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Sample records for superplastic forming spf

  1. Superplasticity and superplastic forming of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieh, T.G.; Wadsworth, J.

    1994-05-01

    Recent advances in the basic understanding of superplasticity and superplastic forming of ceramics are reviewed. Deformation mechanisms as well as microstructural requirements for superplastic ceramics are discussed. Microstructural effects, such as grain size, dynamic grain growth, and the presence of grain-boundary liquid phases, on the superplastic properties and deformation behavior of ceramics are addressed. Superplastic forming, and particularly biaxial gas-pressure forming, of several ceramics, including YTZP and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/YTZP, is also presented. The forming behavior of these ceramics is correlated with that obtained from conventional uniaxial tests. Examples of concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) of metal-ceramic hybrids are given.

  2. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding: Progress and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarized recent progress in metal superplasticity and the application of Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB or SPF/Welding in typical structures. Various aerospace components such as three dimensional lattice structures made by SPF/DB have been demonstrated. In addition, some newly developed technologies, such as melt droplet spreading/thermo-mechanical forming (MDS/TMF, were also included. Finally, the future potential of SPF/DB technology was predicted.

  3. Forming of superplastic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-01

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of ceramic components are given. Recent work in biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics is provided. These include yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP), a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid ceramic-metal structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  4. Numerical simulation of industrial superplastic forming. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberman, K.S.; Bennett, J.G.; Piltch, M.S.

    1996-11-01

    Superplastic forming (SPF) is a metal forming process that allows a variety of components with very complex geometries to be produced at a fraction of the cost of conventional machining. The industrial superplastic forming process can be optimized with the application of the finite element method to predict the optimal pressure schedules, overall forming time, and the final thickness distribution. This paper discusses the verification and applications of NIKE3D in 4 optimizing the industrial superplastic forming process.

  5. Metallurgical Characterization of Superplastic Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The trans - formation of constant-crosshead-speed stress-strain curves into constant-strain- rate curves is clearly not satisfactory because it is based...MILL-ANNEALED AND SUPERPLASTICALLY- FORMED CONDITIONS; FORMING TEMPERATURE - 949EPC (17400F). 01"tln Stoi rte yeld grasa Ultimate l to oret~lSri as...1975), p. 163. 7. G. Rai and N. J. Grant, "On the Measurermients of Superplasticity in an Al-Cu Alloy," Met. Trans . 6A, 385 (1975). 8. A. K, Mukherjee

  6. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  7. Elastic constants for superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Formulae and the associated graphs are presented for contrasting the effective elastic constants for a superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) corrugated sandwich core and a honeycomb sandwich core. The results used in the comparison of the structural properties of the two types of sandwich cores are under conditions of equal sandwich density. It was found that the stiffness in the thickness direction of the optimum SPF/DB corrugated core (i.e., triangular truss core) was lower than that of the honeycomb core, and that the former had higher transverse shear stiffness than the latter.

  8. Superplastic forming gas pressure of titanium alloy bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 张凯锋; 陈军; 阮雪榆

    2004-01-01

    The complex superplastic forming (SPF) technology applying gas pressure and compressive axial load is an advanced forming method for titanium alloy bellows, whose forming process consists of the three main forming phases namely bulging, clamping and calibrating phase. The influence of forming gas pressure in various phases on the forming process was analyzed and the models of forming gas pressure for bellows were derived according to the thin shell theory and the plasticity deformation theory. Using the model values, taking a two-convolution DN250 Ti6Al-4V titanium alloy bellows as an example, a series of superplastic forming tests were performed to evaluate the influence of the variation of forming gas pressure on the forming process. According to the experimental results these models were corrected to make the forming gas pressures prediction more accurate.

  9. Finite Element Simulation in Superplastic forming of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ganesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Superplasticity in materials is the ability of materials to achieve large elongation only under specific conditions of temperature and strain rate. Superplastic Forming (SPF is an important industrial process that has found application in sheet metal forming in the aerospace and automotive industries. Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid state joining process that can alter the grain structure of the parent material. FSW process is an effective tool to refine the grain structure of the sheet metal and enhance their Superplasticity. Friction Stir Welding was used to join Superplastic AA 6061-T6 sheets. The Finite Element Simulation was performed for the Superplastic Forming of the Friction Stir Welded joints to evaluate the thinning and formability of AA 6061-T6 for hemispherical shape. The commercially available Finite Element Software ABAQUS was used to execute these simulations.

  10. Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding for Sandwich Structure of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo HAN; Kaifeng ZHANG; Guofeng WANG; Xiaojun ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) is a well-established process for the manufacture of components almost exclusively from Ti-6Al-4V sheet material. The sandwich structure of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. The effects of the microstructure on the SPF/DB process were discussed. The microstructure at the interfaces and the distribution of thickness were researched.

  11. Elastic stability of superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper concerns the elastic buckling behavior of a newly developed superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plate. Uniaxial buckling loads were calculated for this type of sandwich plate with simply supported edges by using orthotropic sandwich plate theory. The buckling behavior of this sandwich plate was then compared with that of an SPF/DB unidirectionally corrugated core sandwich plate under conditions of equal structural density. It was found that the buckling load for the former was considerably higher than that of the latter.

  12. Elastic constants for superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded corrugated sandwich core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formulas and associated graphs for evaluating the effective elastic constants for a superplastically formed/diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) corrugated sandwich core, are presented. A comparison of structural stiffnesses of the sandwich core and a honeycomb core under conditions of equal sandwich core density was made. The stiffness in the thickness direction of the optimum SPF/DB corrugated core (that is, triangular truss core) is lower than that of the honeycomb core, and that the former has higher transverse shear stiffness than the latter.

  13. Numerical Simulation and Superplastic Forming of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for a Dental Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Soo, Steven

    2011-04-01

    This article investigates superplastic forming (SPF) technique in conjunction with finite element (FE) simulation applied to dental repair. The superplasticity of Ti-6Al-4V alloys has been studied using a uniquely designed five-hole test with the aim of obtaining the modeled grain size and the flow stress parameters. The data from the five-hole test are subsequently put into the FE program for the simulation of a partial upper denture dental prosthesis (PUD4). The FE simulation of the PUD4 is carried out to set up appropriate input parameters for pressing due to the SPF process being fully automatic controlled. A variety of strain rates ranging from 2.4 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-3 s-1 are selected for the characterization of superplastic properties of the alloy. The Superflag FE program is used to generate an appropriate pressure-time profile and provide information on thickness, grain size, and grain growth rate distribution. Both membrane elements and solid elements have been adopted in the simulation and the results from both types of elements are compared. An evaluation of predicted parameters for the SPF of the prosthesis is presented.

  14. Superplastic Forming of Aluminum (Task C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    purchase order number 9-342779-01 was modified to incorporate integral hinge attachment features to drawing number 160K136160. The material used to form a...0.805 7. Trans. Drill 8 his. from 136153-3 & 136152-1 Hinges C/T Straps and 136161-11 & -13 Fittings .016 0.053 8. Disassemble 0.182 9. DBR 0.008 0.158 10...door utilizes a conventional aluminum alloy skin stiffened by a weld bonded monolithic superplastically formed element fabricated trom Supral 220

  15. Dental implant superstructures by superplastic forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, R.V.; Garriga-Majo, D.; Soo, S.; Pagliaria, D. [Kings Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dental Biomaterials Science; Juszczyk, A.S.; Walter, J.D. [Kings Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Prosthetic Dentistry

    2001-07-01

    A novel application of superplastic forming is described for the production of fixed-bridge dental implant superstructures. Finite element analysis (FEA) has shown that Ti-6Al-4V sheet would be a suitable candidate material for the design of a fixed-bridge dental implant superstructure. Traditionally superstructures are cast in gold alloy onto pre-machined gold alloy cylinders but castings are often quite bulky and 25% of castings do not fit accurately (1) which means that sectioning and soldering is required to obtain a fit that is clinically acceptable and will not prejudice the integrity of the commercially pure cp-titanium implants osseointegrated with the bone. Superplastic forming is shown to be a forming technique that would allow the production of strong, light-weight components of thin section with low residual stress that could be suitable for such applications. Considerable cost savings over traditional dental techniques can be achieved using a low-cost ceramic die material. The properties of these die materials are optimised so that suitable components can be produced. Satisfactory hot strength is demonstrated and thermal properties are matched to those of the titanium alloy for accurate fit of the prosthesis. (orig.)

  16. Gas-pressure forming of superplastic ceramic sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieh, T.G.; Wadsworth, J.

    1993-06-24

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics are given. These include yttria stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP) a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid YTZP/C103 (ceramic-metal) structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  17. Development of fine-grain size titanium 6Al–4V alloy sheet material for low temperature superplastic forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tuoyang [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Sanders, Daniel G. [Boeing Research and Technology, Seattle, WA (United States); Liu, Bin; Zhang, Weidong; Zhou, Canxu [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Fine-grained titanium 6Al–4V alloy, which typically has a grain size of about 1–2 μm, can be made to superplastic form at around 800 °C with special processing. The normal temperature for superplastic forming (SPF) with conventional titanium 6Al–4V sheet material is 900 °C. The lower temperature performance is of interest to the Boeing Company because it can be exploited to achieve significant cost savings in processing by reducing the high-temperature oxidation of the SPF dies, improving the heater rod life for the hot presses, increasing operator safety and replacing the chemical milling operation to remove alpha case contamination with a less intensive nitric hydrofluoric acid etchant (pickle). In this report, room temperature tensile tests and elevated temperature constant strain rate tensile tests of fine-grained Ti–6Al–4V sheets provided by the Baoti Company of Xi'an, China, were conducted according to the test method standards of ASTM-E8 and ASTM-E2448. The relationships among the processing parameters, microstructure and superplastic behavior have been analyzed. The results show that two of the samples produced met the Boeing minimum requirements for low-temperature superplasticity. The successful material was heat-treated at 800 °C subsequent to hot rolling above the beta transus temperature, T{sub β}-(150–250 °C). It was found that the sheet metal microstructure has a significant influence on superplastic formability of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Specifically, fine grains, a narrow grain size distribution, low grain aspect ratio and moderate β phase volume fraction can contribute to higher superplastic elongations.

  18. Use of laser(s) in the process of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jocelyn, A.; Jonik, M.; Keevil, A.; Ackerman, M.; Way, J.; Flower, T. [Aerospace Mfg. Research Centre, Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol (United Kingdom); Kar, A. [Univ. of Central Florida, School Optics/CREOL, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) has permitted the manufacture of some of the lightest, strongest, corrosion resistant, complex, and yet often elegant structures ever to be produced. For the last 30 years, all such components have been made by some form of high thermal-mass, isothermal method of production using conventional equipment, such as hot platen presses or furnaces. However, if laser(s) could be used just to heat the material to be superplastically formed, this could provide a novel, low thermal-mass, means of production which could, relatively easily, be integrated into a laser based manufacturing centre. In this paper, a concept is described of how a laser based manufacturing centre, comprised of a number of individual process cells, together with integrated pre and post SPF/DB operations, would work and the benefits that would result. The concept is based on four considerations. Firstly, that it is essential to heat the material directly and quickly. Secondly, the environment must be completely inert so that there is no contamination of components. Thirdly, the complete process of diffusion bonding must only entail the use of laser(s). Lastly, established laser activities such as cutting, welding, hole drilling or trepanning and the removal of surplus material, must be integrated into the process. In addition, the envisaged cells need to be modular in concept so industry can acquire capital plant progressively, thereby spreading the cost over time. (orig.)

  19. Integrated Manufacturing of Aerospace Components by Superplastic Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving and fuel efficiency. It is known that superplastic characteristics of some materials provide significant opportunity for forming complicated, lightweight components of aerospace structure. One of the most important advantages of using superplastic forming process is its simplicity to form integral parts and economy in tooling[1]. For instance, it can be applied to blow-forming, in which a metal sheet is deformed due to the pressure difference of hydrostatic gas on both sides of the sheet. Since the loading medium is gas pressure difference, this forming is different from conventional sheet metal forming technique in that this is stress-controlled rather than strain and strain rate controlled. This method is especially advantageous when several sheet metals are formed into complex shapes. In this study, it is demonstrated that superplastic forming process with titanium and steel alloy can be applied to manufacturing lightweight integral structures of aerospace structural parts and rocket propulsion components. The result shows that the technology to design and develop the forming process of superplastic forming can be applied for near net shape forming of a complex contour of a thrust chamber and a toroidal fuel tank.

  20. Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys

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    A. K. Ghosh

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available New and advanced fabrication methods for titanium components are emerging today to replace age-old fabrication processes and reduce component cost. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding are two such advanced fabrication technologies which when applied individually or in combination can provide significant cost and weight benefits and a rather broad manufacturing technology base. This paper briefly reviews the state of understanding of the science and technology of super plastic forming of titanium alloys, and their diffusion bonding capability. Emphasis has been placed on the metallurgy of superplastic flow in two phase titanium alloys, the microstructural and external factors which influence this behaviour.

  1. Superplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, T.

    Permanent deformation of a material through flow, e.g., creep, viscosity, viscoplasticity, gets easier as the grain size in the material gets smaller. In the most spectacular cases, relative extensions greater than 100% (nominal strain > 1) can be obtained at relatively low temperatures compared with the temperatures usually required to observe creep in materials: this is the effect known as superplasticity. Typically, superplasticity only occurs in fine-grained dense materials (grains 0.5Tmelting, when such a temperature has any meaning (materials sometimes decomposing before melting). Even in ancient times, smiths made good use of this remarkable property to forge tough, hard steel blades. The steel used by the Persians at the time of the crusades, and by Saladin's armies, or Damascus steel, is one of the greatest achievements of metallurgy and the forge, where the choice of alloy at the outset (in this case a steel with a high carbon content, known as wootz, from India) and the masterly control of a judicious forging cycle (the thickness of the initial ingot was first reduced by a factor of about 10 by hammering) produced a material with ideal fine microstructure for making sharp cutting blades that could also resist mechanical shocks. Figure 9.1 illustrates the phenomenon of superplastic behaviour for a steel containing 1.6% carbon (ultrahigh carbon steel), with a fine microstructure, close to Damascus steel, which seems to have been produced first in India in the fourth century BC.

  2. Effect of superplastic forming exposure on fatigue crack propagation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daeho; Kwon, Yongnam; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Sangshik

    2016-09-01

    The effect of superplastic forming (SPF) exposure on the ɛ (strain)-N (number of cycles to failure) fatigue and fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy was examined at 298 and 473 K. To simulate the thermal exposure during superplastic forming process, the mill-annealed Ti64 alloy sheet was heated in the vacuum chamber with the pre-determined temperature profile. Notable microstructural change during the SPF exposure included the shape of transformed β phase from fine and round particles in the as-received specimen to coarse angular particles in the as-exposed specimen. The effective grain size tended to increase with the exposure, enhancing the slip reversibility and the resistance to FCP. However, the crack hindering effect by fine, particle-like β phase became weak with the exposure, offseting the beneficial effect associated with the increment of effective grain size. The effect of SPF exposure on ɛ-N fatigue and FCP behavior of mill-annealed Ti64 alloy was therefore marginal, excluding the effect of α-case (the oxygen-enriched phase) on the surface.

  3. A two-step superplastic forging forming of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step technology combined forging with superplastic forming has been developed to enhance the forgeability of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy and realize the application of the as-cast magnesium alloy in large deformation bullet shell. In the first step, fine-grained microstructure preforms that are suitable for superplastic forming were obtained by reasonably designing the size of the initial blanks with the specific height-to-diameter ratio, upsetting the blanks and subsequent annealing. In the second step, the heat treated preforms were forged into the end products at the superplastic conditions. The end products exhibit high quality surface and satisfied microstructure. Consequently, this forming technology that not only avoids complicating the material preparation but also utilizes higher strain rate superplastic provides a near net-shaped novel method on magnesium forging forming technology using as-cast billet.

  4. Materials issues in some advanced forming techniques, including superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Henshall, G.A.; Nieh, T.G. [and others

    1995-08-22

    From mechanics and macroscopic viewpoints, the sensitivity of the flow stress of a material to the strain rate, i.e. the strain rate sensitivity (m), governs the development of neck formation and therefore has a strong influence on the tensile ductility and hence formability of materials. Values of strain rate sensitivity range from unity, for the case of Newtonian viscous materials, to less than 0.1 for some dispersion strengthened alloys. Intermediate values of m = 0.5 are associated with classical superplastic materials which contain very fine grain sizes following specialized processing. An overview is given of the influence of strain rate sensitivity on tensile ductility and of the various materials groups that can exhibit high values of strain rate sensitivity. Recent examples of enhanced formability (or extended tensile ductility) in specific regimes between m = 1 and m = 0.3 are described, and potential areas for commercial exploitation are noted. These examples include: internal stress superplasticity, superplastic ceramics, superplastic intermetallics, superplastic laminated composites, superplastic behavior over six orders of magnitude of strain rate in a range of aluminum-based alloys and composites, and enhanced ductility in Al-Mg alloys that require no special processing for microstructural development.

  5. Thinning Behavior Simulations in Superplastic Forming of Friction Stir Processed Titanium 6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul D.; Sanders, Daniel G.; Ramulu, M.; Grant, Glenn; Trapp, Tim; Comley, Peter

    2010-06-01

    A study was undertaken to simulate the thinning behavior of titanium 6Al-4V alloy sheet during Superplastic Forming and to evaluate the feasibility of controlling thinning in areas of interest with Friction Stir Processing (FSP) of the material. The commercially available Finite Element Analysis software ABAQUS was used to execute these simulations. Material properties of the parent sheet and the Friction Stir Processed regions input into the models were determined experimentally by elevated temperature tensile testing. The results of these simulations were compared to experimental test results via Superplastically Forming representative aerospace parts and analytical computations for validation. It was found that numerical simulations can be used to predict the thin-out characteristics of superplastically formed titanium parts and the thin-out can be controlled in desired areas by FSP, locally, prior to forming.

  6. Investigation on the factors influencing the thickness distribution of superplastic-formed components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong-yang; FANG You-tong

    2005-01-01

    In the superplastic sheet forming process, the uniformity of the sheet's final thickness distribution is vital for ensuring the good mechanical quality of the formed components. The influences of the component shape and the contact friction on the final thickness distribution were investigated in this work by using finite element method on a series of axisymmetric models. It was concluded that shape optimization and friction elimination are required to get uniform thickness distribution, and eventually to improve the mechanical quality of the formed components. The constitutive equation of the Ti-6A1-4V superplastic material was also determined on the basis of experimental data.

  7. Experimental and FE simulation validation of sheet thickness optimization in superplastic forming of Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaresan, G.; Jothilingam, A. [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-07-15

    Superplasticity is the ability of a polycrystalline materials to exhibit very large elongations without necking prior to failure. In this paper, the superplastic forming potential of fine grained 7075 aluminium alloy was studied. The process parameters like pressure, forming time and initial sheet thickness were selected, using the design of experiments technique. The same condition of formation process was attempted in the finite element simulation using ABAQUS software. The deviation of the thickness distribution between the simulation and experiment was made and the variation lies within 8%.

  8. Superplastic forming of Al-Li alloys for lightweight, low-cost structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J.; Wagner, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Superplastic forming of advanced aluminum alloys is being evaluated as an approach for fabricating low-cost, light-weight, cryogenic propellant tanks. Built-up structure concepts (with inherent reduced scrap rate) are under investigation to offset the additional raw material expenses incurred by using aluminum lithium alloys. This approach to fabrication offers the potential for significant improvements in both structural efficiency and overall manufacturing costs. Superplasticity is the ability of specially processed material to sustain very large forming strains without failure at elevated temperatures under controlled deformation conditions. It was demonstrated that superplastic forming technology can be used to fabricate complex structural components in a single operation and increase structural efficiency by as much as 60 percent compared to conventional configurations in skin-stiffened structures. Details involved in the application of this technology to commercial grade superplastic aluminum lithium material are presented. Included are identification of optimum forming parameters, development of forming procedures, and assessment of final part quality in terms of cavitation volume and thickness variation.

  9. Grain boundary dynamics in ceramics superplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakai, E.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Superplasticity refers to an ability of polycrystalline solids to exhibit exceptionally large elongation in tension. The application of superplasticity makes it possible to fabricate ceramic components by superplastic forming (SPF, concurrent with diffusion bonding, and superplastic sinter-forging just like superplastic metals. Furthermore the superplastic deformation plays an important role in stress-assisted densification processes such as hot isostatic pressing (HIP and hot pressing (HP. The ceramics superplasticity has been one of intensive research fields in the last decade. Although most of reports are still limited to those of zirconia[1], new developments have been achieved in superplasticity of Si3N4 and SiC in recent years. It is clearly demonstrated that the superplasticity is one of the common natures of fine-grained ceramics and nanocrystalline ceramics at elevated temperatures.

    La superplaticidad se refiere a la capacidad que posee un sólido policristalino de presentar alargamientos excepcionalmente elevados en tracción. La aplicación de la superplasticidad hace posible la fabricación de componentes cerámicos por conformado superplástico, soldadura por difusión y forja-sinterizado superplástica, igual que en metales superplásticos. Además, la deformación superplástica tiene un rol importante en los procesos de densificación asistidos por tensiones, tales como la compactación isostática en caliente y el prensado en caliente. Las cerámicas superplásticas han sido uno de los campos donde se ha realizado una investigación más intensa en la última década. Aunque, la mayoría de los informes se limitan a la circonia[1] se han alcanzado nuevos desarrollos en superplasticidad de Si3N4 y SiC. Está claramente demostrado que la superplasticidad es una propiedad intrínseca de las cerámicas de pequeño tamaño de grano y de las cer

  10. Biomedical Titanium alloy prostheses manufacturing by means of Superplastic and Incremental Forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccininni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work collects some results of the three-years Research Program “BioForming“, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR and aimed to investigate the possibility of using flexible sheet forming processes, i.e. Super Plastic Forming (SPF and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF, for the manufacturing of patient-oriented titanium prostheses. The prosthetic implants used as case studies were from the skull; in particular, two different Ti alloys and geometries were considered: one to be produced in Ti-Gr23 by SPF and one to be produced in Ti-Gr2 by SPIF. Numerical simulations implementing material behaviours evaluated by characterization tests were conducted in order to design both the manufacturing processes. Subsequently, experimental tests were carried out implementing numerical results in terms of: (i gas pressure profile able to determine a constant (and optimal strain rate during the SPF process; (ii tool path able to avoid rupture during the SPIF process. Post forming characteristics of the prostheses in terms of thickness distributions were measured and compared to data from simulations for validation purposes. A good correlation between numerical and experimental thickness distributions has been obtained; in addition, the possibility of successfully adopting both the SPF and the SPIF processes for the manufacturing of prostheses has been demonstrated.

  11. The measurement of friction for superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.B.; Leen, S.B.; Pashby, I.R.; Kennedy, A.R. [School of M3EM, Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    An experimental test for measuring the friction between Ti-6Al-4V sheet material and S310 stainless steel tool material at 900 C is presented. The test is intended for application to Ti-6Al-4V superplastic forming for the manufacture of aeroengine components. The work is motivated by the need for accurate, representative data for process modelling, where accurate simulation is critical to formed component dimensions. The results show a time dependency of friction. The effects of boron nitride density, applied normal load and die surface roughness are investigated. (orig.)

  12. Superplastic forming of the Cd-17.4Zn alloy; Conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llanes-Briceno, J. A.; Torres-Villasenor, G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    In the present work the necessary steps to carry on the superplastic forming of the Cd-17.4Zn alloy are defined. The use of either atmospheric pressure or gas pressure as forming tools is analyzed. The optimum values of the variable involved (temperature, maximum strain and sensitivity index) are determined while a method for the characterization of futures superplastic alloys is set forth. The experimental characterization of the superplastic forming is achieved with free bulging of circular membranes of 12, 16, 24, 32 and 40 mm in diameter and with three different membrane thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm). [Spanish] Se definen los pasos necesarios para el conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4 Zn. Se comparan la presion atmosferica y el gas a presion como herramientas de conformado. Se determinan los valores optimos de la variables involucradas (temperatura, deformacion maxima e indice de sensibilidad) y se plantea una metodologia para la caracterizacion de futuras aleaciones superplasticas. El conformado superplastico se caracteriza experimentalmente mediante el inflado libre de membranas circulares de 12, 16, 24, 32 y 40 mm de diametro y tres diferentes espesores (0.4, 0.6 y 0.8 mm). Se muestra la estructura perlitica (enfuiada al aive Cd-17.4Zn) y la estructura grano fino. Se muestra la profundidad de deformacion en tres espesores (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm) a P=200 Kpa y T = 200 y a T = 230.

  13. 3-sheet structure of Inconel 718 superalloy processed by LBW/SPF and its load response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The 3-sheet structure of Inconel 718 superalloy will be used in flying vehicles as heat resisting and shielding structure due to its lightweight, high strength and stiffness. The 3-sheet structure of Inconel 718 superalloy processed by LBW/SPF (laser beam welding/superplastic forming) technology exhibited good configuration and uniform thickness distribution. The LBW parameters for 3-sheet structure were as follows: Pulse frequency was 32 Hz, impulse duration 3 ms, peak power per pulse 4500 W, and welding speed 180 mm/min. The SPF parameters were as follows: Temperature T=965 ℃, forming pressure P=4.2 MPa, and forming time t=130 min. The microstructure in weld fusion zone was consti- tuted of austenite dendritics and Laves phase precipitated in interdendritics. After the SPF process, austenite dendritics in the weld fusion became coarser and most of Laves phases were dissolved and turned into δ precipitated phase, but a few of Laves phases were still reserved. And Nb concentration in dendritics increased to 5.42% compared to 2.82% in as-weld condition. Weld metal Vickers-hardness increased from 331.63 in as-weld condition to 391.74 in post-SPF condition which was closed to the base material Vickers-hardness of post-SPF. Grain size of base material grew slightly and an amount of precipitated phase appeared in the base material undergoing SPF process. The tensile test results of base material showed that tensile strength increased obviously and the ductility decreased slightly after SPF process. Load response test results indicated that the 3-sheet structure possessed good resistance to compression and bending load. Accordingly, the LBW/SPF technology is an appropriate forming technique for the 3-sheet structure of Inconel 718 superalloy.

  14. 3-sheet structure of Inconel 718 superalloy processed by LBW/SPF and its load response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU FengSeng; ZHANG KaiFeng

    2009-01-01

    The 3-sheet structure of Inconel 718 superalloy will be used in flying vehicles as heat resisting and shielding structure due to its lightweight,high strength and stiffness.The 3-sheet structure of Inconel 718 superalloy processed by LBW/SPF(laser beam welding/superplastic forming)technology exhibited good configuration and uniform thickness distribution.The LBW parameters for 3-sheet structure were as follows:Pulse frequency was 32 Hz,impulse duration 3 ms,peak power per pulse 4500 W,and welding speed 180 mm/min.The SPF parameters were as follows:Temperature T=965℃,forming pressure P=-4.2 MPa,and forming time t=130 min.The microstructure in weld fusion zone was constituted of austenite dendritics and Laves phase precipitated in interdendritics.After the SPF process,austenite dendritics in the weld fusion became coarser and most of Laves phases were dissolved and turned into δprecipitated phase,but a few of Laves phases were still reserved.And Nb concentration in dendritics increased to 5.42% compared to 2.82% in as-weld condition.Weld metal Vickers-hardness increased from 331.63 in as-weld condition to 391.74 in post-SPF condition which was closed to the base material Vickers-hardness of post-SPF.Grain size of base material grew slightly and an amount of precipitated phase appeared in the base material undergoing SPF process.The tensile test results of base material showed that tensile strength increased obviously and the ductility decreased slightly after SPF process.Load response test results indicated that the 3-sheet structure possessed good resistance to compression and bending load.Accordingly,the LBW/SPF technology is an appropriate forming technique for the 3-sheet structure of inconel 718 superalloy.

  15. Three Dimensional FEM Simulation of Titanium Hollow Blade Forming Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao Bing, [No Value; Li Zhiqiang, [No Value; Hou Hongliang, [No Value; Liao Jinhua, [No Value; Bai Bingzhe, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of high by-pass turbofan engines into both commercial and military aircraft industries, the fabrication of large size fan blade through superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) has become a pivotal technique of turbine fan engine. There are three key steps to form a holl

  16. Effects of Heating Rate on the Process Parameters of Superplastic Forming for Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fan; SHI Tielin; LIAO Guanglan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of heating rate on the process parameters of superplastic forming for Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 by differential scanning calorimetry. The continuous heating and isothermal annealing analyses suggested that the temperatures of glass transition and onset crystallization are heating rate-dependent in the supercooled liquid region. Then, the time-temperature-transformation diagram under different heating rates indicates that increasing the heating rate can lead to an increase of the incubation time at the same anneal temperature in the supercooled liquid region. Based on the Arrhenius relationship, we discovered that the incubation time increases by 1.08-1.11 times with double increase of the heating rate at the same anneal temperature, and then verified it by the data of literatures and the experimental results. The obtained curve of the max available incubation time reveals that the incubation time at a certain anneal temperature in the supercooled liquid region is not infinite, and will increase with increasing heating rate until this temperature shifts out of the supercooled liquid region because of exceeding critical heating rate. It is concluded that heating rate must be an important processing parameter of superplastic forming for Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5.

  17. Grain size control and superplasticity in 6013-type aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Lillianne Plaster Whitelock

    Aluminum alloys have been the material of choice for aircraft construction since the 1930's. Currently, the automotive industry is also showing an increasing interest in aluminum alloys as structural materials. 6xxx aluminum alloys possess a combination of strength and formability which makes them attractive to both industries. In addition, 6xxx alloys are highly weldable, corrosion resistant, and low in cost as compared with the 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys. Superplastic forming (SPF) is a manufacturing process which exploits the phenomenon of superplasticity in which gas pressure is used to form complex-shaped parts in a single forming operation. This reduces part counts and the need for fasteners and connectors, resulting in reduced product weight. Reduced product/vehicle weight improves fuel economy. Most alloys must be specially processed for superplasticity. Much research effort has been directed at the development of thermomechanical processes for the grain refinement of aluminum alloys by static or dynamic recrystallization. to induce superplasticity. While large numbers of studies have been conducted on 2xxx, 5xxx, 7xxx, and 8xxx aluminum alloys, very few studies have been focused on the grain refinement of 6xxx aluminum alloys for superplasticity. The current research describes a new thermomechanical process for application to 6xxx aluminum alloys for grain refinement and superplasticity. The process is shown to successfully refine and induce superplasticity in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy which falls within the compositional limits of both 6013 and 6111. The grain refinement is by particle-stimulated nucleation of recrystallization. The microstructural evolution during the thermomechanical processing is characterized in terms of precipitate size, shape, distribution and composition; texture; recrystallization; and grain size, shape, and thermal stability. The new process produces a statically-stable, weakly-textured, equiaxed grain structure with an average

  18. Numerical Simulation of Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Ti Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaifeng ZHANG; Wenbo HAN; Wei WU; Guofeng WANG; Dezhong WU

    2003-01-01

    The research on numerical simulation for combinative process of SPF/DB is carried out in this paper. The contacting problem of sheets is analyzed by using the penalty method. In order to solve the contact problem of different parts of the sheet, a new alg

  19. Effect of state of stress on the cavitation behavior of Al 5083 superplastic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Namas; Kalu, Peter [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Khraisheh, Marwan K. [Dept. of MEch. Eng., Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we address the controversial issue of nucleation of cavities in Al 5083 alloys and their subsequent growth to coalescence and failure. We focus on the origin and growth of cavities not only during the primary processing of Al 5083 in sheet forms, but also during the manufacture of these sheets into SPF (superplastic forming) components. Experimental observations of pre-existing cavities in this alloy are made using optical and electron microscopy. The role of sheet rolling direction, and the state of stress during superplastic deformation on the cavity formation and coalescence are also discussed. The effect of the state of stress (uniaxial, plane strain, balanced biaxial, and tri-axial) on the growth characteristics of cavitation is also examined. It is found that the uniaxial model based cavitation cannot directly be extended to predict the behavior of more complex stress states, unless great care is taken to identify the right strain measure for the mapping process. (orig.)

