the time-dependent mechanical responses and the dynamic process of EGFR signaling. This study also demonstrates that a combination of AFM and QCM-D is able to provide a more complete and refined mechanical profile of the cells during cell signaling. -- Highlights: ► The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is regionally specific. ► The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is time and dose dependent. ► A combination of AFM and QCM-D provides a more complete mechanical profile of cells.

  7. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the mechanical behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys; Approche experimentale et modelisation micromecanique du comportement des alliages de zirconium irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onimus, F

    2003-12-01

    Zirconium alloys cladding tubes containing nuclear fuel of the Pressurized Water Reactors constitute the first safety barrier against the dissemination of radioactive elements. Thus, it is essential to predict the mechanical behavior of the material in-reactor conditions. This study aims, on the one hand, to identify and characterize the mechanisms of the plastic deformation of irradiated zirconium alloys and, on the other hand, to propose a micro-mechanical modeling based on these mechanisms. The experimental analysis shows that, for the irradiated material, the plastic deformation occurs by dislocation channeling. For transverse tensile test and internal pressure test this channeling occurs in the basal planes. However, for axial tensile test, the study revealed that the plastic deformation also occurs by channeling but in the prismatic and pyramidal planes. In addition, the study of the macroscopic mechanical behavior, compared to the deformation mechanisms observed by TEM, suggested that the internal stress is higher in the case of irradiated material than in the case of non-irradiated material, because of the very heterogeneous character of the plastic deformation. This analysis led to a coherent interpretation of the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials, in terms of deformation mechanisms. The mechanical behavior of irradiated materials was finally modeled by applying homogenization methods for heterogeneous materials. This model is able to reproduce adequately the mechanical behavior of the irradiated material, in agreement with the TEM observations. (author)

  8. Characterization of the mechanical behavior of sea ice as a frictional material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2002-12-01

    The mechanical properties of sea ice are determined by the formation process, and the consequent material behavior at the element scale exhibits viscoelastic behavior at the early loading stages, followed by brittle fracture or ductile, irrecoverable deformation that may be captured by hardening/softening plasticity models with nonassociated flow. Failure of sea ice under different loading conditions follows a pattern that demonstrates its highly cross-anisotropic nature as well as its behavior as a frictional material. The interactions between the floes in the pack ice resemble those observed in granular materials. These materials are frictional in nature, they exhibit both contractive and dilative volume changes, the plastic flow is nonassociated, and their stiffnesses and strengths increase with confining pressure, but they do not have any strength when unconfined. The overall behavior of the pack ice may be close to isotropic. Constitutive modeling of this behavior may be achieved by models used in geotechnical engineering. Formation of leads and subsequent freezing of the water results in cementation between the ice floes, and the pack ice becomes stronger. The behavior of the pack ice may now be compared with that observed in cemented soils or concrete. For these materials, increasing amounts of cementation result in increasing rates of dilation when sheared, and this accounts for the largest contribution to the increase in shear strength.

  9. Development of mechanical analysis module for simulation of SFR fuel rod behavior using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andong; Jeong, Hyedong; Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyochan; Yang, Yongsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Korean SFR developer decided to adapt metal fuel, current study focused on the metal fuel instead of oxide fuel. The SFR metal fuel has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and many efforts focused on designing and manufacturing the metal fuel. Since a nuclear fuel is the first barrier to protect radioactive isotope release, the fuel's integrity must be secured during steady-state operation and accident condition within an acceptable range. Whereas the design and evaluation methodologies, code systems and test procedures of a light water reactor fuel are sufficiently established, those of the SFR fuel needs more technical advances. In the view of regulatory point, there are still many challenging issues which are required to secure the safety of fuel and reactors. For this reason, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has launched the new project to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. The ALFUS code was developed by CRIEPI and employs mechanistic model for fission gas release and swelling of fuel slug. In the code system, a finite element method was introduced to analyze the fuel and cladding's mechanical behaviors. The FEAST code is more advanced code system for SFR which adopted mechanistic FGR and swelling model but still use analytical model to simulate fuel and cladding mechanical behavior. Based on the survey of the previous studies, fuel and cladding mechanical model should be improved. Analysis of mechanical behavior for fuel rod is crucial to evaluate overall rod's integrity. In addition, it is because contact between fuel slug and cladding or an over-pressure of rod internal pressure can cause rod failure during steady-state and other operation condition. The most of reference codes have simplified mechanical analysis model, so called 'analytical mode', because the detailed mechanical analysis requires large amount of calculation time and computing power. Even

  10. Development of mechanical analysis module for simulation of SFR fuel rod behavior using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Andong; Jeong, Hyedong; Suh, Namduk; Kim, Hyochan; Yang, Yongsik

    2014-01-01

    Korean SFR developer decided to adapt metal fuel, current study focused on the metal fuel instead of oxide fuel. The SFR metal fuel has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and many efforts focused on designing and manufacturing the metal fuel. Since a nuclear fuel is the first barrier to protect radioactive isotope release, the fuel's integrity must be secured during steady-state operation and accident condition within an acceptable range. Whereas the design and evaluation methodologies, code systems and test procedures of a light water reactor fuel are sufficiently established, those of the SFR fuel needs more technical advances. In the view of regulatory point, there are still many challenging issues which are required to secure the safety of fuel and reactors. For this reason, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has launched the new project to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. The ALFUS code was developed by CRIEPI and employs mechanistic model for fission gas release and swelling of fuel slug. In the code system, a finite element method was introduced to analyze the fuel and cladding's mechanical behaviors. The FEAST code is more advanced code system for SFR which adopted mechanistic FGR and swelling model but still use analytical model to simulate fuel and cladding mechanical behavior. Based on the survey of the previous studies, fuel and cladding mechanical model should be improved. Analysis of mechanical behavior for fuel rod is crucial to evaluate overall rod's integrity. In addition, it is because contact between fuel slug and cladding or an over-pressure of rod internal pressure can cause rod failure during steady-state and other operation condition. The most of reference codes have simplified mechanical analysis model, so called 'analytical mode', because the detailed mechanical analysis requires large amount of calculation time and computing power. Even

  11. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Test of Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohe, Christoph; Hertel, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Based on social exchange theory, we examined and contrasted attitudinal mediators (affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction) and relational mediators (trust in leader, leader-member exchange; LMX) of the positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Hypotheses were tested using meta-analytic path models with correlations from published meta-analyses (761 samples with 227,419 individuals overall). When testing single-mediator models, results supported our expectations that each of the mediators explained the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. When testing a multi-mediator model, LMX was the strongest mediator. When testing a model with a latent attitudinal mechanism and a latent relational mechanism, the relational mechanism was the stronger mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. Our findings help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB.

  12. Analysis of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior near an emplacement drift at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2002-01-01

    A coupled thermal, hydrologic and mechanical (THM) analysis is conducted to evaluate the impact of coupled THM processes on the performance of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis considers changes in rock mass porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure caused by rock deformations during drift excavation, as well as those caused by thermo-mechanically induced rock deformations after emplacement of the heat-generating waste. The analysis consists of a detailed calibration of coupled hydraulic-mechanical rock mass properties against field experiments, followed by a prediction of the coupled thermal, hydrologic, and mechanical behavior around a potential repository drift. For the particular problem studied and parameters used, the analysis indicates that the stress-induced permeability changes will be within one order of magnitude and that these permeability changes do not significantly impact the overall flow pattern around the repository drift

  13. Impact of mechanical stretch on the cell behaviors of bone and surrounding tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sun Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading is recognized to play an important role in regulating the behaviors of cells in bone and surrounding tissues in vivo. Many in vitro studies have been conducted to determine the effects of mechanical loading on individual cell types of the tissues. In this review, we focus specifically on the use of the Flexercell system as a tool for studying cellular responses to mechanical stretch. We assess the literature describing the impact of mechanical stretch on different cell types from bone, muscle, tendon, ligament, and cartilage, describing individual cell phenotype responses. In addition, we review evidence regarding the mechanotransduction pathways that are activated to potentiate these phenotype responses in different cell populations.

  14. Impact of mechanical stretch on the cell behaviors of bone and surrounding tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Sun; Kim, Jung-Ju; Kim, Hae-Won; Lewis, Mark P; Wall, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading is recognized to play an important role in regulating the behaviors of cells in bone and surrounding tissues in vivo. Many in vitro studies have been conducted to determine the effects of mechanical loading on individual cell types of the tissues. In this review, we focus specifically on the use of the Flexercell system as a tool for studying cellular responses to mechanical stretch. We assess the literature describing the impact of mechanical stretch on different cell types from bone, muscle, tendon, ligament, and cartilage, describing individual cell phenotype responses. In addition, we review evidence regarding the mechanotransduction pathways that are activated to potentiate these phenotype responses in different cell populations. PMID:26977284

  15. Preliminary study of mechanical behavior for Cr coated Zr-4 Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Hak-Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Chan; Yang, Yong-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To decrease the oxidation rate of Zr-based alloy components, many concepts of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) such as Mo-Zr cladding, SiC/SiCf cladding and iron-based alloy cladding are under development. One of the promised concept is the coated cladding which can remarkably increase the corrosion and wear resistance. Recently, KAERI is developing the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding as accident tolerance cladding. To coat the Cr powder on the Zircaloy, 3D laser coating technology has been employed because it is possible to make a coated layer on the tubular cladding surface by controlling the 3-diminational axis. Therefore, for this work, the mechanical integrity of Cr coated Zircaloy should be evaluated to predict the safety of fuel cladding during the operating or accident of nuclear reactor. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding has been studied by using finite element analysis (FEA). The ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding was simulated to evaluate the validity of mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr, which were referred from the literatures and experimental reports. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding has been studied by using finite element analysis (FEA). The ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding was simulated to evaluate the validity of mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr. The pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) properties of Cr coated Zr-4 cladding were investigated by thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. The mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr was validated by simulation of ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding.

  16. Mechanical behavior of the mirror fusion test Facility superconducting magnet coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical response to winding and electromagnetic loads of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) superconducting coil pack is presented. The 375-ton (3300 N) MFTF Yin-Yang magnet, presently the world's largest superconducting magnet, is scheduled for acceptance cold-testing in May of 1981. The assembly is made up of two identical coils which together contain over 15 miles (24 km) of superconductor wound in 58 consecutive layers of 24 turns each. Topics associated with mechanical behavior include physical properties of the coil pack and its components, winding pre-load effects, finite element analysis, magnetic load redistribution, and the design impact of predicted conductor motion

  17. Transient thermal-mechanical behavior of cracked glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the transient thermal-mechanical response of cracked G-10CR glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates with temperature-dependent properties. The glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates are suddenly cooled on the surfaces. A generalized plane strain finite element model is used to study the influence of warp angle and crack formation on the thermal shock behavior of two-layer woven laminates at low temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the transient temperature distribution and the thermal-mechanical stresses are shown graphically

  18. Cure behavior, compression set and dynamic mechanical properties of EPDM/NBR blend vulcanizates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.Y. [Pukyong National Univeristy, Pusan (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    The ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) blends with acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were prepared by mechanical mixing method. Mooney viscosity, cure behaviors, compression set and dynamic mechanical properties were subsequently examined. Dynamic characteristics of the entire blends determined from a Rheovibron generally showed two glass transitions (T{sub g}'s), -43 deg. C and -4 deg. C for NBR and EPDM, respectively. The tan {delta} peak monotonically shifted toward the higher temperature with increasing NBR content. It was also found that the optimum cure time was significantly decreased with loading of NBR. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-01-01

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003(microm). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation

  20. Mechanical and corrosion behaviors of developed copper-based metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manvandra Kumar; Gautam, Rakesh Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Ji, Gopal

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates mechanical properties and corrosion resistances of cast copper-tungsten carbide (WC) metal matrix composites (MMCs). Copper matrix composites have been developed by stir casting technique. Different sizes of micro and nano particles of WC particles are utilized as reinforcement to prepare two copper-based composites, however, nano size of WC particles are prepared by high-energy ball milling. XRD (X-rays diffraction) characterize the materials for involvement of different phases. The mechanical behavior of composites has been studied by Vickers hardness test and compression test; while the corrosion behavior of developed composites is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions. The results show that hardness, compressive strength and corrosion resistance of copper matrix composites are very high in comparison to that of copper matrix, which attributed to the microstructural changes occurred during composite formation. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) reveals the morphology of the corroded surfaces.

  1. Non-destructive thermo-mechanical behavior assessment of glass-ceramics for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordatos, E. Z.; Abdulkadhim, Z.; Feteira, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Every year millions of people seek dental treatment to either repair damaged, unaesthetic and dysfunctional teeth or replace missing natural teeth. Several dental materials have been developed to meet the stringent requirements in terms of mechanical properties, aesthetics and chemical durability in the oral environment. Glass-ceramics exhibit a suitable combination of these properties for dental restorations. This research is focused on the assessment of the thermomechanical behavior of bio-ceramics and particularly lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics (LAS glass-ceramics). Specifically, methodologies based on Infrared Thermography (IRT) have been applied in order the structure - property relationship to be evaluated. Non-crystallized, partially crystallized and fully crystallized glass-ceramic samples have been non-destructively assessed in order their thermo-mechanical behavior to be associated with their micro-structural features.

  2. Influence of Rubber Powders on Foaming Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Foamed Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Yue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene/rubber powders composites with different kinds of rubber powders were foamed by injection molding machine equipped with volume-adjustable cavity. The effect of dispersity of rubber powders and crystallization behavior of composites on the foaming behavior and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the addition of rubber powders can improve the cell structure of foamed PP with fine and uniform cell distribution. And cell density and size of PP/PP-MAH/NBR foams are 7.64×106cell/cm3 and 29.78μm respectively, which are the best among these foams. Combining cell structures with mechanical properties, notch impact strength of PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites increases approximately by 2.2 times while tensile strength is reduced just by 26% compared with those of the pure PP. This indicates that PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites are ideal foamed materials.

  3. Toward the topology design of mechanisms that exhibit snap-through behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, T. E.; Sigmund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Topology optimization has proven to be a powerful method for the conceptual design of structures and mechanisms. In previously published work, we concentrated on the development of numerical methods that accommodate the finite deformation and incorporated these analyses into the topology...... optimization. We demonstrated by relatively straightforward transversely loaded clamped-clamped beam examples that topology optimization can be used to design structures that experience snap-through behavior. Here, we focus our attention on the design problem formulation where the goal is to develop a general...... approach for the design of mechanisms that experience more complex snap-through behavior. A multiphase design strategy is outlined, numerous significant challenges to this complex design process are discussed, and several examples are presented that demonstrate progress toward this goal. (C) 2004 Elsevier...

  4. Tests on mechanical behavior of 304 L stainless steel under constant stress associated with cyclic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical analyses of structures, to be efficient, must incorporate materials behavior data. Among the mechanisms liable to cause collapse, progressive distortion (or ratcheting) has been the subject of only a few basic experiments, most of the investigations being theoretical. In order to get meaningful results to characterize materials behavior, an experimental study on ratcheting of austenitic steels has been undertaken at the C.E.A. This paper gives the first results of tests at room temperature on thin tubes of 304L steel submitted to an axial constant stress (primary stress) to which is added a cyclic shearing strain (secondary stress). The tests cover a large combination of the two loading modes. The main results consist of curves of cumulative iso-deformation in the primary and secondary stress field (Bree type diagrams). Results are given for plastic deformations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5% up to N=100 cycles

  5. The effect of multiaxial stress state on creep behavior and fracture mechanism of P92 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yuan; Xu, Hong, E-mail: xuhong@ncepu.edu.cn; Ni, Yongzhong; Lan, Xiang; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-06-11

    The creep experiments on plain and double U-typed notched specimens were conducted on P92 steel at 650 °C. The notch strengthening effect was found in the notched specimens. Fracture appearance observed by scanning electron microscopy revealed that dimpled fracture for relatively blunt notched specimen, and dimpled fracture doubled with intergranular brittle fracture for relatively sharp notched specimen, which meant that fracture mechanism of P92 steel altered due to the presence of the notch. Meanwhile, based on Norton–Bailey and Kachanov–Robotnov constitutive models, a modified model was proposed. Finite element simulations were carried out to investigate the effect of multiaxial stress state on the creep behavior, fracture mechanism and damage evolvement of P92 steel. The simulation results agreed well with the fracture behaviors observed experimentally.

  6. The Mechanical Behavior of Bone Cement in THR in the Presense of Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benouis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze three-dimensionally using the finite element method, the level and the Von Mises stress equivalent distribution induced around a cavity and between two cavities located in the proximal and distal bone cement polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA. The effects of the position around two main axes (vertical and horizontal of the cavity with respect to these axes, of the cavity - cavity interdistance and of the type of loading (static on the mechanical behavior of cement orthopedic are highlighted. We show that the breaking strain of the cement is largely taken when the cement in its proximal-lateral part contains cavities very close adjacent to each other. This work highlights not only the effect of the density of cavities, in our case simulated by cavity-cavity interdistance, but also the nature of the activity of the patient (patient standing corresponding to static efforts on the mechanical behavior of cement.

  7. Mechanisms of odor-tracking: multiple sensors for enhanced perception and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gomez-Marin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Early in evolution, the ability to sense and respond to changing environments must have provided a critical survival advantage to living organisms. From bacteria and worms to flies and vertebrates, sophisticated mechanisms have evolved to enhance odor detection and localization. Here, we review several modes of chemotaxis. We further consider the relevance of a striking and recurrent motif in the organization of invertebrate and vertebrate sensory systems, namely the existence of two symmetrical olfactory sensors. By combining our current knowledge about the olfactory circuits of larval and adult Drosophila, we examine the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying robust olfactory perception and extend these analyses to recent behavioral studies addressing the relevance and function of bilateral olfactory input for gradient detection. Finally, using a comparative theoretical approach based on Braitenberg’s vehicles, we speculate about the relationships between anatomy, circuit architecture and stereotypical orientation behaviors.

  8. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  9. Mechanism analysis of improved DLC films friction behaviors with liquid sulfidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qunfeng; Yu Fei; Dong Guangneng; Mao Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid sulfidation is applied to treat DLC films. ► Sulfur atoms are chemically bonded and the graphitization presented in the treated films. ► The treated films exhibited much lower coefficient of friction than the untreated films under dry friction condition. ► The sulfidation mechanisms are supposed as surface chemical reaction and surface diffusion. ► The presence of sulfur-containing materials and graphitization are beneficial to improve anti-friction behaviors of the treated films. - Abstract: Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were treated by liquid sulfidation to improve their friction behaviors. Friction behaviors of DLC films were experimentally evaluated in ambient air under dry friction using GCr15 steel ball sliding over DLC-coated steel flat in a ball-on-disk tribometer system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to identify the chemical composition and structure of DLC films. It was found that the content of sp 2 carbon bond increased and G peak shifted to high wave number after sulfidation treatment. The measurement results showed that sulfur atoms were chemically bonded and the graphitization occurred in the treated DLC films. It was indicated that the treated DLC films exhibited much better friction behaviors than the untreated films, especially for DLC films deposited with high nitrogen ratio. In this paper, we proposed the possible sulfidation mechanism of sulfurized DLC films. Sulfidation mechanism is postulated that thiourea reacted with oxygen to form sulfur-containing organic compounds which included CSSC, CSOH and (NH 2 )NH=CSO 2 H and surface diffusion during sulfidation treatment. The anti-friction behaviors of the treated DLC films can be attributed to the production of the compounds containing sulfur on the DLC film surface, the reduce of oxygen content and the presence of graphitization of DLC films.

  10. Thermo-mechanical behavior of power electronic packaging assemblies: From characterization to predictive simulation of lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalverny, O.; Alexis, J.

    2018-02-01

    This article deals with thermo-mechanical behavior of power electronic modules used in several transportation applications as railway, aeronautic or automotive systems. Due to a multi-layered structures, involving different materials with a large variation of coefficient of thermal expansion, temperature variations originated from active or passive cycling (respectively from die dissipation or environmental constraint) induces strain and stresses field variations, giving fatigue phenomenon of the system. The analysis of the behavior of these systems and their dimensioning require the implementation of complex modeling strategies by both the multi-physical and the multi-scale character of the power modules. In this paper we present some solutions for studying the thermomechanical behavior of brazed assemblies as well as taking into account the interfaces represented by the numerous metallizations involved in the process assembly.

  11. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Simulation of Mechanical Behavior and Damage of a Large Composite Wind Turbine Blade under Critical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarfaoui, M.; Nachtane, M.; Khadimallah, H.; Saifaoui, D.

    2018-04-01

    Issues such as energy generation/transmission and greenhouse gas emissions are the two energy problems we face today. In this context, renewable energy sources are a necessary part of the solution essentially winds power, which is one of the most profitable sources of competition with new fossil energy facilities. This paper present the simulation of mechanical behavior and damage of a 48 m composite wind turbine blade under critical wind loads. The finite element analysis was performed by using ABAQUS code to predict the most critical damage behavior and to apprehend and obtain knowledge of the complex structural behavior of wind turbine blades. The approach developed based on the nonlinear FE analysis using mean values for the material properties and the failure criteria of Tsai-Hill to predict failure modes in large structures and to identify the sensitive zones.

  13. Forecasting of mechanical - and structural behavior of 316 austenitic stainless steels by deformation charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of deformation charts applied to AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel with the purpose of foreseeing its behavior associated with structural and mechanical phenomena, is evaluated. The ocurrence of phenomena such as dynamic aging, martensite transformation, static aging, failure at creep curve, cells, subgrains and boundary slips is discussed in the different regions of the chart. A practical example of the charts' utilization for components of fast reactors is finally presented. (Author) [pt

  14. Mechanical properties, morphology, and hydrolytic degradation behavior of polylactic acid / natural rubber blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Y. F.; Aznan, A. N. A.; Anuar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Due to its biodegradability and renewability, polylactic acid (PLA) has been receiving enormous attention as a potential candidate to replace petroleum based polymers. However, PLA has limitation due to its inherent brittleness. In order to overcome this limitation, blending PLA with elastomeric materials such as natural rubber (NR) are commonly reported. In previous, several researches on PLA/NR blend had been reported, with most of them evaluated the mechanical properties. On the other hand, study of degradation behavior is significance of importance, as controlling materials degradation is required in some applications. This research studied the effect of blend composition on mechanical properties, morphology development, and hydrolytic degradation behavior of PLA/NR blends. Various compositions of PLA/NR blends were prepared by melt blending technique. Tensile test and impact test of the blends were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. Addition of NR improved the elongation at break and impact strength of the blends, but reduced the tensile strength and stiffness of the specimens. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) measurements of the blends displayed two peaks at temperature -70˚C which corresponded to T g of NR and 65˚C which corresponded to T g of PLA. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) micrograph of 70/30 PLA/NR specimen also showed two distinct phases, which lead to indication that PLA/NR blends are immiscible. Hydrolytic degradation behavior was evaluated by measuring the remaining weight of the samples immersed in sodium hydroxide solution for a predetermined times. It was shown that the degradation behavior of PLA/NR blends is affected by composition of the blends, with 100 PLA and 70/30 PLA/NR blend showed the fastest degradation rate and 100 NR displayed the slowest one.