  20. Standard test method for determining the superplastic properties of metallic sheet materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the procedure for determining the superplastic forming properties (SPF) of a metallic sheet material. It includes tests both for the basic SPF properties and also for derived SPF properties. The test for basic properties encompasses effects due to strain hardening or softening. 1.2 This test method covers sheet materials with thicknesses of at least 0.5 mm but not greater than 6 mm. It characterizes the material under a uni-axial tensile stress condition. Note 1—Most industrial applications of superplastic forming involve a multi-axial stress condition in a sheet; however it is more convenient to characterize a material under a uni-axial tensile stress condition. Tests should be performed in different orientations to the rolling direction of the sheet to ascertain initial anisotropy. 1.3 This method has been used successfully between strain rates of 10-5 to 10-1 per second. 1.4 This method has been used successfully on Aluminum and Titanium alloys. The use of the method wi...

  1. Formability and cavitation behavior of superplastic AA5083 aluminum alloy under biaxial tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ying-bing; LI Da-yong; PENG Ying-hong

    2006-01-01

    The superplastic forming potential of two fine-grained 5083 aluminum alloys were studied under biaxial tension using a pneumatic bulge test. Experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 475 to 525 ℃ with three different strain paths ranging from equi-biaxial to approaching plane strain. The shape of the forming limited diagram(FLD) is found to be significantly different from FLDs commonly used in room temperature stamping. The effects of temperature on final thickness distribution, dome height and cavitation were investigated for the case of equi-biaxial stretching. Increasing temperature in free bulge forming can improve the thickness distribution of final parts but have no significant effect on dome height. The results indicate that determination of forming limits in SPF cannot be represented with a simple FLD and additional metrics such as external thinning and internal cavitation needed to determine the SPF potential of a material.

  2. Superplastic forming of Ti6Al4V alloy using ZrO_2-TiO_2 ceramic die with adjustable linear thermal expansion coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shao-song; ZHANG Kai-feng

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, the relation between the coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) and the volume fraction of TiO_2 was investigated, and also the influence of relative density of ceramic on the CTE was studied. The results show that the volume fraction, of TiO_2 and the relative density both make influence on the CTE of ZrO_2-TiO_2 ceramic. According to the results, the ZrO_2-TiO_2(volume fraction of TiO_2 is 27%) ceramic die with the similar CTE (8.92×10~(-6)℃~(-1)) to Ti6Al4V was fabricated. Secondly, to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of the workpiece superplastically formed, the Ti6Al4V impression experiment was performed. The result shows that the dimensional inaccuracy of workpieee is 0.003. Thirdly, in order to evaluate the practicability, the experiment of superplastic forming Ti6Al4V using ZrO_2-TiO_2 cylinder ceramic die was carried out. The Ti6Al4V cylinder shows good shape retention and surface quality, and high dimensional accuracy. The ceramic dies seem to be adequate for superplastic forming the high accuracy Ti6Al4V,and the trials have confirmed the potential of the ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic die.

  3. Mechanical problems of superplastic fill-forming bulge solved by one-dimensional tensile and two-dimensional free bulging constitutive equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Because of the strong structural sensitivity of superplasticity, the deformation rule must be affected by stress-state. It is necessary to prove whether one-dimensional tensile constitutive equation can be directly generalized to deal with the two-dimensional mechanical problems or not. In this paper, theoretical results of fill-forming bulge have been derived from both one-dimensional tensile and two-dimensional bulging constitutive equation with variable m value. By comparing theoretical analysis and experimental results made on typical superplastic alloy Zn-wt22%Al, it is shown that one-dimensional tensile constitutive equation cannot be directly generalized to deal with two-dimensional mechanical questions. A method to correct deviation between theoretical and experimental results is also proposed.

  4. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  5. A high-strain-rate superplastic ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B N; Hiraga, K; Morita, K; Sakka, Y

    2001-09-20

    High-strain-rate superplasticity describes the ability of a material to sustain large plastic deformation in tension at high strain rates of the order of 10-2 to 10-1 s-1 and is of great technological interest for the shape-forming of engineering materials. High-strain-rate superplasticity has been observed in aluminium-based and magnesium-based alloys. But for ceramic materials, superplastic deformation has been restricted to low strain rates of the order of 10-5 to 10-4 s-1 for most oxides and nitrides with the presence of intergranular cavities leading to premature failure. Here we show that a composite ceramic material consisting of tetragonal zirconium oxide, magnesium aluminate spinel and alpha-alumina phases exhibits superplasticity at strain rates up to 1 s-1. The composite also exhibits a large tensile elongation, exceeding 1,050 per cent for a strain rate of 0.4 s-1. The tensile flow behaviour and deformed microstructure of the material indicate that superplasticity is due to a combination of limited grain growth in the constitutive phases and the intervention of dislocation-induced plasticity in the zirconium oxide phase. We suggest that the present results hold promise for the application of shape-forming technologies to ceramic materials.

  6. Rheology of Superplastic Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Constitutive equation of rheglogy describing a phenomenological level of superplastic deformation as functional correlation between tensor components of stress and strain rate has been analyzed for the case of superplastic ceramic flow. Rheological properties of material are taken into account by means of scalar rheological coefficients of shear and volume viscosity, which are functions of temperature, effective stress (or strain rate) and density of material.

  7. The development of a high strain rate superplastic Al-Mg-Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashwood, R.J.; Grimes, R.; Harrison, A.W.; Flower, H.M. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2001-07-01

    In order for superplastic forming of aluminium to break out of the niche market low cost alloys are required that exhibit higher strain rate capability that are capable of volume production. This paper describes an investigation into the feasibility of producing such an alloy. A series of Al-4Mg alloys with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% Zr additions was prepared using a cheap particulate casting route, in an attempt to achieve higher levels of Zr supersaturation than are possible with conventional casting. The particulate was processed into a sheet product via hot extrusion followed by cold rolling and the effect of a number of process variables on the SPF performance of the sheet was investigated. It was found that increasing the Zr content, and manipulation of the thermomechanical processing conditions improved the SPF performance. Ductilities in excess of 600% have been achieved at a strain rate of 0.01 s{sup -1}, together with flow stresses less than 15 MPa. (orig.)

  8. Superplasticity of metals: phenomenology based on rheological properties and structural dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, O.M. [Moscow State Steel and Alloys Inst. (Russian Federation). Lab. of Superplastic Mater. Deformation

    1997-12-31

    Fine structure superplasticity (FSSP), high strain rate superplasticity (HSRSP) and phase transformation superplasticity (PTSP) as well as superplastic-like behaviour of some natural and industrial materials evidently belong to the same type of rheological behaviour i.e. non-linear viscoplastic flow. Temperature map has been proposed as a base for rheological analysis of various types of superplastic and superplastic-like flow of metallic materials. A phenomenological model has been developed to describe deformation of polycrystalline materials at elevated temperatures in a wide range of strain rates with respect to structure evolution during deformation. Rheological analysis of FSSP, HSRSP and PTSP materials along with a slurry during rheocasting shows similarities and peculiarities of superplastic and superplastic-like behaviour. The value of apparent viscosity seems to be an informative index for estimation of rheological and physical state of grain boundaries as a viscous phase and of polycrystalline material as a whole. A new process of impulse bulk forming is presented to show unique possibility of joining in one process two stages of a regular superplastic technology, i.e. preparation of ultrafine grain structure followed by HSRSP deformation. (orig.) 37 refs.

  9. Superplasticity in a lean Fe-Mn-Al steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongho; Kang, Seok-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kawasaki, Megumi; Lee, Han-Joo; Ponge, Dirk; Raabe, Dierk; Lee, Young-Kook

    2017-09-29

    Superplastic alloys exhibit extremely high ductility (>300%) without cracks when tensile-strained at temperatures above half of their melting point. Superplasticity, which resembles the flow behavior of honey, is caused by grain boundary sliding in metals. Although several non-ferrous and ferrous superplastic alloys are reported, their practical applications are limited due to high material cost, low strength after forming, high deformation temperature, and complicated fabrication process. Here we introduce a new compositionally lean (Fe-6.6Mn-2.3Al, wt.%) superplastic medium Mn steel that resolves these limitations. The medium Mn steel is characterized by ultrafine grains, low material costs, simple fabrication, i.e., conventional hot and cold rolling, low deformation temperature (ca. 650 °C) and superior ductility above 1300% at 850 °C. We suggest that this ultrafine-grained medium Mn steel may accelerate the commercialization of superplastic ferrous alloys.Research in new alloy compositions and treatments may allow the increased strength of mass-produced, intricately shaped parts. Here authors introduce a superplastic medium manganese steel which has an inexpensive lean chemical composition and which is suited for conventional manufacturing processes.

  10. Micrograin Superplasticity: Characteristics and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farghalli A. Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Micrograin Superplasticity refers to the ability of fine-grained materials (1 µm < d < 10 μm, where d is the grain size to exhibit extensive neck-free elongations during deformation at elevated temperatures. Over the past three decades, good progress has been made in rationalizing this phenomenon. The present paper provides a brief review on this progress in several areas that have been related to: (a the mechanical characteristics of micrograin superplasticity and their origin; (b the effect of impurity content and type on deformation behavior, boundary sliding, and cavitation during superplastic deformation; (c the formation of cavity stringers; (d dislocation activities and role during superplastic flow; and (e the utilization of superplasticity.

  11. Super-plastic forming process of Zr-based bulk metallic glass%Zr基非晶合金超塑性成形工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖广兰; 王俊; 喻强; 朱志靖

    2011-01-01

    采用感应耦合等离子体刻蚀工艺制备了微型硅模具,基于硅模具研究了非晶合金Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5的超塑性微零件成形工艺.采用差示扫描量热仪测定了Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5的过冷液相区间为360~440℃,在过冷液相区间热压成形非晶合金微零件、机械研磨去除零件飞边和采用40%的KOH溶液腐蚀去除硅模具,得到非晶合金微型零件.自主研制了成形设备,仿真分析与实验相结合,解决了成形过程中设备的温度控制问题,比较分析了不同温度下的成形结果,实验与仿真结果符合较好.在410℃条件下成功制备出模数0.03、齿数66和厚度500μm的微型内齿轮,齿形轮廓清晰,X射线衍射仪扫描结果显示该微齿轮为非晶结构,从而验证了采用该工艺制备微型零件的可行性.%Super-plastic micro-forming process of bulk metallic glasses Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 utilizing micro silicon molds was investigated,where the micro silicon molds were fabricated by inductively coupled plasma etching.The super-cooled liquid region,360~440 ℃,was measured by differential scanning calorimeter.Micro components were thermoformed in the super-cooled liquid region.The flash of micro components was removed by mechanical grinding,and the silicon molds were resolved with 40% KOH.Forming equipment was developed on the basis of the super-plastic process,and the temperature-control was solved by simulation analysis and experiments.Subsequently,the forming results in different temperatures were analyzed,which confirmed the simulation results.Finally,an internal gear with 0.03 module,66 teeth and 500 μm thickness was obtained with good dimensional accuracy at 410 ℃.The gear had a relatively good profile with an amorphous structure proved by X-ray diffraction scanning,which substantiated the feasibility of the process.

  12. Superplasticity and joining of zirconia-based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Chaim, R.; Routbort, J. L.

    1999-12-10

    Steady-state creep and joining of alumina/zirconia composites containing alumina volume fractions of 20, 60, and 85% have been investigated between 1,250 and 1,350 C. Superplasticity of these compounds is controlled by grain-boundary sliding and the creep rate is a function of alumina volume fraction, not grain size. Using the principles of superplasticity, pieces of the composite have been joined by applying the stress required to achieve 5 to 10% strain to form a strong interface at temperatures as low as 1,200 C.

  13. Effect of thermal processing practices on the properties of superplastic Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J.; Lippard, Henry E.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the mechanical properties of superplastically formed structural components fabricated from three aluminum-lithium alloys was evaluated. The starting materials consisted of 8090, 2090, and X2095 (Weldalite(TM) 049), in the form of commercial-grade superplastic sheet. The experimental test matrix was designed to assess the impact on mechanical properties of eliminating solution heat treatment and/or cold water quenching from post-forming thermal processing. The extensive hardness and tensile property data compiled are presented as a function of aging temperature, superplastic strain and temper/quench rate for each alloy. The tensile properties of the materials following superplastic forming in two T5-type tempers are compared with the baseline T6 temper. The implications for simplifying thermal processing without degradation in properties are discussed on the basis of the results.

  14. Superplastic Micro-forming Mechanism and Size Effects of Micro-array Made of Nanocrystalline Material%纳米材料微阵列超塑微成形机理与尺度效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国峰; 李优; 刘奇; 赵相禹

    2015-01-01

    微成形技术是未来批量制造高精密微小零件的关键技术,但是,微小尺度下材料的塑性变形行为不仅表现出明显的尺度效应,而且零件尺度已经接近常规材料的晶粒尺寸,每个晶粒的形状、取向、变形特征对整体变形产生复杂的影响,难以保证微成形的工艺稳定性。本项目采用纳米材料进行微成形,制造微阵列,零件内部包含大量的晶粒,可以排除晶粒复杂性的影响,而且纳米材料具有超塑性,在超塑状态下,变形抗力和摩擦力都明显降低,从而显著降低微成形工艺对模具性能的苛刻要求,提高工艺稳定性和成形精度。目前,纳米材料超塑性微成形技术方面的研究极少,变形时纳米材料的力学行为、变形机理、尺度效应、位错演化、力学模型等关键问题还有待研究。采用电沉积技术制备晶粒尺寸可控的纳米材料,将工艺实验研究、性能测试、组织分析、力学性能表征、数值模拟相结合,深入探究了纳米材料微阵列超塑性微成形机理和成形规律,以促进该技术的广泛应用。%ABSTRACT:Micro-forming is a key technique for fabricating high-precision micro-part in large volume. However, plastic deformation at small scale has obvious size effects. The shape, orientation and deformation behavior of each grain have complicated influence on the micro-forming, since the scale of the parts approaches to the size of grain in common materi-als. Consequently, it is very hard to ensure the processing stability of micro-forming. In the current project, nanocrystalline materials were used to form micro-array. The influence of grain complexity could be eliminated since there were a lot of grains in the micro-part. In addition, nanocrystalline materials usually have superplasticity. Under this condition, the de-formation force and friction decrease obviously, which decreases the requirement on the mechanical

  15. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  16. Inconel718高温合金多层夹芯板结构的LBW/SPF技术%Multi-sheet Sandwich Structure of Inconel718 Superalloy Manufactured by LBW/SPF Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董旭刚; 曲凤盛; 张凯锋

    2013-01-01

    Multi-sheet sandwich structure of Inconel718 superalloy will be widely used for low-cost, lightweight rocket engine manufacturing due to its lightweight, high strength and stiffness. Multi-sheet sandwich structure of Inconel718 superalloy was manufactured by LBW/SPF (laser beam welding/superplastic forming) technology. Test results showed; Superplasticity of Inconel718 superalloy was investigated. Under T = 950℃ and initial strain rate with ε = 1. 6 × 10-4 /s,the elongation of Inconel718 superalloy was 483. 6%. The multi-sheet sandwich structure manufactured by laser LBW/SPF technology had good shape, uniform wall thickness distribution. The laser penetration welding parameters of face plate and core plate were as follows:Power 1050W,welding speed 1000mm/min,defocusing amount -0. 80mm,shield gas flow 0. 6L/min. The laser penetration welding parameters between the core plates were as follows: Power 900W, welding speed l000mm/min, defocusing amount - 1. 00mm, shield gas flow 0. 6L/min. The parameters for superplastic forming were as follows; temperature Tf = 965℃,pressure Pf =4. 2MPa,time tf = 130min. Superplastic forming process was favorable to improving the microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welding joints. Accordingly, LBW/SPF technology is an appropriate forming technology for multi-sheet sandwich structure of Inconel718 superalloy.%Inconel718高温合金多层夹心板结构具有高强度、高刚度、轻量化结构的特点,已用于低成本、轻质火箭发动机的制造.采用LBW/SPF技术制造了Inconel718合金多层夹芯结构件,并对其超塑成形前后的微观组织进行了分析.试验结果表明:超细晶Inconel718合金板材具有优良的超塑性能,在T=950℃,初始应变速率为1.6×10-4/s的条件下,延伸率达到483.6%.LBW/SPF技术制造出的Inconel718高温合金多层夹芯构件具有外观形状良好、壁厚分布均匀等特点.面板与芯板激光焊接参数为:功率1050W,焊接速度1000mm

  17. Cryogenic mechanical properties of low density superplastically formable Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzasconi, S. L.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The aerospace industry is considering the use of low density, superplastically formable (SPF) materials, such as Al-Li alloys in cryogenic tankage. SPF modifications of alloys 8090, 2090, and 2090+In were tested for strength and Kahn tear toughness. The results were compared to those of similar tests of 2219-T87, an alloy currently used in cryogenic tankage, and 2090-T81, a recently studied Al-Li alloy with exceptional cryogenic properties (1-9). With decreasing temperature, all materials showed an increase in strength, while most materials showed an increase in elongation and decrease in Kahn toughness. The indium addition to 2090 increased alloy strength, but did not improve the strength-toughness combination. The fracture mode was predominantly intergranular along small, recrystallized grains, with some transgranular fracture, some ductile rupture, and some delamination on large, unrecrystallized grains.

  18. Sputter deposition of pure titanium onto complete denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming. Chososei keiseishita Ti-6Al-4V gishi zenbusho eno sputter jochaku ni yoru jun Ti no hifuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Sonoda, T. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    In order to improve the biocompatibility of TiNi shape memory alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy of functional Ti base alloys which are paid attention as the dental materials or implant materials, the sputter deposition coating using bio-inactive Ti metal was studied. DC source was superior to RF source in characteristics of sputtered film and the rate of deposition. The wiping with gauze impregnated by acetone followed by the ultrasonic cleaning was more effective for the precleaning of the substrate. The sputtered Ti film thickness was nearly proportional to electric power and showed the orientation which depended highly on the heating temperature of the substrate. The complete surface of denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming was well coated with pure Ti and the prospect of biocompatibility of this Ti alloy could be obtained. But the film deposited by the heating condition showed the different characteristics of film compared with that formed under the cooling condition, and it is necessary that the effect of this on the biocompatibility must be investigated. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Effect of grain boundary microstructure on superplastic deformation of Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, S.; Yoshimura, T.; Tsurekawa, S.; Watanabe, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Machine Intelligence and Syst. Eng.

    1999-07-01

    It is common knowledge that grain boundary sliding (GBS) is the most important deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation. In this investigation, Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloys having two distinct microstructures were produced to examine the effect of grain boundary (GB) microstructure on superplastic deformation. The effective GB microstructure to develop the superplastic deformation is discussed. Specimens with homogeneous and {l_brace}011{r_brace} textured grains, including high frequency of low-angle GBs showed superplastic behavior. The texture was weakened and most of low-angle GBs were changed into random GBs during deformation. Mean grain size increased slightly with deformation. On the other hand, specimens with heterogeneous and randomly oriented grains, with a high frequency of random GBs resulted in nonsuperplastic behavior. This microstructure was essentially unchanged by deformation. Extensive cavitation at GB triple junctions was also observed after superplastic deformation. In particular, cavities were most likely to form at the triple junctions composed of two or more random GBs. We will discuss the development of superplasticity through the optimization of GB microstructures in polycrystalline materials. (orig.)

  20. Dynamic reverse phase transformation induced high-strain-rate superplasticity in low carbon low alloy steels with commercial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenquan; Huang, Chongxiang; Wang, Chang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-08-23

    Superplastic materials are capable of exhibiting large tensile elongation at elevated temperature, which is of great industrial significance because it forms the basis of a fabrication method to produce complex shapes. Superplasticity with elongation larger than 500% has been widely realized in many metals and alloys, but seldomly been succeeded in low carbon low alloy steel, even though it is commercially applied in the largest quantity. Here we report ultrahigh superplastic elongation of 900-1200% in the FeMnAl low carbon steels at high strain rate of 10(-2)-10(-3) s(-1). Such high-strain-rate superplasticity was attributed to dynamic austenite reverse phase transformation from a heavily cold rolled ferrite to fine-grained ferrite/austenite duplex microstructure and subsequent limited dynamic grain coarsening, under which a large fraction of high angle boundaries can be resulted for superplastic deformation. It is believed that this finding of the low carbon low alloy steel with ultrahigh superplasticity and relative low cost would remarkably promote the application of superplastic forming technique in automobile, aeronautical, astronautical and other fields.

  1. Method of producing superplastic alloys and superplastic alloys produced by the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Lillianne P. (Inventor); Starke, Jr., Edgar A. (Inventor); Crooks, Roy (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing new superplastic alloys by inducing in an alloy the formation of precipitates having a sufficient size and homogeneous distribution that a sufficiently refined grain structure to produce superplasticity is obtained after subsequent PSN processing. An age-hardenable alloy having at least one dispersoid phase is selected for processing. The alloy is solution heat-treated and cooled to form a supersaturated solid solution. The alloy is plastically deformed sufficiently to form a high-energy defect structure useful for the subsequent heterogeneous nucleation of precipitates. The alloy is then aged, preferably by a multi-stage low and high temperature process, and precipitates are formed at the defect sites. The alloy then is subjected to a PSN process comprising plastically deforming the alloy to provide sufficient strain energy in the alloy to ensure recrystallization, and statically recrystallizing the alloy. A grain structure exhibiting new, fine, equiaxed and uniform grains is produced in the alloy. An exemplary 6xxx alloy of the type capable of being produced by the present invention, and which is useful for aerospace, automotive and other applications, is disclosed and claimed. The process is also suitable for processing any age-hardenable aluminum or other alloy.

  2. Superplasticity in Aeroengine Titanium Alloy VT-9 and its Modified Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dutta

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The alloy (Ti-6.5AL-3.3 Mo-1.6Zr-O.3Si is a Soviet composition designated VT-9. Excellent superplastic characteristics found by us in this alloy prompted us to explore the possibility of use of Si-free VT-9 in sheet form for superplastic forming. An optimum thermomechanical processing produced a microstructure that resulted in an elongation of 1700 per cent at a fairly high deformation rate (2 X 10-3 set-1. Thus, the same aeroengine alloy (VT-9 can be used for superplastically formed airframe parts in the Si-free condition. The present study also shows that for making the forming process commercially viable, deformation temperature could be lowered by temporarily alloying with hydrogen in a particular concentration range (0.1 to 0.2 wt per cent.

  3. Carburizing of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) Under Compression Superplastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Nor Wahida; Jauhari, Iswadi

    2012-12-01

    A new surface carburizing technique which combines superplastic deformation with superplastic carburizing (SPC) is introduced. SPC was conducted on duplex stainless steel under compression mode at a fixed 0.5 height reduction strain rates ranging from 6.25 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-3 s-1 and temperature ranging from 1173 K to 1248 K (900 °C to 975 °C). The results are compared with those from conventional and non-superplastic carburizing. The results show that thick hard carburized layers are formed at a much faster rate compared with the other two processes. A more gradual hardness transition from the surface to the substrate is also obtained. The highest carburized layer thickness and surface hardness are attained under SPC process at 1248 K (975 °C) and 6.25 × 10-5 s-1 with a value of (218.3 ± 0.5) μm and (1581.0 ± 5.0) HV respectively. Other than that, SPC also has the highest scratch resistance.

  4. How to Improve the SPF Forecasts?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bratu (Simionescu) Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    .... This implies the improvement of predictions accuracy. In this study, many types of forecasts of the annual rate of change for the HICP for EU were developed, their accuracy was evaluated and compared with the accuracy of SPF predictions...

  5. Microstructure and Properties of Superplastic Welding between 4OCr and CrWMn Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Superplastic welding of tool steel and structural steel was investigated. The welding between 40Cr and CrWMn steels was carried out under the conditions of temperature 750~780°C, strain rate 2×10-4 s-1, compressive stress 50~90 MPa for 3~5 min. The joints show similar strength to that of 40Cr steel and the good metallurgical joining is formed. The structural change occurring during superplastic welding was analyzed by metallography and distribution of carbon content in the vicinity of the welding joint was also determined. The mechanism of superplastic welding for steels is proposed to be the disappearance of original bond interfaces caused by atomic diffusion and the grain sliding.

  6. Effect of Rare Earth on Superplasticity of Zn-5Al Eutectic Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志强; 叶以富; 李世春; 王焕荣; 滕新营

    2002-01-01

    The superplastic deformation curves of Zn-5Al eutectic alloy containing small amount of rare earth were measured, and the influence of rare earth on structure and superplasticity characteristics of the alloy was examined with optical microscope, XDF and TEM. The results show that the elongation of Zn-5Al eutectic alloy can be increased if less than 0.2 %(mass fraction) misch-metal was added. Rare earth which exists in the form of compounds Al2CeZn2 and CeZn3 can refrain the dissolution and diffusion of Zn to Al and postpone the saturation of the diffusion-dissolution zone(DDZ) above 350 ℃, and in such a way boost up α/β interface sliding which benefits the superplasticity.

  7. Numerical simulation and experimental study on cavity growth in uniaxial tension of superplastic magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彦东; 张凯锋; 郑海荣; 蒋大鸣

    2003-01-01

    The cavity growth was studied in uniaxial tension of superplastic magnesium alloy. An exponentially increasing cavity growth model was introduced into the numerical simulation effectively. A three-dimensional rigid visco-plastic finite element method (FEM) program was developed to predict the variation of radius and volume fraction of cavity. Experimental radius and volume fraction of cavity were determined based on the optical microscope observation and analyses. The values obtained by numerical simulation are perfectly in agreement with experimental results. The results are potentially helpful to designing the optimal processing parameters for superplastic forming of materials and to enhance their subsequent mechanical properties.

  8. The Neighbor Switching Mechanism of Superplastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David John

    At one time the notion that crystal plasticity resulted from the simultaneous motion of lattice planes over one another was entertained. This idea was displaced by the concept that relative atomic motions occur sequentially when dislocations move through the crystal. Similarly, McLean suggested that grains switch neighbors sequentially in a polycrystalline material undergoing superplastic flow. Morral and Ashby observed that the neighbor switching reactions in a froth occurred at irregular cells, and that these irregularities were associated with dislocations in the cellular array. They introduced cellular dislocation glide as a model for superplastic flow, and suggested that if the concentration of these defects required to make the froth flow increased with the flow stress, then the froth would have a non-Newtonian viscosity, like many superplastic materials. Cahn and Padawer pointed out that cellular dislocation climb was used as a model for grain growth by Hillert; this process results in the elimination of cells from the froth. Sato, Kuribayashi and Horiuchi used cellular dislocation climb to model both grain motion and the deformation-enhanced grain growth which can accompany superplastic flow. Here, the neighbor switching mechanism of superplastic deformation is developed as a topic in dislocation theory. The compatibility theory of dislocations is developed at an introductory level with exterior calculus. "Compatibility" of a cellular array corresponds to statements, a la Rivier, about the distribution of edges amongst the cells. The theory of dislocation motion, or crystal plasticity, is also developed with exterior calculus. Morral and Ashby's constitutive relationship for superplastic flow is analyzed and two models for deformation-enhanced grain growth are developed. The constitutive relationship and grain growth kinetics for superplastic flow are illustrated by modelling the behavior exhibited by single phase (Sn-1% Bi) and quasi -single phase (7475 Al

  9. Superplastic Deformation of TC6 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Ling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The superplastic tensile tests of TC6 alloy were conducted in the temperature range of 800-900℃ by using the maximum m value superplasticity deformation (Max m SPD method and the constant strain rate deformation method at the strain rate range of 0.0001-0.1 s-1. The stress-strain curve of the tensile tests was obtained and the microstructure near the fracture were analyzed by metallographic microscope. The result shows that the superplasticity of TC6 alloy is excellent, and the elongation increases first and then decreases with the increase of strain rate or temperature. When the temperature is 850℃ and strain rate is 0.001 s-1 at constant stain rate tensile tests, the elongation reaches up to 993%. However, the elongation using Max m SPD method at 850℃ is 1353%. It is shown that the material can achieve better superplasticity by using Max m SPD tensile compared to constant stain rate tensile under the same temperature. The superplastic deformation of TC6 alloy can enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior significantly, the dynamic recrystallization behavior is promoted when strain rate and temperature are increased.

  10. Superplasticity and cavitation in an aluminum-magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donghyun

    2000-10-01

    Fundamental issues related to the forming performance of superplastic metals include the mechanisms of flow and cavitation occurring during the forming process. Cavitation beyond a critical amount is damaging to the mechanical behavior of fabricated parts. Therefore, the role of process parameters which influence cavitation must be precisely documented and understood. In this study, (1) the mechanism of deformation, (2) cavity formation and growth, and (3) the effect of forming parameters on cavitation are systematically investigated in a fine grain Al-4.7%Mg-0.8%Mn-0.4%Cu alloy. The mechanical flow response of the alloy is characterized by a new type of step strain-rate test which preserves the initial microstructure of the alloy. Under isostructural condition, sigmoidal log s vs. log 3˙ relationship is determined and then analyzed by using a grain-mantle based quantitative model1 for superplastic flow. The activation energies in both grain-mantle creep and core creep are analyzed, and the overall controlling mechanism is found to be dislocation glide and climb. Grain-mantle creep rate in the low strain-rate region is found to be enhanced many times due to a high concentration of vacancies near grain boundaries. Cavitation caused by superplastic straining under uniaxial tension is evaluated by the SEM (for frame associated with superplastic deformation. In the model, faster cavity growth is predicted for lower m and for smaller cavity density when cavity stress fields are not overlapping. Observed cavitation quantitatively agrees with the present model, but diffusional growth is found to be too slow, which cannot explain the observed nanoscale void growth behavior. Another parameter affecting the degree of cavitation is the imposed stress-state. Cavity growth rate as well as cavity nucleation rate increase with the level of mean hydrostatic tension. For a fixed cavitation volume fraction, V, the principal surface strains, 31 and 32 , for the various stress

  11. Superplastic Formed Aluminum-Lithium Aircraft Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    sulfide (Ryton-PPS, Nylon 11, polyester, and polyetherimide ( Ultem ). These thermoplastics are used as a powder for flame-spraying. Preliminary tests...the necessary thermal requirements to support the program and were eliminated as possible adhesives. A polyetherimide powder ( Ultem or related to it

  12. Surface properties and activation energy of superplastically carburized duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamad, Nor Wahida, E-mail: wahida_um@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jauhari, Iswadi, E-mail: iswadi@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Azis, Sharidah Azuar Abdul, E-mail: sharidah_azuar@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nur Hafizah Abd, E-mail: phiza_aziz@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-08-01

    A new surface carburizing technique which combines superplastic phenomenon and carburizing process called superplastic carburizing (SPC) was introduced and compared with conventional carburizing (CC) process. Thermomechanically treated duplex stainless steel (DSS) with a fine grain microstructure that exhibits superplasticity was used as the superplastic material. SPC was carried out at temperatures of 1198-1248 K and a compression rate of 1 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} for various durations. Metallographic studies revealed that a carbon layer with a uniform, dense and smooth morphology formed on all carburized specimens. The case depth of the carbon layer was between 50.8 and 159.1 {mu}m. A remarkable increase in surface hardness was observed in the range 389.9-1129.0 HV. Activation energy for SPC was determined as 183.4 kJ mol{sup -1}, which is lower compare to CC process. The results indicate that SPC accelerates the diffusion of carbon atoms into the surface of DSS, thus increasing the thickness of the carburized layer and the surface hardness, at lower activation energy.