  15. Sensory Gain Outperforms Efficient Readout Mechanisms in Predicting Attention-Related Improvements in Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F.; Deering, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Spatial attention has been postulated to facilitate perceptual processing via several different mechanisms. For instance, attention can amplify neural responses in sensory areas (sensory gain), mediate neural variability (noise modulation), or alter the manner in which sensory signals are selectively read out by postsensory decision mechanisms (efficient readout). Even in the context of simple behavioral tasks, it is unclear how well each of these mechanisms can account for the relationship between attention-modulated changes in behavior and neural activity because few studies have systematically mapped changes between stimulus intensity, attentional focus, neural activity, and behavioral performance. Here, we used a combination of psychophysics, event-related potentials (ERPs), and quantitative modeling to explicitly link attention-related changes in perceptual sensitivity with changes in the ERP amplitudes recorded from human observers. Spatial attention led to a multiplicative increase in the amplitude of an early sensory ERP component (the P1, peaking ∼80–130 ms poststimulus) and in the amplitude of the late positive deflection component (peaking ∼230–330 ms poststimulus). A simple model based on signal detection theory demonstrates that these multiplicative gain changes were sufficient to account for attention-related improvements in perceptual sensitivity, without a need to invoke noise modulation. Moreover, combining the observed multiplicative gain with a postsensory readout mechanism resulted in a significantly poorer description of the observed behavioral data. We conclude that, at least in the context of relatively simple visual discrimination tasks, spatial attention modulates perceptual sensitivity primarily by modulating the gain of neural responses during early sensory processing PMID:25274817

  16. Fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of direct laser deposited Ti–6Al–4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, Amanda J.; Torries, Brian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Shamsaei, Nima, E-mail: shamsaei@me.msstate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Thompson, Scott M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Seely, Denver W. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    In order for additive-manufactured parts to become more widely utilized and trusted in application, it is important to have their mechanical properties well-characterized and certified. The fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of Ti–6Al–4V specimens fabricated using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), a Direct Laser Deposition (DLD) additive manufacturing (AM) process, are investigated in this study. A series of fully-reversed strain-controlled fatigue tests is conducted on Ti–6Al–4V specimens manufactured via LENS in their as-built and heat-treated conditions. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used to examine the fracture surfaces of fatigue specimens to qualify the failure mechanism, crack initiation sites, and defects such as porosity. Due to the relatively high localized heating and cooling rates experienced during DLD, fabricated parts are observed to possess anisotropic microstructures, and thus, different mechanical properties than those of their traditionally-manufactured wrought counterparts. The fatigue lives of the investigated LENS specimens were found to be shorter than those of wrought specimens, and porosity was found to be the primary contributor to these shorter fatigue lives, with the exception of the heat-treated LENS samples. The presence of pores promotes more unpredictable fatigue behavior, as evidenced by data scatter. Pore shape, size, location, and number were found to impact the fatigue behavior of the as-built and annealed DLD parts. As porosity seems to be the main contributor to the fatigue behavior of DLD parts, it is important to optimize the manufacturing process and design parameters to minimize and control pore generation during the build.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured Layered Materials, Part 2: Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    materials. Elsevier, Oxford; 2007: 416 -420. [19] Deng, D., Chen, R., Sun, Q. and Li, X. Microstructural study of 17-4PH stainless steel after plasma...1 Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured Layered Materials, Part 2: Stainless Steels * Todd M. Mower † and Michael J. Long M.I.T. Lincoln... stainless steel alloys produced with Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) was measured and is compared to that of similar conventional materials

  18. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF COLD BITUMINOUS MIXTURE UNDER EFFECTS OF STATIC AND REPEATED LOADS1

    OpenAIRE

    Tamyres Karla da Silva; Carlos Alexandre Braz de Carvalho; Geraldo Luciano de Oliveira Marques; Dario Cardoso de Lima; Taciano Oliveira da Silva; Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the results of an experimental research aimed at analyzing the mechanical behavior of a cold bituminous mixture under effects of static and repeated loads. Initially, a Marshall mixture design was performed to determine the mixture design contents according to standard DNER (1994a). After obtaining the mixture design contents, nine bituminous specimens were molded and subjected to the following tests: resilient modulus, tensile strength by diametral compression, a...

  19. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion an...

  20. Mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(butylenes succinate) composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenmin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers have attracted much attention nowadays, and more and more researches have been done on biodegradable polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were melt-mixing with poly (butylenes succinate) (PBS) to prepare the material, which could be used in the biomedical industry. To develop high-performance PBS for cryogenic engineering applications, it is necessary to investigate the cryogenic mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of HA/PBS composites. Cryogenic mechanical behaviors of the composites were studied in terms of tensile and impact strength at the glass transition temperature (-30°C) and compared to their corresponding behaviors at room temperature. With the increase of HA content, the crystallization of HA/PBS composites decreased and crystallization onset temperature shifted to a lower temperature. The diameter of spherulites increased at first and decreased with a further HA content. At the same time, the crystallization rate became slow when the HA content was no more than 15wt% and increased when HA content reached 20wt%. In all, the results we obtained demonstrate that HA/PBS composites reveal a better tensile strength at -30°C in contrast to the strength at room temperature. HA particles with different amount affect the crystallization of PBS in different ways. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. On the mechanical behavior of a cryomilled Al-Ti-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bing Q.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Mohamed, Farghalli A.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a cryomilled Al10Ti2Cu that was later extruded was investigated in compression. The data obtained show that the strength of the extruded alloy parallel to the extrusion axis is higher than that normal to the axis. Also, a comparison between the compression behavior of the alloy and its tensile behavior reveals that there is a small asymmetry of yield strength with respect to deformation mode. Examination of the microstructure of the cryomilled alloy by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates the presence of two phases: approximately 90% nanostructured Al(Cu) phase containing a dispersion of Al 3 Ti and 10% coarse-grained Al(Cu) phase. TEM observations indicate that as a result of the extrusion process, the larger (softer) grains of the Al(Cu) phase experience severe deformation, resulting in the development of mechanical fibering. It is suggested that the presence of coarse-grained Al(Cu) 'islands' in the matrix of the nanostructured phase and their change during extrusion into elongated bands may be responsible for the anisotropy of the mechanical properties of the extruded cryomilled Al10Ti2Cu

  2. Cyclic mechanical behavior of 316L: Uniaxial LCF and strain-controlled ratcheting tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facheris, G.; Janssens, K.G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of cyclic plastic deformation behavior of plate and tubular 316L. ► Strain-controlled ratcheting response between room temperature and 200 °C. ► Isotropic cyclic hardening is dependent on the yield criterion used. ► Ratcheting induced hardening mostly affects the kinematic hardening component. ► Ratcheting induced hardening is related to the mean strain and the ratcheting rate. -- Abstract: With the purpose of analyzing the fatigue behavior under loading conditions relevant for the primary cooling circuit of a light water nuclear reactor, a set of uniaxial low cycle fatigue and strain-controlled ratcheting tests (also named ‘cyclic tension tests’) has been performed at room temperature and at 200 °C on specimens manufactured from two different batches of stainless steel grade 316L. The experiments have been repeated varying strain amplitude, cyclic ratcheting rate and ratcheting direction in order to investigate the influence on the cyclic deformation behavior. In strain-controlled ratcheting tests, the stress response is found to be a superposition of two hardening mechanisms: the first one due to the zero mean strain cycling and the second one linked with the monotonic drifting of mean plastic strain. An approach is proposed to distinguish the effect of each mechanism and the influence of the test parameters on the hardening mechanisms is discussed

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Shale Rock under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of shale rock under cyclic loading and unloading condition, two kinds of incremental cyclic loading tests were conducted. Based on the result of the short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic loading test, the permanent residual strain, modulus, and damage evolution were analyzed firstly. Results showed that the relationship between the residual strains and the cycle number can be expressed by an exponential function. The deformation modulus E50 and elastic modulus ES first increased and then decreased with the peak stress under the loading condition, and both of them increased approximately linearly with the peak stress under the unloading condition. On the basis of the energy dissipation, the damage variables showed an exponential increasing with the strain at peak stress. The creep behavior of the shale rock was also analyzed. Results showed that there are obvious instantaneous strain, decay creep, and steady creep under each stress level and the specimen appears the accelerated creep stage under the 4th stress of 51.16 MPa. Based on the characteristics of the Burgers creep model, a viscoelastic-plastic creep model was proposed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can better describe the creep behavior of shale rock better than the Burgers creep model. Results can provide some mechanics reference evidence for shale gas development.

  4. Experimental study of thermo-mechanical behavior of a thermosetting shape-memory polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruoxuan; Li, Yunxin; Liu, Zishun

    2018-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical behavior of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) serves for the engineering applications of SMPs. Therefore the understanding of thermo-mechanical behavior of SMPs is of great importance. This paper investigates the influence of loading rate and loading level on the thermo-mechanical behavior of a thermosetting shape-memory polymer through experimental study. A series of cyclic tension tests and shape recovery tests at different loading conditions are performed to study the strain level and strain rate effect. The results of tension tests show that the thermosetting shape-memory polymer will behave as rubber material at temperature lower than the glass transition temperature (Tg) and it can obtain a large shape fix ratio at cyclic loading condition. The shape recovery tests exhibit that loading rate and loading level have little effect on the beginning and ending of shape recovery process of the thermosetting shape-memory polymer. Compared with the material which is deformed at temperature higher than Tg, the material deformed at temperature lower than Tg behaves a bigger recovery speed.

  5. The evolution of different forms of sociality: behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J van der Post

    Full Text Available Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific characteristics of different species. Our approach to studying such trajectories is to use evolutionary case-studies, so that we can investigate how grouping co-evolves with a multitude of individual characteristics. Here we focus on anti-predator vigilance and foraging. We use an individual-based model, where behavioral mechanisms are specified, and costs and benefits are not predefined. We show that evolutionary changes in grouping alter selection pressures on vigilance, and vice versa. This eco-evolutionary feedback generates an evolutionary progression from "leader-follower" societies to "fission-fusion" societies, where cooperative vigilance in groups is maintained via a balance between within- and between-group selection. Group-level selection is generated from an assortment that arises spontaneously when vigilant and non-vigilant foragers have different grouping tendencies. The evolutionary maintenance of small groups, and cooperative vigilance in those groups, is therefore achieved simultaneously. The evolutionary phases, and the transitions between them, depend strongly on behavioral mechanisms. Thus, integrating behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback is critical for understanding what kinds of intermediate stages are involved during the evolution of particular forms of sociality.

  6. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Behavioral State-Dependent Bidirectional Modulation of Motor Cortex Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schiemann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity in primary motor cortex (M1 correlates with behavioral state, but the cellular mechanisms underpinning behavioral state-dependent modulation of M1 output remain largely unresolved. Here, we performed in vivo patch-clamp recordings from layer 5B (L5B pyramidal neurons in awake mice during quiet wakefulness and self-paced, voluntary movement. We show that L5B output neurons display bidirectional (i.e., enhanced or suppressed firing rate changes during movement, mediated via two opposing subthreshold mechanisms: (1 a global decrease in membrane potential variability that reduced L5B firing rates (L5Bsuppressed neurons, and (2 a coincident noradrenaline-mediated increase in excitatory drive to a subpopulation of L5B neurons (L5Benhanced neurons that elevated firing rates. Blocking noradrenergic receptors in forelimb M1 abolished the bidirectional modulation of M1 output during movement and selectively impaired contralateral forelimb motor coordination. Together, our results provide a mechanism for how noradrenergic neuromodulation and network-driven input changes bidirectionally modulate M1 output during motor behavior.

  7. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  8. Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao

    2017-11-15

    Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of S A 1 and significant increase of S A 2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion c w and lower to medium friction angle ϕ w . This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of c w and ϕ w under different confinements, different combinations of c w and ϕ w may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir.

  9. Mechanical behavior and fatigue performance of SMA short fiber reinforced MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Matar, Basem Jawad

    The mechanical behavior and performance of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) short fiber NiTi reinforced Al was experimentally investigated for monotonic and fatigue test Al 6061 NiTi-SiC T6 was superior to unreinforced materials as well as to the reinforced Al T4. Taya three-dimensional model was performed on the monotonic tensile test at room temperature. It showed good agreement with experimental results. In order to utilize the compressive criterion for SMA, the NiTi reinforced Al composite was cooled at -10°C and prestrained at 1.2%. Beyond this limit composite suffered from damage. The net enhancement of SMA effect was around 10 MPa on composite yield stress. Results showed that the elastic constant for the composite did not change with loading and unloading suggesting that the inelastic behavior is plasticity. Further investigation on the inelastic behavior model as damage and/or plasticity by evaluating Poisson's ratio during loading was carried out by Adaptive Image Correlation Technique for Full-Field Strain Measurement. Poisson's ratio increased from around 0.33 to 0.5 demonstrating that it is plasticity that is responsible for the inelastic behavior. Scanning electron microscopy was also used and confirmed model results. The overall damage-behavior was quantified in terms of the post fatigue failure strength for low-cycle fatigue tests. Power law model was best to fit experimental findings.

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Low Porosity Carbonate Rock: From Brittle Creep to Ductile Creep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mechanical compaction and associated porosity reduction play an important role in the diagenesis of porous rocks. They may also affect reservoir rocks during hydrocarbon production, as the pore pressure field is modified. This inelastic compaction can lead to subsidence, cause casing failure, trigger earthquake, or change the fluid transport properties. In addition, inelastic deformation can be time - dependent. In particular, brittle creep phenomena have been deeply investigated since the 90s, especially in sandstones. However knowledge of carbonates behavior is still insufficient. In this study, we focus on the mechanical behavior of a 14.7% porosity white Tavel (France) carbonate rock (>98% calcite). The samples were deformed in a triaxial cell at effective confining pressures ranging from 0 MPa to 85 MPa at room temperature and 70°C. Experiments were carried under dry and water saturated conditions in order to explore the role played by the pore fluids. Two types of experiments have been carried out: (1) a first series in order to investigate the rupture envelopes, and (2) a second series with creep experiments. During the experiments, elastic wave velocities (P and S) were measured to infer crack density evolution. Permeability was also measured during creep experiments. Our results show two different mechanical behaviors: (1) brittle behavior is observed at low confining pressures, whereas (2) ductile behavior is observed at higher confining pressures. During creep experiments, these two behaviors have a different signature in term of elastic wave velocities and permeability changes, due to two different mechanisms: development of micro-cracks at low confining pressures and competition between cracks and microplasticity at high confining pressure. The attached figure is a summary of 20 triaxial experiments performed on Tavel limestone under different conditions. Stress states C',C* and C*' and brittle strength are shown in the P-Q space: (a) 20°C and dry

  11. Evolution of fuel rod support under irradiation consequences on the mechanical behavior of fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billerey, A.; Bouffioux, P.

    2002-01-01

    The complete paper follows. According to the fuel management policy in French PWR with respect to high burn-up, the prediction of the mechanical behavior of the irradiated fuel assembly is required as far as excessive deformations of fuel assembly might lead to incomplete Rod Cluster Control Assembly insertion (safety problems) and fretting wear lead to leaking rods (plant operation problems). One of the most important parameter is the evolution of the fuel rod support in the grid cell as it directly governs the mechanical behavior of the fuel assembly and consequently allows to predict the behavior of irradiated structure in terms of (i) axial and lateral deformation (global behavior of the assembly) and (ii) fretting wear (local behavior of the rod). Fuel rod support is provided by a spring-dimple system fixed on the grid. During irradiation, the spring force decreases and a gap between the rod and the spring might open. This phenomenon is due to (i) irradiation-induced stress relaxation for the spring and for the dimples, (ii) grid growth and (iii) reduction of rod diameter. Two models have been developed to predict the behavior of the rod in the grid cell. The first model is able to evaluate the spring force relaxation during irradiation. The second one is able to evaluate the rotation characteristic of the fuel rod in the cell, function of the spring force. The main input parameters are (i) the creep laws of the grid materials, (ii) the growth law of the grid, (iii) the evolution of rod diameter and (iv) the design of the fuel rod support. The objectives of this paper are to: (i) evaluate the consequences of grid support design modifications on the fretting sensitivity in terms of predicted maximum gap during irradiation and operational time to gap appearance; (ii) evaluate, using a non-linear Finite Element assembly model, the impact of the evolution of grid support under irradiation on the mechanical behavior of the full assembly in terms of axial and

  12. The role of strain rate during deposition of CAP on Ti6Al4V by superplastic deformation-like method using high-temperature compression test machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramdan, R.D.; Jauhari, I.; Hasan, R.; Masdek, N.R. Nik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation of superplastic deformation method for the deposition of carbonated-apatite (CAP) on the well-know titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V. This deposition process was carried out using high-temperature compression test machine, at temperature of 775 deg. C, different strain rates, and conducted along the elastic region of the sample. Before the process, titanium substrate was cryogenically treated in order to approach superplastic characteristic during the process. After the process, thin film of CAP was created on the substrate with the thickness from 0.71 μm to 1.42 μm. The resulted film has a high density of CAP that covered completely the surface of the substrate. From the stress-strain relation chart, it can be observed that as the strain rate decreases, the area under stress-strain chart also decreases. This condition influences the density of CAP layer on the substrate that as this area decreases, the density of CAP layer also decreases as also confirmed by X-ray diffraction characterization. In addition, since the resulting layer of CAP is in the form of thin film, this layer did not alter the hardness of the substrate as measured by Vickers hardness test method. On the other hand, the resulting films also show a good bonding strength properties as the layer remain exist after friction test against polishing clothes for 1 h

  13. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion and sleep in both invertebrates and mammals. Furthermore, as in mammals, caffeine appears to have complex effects on learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects may differ between invertebrates and vertebrates. While caffeine's ability to cause release of intracellular calcium stores via ryanodine receptors and its actions as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been clearly established in invertebrates, its ability to interact with invertebrate adenosine receptors remains an important open question. Initial studies in insects and mollusks suggest an interaction between caffeine and the dopamine signaling pathway; more work needs to be done to understand the mechanisms by which caffeine influences signaling via biogenic amines. As of yet, little is known about whether other actions of caffeine in vertebrates, such as its effects on GABAA and glycine receptors, are conserved. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine remains to be elucidated. Overall behavioral responses to caffeine appear to be conserved amongst organisms; however, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying its effects across animal phyla.

  14. Thermal behavior and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked PVA/Gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Geever, Luke M; Kennedy, James E; Higginbotham, Clement L; Cahill, Paul A; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2010-02-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Gelatin hydrogels are under active investigation as potential vascular cell culture biomaterials, tissue models and vascular implants. The PVA/Gelatin hydrogels are physically crosslinked by the freeze-thaw technique, which is followed by a coagulation bath treatment. In this study, the thermal behavior of the gels was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Rheological measurement and uniaxial tensile tests revealed key mechanical properties. The role of polymer fraction in relation to these mechanical properties is explored. Gelatin has no significant effect on the thermal behavior of PVA, which indicates that no substantial change occurs in the PVA crystallite due to the presence of gelatin. The glass transition temperature, melting temperature, degree of crystallinity, polymer fraction, storage modulus (G') and ultimate strength of one freeze-thaw cycle (1FT) hydrogels are inferior to those of 3FT hydrogels. With coagulation, both 1FT and 3FT hydrogels shifted to a lower value of T(g), melting temperature and polymer fraction are further increased and the degree of crystallinity is depressed. The mechanical properties of 1FT, but not 3FT, were strengthened with coagulation treatment. This study gives a detailed investigation of the microstructure formation of PVA/Gelatin hydrogel in each stage of physical treatments which helps us to explain the role of physical treatments in tuning their physical properties for biomechanical applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Thermal Environment on the Mechanical Behaviors of Building Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and thermal environment can influence the mechanical properties of building materials worked in the civil engineering, for example, concrete, building rock, and steel. This paper examines standard cylindrical building marble specimens (Φ50 × 100 mm that were treated with high temperatures in two different thermal environments: vacuum (VE and airiness (AE. Uniaxial compression tests were also carried out on those specimens after heat treatment to study the effect that the thermal environment has on mechanical behaviors. With an increase in temperature, the mechanical behavior of marble in this study indicates a critical temperature of 600°C. Both the peak stress and elasticity modulus were larger for the VE than they were for the AE. The thermal environment has an obvious influence on the mechanical properties, especially at temperatures of 450∼750°C. The failure mode of marble specimens under uniaxial compression is mainly affected by the thermal environment at 600°C.