  13. The impact of natural sunlight exposure on the UVB-sun protection factor (UVB-SPF) and UVA protection factor (UVA-PF) of a UVA/UVB SPF 50 sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H; Colón, Luz E; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-02-01

    To compare the functional stability of Cetaphil UVA/UVB Defense SPF 50 as measured by its ultraviolet B sun protection factor (UVB-SPF) and ultraviolet A protection factor (UVA-PF) values following exposure to natural sunlight versus the UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values of unexposed product. These two randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded, single-center trials were conducted according to the methods outlined in the 2007 Proposed Amendment to the Final Monograph, “Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use.” Sunscreen samples were applied to glass plates and exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the form of natural sunlight in four minimal erythemal doses (MED) ranging from 2–6 MED (42–36 mJ/cm2). Three test sites were identified on the back of each study subject. Exposed sunscreen (one of four doses), unexposed sunscreen, and a UVB-SPF 15 control sunscreen were applied to the three test sites in a randomized fashion, followed by UV irradiation of incremental doses. Erythema and pigment darkening responses were assessed immediately following UV exposure and again 16–24 hours (erythema) or three to 24 hours (pigment darkening) after exposure. UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values were calculated for the exposed and unexposed samples. The calculated UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values for all test samples (exposed and unexposed) were >50 and >9, respectively, which were greater than the stated UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values on the product label. No differences were observed between the exposed and unexposed samples in UVB-SPF or UVA-PF. The UVA and UVB protection using standard evaluation techniques of Cetaphil UVA/UVB Defense SPF 50 remains stable despite exposure of the sunscreen to natural sunlight containing UVB ranging from 2–16 MED (41–336 mJ/cm2) and coexistent UVA.

  14. CONSTITUTE EQUATIONS OF 40Cr STEEL UNDER SUPERPLASTIC COMPRESSIVE DEFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.K. Zhang; Y.L. Yang; S.Z. Liu; C.X. Han; D. Xu

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of 40Cr steel sample and its surface is ultra-fined through saltbath cyclic quenching and high frequency hardening, then the superplasticity is studied under isothermal superplastic compressive deformation condition. The experimental results indicate that the stress-strain curves are shown to take place obvious superplastic flow characteristic at the temperature of 730-770℃ and at the initial strain rate of (1.7-5.0)× 10-4s-1. Its strain rate sensitivity is 0.30-0.38, the steady superplastic flow stress is 60-70MPa, the superplastic flow activation energy is 198-217kJ/mol,and it is close to α-Fe grain boundary self-diffusion activation energy. The superplastic compressive constitute equations of this steel are correspondingly set up. Due to the finer microstructure of high frequency hardening, it appears bigger strain rate sensitivity value, smaller the steady superplastic flow stress and the superplastic flow activation energy, so it has better superplastic deformation capability.

  15. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Factors affecting SPF in vitro measurement and correlation with in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovska Cvetkovska, A; Manfredini, S; Ziosi, P; Molesini, S; Dissette, V; Magri, I; Scapoli, C; Carrieri, A; Durini, E; Vertuani, S

    2017-06-01

    The in vitro evaluation of SPF is still a problem due to the lack of repeatability and correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data, and many authors are currently working to develop an internationally harmonized method. Very recently, the use of several "adjuvant" ingredients such as boosters, antioxidants, immunomodulators, solvents and film-forming ingredients have further complicated the pattern for product developers that should frequently run in vivo test. The aim of this study was to understand whether a simple and cheap in vitro method could be optimized in order to provide both statistically repeatable and predictive SPF measurement. In vitro SPF assessments were carried out on 75 commercial products. The SPF was measured according to two laboratory methods (A and B), using different substrates (PMMA and surgical tape Transpore™), quantity of product and spectrophotometers. In order to evaluate whether a standard technique of spreading could lead to a statistically reliable result, we applied different spreading pressure (100 g and 200 g). Furthermore, we investigate whether other parameters characterizing the product (SPF category, filter and texture) might represent statically significant variables affecting the measures. We then compared the results obtained from in vitro SPF measure of 11 products to in vivo SPF, in order to assess the predictability of in vitro methods. Several problems were encountered in confirming the weakness of the in vitro procedures. Pressure, SPF category, filter and texture did not affect significantly the results. Overall best results were obtained with the B2 method that in terms of repeatability and predictivity provided statistically better results. Method A with Transpore™ tape showed better in vitro-in vivo correlation than Method B with PMMA plates. In our investigation, we demonstrated that it is possible for a single laboratory to optimize internal methods and protocols to achieve repeatable and predictive

  17. Numerical Simulation and Experiment on Material Flow Regulation During Superplastic Forming Process of Box-Shaped Part%盒形件超塑成形过程中材料流动规律的数值模拟与实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段奇锐; 原晓明

    2012-01-01

    利用有限元软件MSC.Marc2010对钛合金盒形件超塑成形过程进行了有限元模拟,控制目标应变速率,得到优化的压力-时间曲线,并据此进行实验研究,沿实验曲线分别加裁至6个不同的标定压力值(分别为0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,2.3和2.5 MPa)得到成形过程中的零件.测量6个实验零件的外形轮廓和厚度,并分剐与相对应的模拟结果进行对比,验证实验与模拟的一致性,并分析整个成形过程中的材料流动规律,得出在自由胀形、底部贴模、充填圆角3阶段盒形件不同区域的应力、应变和变薄率分布,为复杂零件的起塑成形工艺的制定奠定了一定的理论基础.%The superplastic forming process of the box-shaped part is simulated by using finite element software MSC. Marc2010 to optimize the curve of pressure-time under the control of the target strain rate. The fitted curve used in the experiment is based on the simulated pressure-time (p-t) curve. The six parts are obtained along the same optimal experiment p-t curve at six selected pressure respectively (0- 5, 1.0, 1-5, 2. 0, 2. 3 and 2. 5 MPa). By measuring the outline and thickness of the six parts, the experimental result is compared with the numerical simulation result to verify if they agree with each other, and the material flow regulation can be analyzed. The distribution results of stress, strain and reduction rate of the three periods of free bulging, closing up to the cavity and corner fiuing are obtained, which lays the theoretical foundation for the superplastic forming process design of complex parts.

  18. Superplastic deformation of commercial 00Cr22Ni5Mo3N0.17 duplex stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The superplastic behavior of a commercial duplex stainless steel has been studied by means of isothermal hot tensile testat temperatures of 850-1050℃ for the initial strain rates ranging from 3×l0-4 s-1 to 5X10-2 s-1. At 960℃, the best superplastic de-formation that caused the maximum elongation greater than 840% was obtained for an initial strain rate of 1.2×10-3 s-1. At 850℃, thebest elongation 500% was achieved for an initial strain rate of 2.5×10-3 s-1. During the deformation in higher temperature region,coarse γ grains formed during the prior treatments were broken into spherical particles, resulting in a homogeneous dispersion of γparticles within the δ-ferrite matrix. However, at lower temperatures between 800 and 950℃, the σ phase was formed through theeutectoid decomposition of δ→γ+σ, resulting finally in the stable equiaxed micro-duplex structures with δ/γ and γ/σ, respectively.The precipitation of the σ phase played an important role in improving the superplasticity at 850℃. The strain-rate sensitivity coeffi-cient, m-values, were also determined by the strain rate change tests. The microstructure studies show that the superplastic processoccurs mainly by the local work hardening and the subsequent dynamic recrystallization and a grain boundary sliding and grain switching mechanism.

  19. Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming: Proceedings of an International Conference on Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming Held in Blaine, Washington on 1-4 August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    315 Chen Bingkin and Hai Jintao Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Pressure Thermoforming of Hemispheres of... packages , has conciuded that anelasticity may have a strong influence on joint life at different cycle frequencies (11]. Independent work (121 has shown...34Solder Modelling for SMT" (Paper Presented at C4MT-IEEE VLSI Packaging Workshop, Paris, 17-18 November 1986). 37 THE ROLE OF GRAIN BOUNDARY

  20. Superplastic flow lubricates carbonate faults during earthquake slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Nicola; Holdsworth, Robert; Viti, Cecilia; Collettini, Cristiano; Faoro, Igor; Bullock, Rachael

    2014-05-01

    Tectonic earthquakes are hosted in the shallower portion of crustal fault zones, where fracturing and cataclasis are thought to be the dominant processes during frictional sliding. Aseismic shear in lower crust and lithospheric mantle shear zones is accomplished by crystal plasticity, including superplastic flow acting at low strain rates on ultrafine-grained rocks. Superplasticity has also been observed at high strain rates for a range of nano-phase alloys and ceramics, and could potentially occur in fine-grained geological materials, if deformed at high strain rates and temperatures. We performed a set of displacement-controlled experiments to explore whether superplastic flow can effectively weaken faults, and facilitate earthquake propagation. The experiments were performed on fine-grained synthetic gouges (63 lubrication mechanisms. When T ≥ 800 °C are attained, micro-textures diagnostic of diffusion-dominated grain boundary sliding are widespread within the slip zone, and suggest bulk superplastic flow. Flow stresses predicted by superplasticity constitutive laws at the slip zone temperatures, grain sizes and strain rates attained during the experiments match those we measured in the laboratory (μ = 0.16). We propose therefore that the activation of diffusion creep at high temperatures (T ≥ 800 °C) leads to slip zone-localised superplastic flow and that this causes the dynamic weakening of carbonate faults at seismic slip rates. Note, however, that both cataclasis and dislocation creep operating at lower temperatures, during the earlier stages of slip, are critical, precursory processes needed to produce the nanoscale grain sizes required to activate grainsize sensitive mechanisms during superplastic flow. Finally, the re-strengthening observed during the decelerating phase of deformation can be explained by the falling temperature "switching off" slip zone-localized superplasticity, leading to a return to frictional sliding. These results indicate

  1. Enhanced foaming of cellular metals by internal stress superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazono, K.; Sato, E.; Kuribayashi, K. [The Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Effects of internal stress superplasticity on solid-state foaming process were examined using Al-8.69Si alloy and pure zinc compacts produced by the powder metallurgical (P/M) route. Isothermal and thermal cycling compression creep behaviors revealed that composite CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion)-mismatch superplasticity was induced in P/M Al-Si alloy, however, no difference was shown in the solid-state foaming. On the other hand, the foaming rate of P/M zinc was enhanced by anisotropic CTE-mismatch superplasticity. The cell morphology of the foamed zinc has anisotropy due to the original powder compact produced by hot-extrusion. (orig.)

  2. Research on the diffusion bonding of superplastic magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彦东; 张凯锋; 蒋大鸣; 郑海荣; 王刚

    2002-01-01

    The elevated temperature tensile experiments have been carried out on the magnesium alloy and results indicate that the magnesium alloy has excellent superplastic property. Gleebe-1500 testing machine was used in the diffusion bonding experiment on the superplastic magnesium alloy. Then, the shear strength of the joints under different conditions is obtained through shear testing and the optimum processing parameters for the diffusion bonding are achieved. By metallurgical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), it is revealed that the micromechanism of diffusion bonding is the slide of grain boundaries caused by the growth of grains and atom diffusion of the superplastic magnesium alloy.

  3. Free Bulging at Constant Pressure of Superplastic Sheet Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanzo Bellini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to establish, by means of analytical modelling, a practical definition of the superplastic behaviour by using the results of the free bulging of sheet metal instead of the results of the traditional tensile test. In particular this paper analyses the superplastic flow of PbSn60 alloy and it focuses the attention on the value of H parameter corresponding to the maximum value of dt/dH, never considered in the literature. This parameter can represent a practical tool in industrial applications to establish the superplastic behaviour of a sheet metal.

  4. New method for making super-plastic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ It was a long-cherished dream for materials scientists to find a nearly ideal metallic alloy with high strength and super-plasticity concurrently as a super-material both extremely strong and exceptionally hard for human use.

  5. Quantitative determination of homogeneous strain value in superplastic tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After load instability, a passage of homogeneous strain ε can be still continued in superplastic tensile deformation. But untill now, no one has given the precise value of ε corresponding to actual materials, neither in experimental measurements nor in theoretical calculations. Using the elaborate experimental measuring methods of m value and its function expressions, the note first gives the method to determine homogeneous ε, and the homogeneous ε value of typical superplastic alloy Zn-5% Al under 18℃ and 340℃ respectively.

  6. SPF Delegation Visits China Seeking Cooperation and Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing; Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    <正>Jean-Louis Callens,Secretary General of Federation du Nord of Secours Populaire Francais(SPF),led an eight-member delegation composed of the mayors of Lille,Gravelines and Douchy-les-Mines in the Departement

  7. Ultrafine-grained magnesium–lithium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion: Low-temperature superplasticity and potential for hydroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunoshita, Hirotaka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Edalati, Kaveh, E-mail: kaveh.edalati@zaiko6.zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Furui, Mitsuaki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Horita, Zenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-07-29

    A Mg–Li alloy with 8 wt% Li was processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) through the process of high-pressure torsion (HPT) to achieve ultrafine grains with an average grain size of ~500 nm. Tensile testing with an initial strain rate of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} showed that the alloy exhibited superplasticity at a temperature of 323 K or higher. Tensile testing in boiling water confirmed that the specimens were elongated to 350–480% at 373 K under the initial strain rates of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} to {sup 1}0{sup −2} s{sup −1} with a strain rate sensitivity of ~0.3. The current study suggests that not only superplastic forming but also superplastic hydroforming should be feasible after the grain refinement using the HPT method.

  8. Deformation of superplastic alloys at relatively low strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grivas, D.

    1978-02-01

    The superplastic and sub-superplastic creep properties of Pb-Sn eutectic and Al-Zn eutectoid alloys were studied. Various thermomechanical treatments we tested to check the possibilities of whether the subsuperplastic deformation mechanism is affected by these treatments. All thermomechanical histories were found to reveal the same stress exponent, which is believed to be indicative of the predominant mechanism. The mechanical data in the low stress region lead us to suggest that dislocation glide is the predominant mechanism in this region. At higher stresses extensive grain boundary sliding takes place and the dislocation movement is directed to relieve the stress concentration developed by the grain movement.

  9. Scaling up of High-Pressure Sliding (HPS) for Grain Refinement and Superplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Yoichi; Masuda, Takahiro; Fujimitsu, Kazushige; Kajita, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyohei; Yumoto, Manabu; Otagiri, Yoshiharu; Horita, Zenji

    2016-09-01

    The process of high-pressure sliding (HPS) is a method of severe plastic deformation developed recently for grain refinement of metallic materials under high pressure. The sample for HPS is used with a form of sheet or rod. In this study, an HPS facility with capacities of 500 tonnes for vertical pressing and of 500 and 300 tonnes for horizontal forward and backward pressings, respectively, was newly built and applied for grain refinement of a Mg alloy as AZ61, Al alloys such as Al-Mg-Sc, A2024 and A7075 alloys, a Ti alloy as ASTM-F1295, and a Ni-based superalloy as Inconel 718. Sheet samples with dimensions of 10 to 30 mm width, 100 mm length, and 1 mm thickness were processed at room temperature and ultrafine grains with sizes of ~200 to 300 nm were successfully produced in the alloys. Tensile testing at elevated temperatures confirmed the advent of superplasticity with total elongations of more than 400 pct in all the alloys. It is demonstrated that the HPS can make all the alloys superplastic through processing at room temperature with a form of rectangular sheets.

  10. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on the microstructure and superplasticity of an Al-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, H. G.; Lyons, J. S.

    2002-08-01

    This research investigates the use of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) processing to produce a superplastic form of the aluminum alloy 2098. The starting material was a hot-rolled and precipitation-hardened plate with elongated grains of width 67-92 µm, and a composition in weight percent of 2.2% Li, 1.3% Cu, 0.73% Mg, 0.05% Zr, balance Al. Microstructural evolution was investigated with optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microhardness measurements after each step of a multipass ECAE process. ECAE produced a submicron grain structure with an average size of about 0.5 µm. The sub-grain microstructure size was a function of the magnitude of the input strain and the extrusion temperature. Misorientation angles of the developed submicron structure increase with increasing number of passes at warm working temperatures. Superplastic behavior of the ECAE-processed alloy was achieved. However, the low zirconium content of the 2098 alloy resulted in grain growth of the refined structure at the superplastic processing temperatures, placing a lower limit on the deformation rates that can be used.

  11. Modeling microstructural evolution and the mechanical response of superplastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Cadwell, K.L.; Preuss, C.S.

    1993-01-11

    A model has been developed that accounts for grain growth during, superplastic flow and its subsequent influence on stress-strain-strain rate behavior. These studies are experimentally based and have involved two different types of superplastic materials -- a quasi-single phase metal (Coronze 638) and a microduplex metal (ultrahigh-carbon steel - UHCS). In both materials the kinetics of strain-enhanced grain growth have been studied as a function of strain, strain rate and temperature. An equation for the rate of grain growth has been developed that incorporates the influence of temperature. The evolution of the grain size distribution during superplastic deformation has also been investigated. Our model integrates grain growth laws derived from these studies with two mechanism based, rate dependent constitutive laws to predict the stress-strainstrain rate behavior of materials during superplastic deformation. The influence of crain size distribution and its evolution with strain and strain rate on the stress-strain-strain rate behavior has been represented through the use of distributed parameters. The model can capture the stress-strain-strain rate behavior over a wide range of strains and strain rates with a single set of parameters. Many subtle features of the mechanical response of these materials can be adequately predicted.

  12. Superplastic Deformation Behavior of Hot-rolled AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet at Elevated Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kaifeng; YIN Deliang; WANG Guofeng; HAN Wenbo

    2006-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out in the temperature range of 250-450 ℃ and the strain rate range of 0.7×10-3-1.4×10-1s-1 to evaluate the superplasticity of AZ31 Mg alloy. The threshold stress which characterizes the difficulty for grain boundary sliding was calculated at various temperatures. The surface relieves of superplastically deformed specimens were observed by using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Results show that, at the temperature of 400 ℃ and strain rate of 0.7×10-3 s-1, the strain rate sensitivity exponent, i e, m value reaches 0.47 and the maximum elongation of 362.5% is achieved. Grain boundary sliding (GBS) is the primary deformation mechanism and characterized by a pronounced improvement in the homogeneity with increasing temperatures. A large number of filaments were formed at the end of deformation and intergranular cavities were produced with the necking and fracture of filaments. Finally, the model for the formation of intergranular cavities was proposed.

  13. Phase boundary sliding model controlled by diffusion-solution zone in superplastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With scanning electron microscope (SEM), the surface morphology of phase boundary sliding (PBS) in superplastic deformation (SPD) of Zn-Al alloy and the diffusion behavior of Zn, Al interfaces in their powers' sintering have been investigated. The results show that Zn-Al eutectoid microstructure can be achieved through their powders' sintering, and the diffusion characteristic between Zn and Al is just a demonstration of Kirkendall effect, in which Zn can dissolve into Al whereas A1 can hardly dissolve into Zn. During sintering, a diffusion-solution zone ?′ has formed and subsequently transformed into a eutectoid microstructure in the cooling process. The superplastic deformation mechanism of Zn-Al eutectic alloy is phase boundary sliding which is controlled by the diffusion-solution zone ?′. If the diffusion-solution zone ?′ is unsaturated, it will have much more crystal defects and the combination between ?′ and phase ? is weak, thus the process of phase boundary sliding becomes easily; on the contrary, if the diffusion-solution zone ?′ becomes thick and saturated, the sliding will be difficult.

  14. Super plastic forming technology applied to aeroengine and space equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, Katsumi

    1992-03-01

    Titanium alloys, especially Ti-6Al-4V, are widely used for the aeroengine and space equipment because of their high strength ratio and excellent resistance to heat and corrosion. But this material is difficult to manufacture by conventional plastic forming technology. It has been reported that Ti-6Al-4V shows extensive ductility (superplasticity), more than 1000 percent under the condition of both low straining rate and high temperature ranges. Superplastic forming technology applying this characteristic is widely known as one of the most cost-effective methods to save material. At the plant, gas argon blowing equipment for the superplastic forming technology has been developed and 'V2500 nose fairing' and 'fuel tank of the H-II rocket second stage reaction control system' have been manufactured. This paper describes the superplastic forming equipment and the two products above.

  15. Superplastic Formed Aluminum Airframe Structures. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    only ten pieces. All of the substructure was combined into one waffled pan (four formers and three intercostals . The final assembly was rivet bonded... articulated by an actua- tor attached to the left hand forward corner (Figure 2). The design is complicated by a cooling air outlet vent located in... intercost - als are of two-piece construction. This is to assure proper fit between the deck and skin. Shear clips are required at each frame and

  16. Superplastic behavior of coarse-grained aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chezan, AR; De Hosson, JTM

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we concentrate on the superplastic behavior and the microstructural evolution of two coarse-grained Al alloys: Al-4.4w/oMg and Al-4.4w/oMg-0.4w/oCu. The values for the strain rate sensitivity index and activation energy suggest that solute drag on dislocation motion is an important phe

  17. Superplastically foaming method to make closed pores inclusive porous ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Akira; Hayashi, Hidetaka, E-mail: kishim-a@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular and Material Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University Okayama (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Porous ceramics incorporates pores to improve several properties including thermal insulation maintaining inherenet ceramic properties such as corrosion resistance and large mechanical strength. Conventional porous ceramics is usually fabricated through an insufficient sintering. Since the sintering accompanies the exclusion of pores, it must be terminated at the early stage to maintain the high porosity, leading to degraded strength and durability. Contrary to this, we have innovated superplastically foaming method to make ceramic foams only in the solid state. In this method, the previously inserted foam agent evaporates after the full densification of matrix at around the sintering temperature. Closed pores expand utilizing the superplastic deformation driven by the evolved gas pressure. The typical features of this superplastically foaming method are listed as follows, 1. The pores are introduced after sintering the solid polycrystal. 2. Only closed pores are introduced, improving the insulation of gas and sound in addition to heat. 3. The pore walls are fully densified expecting a large mechanical strength. 4. Compared with the melt foaming method, this method is practical because the fabrication temperature is far below the melting point and it does not need molds. 5. The size and the location pores can be controlled by the amount and position of the foam agent.

  18. Superplasticity of Ti2448 Alloy with Nanostructured Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J. Xiao; Y.X. Tian; G.W. Mao; S.J. Li; Y.L. Hao; R. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn, abbreviated as Ti2448 from its chemical composition in weight percent, is a multifunctional β type titanium alloy with body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure, and its highly localized plastic deformation behavior contributes significantly to grain refinement during conventional cold processing. In the paper, the nanostructured (NS) alloy with grain size less than 50 nm produced by cold rolling has been used to investigate its superplastic deformation behavior by uniaxial tensile tests at initial strain rates of 1.5×10-2, 1.5×10-3 and 1.6×10-4 s-1 and temperatures of 600, 650 and 700℃. The results show that, in comparison with the coarse-grained alloy with size of 50 μm, the NS alloy has better superplasticity with elongation up to ~275% and ultimate strength of 50-100 Mpa. Strain rate sensitivity (m) of the NS alloy is 0.21, 0.30 and 0.29 for 600, 650 and 700℃, respectively. These results demonstrate that grain refinement is a valid way to enhance the superplasticity of Ti2448 alloy.

  19. Boronization and Carburization of Superplastic Stainless Steel and Titanium-Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Matsushita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bronization and carburization of fine-grain superplastic stainless steel is reviewed, and new experimental results for fine grain Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 are reported. In superplastic duplex stainless steel, the diffusion of carbon and boron is faster than in non-superplastic duplex stainless steel. Further, diffusion is activated by uniaxial compressive stress. Moreover, non-superplastic duplex stainless steel shows typical grain boundary diffusion; however, inner grain diffusion is confirmed in superplastic stainless steel. The presence of Fe and Cr carbides or borides is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which indicates that the diffused carbon and boron react with the Fe and Cr in superplastic stainless steel. The Vickers hardness of the carburized and boronized layers is similar to that achieved with other surface treatments such as electro-deposition. Diffusion of boron into the superplastic Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 alloy was investigated. The hardness of the surface exposed to boron powder can be increased by annealing above the superplastic temperature. However, the Vickers hardness is lower than that of Ti boride.

  20. Influence of superplastic deformation on the anisotropy of 03Kh26N6T steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, M. F. Akhmed; Tsepin, M. A.; Lobach, A. A.

    1991-10-01

    The maximum difference in relative elongation parallel and transverse to the rolling direction at the optimum temperature of superplastic deformation does not completely characterize the anisotropy since it is caused by the increased sensitivity of superplastic deformation to transverse grain dimensions in these directions.

  1. Deformation and reconstruction mechanisms in coarse-grained superplastic Al-Mg alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; Chezan, A. R.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the superplastic response of fine-grained and coarse-grained Al-Mg alloys under uniaxial tension. To identify the main characteristics of superplastic deformation and to determine the optimum deformation parameters, the microstructure and dislocation substructure of the al

  2. Toetsing van een groot isolatiesysteem voor de huisvesting van SPF dieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot R; Helleman PW; Krajnc EI; Kruijt BC; Osterhaus ADME; van Soolingen J; Walvoort HC; Zonneveld AJ; Bosch JA

    1989-01-01

    In dit onderzoek werd de bruikbaarheid van een nieuw ontwikkeld, relatief goedkoop isolatie-systeem voor de huisvesting van SPF dieren vergeleken met de bestaande SPF-kweek die gekarakteriseerd kan worden als een klassiek strikt barriere-systeem. Dit rapport beschrijft een aantal waarnemingen met

  3. Activation Energy for Superplastic Flow Above Critical Temperature of Die Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jiu-ba; ZHANG Ke-ke; CHEN Fu-xiao; YANG Yong-shun

    2006-01-01

    Some commercial cold working die steels GCr15 and CrWMn with ultra-fine grain size were chosen as tested materials to research the activation energy for superplastic flow at different temperatures and strain rates above critical temperature. Based on the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy for superplastic flow is evaluated. The activation energy at constant strain rate is estimated by the logσt vs 1/T relationship. The results show that the activation energy is usually small under the conditions of optimal flow. The characteristics of superplastic deformation of steels above the critical temperature were also analyzed.

  4. Superplasticity of a Ti-24Al-14Nb-3V-0.5Mo Intermetallic Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Superplastic properties and microstructural evolution of a Ti-24Al-14Nb-3V-0.5Mo (at. pct)intermetallic alloy were studied. Optimum superplastic properties were obtained for temperatures in the interval 960°C< T<980°C. The apparent activation energy in the superplastic regime was determined and the deformation mechanism was also discussed. Based on the studies, a curve panel with three sheets sandwich structure was fabricated successfully. The microstructures corresponding to different strain in the part were also studied.

  5. High Temperature Creep and Superplasticity in a Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Spigarelli; M. El Mehtedi; M. Regev; E. Gariboldi; N. Lecis

    2012-01-01

    Creep and superplasticity were investigated by testing a fine-grained extruded Mg–Zn–Zr magnesium alloy under a wide range of applied stress in the temperature range between 100 and 300 ℃. Grain boundary sliding became the dominating mechanism at 200 ℃, leading to a true superplastic behaviour at 300 ℃, where superplasticity was attained even under relatively high strain rates (5×10-3 s-1 ). By contrast, for lower temperatures, the straining process was controlled by dislocation climb. A comprehensive model, taking into account the simultaneous operation of the different mechanisms, was developed to describe the strain rate dependence on applied stress.

  6. Thermomechanical Processing and Superplasticity of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongshi CHEN; J.J. Blandin; M.Suéry; Qudong WANG; Enhou HAN

    2004-01-01

    The effect of extrusion on grain refinement has been studied in the AZ91 cast ingots. It is found that grain size smaller than 10 μm can be obtained by the extrusion processing. Vickers hardness measurements were also carried out to evaluate the effect of these processes on the room temperature mechanical properties. The experimental results of high temperature tensile tests revealed that the stress was inversely proportional to the square of the grain size and that the activation energy for superplastic flow was higher than that for grain boundary diffusion.

  7. SPF measurement and cytotoxicity of sunscreen agents in cosmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.Y. [Cheiljedang, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S.W. [Han Nam University, Tae-Jeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Consumers have recently preferred to purchase extensive UV intercepting products, which are waterproof and free from side effects on skin. During the testing of cytotoxicity (in-vitro) in neutral red (NR) method, cell survival ratio of UV-B interceptors decreased to just above 0.08 w/v%, and it was observed that the UV-A interceptors the ratio also decreased to just above 0.06 w/v%. In addition patch-tests of inorganic UV interceptors resulted in no skin irritation even below 10.0 and 11.25. In absorption curves, UV-B was most suitable for octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and UV-A for butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDM). For this reason, Nylonpoly{sup TM} UVA/UVB the material of OMC and BMDM coated with Nylon and polyethylene, was used as the organic UV interceptor. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was used as inorganic UV interceptors. The appropriate mixture ratio of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} was 6 to 4:6% of ZnO, 4% of TiO{sub 2} and 5% of Nylonpoly{sup TM} UVA/UVB were all combined and added to our sunscreen cream. The SPF value of in-vitro was 38.9. In practical application, each sun protection factor (SPF) duration of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and water-in-silicone (W/S) emulsion containing sunscreen cream of the same content shoed that W/S type of sunscreen cream was 5 times as durable as the other. Therefore, this product is fit for use in swimming, climbing or skiing. This research is to minimize skin trouble caused by UV interceptors and to make one with proper softness, skin safety and UV intercepting efficiency.

  8. Achieving superplastic properties in a ZK10 magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto B. Figueiredo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Equal-channel angular pressing provides an opportunity for refining the grain structure and introducing superplastic properties in magnesium alloys. This report describes the use of this processing technique with a ZK10 (Mg–1.0 wt.% Zn–0.26 wt.% Zr alloy. The grain structure was successfully refined from ∼12.9 to ∼5.2 μm after 4 passes and superplastic elongations were observed when testing at low strain rates at temperatures of 473 and 523 K. An analysis shows that the superplastic behavior is consistent with the conventional theoretical model for superplastic flow and at higher stresses and strain rates there is a transition to control by a viscous glide process.

  9. Effect of current pulses on fracture morphology in superplastic deformation of 2091 Al-Li alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of current pulses on the fracture morphology in the superplastic deformation of 2091 AlLi alloy at two kinds of initial strain rate ((ε)1 = 3.33 × 10 -3 s-1;(ε)2= 3.33 × 10-2 s- 1 ) was investigated. Experimental results show that current pulse turns fracture of superplastic deformation at low strain rate from local interior fracture morphology to typical fracture by growth and interlinkage of cavities, and at high strain rate from rough grain boundary surface to smooth grain boundary surface. It is indicated that the characteristic, that current pulse promotes atomic diffusion, maintains an equiaxial grain microstructure at low strain rate, and accelerates the development of diffusional type of cavity and relaxes stress concentration at triple junction of grain boundaries at high strain rate, and makes the superplastic deformation at two kinds of strain rate show a normal superplastic fracture morphology.

  10. Superplasticity in an Aluminum Alloy 6061/A12O3p Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The superplasticity of an Al2O3p/6061Al composite, fabricated by powder metallurgy techniques,has been investigated. Instead of any special thermomechanical processing or hot rolling, simple hot extrusion has been employed to obtain a fine grained structure before superplastic testing.Superplastic tensile tests were performed at strain rates ranging from 10-2 to 10-4 s-1 and at temperatures from 833 to 893 K. A maximum elongation of 200% was achieved at a temperature of 853 K and an initial strain rate of 1.67×10-3 s-1. The highest value obtained for the strain rate sensitivity index (m) was 0.32. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to ascertain the possibility of any partial melting in the vicinity of optimum superplastic temperature. These results suggested that no liquid phase existed where maximum elongation was achieved and deformation took place entirely in the solid state.

  11. Forming of a super plastic sheet metal made of MgAZ31 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Al-Matari, Mustafa A. A.; Nazzal, M. A. H.