  16. Microstructural and hardness behavior of graphene-nanoplatelets/aluminum composites synthesized by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bustamante, R.; Bolaños-Morales, D.; Bonilla-Martínez, J.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pure aluminum was reinforced with graphene-platelets by using mechanical milling. • The composites were studied after sintering condition. • Milling time and graphene-platelet enhance the mechanical behavior of the composites. - Abstract: Graphene can be considered as an ideal reinforcement for the production of composites due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These characteristics offer an increased opportunity for their study in the production of metal matrix composites (MMCs). In this research, the studied composites were produced by mechanical alloying (MA). The employed milling times were of 1, 3 and 5 h. GNPs were added in 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 wt% into an aluminum powder matrix. Milled powders were cold consolidated and subsequently sintered. Composites were microstructurally characterized with Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hardness behavior in composites was evaluated with a Vickers micro-hardness test. A homogeneous dispersion of graphene during MA and the proper selection of sintering conditions were considered to produce optimized composites. The obtained results with electron microscopy indicate a homogeneous dispersion of GNPs into the aluminum matrix. Analyses showed GNPs edges where the structure of the graphene layers conserved after MA is observed

  17. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term mechanical behavior of buffer. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Shiratake, Toshikazu; Tamura, Hirokuni

    2004-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, to make clear the mechanical deformation behavior of buffer against the external force is important, because of carrying out safety assessment of EBS accurately. In this report, several sets of parameters are chosen for the previously selected two constitutive models, Sekiguchi-Ohta model and Adachi-Oka model, and the element tests and mock-up tests are simulated using these parameters. Through the simulation, applicability of the constitutive models and parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters were carried out, and mechanical behavior is evaluated over a long period of time. Analysis estimated the amount of settlement of the over pack, the stress state of buffer material, the reaction force to a base rock, etc., and the result that EBS is mechanically stable over a long period of time was obtained. Next, in order to prove analyses results a side, literature survey was conducted about geological age, the dynamics history of a Smectite layer. The outline plan was drawn up about the natural analogue verification method and preliminary examination was performed about the applicability of Freezing Sampling'. (author)

  18. Casting and stress-strain simulations of a cast ductile iron component using microstructure based mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Jakob; Svensson, Ingvar L

    2012-01-01

    The industrial demand for increased component performance with concurrent reductions in component weight, development times and verifications using physical prototypes drives the need to use the full potential of casting and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations to correctly predict the mechanical behavior of cast components in service. The mechanical behavior of the component is determined by the casting process, and factors as component geometry and casting process parameters are known to affect solidification and microstructure formation throughout the component and cause local variations in mechanical behavior as well as residual stresses. Though residual stresses are known to be an important factor in the mechanical behavior of the component, the importance of local mechanical behavior is not well established and the material is typically considered homogeneous throughout the component. This paper deals with the influence of solidification and solid state transformation on microstructure formation and the effect of local microstructure variations on the mechanical behavior of the cast component in service. The current work aims to investigate the coupling between simulation of solidification, microstructure and local variations in mechanical behavior and stress-strain simulation. This is done by performing several simulations of a ductile iron component using a recently developed simulation strategy, a closed chain of simulations for cast components, able to predict and describe the local variations in not only elastic but also plastic behavior throughout the component by using microstructural parameters determined by simulations of microstructural evolution in the component during the casting process. In addition the residual stresses are considered. The results show that the FEM simulation results are significantly affected by including microstructure based mechanical behavior. When the applied load is low and the component is subjected to stress levels

  19. Infiltration Behavior Of Mechanical Alloyed 75 wt% Cu-25 wt% WC Powders Into Porous WC Compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şelte A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work infiltration behavior of mechanical alloyed 75 wt% Cu – 25 wt% WC powders into porous WC compacts were studied. Owing to their ductile nature, initial Cu powders were directly added to mechanical alloying batch. On the other hand initial WC powders were high energy milled prior to mechanical alloying. Contact infiltration method was selected for densification and compacts prepared from processed powders were infiltrated into porous WC bodies. After infiltration, samples were characterized via X-Ray diffraction studies and microstructural evaluation of the samples was carried out via scanning electron microscopy observations. Based on the lack of solubility between WC and Cu it was possible to keep fine WC particles in Cu melt since solution reprecipitation controlled densification is hindered. Also microstructural characterizations via scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the transport of fine WC fraction from infiltrant to porous WC skeleton can be carried out via Cu melt flow during infiltration.

  20. Room and elevated temperature Mechanical Behavior of 9-12% Cr Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2005-02-01

    The mechanical properties of medium Cr steels used in fossil fired power plants are very good because of their excellent high temperature microstructural stability. However, as the desire to increase the operating temperature (>650C) of the plant goes up, the need for steels that maintain their strength at these temperatures also increases. The mechanical properties of three medium Cr steels (0.08C-(9-12)Cr-1.2Ni-0.7Mo-3.0Cu-3.0Co-0.5Ti) were investigated through hardness, hot hardness and tensile measurements. The strength of the 9-12%Cr steels at room temperature after long-term isothermal aging (750C; 1000 hours) compares favorably with that of other power plant steels (e.g., P91). In addition, the elevated temperature strength and hot hardness also behave similarly. The mechanical behavior will be discussed in terms of the strength, elongation and tensile fracture characteristics.

  1. A study on the mechanical behavior of soils during flat edge cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Satoru; Hyodo, Kazuya; Ooishi, Yoshihiro

    1986-01-01

    For the development of efficient earthmoving machinery, it is necessary to clarify the soil cutting mechanism, but there is no usual analytical or experimental technique for large deformation problems like soil cutting. Therefore, we have tried to apply the X-ray radiography method, which is a soil experiment method for the visualization and the quantative analysis of soil deformation, to the flat edge cutting problem. Firstly we have confirmed that the X-ray radiography method is applicable to large deformations, and have examined by this method the cutting mechanism of soils under various cutting conditions. As a result, the behavior of shear failure lines, which have not been studied in detail before, are clarified, and the differences in the cutting mechanism with the cutting angle and the nature of soils are discussed through the quantative estimation of the strain distribution. (author)

  2. Analysis of the thermo-chemo-mechanical behavior of massive concrete structures oat early-age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorio, T.; Bary, B.; Benboudjema, F.

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of the thermo-chemo-mechanical behavior of concrete structures at early ages is important in the context of the feasibility of massive structures. Different phenomena affecting the thermal response of the structure are studied, namely the influence of the change on convection conditions due to wind, the influence of solar radiation, the influence of ambient temperature and the influence of assembly date. A mechanical analysis accounting for autogenous shrinkage and creep strains, besides thermal strains, is performed for the latter case. The results point out the importance of considering the solar radiation and wind conditions on the thermal response of the structure. The ambient temperature impacts directly the maximum temperature reached within the structure. Finally, although the temperature profiles seem just to shift according to the assembly date, the mechanical response is less favorable to early assembly dates. (authors)

  3. A study on the mechanical behavior of soil during frat edge cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Satoru; Hyodo, Kazuya; Ooishi, Yoshihiro.

    1987-02-01

    For the development of efficient earthmoving machinery, it is necessary to clarify the soil cutting mechanism, but there is no usual analytical or experimental technique for large deformation problems like soil cutting. Therefore, we have tried to apply the X-ray radiography method, which is a soil experiment method for the visualization and the quantitative analysis of soil deformation, to the flat edge cutting problem. Firstly we have confirmed that the X-ray radiography method is applicable to large deformations, and have examined by this method the cutting mechanism of soils under various cutting conditions. As a result, the behavior of shear failure lines, which have not been studied in detail before, are clarified, and the differences in the cutting mechanism with the cutting angle and the nature of soils are discussed through the quantitative estimation of the strain distribution. (author)

  4. Mechanical behaviors of multi-filament twist superconducting strand under tensile and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    The superconducting strand, serving as the basic unit cell of the cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs), is a typical multi-filament twist composite which is always subjected to a cyclic loading under the operating condition. Meanwhile, the superconducting material Nb3Sn in the strand is sensitive to strain frequently relating to the performance degradation of the superconductivity. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the strand helps understanding the superconducting performance of the strained Nb3Sn strands. To address this issue, taking the LMI (internal tin) strand as an example, a three-dimensional structural finite element model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand with the real configuration of the LMI strand is built to study the influences of the plasticity of the component materials, the twist of the filament bundle, the initial thermal residual stress and the breakage and its evolution of the filaments on the mechanical behaviors of the strand. The effective properties of superconducting filament bundle with random filament breakage and its evolution versus strain are obtained based on the damage theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials proposed by Curtin and Zhou. From the calculation results of this model, we find that the occurrence of the hysteresis loop in the cyclic loading curve is determined by the reverse yielding of the elastic-plastic materials in the strand. Both the initial thermal residual stress in the strand and the pitch length of the filaments have significant impacts on the axial and hysteretic behaviors of the strand. The damage of the filaments also affects the axial mechanical behavior of the strand remarkably at large axial strain. The critical current of the strand is calculated by the scaling law with the results of the Multi-filament twist model. The predicted results of the Multi-filament twist model show an acceptable agreement with the experiment.

  5. The coupled bio-chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of glucose exposed arterial elastin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu; Boutis, Gregory S

    2017-01-01

    Elastin, the principle protein component of the elastic fiber, is a critical extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the arterial wall providing structural resilience and biological signaling essential in vascular morphogenesis and maintenance of mechanical homeostasis. Pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases have been associated with alterations of elastin. As a long-lived ECM protein that is deposited and organized before adulthood, elastic fibers can suffer from cumulative effects of biochemical exposure encountered during aging and/or disease, which greatly compromise their mechanical function. This review article covers findings from recent studies of the mechanical and structural contribution of elastin to vascular function, and the effects of biochemical degradation. Results from diverse experimental methods including tissue-level mechanical characterization, fiber-level nonlinear optical imaging, piezoelectric force microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance are reviewed. The intriguing coupled bio-chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of elastin calls for a multi-scale and multi-physical understanding of ECM mechanics and mechanobiology in vascular remodeling. (topical review)

  6. The coupled bio-chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of glucose exposed arterial elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2017-04-01

    Elastin, the principle protein component of the elastic fiber, is a critical extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the arterial wall providing structural resilience and biological signaling essential in vascular morphogenesis and maintenance of mechanical homeostasis. Pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases have been associated with alterations of elastin. As a long-lived ECM protein that is deposited and organized before adulthood, elastic fibers can suffer from cumulative effects of biochemical exposure encountered during aging and/or disease, which greatly compromise their mechanical function. This review article covers findings from recent studies of the mechanical and structural contribution of elastin to vascular function, and the effects of biochemical degradation. Results from diverse experimental methods including tissue-level mechanical characterization, fiber-level nonlinear optical imaging, piezoelectric force microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance are reviewed. The intriguing coupled bio-chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of elastin calls for a multi-scale and multi-physical understanding of ECM mechanics and mechanobiology in vascular remodeling.

  7. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  8. Mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles at blanket relevant temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, Petr, E-mail: petr.kurinskiy@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rolli, Rolf [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Materials Biomechanics (IAM-WBM), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Fusion Institute, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Oaza-Obuchi-Aza-Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aoori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of two kinds of Be–Ti pebbles in the temperature range of 400–800 °C was investigated. • It was experimentally shown that Be-7 at.%Ti pebbles have the enhanced ductile properties compared to Be-7.7 at.%Ti pebbles. • Brittle failure of both kinds of Be–Ti pebbles was observed by testing at 400 °C using the constant loading with 150 N. - Abstract: Mechanical performance of beryllium-based materials is a matter of a great interest from the point of view of their use as neutron multipliers of the tritium breeding blankets. The compression strains which can occur in beryllium pebble beds under blanket working conditions will lead to deformation or even failure of individual pebbles [1,2] (Reimann et al. 2002; Ishitsuka and Kawamura, 1995). Mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles having chemical contents of Be-7.0 at.% Ti and Be-7.7 at.%Ti was investigated in the temperature range of 400–800 °C. Constant loads varying from 10 up to 150 N were applied uniaxially. It was shown that Be–Ti pebbles compared to pure beryllium pebbles possess much lower ductility, although their strength properties exceed corresponding characteristics of pure beryllium. Also, the influence of titanium content on mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles was investigated. Specific features of deformation of pure beryllium and Be–Ti pebbles having different titanium contents at blanket operation temperatures are discussed.

  9. Theoretical models to predict the mechanical behavior of thick composite tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Tita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows theoretical models (analytical formulations to predict the mechanical behavior of thick composite tubes and how some parameters can influence this behavior. Thus, firstly, it was developed the analytical formulations for a pressurized tube made of composite material with a single thick ply and only one lamination angle. For this case, the stress distribution and the displacement fields are investigated as function of different lamination angles and reinforcement volume fractions. The results obtained by the theoretical model are physic consistent and coherent with the literature information. After that, the previous formulations are extended in order to predict the mechanical behavior of a thick laminated tube. Both analytical formulations are implemented as a computational tool via Matlab code. The results obtained by the computational tool are compared to the finite element analyses, and the stress distribution is considered coherent. Moreover, the engineering computational tool is used to perform failure analysis, using different types of failure criteria, which identifies the damaged ply and the mode of failure.

  10. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherafat, Z.; Paydar, M.H.; Ebrahimi, R.; Sohrabi, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material were investigated. The two-phase materials were fabricated by mixing commercially pure Al powder with Al7075 chips and consolidating the mixture through hot extrusion process at 500 o C. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of the fabricated samples were evaluated using tensile and compression tests. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the fracture surface of the samples including different amount of Al powder, after they were fractured in tensile test. The results of the tensile and compression tests showed that with decreasing the amount of Al powder, the strength increases and ductility decreases. Calculation of work hardening exponent (n) indicated that deformation behavior does not follow a regular trend. In a way that the n value was approved to be variable and a strong function of strain and Al powder wt% of the sample. The results of the fractography studies indicate that the type of fracture happened changes from completely ductile to nearly brittle by decreasing the wt% of Al powder from 90% to 40%.

  11. Zonal Articular Cartilage Possesses Complex Mechanical Behavior Spanning Multiple Length Scales: Dependence on Chemical Heterogeneity, Anisotropy, and Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlquist, Joseph A.

    This work focused on characterizing the mechanical behavior of biological material in physiologically relevant conditions and at sub millimeter length scales. Elucidating the time, length scale, and directionally dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage and other biological materials is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory cues for cells, create computational models that mimic native tissue behavior, and assess disease progression. This work focused on three broad aspects of characterizing the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. First, we sought to reveal the causes of time-dependent deformation and variation of mechanical properties with distance from the articular surface. Second, we investigated size dependence of mechanical properties. Finally, we examined material anisotropy of both the calcified and uncalcified tissues of the osteochondral interface. This research provides insight into how articular cartilage serves to support physiologic loads and simultaneously sustain chondrocyte viability.

  12. Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Krupinski, Pawel; Wightman, Raymond; Milani, Pascale; Berquand, Alexandre; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Jönsson, Henrik; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    Although it is a central question in biology, how cell shape controls intracellular dynamics largely remains an open question. Here, we show that the shape of Arabidopsis pavement cells creates a stress pattern that controls microtubule orientation, which then guides cell wall reinforcement. Live-imaging, combined with modeling of cell mechanics, shows that microtubules align along the maximal tensile stress direction within the cells, and atomic force microscopy demonstrates that this leads to reinforcement of the cell wall parallel to the microtubules. This feedback loop is regulated: cell-shape derived stresses could be overridden by imposed tissue level stresses, showing how competition between subcellular and supracellular cues control microtubule behavior. Furthermore, at the microtubule level, we identified an amplification mechanism in which mechanical stress promotes the microtubule response to stress by increasing severing activity. These multiscale feedbacks likely contribute to the robustness of microtubule behavior in plant epidermis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01967.001 PMID:24740969

  13. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Min

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains.Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated.The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes.Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings.

  14. Tensile and fracture behavior of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys: micro-mechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was chosen as the material for the core vessel of the future Jules Horowitz testing reactor (JHR). The objective of this thesis is to understand and model the tensile and fracture behavior of the material, as well as the origin of damage anisotropy. A micro-mechanical approach was used to link the microstructure and mechanical behavior. The microstructure of the alloy was characterized on the surface via Scanning Electron Microscopy and in the 3D volume via synchrotron X-ray tomography and laminography. The damage mechanism was identified by in-situ SEM tensile testing, ex-situ X-ray tomography and in-situ laminography on different levels of triaxiality. The observations have shown that damage nucleated at lower strains on Mg 2 Si coarse precipitates than on iron rich intermetallics. The identified scenario and the in-situ measurements were then used to develop a coupled GTN damage model incorporating nucleation, growth and coalescence of cavities formed by coarse precipitates. The relationship between the damage and the microstructure anisotropies was explained and simulated. (author)

  15. Assessment of thermo-mechanical behavior in CLAM steel first wall structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fubin; Yao Man

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM) as FW the structural material. ► The thermo-mechanical behavior of the FW was analyzed under the condition of normal ITER operation combined effect of plasma heat flux and neutron heating. ► The temperature dependence of the material physical properties of CLAM is summarized. - Abstract: The temperature and strain distributions of the mockup with distinct structural material (SS316L or China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM)) in two-dimensional model were calculated and analyzed, based on a high heat flux (HHF) test recently reported with heat flux of 3.2 MW/m 2 . The calculated temperature and strain results in the first wall (FW), in which SS316L is as the structural material, showed good agreement with HHF test. By substituting CLAM steel for SS316L the contrast analysis indicates that the thermo-mechanical property for CLAM steel is better than that of SS316 at the same condition. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical behavior of the FW was analyzed under the condition of normal ITER operation combined effect of plasma heat flux and neutron heating.

  16. Assessment of thermo-mechanical behavior in CLAM steel first wall structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Fubin, E-mail: liufubin_1216@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning (China); Yao Man, E-mail: yaoman@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM) as FW the structural material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermo-mechanical behavior of the FW was analyzed under the condition of normal ITER operation combined effect of plasma heat flux and neutron heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature dependence of the material physical properties of CLAM is summarized. - Abstract: The temperature and strain distributions of the mockup with distinct structural material (SS316L or China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM)) in two-dimensional model were calculated and analyzed, based on a high heat flux (HHF) test recently reported with heat flux of 3.2 MW/m{sup 2}. The calculated temperature and strain results in the first wall (FW), in which SS316L is as the structural material, showed good agreement with HHF test. By substituting CLAM steel for SS316L the contrast analysis indicates that the thermo-mechanical property for CLAM steel is better than that of SS316 at the same condition. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical behavior of the FW was analyzed under the condition of normal ITER operation combined effect of plasma heat flux and neutron heating.

  17. Influence of the stacking sequence of layers on the mechanical behavior of polymeric composite cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Osni de

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluated experimentally the influence of the stacking sequence of layers symmetrical and asymmetrical on the mechanical behavior of polymeric composite cylinders. For so much, two open-ended cylinders groups were manufactured by filament winding process, which had different stacking sequence related to the laminate midplane, characterizing symmetrical and asymmetrical laminates. The composite cylinders were made with epoxy matrix and carbon fiber as reinforcement. For evaluation of the mechanical strength, the cylinders were tested hydrostatically, which consisted of internal pressurization in a hydrostatic device through the utilization of a fluid until the cylinders burst. Additionally, were compared the strains and failure modes between the cylinders groups. The utilization of a finite element program allowed to conclude that this tool, very used in design, does not get to identify tensions in the fiber direction in each composite layer, as well as interlaminar shear stress, that appears in the cylinders with asymmetrical stacking sequence. The tests results showed that the stacking sequence had influence in the mechanical behavior of the composite cylinders, favoring the symmetrical construction. (author)

  18. Study of rare gases behavior in uranium dioxide: diffusion and bubble nucleation and growth mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.

    2011-01-01

    During in-reactor irradiation of the nuclear fuel, fission gases, mainly xenon and krypton, are generated that are subject to several phenomena: diffusion and precipitation. These phenomena can have adverse consequences on the fuel physical and chemical properties and its in-reactor behavior. The purpose of this work is to better understand the behavior of fission gases by identifying diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth mechanisms. To do this, studies involving separate effects have been established coupling ion irradiations/implantations with fine characterizations on Large Scale Facilities. The influence of several parameters such as gas type, concentration and temperature has been identified separately. Interpretation of the Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS) measurements has enabled us to determine xenon and krypton diffusion coefficients in uranium dioxide. A heterogeneous nucleation mechanism on defects was determined by means of experiments on the JANNuS platform in Orsay that consists of a coupling of an implantor, an accelerator and a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Finally, TEM and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy characterizations of implanted and annealed samples put in relieve a bubble growth mechanism by atoms and vacancies capture. (author) [fr

  19. A Study on Mechanical behavior of Tensile Specimen Fabricated by Laser Cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Baek, S. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The mechanical testing data are required for the assessment of dry storage of the spent nuclear fuel. Laser cutting system could be useful tools for material processing such as cutting in radioactive environment due to non-contact nature, ease in handling and the laser cutting process is most advantageous, offering the narrow kerf width and heat affected zone by using small beam spot diameter. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of the unirradiated cladding with and without oxide layer on the specimens. In the present study, the dimensional measurement and tensile test were conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of the axial tensile test specimens depending on the material processing methods in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser cutting system was used to fabricate the tensile test specimens, and the mechanical behavior was investigated using the dimensional measurement and tensile test. It was shown that the laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens and this technique will be developed for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hotcell.

  20. Nanotribological Behavior of Carbon Based Thin Films: Friction and Lubricity Mechanisms at the Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Charitidis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of materials with very attractive friction and wear properties has raised much attention in research and industrial sectors. A wide range of tribological applications, including rolling and sliding bearings, machining, mechanical seals, biomedical implants and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, require thin films with high mechanical strength, chemical inertness, broad optical transparency, high refractive index, wide bandgap excellent thermal conductivity and extremely low thermal expansion. Carbon based thin films like diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon nitride and cubic boron nitride known as “super-hard” material have been studied thoroughly as the ideal candidate for tribological applications. In this study, the results of experimental and simulation works on the nanotribological behavior of carbon films and fundamental mechanisms of friction and lubricity at the nano-scale are reviewed. The study is focused on the nanomechanical properties and analysis of the nanoscratching processes at low loads to obtain quantitative analysis, the comparison obtain quantitative analysis, the comparison of their elastic/plastic deformation response, and nanotribological behavior of the a-C, ta-C, a-C:H, CNx, and a-C:M films. For ta-C and a-C:M films new data are presented and discussed.

  1. Effect of chemical composition and microstructure on the mechanical behavior of fish scales from Megalops Atlanticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Duran, S; Arola, D; Ossa, E A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the composition, microstructure and mechanical behavior of scales from the Megalops Atlanticus (Atlantic tarpon). The microstructure and composition were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and RAMAN spectroscopy, respectively. The mechanical properties were evaluated in uniaxial tension as a function of position along the length of the fish (head, mid-length and tail). Results showed that the scales are composed of collagen and hydroxyapatite, and these constituents are distributed within three well-defined layers from the bottom to the top of the scale. The proportion of these layers with respect to the total scale thickness varies radially. The collagen fibers are arranged in plies with different orientations and with preferred orientation in the longitudinal direction of the fish. Results from the tensile tests showed that scales from Megalops Atlanticus exhibit variations in the elastic modulus as a function of body position. Additional testing performed with and without the highly mineralized top layers of the scale revealed that the mechanical behavior is anisotropic and that the highest strength was exhibited along the fish length. Furthermore, removing the top mineralized layers resulted in an increase in the tensile strength of the scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An experimental study of mechanical behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna, Sanatan; Misra, Sheelam

    2018-05-01

    Fibre-reinforced polymer composites have played a dominant role for a long time in a variety of applications for their high specific strength and modulus. The fibre which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural. Past studies show that only synthetic fibres such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fibre reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fibre-reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of horse hair, an animal fibre abundantly available in India. Animal fibres are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheaper than mineral fibre. The present work describes the development and characterization of a new set of animal fiber based polymer composites consisting of horse hair as reinforcement and epoxy resin. The newly developed composites are characterized with respect to their mechanical characteristics. Experiments are carried out to study the effect of fibre length on mechanical behavior of these epoxy based polymer composites. Composite made form horse hair can be used as a potential reinforcing material for many structural and non-structural applications. This work can be further extended to study other aspects of such composites like effect of fiber content, loading pattern, fibre treatment on mechanical behavior of horse hair based polymer horse hair.

  3. Factors affecting the mechanical behavior of collagen hydrogels for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensalfini, Marco; Ehret, Alexander E; Stüdeli, Silvia; Marino, Daniela; Kaech, Andres; Reichmann, Ernst; Mazza, Edoardo

    2017-05-01

    The effect of the production factors yielding a functional dermal substitute was investigated by means of monotonic and cyclic uniaxial tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy visualizations. The role of (i) plastic compression, (ii) product incubation, and (iii) cell permanence in the collagenous matrix in order to achieve a skin-like behavior were characterized in terms of material and structural stiffness, in-plane kinematics, and cyclic response, as well as pore size and network density. The plastic compression resulted in a denser and stiffer material, while no corresponding change was observed in the behavior of the entire structure. This was related to the progressive reduction in product thickness and amount of excess water, rather than to formation of new crosslinks between fibers. Contrary, irrespective of the presence of human fibroblasts, the product incubation induced both material and structural stiffening, indicating the formation of a denser network. These results were confirmed by similar evolutions in the construct in-plane kinematics and cyclic stress reduction. Finally, comparison of constructs incubated in different culture media indicated a determinant contribution of the biochemical environment, rather than of the seeded cells, to the achieved mechanical properties. The observed features are relevant in terms of mechanical biocompatibility of the implant and might direct future optimizations of the production process in order to rapidly attain the desired mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study on Mechanical behavior of Tensile Specimen Fabricated by Laser Cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Baek, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical testing data are required for the assessment of dry storage of the spent nuclear fuel. Laser cutting system could be useful tools for material processing such as cutting in radioactive environment due to non-contact nature, ease in handling and the laser cutting process is most advantageous, offering the narrow kerf width and heat affected zone by using small beam spot diameter. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of the unirradiated cladding with and without oxide layer on the specimens. In the present study, the dimensional measurement and tensile test were conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of the axial tensile test specimens depending on the material processing methods in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser cutting system was used to fabricate the tensile test specimens, and the mechanical behavior was investigated using the dimensional measurement and tensile test. It was shown that the laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens and this technique will be developed for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hotcell

  5. Starch behaviors and mechanical properties of starch blend films with different plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Vu, Hoang Phuong; Lumdubwong, Namfone

    2016-12-10

    The main objective of the study was to gain insight into structural and mechanical starch behaviors of the plasticized starch blend films. Mechanical properties and starch behaviors of cassava (CS)/and mungbean (MB) (50/50, w/w) starch blend films containing glycerol (Gly) or sorbitol (Sor) at 33% weight content were investigated. It was found that tensile strength TS and %E of the Gly-CSMB films were similar to those of MB films; but%E of all Sor-films was identical. TS of plasticized films increased when AM content and crystallinity increased. When Sor was substituted for Gly, crystallinity of starch films and their TS increased. The CSMB and MB films had somewhat a similar molecular profile and comparable mechanical properties. Therefore, it was proposed the starch molecular profile containing amylopectin with high M¯w, low M¯w of amylose, and the small size of intermediates may impart the high TS and%E of starch films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of the Semi-Solid SIMA Processed 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Binesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical behaviors of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated during semi-solid processing. The strain induced melt activation (SIMA process consisted of applying uniaxial compression strain at ambient temperature and subsequent semi-solid treatment at 600–620 °C for 5–35 min. Microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. During the isothermal heating, intermetallic precipitates were gradually dissolved through the phase transformations of α-Al + η (MgZn2 → liquid phase (L and then α-Al + Al2CuMg (S + Mg2Si → liquid phase (L. However, Fe-rich precipitates appeared mainly as square particles at the grain boundaries at low heating temperatures. Cu and Si were enriched at the grain boundaries during the isothermal treatment while a significant depletion of Mg was also observed at the grain boundaries. The mechanical behavior of different SIMA processed samples in the semi-solid state were investigated by means of hot compression tests. The results indicated that the SIMA processed sample with near equiaxed microstructure exhibits the highest flow resistance during thixoforming which significantly decreases in the case of samples with globular microstructures. This was justified based on the governing deformation mechanisms for different thixoformed microstructures.

  7. Flexural behavior of concrete beam with mechanical splices of reinforcement subjected to cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nab, H. S.; Kim, W. B.

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear power plant structures, the mechanical rebar splices are designated and constructed on the basis of ACI and ASME code. Regardless of good performance on mechanical rebar splices, these splicing methods that did not be registered on ASME code have not restricted to apply to construction site. In this study, the main candidate splice is cold roll formed parallel threaded splice. This was registered newly in ASME Section III division 2 CC 4333 'Mechanical Splices' in 2004. To compare the traditional rebar splice with mechanical rebar splices, concrete beams were made to evaluate the ductility of spliced reinforcing bars. Based on Experimental results, it was identified that the mechanical rebar splices by parallel threaded coupler had better accumulated dissipation energy capacity to resist seismic behavior than the traditional lapping splices. It showed that concrete specimens with D36 reinforcing bar coupler are 1.8 times better performance and that concrete specimens with D22 reinforcing bar coupler are 2.8 times better performance. (authors)

  8. An investigation of the mechanical and hydrologic behavior of tuff fractures under saturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.F.; Shotwell, L.R.

    1990-04-01

    The mechanical and hydrologic behavior of natural fractures in a partially welded tuff rock were investigated. Tuff cores, each containing part of the same natural fracture oriented subparallel to the core axis, were subjected a range of stress and hydraulic gradients while simultaneously monitoring changes in the fracture aperture and volumetric flow rate. The fractures were tested in three configurations: intact, mated, and offset. Fracture deformation was nonlinear over the stress range tested with permanent deformation and hysteresis occurring with each loading cycle. The offset samples had larger permanent deformation and significantly reduced normal stiffness at lower stress levels. The cubic flow law appears to be valid for the relatively undisturbed tuff fractures at the scale tested. The cubic law did not explain the observed hydraulic behavior of the offset fractures. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Materials science. Dynamic mechanical behavior of multilayer graphene via supersonic projectile penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Loya, Phillip E; Lou, Jun; Thomas, Edwin L

    2014-11-28

    Multilayer graphene is an exceptional anisotropic material due to its layered structure composed of two-dimensional carbon lattices. Although the intrinsic mechanical properties of graphene have been investigated at quasi-static conditions, its behavior under extreme dynamic conditions has not yet been studied. We report the high-strain-rate behavior of multilayer graphene over a range of thicknesses from 10 to 100 nanometers by using miniaturized ballistic tests. Tensile stretching of the membrane into a cone shape is followed by initiation of radial cracks that approximately follow crystallographic directions and extend outward well beyond the impact area. The specific penetration energy for multilayer graphene is ~10 times more than literature values for macroscopic steel sheets at 600 meters per second. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Mechanical behavior of confined self-compacting reinforced concrete circular columns under concentric axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Khairallah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is abundant research information on ordinary confined concrete, there are little data on the behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC under such condition. Due to higher shrinkage and lower coarse aggregate content of SCC compared to that of Normal Concrete (NC, its composite performance under confined conditions needs more investigation. This paper has been devoted to investigate and compare the mechanical behavior of confined concrete circular columns cast with SCC and NC under concentric axial loading. The parameters affecting are including concrete compressive strength and confinement configuration. Twenty column specimens were casted and confined using four confinement techniques, CFRP wrap, FRP tube, GFRP wrap, and spiral steel hoops. The performance of the tested column specimens is evaluated based on mode of failure, load–displacement curve, stress–strain characteristics, ultimate strength, ductility, and degree of confinement.

  11. NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ADDICTION-LIKE BEHAVIORS: AN OVERVIEW AND THEMATIC SYNTHESIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Scala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The term dependency is increasingly being used also to explain symptoms resulting from the repetition of a behavior or legalized and socially accepted activities that do not involve substance assumption. These activities, although considered normal habits of daily life can become real addictions that may affect and disrupt socio-relational and working functioning. Growing evidence suggests to consider behavioral addictions similar to drug dependence for their common symptoms, the high frequency of poly-dependence conditions, and the correlation in risk (impulsivity, sensation seeking, early exposure, familiarity and protective (parental control, adequate metacognitive skills factors. The aim of this paper is to describe addiction in its general aspects, highlighting the underlying neurobiological and psychopathological mechanisms.

  12. Surface mechanical attrition treatment induced phase transformation behavior in NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.; Wen, C.S.; Lu, J.; Wu, S.L.; Xin, Y.C.; Zhang, W.J.; Chu, C.L.; Chung, J.C.Y.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The phase constituents and transformation behavior of the martensite B19' NiTi shape memory alloy after undergoing surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) are investigated. SMAT is found to induce the formation of a parent B2 phase from the martensite B19' in the top surface layer. By removing the surface layer-by-layer, X-ray diffraction reveals that the amount of the B2 phase decreases with depth. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) further indicates that the deformed martensite in the sub-surface layer up to 300 μm deep exhibits the martensite stabilization effect. The graded phase structure and transformation behavior in the SMATed NiTi specimen can be attributed to the gradient change in strain with depth.

  13. Investigation of mechanical behavior of copper in Nb3Sn superconducting composite wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Tanaka, M.; Adachi, T.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical properties and the thermal residual stress distribution of copper in Nb 3 Sn/Cu composite superconductor were investigated in detail. The stabilizer copper was removed from the composite wire, and the stress-strain behavior of this wire was compared with that of the original composite wire. The subtraction yielded the stress-strain curves of the copper when the Bauschinger effect was taken into account. The tensile test of the composites from which about 30% and 60% of copper was removed suggested the existence of the distribution of the thermal residual stress in the stabilizer copper. When this factor was taken into account, the analytical stress-strain curve agreed well with the experimental stress-strain curve. Thus, the stress-stain behavior of each component was fully understood

  14. Electro-mechanical behaviors of composite superconducting strand with filament breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xu; Gao, Yuanwen; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromechanical behaviors of the superconducting (SC) strand are investigated. • A 3D FEM model for bending behaviors and electric properties of strand is developed. • The influence of breakage of filaments on the critical current of SC strand is calculated. • The impact of current transfer length on the electric properties of SC strand is discussed. - Abstract: The bending behaviors of superconducting strand with typical multi-filament twist configuration are investigated based on a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand. In this 3D FEM model, the impacts of initial thermal residual stress, filament-breakage and its evaluation are taken into accounts. The mechanical responses of the strand under bending load are studied with the factors taken into consideration one by one. The distribution of the damage of the filaments and its evolution and the movement of the neutral axis caused by it are studied and displayed in detail. Besides, taking the advantages of the Multi-filament twist model, the normalized critical current of the strand under bending load is also calculated based on the invariant temperature and field strain functions. In addition, the non-negligible influences of the pitch length of the filaments on both the mechanical behaviors and the normalized critical current are discussed. The stress-strain characteristics of the strand under tensile load and the normalized critical current of it under axial and bending loads resulting from the Multi-filament twist model show good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Electro-mechanical behaviors of composite superconducting strand with filament breakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou, Youhe [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical behaviors of the superconducting (SC) strand are investigated. • A 3D FEM model for bending behaviors and electric properties of strand is developed. • The influence of breakage of filaments on the critical current of SC strand is calculated. • The impact of current transfer length on the electric properties of SC strand is discussed. - Abstract: The bending behaviors of superconducting strand with typical multi-filament twist configuration are investigated based on a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand. In this 3D FEM model, the impacts of initial thermal residual stress, filament-breakage and its evaluation are taken into accounts. The mechanical responses of the strand under bending load are studied with the factors taken into consideration one by one. The distribution of the damage of the filaments and its evolution and the movement of the neutral axis caused by it are studied and displayed in detail. Besides, taking the advantages of the Multi-filament twist model, the normalized critical current of the strand under bending load is also calculated based on the invariant temperature and field strain functions. In addition, the non-negligible influences of the pitch length of the filaments on both the mechanical behaviors and the normalized critical current are discussed. The stress-strain characteristics of the strand under tensile load and the normalized critical current of it under axial and bending loads resulting from the Multi-filament twist model show good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Modeling of the mechanical behavior of austenitic stainless steels under pure fatigue and fatigue relaxation loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji-Rachdi, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are potential candidates for structural components of sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors. Many of these components will be subjected to cyclic loadings including long hold times (1 month) under creep or relaxation at high temperature. These hold times are unattainable experimentally. The aim of the present study is to propose mechanical models which take into account the involved mechanisms and their interactions during such complex loadings. First, an experimental study of the pure fatigue and fatigue-relaxation behavior of 316L(N) at 500 C has been carried out with very long hold times (10 h and 50 h) compared with the ones studied in literature. Tensile tests at 600 C with different applied strain rates have been undertaken in order to study the dynamic strain ageing phenomenon. Before focusing on more complex loadings, the mean field homogenization approach has been used to predict the mechanical behavior of different FCC metals and alloys under low cycle fatigue at room temperature. Both Hill-Hutchinson and Kroener models have been used. Next, a physically-based model based on dislocation densities has been developed and its parameters measured. The model allows predictions in a qualitative agreement with experimental data for tensile loadings. Finally, this model has been enriched to take into account visco-plasticity, dislocation climb and interaction between dislocations and solute atoms, which are influent during creep-fatigue or fatigue relaxation at high temperature. The proposed model uses three adjustable parameters only and allows rather accurate prediction of the behavior of 316L(N) steel under tensile loading and relaxation. (author) [fr

  17. Multi-scale modeling of the thermo-mechanical behavior of particle-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to perform numerical simulations of the thermal and mechanical behavior of a particle-based nuclear fuel. This is a refractory composite material made of UO 2 spherical particles which are coated with two layers of pyrocarbon and embedded in a graphite matrix at a high volume fraction (45%). The objective was to develop a multi-scale modeling of this composite material which can estimate its mean behavior as well as the heterogeneity of the local mechanical variables. The first part of this work was dedicated to the modeling of the microstructure in 3D. To do this, we developed tools to generate random distributions of spheres, meshes and to characterize the morphology of the microstructure towards the finite element code Cast3M. A hundred of numerical samples of the composite were created. The second part was devoted to the characterization of the thermo-elastic behavior by the finite element modeling of the samples. We studied the influence of different modeling parameters, one of them is the boundary conditions. We proposed a method to vanish the boundary conditions effects from the computed solution by analyzing it on an internal sub-volume of the sample obtained by erosion. Then, we determined the effective properties (elastic moduli, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion) and the stress distribution within the matrix. Finally, in the third part we proposed a multi-scale modeling to determine the mean values and the variance and covariance of the local mechanical variables for any macroscopic load. This statistical approach have been used to estimate the intra-phase distribution of these variables in the composite material. (author) [fr

  18. Multi-scale modeling of the thermo-mechanical behavior of particle-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, F.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to perform numerical simulations of the thermal and mechanical behavior of a particle-based nuclear fuel. This is a refractory composite material made of UO 2 spherical particles which are coated with two layers of pyrocarbon and embedded in a graphite matrix at a high volume fraction (45 %). The objective was to develop a multi-scale modeling of this composite material which can estimate its mean behavior as well as the heterogeneity of the local mechanical variables. The first part of this work was dedicated to the modeling of the microstructure in 3D. To do this, we developed tools to generate random distributions of spheres, meshes and to characterize the morphology of the microstructure towards the finite element code Cast3M. A hundred of numerical samples of the composite were created. The second part was devoted to the characterization of the thermo-elastic behavior by the finite element modeling of the samples. We studied the influence of different modeling parameters, one of them is the boundary conditions. We proposed a method to vanish the boundary conditions effects from the computed solution by analyzing it on an internal sub-volume of the sample obtained by erosion. Then, we determined the effective properties (elastic moduli, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion) and the stress distribution within the matrix. Finally, in the third part we proposed a multi-scale modeling to determine the mean values and the variance and covariance of the local mechanical variables for any macroscopic load. This statistical approach have been used to estimate the intra-phase distribution of these variables in the composite material. (author)

  19. Modeling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of mixed oxide fuel for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahan, Aydin; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to model the irradiation behavior of UO 2 -PuO 2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named fuel engineering and structural analysis tool (FEAST-OXIDE). FEAST-OXIDE has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe: (1) fission gas release and swelling, (2) fuel chemistry and restructuring, (3) temperature distribution, (4) fuel-clad chemical interaction and (5) fuel-clad mechanical analysis. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST-OXIDE can analyze fuel and cladding thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis transient scenarios. The code was written in FORTRAN-90 program language. The mechanical analysis module implements the LIFE algorithm. Fission gas release and swelling behavior is described by the OGRES and NEFIG models. However, the original OGRES model has been extended to include the effects of joint oxide gain (JOG) formation on fission gas release and swelling. A detailed fuel chemistry model has been included to describe the cesium radial migration and JOG formation, oxygen and plutonium radial distribution and the axial migration of cesium. The fuel restructuring model includes the effects of as-fabricated porosity migration, irradiation-induced fuel densification, grain growth, hot pressing and fuel cracking and relocation. Finally, a kinetics model is included to predict the clad wastage formation. FEAST-OXIDE predictions have been compared to the available FFTF, EBR-II and JOYO databases, as well as the LIFE-4 code predictions. The agreement was found to be satisfactory for steady-state and slow-ramp over-power accidents.

  20. Modeling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of mixed oxide fuel for sodium fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahan, Aydin, E-mail: karahan@mit.ed [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States)

    2010-01-31

    An engineering code to model the irradiation behavior of UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named fuel engineering and structural analysis tool (FEAST-OXIDE). FEAST-OXIDE has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe: (1) fission gas release and swelling, (2) fuel chemistry and restructuring, (3) temperature distribution, (4) fuel-clad chemical interaction and (5) fuel-clad mechanical analysis. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST-OXIDE can analyze fuel and cladding thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis transient scenarios. The code was written in FORTRAN-90 program language. The mechanical analysis module implements the LIFE algorithm. Fission gas release and swelling behavior is described by the OGRES and NEFIG models. However, the original OGRES model has been extended to include the effects of joint oxide gain (JOG) formation on fission gas release and swelling. A detailed fuel chemistry model has been included to describe the cesium radial migration and JOG formation, oxygen and plutonium radial distribution and the axial migration of cesium. The fuel restructuring model includes the effects of as-fabricated porosity migration, irradiation-induced fuel densification, grain growth, hot pressing and fuel cracking and relocation. Finally, a kinetics model is included to predict the clad wastage formation. FEAST-OXIDE predictions have been compared to the available FFTF, EBR-II and JOYO databases, as well as the LIFE-4 code predictions. The agreement was found to be satisfactory for steady-state and slow-ramp over-power accidents.

  1. A Neurobehavioral Mechanism Linking Behaviorally Inhibited Temperament and Later Adolescent Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, George A; Troller-Renfree, Sonya V; Barker, Tyson V; Bowman, Lindsay C; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Henderson, Heather A; Kagan, Jerome; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is a risk factor for later social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the development of social anxiety remain unclear. To better understand the emergence of social anxiety, longitudinal studies investigating changes at behavioral neural levels are needed. BI was assessed in the laboratory at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 268). Children returned at 12 years, and an electroencephalogram was recorded while children performed a flanker task under 2 conditions: once while believing they were being observed by peers and once while not being observed. This methodology isolated changes in error monitoring (error-related negativity) and behavior (post-error reaction time slowing) as a function of social context. At 12 years, current social anxiety symptoms and lifetime diagnoses of social anxiety were obtained. Childhood BI prospectively predicted social-specific error-related negativity increases and social anxiety symptoms in adolescence; these symptoms directly related to clinical diagnoses. Serial mediation analysis showed that social error-related negativity changes explained relations between BI and social anxiety symptoms (n = 107) and diagnosis (n = 92), but only insofar as social context also led to increased post-error reaction time slowing (a measure of error preoccupation); this model was not significantly related to generalized anxiety. Results extend prior work on socially induced changes in error monitoring and error preoccupation. These measures could index a neurobehavioral mechanism linking BI to adolescent social anxiety symptoms and diagnosis. This mechanism could relate more strongly to social than to generalized anxiety in the peri-adolescent period. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of carbon nano tubes on mechanical, metallurgical and tribological behavior of magnesium nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Selvamani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, three different reinforcements of Carbon Nano Tubes (in weight % such as 2%, 3% and 4% were added to the magnesium AZ91D grade magnesium alloy to fabricate the Nanocomposites through stir casting method. The effects of volume percentage on the mechanical, metallurgical and wear behavior were analyzed. The composites with 4% reinforcement show high hardness while the composites with 3% reinforcement show better tensile and yield strength and also an improved wear resistance compared to other. Also, the characterization of the Nanocomposites were made using Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Finite Element – Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy to understand its nature.

  3. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Carroll, Laura; Sham, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  4. Study on mechanical and microstructure behavior of submerged arc welding flux using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Rishi; Pandey, Pankaj K.; Upadhyay, Renu

    2018-05-01

    This paper emphasis on utilization of Red Mud for preparing submerged arc welding flux and study its mechanical and microstructure behavior. Among the six fluxes prepared in the laboratory, Flux no. 1 (basicity 1.106) found to be best due to its running performance, micro hardness and Brinell hardness. The hardness value (HV) of the fluxes was varying from 165.70 to 217.15 at a load of 1000gm respectively. From the micrograph of welded metal, acicular ferrite found to be optimum which helps in increasing the ductility and hardness of the welded material.

  5. A model finite-element to analyse the mechanical behavior of a PWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Tanajura, C.A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A model to analyse the mechanical behavior of a PWR fuel rod is presented. We drew our attention to the phenomenon of pellet-pellet and pellet-cladding contact by taking advantage of an elastic model which include the effects of thermal gradients, cladding internal and external pressures, swelling and initial relocation. The problem of contact gives rise ro a variational formulation which employs Lagrangian multipliers. An iterative scheme is constructed and the finite element method is applied to obtain the numerical solution. Some results and comments are presented to examine the performance of the model. (author) [pt

  6. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Carroll, Laura [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  7. Core mechanics and configuration behavior of advanced LMFBR core restraint concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Wei, B.C.