    2016-08-01

    Metal forming industries are constantly looking for advanced innovation, economical and energy efficient techniques. Superplastic forming has a great potential to be one of those advanced forming methods. It is a near net shape forming process which uses a unique type of materials where elongation exceeds 200% during a controlled forming conditions, e.g. temperature, pressure, and strain rate. Most of superplastic materials are formed by gas technique at elevated temperature. The main objectives of the research work in this paper were: to study the effects of the forming schemes on the forming time and thickness distribution of the formed and device a method to improve the forming part thickness and its uniformity distribution and the forming time. In this paper, a hydraulic and heating system were designed and manufactured to facilitate the experimental investigation. The superplastic magnesium alloy AZ31, Mg AZ31, was formed at 350°C with different strain rates to investigate the effect of the forming pressure profiles on the thickness uniformity of the superplastic formed part. The pressure profiles were generated based on Dutta and Mukherjee analytical approach. Finally, a variable strain rate method is modified to improve the uniformity of the thickness distribution of the formed part and reduce the forming time; which is a major limitation of superplastic forming.

  12. Influence de certains corps gras sur le Sun Protection Factor (SPF mesuré in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau Céline

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the knowledge on the influence of vehicle on the SPF (Sun Protection Factor, we determined in vitro the SPF from an oil-in-water (O/W emulsion containing octylmethoxycinnamate (4%. We changed the oily phase composition. The in vitro determination of SPF is based on the physical determination of the reduction of the energy in the UV range, through a film of product which has previously been spread on an adequate substrate. About 30 mg were applied on roughened PMMA plates and the transmission measurements are carried out using a spectrophotometer equipped with integrating sphere. Eighteen oily ingredients were studied. Each one of them was incorporated in the amount of 20%. It is the lanolin which appears most effective SPF booster. Then oils come blackcurrant, argan, sweet almond, sesame, groundnut, carthame and palmotene.

  13. High strain rate superplastic aluminium alloys: the way forward?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.; Dashwood, R.J.; Flower, H.M. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2001-07-01

    The technical and commercial barriers to the development and successful exploitation of a high strain rate superplastically deformable aluminium alloy for use in the automotive industry are considered in this paper. Batch processing routes, such as mechanical alloying or equal channel angular extrusion, employed to deliver appropriate chemistry and structure, are inherently costly and unlikely to deliver either the quantity or the size of strip required commercially. There is evidence that there is still scope for development of conventional casting and rolling routes, but a particulate casting route combined with roll consolidation offers the prospect of a commercially viable Al-Mg-Zr product. The use of alloying additions, including zirconium, is also discussed and comparative costs are presented: on this basis the use of scandium appears economically prohibitive. (orig.)

  14. SUPERPLASTICITY AND DIFFUSION BONDING OF IN718 SUPERALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The superplasticity and diffusion bonding of IN718 superalloy were studied in this article. The strain rate sensitivity index m was obtained at different temperatures and various initial strain rates using the tensile speed mutation method; m reached its maximum value 0.53 at an initial strain rate of 1 ×10-4s-1 at 1253K. The diffusion bonding parameters, including the bonding temperature T,pressure p, and time t, affected the mechanism of joints. When the bonded specimen with 25μm thick nickel foil interlayer was tensile at room temperature, the shear fracture of the joints with nickel foil interlayer took place at the IN718 part. Microstructure study was carried out with the bonded samples. The microstructure shows an excellent bonding at the interfaces. The optimum parameters for the diffusion bonding are: T= 1273-1323K, p = 20-30MPa, t = 45-60min.

  15. Hot Superplastic Powder Forging for Transparent nanocrystalline Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, W. Roger

    2006-05-22

    The program explored a completely new, economical method of manufacturing nanocrystalline ceramics, Hot Superplastic Powder Forging (HSPF). The goal of the work was the development of nanocrystalline/low porosity optically transparent zirconia/alumina. The high optical transparency should result from lack of grain boundary scattering since grains will be smaller than one tenth the wavelength of light and from elimination of porosity. An important technological potential for this process is manufacturing of envelopes for high-pressure sodium vapor lamps. The technique for fabricating monolithic nanocrystalline material does not begin with powder whose particle diameter is <100 nm as is commonly done. Instead it begins with powder whose particle diameter is on the order of 10-100 microns but contains nanocrystalline crystallites <<100 nm. Spherical particles are quenched from a melt and heat treated to achieve the desired microstructure. Under a moderate pressure within a die or a mold at temperatures of 1100C to 1300C densification is by plastic flow of superplastic particles. A nanocrystalline microstructure results, though some features are greater than 100nm. It was found, for instance, that in the fully dense Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic specimens that a bicontinuous microstructure exists containing <100 nm ZrO2 particles in a matrix of Al2O3 grains extending over 1-2 microns. Crystallization, growth, phase development and creep during hot pressing and forging were studied for several compositions and so provided some details on development of polycrystalline microstructure from heating quenched ceramics.

  16. Superplasticity in ceramic and metal matrix composites and the role of grain size, segregation, interfaces, and second phase morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1992-10-01

    Structural ceramics and ceramic composites have been shown to exhibit superplasticity in recent times and this discovery has attracted tremendous interest. Although the number of ceramics exhibits superplasticity is now quite large, there are gaps in understanding the requirements for superplasticity in ceramics. Also, superplastic behavior at very high strain rates (1 s{sup {minus}1}) in metallic-based materials is an area of increasing research. In this case, the phenomenon has been observed quite extensively in aluminum alloy-based metal matrix composites and mechanically alloyed aluminum- and nickel-based materials. Again, the details of the structural requirements of this phenomenon are not yet understood. In the present paper, experimental results on superplasticity in ceramic-based materials and on high strain rate behavior in metallic-based materials are presented. The roles of grain size, grain boundary and interface chemistry, and second phase morphology and compatibility with the matrix material will be emphasized.

  17. An investigation of neutron irradiation test on superplastic zirconia-ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Taiju; Ishihara, Masahiro; Baba, Shinichi; Hayashi, Kimio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Motohashi, Yoshinobu [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    A neutron irradiation test on superplastic ceramic materials at high temperature has been proposed as an innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). For the effective execution of the test, we reviewed the superplastic deformation mechanism of ceramic materials and discussed neutron irradiation effects on the superplastic deformation process of stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal (TZP), which is a representative superplastic ceramic material. As a result, we pointed out that the decrease in the activation energy for superplastic deformation is expected by the radiation-enhanced diffusion. We selected a fast neutron fluence of 5x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} and an irradiation temperature of about 600degC as test conditions for the first irradiation test on TZP and decided to perform a preliminary irradiation test by the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Moreover, we estimated the radioactivity of irradiated TZP and indicated that it is in the order of 10{sup 10} Bq/g (about 0.3 Ci/g) immediately after irradiation to a thermal neutron fluence of 3x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} and that it decays to about 1/100 in a year. (author)

  18. COMPARAÇÃO DE DE SUÍNOS CONVENCIONAIS E SPF (Specific pathogen Free

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Oliveira e Silva Carvalho

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de qualificar e quantificar possíveis diferenças entre a produtividade de suínos convencionais e suínos SPF (Specific Pathogen Free. Foram mensurados e comparados, para tanto, a idade aos 100 quilos (IA, o ganho de peso diário (GPD, a conversão alimentar (CA e a espessura de toucinho (ET de um grupo com 42 machos, provenientes de granjas convencionais (grupo SC e outro com 113 machos, oriundos de granja SPF (grupo SPF. A média de peso corporal dos animais de ambos os grupos era de aproximadamente 30 quilos, ao início do experimento. A comparação entre as médias obtidas, para cada um dos parâmetros estudados, revelou produtividade estatisticamente significativa e superior em favor do grupo SPF. Assim, as IAs, os G PDs, as CAs e as ETs, obtidas para os grupos SPF e SC foram de, respectivamente, 150,49 e 156,4 dias, 897,78 e 955,19 gramas, 2,17:1 e 2,39:1 e 16,13 e 13,95mm. No grupo SPF, conforme evidenciado, observou-se um maior acúmulo de tecido adiposo, fato que sugere um menor dispêndio de energia para o combate a enfermidades crônicas, neste grupo de animais. Com base em projeção econômica dos resultados obtidos, os autores sugerem que a criação de animais SPF, embora possa exigir algum trabalho para sua implantação, é extremamente vantajosa, representando alternativa viável para a suinocultura brasileira.

  19. The yeast p5 type ATPase, spf1, regulates manganese transport into the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Cohen

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a large, multifunctional and essential organelle. Despite intense research, the function of more than a third of ER proteins remains unknown even in the well-studied model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One such protein is Spf1, which is a highly conserved, ER localized, putative P-type ATPase. Deletion of SPF1 causes a wide variety of phenotypes including severe ER stress suggesting that this protein is essential for the normal function of the ER. The closest homologue of Spf1 is the vacuolar P-type ATPase Ypk9 that influences Mn(2+ homeostasis. However in vitro reconstitution assays with Spf1 have not yielded insight into its transport specificity. Here we took an in vivo approach to detect the direct and indirect effects of deleting SPF1. We found a specific reduction in the luminal concentration of Mn(2+ in ∆spf1 cells and an increase following it's overexpression. In agreement with the observed loss of luminal Mn(2+ we could observe concurrent reduction in many Mn(2+-related process in the ER lumen. Conversely, cytosolic Mn(2+-dependent processes were increased. Together, these data support a role for Spf1p in Mn(2+ transport in the cell. We also demonstrate that the human sequence homologue, ATP13A1, is a functionally conserved orthologue. Since ATP13A1 is highly expressed in developing neuronal tissues and in the brain, this should help in the study of Mn(2+-dependent neurological disorders.

  20. Superplasticity and cooperative grain boundary sliding in nanocrystalline Ni{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mara, N.A. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: namara@lanl.gov; Sergueeva, A.V.; Mara, T.D. [Materials Science Division, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McFadden, S.X. [Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mukherjee, A.K. [Materials Science Division, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Cooperative grain boundary sliding (CGBS) has been shown to account for the majority of macroscopic strain seen in microcrystalline metallic systems undergoing superplastic deformation. While CGBS has been observed on the surface of microcrystalline samples deforming superplastically through the shifting of diamond scribe lines, there have been few transmission electron microscopy results showing such occurrences in the bulk of the material, or the details behind the micromechanism of CGBS. In this work, nanocrystalline Ni{sub 3}Al produced via high-pressure torsion is deformed superplastically in the electron microscope. High-temperature ({approx}700 deg. C) in situ tensile testing shows the nature of CGBS at the nanoscale through direct observation of this phenomenon.

  1. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing of Superplastic Solid-State Welding Joint for Different Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on quantitative microscopic examinations of welds and welding rate for different steels (40Cr and T10A) joint, which possess the ultra-fine microstructure after high frequency hardening (HFH) and salt-bath cyclic quenching (SCQ), the suitable defect grey scale threshold value was determined, and the welding rate of superplastic solid-state welding of different steels (40Cr and T10A steel) was systematically inspected and analyzed by means of self-made ultrasonic imaging inspection system. The experimental results showed that the superplastic solid-state weld of different steels can be inspected more accurately, reliably and quickly by this system, and the results were in good accordance with that of metallographic observation. The welding rate of superplastic welding is in linear relation with tensile strength of joint.

  2. Recrystallization and superplasticity at 300 C in an aluminum-magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, S. J.; Mcnelley, T. R.; Mcqueen, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Variations in thermomechanical processing (TMP) which regulate the microstructural characteristics and superplastic response of an Al-10Mg-0.1Zr alloy at 300 C were evaluated. Mechanical property data revealed that the superplastic ductility can be enhanced by simultaneously increasing the total rolling strain, the reduction per pass, and the duration of reheating intervals between passes during isothermal rolling. Texture and microscopy data were consistent with the development of a refined microstructure by recovery-dominated processes, i.e., continuous recrystallization, during the processing. The mechanisms by which a refined substructure can be progressively converted into a fine-grained structure during repeated cycles of deformation and annealing are addressed. A qualitative description of the complex sequence of developments leading to a microstructure better suited to support superplastic response is presented.

  3. Recrystallization and superplasticity at 300 °C in an aluminum-magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, S. J.; McNelley, T. R.; McQueen, H. J.

    1991-05-01

    Variations in thermomechanical processing (TMP) which regulate the microstructural characteristics and superplastic response of an Al-lOMg-0.1Zr alloy at 300 °C were evaluated. Mechanical property data revealed that the superplastic ductility can be enhanced by simultaneously increasing the total rolling strain, the reduction per pass, and the duration of reheating intervals between passes during isothermal rolling. Texture and microscopy data were consistent with the development of a refined microstructure by recovery-dominated processes, i.e., continuous recrystallization, during the processing. The mechanisms by which a refined substructure can be progressively converted into a fine-grained structure during repeated cycles of deformation and annealing are addressed. A qualitative description of the complex sequence of developments leading to a microstructure better suited to support superplastic response is presented.

  4. Ultrasonic C-scanning imaging inspection of superplastic solid-state welded joint quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柯柯; 陈怀东; 杨蕴林; 薛锦

    2002-01-01

    Based on a large amount of dissection at welded interface and quantitative microscopic examination of welded rate, the suitable limit grey scale value was determined, and the welded rate of superplastic solid-state welding interface of heterogeneous steel was systematically studied by means of self-made ultrasonic C-scanning imaging inspection system. The experimental results show: the welded state of superplastic solid-state welding interface of heterogeneous steel can be conducted to be more accurately, reliably and quickly inspected by means of this system, and the ultrasonic testing results are good consistent with actual examination results of the interface defective distribution. Within the extent of the suitble welded rate,the welded rate in 40Cr/T10A superplastic welding process tested by this system is linear with its tensile strength of joint.

  5. Early stages of superplasticity and positron lifetime spectroscopy in an Al-Mg-Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayciriex, M.D.; Romero, R.; Somoza, A. [Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Instituto de Fisica de Materiales Tandil

    1996-07-01

    In the present paper, by using positron lifetime technique, a careful study is carried out to analyze the microstructural changes induced on samples of an Al-based commercial alloy (Al-Mg-Cu-Mn-Cr) by superplastic deformation in the early stages of superplastic behavior of the alloy (strain range from 0.2% to 100%). These results are compared with those obtained on specimens only heat treated at the same temperature and for a time equivalent to the elapsed time during each tensile test, in order to evaluate the thermal contribution to the microstructural changes induced during the superplastic deformation process. Moreover, the positron results were linked with the microstructural evolution of the samples followed by means of optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness technique.

  6. Effect of partial melting on superplasticity ofAlNp/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AlN particulate reinforced 6061 aluminum alloy composite was fabricated by powder metallurgy method and hot-rolled after extrusion. Tensile strength and elongation at elevated temperature were measured by tensile test at initial strain rates between 10-2 s-1 and 100 s-1. The AlNp/6061Al composite exhibits an m-value of 0.42 and a maximum elongation of 450% at 863?K. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to ascertain the possibility of any partial melting in the vicinity of optimum superplastic temperature. Partial melting resulting from solute segregation at interfaces has much influence on superplasticity of the composite. It is postulated that AlNp/matrix interface sliding occurs along with grain boundary in superplastic deformation.

  7. Superplasticity of the aluminum alloys containing the Al{sub 3}Ni eutectic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnoy, V.K. [Department of Physical Metallurgy Non-Ferrous Metals, National University of Science and Technology ' ' MISIS' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Mikhaylovskaya, A.V.

    2012-09-15

    The structures and parameters of superplasticity of aluminum alloys containing fine and coarse eutectic Al{sub 3}Ni particles were investigated. Traditional hot and cold rolling were used for sheet producing. The research alloys have low- or high - alloying solid solution. Superplasticity characterization of the alloy with high-alloying solid solution is much better beside alloys with low-alloying solid solution. Alloying by zirconium improves superplasticity in some investigated alloys. Some alloys with partially recrystallized structure show d = 500-700% at T = 0.95 Tm with the constant strain rates to the range of (1.10{sup -3}-1.10{sup -2}) s{sup -1}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Armillaria sp.F022

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tony Hadibarata; Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff; Azmi Aris; Risky Ayu Kristanti

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria sp.F022,a white rot fungus isolated from tropical rain forest (Samarinda,Indonesia) was used to biodegrade naphthalene in cultured medium.Transformation of naphthalene by Armillaria sp.F022 which is able to use naphthalene,a two ring-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) as a source of carbon and energy was investigated.The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites,biotransformation studies and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts.The identification of metabolites suggests that Armillaria sp.F022 initiates its attack on naphthalene by dioxygenation at its C-1 and C-4 positions to give 1,4-naphthoquinone.The intermediate 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylic acid,and the characteristic of the meta-cleavage of the resulting diol were identified in the long-term incubation.A part from typical metabolites of naphthalene degradation known from mesophiles,benzoic acid was identified as the next intermediate for the naphthalene pathway of this Armillaria sp.F022.Neither phthalic acid,catechol and cis,cis-muconic acid metabolites were detected in culture extracts.Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase,lignin peroxidase,laccase,1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Armillaria sp.F022 were detected during the incubation.

  9. Continuous recrystallization during thermomechanical processing of a superplastic Al-10Mg-0.1Zr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, S. J.; Mcnelley, T. R.; Crooks, R.

    1990-01-01

    Microstructural evolution via static continuous recrystallization during thermomechanical processing of an Al-Mg-Zr alloy is addressed. Mechanical property data demonstrated that as-rolled material was capable of superplastic response without further treatment. Further, superplastic ductility at 300 C was enhanced by a factor of five by increasing the reheating time between rolling passes during processing also at 300 C. This enhanced ductility was associated with a Cu-texture and a microstructure consisting of predominantly high-angle boundaries. Processing to minimize recovery resulted in a strong Brass-texture component, a predominantly low-angle boundary microstructure and poorer ductility.

  10. Continuous recrystallization during thermomechanical processing of a superplastic Al-10Mg-0.1Zr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, S. J.; Mcnelley, T. R.; Crooks, R.

    1990-01-01

    Microstructural evolution via static continuous recrystallization during thermomechanical processing of an Al-Mg-Zr alloy is addressed. Mechanical property data demonstrated that as-rolled material was capable of superplastic response without further treatment. Further, superplastic ductility at 300 C was enhanced by a factor of five by increasing the reheating time between rolling passes during processing also at 300 C. This enhanced ductility was associated with a Cu-texture and a microstructure consisting of predominantly high-angle boundaries. Processing to minimize recovery resulted in a strong Brass-texture component, a predominantly low-angle boundary microstructure and poorer ductility.

  11. SUPERPLASTICITY OF A SiCw/2024 Al COMPOSITE MADE BY PRESSURE INFILTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.J. Xu; W. Wang; L. Cai

    2002-01-01

    The superplastic characteristics of the β-SiC whisker reinforced 2024 aluminum com-posite, fabricated by pressure infiltration and hot-rolling after extrusion, were inves-tigated. The composite has a fine grain size of about 1μm, and exhibits a maximumtensile elongation of 370% in the initial strain rate of 3.3× 10-3 s-1 at 788K. The su-perplastic deformation mechanism of the composite is thought to be grain boundary(interface) sliding accommodated by grain boundary diffusion of aluminum atom andan appropriate amount of liquid phase.

  12. HIGH STRAIN RATE SUPERPLASTICITY OF A AIN PARTICULATE REINFORCED 6061Al COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.H. Han; J.T. Niu; D.M. Jiang; T. Imai

    2001-01-01

    The superplasticity of AlNp/6061Al composite, fabricated by powder metallurgy method and hot-rolled after extrusion, was investigated. The AlNp/6061Al composite exhibits an m-value of 0.49 and a maximum elongation of 438% in the strain rates ranging from 10-2-10°s-1 and at temperatures from 823K to 893K. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to ascertain the possibility of any partial melting in the vicinity of optimum superplastic temperature. These results suggested that liquid phase existed where maximum elongation was obtained.

  13. Investigation on Superplasticity in SiCp/2024 Cold Rolling Sheet after Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bol(u) XIAO; Zongyi MA; Jing BI

    2003-01-01

    High strain rate superplastic deformation behavior of powder metallurgy (PM) processed 17 vol. pct SiCp/2024 Al composite sheet after heat treatment was investigated over a range of temperature from 753 to 833 K. At 813 K,a maximum elongation of 259% was discovered at a strain rate of 10-1 s-1. The activation energy was closed to that for lattice diffusion of Al and increased at temperature upon incipient melting temperature. The mechanism of superplastic deformation for present composites was attributed to lattice diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding.

  14. Recent Achievements in Developing Low Temperature and High Strain Rate Superplastic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is to briefly outline our recent activities in developing low temperature or high strain rate superplastic materials, including aircraft-used and general-purpose Al- and Mg-base alloys or composites, as well as Ti3Al base intermetallic alloys. The processing routes applied included the thermomechanical treatment, equal channel angular pressing and other extrusion or forging methods.

  15. Influence of superplastic deformation on the anisotropy of 03Kh26N6T steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmed Faud, M.F.; Tsepin, M.A.; Lobach, A.A. [Tabbinskii Metallurgical Institute, Cario (Egypt)]|[Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1992-03-01

    The rules of change in anisotropy of 03Kh26N6T corrosion-resistant steel with a nonequiaxial fine-grained structure deformed under superplastic conditions were considered and an investigation was made of the change in anisotropy of the plastic properties in connection with the presence of original metallographic nonuniformity of the steel structure. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Nanometric Gouge in High-Speed Shearing Experiments: Superplasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.; Lockner, D. A.; Bozhilov, K. N.; Maddon, A.; Beeler, N. M.; Reches, Z.

    2010-12-01

    rates by “superplasticity” (viscous flow dominated by grain-boundary sliding). The high-pressure gouge also coarsens rapidly after sliding stops if quench rate is too slow, presumably driven largely by the very fine grain size. We will use transmission electron microscopy to identify the gouge state (crystalline or amorphous) and whether the nanometric particles have been sintered into a nanocrystalline layer that could flow similarly to the high-pressure experiments (in which the gouge was created by different processes). If such a nanocrystalline layer exists, the large friction drop of this material may be due to “superplastic” flow similarly to the high-pressure experiments. The recrystallization of the gouge into a coarser-crystalline pavement after sliding stops but before temperature falls should take it out of the superplastic regime at high velocities because grain-boundary sliding is strongly grain-size dependent. Thus, refragmenting the coarsened gouge would be required to re-establish the very low apparent friction. We propose that development of such a superplastic gouge during propagation of earthquakes may yield very low apparent friction by dynamically producing this lubricating material.

  17. Dimensions of well-being and their measurement : The SPF-IL Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, A.P.; Lindenberg, S.; Boomsma, A.; Van Bruggen, A.C.

    What are the dimensions of well-being? That is, what universal goals need to be realized by individuals in order to enhance their well-being? Social production function (SPF) theory asserts that the universal goals affection, behavioral confirmation, status, comfort and stimulation are the relevant

  18. Emission of volatiles from spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulated crawl spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The emission of (di)isocyantes, polyols and blowing agents from curing Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) was studied in a house having its crawl space recently insulated. Before insulation a blank measurement was made and he emission was followed up to 144 hours after the insolation application. The

  19. Pseudorabies virus is transmitted among vaccinated conventional pigs, but not among vaccinated SPF pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Schoevers, E.J.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the reproduction ratio (R) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in vaccinated specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without maternally derived antibodies under experimental conditions has repeatedly been shown to be significantly below 1, R in vaccinated conventional pigs in the field with maternally

  20. Natural infection of murine norovirus in conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eOhsugi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses cause most cases of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a cell culture infection model for human norovirus necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate models amenable to cell culture to predict norovirus inactivation. Murine norovirus (MNV may be used to construct a small animal model for studying the biology and pathogenesis of noroviruses because MNV is the only norovirus that replicates in cell culture and a small animal model. However, recent studies have shown that natural MNV infection is widespread in laboratory mouse colonies. We investigated MNV infection in both conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF genetically modified mice from Japan and the US, and commercial mice from several animal breeders in Japan, using serological and molecular techniques. MNV antibodies were detected in 67.3% of conventional mice and 39.1% of SPF mice from Japan and 62.5% of conventional mice from the US. MNV antibodies were also found in 20% of commercial SPF C57BL/6 mice from one of three breeders. Partial gene amplification of fecal isolates from infected animals showed that the isolates were homologous to reported MNV sequences. These results suggest that both conventional and SPF laboratory mice, including commercial mice, are widely infected with MNV, which might require considerable attention as an animal model of human disease.

  1. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  2. Emission of volatiles from spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulated crawl spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The emission of (di)isocyantes, polyols and blowing agents from curing Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) was studied in a house having its crawl space recently insulated. Before insulation a blank measurement was made and he emission was followed up to 144 hours after the insolation application. The emi

  3. Pseudorabies virus is transmitted among vaccinated conventional pigs, but not among vaccinated SPF pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Schoevers, E.J.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the reproduction ratio (R) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in vaccinated specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without maternally derived antibodies under experimental conditions has repeatedly been shown to be significantly below 1, R in vaccinated conventional pigs in the field with maternally der

  4. Enhanced superplasticity in an extruded high strength Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy with Ag addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movahedi-Rad, A. [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmudi, R., E-mail: mahmudi@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wu, G.H.; Jafari Nodooshan, H.R. [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Addition of 2% Ag to the base alloy refined the microstructure and increased m-value. • Volume fractions of both high angle grain boundaries and particles increased after Ag addition. • Ag-containing alloy had an m-value of 0.51, typical of superplastic materials. • Grain boundary sliding accommodated by lattice diffusion was the dominant deformation mechanism. - Abstract: The effect of 2 wt% Ag addition on the superplastic behavior of an extruded Mg–8.5Gd–2.5Y–0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated by impression testing in the temperature range of 523–598 K. The average sizes of the dynamically recrystallized grains of the Ag-free and Ag-containing alloys were about 8 and 3 μm, respectively. Analysis of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) data confirmed the higher fractions of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) in the Ag-containing alloy. The deformation response of this alloy in proper temperature range conforms to regions I, II and III, typical of superplastic deformation behavior. The addition of Ag to the base alloys led to enhanced superplasticity in region II by increasing the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) indices (m-values) from 0.25 to 0.51 and 0.36 to 0.46 at 573 and 598 K, respectively. These high m-values together with the activation energy of 181 kJ/mol suggest that the major mechanism involved in superplastic deformation is grain boundary sliding (GBS) accommodated by lattice diffusion at temperatures above 573 K.

  5. Low temperature superplasticity through grain refinement in Ti-6Al-4V by a novel route of quench-roll-recrystallise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalumedi Babu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A ‘quench + roll + recrystallise’ method was simulated through compression testing of initially ‘water quenched’ Ti-6Al-4V alloy at a temperature of 973 K and rolling strain-rate 100 s−1 in order to achieve superplasticity at lower temperature through grain refinement, with a view to increase die life. Subsequent annealing of wire-cut specimens of a rolled sheet at temperatures 1023, 1073, 1123, and 1173 K revealed that, the structures became finer and equi-axial in the range of 1–2 μm, when annealed at 1073 and 1123 K. In compliance to this behavior, a tensile sample from industrially ‘quenched + rolled’ sheet at 973 K could produce an elongation of 740% at a temperature of 1073 K under a strain-rate of 10−3 s−1. Significant elongation of 652% was obtained at further lower temperature of 1023 K under a strain-rate of 10−3 s−1. Quench-roll-recrystallise technique pushes down superplastic forming temperature to 1023 K.

  6. Influence of fluoridation on the strength of superplastic Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy deformed in a saline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde-Torres, J.; Torres-Villasenor, G. [UNAM, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Sandoval-Jimenez, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    1999-04-09

    The interest in Zi-Al-Cu alloys has intensified in recent years because they possess the highest known yield strengths among the entire series of Zn-Al superplastic alloys. The superplastic materials are generally fine-grained materials and the deformation is associated with the grain boundary processes. Because of this, the superplastic alloys are exposed to a potential danger of intergranular stress corrosion cracking under susceptible service conditions. Consequently, the study of enhancing the strength and increasing the corrosion resistance of the material at room temperature is an important research area. Fluorine passivation technology of metal surfaces (fluoridation) has been proved to be very effective in the protection of several metals such as austenitic stainless steel and aluminum. In the present investigation the superplastic Zn-Al-Cu alloy has been studied to evaluate the effects of fluoridation and the stress corrosion damage.

  7. Maintaining the mechanical strength of La-, Y-co-substituted zirconia porous ceramics through the superplastically foaming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Akira, E-mail: kishim-a@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Okada, Masanori; Teranishi, Takashi; Hayashi, Hidetaka

    2013-10-01

    The superplastically foaming method was adopted to make closed-pore inclusive zirconia-based ceramics. Lanthanum oxide was added to monoclinic or tetragonal yttria-stabilised zirconia to reduce the thermal conductivity of the matrix. Sintering and superplastic deformation led to a solid solution and transformation to the cubic phase. The resulting superplastically foamed porous ceramics having a porosity of 45% had only 40% of the thermal conductivity of the fully densified ceramics having the same composition. This value was comparable to that of conventionally fabricated porous ceramics with the same composition and porosity. The superplastically foamed ceramics had 60%, while conventionally fabricated ceramics had only 20%, of the mechanical strength of the fully dense ceramics.

  8. Recombinant feline coronaviruses as vaccine candidates confer protection in SPF but not in conventional cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Szeredi, Levente; Zádori, Zoltán; Belák, Sándor

    2014-03-14

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a major pathogen of Felidae. Despite the extensive efforts taken in the past decades, development of the "ideal" live attenuated FIPV vaccine was not successful yet. In the present study, we provide data of immunisation experiments with a recombinant FCoV pair differing only in the truncation (PBFIPV-DF-2) or completion (PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i) of their ORF3abc regions. In our previous in vivo studies, these viruses proved to show the characters of low virulent or avirulent FCoV phenotypes, respectively. Therefore, we hypothesised the ability of these viruses, as possible vaccine candidates, in conferring protection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Domestic Shorthair as well as in conventional purebred British Shorthair cats. In SPF cats, after two oronasal and two intramuscular vaccinations with two weeks intervals, both vaccine candidates provided 100% protection against lethal homologous challenge with the highly virulent FIPV DF-2 strain. In contrast, the conventional purebred British Shorthair cats did not develop protection when they were immunised with the same vaccination regimes. In these groups 100% of the PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i immunised animals developed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Prolonged survival was observed in 40% of the animals, while 60% showed fulminant disease course. Genetic and more probably immunological differences between the SPF and non-SPF purebred kittens can explain the different outcome of the vaccination experiment. Our data highlight the diverse immune responses between SPF and conventional cats and suggest a decisive role of previous infection by heterologous causative agents in the outcome of the vaccination against FIP.

  9. Isothermal superplastic solid state bonding of 40Cr and Cr12MoV steels based on surface modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Keke; Zhang Zhanling; Liu Shuai; Yue Yun; Ma Ning; Yang Yunlin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the feasibility of isothermal superplastic solid state bonding of 40Cr and Cr12MoV steels, the surfaces of both steels to be bonded were ultra-fined through high frequency hardening, then the superplastic solid state bonding were conducted, the microstructure and fracture surface of bonded joint were observed and analysed, and bonding mechanisms was researched. The experimental results show that with the sample surfaces of 40Cr and Cr12MoV steels after the high frequency hardening, under the prepressing stress of 56.6 MPa, initial strain rate of 1.5×10~(-2) min~(-1) and at the bonding temperature of 800-820℃, the superplastic solid state bonding can be carried out in about 3.5min, and the joint strength is up to that of 40Cr steel base metal and the radial expansion ratio of the joint does not exceed 6%. The superplastic solid state bonding parameter of both steels is within the ranges of the isothermal compressive superplastic deformation of Cr12MoV steel, and the deformation in Cr12MoV steel side near the interfacial zone of joint presents the characteristic of superplasticity. In bonding process, the atoms in two sides of joint interface have diffused each other.