    1978-02-01

    Core restraint systems in LMFBRs maintain control of core mechanics and configuration behavior. Core restraint design is complex due to the close spacing between adjacent components, flux and temperature gradients, and irradiation-induced material property effects. Since the core assemblies interact with each other and transmit loads directly to the core restraint structural members, the core assemblies themselves are an integral part of the core restraint system. This paper presents an assessment of several advanced core restraint system and core assembly concepts relative to the expected performance of currently accepted designs. A recommended order for the development of the advanced concepts is also presented

  8. Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Nettle Filled Hybrid Composites of Nettle Fiber-Hazelnut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Kenan BÜYÜKKAYA

    2017-01-01

    Polymer beam specimens produced with reinforcement of nettle fiber and fixed nut hazelnut flour at different volume ratios were opened initial notches with a / W = 0.2, 0.3 ratios after thermal curing. The volume percentage of nettle fiber in the composite is 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 percent. The grain size of hazelnut shell flour is 0-50μ and the volume ratio in the composite is 15% in all samples. Mode I fracture behaviors of compacted specimens from single sides, compact tensile and mechanical ...

  9. Research on Mechanical Behaviors of Micro-crystal Muscovite/UHMWPE Composites to Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UHMWPE composites were prepared by hot pressing process with micro-crystal muscovite as reinforced particulates. The mechanical behaviors of composites to impact loading was evaluated by split Hopkinson bar. The results demonstrated that dynamic yield stress and failure stress of UHMWPE composites were gradually increased when the filling amount was less than 20%; when the filling content of muscovite was around 15%, the energy absorption efficiency of the composite reaches maximum value. It was also found that when strain rate within 3200/s, the dynamic yield stress, failure stress and energy absorption efficiency of UHMWPE composites increased with the increase of strain rate and display strain rate enhancement effect.

  10. Genes and Aggressive Behavior: Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Individual Susceptibility to Aversive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palumbo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the study of the relationship between nature and nurture in shaping human behavior has encountered a renewed interest. Behavioral genetics showed that distinct polymorphisms of genes that code for proteins that control neurotransmitter metabolic and synaptic function are associated with individual vulnerability to aversive experiences, such as stressful and traumatic life events, and may result in an increased risk of developing psychopathologies associated with violence. On the other hand, recent studies indicate that experiencing aversive events modulates gene expression by introducing stable changes to DNA without modifying its sequence, a mechanism known as “epigenetics”. For example, experiencing adversities during periods of maximal sensitivity to the environment, such as prenatal life, infancy and early adolescence, may introduce lasting epigenetic marks in genes that affect maturational processes in brain, thus favoring the emergence of dysfunctional behaviors, including exaggerate aggression in adulthood. The present review discusses data from recent research, both in humans and animals, concerning the epigenetic regulation of four genes belonging to the neuroendocrine, serotonergic and oxytocinergic pathways—Nuclear receptor subfamily 3-group C-member 1 (NR3C1, oxytocin receptor (OXTR, solute carrier-family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4 and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA—and their role in modulating vulnerability to proactive and reactive aggressive behavior. Behavioral genetics and epigenetics are shedding a new light on the fine interaction between genes and environment, by providing a novel tool to understand the molecular events that underlie aggression. Overall, the findings from these studies carry important implications not only for neuroscience, but also for social sciences, including ethics, philosophy and law.

  11. Conceptual model and economic experiments to explain nonpersistence and enable mechanism designs fostering behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djawadi, Behnud Mir; Fahr, René; Turk, Florian

    2014-12-01

    Medical nonpersistence is a worldwide problem of striking magnitude. Although many fields of studies including epidemiology, sociology, and psychology try to identify determinants for medical nonpersistence, comprehensive research to explain medical nonpersistence from an economics perspective is rather scarce. The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework that augments standard economic choice theory with psychological concepts of behavioral economics to understand how patients' preferences for discontinuing with therapy arise over the course of the medical treatment. The availability of such a framework allows the targeted design of mechanisms for intervention strategies. Our conceptual framework models the patient as an active economic agent who evaluates the benefits and costs for continuing with therapy. We argue that a combination of loss aversion and mental accounting operations explains why patients discontinue with therapy at a specific point in time. We designed a randomized laboratory economic experiment with a student subject pool to investigate the behavioral predictions. Subjects continue with therapy as long as experienced utility losses have to be compensated. As soon as previous losses are evened out, subjects perceive the marginal benefit of persistence lower than in the beginning of the treatment. Consequently, subjects start to discontinue with therapy. Our results highlight that concepts of behavioral economics capture the dynamic structure of medical nonpersistence better than does standard economic choice theory. We recommend that behavioral economics should be a mandatory part of the development of possible intervention strategies aimed at improving patients' compliance and persistence behavior. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and mechanical behavior of carbon nanotube-magnesium composites hybridized with nanoparticles of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Sanjay Kumar; Srivatsan, T.S.; Gupta, Manoj

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium based composites were prepared with diligence and care using the powder metallurgy route coupled with rapid microwave sintering. Nanometer-sized particles of alumina were used to hybridize the carbon nanotubes reinforcement in the magnesium matrix so as to establish the intrinsic influence of hybridization on mechanical behavior of the resultant composite material. The yield strength, tensile strength and strain-to-failure of the carbon nanotubes-magnesium composites were found to increase with the addition of nanometer-sized alumina particles to the composite matrix. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fracture surfaces of the samples deformed and failed in uniaxial tension revealed the presence of cleavage-like features on the fracture surface indicative of the occurrence of locally brittle fracture mechanism in the composite microstructure

  13. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  14. Behavioral tagging is a general mechanism of long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Fabricio; Moncada, Diego; Martinez, Maria Cecilia; Alen, Nadia; Viola, Haydée

    2009-08-25

    In daily life, memories are intertwined events. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in their interactions. Using two hippocampus-dependent (spatial object recognition and contextual fear conditioning) and one hippocampus-independent (conditioned taste aversion) learning tasks, we show that in rats subjected to weak training protocols that induce solely short term memory (STM), long term memory (LTM) is promoted and formed only if training sessions took place in contingence with a novel, but not familiar, experience occurring during a critical time window around training. This process requires newly synthesized proteins induced by novelty and reveals a general mechanism of LTM formation that begins with the setting of a "learning tag" established by a weak training. These findings represent the first comprehensive set of evidences indicating the existence of a behavioral tagging process that in analogy to the synaptic tagging and capture process, need the creation of a transient, protein synthesis-independent, and input specific tag.

  15. Numerical investigation on the thermo-mechanical behavior of a quadratic cross section pile heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Madsen, Søren; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Pile heat exchangers are traditional foundation piles with built in heat exchangers. As such, the footing of the building both serves as a structural component and a heating/cooling supply element. The existing geotechnical design standards do not consider the nature of thermo-active foundations...... and, therefore, there is a need to develop guidelines to design them properly. This paper contributes by studying the thermo-mechanical behavior of the precast piles which are 15-meter long and have a quadratic cross section and a W-shape pipe heat exchanger. This article aims to numerically assess...... the additional changes in the pile load transfer generated by its heating and cooling. In addressing this objective, a preliminary multi-physical finite element analysis is conducted which serves as a tool for exploring: i) the thermally induced mechanical stresses within the concrete and on the pile-soil axial...

  16. Swimming Behavior and Flow Geometry: A Fluid Mechanical Study of the Feeding Currents in Calanoid Copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Meneveau, Charles; Osborn, Thomas R.

    2003-11-01

    Copepods are small crustaceans living in oceans and fresh waters and play an important role in the marine and freshwater food webs. As they are the biggest biomass in the oceans some call them "the insects of the sea". Previous laboratory observations have shown that the fluid mechanical phenomena occurring at copepod body scale are crucial for the survival of copepods. One of the interesting phenomena is that many calanoid copepods display various behaviors to create the feeding currents for the purpose of capturing food particles. We have developed a fluid mechanical model to study the feeding currents. The model is a self-propelled body model in that the Navier-Stokes equations are properly coupled with the dynamic equations for the copepod's body. The model has been solved both analytically using the Stokes approximation with a spherical body shape and numerically using CFD with a realistic body shape.

  17. Mechanical Properties and Weathering Behavior of Polypropylene-Hemp Shives Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ionel Popa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the obtaining and the characterization of composites with polypropylene matrix and hemp shives as filler in different ratios and containing poly(propylene-co maleic anhydride (MAH-PP 3% wt as compatibility agent. The weathering behavior of the composite enclosing 60% hemp shives, performed after the exposure to UV radiations at different exposure times, was evaluated. The changes in the chemical and morphological structures were investigated by FT-IR and RAMAN spectroscopies and AFM microscopy. The mechanical characteristics of the composites were determined before and after an artificial aging process, and they are within the limits of the values reported for polyolefin-based composites and materials with natural fillers. During the accelerated weathering process, the correlation between the chemical degradation of the main components of the composite and the modification of the mechanical properties after the process of aging has been observed.

  18. Vibration monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assedo, R.; Carre, J.C.; Sol, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The internal structures of pressurized water reactors are the seat of vibrations induced by fluctuations in primary fluid flow. A knowledge of these phenomena is indispensable in order to ensure that the structures are in proper mechanical order. It can also be used for operational monitoring. This paper describes all the methods developed and the results already achieved in this domain. The first part deals with tests on mockup associated with the calculation models which afforded a good knowledge of the vibrational characteristics of the internal structures, as well as the measurements made during hot tests of certain reactors which made it possible to qualify these models on real structures. The second part describes the means of detection (neutron noise, external accelerometers) as well as the processing methods used in the follow-up. A few typical results obtained on site are then presented. Finally, the general principles of operational monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures are described [fr

  19. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of High Temperature Solders: Effects of High Temperature Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnine, M.; Tolla, B.; Vahora, N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper explores the effects of aging on the mechanical behavior, microstructure evolution and IMC formation on different surface finishes of two high temperature solders, Sn-5 wt.% Ag and Sn-5 wt.% Sb. High temperature aging showed significant degradation of Sn-5 wt.% Ag solder hardness (34%) while aging has little effect on Sn-5 wt.% Sb solder. Sn-5 wt.% Ag experienced rapid grain growth as well as the coarsening of particles during aging. Sn-5 wt.% Sb showed a stable microstructure due to solid solution strengthening and the stable nature of SnSb precipitates. The increase of intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness during aging follows a parabolic relationship with time. Regression analysis (time exponent, n) indicated that IMC growth kinetics is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. The results have important implications in the selection of high temperature solders used in high temperature applications.

  20. Effects of thermal aging on the mechanical behavior of F82H weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamo, A.; Castaing, A.; Fontes, A.; Wident, P.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the mechanical behavior of F82H weldments, which were produced by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and electron beam (EB) processes. Tensile and impact properties were determined for both types of welds in the as-received condition and after thermal aging for 10 000 h at 400 deg. C and 550 deg. C. The mechanical properties of TIG welds and their evolution during aging is quite similar in the base metal (BM). The main difference was given by the impact energy level (upper shelf energy (USE)) of TIG joints, which is about 60% of the BM. EB welds were delivered without post-weld heat treatment. Very scattered results were obtained, particularly for impact properties

  1. Influence of crosslinking process on the mechanical behavior of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Barbara Monteiro Pessoa; Weber, Ricardo Ponde; Elzubair, Amal; Suarez, Joao Carlos Miguez

    2010-01-01

    In the present work was studied the influence of the crosslinking process on the mechanical behavior of a composite with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix filled with inorganic particles, used as dental impression material. The material was crosslinked chemically and by exposition to 400kGy gamma radiation dose. The material properties, before and after crosslinking, were analyzed through physical chemical and mechanical tests and microscopic exam. The results showed that the gamma irradiation, as compared to chemical cure process, produced higher degree of crosslinking, better wettability, adjusted hardness and low fragility. However, the microscopic exam showed that the gamma irradiated PDMS presents, as compared with the chemical cure, a greater number of defaults which resulted from the large concentration of released gases. The results allowed us to conclude that gamma irradiation is an adequate process to crosslink the studied PDMS composite, since we can reduce the quantity of gases formed in this process. (author)

  2. Analysis of mechanical behavior of soft rocks and stability control in deep tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the weakness in mechanical properties of chlorite schist and the high in situ stress in Jinping II hydropower station, the rock mass surrounding the diversion tunnels located in chlorite schist was observed with extremely large deformations. This may significantly increase the risk of tunnel instability during excavation. In order to assess the stability of the diversion tunnels laboratory tests were carried out in association with the petrophysical properties, mechanical behaviors and water-weakening properties of chlorite schist. The continuous deformation of surrounding rock mass, the destruction of the support structure and a large-scale collapse induced by the weak chlorite schist and high in situ stress were analyzed. The distributions of compressive deformation in the excavation zone with large deformations were also studied. In this regard, two reinforcement schemes for the excavation of diversion tunnel bottom section were proposed accordingly. This study could offer theoretical basis for deep tunnel construction in similar geological conditions.

  3. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X

  4. Strengthening mechanisms and deformation behavior of cryomilled Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmanaeva, Lilia, E-mail: lkurmanaeva@ucdavis.com [Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Topping, Troy D. [Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); California State University, Sacramento, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Wen, Haiming; Sugahara, Haruka; Yang, Hanry; Zhang, Dalong; Schoenung, Julie M.; Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Ultra-fine and coarse grained Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy samples were processed by methods of powder metallurgy. • Despite thermal exposure during consolidation,cryomilled materials retain an ultra-fine grained structure due to the presence of nano-dispersoids at grain boundaries. • Cryomilling results in a change in precipitation kinetics, due to the depletion of Mg atoms at the grain interiors and segregation of Mg, Cu and Ag atoms at grain boundaries. • Dominant deformation mechanisms in cryomilled samples were grain boundary strengthening and dispersion strengthening from oxides and nitrides. - Abstract: In the last decade, the commercially available heat-treatable aluminum alloy (AA) 2139 (Al–Cu–Mg–Ag) has generated interest within the aerospace and defense communities because of its high strength and damage tolerance as compared to those of other AA 2XXX alloys. In this work we investigate the possibility of enhancing the performance of AA 2139 via a nanostructuring approach involving the consolidation of cryomilled powders. For comparison purposes, two types of feedstock powders (cryomilled and unmilled, gas-atomized powder), were consolidated via dual mode dynamic forging. Our results show that, following heat treatment (HT), the strength of the cryomilled material increases in the range of ∼25% to ∼200% relative to that of the unmilled counterparts, depending on specific processing parameters. We present microstructural data, including grain size and precipitate chemistry, to provide insight into the underlying strengthening mechanisms. Vickers microhardess tests are used to evaluate peak heat treatments, and tensile testing is performed to characterize mechanical behavior. The kinetics of precipitation, strengthening mechanisms and deformation behavior are discussed. It is proposed that the combination of elemental segregation with the presence of oxides along grain boundaries, both facilitated by enhanced diffusion paths, are

  5. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the creep behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribis, J.

    2007-12-01

    The fuel rod cladding, strongly affected by microstructural changes due to irradiation such as high density of dislocation loops, is strained by the end-of-life fuel rod internal pressure and the potential release of fission gases and helium during dry storage. Within the temperature range that is expected during dry interim storage, cladding undergoes long term creep under over-pressure. So, in order to have a predictive approach of the behavior of zirconium alloys cladding in dry storage conditions it is essential to take into account: initial dislocation loops, thermal annealing of loops and creep straining due to over pressure. Specific experiments and modelling for irradiated samples have been developed to improve our knowledge in that field. A Zr-1%Nb-O alloy was studied using fine microstructural investigations and mechanical testing. The observations conducted by transmission electron microscopy show that the high density of loops disappears during a heat treatment. The loop size becomes higher and higher while their density falls. The microhardness tests reveal that the fall of loop density leads to the softening of the irradiated material. During a creep test, both temperature and applied stress are responsible of the disappearance of loops. The loops could be swept by the activation of the basal slip system while the prism slip system is inhibited. Once deprived of loops, the creep properties of the irradiated materials are closed to the non irradiated state, a result whose consequence is a sudden acceleration of the creep rate. Finally, a micro-mechanical modeling based on microscopic deformation mechanisms taking into account experimental dislocation loop analyses and creep test, was used for a predictive approach by constructing a deformation mechanism map of the creep behavior of the irradiated material. (author)

  6. Time-dependent chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of hydrogel-based structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Peter; Wallmersperger, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Charged hydrogels are ionic polymer gels and belong to the class of smart materials. These gels are multiphasic materials which consist of a solid phase, a fluid phase and an ionic phase. Due to the presence of bound charges these materials are stimuli-responsive to electrical or chemical loads. The application of electrical or chemical stimuli as well as mechanical loads lead to a viscoelastic response. On the macroscopic scale, the response is governed by a local reversible release or absorption of water which, in turn, leads to a local decrease or increase of mass and a respective volume change. Furthermore, the chemo-electro-mechanical equilibrium of a hydrogel depends on the chemical composition of the gel and the surrounding solution bath. Due to the presence of bound charges in the hydrogel, this system can be understood as an osmotic cell where differences in the concentration of mobile ions in the gel and solution domain lead to an osmotic pressure difference. In the present work, a continuum-based numerical model is presented in order to describe the time-dependent swelling behavior of hydrogels. The numerical model is based on the Theory of Porous Media and captures the fluid-solid, fluid-ion and ion-ion interactions. As a direct consequence of the chemo-electro-mechanical equilibrium, the corresponding boundary conditions are defined following the equilibrium conditions. For the interaction of the hydrogel with surrounding mechanical structures, also respective jump condtions are formulated. Finaly, numerical results of the time-dependent behavior of a hydrogel-based chemo-sensor will be presented.

  7. Mechanical behavior of tungsten–vanadium–lanthana alloys as function of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, T., E-mail: teresa.palacios@mater.upm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, J.Y. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Aguirre, M.V. [Departamento de Tecnologías Especiales Aplicadas a la Aeronáutica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martín, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Muñóz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The mechanical behavior of three tungsten (W) alloys with vanadium (V) and lanthana (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) additions (W–4%V, W–1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, W–4%V–1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) have been compared with pure-W to analyze the influence of the dopants. Mechanical characterization was performed by three point bending (TPB) tests in an oxidizing air atmosphere and temperature range between 77 (immersion tests in liquid nitrogen) and 1273 K, through which the fracture toughness, flexural strength, and yield strength as function of temperature were obtained. Results show that the V and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions improve the mechanical properties and oxidation behavior, respectively. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of both dopants results in an extraordinary increase of the flexure strength, fracture toughness and resistance to oxidation compared to pure-W, especially at higher temperatures. In addition, a new experimental method was developed to obtain a very small notch tip radius (around 5–7 μm) and much more similar to a crack through the use of a new machined notch. The fracture toughness results were lower than those obtained with traditional machining of the notch, which can be explained with electron microscopy, observations of deformation in the rear part of the notch tip. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the microstructure and fracture surfaces was used to determine and analyze the relationship between the macroscopic mechanical properties and the micromechanisms of failure involved, depending on the temperature and the dispersion of the alloy.

  8. Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Intan Pangesty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo.

  9. Interactive mechanism of working environments and construction behaviors with cognitive work analysis: an elevator installation case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Chong, Heap-Yih; Liao, Pin-Chao; Ren, Hantao

    2017-09-25

    Unsafe behavior is a leading factor in accidents, and the working environment significantly affects behaviors. However, few studies have focused on detailed mechanisms for addressing unsafe behaviors resulting from environmental constraints. This study aims to delineate these mechanisms using cognitive work analysis (CWA) for an elevator installation case study. Elevator installation was selected for study because it involves operations at heights: falls from heights remain a major cause of construction worker mortality. This study adopts a mixed research approach based on three research methodology stages. This research deconstructs the details of the working environment, the workers' decision-making processes, the strategies chosen given environmental conditions and the conceptual model for workers' behaviors, which jointly depict environment-behavior mechanisms at length. By applying CWA to the construction industry, environmental constraints can easily be identified, and targeted engineering suggestions can be generated.

  10. Effect of Decellularization Protocol on the Mechanical Behavior of Porcine Descending Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Fitzpatrick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic-detergent decellularization treatments may use a combination of chemical reagents to reduce vascular tissue to sterilized scaffolds, which may be seeded with endothelial cells and implanted with a low risk of rejection. However, these chemicals may alter the mechanical properties of the native tissue and contribute to graft compliance mismatch. Uniaxial tensile data obtained from native and decellularized longitudinal aortic tissue samples was analyzed in terms of engineering stress and fit to a modified form of the Yeoh rubber model. One decellularization protocol used SDS, while the other two used TritonX-100, RNase-A, and DNase-I in combination with EDTA or sodium-deoxycholate. Statistical significance of Yeoh model parameters was determined by paired t-test analysis. The TritonX-100/EDTA and 0.075% SDS treatments resulted in relatively variable mechanical changes and did not effectively lyse VSMCs in aortic tissue. The TritonX-100/sodium-deoxycholate treatment effectively lysed VSMCs and was characterized by less variability in mechanical behavior. The data suggests a TritonX-100/sodium-deoxycholate treatment is a more effective option than TritonX-100/EDTA and SDS treatments for the preparation of aortic xenografts and allografts because it effectively lyses VSMCs and is the least likely treatment, among those considered, to promote a decrease in mechanical compliance.

  11. Effect of Water on the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Carbon Cloth Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Stokes, Eric; Baker, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    The results of thermo-mechanical experiments, which were conducted previously by one of the authors, are reviewed. The strain in the direction normal to the fabric plane was measured as a function of temperature for a variety of initial moisture contents and heating rates. In this paper, the general features of the thermo-mechanical response are discussed and the effect of heating rate and initial moisture content are highlighted. The mechanical interaction between the phenolic polymer and water trapped within its free volumes as the polymer is heated to high temperatures is discussed. An equation for the internal stresses which are generated within the polymer due to trapped water is obtained from the total stress expression for a binary mixture of polymer and water. Numerical solutions for moisture diffusion in the thermo-mechanical experiments were performed and the results of these solutions are presented. The results of the moisture diffusion solutions help to explain the effects of heating rate and moisture content on the strain behavior normal to the fabric plane.