  10. Aeromonas sp.F3胶原酶性质的研究%Characteristies of collagenase from Aeromonas sp.F3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杨; 钱斯日古楞; 王红英; 马蕾

    2011-01-01

    Aeromonas sp. F3 was screened from marine mud for hydrolyzing collagen. The characteristics of collagenase from Aeromonas sp. F3 were investigated via single-factor test. Thermal treatment at 50 ℃ for 40 min resulted in obvious deactivation. The optimum reaction temperature and pH was 40 ℃ and 8. 6. Collagenase activity was activated by Ca2+ at 0. 5 mmol/L. The molecular weight of the hydrolyzate was under 30 ku.%海洋污泥中筛选得到的Aeromonas sp.F3所产的胞外酶对胶原蛋白有水解作用.以海洋微生物Aeromonas sp.F3为酶源,采用单因素试验法对其所产的胶原酶性质进行了研究,包括该胶原酶的酶解条件及热稳定性,并对该胶原酶水解鱼皮的效果进行了分析.结果表明,微生物Aeromonas sp.F3源胶原酶在50℃热处理40 min之后明显失活,该胶原酶的最适反应温度为40℃,最适pH为8.6,金属离子Ca2在0.5 mmol/L时对酶有激活作用.该酶在其最适条件下,对鱼皮胶原有显著水解效能,其水解产物的分子质量在30 ku以下.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Back [Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo-Yong [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ohh, Sang-Jip, E-mail: sjohh@kangwon.ac.k [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with {sup 60}Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 {sup o}C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  12. SPf66 vaccine trial in Brazil: conceptual framework study design and analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Urdaneta

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study population and the study design of the phase III field trial of the SPf66 vaccine in Brazil. Assessment of validity and precision principles necessary for the appropriate evaluation of the protective effect of the vaccine are discussed, as well as the results of the preliminary analyses of the gathered data. The analytical approach for the estimation of the protective effect of the vaccine is presented. This paper provides the conceptual framework for future publications.

  13. Calculation methods for SPF for heat pump systems for comparison, system choice and dimensioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Andersson, Kajsa; Axell, Monica; Lindahl, Markus

    2010-09-15

    In this project, results from field measurements of heat pumps have been collected and summarised. Also existing calculation methods have been compared and summarised. Analyses have been made on how the field measurements compare to existing calculation models for heat pumps Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF), and what deviations may depend on. Recommendations for new calculation models are proposed, which include combined systems (e.g. solar - HP), capacity controlled heat pumps and combined DHW and heating operation

  14. Development and maintenance of a specific pathogen free (SPF) zebrafish research facility for Pseudoloma neurophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Michael L.; Buchner, Cari; Watral, Virginia G.; Sanders, Justin L; LaDu, Jane; Peterson, Tracy S.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoloma neurophilia (Microsporidia) is very common in zebrafish research facilities. A new zebrafish facility was established at the Sinnhuber Aquatic Resource Laboratory (SARL) at Oregon State University, and thus we used this as an opportunity to establish a Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) colony of zebrafish for this microsporidium. Progeny from 10 zebrafish lines (n = 2,203) were initially transferred to the SARL facility in 2007 following PCR screening of broodstock and a subpopulation o...

  15. Effect of Post-Rolling after ECAP on Superplastic Behavior of Commercial Al-Mg Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hyuk Shin; Byung Du Ahn; Hyun Soo; Woo Kyeom Kim; Kyung-Tae Park

    2004-01-01

    A commercial Al-Mg alloy was subjected to equal channel angular pressing of 4 passes with and without postrolling, and the effects of post-rolling on the deformation characteristics of the alloy at 723 K were examined. Post-rolling was found to influence the deformation behavior significantly. The deformation behavior of the alloy processed only by equal channel angular pressing was characterized by (a) localized deformation indicated by severe surface prominence and depression, (b) the strain rate sensitivity of 0.33, and (c) moderate high strain rate superplastic elongations. By contrast, that of the alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing and post-rolling (70 % thickness reduction) was manifested by (a) uniform deformation associated with grain boundary sliding throughout the sample, (b) a sigmoidal behavior showing the strain rate sensitivity of 0.45 at the intermediate strain rates in the logarithmic stress-strain rate curve, and (c) very large high strain rate superplastic elongations.

  16. Effect of two-stage aging on superplasticity of Al-Li alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-hui; ZHANG Xin-ming; DU Yu-xuan; YE Ling-ying

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two-stage aging on the microstructures and superplasticity of 01420 Al-Li alloy was investigated by means of OM, TEM analysis and stretching experiment. The results demonstrate that the second phase particles distributed more uniformly with a larger volume fraction can be observed after the two-stage aging (120 ℃, 12 h+300 ℃, 36 h) compared with the single-aging(300 ℃, 48 h). After rolling and recrystallization annealing, fine grains with size of 8-10 μm are obtained, and the superplastic elongation of the specimens reaches 560% at strain rate of 8×10-4 s-1 and 480 ℃. Uniformly distributed fine particles precipitate both on grain boundaries and in grains at lower temperature. When the sheet is aged at high temperature, the particles become coarser with a large volume fraction.

  17. Development of Cutting Tool Through Superplastic Boronizing of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Iswadi; Harun, Sunita; Jamlus, Siti Aida; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a cutting tool is developed from duplex stainless steel (DSS) using the superplastic boronizing technique. The feasibility of the development process is studied, and the cutting performances of the cutting tool are evaluated and compared with commercially available carbide and high-speed steel (HSS) tools. The superplastically boronized (SPB) cutting tool yielded a dense boronized layer of 50.5 µm with a surface hardness of 3956 HV. A coefficient of friction value of 0.62 is obtained, which is lower than 1.02 and 0.8 of the carbide and HSS tools. When tested on an aluminum 6061 surface under dry condition, the SPB cutting tool is also able to produce turning finishing below 0.4 µm, beyond the travel distance of 3000 m, which is comparable to the carbide tool, but produces much better results than HSS tool. Through superplastic boronizing of DSS, it is possible to produce a high-quality metal-based cutting tool that is comparable to the conventional carbide tool.

  18. SUPERPLASTICITY OF A WATER-QUENCHED AND TEMPERED 40Cr STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.J.Xu; G.L.Liu; L.J Shi; X.N.Cheng; L.Cai

    2004-01-01

    The superplastic deformation characteristics, of commercial 40Cr (i.e., 5140) steel that was water-quenched only 1 times and subsequent high-temperature tempered, were investigated.The results showed that the 40Cr steel has a fine grain of 10-15μm at room temperature,and exhibits a tensile elongation of 304%, a true flow stress of 89.3MPa and a strain rate sensitivity m-value of 0.227 at the initial strain rate of 1.0×10-3s-1and at the temperature of 750℃. The final fracture is caused by the development of neck. The experimental result of elongation is in good agreement with the theoretically predicated value according to the analytical expression ef = (1/f)mexp(nv+mε)-1(where ef, m, f, nv and e is respectively elongation, average strain rate sensitivity, initial geometric defect, average strain hardening sensitivity at constant deformation velocity and average true strain). The fracture surface is intergraular, and superplastic deformation induces an equiaxed and grown grain. Decreasing strain rate increases tensile elongation and strain rate sensitivity m-value. The primary superplastic deformation mechanism is thought to be atom-diffusion-controlled grain boundary sliding.

  19. Discontinuous Dynamic Recrystallization of Inconel 718 Superalloy During the Superplastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linjie; Qi, Feng; Hua, Peitao; Yu, Lianxu; Liu, Feng; Sun, Wenru; Hu, Zhuangqi

    2015-09-01

    The superplastic behavior of Inconel 718 superalloy with particular emphasis on the microstructural evolution has been systematically investigated through tensile tests at the strain rate of 10-3 s-1 and the temperatures ranging from 1223 K to 1253 K (950 °C to 980 °C). Its elongations exceeded 300 pct under all of the experimental conditions and peaked a maximum value of 520 pct at 1223 K (950 °C). Moreover, the stress reached the top value at the strain of 0.3, and then declined until the tensile failure. In addition, we have found that the grain size reduced after deformation while the δ phase precipitation increased. Microstructural evolution during the superplasticity was characterized via transmission electron microscope, and the randomly distributed dislocation, dislocation network, dislocation arrays, low-angled subgrains, and high-angled recrystallized new grains were observed in sequence. These new grains were found to nucleate at the triple junction, twin boundary, and near the δ phase. Based on these results, it is deemed that the discontinuous dynamic recrystallization occurred as the main mechanism for the superplastic deformation of Inconel 718 alloy.

  20. Development of Cutting Tool Through Superplastic Boronizing of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Iswadi; Harun, Sunita; Jamlus, Siti Aida; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a cutting tool is developed from duplex stainless steel (DSS) using the superplastic boronizing technique. The feasibility of the development process is studied, and the cutting performances of the cutting tool are evaluated and compared with commercially available carbide and high-speed steel (HSS) tools. The superplastically boronized (SPB) cutting tool yielded a dense boronized layer of 50.5 µm with a surface hardness of 3956 HV. A coefficient of friction value of 0.62 is obtained, which is lower than 1.02 and 0.8 of the carbide and HSS tools. When tested on an aluminum 6061 surface under dry condition, the SPB cutting tool is also able to produce turning finishing below 0.4 µm, beyond the travel distance of 3000 m, which is comparable to the carbide tool, but produces much better results than HSS tool. Through superplastic boronizing of DSS, it is possible to produce a high-quality metal-based cutting tool that is comparable to the conventional carbide tool.

  1. Mechanical analysis of temperature impact on stability during superplastic tensile deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Yuquan; GUAN; Zhiping; WANG; Minghui; SONG; Jiawang

    2006-01-01

    Based on state equation that stress is the function of strain, strain-rate and temperature, the paper establishes the differential constitutive equation used for analyzing load-stability and the variational constitutive equation used for analyzing geometry-stability during superplastic tensile deformation, which contain strain hardening index, strain-rate sensitivity index, temperature sensitivity index introducted for the first time and temperature undulation index introducted for the first time in the paper. And then, based on the universal condition of plastic elementary theory, the paper analyzes load-stability and geometry-stability under continuously rising temperature and under the non-uniform temperature along the axes of specimen respectively. The results prove the impact of continuously rising speed and non-uniform value of temperature on deformation stability is that the faster temperature rises and the more non-uniform temperature is, the smaller the corresponding uniform strain of load-stability and geometry-stability are; strain hardening index is the necessary condition of stability during superplastic tensile deformation, and geometry-instability will not happen when load-instability occurs, but happen when uniform deformation has lasted after load-instability; in the superplastic temperature field, constant temperature is not necessary condition of superplasticitiy, but during the deformation, the slower temperature rises and the more uniform temperature is, the more stable deformation is.

  2. The effect of composition on the mechanism of continuous recrystallization and superplastic response of aluminum-scandium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.L. III

    1993-05-01

    The continuous recrystallization (CRX) appears to be fundamental in Al-Sc because it occurs irrespective of solute composition. It appears to be due to a combination of subgrain coalescence at low strains and incorporation of additional dislocations generated during grain boundary sliding at higher strains when the misorientation has increased sufficiently. Alloying additives such as Mg, Li are more important with respect to deformation after CRX is completed. Mg, and to a lesser extent Li, affect the max m-values (strain-rate sensitivities) in Al-Sc by changing the melting points (mp). Max m- values correlate inversely with mp so that the alloy with the greatest Mg had the highest m-values and lowest mp; the stress is raised at which power-law creep and breakdown occurs. The power-law breakdonw at much lower stresses in Al-0.5Sc and Al-1.2Li-0.5Sc causes the m-value to decrease more rapidly with strain rate. Al alloys for commercial superplastic applications should contain elements that raise the power-law strength so that the m-values are maximized while preserving the post-formed mechanical properties. Refs, figs, tabs.

  3. Zr基大块非晶合金在过冷液相区超塑性成形的摩擦行为及机理研究%Study on the Friction Behavior and Mechanism of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass Superplastic Forming in the Supercooled Liquid Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志镇; 成蛟; 王新云; 李建军

    2009-01-01

    The friction behavior of Zr_(55) Al_(10)Ni_5Cu_(30) bulk metallic glass in the supercooled liquid region was investigated. The influence of forming temperature and velocity on friction factor was established by double cup extrusion test. The calibration curves of friction factor were evaluated by FE simulation and Kawamura's constitutive equation was adopted. Constant parameters in the constitutive equation were acquired by fitting the data from compression test. The results indicate that the friction factor of bulk metallic glass forming in the supercooled liquid region is between 0. 2 and 0. 7. With the temperature rising, the friction factor decreases in general under a low forming velocity. However, the friction factor increases slightly and then decreases abruptly under a high forming velocity. In low temperature area of supercooled liquid region, the friction factor increases abruptly with increasing of the forming velocity. While in high temperature area of supercooled liquid region, the friction factor decreases slightly with increasing of the forming velocity. The friction mechanism of bulk metallic glass forming in supercooled liquid region was analyzed by modern tribology theory. Adhesion is the dominant factor contributing to the friction of bulk metallic glass.%采用双杯挤压方法研究了成形温度、应变速率等工艺参数对Zr_(55) Al_(10) Ni_5 Cu_(30)块体非晶合金在过冷液相区塑性成形时模具和零件之间的摩擦行为的影响.采用有限元模拟方法获得大块非晶合金双杯挤压的摩擦因数标定曲线,有限元模拟中非晶合金的变形采用Kawamura的本构模型,将高温压缩实验的数据拟合,获得本构模型中的参数,结果表明非晶合金在过冷液相区内变形的摩擦因数在0.2~0.7之间.当应变速率较低时,随着温度的升高,摩擦因数总体上降低;而当应变速率较高时,随着温度的升高,摩擦因数先略有上升,然后急剧下降.当温度较低

  4. High-strain-rate superplasticity in oxide ceramics: a trial of microstructural design based on creep-cavitation mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keijiro HIRAGA; Byung-Nam KIM; Koji MORITA; Hidehiro YOSHIDA; Yoshio SAKKA; Masaaki TABUCHI

    2011-01-01

    From existing knowledge about high-temperature cavitation mechanisms, necessary conditions were discussed for the suppression of cavitation failure during superplastic deformation in ceramic materials. The discussion, where special attention was placed on the relaxation of stress concentrations during grain-boundary sliding and cavity nucleation and growth, leaded to a conclusion that cavitation failure could be retarded by the simultaneous controlling of the initial grain size, the number of residual defects,diffusivity, dynamic grain growth and the homogeneity of microstructure. On the basis of this conclusion, high-strain-rate superplasticity (defined as superplasticity at a strain rate higher than 0.01 s-1) could be intentionally attained in some oxide ceramic materials. This was shown in tetragonal zirconia and composites consisting of zirconia, α-alumina and a spinel phase.

  5. Effect of electric current pulse on grain growth in superplastic deformation of 2091 Al-Li alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志义; 许晓嫦; 崔建忠

    2003-01-01

    The effect of electric current pulse on the grain growth in the superplastic deformation of 2091 Al-Li alloy was investigated. Optical metallographic microstructure observation and average linear intercept measuring results show that at same strain, the grain size in the superplastic deformation loaded with electric current pulse is smaller than that unemploying electric current pulse, and so does the grain growth rate. TEM observation shows that the dislocation density at grain boundary in the superplastic deformation applied with electric current pulse is lower than that unemploying electric current pulse.It indicates that electric current pulse increases the rate of dislocation slip and climb in grain boundary, which leads to a decrease of both the density of the dislocation slipping across grain boundary at same strain rate and the driving force for grain growth, therefore the rate of grain growth decreases.The established model for grain growth shows an exponential relation of grain size with strain.

  6. Creep study of mechanisms involved in low-temperature superplasticity of UFG Ti-6Al-4V processed by SPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kral, Petr, E-mail: pkral@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Dvorak, Jiri [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Blum, Wolfgang [Inst. f. Werkstoffwissenschaften, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kudryavtsev, Egor; Zherebtsov, Sergey; Salishchev, Gennady [Belgorod State University, Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Pobeda Str. 85, 308015 Belgorod (Russian Federation); Kvapilova, Marie; Sklenicka, Vaclav [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Zizkova 22, CZ -61662 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC – IPM ASCR, v.v.i., Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-15

    The deformation kinetics of ultrafine-grained Ti-6Al-4V with mean (sub)grain size about 150 nm (produced by isothermal multiaxial forging) and superplastic properties at the relatively low temperature of 873 K was investigated in compression and tension over a large range of strain rates from 10{sup −7} to 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Electron microscopic observations showed that the grains coarsen during deformation towards the quasi-stationary spacing w{sub qs} of strain induced boundaries. In spite of the grain coarsening the grains were generally smaller than w{sub qs} allowing high-angle boundaries to dominate the quasi-stationary strength. Texture measurements indicate that dislocation glide plays a large role in deformation. Glide in this alloy is significantly influenced by solid solution strengthening leading to a stress sensitivity of strain rate of n = 3. The present ultrafine-grained Ti alloy displays a stress sensitivity exponent n = 2 over an extended stress range where its superplastic behavior is optimal. While the deformation kinetics of present ultrafine-grained Ti alloy can be roughly explained by the traditional formula for superplastic flow, the significant discrepancy to the measured values suggests that solid solution strengthening must be taken into account to get a complete insight. - Highlights: • The UFG Ti-6Al-4V alloy behaves superplastically at low temperature of 873 K. • Grain coarsening at low stresses limits superplasticity of UFG Ti alloy. • Solute strengthening plays an important role in low-temperature superplasticity. • Acceleration of creep in UFG Ti alloy is caused by processes related to hab.

  7. Indicateurs de qualité du soin nutritionnel en oncologie, SPF Plan Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Anzevui, Aude; Bertrand, Brigitte; Réunion trimestrielle SPF Plan Cancer - Equipes nutrition

    2014-01-01

    Enregistrer les actes essentiels du soin diététique : Evaluation Diagnostic (état nutritionnel) Intervention Notification Suivi Indicateurs proposés au SPF: Le premier indicateur qualité est le nombre de déterminations d’état nutritionnel rapporté au nombre de prises en charge (PEC) initiales. Les indicateurs suivants concernent chaque PEC réalisée, il s’agit du nombre de: • Conseils diététiques personnalisés apportés, • Propositions ou mise en places d’EN, • Propositions de PN. Le dernier in...

  8. Super-plasticity of Zr64.80Cu14.85Ni10.35Al10 bulk metallic glass at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO PingJun; YANG YuanZheng; BAI XiaoJun; XIE ZhiWei; CHEN XianCao; DONG ZhenJiang; Wen JianGuo

    2008-01-01

    Generally, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) exhibit a very limited plastic deformation under a compression load at room temperature, often less than 2% before fracturing. In this letter, through an appropriate choice of BMGs' composition, an amorphous rod of Zr64.80Cu14.85Ni10.35Al10 with a diameter of 2 mm was prepared by using copper mold suction casting. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were utilized to determine its structure and thermal stability, and the uniaxial compression test was adopted to study its plastic deformation behavior at room temperature simultaneously. The results showed that the glass transition temperature and onset temperature of the exothermic reaction of the amorphous rod were 646 and 750 K, respectively, and its micro-hardness was 594.7 Hv. During com-pression, when the engineering strain and engineering stress arrived at 9.05% and 1732 MPa, respec-tively, i.e., the true strain and true stress reached 9.42% and 1560 MPa, respectively, the amorphous rod started to yield. After yielding, with the increase of load, the strain increased and the glass rod ulti-mately were compressed into flake-like form. Although the maximum engineering strain was larger than 70%, i.e., the maximum true strain exceeded by 120%, the amorphous specimen was not fractured, indicating that it has super-plasticity at room temperature. Through the appropriate choice of compo-sition and optimization of the technological process, flexible BMG with super-plasticity at room tem-perature could be produced.

  9. SPF rabbits infected with rabbit hepatitis E virus isolate experimentally showing the chronicity of hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits.

  10. Low Temperature Superplasticity of Ti-6Al-4V Processed by Warm Multidirectional Forging (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    using a JEOL JEM-2100FX transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a Quanta 600 field-emission-gun scanning-electron microscope (SEM). Results and...factor of three compared to the initial condition (Fig. 2b). A backscattered electron ( BSE ) image revealed the distribution of the  phase in the...a) BSE image of Ti-6Al-4V after annealing at Т=550С for 0.5 hour and (b) grain size as a function of soak time at 550C. Superplastic Behavior

  11. Infectious bursal disease virus: case report and experimental studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated SPF chickens and commercial broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scanavini Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available IBDV Gm 11 (Simbios eleven-molecular group has been detected since 1997 in many farms of commercial broilers and layers causing high mortality (2 to 15% and severe macro and microscopic damage in cloacal bursae, spleen, thymus, kidney and liver. Five serial passages of 2050/97-Gm 11 IBDV sample by CAM route in SPF chicken's embryonated eggs did not elicit increased embryo mortality. High mortality (100% of 21 day-old SPF leghorn chickens and severe bursal and splenic lesions were seen from 24 up to 48 hours after eye-drop inoculation of 2050/97 strain (50 mL of 10-2 dilution of 10% bursae homogenate. Mortality was not detected when vaccinated SPF and broiler chickens were inoculated. One dead bird was found among ten challenged unvaccinated broilers. Variations in the intensity of cloacal bursae injury and spleen response were found between unvaccinated and vaccinated broiler chickens. IBDV antibodies were detected by ELISA test in almost all vaccinated SPF chickens before challenge while low number of commercial vaccinated and unvaccinated broilers were serologically positive (0 to 3 birds in 18. Increasing IBDV antibody titers were detected after challenge with 2050/97 strain and highest GMTs were found in broilers. It was concluded that 2050/97 strain is a highly virulent IBDV and SPF leghorn chickens immunized with BV8 intermediate vaccine strain were resistant to the challenge. Increasing susceptibility was found from experimental groups of unvaccinated broilers to vaccinated broilers and to unvaccinated SPF birds. It is discussed that passive immunity was involved in the rate of protection of challenged unvaccinated broiler and in the immune response impairment after vaccination of broilers chicks. The use of a constant virus suspension with known potency to challenge the experimental birds was suitable to evaluate vaccination efficacy. Evaluation of bursal and splenic responses at early and delayed time after challenge were useful to

  12. Microstructure evolution and fracture behavior in superplastic deformation of hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, D.L.; Zhang, K.F.; Wang, G.F. [School of Material Science and Technology, Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)

    2005-07-01

    Fine-grained AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets were prepared through hot rolling process. The superplastic properties of hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy was examined by uniaxial tensile tests at a temperature range 250{proportional_to}450 C and strain rate range 0.7 x 10{sup -3}{proportional_to}1.4 x 10{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Optical and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to observe the microstructure evolution and fracture behavior in superplastic deformation of AZ31 Mg alloy and the values of deformation activation energy at various temperatures were calculated. It is demonstrated that, the hot-rolled AZ31 alloy begins to exhibit superplasticity from 300 C and a maximum elongation of 362.5% is obtained at 400 C and 0.7 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. In the temperature range 300{proportional_to}400 C, the dominant superplastic deformation mechanism is grain boundary sliding (GBS) controlled by grain boundary diffusion and the influence of temperature on the fracture behavior of AZ31 Mg alloy is characterized by the change from dimple-aggregating type to intercrystalline one. (orig.)

  13. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Bisgaard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods: Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia...

  14. Superplastic behavior of hot extruded gamma TiAl (Mo, Si) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.A.; Carsi, M.; Ruano, O.A. [Dept. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain); Frommeyer, G.; Knippscher, S. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Max Planck Inst. fuer Eisenforschung, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wittig, J. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Superplastic behavior of hot extruded intermetallic Ti-46Al-1.7(Mo,Si) (at%) alloys was studied by stress change tests in compression and tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1050 C. The material produced by arc melting exhibited a structure of coarse lamellar grains in the as-cast condition that transforms to an equiaxic near {gamma} microstructure after processing by hot extrusion at 1250 C. This microstructure consists of zones of {gamma} grains finer than 1 {mu}m and band like regions with coarser grains, ranging from 5 to 20 {mu}m. In addition to {gamma} grains, a volume fraction of more than 20 vol% of {alpha}{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al particles finely dispersed are also present in the fine-grained zones. Compression tests of the extruded material at stresses ranging from 4 to 825 MPa showed values of the strain-rate-sensitivity exponent near 0.5 at low stresses and/or high temperatures. The microstructure in the fine-grained areas remains essentially constant during deformation. TEM analysis of deformed samples in this regime leads to relate grain boundary sliding as the mechanism controlling the deformation process. High elongation to failure, characteristic of superplasticity, was achieved at 975 and 1050 C at an initial strain rate of 4.6 x 10{sup -4} and 4.6 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. (orig.)

  15. Modeling and optimization of shape change in shell spatial cross-sections under superplastic moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumachenko, E. N.

    2008-08-01

    The necessity to develop and optimize new technological processes of gas moulding of shells under the superplasticity conditions, which ensure large elongation and complexity of the shape of end items, makes the specialists in the field of mathematical simulation to pose and solve problems of constant improvement of the imitation models. Because of a large number of "embedded" nonlinearities (the physical properties of the material, friction, and unknown boundaries), the solution of such problems requires large computer resources, high qualification of designers, and large amount of labor. In the present paper, we consider the problems of express analysis of pattern change of spatial shells on the basis of estimation of the behavior of their critical cross-sections. We solve problems of moulding of titan shells (made of VT6 alloy) in a matrix of complicated shape. We theoretically and experimentally justify the methods for predicting and constructing the optimal technological processes of shell deformation under conditions close to superplasticity by using the 2.5D designing procedures.

  16. SPF-A*: Searching Multimedia Data in Heterogeneous Mobile P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile P2P (MP2P network has been widely used in everyday life combined with the wireless technology development. However, most previous works concentrate on the assumption that the mobile peers are identical of their inner properties in compositing a MP2P network. However, in current network environment, heterogeneous devices are widely used; they may have different storage sizes, data transmission rate, processing ability and even security levels. In such kind of MP2P Network environment, how to make data transmission effectively is challenge. In this paper, we concentrate on how to effectively obtain a queried multimedia resource and generate a path for such data transmission on the overlay MP2P network, so as to make the resource more effectively transmit among the heterogeneous peers. A new path generating algorithm called SPF-A* (Super Peer First A* is devised, and simulation studies are conducted to validate our proposal.

  17. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  18. Probability of and risk factors for introduction of infectious diseases into Dutch SPF dairy farms : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van G.; Schukken, Y.H.; Nielen, M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Barkema, H.W.; Benedictus, G.

    2002-01-01

    A 2-year cohort study was conducted to investigate the probability of disease introduction into Dutch dairy farms. The farms were tested regularly for diseases and were visited biannually to collect management data. Ninety-five specific pathogen-free (SPF) dairy farms were selected from a database

  19. Superplastic behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Zubaydi, Ahmed S.J., E-mail: asaz1e11@soton.ac.uk [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Branch of Materials Science, Department of Applied Sciences, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Zhilyaev, Alexander P. [Institute for Problems of Metals Superplasticity, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khalturina 39, Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Wang, Shun C.; Reed, Philippa A.S. [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-18

    An investigation has been conducted on the tensile properties of a fine-grained AZ91 magnesium alloy processed at room temperature by high pressure torsion (HPT). Tensile testing was carried out at 423 K, 473 K and 573 K using strain rates from 1×10{sup −1} s{sup −1} to 1×10{sup −4} s{sup −1} for samples processed in HPT for N=1, 3, 5 and 10 turns. After testing was completed, the microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The alloy processed at room temperature in HPT exhibited excellent superplastic behaviour with elongations higher than elongations reported previously for fine-grained AZ91 alloy produced by other severe plastic deformation processes, e.g. HPT, ECAP and EX-ECAP. A maximum elongation of 1308% was achieved at a testing temperature of 573 K using a strain rate of 1×10{sup −4} s{sup −1}, which is the highest value of elongation reported to date in this alloy. Excellent high-strain rate superplasticity (HSRSP) was achieved with maximum elongations of 590% and 860% at temperatures of 473 K and 573 K, respectively, using a strain rate of 1×10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The alloy exhibited low-temperature superplasticity (LTSP) with maximum elongations of 660% and 760% at a temperature of 423 K and using strain rates of 1×10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and 1×10{sup −4} s{sup −1}, respectively. Grain-boundary sliding (GBS) was identified as the deformation mechanism during HSRSP, and the glide-dislocation creep accommodated by GBS dominated during LTSP. Grain-boundary sliding accommodated with diffusion creep was the deformation mechanism at high test temperature and slow strain rates. An enhanced thermal stability of the microstructure consisting of fine equiaxed grains during deformation at elevated temperature was attributed to the extremely fine grains produced in HPT at room temperature, a high volume fraction of nano β-particles, and the formation of β-phase filaments.

  20. Superplastic Solid-Phase Welding of 40 Cr-T10A Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of 40Cr and T10A steel sample and its surface to be welded is ultra-fined through salt-bath cyclic quenching and high frequency hardening, then the surface is cleaned. Under non-vacuum and no shielded gas, the welding parameter of isothermal superplastic solidphase welding and the effect of surface microstructure prior to pressure welding on the quality of joint are studied. At the temperature of 730~750°C and at initial strain rate of (2~4) × 10-4 s-1,the strength of the joint is up to or close to that of 40Cr base metal in 3~5 min pressure welding.

  1. Superplastic Deformation and Viscous Flow in an Zr-Based Metallic Glass at 410 Degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Mukai, T.; Nieh, T.G.; Wadsworth, J.; Wang, J.G.

    1998-12-01

    The thermal properties of an amorphous alloy (composition in at.%: Zr-l0Al-5Ti-l7.9Cu-14.6Ni), and particularly the glass transition and crystallization temperature as a function of heating rate, were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffraction analyses and Transmission Electron Microscopy were also conducted on samples heat-treated at different temperatures for comparison with the DSC results. Superplasticity in the alloy was studied at 410 degrees C, a temperature within the supercooled liquid region. Both single strain rate and strain rate cycling tests in tension were carried out to investigate the deformation behavior of the alloy in the supercooled liquid region. The experimental results indicated that the alloy did not behave like a Newtonian fluid.

  2. Synthesis and Enhanced Superplasticity of the Zirconia-dispersed Alumina Nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing CHEN; Kaifeng ZHANG; Wenbo HAN; Junting LUO

    2005-01-01

    A series of alumina-zirconia composites with various grain sizes were prepared from the nano-sized powders with different agglomerations. Microstructural analysis of the sintered compacts indicates that the as-sintered material is a typical intra/inter granular nanocomposite with uniform distribution of the zirconia grains in the alumina matrix.Superplastic deep drawing test under different conditions demonstrates that dense Al2O3/ZrO2 samples with average grain size of 230 nm can be elongated to a dome height of at least 12 mm at the punch rate of 0.6 mm.min-1at 1400℃. Further drawing tests show that for the composites with larger grain size, such elongation cannot be achieved at such a strain rate.

  3. Stored energy analysis of Zn-5Al eutectic alloy in superplastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stored energy and the energy release during SPD (superplastic deformation) ofa Zn-5Al alloy were studied. The alloy after rolling process gains more stored energy, and the as-rolled specimen can obtain maximum elongation and minimum flow stress without hot holding treatment before SPD. Experimental results show that stored energy release process is along with SPD process and is also an impetus to SPD. The as-rolled Zn-5Al alloy has 48 J/mol stored energy which was measured with DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) and conforms well to the calculated value. The as-rolled Zn-5Al alloy after SPD with an elongation of 2 500% releases 112 J/mol stored energy. Analysis shows that the strain rate is in direct ratio to the rate of stored energy release.

  4. Effects of crystal boundary gliding and dislocation on superplastic deformation of SiCw/6061 Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    SiCw/6061Al composite was fabricated with squeeze casting method, hot extruded and superplastically tensile tested. At the temperature of 570  ℃and the strain rate of 2.0×10-3 s-1, an elongation of 280% was obtained. The change of grain shape, dislocation density and distribution was observed by TEM. The results show that during the superplastic deformation grain shape on the whole is unchanged, but the dislocation density and distribution vary quite a lot with the tensile action. Under the optimal straining conditions, dislocation mainly distributes along the grain boundary, which has an important effect on cooperative strain especially. When the strain magnitude is big enough, there appears stacking faults and twin crystals, which also has some effect on the cooperative strain.

  5. Superplasticity of low carbon HSLA steel during bainite transformation. Teitanso teigokinko no beinaito hentai ni okeru chososei kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Miyaji, H.; Furubayashi, E. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Recently, the development of high strength low alloy steel (HSLA steel) of untempered type is advanced by using the comparatively high strength and excellent tenacity of the bainite or martensite of carbon remained being transformed. In the present researches, the superplasticity during the bainite transformation due to the continuous cooling and changes of the structure as well as the mechanical properties due to the superplastic deformation are examined with the samples of Mn-Cr-Mo system HSLA steel. The results obtained therefrom are shown as follows. The temperatre range of B[sub S] and bainite transformation is moving to the higher temperature side along with the increasing of the applied stress when it is over 60 MPa. The bainitic structure is composed of the mixture lath-like bainitic ferrite and granular bainitic ferrite in the use of having no applied stress, while the percentage of the latter increases simultaneously with the increasing of the applied stress. Transformation superplastic strain is increasing together with the increasing of the applied stress, and its increasing is over the linear function when the applied stress is above about 50 MPa. 22 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Ventilation Guidance To Promote the Safe Use of Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Insulation, Incluyendo la Versión de Español

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance describes basic ventilation principles and strategies to help protect workers and building occupants and promote the safe use of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation. Guia para la ventilacion sobre la application del aerosol de espuma.

  7. Effects of the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentives Grant (SPF SIG) on state prevention infrastructure in 26 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwin, Robert G; Stein-Seroussi, Alan; Edwards, Jessica M; Landy, Ann L; Flewelling, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG) program is a national public health initiative sponsored by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention to prevent substance abuse and its consequences. State grantees used a data-driven planning model to allocate resources to 450 communities, which in turn launched over 2,200 intervention strategies to target prevention priorities in their respective populations. An additional goal was to build prevention capacity and infrastructure at the state and community levels. This paper addresses whether the state infrastructure goal was achieved, and what contextual and implementation factors were associated with success. The findings are consistent with claims that, overall, the SPF SIG program met its goal of increasing prevention capacity and infrastructure across multiple infrastructure domains, though the mediating effects of implementation were evident only in the evaluation/monitoring domain. The results also show that an initiative like the SPF SIG, which could easily have been compartmentalized within the states, has the potential to permeate more broadly throughout state prevention systems.

  8. Experimental infection of SPF and Korean native chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Woo, Sang-Hee; Heo, Gyeong-Beom; Jung, Suk Chan; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In 2014, an H5N8 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in South Korea. The H5N8 strain produced mild to moderate clinical signs and mortality rates in commercial chicken farms, especially Korean native chicken farms. To understand the differences between their pathogenicity in SPF chicken and Korean native chicken., we evaluated the mean bird lethal doses (BLD50) of the Korean representative H5N8 virus (A/broiler duck/Korea/Buan2/2014) The BLD50values of the H5N8 virus were 10(5.3)EID50 and 10(6.7)EID50 in SPF and Korean native chickens, respectively. In addition, the mean death time was much longer, and the viral titers in tissues of H5N8-infected chickens were significantly lower, in the Korean group than in the SPF group. These features of the H5N8 virus likely account for its mild-to-moderate pathogenicity in commercial chicken farms, especially Korean native chicken flocks, despite the fact that it is a highly pathogenic virus according to the OIE criteria. To improve current understanding and management of HPAI, pathogenic characterization of novel emerging viruses should be performed by natural route in major poultry species in each country.

  9. SPF和正常鼠下呼吸道菌群多样性研究%Study on low respiratory tract microbiota diversity of SPF and normal mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文凯; 刘越坚; 唐立; 袁晓鹏; 徐星澈; 谭丽莎; 李坤; 戴凤翠; 刘银辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨SPF和正常鼠下呼吸道菌群多样性区别,为研究洁净环境下呼吸道菌群对免疫耐受形成的影响提供简便的动物模型.方法 采用飞行质谱和DGGE的方法检测正常和SPF BALB/c小鼠及Wistar大鼠呼吸道支气管肺泡灌洗液中菌群多样性的区别.结果 SPF BALB/c小鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度小于普通小鼠,下呼吸道菌群丰度小于消化道.SPF Wistar大鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度小于普通大鼠.结论 SPF环境造成鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度减小.%Objective To analyze the low respiratory tract microbiota diversity difference between SPF and normal mouse, provide a convenient animal model for the study of the effect of low respiratory tract microbiota on immune tolerance in clean environment. Methods Flight mass spectrometry and DGGE method were used to detect the microbiota diversity difference between normal and SPF mouse respiratory Bronchoalveolar lavage. Results The low respiratory tract microbiota diversity of SPF BALB/c mice was less than the normal mice, and the respiratory tract mierobiota diversity less than the digestive tract. SPF Wistar rat low respiratory tract microbiota diversity was less than ordinary rats. Conclusion The low mouse respiratory tract microbiota diversity decreases in SPF environment.

  10. Superplasticity. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    NASA IAA Journal Article Issue 10 Structural materials for future aerospace developments. Materiales estructurales para los futuros desarrollos...aeroespaciale (AA)GARCIA POGGIO. JOSE A. (Congreso Nacional de Ingenieria Mecanica , 6th, Madrid. Spain. Dec. 15-18, 1987) Ingenieria Aeronautica y Astronautica

  11. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin-treated SPF mice as gnotobiotic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Miroslav; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Maďar, Marián; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Hrčková, Gabriela; Nemcová, Radomíra

    2016-11-01

    The experiment was carried out on 24 SPF BALB/c female mice and lasted for 15 days with a 5-day antibiotic (ATB) treatment and then 10 days without ATB treatment. The aim of our study was to acquire an animal model with reduced and controlled microflora and, at the same time, to ensure that the good health of these animals is maintained. Per oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in Amoksiklav (Sandoz, Slovenia) at a dose of 387.11 mg/kg body weight (0.2 ml of dilution per mouse) and subcutaneous administration of ciprofloxacin in Ciloxan (Alcon, Spain) at a dose of 18.87 mg/kg body weight (0.1 ml of dilution per mouse) were performed every 12 h during first 5 days of experiment. Five-day treatment with ATB led to a reduced survivability of microorganisms in faeces (28.33 ± 0.43 % on day 2) and caecum content (28.10 ± 1.56 %), where no cultivable microorganisms in faeces were present. Ten-day convalescence of decontaminated animals under gnotobiotic conditions prevented recovery of species diversity in mice gut microflora. This was reduced to two detectable cultivable species, namely Escherichia coli (GenBank KX086704) and Enterococcus sp. (GenBank KX086705) which were capable to restore its metabolic (CRL 2012) and morphological potential (Baratta et al. Histochem Cell Biol 131:713-726, 2009) within physiological range. Animals obtained under this procedure can be used in further studies. As a result, we created a mouse gnoto model with reduced and controlled microflora without alteration of the overall health status of the respective animals.

  12. Importance of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in small intestine for urinary orotic acid excretion: analysis of OTC-deficient spf-ash mice with OTC transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Mori, K; Kobayashi, K; Horiuchi, M; Shige, T; Obara, T; Suzuki, S; Mori, M; Yamamura, K

    1995-01-25

    We report the effect of the ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) transgene composed of 1.3 kb of the 5' flanking region of the rat OTC gene fused to rat OTC cDNA on urinary orotic acid excretion in OTC-deficient spf-ash (sparse-fur with abnormal skin and hair) mice during overnight-starvation and nitrogen loading. During starvation, spf-ash mice with about 6% and 2% of control levels of OTC activity in the liver and small intestine excreted a large amount of orotic acid in the urine. Transgenic spf-ash mice with about 10% and 30% of the control OTC activities in the liver and small intestine did not excrete more than the normal level of orotic acid. Accidental parasitization of transgenic spf-ash mice with ticks (Myocoptes musculinus) resulted in decrease of the OTC activities in the liver and small intestine to the levels in spf-ash mice, and increased excretion of orotic acid. During extermination of the ticks, the mice showed varied levels of OTC activity and orotic acid excretion. On nitrogen loading, transgenic spf-ash mice as well as spf-ash mice excreted larger amounts of orotic acid, while control mice showed no increase in its excretion. The levels of urinary orotic acid were inversely correlated to the logarithms of the OTC activities in the liver and small intestine, the correlation being significantly higher with intestinal OTC than with hepatic OTC activity. These results suggest that the level of OTC activity in the small intestine is important for production of orotic acid.

  13. Thermally assisted deformation of structural superplastics and nanostructured materials: A personal perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Padmanabhan

    2003-02-01

    Optimal structural superplasticity and the deformation of nanostructured materials in the thermally activated region are regarded as being caused by the same physical process. In this analysis, grain/interphase boundary sliding controls the rate of deformation at the level of atomistics. Boundary sliding develops to a mesoscopic level by plane interface formation involving two or more boundaries and at this stage the rate controlling step is boundary migration. In other words, grain/interphase boundary sliding is viewed as a two-scale process. The non-zero, unbalanced shear stresses present at the grain/interphase boundaries ensure that near-random grain rotation is also a non-rate controlling concomitant of this mechanism. Expressions have been derived for the free energy of activation for the atomic scale rate controlling process, the threshold stress that should be crossed for the commencement of mesoscopic boundary sliding, the inverse Hall-Petch effect and the steady state rate equation connecting the strain rate to the independent variables of stress, temperature and grain size. Beyond the point of inflection in the log stress-log strain rate plot, climb controlled multiple dislocation motion within the grains becomes increasingly important and at sufficiently high stresses becomes rate controlling. The predictions have been validated experimentally.

  14. Superplastic behavior of silica nanowires obtained by direct patterning of silsesquioxane-based precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Mustafa; Wollschläger, Nicole; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf; Erdem Alaca, B.

    2017-03-01

    Silica nanowires spanning 10 μm-deep trenches are fabricated from different types of silsesquioxane-based precursors by direct e-beam patterning on silicon followed by release through deep reactive ion etching. Nanowire aspect ratios as large as 150 are achieved with a critical dimension of about 50 nm and nearly rectangular cross-sections. In situ bending tests are carried out inside a scanning electron microscope, where the etch depth of 10 μ {{m}} provides sufficient space for deformation. Silica NWs are indeed observed to exhibit superplastic behavior without fracture with deflections reaching the full etch depth, about two orders of magnitude larger than the nanowire thickness. A large-deformation elastic bending model is utilized for predicting the deviation from the elastic behavior. The results of forty different tests indicate a critical stress level of 0.1–0.4 GPa for the onset of plasticity. The study hints at the possibility of fabricating silica nanowires in a monolithic fashion through direct e-beam patterning of silsesquioxane-based resins. The fabrication technology is compatible with semiconductor manufacturing and provides silica nanowires with a very good structural integrity.

  15. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of Ultrafine Ti-6Al-4V During Low Temperature Superplastic Deformation (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    alloys , Russ. J. Non- Ferrous Met. 56 (2016) 437e441. [40] B.B. Straumal, X. Sauvage, B. Baretzky, A.A. Mazilkin, R.Z. Valiev, Grain boundary films in...dynamic coarsening response and plastic-flow behavior of the alloy with a mean size of α (sub)grains and β particles of 0.1–0.4 μm were determined via a...Very limited cavitation was observed in the specimens after superplastic deformation under optimal conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Titanium alloy ; Low

  16. Crystal structure of TDRD3 and methyl-arginine binding characterization of TDRD3, SMN and SPF30.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu

    Full Text Available SMN (Survival motor neuron protein was characterized as a dimethyl-arginine binding protein over ten years ago. TDRD3 (Tudor domain-containing protein 3 and SPF30 (Splicing factor 30 kDa were found to bind to various methyl-arginine proteins including Sm proteins as well later on. Recently, TDRD3 was shown to be a transcriptional coactivator, and its transcriptional activity is dependent on its ability to bind arginine-methylated histone marks. In this study, we systematically characterized the binding specificity and affinity of the Tudor domains of these three proteins quantitatively. Our results show that TDRD3 preferentially recognizes asymmetrical dimethylated arginine mark, and SMN is a very promiscuous effector molecule, which recognizes different arginine containing sequence motifs and preferentially binds symmetrical dimethylated arginine. SPF30 is the weakest methyl-arginine binder, which only binds the GAR motif sequences in our library. In addition, we also reported high-resolution crystal structures of the Tudor domain of TDRD3 in complex with two small molecules, which occupy the aromatic cage of TDRD3.

  17. Kinetics of biological decolorisation of anthraquinone based Reactive Blue 19 using an isolated strain of Enterobacter sp.F NCIM 5545.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Pinjari, Dipak V

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the bacterial decolorisation of Reactive Blue 19 by an Enterobacter sp.F which was isolated from a mixed culture from anaerobic digester for biogas production. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequencing comparisons indicate that Enterobacter sp.F was 99.7% similar to Enterobacter cloacae ATCC13047. The kinetics of Reactive Blue 19 dye decolorisation by bacterium had been estimated. Effects of substrate concentration, oxygen, temperature, pH, glucose and glucose to microbe weight ratio on the rate of decolorisation were investigated to understand key factor that determines the performance of dye decolorisation. The maximum decolorisation efficiency of Reactive Blue 19 was 90% over period of 24 h for optimized parameter. To the best of our knowledge, this research study is the report where Enterobacter sp.F has been reported with about 90% decolorizing ability against anthraquinone based Reactive Blue 19 dye.

  18. Hot Workability and Superplasticity of Low-Al and High-Nb Containing TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Zhao, Fengtong; Chu, Yudong; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan

    2017-09-01

    The superplastic deformation mechanism of low-Al and high-Nb containing TiAl alloy was investigated in compression mode. The experimental results showed that intense dynamic recrystallization (DRX) breaks the balance and leads to a significant drop in flow stress after the peak when deforming below 950°C. Arrhenius kinetic analysis revealed that the activation energy for superplastic compression first increased then decreased with temperature, suggesting a change in the deformation mechanism. Microstructure observations showed that, when deformed at 850°C, the deformation mechanism was grain-boundary sliding accommodated by γ-DRX, γ-intragranular deformation, and β/B2-phase decomposition, while the mechanism was grain-boundary sliding accommodated by γ-DRX, β/B2-DRX, and γ → β/B2 + α 2 phase transformation when deformed at 1000°C. After compression, the microstructure tended to be uniform, which may yield important information for the development of new deformation techniques for TiAl alloys.

  19. Influence of carbon content on superplastic behavior in Ti- and B-added Cr-Mo steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, M.; Higashida, K.; Onodera, R. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1999-05-01

    Superplasticity has been investigated in various ferrous alloys and steels. However, in these materials, especially in hypoeutectoid steels below the A{sub 1} temperature, the relationship between the content of carbon and elongation to failure is not obvious. In the present investigation, the influence of carbon content on superplastic behavior is studied using carbon steels based on Cr-Mo steel. In order to obtain the fine grain structure, a small amount of Ti and B were added and the content of carbon was controlled to be in the range from 0.24 to 0.83 pct. The largest value of elongation to failure was 644 pct, which was obtained for a specimen containing 0.58 pct carbon. The temperature and strain rate at which the maximum value was obtained were 710 C and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Of all the specimens, this specimen had the minimum grain size. Moreover, the area fraction of carbide took the maximum value at the temperature where the largest elongation value was obtained. These results show that the addition of carbon has an effect on grain refinement by the formation of carbide, but excess amounts of carbon (>0.6 pct) bring about premature failure because of the resulting coarse microstructure and larger carbides.

  20. Effects of friction stir processing on the microstructure and superplasticity of in situ nano-ZrB2/2024Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao Zhao; Xizhou Kai; Gang Chen; Weili Lin; Chunmei Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, in situ nano-ZrB2/2024Al composites fabricated from 2024Al–K2ZrF6–KBF4 system were processed by friction stir processing (FSP) to achieve superplasticity of the composites. And the effects of particle contents (1 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt%), matrix grain size (micron or sub-micron), strain rates (5 × 10¯3 s¯1, 1 × 10¯2 s¯1, 2 × 10¯2 s¯1) and deformation temperatures (400 K, 480 K, 600 K, 700 K, 750 K) on the superplasticity of the composites were investigated. After the friction stir processing, the coarse grains of the cast composites with matrix grain size of about 80–100 μm and nano-ZrB2 reinforcement size of 30–100 nm were crushed into small grains about 1 μm in size, and the uniformity of the nano-ZrB2 reinforcements was also improved. And under the same superplastic tensile testing condition at the temperature of 750 K and strain rate of 5 × 10¯3 s¯1, the FSP nano 3 wt%ZrB2/2024Al composite exhibited an superplastic elongation of 292.5%, while the elongation of the corresponding cast composite was only less than 100%. Meanwhile, the m values of the FSP composites were always higher than the cast composites, especially the FSP composites with 3 wt% particles has the m value of 0.5321 i.e., the FSP composites should had better superplastic properties than cast ones. Furthermore, the FSP composites had higher apparent deformation activation energy (Q) than that of the lattice diffusion of pure aluminium, indicating that the deformation mechanisms of the FSP composites should be grain boundary sliding mechanisms.

  1. Comparison of GP5+/6+-PCR and SPF10-line blot assays for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in samples from women with normal cytology results who develop grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, A.T.; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Heideman, D.A.; Groothuismink, Z.M.; Rozendaal, L.; Berkhof, J.; Kemenade, F.J. van; Massuger, L.A.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Meijer, C.J.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Using a case control approach, we performed a two-way comparison study between GP5+/6+-PCR and HPV SPF(10)-Line Blot 25 (SPF(10)) assays for detection of 14 types of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in samples from women with normal cytology results who had or developed grade 3 cervical

  2. Kiemgetallen van facultatief anaerobe bacterien en relatieve gewichten van thymus, milt en coecum bij N:NIH muizen en Riv:TOX ratten, gehouden onder SPF condities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot R; Bakker RHG; Veenema JL; LPM

    1994-01-01

    This report describes variations in the levels of groups of facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the intestinal tract and the relative weights of caecum, thymus and spleen in N:NIH mice and Riv:TOX rats kept under SPF conditions. Considerable variation in the composition of the enteric bacterial

  3. [Effect of Low Dose of Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in Attenuated Vaccine on SPF Chicken Body Weight and Vaccine Immune Antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lichun; Li, Xiaohan; Ren, Zhihao; Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-03-01

    In order to observe the effect of the immune and weight of chickens after use the attenuated vaccine with low dose of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV). In this study, the effects of low dose of CIAV on the weight of SPF chickens and NDV antibody production were observed by simulated experiments. The results showed that 10 EID50 and 5 EID50 CIAV per plume attenuated NDV vaccines were used to cause the weight loss of SPF chickens. Compared with the use of the non contaminated vaccine group, it has significant difference. And NDV antibody levels compared with the use of the non contaminated groups also decreased after use the vaccine with two doses of CIAV contaminated. It has significant difference. A certain proportion of CIAV antibody positive was detected at the beginning of the second week after use the NDV vaccine with two doses of CIAV contaminated. The detection of a high proportion of CIAV nucleic acid was detected in the first week after the use of a contaminated vaccine. The results of the study demonstrate the effects of CIAV pollution on the production and immune function of SPF chickens, and it is suggested that increasing the detection of viral nucleic acid can help save time and improve the detection rate in the detection of exogenous virus contamination by SPF chicken test method.

  4. Effect of an in ovo infection with a Dutch avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolate on the growth and immunological performance of SPF broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, W.J.M.; Post, J.; Boonstra Blom, A.G.; Buyse, J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Koch, G.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of an in ovo infection with a Dutch isolate of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) on the growth of specific pathogen free (SPF) broiler chickens was analysed. During this study, possible immune suppressive effects of ALV-J were assessed by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity with

  5. The effect of weaning on the clonality of alpha beta T-cell receptor T cells in the intestine of GF and SPF mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Christopher S J; Williams, Amanda M; Stepankova, Renata; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena; Phillips, Anne; Bland, Paul W

    2007-01-01

    In humans, intestinal antigen exposure during neonatal life influences the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. To define the relative effects of bacteria and food antigens in early life, we examined TCR diversity in the intestine of SPF and GF mice. TCR repertoire was assessed at a single time point pre-, peri- and post-weaning in the small and large intestine of SPF and GF mice using spectratyping and/or TCR-beta-chain sequencing. There was good concordance of data obtained by the two techniques. In SPF mice, the repertoire was polyclonal shortly after birth in the small and large intestine. After weaning, there was a significant change towards an oligoclonal repertoire in the small intestine. There was some evidence that specific clones were shared between the small and large intestine. In contrast, in GF mice, the repertoire was oligoclonal after birth, and remained restricted. These data show: firstly, that under SPF conditions, the intestine is seeded with a diverse T-cell population that becomes oligoclonal around the time of weaning; secondly, that GF mice were oligoclonal at each time point.

  6. Checklist of Safe Work Practices for Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) for Contractors, Incluyendo la Versión de Español

    Science.gov (United States)

    A contractor checklist aimed at helping spray polyurethane foam (SPF) professional contractors protect themselves, workers and others. Guía de las prácticas seguras en el lugar de trabajo para la aplicación del aerosol de espuma aislante de poliuretano.

  7. Contractor-Client Communications Checklist for Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF), Incluyendo la Versión de Español

    Science.gov (United States)

    This checklist provides professional contractors and clients topics to discuss so that the client understands what to expect when a professional contractor installs SPF insulation. Lista de verificación de comunicación del contratista y el cliente.

  8. Comparative metagenomic analysis of the enteric viromes from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chickens placed on broiler farms with enteric disease signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metagenomics approaches have identified novel viruses in the poultry gastrointestinal tract, but these viruses and viral communities and their roles in general gut health have not been fully characterized. This study investigates the colonization of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens by enteric v...

  9. Cooperative grain boundary sliding at room temperature of a Zn-20.2%Al-1.8%Cu superplastic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Andrade, J.D. [Dept. de Materiales, Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico); Mendoza-Allende, A.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J.A. [Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Torres-Villasenor, G. [Inst. de Investigacion en Materiales, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    By applying a new technique [1-2] which provides a mesoscopic coordinate system inscribed on the surface of a tensile specimen, with 371 {mu}m gage length for a Zn-20.2%Al-1.8%Cu superplastic alloy deformed at room temperature it is possible to show that: Deformation of the sample it is homogeneous at macroscopic level, but inhomogeneous at mesoscopical level. The inhomogeneity is ascribed to the sliding of grain blocks. For 28.5% of deformation the distribution function for the block sizes is described by: N(x) = 1.37 x{sup 3}exp(-3x/12.2 {mu}m), where, N(x) is the number of blocks of size x, inside an area of about 172 x 244 ({mu}m){sup 2}. (orig.)

  10. Morphology and structure of various phases at the bonding interface of Al/steel formed by explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Hashimoto; Sukedai; Zhang; Zhang

    2000-01-01

    The bonding interface of explosively-welded aluminium and steel in three explosive conditions have been investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis methods. The results show that all the interfaces have the shape of waves with curled front formed by process of superplasticity and some discontinuous reacted zones. They consist of amorphous and nano sized crystals and quasi-crystals as well as the compounds such as AlFe, Al2Fe, Al3Fe and Al6Fe with various shapes. The basal steel crystal near the interface has structure of martensite and perlite crystals which are deformed by the process of superplasticity. The size of reacted zone becomes large with increasing amount of explosive charge powder and separation of the driver Al plate from the basal steel plate.

  11. The effects of various inhibitors on the regulation of orotic acid excretion in sparse-fur mutant mice (spf/Y) deficient in ornithine transcarbamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J; Qureshi, I A; Vasudevan, S; Sarma, D S

    1993-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the excessive orotic aciduria, induced in sparse-fur male mice (spf/Y) deficient in ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), may be regulated by some inhibitors, such as acivicin (0.014 mmol/100 g body weight, i.p.), N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA, 2.5 mg/100 g body weight, i.p.), adenine (3 g/kg diet) and cycloheximide (0.35 mmol/kg body weight, i.p.). We also administered ornithine (1 mmol/100 g body weight, i.p.), a substrate of the urea cycle, to alleviate the metabolic deficiency of arginine in spf/Y mice which may also be responsible for excessive orotic aciduria. The orotic aciduria remained insensitive to acivicin, indicating mitochondria as the source of carbamyl phosphate. However, orotate excretion was significantly decreased by PALA (P handle excess mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate and orotic acid.

  12. Feasibility of dsRNA treatment for post-clearing SPF shrimp stocks of newly discovered viral infections using Laem Singh virus (LSNV) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Charoonnart, Patai; Flegel, Timothy W

    2017-05-02

    Using post-larvae derived from specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks in penaeid shrimp farming has led to a dramatic increase in production. At the same time, new pathogens of farmed shrimp are continually being discovered. Sometimes these pathogens are carried by shrimp and other crustaceans as persistent infections without gross signs of disease. Thus it is that a 5-generation stock of Penaeus monodon SPF for several pathogens was found, post-stock-development, to be persistently-infected with newly-discovered Laem Singh virus (LSNV). In this situation, the stock developers were faced with destroying their existing stock (developed over a long period at considerable cost) and starting the whole stock development process anew in order to add LSNV to its SPF list. As an alternative, it was hypothesized that injection of complementary dsRNA into viral-infected broodstock prior to mating might inhibit replication of the target virus sufficiently to reduce or eliminate its transmission to their offspring. Subsequent selection of uninfected offspring would allow for post-clearing of LSNV from the existing stock and for conversion of the stock to LSNV-free status. Testing this hypothesis using the LSNV-infected stock described above, we found that transmission was substantially reduced in several treated broodstock compared to much higher transmission in buffer-injected broodstock. Based on these results, the model is proposed for post-clearing of SPF stocks using dsRNA treatment. The model may also be applicable to post-clearing of exceptional, individual performers from grow-out ponds for return to a nucleus breeding center. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of friction stir processing on the microstructure and superplasticity of in situ nano-ZrB2/2024Al composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in situ nano-ZrB2/2024Al composites fabricated from 2024Al–K2ZrF6–KBF4 system were processed by friction stir processing (FSP to achieve superplasticity of the composites. And the effects of particle contents (1 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt%, matrix grain size (micron or sub-micron, strain rates (5×10−3 s−1, 1×10−2 s−1, 2×10−2 s−1 and deformation temperatures (400 K, 480 K, 600 K, 700 K, 750 K on the superplasticity of the composites were investigated. After the friction stir processing, the coarse grains of the cast composites with matrix grain size of about 80–100 μm and nano-ZrB2 reinforcement size of 30–100 nm were crushed into small grains about 1 μm in size, and the uniformity of the nano-ZrB2 reinforcements was also improved. And under the same superplastic tensile testing condition at the temperature of 750 K and strain rate of 5×10−3 s−1, the FSP nano 3 wt%ZrB2/2024Al composite exhibited an superplastic elongation of 292.5%, while the elongation of the corresponding cast composite was only less than 100%. Meanwhile, the m values of the FSP composites were always higher than the cast composites, especially the FSP composites with 3 wt% particles has the m value of 0.5321 i.e., the FSP composites should had better superplastic properties than cast ones. Furthermore, the FSP composites had higher apparent deformation activation energy (Q than that of the lattice diffusion of pure aluminium, indicating that the deformation mechanisms of the FSP composites should be grain boundary sliding mechanisms.

  14. A new mouse model of mild ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (spf-j displays cerebral amino acid perturbations at baseline and upon systemic immune activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana N Tarasenko

    Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD, OMIM# 311250 is an inherited X-linked urea cycle disorder that is characterized by hyperammonemia and orotic aciduria. In this report, we describe a new animal model of OTCD caused by a spontaneous mutation in the mouse Otc gene (c.240T>A, p.K80N. This transversion in exon 3 of ornithine transcarbamylase leads to normal levels of mRNA with low levels of mature protein and is homologous to a mutation that has also been described in a single patient affected with late-onset OTCD. With higher residual enzyme activity, spf-J were found to have normal plasma ammonia and orotate. Baseline plasma amino acid profiles were consistent with mild OTCD: elevated glutamine, and lower citrulline and arginine. In contrast to WT, spf-J displayed baseline elevations in cerebral amino acids with depletion following immune challenge with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Our results indicate that the mild spf-J mutation constitutes a new mouse model that is suitable for mechanistic studies of mild OTCD and the exploration of cerebral pathophysiology during acute decompensation that characterizes proximal urea cycle dysfunction in humans.

  15. A new mouse model of mild ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (spf-j) displays cerebral amino acid perturbations at baseline and upon systemic immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Tatyana N; Rosas, Odrick R; Singh, Larry N; Kristaponis, Kara; Vernon, Hilary; McGuire, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD, OMIM# 311250) is an inherited X-linked urea cycle disorder that is characterized by hyperammonemia and orotic aciduria. In this report, we describe a new animal model of OTCD caused by a spontaneous mutation in the mouse Otc gene (c.240T>A, p.K80N). This transversion in exon 3 of ornithine transcarbamylase leads to normal levels of mRNA with low levels of mature protein and is homologous to a mutation that has also been described in a single patient affected with late-onset OTCD. With higher residual enzyme activity, spf-J were found to have normal plasma ammonia and orotate. Baseline plasma amino acid profiles were consistent with mild OTCD: elevated glutamine, and lower citrulline and arginine. In contrast to WT, spf-J displayed baseline elevations in cerebral amino acids with depletion following immune challenge with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Our results indicate that the mild spf-J mutation constitutes a new mouse model that is suitable for mechanistic studies of mild OTCD and the exploration of cerebral pathophysiology during acute decompensation that characterizes proximal urea cycle dysfunction in humans.

  16. Optimization of Hyaluronidase Inhibition Activity from Prunus davidiana (Carriere) Franch Fruit Extract Fermented by its Isolated Bacillus subtilis Strain SPF4211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Baek; Park, So Hae; Koo, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Bo Ram; Kim, Minji; Lee, Heeseob

    2016-09-28

    Strain SPF4211, having hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibition activity, was isolated from P. davidiana (Carriere) Franch fruit (PrDF) sugar extract. The phenotypic and biochemical properties based on 16S rDNA sequencing and an API 50 CHB kit suggested that the organism was B. subtilis. To optimize the HAase inhibition activity of PrDF extract by fermentation of strain SPF4211, a central composite design (CCD) was introduced based on three variables: concentration of PrDF extract (X₁: 1-5%), amount of starter culture (X₂: 1-5%), and fermentation time (X₃: 0-7 days). The experimental data were fitted with quadratic regression equations, and the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA. The statistical model predicted the highest HAase inhibition activity of 37.936% under the optimal conditions of X₁ = 1%, X₂ = 2.53%, and X₃ = 7 days. The optimized conditions were validated by observation of an actual HAase inhibition activity of 38.367% from extract of PrDF fermented by SPF4211. These results agree well with the predicted model value.