  12. Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Memorandum Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes...Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes by Charles R. Fisher...Welding- Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c

  13. Cure and mechanical behaviors of cycloaliphatic/DGEBA epoxy blend system using electron-beam technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.; Heo, G.Y.; Park, S.J. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    4-Vinyl-1- cyclohexene diepoxide (VCE)/ diglycidyl ether of bisphenol -A(DGEBA) epoxy blends with benzylquinoxalinium hexafluoroanti-monate were cured using an electron-beam technique. the effect of DGEBA content to VCE on cure behavior, thermal stabilities, and mechanical properties was investigated. The composition of VCE/DGEBA blend system varied within 100:0, 80:20, 60:40. 40:60 20:80, and 0:100wt%. The cure behavior and thermal stability of the cured specimens was monited by near-infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Also, the critical stress intensity factor (K{sub 1C}) test of the cured specimens was performed to study the mechanical interfacial properties. As a result, the decreases of short side-chide structure and chain scission were observed in NIR measurements as the DGEBA content increases, resulting in varying the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. And, the initial decomposition temperature (IDT), temperature of maximum weight loss (T{sub max}), and decomposition activation energy (E{sub d}) as thermal stability factors were increased with increasing the DGEBA content. These results could be explained by mean of decreasing viscosity, stable aromatic ring structure, and grafted interpenetrating polymer network with increasing of DGEBA content. Also, the maximum K{sub 1C} value showed at mixing ratio of 40:60 wt% in this blend system. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Concurrent multiscale modeling of microstructural effects on localization behavior in finite deformation solid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Coleman N.; Foulk, James W.; Mota, Alejandro; Lim, Hojun; Littlewood, David J.

    2018-02-01

    The heterogeneity in mechanical fields introduced by microstructure plays a critical role in the localization of deformation. To resolve this incipient stage of failure, it is therefore necessary to incorporate microstructure with sufficient resolution. On the other hand, computational limitations make it infeasible to represent the microstructure in the entire domain at the component scale. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of concurrent multiscale modeling to incorporate explicit, finely resolved microstructure in a critical region while resolving the smoother mechanical fields outside this region with a coarser discretization to limit computational cost. The microstructural physics is modeled with a high-fidelity model that incorporates anisotropic crystal elasticity and rate-dependent crystal plasticity to simulate the behavior of a stainless steel alloy. The component-scale material behavior is treated with a lower fidelity model incorporating isotropic linear elasticity and rate-independent J2 plasticity. The microstructural and component scale subdomains are modeled concurrently, with coupling via the Schwarz alternating method, which solves boundary-value problems in each subdomain separately and transfers solution information between subdomains via Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this study, the framework is applied to model incipient localization in tensile specimens during necking.

  15. Chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposites: morphology and mechanical behavior; Bionanocompositos quitosana/bentonita: morfologia e comportamento mecanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, C.R.C.; Melo, F.M.A. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Vitorino, I.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Fook, M.V.L.; Silva, S.M.L., E-mail: suedina@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This study chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposite films were prepared by solution intercalation process, seeking to investigate the effect of the chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 e 10/1) on the morphology and mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposites. It was used as nanophase, Argel sodium bentonite (AN), was provided by Bentonit Uniao Nordeste-BUN (Campina Grande, Brazil) and as biopolymer matrix the chitosan of low molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of 86,7% was supplied by Polymar (Fortaleza, Brazil). The bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction and tensile properties. According to the results, the morphology and the mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposite was affected by the ratio of chitosan/bentonite. The chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 and 10/1) indicated the formation of an intercalated nanostructure and of the predominantly exfoliated nanostructure, respectively. And the considerable increases in the resistance to the traction were observed mainly for the bionanocomposite with predominantly exfoliated morphology. (author)

  16. Electrospinning, mechanical properties, and cell behavior study of chitosan/PVA nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosha, Mojtaba; Mirzadeh, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Electrospinning process has been widely used to produce nanofibers from polymer blends. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (CS) have numerous biomedical applications such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Nanofibers of CS/PVA have been prepared by many works, however, a complete physicochemical and mechanical characterization as well as cell behavior has not been reported. In this study, PVA and CS/PVA blend solutions in acetic acid 70% with different volume ratios (30/70, 50/50, and 70/30) were electrospun in constant electrospinning process parameters. The structure and morphology of nanofibrous mats were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD methods. The best nanofibrous mat was achieved from the CS/PVA 30/70 blend solution regarding the electrospinning throughput. The dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of PVA and CS/PVA 30/70 nanofibrous mats were measured which were not considered in the previous studies. DMTA results in accordance to the DSC analysis approved the partial compatibility between the two polymers, while a single glass transition temperature was not observed for the blend. The tensile strength of PVA and CS/PVA nanofibers were also reported. Results of cell behavior study indicated that the heat stabilized nanofibrous mat CS/PVA 30/70 was able to support the attachment and proliferation of the fibroblast cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of formulation of alginate beads on their mechanical behavior and stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eng-Seng Chan; Tek-Kaun Lim; Wan-Ping Voo; Ravindra Pogaku; Beng Ti Tey; Zhibing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of formulation of alginate beads on their mechanical behavior and stiffness when compressed at high speed. The alginate beads were formulated using different types and concentrations of alginate and gelling cations and were produced using an extrusiondripping method. Single wet beads were compressed at a speed of 40 mm/min, and their elastic limits were investigated, and the corresponding force versus displacement data were obtained. The Young's moduli of the beads were determined from the force versus displacement data using the Hertz's contact mechanics theory. The alginate beads were found to exhibit plastic behavior when they were compressed beyond 50% with the exception of copper-alginate beads for which yield occured at lower deformation.Alginate beads made of higher guluronic acid contents and gelling cations of higher chemical affinity were found to have greater stiffness. Increasing the concentration of alginate and gelling ions also generated a similar effect. At such a compression speed, the values of Young's modulus of the beads were found to be in the range between 250 and 900 kPa depending on the bead formulation.

  18. Simulation of Semi-Solid Material Mechanical Behavior Using a Combined Discrete/Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A. B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.

    2011-01-01

    As a necessary step toward the quantitative prediction of hot tearing defects, a three-dimensional stress-strain simulation based on a combined finite element (FE)/discrete element method (DEM) has been developed that is capable of predicting the mechanical behavior of semisolid metallic alloys during solidification. The solidification model used for generating the initial solid-liquid structure is based on a Voronoi tessellation of randomly distributed nucleation centers and a solute diffusion model for each element of this tessellation. At a given fraction of solid, the deformation is then simulated with the solid grains being modeled using an elastoviscoplastic constitutive law, whereas the remaining liquid layers at grain boundaries are approximated by flexible connectors, each consisting of a spring element and a damper element acting in parallel. The model predictions have been validated against Al-Cu alloy experimental data from the literature. The results show that a combined FE/DEM approach is able to express the overall mechanical behavior of semisolid alloys at the macroscale based on the morphology of the grain structure. For the first time, the localization of strain in the intergranular regions is taken into account. Thus, this approach constitutes an indispensible step towards the development of a comprehensive model of hot tearing.

  19. Analysis of tablet compaction. I. Characterization of mechanical behavior of powder and powder/tooling friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J C; Sinka, I C; Zavaliangos, A

    2004-08-01

    In this first of two articles on the modeling of tablet compaction, the experimental inputs related to the constitutive model of the powder and the powder/tooling friction are determined. The continuum-based analysis of tableting makes use of an elasto-plastic model, which incorporates the elements of yield, plastic flow potential, and hardening, to describe the mechanical behavior of microcrystalline cellulose over the range of densities experienced during tableting. Specifically, a modified Drucker-Prager/cap plasticity model, which includes material parameters such as cohesion, internal friction, and hydrostatic yield pressure that evolve with the internal state variable relative density, was applied. Linear elasticity is assumed with the elastic parameters, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio dependent on the relative density. The calibration techniques were developed based on a series of simple mechanical tests including diametrical compression, simple compression, and die compaction using an instrumented die. The friction behavior is measured using an instrumented die and the experimental data are analyzed using the method of differential slices. The constitutive model and frictional properties are essential experimental inputs to the finite element-based model described in the companion article. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:2022-2039, 2004

  20. Crystallization behavior and controlling mechanism of iron-containing Si-C-N ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Adel; Ionescu, Emanuel; Fasel, Claudia; Riedel, Ralf

    2009-11-02

    The crystallization behavior and controlling mechanism of the Si-Fe-C-N system based on polymer-derived SiCN ceramic filled with iron metal powder has been studied. The composite preparation conditions allow the formation of a random distribution of metallic particles in the polymer matrix volume for the Si-C-N system. Pyrolysis of the composite material at 1100 degrees C indicates the presence of one crystalline phase Fe(3)Si. While the sample pyrolyzed at 1200 degrees C reveals the formation of both Fe(3)Si and Fe(5)Si(3) phases, a crystallization of beta-SiC is additionally observed by increasing the temperature up to 1300 degrees C. The propensity for the formation of SiC is due to the presence of Fe(5)Si(3), where a solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism was suggested to occur. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and thermal gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic detection (TGA-MS) were employed to investigate the crystallization behavior of the Si-Fe-C-N system.

  1. Assessments of long term mechanical behavior of CANDU fuel channel by means of PFEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, S.; Pavelescu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural analysis with finite elements method is today a usual way to evaluate and predict the behavior of structural assemblies exposed to severe conditions, in order to ensure their safety end reliability. CANDU 600 fuel channel is an example in which long time irradiation with implicit consequences on material properties evolution interfere with the corrosion and thermal aggression. A high degree of uncertainty in the evolution of the material's properties must be considered. These are the reasons for developing, in association with deterministic evaluations with computer codes, the probabilistic and statistical methods, in order to predict the structural components response. In INR (Institute of Nuclear Research) in the past years, a code for thermo-mechanical analysis of the fuel channel from CANDU 600 nuclear power plant of Cernavoda was developed using finite element methods (FEM). The CANTUP code evaluate the stress and strain state of the mechanical assembly of fuel channel, considered to be divided into pressure tube, calandria tube and four spacers, supposed to be equidistantly distributed along the pressure tube. The main achievement obtained with this code was the prediction of the long-term behavior of the sag of the pressure tube, by analysis in which the creep phenomenon and the contact between the spacers and calandria tube were considered. This reason has sustained the attempt to estimate the possibility to use this code in order to perform probabilistic evaluations. (authors)

  2. Assessments of long term mechanical behavior of CANDU fuel channel by means of PFEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, S.; Pavelescu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Structural analysis with finite elements method is today a usual way to evaluate and predict the behavior of structural assemblies exposed to severe conditions, in order to ensure their safety end reliability. CANDU 600 fuel channel is an example in which long time irradiation with implicit consequences on material properties evolution interfere with the corrosion and thermal aggression. A high degree of uncertainty in the evolution of the material's properties must be considered. These are the reasons for developing, in association with deterministic evaluations with computer codes, the probabilistic and statistical methods, in order to predict the structural components response. In INR (Institute of Nuclear Research) in the past years, a code for thermo-mechanical analysis of the fuel channel from CANDU 600 nuclear power plant of Cernavoda was developed using finite element methods (FEM). The CANTUP code evaluate the stress and strain state of the mechanical assembly of fuel channel, considered to be divided into pressure tube, calandria tube and four spacers, supposed to be equidistantly distributed along the pressure tube. The main achievement obtained with this code was the prediction of the long-term behavior of the sag of the pressure tube, by analysis in which the creep phenomenon and the contact between the spacers and calandria tube were considered. This reason has sustained the attempt to estimate the possibility to use this code in order to perform probabilistic evaluations. (authors)

  3. The Mechanical Behavior Variation of Nickel - Titanium Orthodontic Wires in Different Fluoride Mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilnaz haj Hemati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an orthodontic arch wire of Ni-Ti alloy made by Germany in four different mouthwashes contain fluoride was investigated in mechanical behavior. This research focused on the mechanical behavior changes in different mouthwashes. The Mouthwashes were chosen from most popular one in Iran including Oral-B, Gum, and Behsa Mouthwash. The wires after 3 month in touch with mouthwashes were studied and the result was presented. The result show that the lowest power to reshape the wire, is for the wire in Crest case (3. The maximum power assigns to wire in Behsa case (1. Also, the shortest treatment period is for wire in Behsa mouthwash case (1 with 0.087 Nm strain energy and the maximum duration of therapy is related to case (3 Crest mouthwash with 0.039 Nm. Moreover, the wires in Oral-b (0.095 Nm has the lowest and Gum mouthwash (0.140 Nm has the highest energy intake. The energy absorbed by the wires in Behsa and Crest is in the middle. Finally, it is proposed that patient could used all mouthwash but based on their condition, one product will be useful.

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Red Sandstone under Incremental Uniaxial Cyclical Compressive and Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial experiments were carried out on red sandstone specimens to investigate their short-term and creep mechanical behavior under incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading. First, based on the results of short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading experiments, deformation characteristics and energy dissipation were analyzed. The results show that the stress-strain curve of red sandstone has an obvious memory effect in the compressive and tensile loading stages. The strains at peak stresses and residual strains increase with the cycle number. Energy dissipation, defined as the area of the hysteresis loop in the stress-strain curves, increases nearly in a power function with the cycle number. Creep test of the red sandstone was also conducted. Results show that the creep curve under each compressive or tensile stress level can be divided into decay and steady stages, which cannot be described by the conventional Burgers model. Therefore, an improved Burgers creep model of rock material is constructed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can describe the creep behavior of red sandstone better than the Burgers creep model.

  5. Microstructures and mechanical behavior of magnesium processed by ECAP at ice-water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dai; Li, Taotao; Liang, Wei; Wen, Xiyu; Yang, Fuqian

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium of high purity is processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to eight passes at the ice-water temperature, in which a core–shell-like structure is used. The core–shell-like structure consists of pure iron (Fe) of 1.5 mm in thickness as the shell and magnesium (Mg) as the core. The microstructure, texture and mechanical behavior of the ECAP-processed Mg are studied. The ECAP processing leads to the formation of fine and equiaxed grains of ~1.1 µm. The basal planes initially parallel to the extrusion direction evolve to slanted basal planes with the tilting angle in a range of 25°–45° to the extrusion direction. Increasing the number of the extrusion passes leads to the decreasing of twins and dislocation density in grains, while individual grains after eight passes still have high dislocation density. The large decreases of twins and the dislocation density make dynamic recrystallization (DRX) difficult, resulting in the decrease of the degree of DRX. Tension test reveals that the mechanical behavior of the ECAP-processed Mg is dependent on grain refinement and textures. The yield strength of the ECAP-extruded Mg first increases with the decrease of the grain size, and then decreases with further decrease of the grain size.

  6. Hygrothermal effects on dynamic mechanical snalysis and fracture behavior of polymeric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Leali Costa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites used above their glass transition temperatures Tg present a substantial degradation of physical properties; therefore a material's glass transition temperature and its change with moisture absorption are of practical importance. Little attention has been paid to the role of the adhesive bonding between the reinforcing fiber and matrix, particularly for BMI matrix. In this work the effect of moisture on the dynamic mechanical behavior and the fiber/matrix interface was investigated. Two systems were evaluated: carbon fabric/epoxy and carbon fabric/bismaleimide laminates. The results demonstrated that the moisture absorbed by the laminates causes either reversible or irreversible plasticization of the matrix. The humidity combined with the temperature effects may cause significant changes in the Tg matrix and toughness affecting the laminate strength. Moisture absorption was correlated to the fracture mode of the laminate demonstrating the deleterious effect of moisture on the interface. This leads to debonding between fiber and matrix. This behavior was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  7. FRP-RC Beam in Shear: Mechanical Model and Assessment Procedure for Pseudo-Ductile Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Petrone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a mechanics-based shear model for reinforced concrete (RC elements strengthened in shear with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP and a design/assessment procedure capable of predicting the failure sequence of resisting elements: the yielding of existing transverse steel ties and the debonding of FRP sheets/strips, while checking the corresponding compressive stress in concrete. The research aims at the definition of an accurate capacity equation, consistent with the requirement of the pseudo-ductile shear behavior of structural elements, that is, transverse steel ties yield before FRP debonding and concrete crushing. For the purpose of validating the proposed model, an extended parametric study and a comparison against experimental results have been conducted: it is proven that the common accepted rule of assuming the shear capacity of RC members strengthened in shear with FRP as the sum of the maximum contribution of both FRP and stirrups can lead to an unsafe overestimation of the shear capacity. This issue has been pointed out by some authors, when comparing experimental shear capacity values with the theoretical ones, but without giving a convincing explanation of that. In this sense, the proposed model represents also a valid instrument to better understand the mechanical behavior of FRP-RC beams in shear and to calculate their actual shear capacity.

  8. Mechanical Behavior of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams Bonded with External Carbon Fiber Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribniak, Viktor; Tamulenas, Vytautas; Ng, Pui-Lam; Arnautov, Aleksandr K; Gudonis, Eugenijus; Misiunaite, Ieva

    2017-06-17

    This study investigates the mechanical behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams internally reinforced with steel bars and externally bonded with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets fixed by adhesive and hybrid jointing techniques. In particular, attention is paid to the load resistance and failure modes of composite beams. The steel fibers were used to avoiding the rip-off failure of the concrete cover. The CFRP sheets were fixed to the concrete surface by epoxy adhesive as well as combined with various configurations of small-diameter steel pins for mechanical fastening to form a hybrid connection. Such hybrid jointing techniques were found to be particularly advantageous in avoiding brittle debonding failure, by promoting progressive failure within the hybrid joints. The use of CFRP sheets was also effective in suppressing the localization of the discrete cracks. The development of the crack pattern was monitored using the digital image correlation method. As revealed from the image analyses, with an appropriate layout of the steel pins, brittle failure of the concrete-carbon fiber interface could be effectively prevented. Inverse analysis of the moment-curvature diagrams was conducted, and it was found that a simplified tension-stiffening model with a constant residual stress level at 90% of the strength of the SFRC is adequate for numerically simulating the deformation behavior of beams up to the debonding of the CFRP sheets.

  9. Thermo-Mechanical Behavior and Shakedown of Shape Memory Alloy Cable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Daniel B.

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a versatile class of smart materials that exhibit adaptive properties which have been applied to solve engineering problems in wide-ranging fields from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Yet there is a lack of understanding of the fundamental nature of SMAs in order to effectively apply them to challenging problems within these engineering fields. Stranding fine NiTi wires into a cable form satisfies the demands of many aerospace and civil engineering applications which require actuators to withstand large tensile loads. The impact of increased bending and twisting in stranded NiTi wire structures, as well as introducing contact mechanics to the unstable phase transformation is not well understood, and this work aims to fill that void. To study the scalability of NiTi cables, thermo-mechanical characterization tests are conducted on cables much larger than those previously tested. These cables are found to have good superelastic properties and repeatable cyclic behavior with minimal induced plasticity. The behavior of additional cables, which have higher transition temperatures that can be used in a shape memory mode as thermo-responsive, high force actuator elements, are explored. These cables are found to scale up the performance of straight wire by maintaining an equivalent work output. Moreover, this work investigates the degradation of the thermal actuation of SMA wires through novel stress-temperature paths, discovering several path dependent behaviors of transformation-induced plasticity. The local mechanics of NiTi cable structures are explored through experiments utilizing digital image correlation, revealing new periodic transformation instabilities. Finite element simulations are presented, which indicate that the instabilities are caused by friction and relative sliding between wires in a cable. Finally, a study of the convective heat transfer of helical wire involving a suite of wind tunnel experiments, numerical

  10. Synthesis and mechanical properties of silicon-doped TiAl-alloys with grain sizes in the submicron range; Herstellung und mechanische Eigenschaften silizidhaltiger TiAl-Werkstoffe mit Korngroessen im Submikronbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive insight into the mechanical properties of nano- and submicron-grained intermetallics, containing ceramic particles as a second phase. The investigations are focussed on {gamma}-TiAl-based alloys with a fine dispersion of titanium silicides. The samples are prepared by high energy milling and subsequent hot isostatic pressing. The mechanical properties are mainly dominated by the grain size as the most important structural feature. At room temperature, the grain size dependence of hardness and yield strength can be described by the well-known Hall-Petch relationship. Contrary to the behavior of conventional alloys, the ductility of submicron-grained alloys drops if the grain size is further reduced. This may be attributed to the insignificance of diffusional creep at room temperature and to arising difficulties evolving for dislocation-based deformation mechanisms. In the high temperature range, the flow stress is strongly reduced. Superplastic deformation becomes feasible already at 800 C. The silicide particles impede grain growth, but they also promote cavitation during tensile straining. The mechanisms of deformation are similar to those established for coarse-grained materials at higher temperatures ({>=}1000 C). (orig.)

  11. Psychological and behavioral mechanisms influencing the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Komura, K; Tokoro, A; Kuromaru, T; Ohshima, A; Ito, T; Sumiyoshi, Y; Hyodo, I

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the psychological and behavioral mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in Japanese cancer patients using two applied behavioral models, the transtheoretical model (TTM), and theory of planned behavior (TPB). Questionnaires were distributed to 1100 patients at three cancer treatment facilities in Japan and data on 521 cancer patients were used in the final analysis. The questionnaire included items based on TTM and TPB variables, as well as three psychological batteries. According to the TTM, 88 patients (17%) were in precontemplation, 226 (43%) in contemplation, 33 (6%) in preparation, 71 (14%) in action, and 103 (20%) in maintenance. The model derived from structural equation modeling revealed that the stage of CAM use was significantly affected by the pros, cons, expectation from family, norms of medical staff, use of chemotherapy, period from diagnosis, and place of treatment. The primary factor for the stage of CAM use was the expectation from family. The findings revealed the existence of a number of psychologically induced potential CAM users, and psychological variables including positive attitude for CAM use and perceived family expectation greatly influence CAM use in cancer patients.

  12. Investigating the Mechanical Behavior and Deformation Mechanisms of Ultrafinegrained Metal Films Using Ex-situ and In-situ TEM Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Ehsan

    Nanocrystalline (NC) and Ultrafine-grained (UFG) metal films exhibit a wide range of enhanced mechanical properties compared to their coarse-grained counterparts. These properties, such as very high strength, primarily arise from the change in the underlying deformation mechanisms. Experimental and simulation studies have shown that because of the small grain size, conventional dislocation plasticity is curtailed in these materials and grain boundary mediated mechanisms become more important. Although the deformation behavior and the underlying mechanisms in these materials have been investigated in depth, relatively little attention has been focused on the inhomogeneous nature of their microstructure (particularly originating from the texture of the film) and its influence on their macroscopic response. Furthermore, the rate dependency of mechanical response in NC/UFG metal films with different textures has not been systematically investigated. The objectives of this dissertation are two-fold. The first objective is to carry out a systematic investigation of the mechanical behavior of NC/UFG thin films with different textures under different loading rates. This includes a novel approach to study the effect of texture-induced plastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of the films. Efforts are made to correlate the behavior of UFG metal films and the underlying deformation mechanisms. The second objective is to understand the deformation mechanisms of UFG aluminum films using in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments with Automated Crystal Orientation Mapping. This technique enables us to investigate grain rotations in UFG Al films and to monitor the microstructural changes in these films during deformation, thereby revealing detailed information about the deformation mechanisms prevalent in UFG metal films.

  13. Mechanical behavior of embankments overlying on loose subgrade stabilized by deep mixed columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Esmaeili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep mixed column (DMC is known as one of the effective methods for stabilizing the natural earth beneath road or railway embankments to control stability and settlements under traffic loads. The load distribution mechanism of embankment overlying on loose subgrades stabilized with DMCs considerably depends on the columns' mechanical and geometrical specifications. The present study uses the laboratory investigation to understand the behavior of embankments lying on loose sandy subgrade in three different conditions: (1 subgrade without reinforcement, (2 subgrade reinforced with DMCs in a triangular pattern and horizontal plan, and (3 subgrade reinforced with DMCs in a square pattern and horizontal plan. For this purpose, by adopting the scale factor of 1:10, a reference embankment with 20 cm height, 250 cm length, and 93% maximum dry density achieved in standard Proctor compaction test was constructed over a 70 cm thick loose sandy bed with the relative density of 50% in a loading chamber, and its load-displacement behavior was evaluated until the failure occurred. In the next two tests, DMCs (with 10 cm diameter, 40 cm length, and 25 cm center-to-center spacing were placed in groups in two different patterns (square and triangular in the same sandy bed beneath the embankment and, consequently, the embankments were constructed over the reinforced subgrades and gradually loaded until the failure happened. In all the three tests, the load-displacement behaviors of the embankment and the selected DMCs were instrumented for monitoring purpose. The obtained results implied 64% increase in failure load and 40% decrease in embankment crest settlement when using the square pattern of DMCs compared with those of the reference embankment, while these values were 63% and 12%, respectively, for DMCs in triangular pattern. This confirmed generally better performance of DMCs with a triangular pattern.

  14. Studies on mechanical behavior of bentonite for development of the constitutive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakura, Tsuyoshi; Kuroyanagi, Mikio; Okamoto, Michitaka

    2002-02-01

    To integrate the system for evaluation of long-term hydraulic condition in near field of TRU waste disposal, series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effect of (1) cation exchange of Na-bentonite for Ca ion, and (2) the swelling behavior of bentonite, on its mechanical and hydraulic properties. For the purpose of this study, same lot of bentonite was used in a series of tests to obtain consistent data. A constitutive model of clayey materials, called Cam-clay model, was expanded conceptually to express the effects mentioned above. The research results of this year are summarized below; 1) Some basic properties such as cation exchange capacity, particle density, grain size distribution, compaction-characteristics and water content were obtained. To examine the effect of previous swelling history of bentonite on its swelling characteristics and hydraulic and mechanical properties, specimens, which generated swelling deformation to various volumetric strain levels, were specially prepared and used in the following tests. Swelling pressure tests, swelling deformation tests, permeability tests were conducted to observe one dimensional swelling characteristics and hydraulic properties of Na-bentonite and Ca-bentonite. High-pressured triaxial consolidated-undrained (CU) compression tests and high-pressured consolidation tests were also carried out to investigate the compression, swelling, and shearing behavior of each type of bentonite. 2) As indicated in previous studies, two important phenomena (1) bentonite possesses remarkable swelling capacity, (2) cation exchange of Na-bentonite for Ca-ion lead increasing of hydraulic conductivity, were confirmed in the test results. From the swelling deformation test results and published data, it was found that swelling capacity of bentonite has no dependency on previous swelling history and it could be easily expressed as a function of void ratio e. It was also confirmed that swelling pressure and water

  15. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Derek H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke [Turbocam Energy Solutions, Turbocam International, Dover, NH 03820 (United States); Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L. [Materials Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tsukrov, Igor [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Knezevic, Marko, E-mail: marko.knezevic@unh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor < 001 > fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are

  16. Characterization of strengthening mechanism and hot deformation behavior of powder metallurgy molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Meili; Li, Fuguo; Xie, Hangfang; Wang, Yufeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Dynamic recrystallization of powder metallurgy molybdenum occurs in the temperature region (1200-1450 o C). → The value of strain hardening index n decreases along with the temperature rising. → The value of strain-rate sensitivity exponent m increases slowly at first and achieves a peak value at 1350 o C. → Deformation strengthening is the main strengthening mechanism at low temperature. → Rheological strengthening becomes the primary strengthening mechanism at high temperature. -- Abstract: The high-temperature deformation behavior of powder metallurgy molybdenum has been investigated based on a series of isothermal hot compression tests, which were carried out on a Gleeble-1500 thermal mechanical simulator in a wide range of temperatures (900-1450 o C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s -1 ). Through the research on the experimental stress-strain curves, it reveals that dynamic recrystallization softening effect of powder metallurgy molybdenum occurs in the temperature range from 1200 o C to 1450 o C, in which the flow stress is significantly sensitive to temperature. In comparison with the value of strain hardening index n which decreases along with the temperature rising, the value of strain-rate sensitivity exponent m does not change obviously; however, it increases slowly with the increasing of temperature at first and achieves a peak value at 1350 o C. Furthermore, relying on the comparison of mean value of n and m, it is suggested that deformation strengthening is the main strengthening mechanism at low temperature while the rheological strengthening changes into the primary strengthening mechanism at high temperature.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek H.; Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke; Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Tsukrov, Igor; Knezevic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are determined by

  18. What the laboratory rat has taught us about social play behavior: role in behavioral development and neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Social play behavior is the most vigorous and characteristic form of social interaction displayed by developing mammals. The laboratory rat is an ideal species to study this behavior, since it shows ample social play that can be easily recognized and quantified. In this chapter, we will first briefly describe the structure of social play behavior in rats. Next, we will discuss studies that used social isolation rearing during the period in life when social play is most abundant to investigate the developmental functions of social play behavior in rats, focusing on the consequences of play deprivation on social, cognitive, emotional, and sensorimotor development. Last, we will discuss the neural substrates of social play behavior in rats, with emphasis on the limbic corticostriatal circuits that underlie emotions and their influence on behavior.

  19. Additively Manufactured Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering and the Prediction of their Mechanical Behavior: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Fang, Gang; Zhou, Jie

    2017-01-10

    Additive manufacturing (AM), nowadays commonly known as 3D printing, is a revolutionary materials processing technology, particularly suitable for the production of low-volume parts with high shape complexities and often with multiple functions. As such, it holds great promise for the fabrication of patient-specific implants. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in implementing AM in the bio-fabrication field. This paper presents an overview on the state-of-the-art AM technology for bone tissue engineering (BTE) scaffolds, with a particular focus on the AM scaffolds made of metallic biomaterials. It starts with a brief description of architecture design strategies to meet the biological and mechanical property requirements of scaffolds. Then, it summarizes the working principles, advantages and limitations of each of AM methods suitable for creating porous structures and manufacturing scaffolds from powdered materials. It elaborates on the finite-element (FE) analysis applied to predict the mechanical behavior of AM scaffolds, as well as the effect of the architectural design of porous structure on its mechanical properties. The review ends up with the authors' view on the current challenges and further research directions.

  20. Precipitation kinetics and mechanical behavior in a solution treated and aged dual phase stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badji, R., E-mail: riadbadji1@yahoo.fr [Welding and NDT Research Centre (CSC), B.P. 64, Cheraga (Algeria); Kherrouba, N.; Mehdi, B.; Cheniti, B. [Welding and NDT Research Centre (CSC), B.P. 64, Cheraga (Algeria); Bouabdallah, M. [LGSDS – ENP, 10, Avenue Hassan Badi, 16200 El Harrah, Alger (Algeria); Kahloun, C.; Bacroix, B. [LSPM – CNRS, Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-12-15

    The precipitation kinetics and the mechanical behavior in a solution treated and aged dual phase stainless steel (DSS) are investigated. X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques are used to characterize the microstructure and to identify its constituents. The precipitation kinetics analysis shows that the ferrite to σ phase transformation follows the modified Johnson Mehl Avrami (JMA) model containing an impingement parameter c that is adjusted to 0.3. Activation energies calculation leads to conclude that interface reaction is the main mechanism that controls the σ phase formation. Detailed analysis of the extent of the different tensile deformation domains reveals the significant contribution of both σ phase particles and dislocation accumulation to the strain hardening of the material. - Highlights: • The precipitation kinetics of the σ phase is affected by both soft and hard impingement phenomena. • Interface reaction is found to be the main mechanism that controls the ferrite to σ phase transformation. • Both σ phase particles and dislocation accumulation contribute to the strain hardening of the dual phase steel studied.

  1. Electrical and mechanical behavior of polymethyl methacrylate/cadmium sulphide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajdeep; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh

    2018-06-01

    In the present investigation, electrical and mechanical behavior of cadmium sulphide (CdS) doped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been studied using different techniques. Dip casting technique was used for preparing free standing films of pristine and CdS doped PMMA at different compositions (i.e. 1 and 5 wt%). Optical absorbance as a function of wavelength was studied, by UV-visible spectroscopy, to find the impact of CdS doping on the optical band gap of synthesized PMMA/CdS composite. DC and AC conductivities were measured as a function of dopant concentration and temperature. Considerable increase in electrical conductivity was observed with the increase of CdS contents in polymer matrix. Overall electrical conduction mechanism in PMMA/CdS composites was attributed to movement of electrons through the uniformly distributed CdS aggregates within the matrix of PMMA. Mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation and ductility, of PMMA/CdS composites were determined and relevant responsible phenomena were discussed.

  2. Economic disadvantage and young children's emotional and behavioral problems: mechanisms of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analyzed as potential mediators of the association between economic disadvantage and children's internalizing and externalizing problem scores. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that for both internalizing and externalizing problems, the mechanisms underlying the effect of economic disadvantage included maternal depressive symptoms, along with parenting stress and harsh disciplining. For internalizing but not for externalizing problem scores, the lack of provision of learning materials in the home was an additional mechanism explaining the effect of economic disadvantage. The current results suggest that interventions that focus solely on raising income levels may not adequately address problems in the family processes that emerge as a result of economic disadvantage. Policies to improve the mental health of mothers with young children but also their home environments are needed to change the economic gradient in child behavior.

  3. Effect of ceramic thickness, grinding, and aging on the mechanical behavior of a polycrystalline zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diniz PRADO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monolithic restorations of Y-TZP have been recommended as a restorative alternative on prosthetic dentistry as it allows a substantial reduction of ceramic thickness, which means a greater preservation of tooth structure. However, the influence of grinding and aging when using a thinner layer of the material is unclear. This investigation aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of ceramic thickness (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm, grinding and aging (low-temperature degradation on the mechanical behavior and surface characteristics of a full-contour Y-TZP ceramic. Y-TZP disc-shaped specimens (15 mm diameter were manufactured with both thicknesses and randomly assigned into 4 groups considering the factors ‘grinding with diamond bur’ and ‘aging in autoclave’. Surface topography (roughness, 3D profilometry and SEM, phase transformation, flexural strength and structural reliability (Weibull analyses were executed. Grinding affected the surface topography, while aging did not promote any effect. An increase in m-phase content was observed after grinding and aging, although different susceptibilities were observed. Regardless of zirconia’s thickness, no deleterious effect of grinding or aging on the mechanical properties was observed. Thus, in our testing assembly, reducing the thickness of the Y-TZP ceramic did not alter its response to grinding and low temperature degradation and did not impair its mechanical performance.

  4. Relationships among the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Fatigue Behavior in Thin Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of Ti6Al4V are complex and strongly affect its mechanical properties and fatigue behavior. This paper investigates the role of microstructure on mechanical and fatigue properties of thin-section Ti6Al4V sheets, with the aim of reviewing the effects of microstructure on fatigue properties where suboptimal microstructures might result following heat treatment of assemblies that may not be suited to further annealing, for example, following laser welding. Samples of Ti6Al4V sheet were subjected to a range of heat treatments, including annealing and water quenching from temperatures ranging from 650°C to 1050°C. Micrographs of these samples were inspected for microstructure, and hardness, 0.2% proof stress, elongation, and fracture strength were measured and attributed back to microstructure. Fractography was used to support the findings from microstructure and mechanical analyses. The strength ranking from high to low for the microstructures of thin Ti6Al4V sheets observed in this study is as follows: acicular α′ martensite, Widmanstätten, bimodal, and equiaxed microstructure. The fatigue strength ranking from high to low is as follows: equiaxed, bimodal, Widmanstätten, and acicular α′ martensite microstructure.

  5. Effect of ceramic thickness, grinding, and aging on the mechanical behavior of a polycrystalline zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Rodrigo Diniz; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Melo, Renata Marques de; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2017-11-06

    Monolithic restorations of Y-TZP have been recommended as a restorative alternative on prosthetic dentistry as it allows a substantial reduction of ceramic thickness, which means a greater preservation of tooth structure. However, the influence of grinding and aging when using a thinner layer of the material is unclear. This investigation aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of ceramic thickness (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm), grinding and aging (low-temperature degradation) on the mechanical behavior and surface characteristics of a full-contour Y-TZP ceramic. Y-TZP disc-shaped specimens (15 mm diameter) were manufactured with both thicknesses and randomly assigned into 4 groups considering the factors 'grinding with diamond bur' and 'aging in autoclave'. Surface topography (roughness, 3D profilometry and SEM), phase transformation, flexural strength and structural reliability (Weibull) analyses were executed. Grinding affected the surface topography, while aging did not promote any effect. An increase in m-phase content was observed after grinding and aging, although different susceptibilities were observed. Regardless of zirconia's thickness, no deleterious effect of grinding or aging on the mechanical properties was observed. Thus, in our testing assembly, reducing the thickness of the Y-TZP ceramic did not alter its response to grinding and low temperature degradation and did not impair its mechanical performance.

  6. Positive Attitude Toward Math Supports Early Academic Success: Behavioral Evidence and Neurocognitive Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lang; Bae, Se Ri; Battista, Christian; Qin, Shaozheng; Chen, Tianwen; Evans, Tanya M; Menon, Vinod

    2018-03-01

    Positive attitude is thought to impact academic achievement and learning in children, but little is known about its underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. Using a large behavioral sample of 240 children, we found that positive attitude toward math uniquely predicted math achievement, even after we accounted for multiple other cognitive-affective factors. We then investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the link between positive attitude and academic achievement in two independent cohorts of children (discovery cohort: n = 47; replication cohort: n = 28) and tested competing hypotheses regarding the differential roles of affective-motivational and learning-memory systems. In both cohorts, we found that positive attitude was associated with increased engagement of the hippocampal learning-memory system. Structural equation modeling further revealed that, in both cohorts, increased hippocampal activity and more frequent use of efficient memory-based strategies mediated the relation between positive attitude and higher math achievement. Our study is the first to elucidate the neurocognitive mechanisms by which positive attitude influences learning and academic achievement.

  7. PA6 and Kevlar fiber reinforced isotactic polypropylene: Structure, mechanical properties and crystallization and melting behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Songfang; Cheng, Lei; Guo, Yong; Zheng, Yuying; Li, Baoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► KF was modified with caprolactam using toluenediisocyanate (TDI) as bridge. ► Modified KF improves interfacial interaction of iPP/KF/PA6 composites. ► Fiber and nylon 6 inhibited the crystallization of PP continuous phase. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), iPP/Kevlar fiber (KF)/polyamide 6 (PA6) composites were prepared via the melt-extrusion method on twin-screw extruder. Kevlar fiber was modified with caprolactam using toluenediisocyanate (TDI) as bridge. The microstructure of modified KF was successfully characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results showed that KF was bonded with caprolactam and became coarser. Then the modified KF was introduced into iPP, the composites have better mechanical and thermal properties, implying that modification of KF was helpful to improve the interfacial interaction of iPP/KF/PA6 composites. Besides, the crystallization curves indicated that crystallization behavior of PA6 in the composites was homogeneous and fractional. Furthermore, compatibilizer content played an important role in the mechanical and thermal properties of composites.

  8. Extreme Mechanical Behavior of Nacre-Mimetic Graphene-Oxide and Silk Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wanting; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Park, Sang Hyun; Kazemi-Moridani, Amir; Jiang, Qisheng; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2018-02-14

    Biological materials have the ability to withstand extreme mechanical forces due to their unique multilevel hierarchical structure. Here, we fabricated a nacre-mimetic nanocomposite comprised of silk fibroin and graphene oxide that exhibits hybridized dynamic responses arising from alternating high-contrast mechanical properties of the components at the nanoscale. Dynamic mechanical behavior of these nanocomposites is assessed through a microscale ballistic characterization using a 7.6 μm diameter silica sphere moving at a speed of approximately 400 m/s. The volume fraction of graphene oxide in these composites is systematically varied from 0 to 32 vol % to quantify the dynamic effects correlating with the structural morphologies of the graphene oxide flakes. Specific penetration energy of the films rapidly increases as the distribution of graphene oxide flakes evolves from noninteracting, isolated sheets to a partially overlapping continuous sheet. The specific penetration energy of the nanocomposite at the highest graphene oxide content tested here is found to be significantly higher than that of Kevlar fabrics and close to that of pure multilayer graphene. This study evidently demonstrates that the morphologies of nanoscale constituents and their interactions are critical to realize scalable high-performance nanocomposites using typical nanomaterial constituents having finite dimensions.

  9. Mechanical Properties and Tribological Behavior of In Situ NbC/Fe Surface Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaolong; Zhong, Lisheng; Xu, Yunhua

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties and tribological behavior of the niobium carbide (NbC)-reinforced gray cast iron surface composites prepared by in situ synthesis have been investigated. Composites are comprised of a thin compound layer and followed by a deep diffusion zone on the surface of gray cast iron. The graded distributions of the hardness and elastic modulus along the depth direction of the cross section of composites form in the ranges of 6.5-20.1 and 159.3-411.2 GPa, respectively. Meanwhile, dry wear tests for composites were implemented on pin-on-disk equipment at sliding speed of 14.7 × 10-2 m/s and under 5 or 20 N, respectively. The result indicates that tribological performances of composites are considerably dependent on the volume fraction and the grain size of the NbC as well as the mechanical properties of the matrices in different areas. The surface compound layer presents the lowest coefficient of friction and wear rate, and exhibits the highest wear resistance, in comparison with diffusion zone and substrate. Furthermore, the worn morphologies observed reveal the dominant wear mechanism is abrasive wear feature in compound layer and diffusion zone.

  10. Induction of Migraine-Like Photophobic Behavior in Mice by Both Peripheral and Central CGRP Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Bianca N.; Kaiser, Eric A.; Kuburas, Adisa; Loomis, Maria-Cristina M.; Latham, John A.; Garcia-Martinez, Leon F.

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. Although migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the CNS, we used CGRP-induced light-aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal) injection of CGRP resulted in light-aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion seen previously after central (intracerebroventricular) injection. The phenotype was also observed in C57BL/6J mice, although to a lesser degree and with more variability. After intraperitoneal CGRP, motility was decreased in the dark only, similar to motility changes after intracerebroventricular CGRP. In addition, as with intracerebroventricular CGRP, there was no general increase in anxiety as measured in an open-field assay after intraperitoneal CGRP. Importantly, two clinically effective migraine drugs, the 5-HT1B/D agonist sumatriptan and a CGRP-blocking monoclonal antibody, attenuated the peripheral CGRP-induced light aversion and motility behaviors. To begin to address the mechanism of peripheral CGRP action, we used transgenic CGRP-sensitized mice that have elevated levels of the CGRP receptor hRAMP1 subunit in nervous tissue (nestin/hRAMP1). Surprisingly, sensitivity to low light was not seen after intraperitoneal CGRP injection, but was seen after intracerebroventricular CGRP injection. These results suggest that CGRP can act in both the periphery and the brain by distinct mechanisms and that CGRP actions may be transmitted to the CNS via indirect sensitization of peripheral nerves. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a central player in migraine pathogenesis, yet its site(s) of action remains unknown. Some preclinical studies have pointed to central sites in the brain and brainstem. However, a peripheral site of

  11. Nurse and patient interaction behaviors' effects on nursing care quality for mechanically ventilated older adults in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Marci L; Sereika, Susan M; Hoffman, Leslie A; Barnato, Amber; Donovan, Heidi; Happ, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    The study purposes were to (a) describe interaction behaviors and factors that may effect communication and (b) explore associations between interaction behaviors and nursing care quality indicators among 38 mechanically ventilated patients (age ≥60 years) and their intensive care unit nurses (n = 24). Behaviors were measured by rating videorecorded observations from the Study of Patient-Nurse Effectiveness with Communication Strategies (SPEACS). Characteristics and quality indicators were obtained from the SPEACS dataset and medical chart abstraction. All positive behaviors occurred at least once. Significant (p quality. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Environmental reactions and their effects on mechanical behavior of metallic materials. Technical progress report, February 1, 1977--January 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibala, R.; Sethi, V.K.; Fournier, R.

    1977-01-01

    New results obtained in surface oxide softening of the Group VB refractory metals and mechanical behavior of Nb-H and Nb-D alloys are presented. The results include: (a) experimental verification of a model of surface oxide softening of body-centered cubic metals; (b) determination of a stress-differential effect in surface oxide softening; and (c) characterization of hydrogen and deuterium strengthening in Nb and Nb-O alloys. The second section reviews major contributions in topics on: interstitials in metals, mechanical behavior of body-centered cubic metals, solute-defect interactions and internal friction mechanisms in solids

  13. Comprehensive Study on Thermal and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of PET/PEN Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Ali Khonakdar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of interchange reactions on the crystallization, melting, and dynamic mechanical thermal behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate/poly(ethylene naphthalate (PET/PEN blends prepared by melt mixing have been investigated. The occurrence of interchange reactions has been verified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA were used to study the effect of transesterification reaction on crystallinity, melting and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends. It was found that by extension of transesterification, the miscibility of the blend increased. Time and temperature of mixing were most important parameters affecting the transesterification level. On blending, the melt crystallinity of poly(ethylene terephthalate was reduced and in contrast that of poly(ethylene naphthalate was increased; where melt crystallization temperatures of both phases were depressed. A single composition-dependent glass transition peak, which was indicative of miscibility, was detected in second heating thermograms of the blends. It was observed that cold crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate phase decreases while that of poly(ethylene naphthalate was suppressed on blending. It was found that each phase crystallized individually and a melting point depression which was an indication of compatibility was evident at the same time. Dynamic mechanical analysis confirmed the proton nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry results. The secondary viscoelastic transitions of each phase in blend samples were also probed. Increment of peak area in the loss factor has implied the miscibility of blend due to formation of poly(ethylene terephthalate/poly(ethylene naphthalate random copolymer.