  17. Super plastic forming of the Cd-17.4 Zn alloy; Conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4 Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llanes Briceno, J. A.; Torres Villasenor, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    In the present work the necessary steps to carry on the superplastic forming of the Cd-17.4 Zn alloy are defined. The use of either atmospheric pressure or gas pressure as forming tools is analyzed. The optimum values of the variables involved (temperature, maximum strain and sensitivity index) are determined while a method for the characterization of future superplastic alloys is set forth. The experimental characterization of the superplastic forming is achieved with free bulging of circular membranes of 12, 16, 24, 32 and 40 mm in diameter and with three different membrane thicknesses (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm). [Spanish] Se definen los pasos necesarios para el conformado superplastico de la aleacion Cd-17.4Zn. Se comparan la presion atmosferica y el gas a presion como herramientas de conformado. Se determinan los valores optimos de las variables involucradas (temperatura, deformacion maxima e indice de sensibilidad) y se plantea una metodologia para la caracterizacion de futuras aleaciones superplasticas. El conformado superplastico se caracteriza experimentalmente mediante el inflado libre de membranas circulares de 12, 16, 24, 32 y 40 mm de diametro y tres diferentes espesores (0.4, 0.6 y 0.8 mm).

  18. Apoptose e expressão de VP2 e GAPDH na infecção precoce pelo vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius em pintos SPF Apoptosis and expression of VP2 and GADPH in an experimental infectious bursal disease in SPF chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Batista

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove pintos SPF de um dia foram inoculados com o vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius (VDIB para avaliar a ocorrência precoce de apoptose e a expressão da proteína viral 2 (VP2 e da enzima gliceraldeído fosfato dehidrogenase (GAPDH. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos: 1-controle; e 2 a 5- com 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas pós-inoculação, respectivamente. Fragmentos da bursa de Fabricius foram colhidos para processamento histológico e extração de RNA. Lâminas coradas em HE e TUNEL (marcação in situ da fragmentação do genoma com transferase terminal de deoxinucleotídeo foram utilizadas na morfometria do índice apoptótico. Amostras de mRNA foram testadas para a expressão dos genes VP2 e GAPDH utilizando-se transcrição reversa e RT-PCR. Utilizou-se um kit SYBR GREEN PCR, e a reação foi desenvolvida em ABI Prism 7000 SDS. Os índices apoptóticos cresceram progressivamente indicando uma relação na atrofia bursal causada pelo VDIB. Paralelamente, os resultados da PCR em tempo real demonstraram queda da carga viral nas células linfóides da bursa nos diferentes intervalos de tempo do experimento. Esses resultados sugerem um papel protetor da apoptose na diminuição da replicação viral.Twenty-nine SPF 1-day-old chicks were inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV to evaluate early apoptosis and the expression of viral protein 2 (VP2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GAPDH. Five groups were formed: G1-control -and G2 to G5, - 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation, respectively. Half of each BF was fixed and processed by routine techniques. To quantify apoptosis, 5µm-thick sections were stained with HE and submitted to TUNEL (terminal transferase UDP nick end labeling technique. mRNA was extracted from pooled samples of 3 animals/group and used for the expression of VP2 and GADPH genes using the reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A SYBR

  19. Assessing Community Coalition Capacity and its Association with Underage Drinking Prevention Effectiveness in the Context of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Robert L; Hanley, Sean M

    2016-10-01

    Community coalitions are a prominent organizational structure through which community-based substance abuse prevention efforts are implemented. There is little empirical evidence, however, regarding the association between coalition attributes and success in achieving community-level reductions in substance abuse behaviors. In this study, we assessed the relationship between coalition capacity, based on coalition coordinator responses to 16 survey items, and reductions in underage drinking prevalence rates. The coalitions were funded through the federally sponsored Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG). We first examined whether coalition capacity increased over the life of the projects. Mean capacity scores increased for all 16 capacity items examined (N = 318 coalitions), the majority of which were statistically significant. Analysis of the associations between capacity and reductions in underage drinking was limited to coalitions that targeted underage drinking and provided usable outcome measures based on student survey data for either past 30-day alcohol use (N = 129) or binge drinking (N = 100). Bivariate associations between the capacity items and prevalence reductions for each outcome were consistently positive, although many were not statistically significant. Composite measures of correlated items were then created to represent six different capacity constructs, and included in multivariate models to predict reductions in the targeted outcomes. Constructs that significantly predicted reductions in one or both outcome measures included internal organization and structure, community connections and outreach, and funding from multiple sources. The findings provide support for the expectation that high functioning community coalitions can be effective agents for producing desirable community-level changes in targeted substance abuse behaviors.

  20. The SPF27 homologue Num1 connects splicing and kinesin 1-dependent cytoplasmic trafficking in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Nikola; Heimel, Kai; Obhof, Theresa; Finkernagel, Florian; Kämper, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The conserved NineTeen protein complex (NTC) is an integral subunit of the spliceosome and required for intron removal during pre-mRNA splicing. The complex associates with the spliceosome and participates in the regulation of conformational changes of core spliceosomal components, stabilizing RNA-RNA- as well as RNA-protein interactions. In addition, the NTC is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control, response to DNA damage, as well as formation and export of mRNP-particles. We have identified the Num1 protein as the homologue of SPF27, one of NTC core components, in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis. Num1 is required for polarized growth of the fungal hyphae, and, in line with the described NTC functions, the num1 mutation affects the cell cycle and cell division. The num1 deletion influences splicing in U. maydis on a global scale, as RNA-Seq analysis revealed increased intron retention rates. Surprisingly, we identified in a screen for Num1 interacting proteins not only NTC core components as Prp19 and Cef1, but several proteins with putative functions during vesicle-mediated transport processes. Among others, Num1 interacts with the motor protein Kin1 in the cytoplasm. Similar phenotypes with respect to filamentous and polar growth, vacuolar morphology, as well as the motility of early endosomes corroborate the genetic interaction between Num1 and Kin1. Our data implicate a previously unidentified connection between a component of the splicing machinery and cytoplasmic transport processes. As the num1 deletion also affects cytoplasmic mRNA transport, the protein may constitute a novel functional interconnection between the two disparate processes of splicing and trafficking.

  1. The SPF27 homologue Num1 connects splicing and kinesin 1-dependent cytoplasmic trafficking in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kellner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conserved NineTeen protein complex (NTC is an integral subunit of the spliceosome and required for intron removal during pre-mRNA splicing. The complex associates with the spliceosome and participates in the regulation of conformational changes of core spliceosomal components, stabilizing RNA-RNA- as well as RNA-protein interactions. In addition, the NTC is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control, response to DNA damage, as well as formation and export of mRNP-particles. We have identified the Num1 protein as the homologue of SPF27, one of NTC core components, in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis. Num1 is required for polarized growth of the fungal hyphae, and, in line with the described NTC functions, the num1 mutation affects the cell cycle and cell division. The num1 deletion influences splicing in U. maydis on a global scale, as RNA-Seq analysis revealed increased intron retention rates. Surprisingly, we identified in a screen for Num1 interacting proteins not only NTC core components as Prp19 and Cef1, but several proteins with putative functions during vesicle-mediated transport processes. Among others, Num1 interacts with the motor protein Kin1 in the cytoplasm. Similar phenotypes with respect to filamentous and polar growth, vacuolar morphology, as well as the motility of early endosomes corroborate the genetic interaction between Num1 and Kin1. Our data implicate a previously unidentified connection between a component of the splicing machinery and cytoplasmic transport processes. As the num1 deletion also affects cytoplasmic mRNA transport, the protein may constitute a novel functional interconnection between the two disparate processes of splicing and trafficking.

  2. Real time PCR quantification of WSSV infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) exposed to antiviral nucleotide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Badhul Haq; K Kalai Priya; R Rajaram; R Vignesh; M Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) to specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in laboratory captivity condition in relation to PCR detection, histopathological observation and viral genome sequence. Methods: Viral DNA was isolated from purified virions by treatment with proteinase K (0.2 mg/mL) and Sarkosyl (1%). The purity and concentration of the DNA were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moribund and dead shrimp were removed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis. Histological observation of infected L. vannamei shrimps were revealed by the degenerated cells which were characterized by intranuclear inclusions in the tissues of WSSV infected mid-gut gland, lymphoid organ, gill lamellae and gut epithelium. Total DNA was extracted, from shrimp hemolymph and tissues, with a High Puree PCR template preparation kit. WSSV-DNA was detected using a commercial 2-step PCR detection kit. Results:The present study compares the real-time PCR results with SYBR Green I concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.7×. The positive standard was used in the range of 102, 104 106, 108 and 1010 copies/ng of DNA in general. The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band of 848 bp. Moderate and severe levels were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 & 2 000 copies) in various transmission routes. The WSSV content in moribund shrimp of all the experimental species (L. vannamei) approximately ranged in nucleotide application by quantification method from 0.000 001 WSSV copies/μg of total DNA. In whole moribund infection animal, approximately 0.02 WSSV copies/μg of DNA was detected in nucleotide applied animal. Conclusion: These results indicate that wild brood stock and native culture shrimp P. monodon may be infected with WSSV and can get transferred into the SPF L. vannamei farming

  3. 隔离器饲育SPF鸡微生物质量控制方法的建立%Establishment of microbiological quality control methods on breeding SPF chickens raised in the isolators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬奋; 张瑞忠; 孙凤萍; 王佳乐

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish production management and the methods of microbiological quality control on breeding SPF chickens raised in the isolator. Methods The chickens were bred in the isolator after the eggs from introduced SPF chickens were hatched out. The sera obtained from 10 ,20,40-week-old SPF chickens were used to monitor microbiological quality in order to detect the effectiveness of the current production management and the methods of microbiological quality control on SPF chickens. Results Because the hatching process was not strickly controlled during the early stage of breeding SPF chickens in the isolator,there were the emergence of microbiological contamination. Microbiological condition of the isolator breeding SPF chickens was effectively controlled after improving the operation management during the hatching process. Conclusion If the disinfection during all breeding stages is strengthened ,the microbiological quality of SPF chickens in the isolator could be ensured. The appropriate control on the density of SPF chickens in the isolator is not only beneficial to the breeding of SPF chickens and the recycling of hatching eggs ,but also helpful to the control of environmental microbiology.%目的 建立隔离器饲育SPF鸡生产管理方式,探讨并建立其微生物质量控制方法.方法 对引进的SPF鸡种蛋进行孵化后,将种鸡置于隔离器中进行饲养,在种鸡10、20、40周龄时采取鸡血清进行微生物质量监测,检验当前SPF鸡生产管理和微生物质量控制方法的有效性.结果 隔离器饲育SPF鸡初期由于对孵化环节控制不严出现了微生物污染现象.在对孵化环节操作管理改进后,隔离器饲育SPF鸡的微生物状况得到控制.结论通过加强各个环节消毒,隔离器饲育环境能够保证SPF鸡的微生物质量.适当控制隔离器内SPF鸡的密度不仅有利于SPF鸡的繁育和种蛋回收,而且有利于环境微生物的控制.

  4. Superplasticity of a fine-grained Mg–9Gd–4Y–0.4Zr alloy evaluated using shear punch testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alizadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The superplasticity of an extruded fine-grained Mg–9Gd–4Y–0.4Zr alloy was investigated by measuring the strain rate sensitivity using shear punch testing (SPT. Shear punch tests were conducted at shear strain rates in the range of 3 × 10−3–2 × 10−1 s−1 and at temperatures in the range of 573–773 K. The results indicate the strain rate sensitivity, m, increases from about 0.11 at 573 K to about 0.40 at 723 K and then decreases to 0.32 with a further increase in test temperature. A strain rate sensitivity of 0.40 and an activation energy of 140 kJ/mol are indicative of a superplastic deformation behavior dominated by grain boundary sliding accommodated by lattice diffusion at temperatures above 673 K.

  5. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisgaard Magne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert.

  6. Synergetic effects of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infection on growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuan; Ju, Sidi; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-08-27

    To further understand the effect of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, the experiment was made to study the pathogenicity, the weight of body and immune organs, response to newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were randomly divided into four groups, which includes injection groups (REV, ALV-J, REV plus ALV-J), and negative control group. The pathogenesis experiments indicated that chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly higher mortality rate than those of the chickens infected with REV or ALV-J alone (P0.05) on bursa and thymus over body wt ratios, however, chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower titers than REV-infected chickens and ALV-J-infected chickens on HI antibody titers to ND and AIV-H9 after vaccination (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the co-infection of REV and ALV-J caused more serious growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.

  7. Preparo de vacina oleosa experimental contra bronqute infecciosa das galinhas e avaliação em aves gnotobióticas (GN) em aves livres de patógenos (SPF)

    OpenAIRE

    Dorileia Oliveira Resende

    1985-01-01

    Preparo de vacina oleosa experimental contra bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (big) e avaliação em aves gnotibióticas (gn) e em aves livres de patógenos (sff). Foi preparada uma vacina oleosa experimental, sob forma de emulsão dupla e testada em aves gn e em aves spf.oProduto final atingiu os requisitos de estabilidade, viscosidade e tipo de emulsão. As aves gn foram criadas em isoladores apropriados e divididas em dois grupos de quatro aves cada (vacinadas e não vacinadas). As aves spf fora...

  8. Preparo de vacina oleosa experimental contra bronqute infecciosa das galinhas e avaliação em aves gnotobióticas (GN) em aves livres de patógenos (SPF)

    OpenAIRE

    Dorileia Oliveira Resende

    1985-01-01

    Preparo de vacina oleosa experimental contra bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (big) e avaliação em aves gnotibióticas (gn) e em aves livres de patógenos (sff). Foi preparada uma vacina oleosa experimental, sob forma de emulsão dupla e testada em aves gn e em aves spf.oProduto final atingiu os requisitos de estabilidade, viscosidade e tipo de emulsão. As aves gn foram criadas em isoladores apropriados e divididas em dois grupos de quatro aves cada (vacinadas e não vacinadas). As aves spf fora...

  9. Development of unconventional forming methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents results of progress ECAP processing method for UFG structure reached (gained.The properties and microstructure are influenced by technological factors during application ECAP method.Design/methodology/approach: Summary of methods studied on Department of technology at Machining faculty of VŠB-TU Ostrava through of co-operation with Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology is presented.Findings: Achievement of ultra-fine grained structure in initial material leads to substantial increase of plasticity and makes it possible to form materials in conditions of „superplastic state“. Achievement of the required structure depends namely of the tool geometry, number of passes through the matrix, obtained deformation magnitude and strain rate, process temperature and lubrication conditions. High deformation at comparatively low homologous temperatures is an efficient method of production of ultra-fine grained solid materials.The new technologies, which use severe plastic deformation, comprise namely these techniques: High Pressure Torsion, Equal Channel Angular Pressing = ECAP, Cyclic Channel Die Compression = CCDC, Cyclic Extrusion Compression = CEC, Continuous Extrusion Forming = CONFORM, Accumulative Roll Bonding, Constrained Groove Pressing.Research limitations/implications: Achieved hardness and microstructure characteristics will be determined by new research.Practical implications: The results may be utilized for a relation between structure and properties of the investigated materials in future process of manufacturing.Originality/value: These results contribute to complex evaluation of properties new metals after application unconventional forming methods. The results of this paper are determined for research workers deal by the process severe plastic deformation.

  10. Study on Injection of Zedoary Turmeric Volatile Oil against Newcastle Disease Virus in SPF Chicken Embryo Inoculation%莪术油注射液鸡胚接种抗新城疫病毒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学理; 鄢长庆; 刘珂飞; 杨明; 杨明霞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the inhibiting and killing effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the newcastle disease virus. [ Method] The inhibitory effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the multiplication of the newcastle disease virus was determined by the SPF chicken embryo culture and hemagglutination test. [ Result] The zedoary turmeric volatile oil had no toxicity effect on the SPF chicken embryo. Inoculating SPF chicken embryo synchronously with the zedoary turmeric volatile oil and the virus allantoic fluid could completely inhibit the reproduction of the newcastle disease virus in the SPF chicken embryo. [Conclusion] The study provided the theoretical basis for the application of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil in the Veterinary Clinical.%[目的]探讨莪术油对新城疫病毒的抑制和杀灭作用.[方法]用鸡胚培养法和血凝试验,测定莪术油对鸡新城疫病毒增殖的抑制作用.[结果]莪术油对鸡胚无毒性作用;莪术油与病毒同时接种鸡胚,能完全抑制鸡新城疫病毒在鸡胚中的增殖.[结论]结果为莪术油在兽医临床上的应用提供了理论依据.

  11. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form....... In general, students enter design education as far more skilled observers with regards to function than form. They are, in other words, predisposed to observe objects asking ‘what is?’, rather than ‘how is?’. This habit has not only cognitive implications. It is closely intertwined with a rudimentary...

  12. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... vocabulary of form. Even in cases in which teaching uses terms and phrases from everyday life (for instance, ‘intersection’), the meaning of the word cannot necessarily be transmitted directly from an ordinary vocabulary into a design context. And it is clearly a common issue for the contributions...

  13. Crl2MoV钢焊接区表面高频淬火后的超塑性焊接%Superplastic Welding of Crl2MoV Steel after High Frequency Surface Quenching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰莹; 袁霄梅; 刘帅

    2012-01-01

    Superplastic welding of Cr12MoV steel was carried out after high frequency surface quenching. Process parameters chosen were: heating temperature was 800 ℃, welding time was 5 min, pre-stress was 56.6 MPa, and joint microstructure was observed and analyzed. The results show that local welding zone after high frequency quenching for Cr12MoV steel is in its superplastic deformation temperature and strain rate range, the joint tensile strength can reach values of base metal after short period of superplastic welding.%对Crl2MoV钢进行表面高频淬火后超塑性焊接,选用的工艺参数为:加热温度为800℃,焊接时间t=5min,预压应力σ0=56.6MPa,初始应变速率ε0=2.5×10^-4s^-1。对接头组织进行了观察和分析。试验结果表明,焊接区局部高频淬火后的Crl2MoV钢在其超塑变形温度及应变速率范围内,经短时间超塑焊接,其接头抗拉伸强度可以达到母材值。

  14. Immune Efficacy of a Recombinant Fowlpox Virus Co-Ex-pressing HA and NA Genes of Avian Influenza Virus in SPF Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Chuan-ling; JIANG Yong-ping; YU Kang-zhen; TIAN Guo-bin; CHEN Hua-lan

    2004-01-01

    A recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing Haemagglutinin(HA)and Neuraminidase(NA)named as rFPV-HA-NA was produced by HA and NA gene of A/Goose/Guangdong/3/96(H5N1)isolate of avian influenza virus recombined into the genome of fowlpox virus. In this study,to evaluate its ability of protecting chickens against challenge with a lethal dose of highly pathogenic isolates of avian influenza virus,eight-week-old specificpathogenic-free(SPF)chickens were vaccinated with recombinant virus or the wildtypefowlpox virus by wing-web puncture. After challenge 4 weeks with 10 LD50 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and H7N1 isolate,all chickens vaccinated with recombinant virus were protected,while the chickens vaccinated with the wildtype fowlpox virus or unvaccinated controls experienced 100% mortality respectively following challenge. This complete protection was accompanied by the high levels of specific antibody response to the respectivecomponents of the recombinant virus.

  15. Evaluating the Photoprotective Effects of Ochre on Human Skin by In Vivo SPF Assessment: Implications for Human Evolution, Adaptation and Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Riaan F; Dayet, Laure; Queffelec, Alain; Summers, Beverley; Lategan, Marlize; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological indicators of cognitively modern behaviour become increasingly prevalent during the African Middle Stone Age (MSA). Although the exploitation of ochre is viewed as a key feature of the emergence of modern human behaviour, the uses to which ochre and ochre-based mixtures were put remain ambiguous. Here we present the results of an experimental study exploring the efficacy of ochre as a topical photoprotective compound. This is achieved through the in vivo calculation of the sun protection factor (SPF) values of ochre samples obtained from Ovahimba women (Kunene Region, Northern Namibia) and the Palaeozoic Bokkeveld Group deposits of the Cape Supergroup (Western Cape Province, South Africa). We employ visible spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and granulometric analyses to characterise ochre samples. The capacity of ochre to inhibit the susceptibility of humans to the harmful effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is confirmed and the mechanisms implicated in the efficacy of ochre as a sunscreen identified. It is posited that the habitual application of ochre may have represented a crucial innovation for MSA humans by limiting the adverse effects of ultraviolet exposure. This may have facilitated the colonisation of geographic regions largely unfavourable to the constitutive skin colour of newly arriving populations.

  16. Evaluating the Photoprotective Effects of Ochre on Human Skin by In Vivo SPF Assessment: Implications for Human Evolution, Adaptation and Dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan F Rifkin

    Full Text Available Archaeological indicators of cognitively modern behaviour become increasingly prevalent during the African Middle Stone Age (MSA. Although the exploitation of ochre is viewed as a key feature of the emergence of modern human behaviour, the uses to which ochre and ochre-based mixtures were put remain ambiguous. Here we present the results of an experimental study exploring the efficacy of ochre as a topical photoprotective compound. This is achieved through the in vivo calculation of the sun protection factor (SPF values of ochre samples obtained from Ovahimba women (Kunene Region, Northern Namibia and the Palaeozoic Bokkeveld Group deposits of the Cape Supergroup (Western Cape Province, South Africa. We employ visible spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD and granulometric analyses to characterise ochre samples. The capacity of ochre to inhibit the susceptibility of humans to the harmful effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR is confirmed and the mechanisms implicated in the efficacy of ochre as a sunscreen identified. It is posited that the habitual application of ochre may have represented a crucial innovation for MSA humans by limiting the adverse effects of ultraviolet exposure. This may have facilitated the colonisation of geographic regions largely unfavourable to the constitutive skin colour of newly arriving populations.

  17. Application of superplastic forming technology in railcars%超塑成型技术在轨道车辆上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亦金; 孙东轩

    2014-01-01

    从项目研究的实际情况出发,在超塑设备的开发、超塑模具的设计、成型工艺方案探讨、成型后产品的验证4个方面对铝合金超塑性过程进行阐述,为超塑成型技术在轨道车辆行业的广泛应用提供理论与实践依据.

  18. Advanced materials and fabrication processes for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, M. K.; Kaneko, R. S.; Wald, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Research and development programs to develop high-strength aluminum alloys and low-cost materials and fabrication techniques for titanium alloys are being conducted. Thirteen aluminum alloy compositions are being evaluated. A section of a production component was fabricated using superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) and fabrication studies are being conducted on three low temperature forming beta titanium alloys. Cost studies indicate substantial structural cost reduction potentials resulting from the use of both aluminum alloys and low-cost titanium fabrication techniques. Lowest overall costs are indicated for a composite/aluminum or composite titanium structure.

  19. Thermoplastic Micro-Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Wen; Liu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic alloys with an isotropic amorphous structure that is rapidly quenched from liquid melts. The absence of a crystalline micro-structure endows them with a portfolio of properties such as high strength, high elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance. Whereas the limited plasticity and hence poor workability at ambient temperature impede the structural application of bulk metallic glasses, the unique superplasticity within the supercooled liquid region opens an alternative window of so-called thermoplastic forming, which allows precise and versatile net-shaping of complex geometries on length scales ranging from nanometers to centimeters that were previously unachievable with conventional crystalline metal processing. Thermoplastic forming not only breaks through the bottleneck of the manufacture of bulk metallic glasses at ambient temperature but also offers an alluring prospect in micro-engineering applications. This paper comprehensively reviews some pivotal aspects of bulk metallic glasses during thermoplastic micro-forming, including an in-depth understanding of the crystallization kinetics of bulk metallic glasses and the thermoplastic processing time window, the thermoplastic forming map that clarifies the relationship between the flow characteristics and the formability, the interfacial friction in micro-forming and novel forming methods to improve the formability, and the potential applications of the hot-embossed micro-patterns/components.

  20. Collaborative form(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Gunn asks us to consider beauty as collaborative forms of action generated by moving between design by means of anthropology and anthropology by means of design. Specifically, she gives focus to play-like reflexions on practices of designing energy products, systems and infrastructure. Design...

  1. Consumers Preferences to Sweet Potato Flakes (Spf from Sweet Potato Pasta as A Raw Material, with Enrichment Mung Bean Flour as Source Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noveria Sjafrina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato flakes as an alternative food and a source of carbohydrates as breakfast cereals food. To meet the nutritional needs of sweet potato flakes contained in the primarily source of protein. The purpose of the research was a source of enrichment of protein contained in sweet potato flakes (SPF with the addition of mung bean flour.  And to get an optimal result of consumer preferences with the addition of mung bean flour optimal still be accepted by consumers based on organoleptic test. This study consists of several stages, namely the stage of making sweet potato pasta base material, formulation, manufacture flakes and organoleptic product. Experimental design using a completely randomized design, 5 treatment composition of sweet potato pasta and mung bean flour were (95 : 5%, (90 : 10%,(85 : 15%,(80: 20% and(75: 25% with 3 replications. The best formula will be determined by organoleptic and physical and chemical analysis. Data were collected for chroma color, moisture content, proximat, crispness (texture and resistance crisp during the presentation of the milk solution. Sweet potato flakes was getting a balanced nutritional content and better nutrional content after enrichment with mung bean flour protein content  Sweet potato flakes which become water content 5.6713% - 6.2435%, ash content 2.7501% - 3.0858%, 4.4765% protein content up to 9,0908%, carbohydrate content of 80.2744% - 85.7119%. The level of enrichment of proteins by the addition of mung bean flour to sweet potato flakes most preferred and acceptable panelists as consumer to the addition of 10% mung bean flour.

  2. Cooperative effects of immune enhancer TPPPS and different adjuvants on antibody responses induced by recombinant ALV-J gp85 subunit vaccines in SPF chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Cui, Shuai; Fu, Jiayuan; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-03-14

    To explore the antibody responses and protective effects induced by subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) gp85 protein vaccine plus different adjuvants (CpG and white oil adjuvant YF01) combined with the immune enhancer Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), we immunized SPF chickens with the recombinant ALV-J gp85 protein, along with different adjuvants and immune enhancer, which protected the chickens by inducing different levels of protective antibodies. Results showed that a single injection of gp85 recombinant protein could only produce low-titre antibodies that were maintained over a short time in few chickens. When combined with YF01 or CpG adjuvants, the recombinant protein could induce high-titre antibodies in most of the immunized chickens. Moreover, when the immune enhancer TPPPS was used with the two adjuvants, it further elevated the antibody levels for a longer duration. The eggs from four groups with the highest levels of ALV-J antibodies were collected, hatched, and examined for maternal antibodies. The protection by the maternal antibodies against ALV-J infection in the TPPPS-immunized group was higher than that in the group without TPPPS, which was consistent with the observations in the parents. This study shows that the immune enhancer TPPPS, combined with YF01 or CpG adjuvants, can enhance the immunogenicity of gp85 recombinant proteins, and provide a better immuno-protection. It provides a powerful experimental basis for the development of ALV-J subunit vaccine. Efficient subunit vaccine development will also accelerate the process of purification of ALV-J.

  3. Integrated Forming Simulation Using State Of The Art Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, David; Babeau, Jean-Luc; Skrikerud, Martin; Dammak, Younes; El Khaldi, Fouad

    2007-05-01

    Forming simulation technologies continues to develop at a rapid pace, to address formability, tolerance control, and product performance issues in an increasing range of processes, and in ever more detail. Springback prediction and compensation continue to evolve, with new concepts for improving the accuracy of the springback prediction for example by the incorporation of geometric drawbeads, and further refinement in compensation techniques. The paper highlights how the integration of simulation and geometry plays an ever more important role, in improving accuracy and reducing time. Other techniques which can help speed-up and improve simulation results for hydroforming, and tube bending are `classical' and more recently `in-process' optimization techniques. The paper will show the advantages on an industrial case, and the potential for the future. The paper will discuss how the PAM-STAMP 2G™ and PAM-TUBE 2G™ integrated solutions are successfully implemented to deliver a positive business impact, by providing virtual product quality assessment, tolerance control, and springback compensation. The paper will also discuss how new forming processes such as hot forming, superplastic forming, and tube hydroforming, can be accurately modeled using the new modules.

  4. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  5. 3-(3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzylidene)-2,4-pentanedione: Design of a novel photostabilizer with in vivo SPF boosting properties and its use in developing broad-spectrum sunscreen formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, R K; Ollengo, M A; Singh, P; Martincigh, B S

    2017-02-01

    The study concerned the synthesis of a novel photostabilizer based on benzylidenepentanedione chemistry and the evaluation of its potential in developing a broad-spectrum sunscreen formulation containing avobenzone. 3-(3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzylidene)-2-4-pentanedione (TMBP) was synthesized through a condensation reaction and incorporated into a sunscreen formulation containing, inter alia, avobenzone. The SPF, critical wavelength and in vitro photostability of the product were measured. The photostability was compared with that afforded by current avobenzone photostabilizers, namely octocrylene, ethylhexylmethoxycrylene and diethylhexylsyringylidenemalonate. The photostability of TMBP either alone or in the presence of avobenzone in a methanolic solution was also evaluated by UV spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The optical properties of TMBP were estimated experimentally and supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The ability of TMBP to stabilize avobenzone under ultraviolet (UV) light exposure was shown both in formulated products and in solution. A comparative stability study incorporating various combinations of avobenzone, TMBP (vs. three commercial photostabilizers) and UVB sunscreens clearly showed TMBP to be a very effective stabilizer. The photostabilizing effect of TMBP arises from triplet-state energy transfer from avobenzone to TMBP and through light-induced reactions that preserve the main chromophores. Interestingly, a 50% in vivo SPF boosting was observed when TMBP was used with organic and inorganic sunscreens when alone it has no contribution to SPF. TMBP-containing sunscreen formulations clearly showed a critical wavelength of well over 370 nm and can thus be categorized as broad-spectrum sunscreens. We were able to design a very effective photostabilizer, trimethoxybenzylidene pentanedione (INCI name), based on benzylidenepentanedione chemistry. TMBP is very efficient in stabilizing avobenzone in formulated

  6. Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Part 2. ; Effect of alloying elements and transformation temperature on stress releasement. Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa. 2. ; Oryoku kanwa ni oyobosu gokin genso oyobi hentai ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-02-05

    Steel test pieces having various transformation temperatures (M {sub S}) were fabricated varying Ni and Cr contents, and tests were done on their torsional transformation resistance in cooling process, and stress relaxing characteristics due to transformation superplasticity, using a forced twisting equipment. The test pieces, while being twisted, were heated by high frequency induction from an external source to 1000 {degree} C in 50 seconds, retained for 50 seconds, and then their transformation resistance was detected during cooling. The motor was so controlled in five steps that the added shear distortion speed is constant per unit temperature reduction. The Ni and Cr contents and M {sub S} are in linear relation, and its experimental formula was sought. Even if Ni and Cr contents differ, similar stress relaxing characteristics were presented as long as the M {sub S} points are identical. Therefore, hardness and corrosion resistance can be controlled in welding metals by means of so varying Ni and Cr contents that the M {sub S} point is maintained in a certain range. The transformation resistance showed the minimum value lower by 70 to 80 {degree} C than the M {sub S} point. To apply the phenomena of transformation superplasticity, the temperature difference between preheating paths is important in addition to chemical constituents. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. 粉末冶金法制备超细晶AZ31镁合金及超塑性变形研究%Powder Metallurgy Prepared Ultra-fine Grain AZ31 Alloy and Its Superplastic Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莺莺; 胡杰仁

    2013-01-01

    采用粉末冶金法制备超细晶AZ31镁合金材料,并对其微观组织形貌及相成分进行研究;利用单向拉伸试验研究了该材料在不同条件下超塑性变形.结果表明,采用球磨、冷压制坯和热挤压法可获得晶粒尺寸在1微米以下的超细晶组织,该材料在250℃,1×10-3s-1的应变速率条件下获得了最大伸长率,基本达到超塑性状态.%Ultra-fine grain AZ31 alloy bars were fabricated by power metallurgy process,and the microstructure and phase composition were also researched.The superplastic deformation was studied by simple tension test.According to the results,AZ31 alloy with the grain size under 1 μm was prepared by the process of high energy ball milling,cold compacting and hot extrusion.The superplastic deformation was achieved under the temperature of 250 ℃ and strain rate of 1 × 10-3 s-1.