  14. Effect of elevated temperatures on the mechanical behavior of basalt textile reinforced refractory concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, Dimas Alan Strauss; Andrade Silva, Flávio de; Toledo Filho, Romildo Dias; Fonseca Martins Gomes, Otávio da

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermo-mechanical behavior of basalt TRC is investigated. • The fiber polymer coating can become a deterministic factor in the TRC response. • Pre-heating the TRC at 150 °C leads to a matrix–polymer interlocking mechanism. • Above 400 °C a sudden drop in the TRC tensile response is observed. - Abstract: The work in hand presents the results of an experimental investigation on the thermo-mechanical properties of a textile refractory composite reinforced with polymer coated basalt fibers under tensile loading. The composites were produced as a laminate material using basalt bi-directional fabric layers as reinforcement. A high alumina cement matrix was used in the matrix composition which was designed using the compressible packing method. A series of uniaxial tensile tests was performed under temperatures ranging from 25 to 1000 °C. The cracking mechanisms were discussed and compared to that obtained at room temperature. Thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to study the deterioration/phase changes as a function of the studied temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the damage processes in the fiber–matrix interfaces after exposure to high temperatures. The obtained results indicated that the presence and the type of coating can become a deterministic factor in the tensile response of the composite submitted to elevated temperatures. A sudden drop in the serviceability limit state of the composite was observed above 400 °C, caused by the degradation of the polymer used as a fiber surface coating, the degradation of the basalt fiber and by the dehydration process of the refractory matrix

  15. What the laboratory rat has taught us about social play behavior: role in behavioral development and neural mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126514917; Trezza, V.

    2014-01-01

    Social play behavior is the most vigorous and characteristic form of social interaction displayed by developing mammals. The laboratory rat is an ideal species to study this behavior, since it shows ample social play that can be easily recognized and quantified. In this chapter, we will first

  16. Microstructure evaluation and mechanical behavior of high-niobium containing titanium aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Glenn Estep, Jr.

    Ti-Al-Nb-based alloys with gamma(TiAl)+sigma(Nb2Al) microstructure have shown promise for potential high temperature applications due to their high specific strength. Recent research has been aimed towards increasing strength and operating temperatures through microstructural refinement and control. Alloys with 10 - 30% sigma-phase have been investigated, exploring relationships between chemistry, microstructure development, and flow behavior. Alloys with composition Ti-45Al-xNb-5Cr-1Mo (where x = 15, 20, 25 at%) have been produced, characterized, and tested at high temperature under compression. Processing, microstructure and mechanical property relationships are thoroughly investigated to reveal a significant connection between phase stability, morphology and their resultant effects on mechanical properties. Phase transformation temperatures and stability ranges were predicted using the ThermoCalc software program and a titanium aluminide database, investigated through thermal analysis, and alloys were heat treated to develop an ultrafine gamma+sigma microstructure. It has been demonstrated that microstructural development in these alloys is sensitive to composition and processing parameters, and heating and cooling rates are vital to the modification of gamma+sigma microstructure in these alloys. Towards the goal of designing a high-Nb titanium aluminide with ultrafine, disconnected gamma+sigma morphology, it has been established that microstructural control can be accomplished in alloys containing 15-25at% Nb through targeted chemistry and processing controls. The strength and flow softening characteristics show strain rate sensitivity that is also affected by temperature. From the standpoint of microstructure development and mechanical behavior at elevated temperature, the most favorable results are obtained with the 20 at% Nb alloy, which produces a combination of high strength and fine disconnected gamma+sigma microstructure. Microstructural analysis reveals

  17. Effects of annealing on the corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of Ti-Al-V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. K.; Choi, B. S.; Baek, J. H.; Choi, B. K.; Jeong, Y. H.; Lee, D. J.; Jang, M. H.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2002-01-01

    In order to determine the annealing condition after cold rolling, the effects of annealing on the corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of Ti-Al-V alloy were evaluated. The results of tensile tests at room temperature showed that the strengths and the ductility were almost independent of the annealing temperature. The results of hardness test also revealed that the hardness was independent of the annealing, However, the results of corrosion test in an ammoniated water of pH 9.98 at 360 .deg. C showed that the corrosion resistance depended on the annealing temperature, and the corrosion rate was accelerated with increasing annealing temperature. Hydrogen contents absorbed during the corrosion test of 120 days also increased with the annealing temperature. It may be attributed to the growth of α' precipitates by annealing. It is thus suggested that the lower annealing temperatures provide the better corrosion properties without degrading the tensile properties

  18. The effect of nickel on the mechanical behavior of molybdenum P/M steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gething, B.A.; Heaney, D.F.; Koss, D.A.; Mueller, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study has examined the effects of nickel alloying additions on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of Fe-xNi-0.85Mo-0.4C-base steels that were powder processed using double-press double-sinter processing to maximize density. The steels were examined in the as-processed condition as well as in a quench-and-temper heat treated condition. Tensile behavior indicates that while nickel content (at levels of 2,4, and 6%) increased tensile strength in the as-sintered condition, it did not significantly affect tensile strength in the quenched and tempered condition. In both conditions increasing Ni content decreased elongation to fracture. The 4% Ni steel, which tended to have the smallest maximum pore size, also exhibited the greatest fatigue strength

  19. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of pulsed laser surface melted AISI D2 cold work tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasavol, N.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Ganjali, M.; Alidokht, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    D2 cold work tool steel (CWTS) was subjected to pulse laser surface melting (PLSM) at constant frequency of 20 Hz Nd: YAG laser with different energies, scanning rate and pulse durations radiated to the surface. Characterizing the PLSM, with optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and surface hardness mapping technique was used to evaluate the microhardness and mechanical behavior of different regions of melting pool. Increasing laser energy and reducing the laser scanning rate results in deeper melt pool formation. Moreover, PLSM has led to entirely dissolution of the carbides and re-solidification of cellular/dendritic structure of a fine scale surrounded by a continuous interdendritic network. This caused an increase in surface microhardness, 2-4 times over that of the base metal.

  20. Mosquitoes drink with a burst in reserve: explaining pumping behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through the proboscis. Experimental observations with synchrotron x-ray imaging indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an occasional, isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is 10 to 30 times larger than in the continuous mode. We have used a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this variation in drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is more energetically efficient, whereas the burst mode creates a large pressure drop across the proboscis, which could potentially be used to clear blockages. Comparisons with pump knock-out configurations demonstrate different functional roles of the pumps in mosquito feeding. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Grant No. #0938047.

  1. Nanotribological behavior analysis of graphene/metal nanocomposites via MD simulations: New concepts and underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, A.; Mobarghei, A.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we report a series of MD-based nanoindentation tests aimed to examine the nanotribological characteristics of metal-based nanocomposites in the presence of graphene sheets. To evaluate the effects of graphene/matrix interactions on the results, nickel and copper are selected as metals having strong and weak interactions with graphene, respectively. Consequently, the influence of graphene layers sliding and their distance from the sample surface on the nanoindentation outputs is thoroughly examined. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the results is deeply investigated with emphasis on the underlying mechanisms. To verify the accuracy of nanoindentation outputs, results of this method are compared with the data obtained via the tensile test. It is concluded that the nanoindentation results are closer to the values obtained by means of experimental setups. Employing these numerical-based experiments enables us to perform parametric studies to find out the dominant factors affecting the nanotribological behavior of these nanocomposites at the atomic-scale.

  2. Shaping vulnerability to addiction - the contribution of behavior, neural circuits and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egervari, Gabor; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Jentsch, J David; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2018-02-01

    Substance use disorders continue to impose increasing medical, financial and emotional burdens on society in the form of morbidity and overdose, family disintegration, loss of employment and crime, while advances in prevention and treatment options remain limited. Importantly, not all individuals exposed to abused substances effectively develop the disease. Genetic factors play a significant role in determining addiction vulnerability and interactions between innate predisposition, environmental factors and personal experiences are also critical. Thus, understanding individual differences that contribute to the initiation of substance use as well as on long-term maladaptations driving compulsive drug use and relapse propensity is of critical importance to reduce this devastating disorder. In this paper, we discuss current topics in the field of addiction regarding individual vulnerability related to behavioral endophenotypes, neural circuits, as well as genetics and epigenetic mechanisms. Expanded knowledge of these factors is of importance to improve and personalize prevention and treatment interventions in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enrichment behavior and transport mechanism of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bin; Han, Feng; Lin, Zhongrong; Wang, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported by surface runoff result in nonpoint source pollution and jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. The transport mechanism of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events has been rarely studied regarding pervious areas. An experimental system was setup to simulate the runoff pollution process on PAHs-contaminated soil. The enrichment behavior of soil-bound PAHs was investigated. The results show that soil organic matters (SOM), rather than clay particles, seem to be the main carrier of PAHs. The enrichment is highly conditioned on runoff and erosion processes, and its magnitude varies among PAH compounds. It is not feasible to build a simple and universal relationship between enrichment ratio and sediment discharge following the traditional enrichment theory. To estimate the flux of PAHs from pervious areas, soil erosion process has to be clearly understood, and both organic carbon content and composition of SOM should be factored into the calculation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior of reduced activation ferrite/martensite stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, C.; Rodrian, D.

    2002-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical cycling fatigue (TMCF) behavior of reduced activation ferrite/martensite stainless steels is examined. The test rig consists of a stiff load frame, which is directly heated by the digitally controlled ohmic heating device. Cylindrical specimens are used with a wall thickness of 0.4 mm. Variable strain rates are applied at TMCF test mode, due to the constant heating rate of 5.8 K/s and variable temperature changes. TMCF results of as received EUROFER 97 in the temperature range between 100 and 500-600 deg. C show a reduction in life time (a factor of 2) compared to F82H mod. and OPTIFER IV. TMCF-experiments with hold times of 100 and 1000 s show dramatic reduction in life time for all three materials

  5. Combined loading effects on the fracture mechanics behavior of line pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.E.; Cravero, S.; Ernst, H.A. [Tenaris Group, Campana (Argentina). SIDERCA R and D Center

    2009-12-19

    For certain applications, pipelines may be submitted to biaxial loading situations. In these cases, it is not clear the influence of the biaxial loading on the fracture mechanics behavior of cracked pipelines. For further understanding of biaxial loading effects, this work presents a numerical simulation of ductile tearing in a circumferentially surface cracked pipe under biaxial loading using the computational cell methodology. The model was adjusted with experimental results obtained in laboratory using single edge cracked under tension (SENT) specimens. These specimens appear as the better alternative to conventional fracture specimens to characterize fracture toughness of cracked pipes. The negligible effect of biaxial loadings on resistance curves was demonstrated. To guarantee the similarities of stress and strains fields between SENT specimens and cracked pipes subjected to biaxial loading, a constraint study using the J-Q methodology and the h parameter was used. The constraint study gives information about the characteristics of the crack-tip conditions. (author)

  6. Spared behavioral repetition effects in Alzheimer's disease linked to an altered neural mechanism at posterior cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broster, Lucas S; Li, Juan; Wagner, Benjamin; Smith, Charles D; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Munro, Nancy; Haney, Ryan H; Jiang, Yang

    2018-02-20

    Individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) classically show disproportionate impairment in measures of working memory, but repetition learning effects are relatively preserved. As AD affects brain regions implicated in both working memory and repetition effects, the neural basis of this discrepancy is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the posterior repetition effect could account for this discrepancy due to the milder effects of AD at visual cortex. Participants with early AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls performed a working memory task with superimposed repetition effects while electroencephalography was collected to identify possible neural mechanisms of preserved repetition effects. Participants with AD showed preserved behavioral repetition effects and a change in the posterior repetition effect. Visual cortex may play a role in maintained repetition effects in persons with early AD.

  7. Decarburization behavior and mechanical properties of Inconel 617 during high temperature oxidation in He environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Do; Kim, Dae Gun; Jo, Tae Sun; Kim, Hoon Sup; Lim, Jeong Hun

    2010-04-01

    Among Generation IV reactor concepts, high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are high-efficiency systems designed for the economical production of hydrogen and electricity. Inconel 617 is a solid-solution strengthening Ni-based superalloy that shows excellent strength, creep-rupture strength, and oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Thus, it is a desirable candidate for tube material of IHX and HGD in HTGRs. In spite of these excellent properties, aging degradation by long time exposure at high temperature induced to deterioration of mechanical properties and furthermore alloys' lifetime because of Cr-depleted zone and carbide free zone below external scale. Also, machinability of Inconel 617 is a important property for system design. In this study, oxidation and decarbrization behavior were evaluated at various aging temperature and environment. Also, cold rolling was carried out for the machinability evaluation of Inconel 617 and then microstructure change was evaluated

  8. Homogenized Finite Element Analysis on Effective Elastoplastic Mechanical Behaviors of Composite with Imperfect Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Gui Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D representative volume element (RVE model was developed for analyzing effective mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with imperfect interfaces. In the model, the fiber is assumed to be perfectly elastic until its tensile strength, and the ceramic material is modeled by an elasto-plastic Drucker-Prager constitutive law. The RVE model is then used to study the elastic properties and the tensile strength of composites with imperfect interfaces and validated through experiments. The imperfect interfaces between the fiber and the matrix are taken into account by introducing some cohesive contact surfaces. The influences of the interface on the elastic constants and the tensile strengths are examined through these interface models.

  9. Study on Mechanical Behavior of Thin-walled Member during Precision Straightening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Guan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the mechanical behavior of precise straightening thin-walled members systematically. As a result of its cross section characteristics of the thin-walled members, traditional straightening theory does not work well in the straightening process of this kind of metal bar stock. Considering the stress evolvement of section during the straightening process, a model was built to analysis the straightening process like thin-walled member with great section height. By making a thorough analysis of the straightening process, the section deformation law and the relationship between sectional distortion and straightening parameters has been mastered. An analytical model was built for macroscopic energetics parameters of the straightening process and the parameters was optimized based on this model. Then loading mode of thin-walled member straightening was discussed.

  10. Role of Interphase in the Mechanical Behavior of Silica/Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoscale representative volume element has been developed to investigate the effect of interphase geometry and property on the mechanical behavior of silica/epoxy resin nanocomposites. The role of interphase–matrix bonding was also examined. Results suggested that interphase modulus and interfacial bonding conditions had significant influence on the effective stiffness of nanocomposites, while its sensitivities with respect to both the thickness and the gradient property of the interphase was minimal. The stiffer interphase demonstrated a higher load-sharing capacity, which also increased the stress distribution uniformity within the resin nanocomposites. Under the condition of imperfect interfacial bonding, the effective stiffness of nanocomposites was much lower, which was in good agreement with the documented experimental observations. This work could shed some light on the design and manufacturing of resin nanocomposites.

  11. Physical Quality Indicators and Mechanical Behavior of Agricultural Soils of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Silvia; da Silva, Alvaro Pires; Ghiberto, Pablo J; Tormena, Cássio A; Pilatti, Miguel A; Libardi, Paulo L

    2016-01-01

    Mollisols of Santa Fe have different tilth and load support capacity. Despite the importance of these attributes to achieve a sustainable crop production, few information is available. The objectives of this study are i) to assess soil physical indicators related to plant growth and to soil mechanical behavior; and ii) to establish relationships to estimate the impact of soil loading on the soil quality to plant growth. The study was carried out on Argiudolls and Hapludolls of Santa Fe. Soil samples were collected to determine texture, organic matter content, bulk density, water retention curve, soil resistance to penetration, least limiting water range, critical bulk density for plant growth, compression index, pre-consolidation pressure and soil compressibility. Water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration were linearly and significantly related to clay and organic matter (R2 = 0.91 and R2 = 0.84). The pedotransfer functions of water retention curve and soil resistance to penetration allowed the estimation of the least limiting water range and critical bulk density for plant growth. A significant nonlinear relationship was found between critical bulk density for plant growth and clay content (R2 = 0.98). Compression index was significantly related to bulk density, water content, organic matter and clay plus silt content (R2 = 0.77). Pre-consolidation pressure was significantly related to organic matter, clay and water content (R2 = 0.77). Soil compressibility was significantly related to initial soil bulk density, clay and water content. A nonlinear and significantly pedotransfer function (R2 = 0.88) was developed to predict the maximum acceptable pressure to be applied during tillage operations by introducing critical bulk density for plant growth in the compression model. The developed pedotransfer function provides a useful tool to link the mechanical behavior and tilth of the soils studied.

  12. FOREVER Experiments on Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of a Reactor Pressure Vessel during a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Karbojian, A.; Green, J.A.; Bui, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the FOREVER (Failure Of Reactor Vessel Retention) experimental program, which is currently underway at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS). The objectives of the FOREVER experiments are to obtain data and develop validated models (i) on the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular, on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure); and (ii) on the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside and/or outside the lower head. The facility employs 1/10.-scale carbon steel vessels of 0.4 m diameter, 15 mm thickness and 600 mm height. Up to 20 liters of binary-oxide melts with 100-300 K superheat are employed, as a simulant for the prototypic corium melt, and internal heating is provided by electrical heaters of up to 20 kW power in order to maintain the vessel wall temperatures at 1100-1200 K. Auxiliary systems are designed to provide an overpressure up to 4 MPa in the test vessel. Thus, severe accident scenarios with RCS depressurization are modeled. Creep behavior of the three-dimensional vessel, formation of the gap between the melt pool crust and the creeping vessel, and mechanisms of the gap cooling by water ingression will be the subjects of study and measurements in the FOREVER experimental program. Scaling rationale as well as pre-test analyses of the thermal and mechanical behavior of the FOREVER test vessels are presented. (authors)

  13. Influence of High Temperature Treatment on Mechanical Behavior of a Coarse-grained Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, G.; Peng, J.; Jiang, M.

    2017-12-01

    High temperature has a significant influence on the physical and mechanical behavior of rocks. With increasing geotechnical engineering structures concerning with high temperature problems such as boreholes for oil or gas production, underground caverns for storage of radioactive waste, and deep wells for injection of carbon dioxides, etc., it is important to study the influence of temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of rocks. This paper experimentally investigates the triaxial compressive properties of a coarse-grained marble after exposure to different high temperatures. The rock specimens were first heated to a predetermined temperature (200, 400, and 600 oC) and then cooled down to room temperature. Triaxial compression tests on these heat-treated specimens subjected to different confining pressures (i.e., 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 MPa) were then conducted. Triaxial compression tests on rock specimens with no heat treatment were also conducted for comparison. The results show that the high temperature treatment has a significant influence on the microstructure, porosity, P-wave velocity, stress-strain relation, strength and deformation parameters, and failure mode of the tested rock. As the treatment temperature gradually increases, the porosity slightly increases and the P-wave velocity dramatically decreases. Microscopic observation on thin sections reveals that many micro-cracks will be generated inside the rock specimen after high temperature treatment. The rock strength and Young's modulus show a decreasing trend with increase of the treatment temperature. The ductility of the rock is generally enhanced as the treatment temperature increases. In general, the high temperature treatment weakens the performance of the tested rock. Finally, a degradation parameter is defined and a strength degradation model is proposed to characterize the strength behavior of heat-treated rocks. The results in this study provide useful data for

  14. Mechanisms of defect complex formation and environmental-assisted fracture behavior of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B.R.; Muratov, L.S.; Kang, B.S.J.; Li, K.Z. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide has excellent corrosion resistance in high-temperature oxidizing-sulfidizing environments; however, there are problems at room and medium temperature with hydrogen embrittlement as related to exposure to moisture. In this research, a coordinated computational modeling/experimental study of mechanisms related to environmental-assisted fracture behavior of selected iron aluminides is being undertaken. The modeling and the experimental work will connect at the level of coordinated understanding of the mechanisms for hydrogen penetration and for loss of strength and susceptibility to fracture. The focus of the modeling component at this point is on the challenging question of accurately predicting the iron vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell} and the subsequent tendency, if present, for vacancy clustering. The authors have successfully performed, on an ab initio basis, the first calculation of the vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell}. These calculations include lattice relaxation effects which are quite large. This has significant implications for vacancy clustering effects with consequences to be explored for hydrogen diffusion. The experimental work at this stage has focused on the relationship of the choice and concentration of additives to the improvement of resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and hence to the fracture behavior. For this reason, comparative crack growth tests of FA-186, FA-187, and FA-189 iron aluminides (all with basic composition of Fe-28A{ell}-5Cr, at % with micro-alloying additives of Zr, C or B) under, air, oxygen, or water environment have been performed. These tests showed that the alloys are susceptible to room temperature hydrogen embrittlement in both B2 and DO{sub 3} conditions. Test results indicated that FA-187, and FA-189 are intrinsically more brittle than FA-186.

  15. Mechanisms for chemostatic behavior in catchments: implications for CO2 consumption by mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of weathering products in streams often show relatively little variation compared to changes in discharge, both at event and annual scales. In this study, several hypothesized mechanisms for this “chemostatic behavior” were evaluated, and the potential for those mechanisms to influence relations between climate, weathering fluxes, and CO2 consumption via mineral weathering was assessed. Data from Loch Vale, an alpine catchment in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, indicates that cation exchange and seasonal precipitation and dissolution of amorphous or poorly crystalline aluminosilicates are important processes that help regulate solute concentrations in the stream; however, those processes have no direct effect on CO2 consumption in catchments. Hydrograph separation analyses indicate that old water stored in the subsurface over the winter accounts for about one-quarter of annual streamflow, and almost one-half of annual fluxes of Na and SiO2 in the stream; thus, flushing of old water by new water (snowmelt) is an important component of chemostatic behavior. Hydrologic flushing of subsurface materials further induces chemostatic behavior by reducing mineral saturation indices and increasing reactive mineral surface area, which stimulate mineral weathering rates. CO2 consumption by carbonic acid mediated mineral weathering was quantified using mass-balance calculations; results indicated that silicate mineral weathering was responsible for approximately two-thirds of annual CO2 consumption, and carbonate weathering was responsible for the remaining one-third. CO2 consumption was strongly dependent on annual precipitation and temperature; these relations were captured in a simple statistical model that accounted for 71% of the annual variation in CO2 consumption via mineral weathering in Loch Vale.

  16. Research of long-term mechanical displaced behavior of soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Minami