  8. Critical Strain Rate of Uniform Deformation in Cross Section at Diffusion Dominated Superplastic Tensile Test%扩散控制超塑性拉伸断面均匀收缩的临界应变速率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗昌; 罗敏; 杨倩; 陈伟

    2012-01-01

    A parameter named λ was put forward and an equation was deduced to characterize the uniform deformation of superplastic tensile test under the conditions of difiusion dominated deformation. By solving the equation at λ=0, a critical strain rate εcn of uniform deformation was got ten. The results show that εcn is direct proportion to strain and diffusion coefficient and inversely proportion to the cross section area of undeformed specimens. The results of the tested A of AZ31 alloy under superplastic tensile show that A is becoming significant small and the cross section of the specimen tends to be uniform deformation when strain rate is near εcn.%引入了一个衡量超塑性拉伸断面收缩均匀性的特征参数λ,在假设变形以扩散为主的条件下,导出了λ的表达式.令λ=0时,得到断面均匀收缩的临界应变速率(.εcn).(.εcn)与扩散系数和应变量成正比,与试样原始截面积成反比.对AZ31镁合金超塑性拉伸特征参数λ值的测定结果表明;当应变速率越接近于临界应变速率,λ越小,试样越接近均匀变形.

  9. Influence of carbon content on superplastic behaviour in Ti and B doped Cr-Mo steels; Ti, B tenka kuromu moribudenko no chososei ni oyobosu tanso gan`yuryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, M.; Nakai, O.; Onodera, R.; Higashida, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Superplasticity has been investigated in various ferrous alloys and steels. However, in these materials, especially in the hypoeutectoid steel bellow A1 temperature, the relationship between the content of carbon and elongation to failure is not obvious. In the present investigation, the influence of carbon content on superplastic behaviour is studied using carbon steels based on Cr-Mo steel. In order to obtain the fine grain structure, a small amount of Ti and B were added and the content of carbon was controlled to be in the range of 0.24% to 0.83%. The largest value of elongation to failure was 644% which was obtained by the tensile test of the specimen containing 0.58% carbon. The temperature and strain rate at which the maximum value was obtained were 710degC and 5 times 10{sup -4}s{sup -1}, respectively. Of all the specimens, this. specimen had the minimum grain size. Moreover, the area fraction of carbide took the maximum value at the temperature where the largest elongation value was obtained. These results show that the addition of carbon has an effect on grain refinement by formation of carbide, but excess amounts of carbons (>0.6%) bring about premature failure because of coarse microstructure and larger carbide. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Superplastic Deformation and Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy%Ti-6Al-4V合金超塑性变形及微观组织演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱堂葵; 李淼泉

    2012-01-01

    通过高温拉伸试验研究了Ti-6Al-4V合金的高温变形力学行为和超塑性,并对试样断口附近的组织进行了观察.结果表明,随着变形温度的升高或初始应变速率的降低,Ti-6Al-4V合金的流动应力明显减小 ;Ti-6Al-4V合金的最佳超塑性变形工艺参数为880℃/0.001 s-1,最大延伸率为689%,峰值应力仅为30.03 MPa ;在超塑性拉伸过程中,试样变形区发生明显的动态再结晶,使片层状的α相晶粒破碎、细化和等轴化,促进超塑性的增加;随着变形温度的提高、变形量增大和变形时间的加长,再结晶α相发生了聚集长大,从而使显微组织明显粗化.对于双态组织的两相钛合金,最佳超塑性变形温度应低于或等于片层状α→β转变的终了温度.%The deformation behavior and superplasticity of Ti-6A1-4V alloy at elevated temperature have been investigated through tensile tests. The microstructures near the fracture of the specimen have been observed by optical microscopy. The results show that the flow stress of Ti-6AI-4V alloy decreases obviously with increasing of the temperature or decreasing of the initial strain rate. The temperature and the initial strain rate of optimal superplastic deformation are 880 ℃ and 0.001 s-1, respectively. Under this optimal condition, the maximum elongation is 689%; however, the peak stress is only 30.03 MPa. During the superplastic tensile deformation, the dynamic recrystallization occurs obviously in the deformation zone of the specimen and the lamellar α grain is broken, refined and spheroidized, so that the superplasticity can be improved. With increasing of the deformation temperature, the deformation amount and the deformation time, the recrystal α grain will merge and grow up, causing obvious coarsening of the microstructure. The temperature of optimal superplastic deformation should not exceed the ceasing temperature of lamellar α→β phase transformation for the α+β titanium alloy

  11. Charpy impact test of Ti-6Al-4V joints diffusion welded at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, J.M.G. de; Urena, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain); Carrion, J.G. [National Inst. of Aeroespatial Technologies, Madrid (Spain). Materials and Structures Div.

    1996-08-15

    The Diffusion Welding (DW) of two or more sheets of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is particularly interesting for aerospace parts manufacturing. In some cases, DW can be carried out together with Superplastic Forming (SPF), because they can share a single facility and the same processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure, time, surface condition and vacuum. The overall manufacturing process is known as SPF/DW, by which it is possible to obtain honeycomb structures in a range of designs. Temperature requirements for industrial SPF of Ti-6Al-4V are very restrictive and a temperature of 1,023 K is needed. However, temperature is not so critical for DW, and the bond can be produced at lower temperatures, when other DW parameters, mainly pressure and time, are changed in a suitable way. The DW parameters for this research were chosen in order to produce DW joints below 1,023 K. The differences between DW at SPF temperatures and other lower temperatures would thus be revealed. Mechanical tests were used as a tool to check DW joints obtained at the temperatures used in the research (1,123 K and 1,023 K), and were complemented with metallographic studies. The results obtained form shear and peel tests have been already discussed. In the present work the results of impact energy tests are also presented.

  12. Protection level of AI H5N1 vaccine clade 2.1.3 commercial against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus from Ducks to SPF chicken in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriani R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 has infected chickens in farms, causing mortality and a decrease in egg production. Vaccination is one of the strategies to control disease of AI subtype H5N1. AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 vaccine is available commercially. The effectiveness of two vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A and B, and AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo virus SPF chickens was tested in laboratory. Four groups of SPF chickens were used in this study, there were (1 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A, (2 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product B, (3 vaccinated with AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 and (4 unvaccinated (as a control. Each vaccinated group consisted of 10 chicken except 8 chicken for control group. SPF chicken were vaccinated with 1 dose of vaccine at 3 weeks olds, and then after 3 weeks post vaccination (at 6 weeks olds. All group of chicken were challenged with 106 EID50 per 0.1 ml via intranasal. The results showed, chicken vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A and B gave 100 and 80% protection respectively, but showed challenged virus shedding, whereas vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 gave 100% protection from mortality and without virus shedding. Vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A was better than vaccine product B, and when chicken vaccinated against H5N1 clade 2.3.2, H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine was the best to be used. In order to protect chicken from AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 in the field, a bivalent vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 subtypes should be developed.

  13. Gas-pressure forming of an AlMg-alloy sheet at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, B.; Goesling, M.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M. [Dortmund Univ. (DE). Inst. of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction (IUL)

    2005-12-01

    Forming of automotive leightweight parts using aluminium offers numerous advantages. Compared to other wrought aluminium alloys, in particular AlMg-alloys generally show a good formability which is favourable for the production of complex parts. However, forming of Mg-containing alloys at room temperature leads to yielding patterns preventing their implementation for class-A-surface applications. Furthermore, the formability of steel still exceeds that of AlMg-alloys at room temperature. Thus, in the present study, sheet metal forming is applied at a temperature range that is typical for warm forming. It is supposed to profit from the advantages of warm forming like high achievable strains and improved surface quality of the formed part, while not having the disadvantages of long production times and high energy consumption, which is correlated with superplastic forming. Applying fluid-based sheet metal forming in this paper, nitrogen is used as fluid working medium to satisfy the demand on high temperature resistance. Concerning the blank material used, formability of Mg-containing aluminium alloys shows strong strain rate sensitivity at elevated temperatures. To figure out the optimal strain rates for this particular process, a control system for forming processes is developed within the scope of this paper. Additionally, FE-simulations are carried out and adapted to the experiment, based on the generated process data. FE-investigations include forming of domes (bulging) as well as shape-defined forming, having the objective to increase formability in critical form elements by applying optimal strain rates. Here, a closed-loop process control for gas-pressure forming at elevated temperatures is to be developed in the next stages of the project. (orig.)

  14. Narrative form

    CERN Document Server

    Keen, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This revised and expanded handbook concisely introduces narrative form to advanced students of fiction and creative writing, with refreshed references and new discussions of cognitive approaches to narrative, nonfiction, and narrative emotions.

  15. Fri form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie.......Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie....

  16. Effects of dietary nucleic acid on the level of serum uric acid in the SPF class gallus domesticated chicken%饮食核酸对SPF级家鸡血尿酸水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车会莲; 管春梅; 陈文华; 王宗涛; 李蓉

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨饮食核酸对 SPF级家鸡血尿酸水平的影响. 方法:选 30日龄 SPF级家鸡按血尿酸水平随机分成急性、亚急性和亚慢性研究 3组,各组再按血尿酸水平随机分成 5个亚组,在常规饲料基础上,分别饲以添加不同剂量酵母 RNA的饮食.动态监测血尿酸水平;分期脱颈椎处死实验动物,测定胸腺、法氏囊和肝脏、脾脏的脏器指数,并进行病理学观察. 结果:各添加酵母 RNA实验组动物的体质量、脏器指数和病理组织学观察与 0剂量添加组相比均无统计学差异( P >0.05);饮食中添加酵母 RNA引起 SPF家鸡血尿酸水平升高至 0.41 mmol/L的急性作用阈剂量和亚急性作用阈剂量为 6.0 g/(kg· d),相当于成人日推荐补充量的 180倍;其亚慢性作用阈剂量为 8.0 g/(kg· d),相当于成人日推荐补充量的 240倍. 结论:饮食核酸可影响血尿酸水平;成人日补充量 2 g/d是安全的,不会引起血尿酸水平的异常持续性升高而产生高尿酸血症和痛风.%AIM:To explore the effect of dietary nucleic acid on the serum uric acid level in the SPF class gallus domesticated chicken. METHODS:The SPF class gallus domesticated chickens aged 30 d were randomly divided into three groups according to the level of serum uric acid: acute,subacute and subchronic groups.Then each group was randomly divided again into five subgroups,which were fed feedstuff and applied different doses of yeast RNA.We monitored the changes in serum uric acid level and body mass periodically,and then the histopathological changes of their spleen,liver,thymus and bursa of Fabricius. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in body mass,visceral indexes and pathological observation between different dose groups(P >0.05). The threshold dose that dietary yeast RNA caused hyperuricemia in SPF chickens in acute and subacute tests was 6.0 g/(kg· d) and 8.0 g/(kg· d) in subchronic test,which were equal to 180 and 240 times in

  17. Automorphic Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Flemming Brændgaard

    systems. For automorphic forms wrt. Hecke triangle groups and Fuchsian groups with no elliptic elements and genus 0, we show that some logarithms of multiplier systems can be interpreted as a linking number. Finally we show a "twisted" version of the prime geodesics theorem, and logarithms of multiplier...

  18. Cosmic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    The continuous 1D defects of an isotropic homogeneous material in an Euclidean 3D space are classified by a construction method, the Volterra process (VP). We employ the same method to classify the continuous 2D defects (which we call \\textit{cosmic forms}) of a vacuum in a 4D maximally symmetric spacetime. These defects fall into three different classes: i)- $m$-forms, akin to 3D space disclinations, related to ordinary rotations and analogous to Kibble's global cosmic strings (except that being continuous any deficit angle is allowed); ii)- $t$-forms, related to Lorentz boosts (hyperbolic rotations); iii)- $r$-forms, never been considered so far, related to null rotations. A detailed account of their metrics is presented. Their inner structure in many cases appears as a non-singular \\textit{core} separated from the outer part by a timelike hypersurface with distributional curvature and/or torsion, yielding new types of geometrical interactions with cosmic dislocations and other cosmic disclinations. Whereas...

  19. Finite Element Modeling, Simulation, Tools, and Capabilities at Superform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Hari; Barnes, A. J.

    2010-06-01

    Over the past thirty years Superform has been a pioneer in the SPF arena, having developed a keen understanding of the process and a range of unique forming techniques to meet varying market needs. Superform’s high-profile list of customers includes Boeing, Airbus, Aston Martin, Ford, and Rolls Royce. One of the more recent additions to Superform’s technical know-how is finite element modeling and simulation. Finite element modeling is a powerful numerical technique which when applied to SPF provides a host of benefits including accurate prediction of strain levels in a part, presence of wrinkles and predicting pressure cycles optimized for time and part thickness. This paper outlines a brief history of finite element modeling applied to SPF and then reviews some of the modeling tools and techniques that Superform have applied and continue to do so to successfully superplastically form complex-shaped parts. The advantages of employing modeling at the design stage are discussed and illustrated with real-world examples.

  20. Effect of transformation on stress releasement of stress concentration area in welding. Part 6. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga oryoku shuchubu no oryoku kanwa tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo. 6. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N.; Iiyama, T. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-11-05

    As the various contrivances are being done for raising the strength and reliability of the joints in the usual welding execution, the welding defects out of them are thought that they impair the reliability of the joints, and therefore the efforts not so as to let them occur, and in addition, to secure the safety by screening them through the nondestructive inspection, are being performed. In this report, through the double end constraint thermal cycle tests by using the smooth and notched round bar specimen prepared by the friction pressure welding of 9%Ni steel, which could transform at a low temperature, with SUS 304, and moreover through welding by using the welding rod prepared experimentally of the Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature, and furthermore through measuring the thermal contraction stress when the extreme strains have been concentrated in the weld metal parts on the way of cooling off, the fracture character of the weld metal has been investigated. In case of actual welding, even when the extreme stress concentration has been created so excessively as D4316 has started to be fractured on its way of cooling off, no crack has occurred in the welding rod of the low temperature transformation. This is thought because of that the superplasticity phenomena due to the martensite transfomation act effectively on the stress releasement. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effect of transformation on residual stress in welding. Part 5. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga yosetsu zanryu oryoku ni oyobosu eikyo. 5. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-11-05

    The residual stress and angular deformation occurred in welding are the important factors for the welding design. In the previous report, by measuring the welding angular deformation caused by the welding rod prepared experimentally with the various transformation temperatures, it was shown that the materials, which could transform at a low temperature, have been effective to restrain the welding deformation. In addition, also the elongation and stress variation in transformation after welding have been examined in detail, and consequently it has been shown quantitatively, that not only the transformation expansion, but also the transformation superplasticity have acted effectively for the stress relaxation during transformation depending on the condition. In this report, the same as in the previous report, the welding with the multilayers and multi-passes has been performed by using the welding rod prepared experimentally and of Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature and had a high stress releasement effect, and then the effect of phase transformation on the welding residual stress has been investigated. As a result, the phase transformation had a tight relation with the welding residual stress, and furthermore the compression stress has been observed on the welding metal depending on the transformation temperature. In addition, it was found that in the welding metal, the compression stress has occurred, the tensile stress has remained directly under it, and it has been connected with a peak part of the tension, and has been redistributed. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Tidal Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla Pittaluga, M.; Seminara, G.; Tambroni, N.

    2003-04-01

    We give an overview of some recent investigations on the mechanics of the processes whereby forms develop in tidal environments. The viewpoint taken here is mechanistic. Some of the questions which deserve an answer may be summarised as follows: i) do tidal channels tend to some altimetric long term equilibrium? ii) why are they typically convergent and weakly meandering? iii) how is such equilibrium affected by the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of tidal inlets? iv) what is the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic role played by tidal flats adjacent to the channels? Some of the above questions have received a considerable attention in the last few years. Schuttelaars and de Swart (1996), Lanzoni and Seminara (2002) and, more recently, Bolla Pittaluga (2003) have investigated the first problem. In particular, the latter two contributions have shown that a straight tidal channel connected to a tidal sea at one end and closed at the other end tends to reach a long term equilibrium profile, which is slightly concave seaward and convex landward where a beach forms. The equilibrium profile is strongly sensitive to the harmonic content of the tidal forcing as well as to the value of sediment concentration established by the coastal hydrodynamics in the far field of the inlet region. Less important are the effect of channel convergence and the role of settling lag in the transport of suspended load. Insufficient attention has been devoted to the understanding of what mechanisms control channel convergence and meandering, though some similarities and differences between tidal and fluvial channels have emerged from some recent works. In particular, free bars form in tidal channels due to an instability mechanism essentially similar to that occurring under steady conditions though the oscillatory character of the flow field makes the bar pattern non migrating (Seminara and Tubino, 2001). Similarly, forced bars in curved tidal channels are driven by the development of

  3. 乙基纤维素包被VC对SPF级豚鼠繁殖影响的初步研究%Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Ethylcellulose-coated VC on Reproductive Performance of SPF Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田攀; 李雪雁; 左谦益; 张新创

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of ethylcellulose-coated VC on reproductive performance of SPF guinea pig. A total of 24 male and 72 female SPF guinea pigs of reproductive age were included in this study and were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the gender. There were 24 guinea pigs in each group, including 6 males and 18 females. The diet of experimental groupⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲwas supplemented with 500, 1 000, 1 500 mg/kg of ethylcellulose-coated VC, respectively, and the diet of control group was supplemented with 1 800 mg/kg of monomer VC. The health status of the pregnant female guinea pigs during gestation period and the new born guinea pigs was observed and recorded in two consecutive pregnancies. The pregnancy rate and farrowing rate of female guinea pigs as well as birth weight and weaning rate of new born guinea pigs in the two separate birth orders were calculated and statistically analyzed. The results revealed that the reproduction performance of female guinea pigs in experimental groupⅠwas similar with that in control group. The reproductive indexes of female guinea pigs in experimental groupⅡreached the optimal level, and 1 000 mg/kg of ethylcellulose-coated VC supplemented in diet could meet the demands of the pregnant female SPF guinea pigs for VC. When the supplementation dosage of ethylcellulose-coated VC increased to 1 500 mg/kg, no significant improvement in reproductive indexes was observed. These results suggest the feasibility of replacing monomer VC with ethylcellulose-coated VC as a source of dietary VC, and the supplementation dosage of 1 000 mg/kg is recommended.%为评价乙基纤维素包被VC对SPF级豚鼠繁殖性能的影响,选取SPF级繁育适龄雄性豚鼠24只,雌性豚鼠72只,按性别随机分成对照组、试验组Ⅰ、试验组Ⅱ、试验组Ⅲ,每组24只,其中雄性6只,雌性18只。试验组Ⅰ、试验组Ⅱ、试验组

  4. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  5. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  6. Microstructure and property of 1.6% C-UHCS/40Cr joint after superplastic welding via interlayer%具有中间夹层的1.6%C-UHCS/40Cr超塑性焊接接头组织和性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡中皓; 张柯柯; 乔騻; 张占领; 张晓娇; 涂益民

    2012-01-01

    采用工业纯铁中间层,在非真空、无保护气氛条件下,进行1.6%C-UHCS/40Cr的超塑性焊接试验.试验结果表明,采用工业纯铁中间层能提高1.6%C-UHCS/40Cr超塑性焊接接头界面塑性变形能力,促进扩散,改善接头区组织性能.在预压应力56.6 MPa、焊接温度780℃、初始应变速率1.5×10-4/S的条件下,经15 min压接,接头强度可达560 MPa,比不加中间层的超塑性焊接接头强度提高了46%.%Since the superplastic welding of quenched 40Cr and thermo-mechanical processed 1.6% ultrahigh carbon steel(1.6%C-UHCS) is of great possibility.Conduct the superplastic welding experiment of 1.6%C-UHCS/40Cr via industrial pure iron interlayer without protection of vacuum or atmosphere.By means of modern physical and chemical detection means, analyze the joint mechanical performance,microstructure and defects of superplastic welded joints with and without interlayer.Study the improving effect of industrial pure iron on the joint as the interlayer.The results show that with interlayer,the joint's plastic deformation capacity was improved,diffusion was promoted and its joint microstructure was improved.When the prepressing stress is 56.6 Mpa.the welding temperature is 780 ℃the initial strain rate is 1.5×10-4/s,after 15 min welding,the joint strength can reach 560 Mpa,which is 46% more than that without interlayer.

  7. Age hardening characteristics and mechanical behavior of Al-Cu-Li-Zr-In alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John A.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the age-hardening response and cryogenic mechanical properties of superplastic Al-Cu-Li-Zr-In alloys. Two alloys with compositions Al-2.65Cu-2.17Li-O.13Zr (baseline) and Al-2.60Cu-2.34Li-0.16Zr-0.17In were scaled-up from 30 lb permanent mold ingots to 350 lb DC (direct chill) ingots and thermomechanically processed to 3.2 mm thick sheet. The microstructure of material which contained the indium addition was partially recrystallized compared to the baseline suggesting that indium may influence recrystallization behavior. The indium-modified alloy exhibited superior hardness and strength compared to the baseline alloy when solution-heat-treated at 555 C and aged at 160 C or 190 C. For each alloy, strength increased and toughness was unchanged or decreased when tested at - 185 C compared to ambient temperature. By using optimized heat treatments, the indium-modified alloy exhibited strength levels approaching those of the baseline alloy without deformation prior to aging. The increase in strength of these alloys in the T6 condition make them particularly attractive for superplastic forming applications where post-SPF parts cannot be cold deformed to increase strength.

  8. Careers (A Course of Study). Unit V: Forms, Forms, Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Kay

    Designed to enable special needs students to understand and complete various job-related forms, this set of activities devoted to forms encountered before and after one obtains a job is the fifth in a nine-unit secondary level careers course intended to provide handicapped students with the knowledge and tools necessary to succeed in the world of…

  9. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  10. Determinação do fator de proteção solar (FPS in vitro e in vivo de emulsões com óleo de andiroba (Carapa guianensis In vitro and in vivo determinations of sun protection factor (SPF of emulsions with andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ferrari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo de andiroba extraído da Carapa guianensis tem apresentado considerável interesse pelas indústrias farmacêutica e cosmética devido a suas propriedades antiinflamatória e repelente de insetos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade fotoprotetora in vitro e in vivo do óleo de andiroba. Emulsões estáveis do tipo O/A foram preparadas com o metoxicinamato de etilhexila aditivadas ou não com óleo de andiroba. As características organolépticas foram avaliadas através de análises macroscópicas e o tipo de emulsão pelo teste de diluição. O FPS in vitro foi determinado pelo método espectrofotométrico desenvolvido por Mansur, e o teste in vivo de acordo com a metodologia padronizada pela Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Não houve diferença estatística entre as formulações, demonstrando que o óleo de andiroba não apresentou atividade fotoprotetora.The andiroba oil extracted of Carapa guianensis has attracted considerable interest by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of its anti-inflammatory and insect repellent properties. This research evaluated the in vitro and in vivo andiroba oil photoprotection activity. Stable O/W emulsions with ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate were prepared with and without andiroba oil. These emulsions were assessed by evaluating several parameters such as macroscopic analysis and organoleptic aspects, emulsion type by diluition test and in vitro and in vivo determinations of Sun Protect Factor (SPF. The in vitro SPF was determined according to the spectrophotometric method developed by Mansur. The in vivo SPF values were determined according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA method. There was not statistical difference among the formulations, demonstrating that the andiroba oil did not present photoprotective activity.

  11. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  12. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  13. Energy efficient engine shroudless, hollow fan blade technology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Shroudless, Hollow Fan Blade Technology program was structured to support the design, fabrication, and subsequent evaluation of advanced hollow and shroudless blades for the Energy Efficient Engine fan component. Rockwell International was initially selected to produce hollow airfoil specimens employing the superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) fabrication technique. Rockwell demonstrated that a titanium hollow structure could be fabricated utilizing SPF/DB manufacturing methods. However, some problems such as sharp internal cavity radii and unsatisfactory secondary bonding of the edge and root details prevented production of the required quantity of fatigue test specimens. Subsequently, TRW was selected to (1) produce hollow airfoil test specimens utilizing a laminate-core/hot isostatic press/diffusion bond approach, and (2) manufacture full-size hollow prototype fan blades utilizing the technology that evolved from the specimen fabrication effort. TRW established elements of blade design and defined laminate-core/hot isostatic press/diffusion bonding fabrication techniques to produce test specimens. This fabrication technology was utilized to produce full size hollow fan blades in which the HIP'ed parts were cambered/twisted/isothermally forged, finish machined, and delivered to Pratt & Whitney Aircraft and NASA for further evaluation.

  14. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  15. Maass Forms and Quantum Modular Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolen, Larry

    This thesis describes several new results in the theory of harmonic Maass forms and related objects. Maass forms have recently led to a flood of applications throughout number theory and combinatorics in recent years, especially following their development by the work of Bruinier and Funke the modern understanding Ramanujan's mock theta functions due to Zwegers. The first of three main theorems discussed in this thesis concerns the integrality properties of singular moduli. These are well-known to be algebraic integers, and they play a beautiful role in complex multiplication and explicit class field theory for imaginary quadratic fields. One can also study "singular moduli" for special non-holomorphic functions, which are algebraic but are not necessarily algebraic integers. Here we will explain the phenomenon of integrality properties and provide a sharp bound on denominators of symmetric functions in singular moduli. The second main theme of the thesis concerns Zagier's recent definition of a quantum modular form. Since their definition in 2010 by Zagier, quantum modular forms have been connected to numerous different topics such as strongly unimodal sequences, ranks, cranks, and asymptotics for mock theta functions. Motivated by Zagier's example of the quantum modularity of Kontsevich's "strange" function F(q), we revisit work of Andrews, Jimenez-Urroz, and Ono to construct a natural vector-valued quantum modular form whose components. The final chapter of this thesis is devoted to a study of asymptotics of mock theta functions near roots of unity. In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. The theory of mock theta functions has been brought to fruition using the framework of harmonic Maass forms, thanks to Zwegers. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his

  16. Fornemmelse for form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skude, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Om den arkitektoniske forms afhængighed af aerodynamik, solens nedbrydning og optimering af materialers holdbarhed.......Om den arkitektoniske forms afhængighed af aerodynamik, solens nedbrydning og optimering af materialers holdbarhed....

  17. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  18. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  19. Forms in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Uses the work of M. C. Escher to instruct upper elementary students in the transformation of flat shape into three-dimensional form. Outlines the lesson as a series of sections: (1) reviewing form drawing; (2) creating three-dimensional effects; (3) imagining the forms in an inhabited world; and (4) using color and shading. (DSK)

  20. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  1. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  2. SPF鸡盲肠复合微生态制剂代替抗生素预防肉仔鸡沙门菌感染%Prevention of Salmonella infection in broilers with SPF chicken cecal probiotics complex instead of antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏红; 胡明; 骆延波; 朱小玲; 张世栋; 张波; 吴润; 刘玉庆

    2012-01-01

    目的 在雏鸡盲肠尽快建立完整健康菌群,通过“竞争排除(Competitive exclusion,CE)”抑制病原菌定植感染.方法 提取SPF鸡盲肠菌群,排除沙门菌感染的可能,制成复合微生态制剂,在鸡胚孵化19 d啄壳时和21 d雏鸡全出壳时进行两次喷雾接种,监测鸡群沙门菌抗体和粪便中沙门菌,测定成活率、生产性能.结果 进行喷雾接种后的小鸡至12日龄可以完全不使用抗生素,成活率、采食量与体重略高于使用抗生素的对照组,能提高饲料报酬,饲养12、24、35 d均未检出粪便沙门菌和血液沙门菌抗体,全程无沙门菌感染.结论 SPF鸡盲肠复合微生态制剂能代替抗生素预防肉仔鸡沙门菌感染.%Objective To establish complex and complete cecal flora chickens to prevent the colonization and infection of pathogens by competitive exclusion (CE). Method Complex microecological preparation was extracted from caecum flora of SPF chickens which were excluded from the possibility of Salmonella infection. The preparation was sprayed on eggs at 19 days ( when they pecking the shells) and 21 days ( when they pecking fully out of shells) of hatching, respectively. Salmonella in the excrement or its antibodies in the blood were monitored and the survival rate and production performance were recorded and analyzed. Result The inoculated chicken no longer needed antibiotics up to 12 days after birth; Their survival rate, weight and feed intake were slightly higher compared with the control group. A better feed reward could be observed. No Salmonella in the excrement or its antibodies in the blood could be observed after the chickens were fed for 12, 24 or 35 days. There was no Salmonella infection during the growth of these chickens. Conclusion Salmonella infection in broilers can be prevented with SPF chicken cecal probiotics complex instead of antibiotics.

  3. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  4. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  5. Baryon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, B; Meißner, Ulf G; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the form factors of the baryon octet in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculated charge radius of the show that kaon loop effects can play a significant role in the neutron electric form factor. Furthermore. we derive generalized Caldi-Pagels relations between various charge radii which are free of chiral loop effects.

  6. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  7. PowerForms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Ricky, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    All uses of HTML forms may benefit from validation of the specified input field values. Simple validation matches individual values against specified formats, while more advanced validation may involve interdependencies of form fields. There is currently no standard for specifying or implementing...

  8. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  9. Spin forming development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equipment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  10. Laser assisted forming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, Alexander

    2007-05-01

    During forming processes high deformations rates can lead to cracks and rupture very easily. Especially brittle materials like titanium or magnesium make difficulties in forming. Due to the dependence of the yield strength on temperature, forming at elevated temperatures eases processing of such materials. Since forming takes place only at localized areas of the work piece selective heating is suffcient and advantageous in most cases. Selective Laser heating offers a possibility to heat only the areas of the work piece where strongest deformations are required. For this purpose several laser sources have been tested like CO II, Diode and Nd:YAG Lasers and their advantages and disadvantages in localized heating of the work pieces will be discussed. The work presented here summarizes research activities at the Institute for Forming and High Power Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology, on laser assisted deep drawing, laser assisted bending, wire drawing and so on during the last decade. Recent developments like roll profiling, incremental forming processes and hydro forming are discussed briefly.

  11. Circle of Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2012-01-01

    a common professional language like in mathematics, colour and music. The result is a weaker professionalism in the aesthetic competences compared to the professionalism and competences in other areas. A research project [1] on contrasts or opposites in form investigated the phenomenon in the fields...... by this model, and using the knowledge gathered from the other areas, especially perception psychology, it showed to be a possible way to organize contrasts in form, a system of 4 different opposites, geometric, organic, mass and structure: The Circle of Form....

  12. SPF 鸡粪菌移植与发酵床饲养模式下肉鸡生产性能和抗药性研究%Study on Production Performance and Bacterial Resistance of Broilers with Specific Pathogen Free Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Fermentation Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运喜; 骆延波; 宋敏训; 冯敏燕; 林树乾; 刘军伟; 郭文龙; 刘玉庆; 刘焕奇

    2015-01-01

    为明确SPF鸡粪菌移植与发酵床养殖模式下肉鸡的生产性能和抗药性,与传统普通地面平养模式相比较,测定肉鸡的增重、成活率,免疫器官、消化器官的发育,大肠杆菌抗药性。结果表明,SPF鸡粪菌移植与发酵床养殖模式下肉鸡生产性能和发育性能均高于传统普通地面平养模式,大肠杆菌抗药性有降低趋势。%To make clear the production performance and bacterial resistance of broilers with specific pathogen free (SPF) fecal microbiota transplantation on the fermentation bed , the weight gain, survival rate, immune organs, digestive organs, and the E.coli resistance were determined and compared with the traditional floor-rearing.The results indicated that the growth and production performances of the former were both su -perior to those of the traditional floor -rearing, and the E.coli resistance had a tendency to reduce .

  13. Forms of matter and forms of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    The theory of defects in ordered and ill-ordered media is a well-advanced part of condensed matter physics. Concepts developed in this field also occur in the study of spacetime singularities, namely: i)- the topological theory of quantized defects (Kibble's cosmic strings) and ii)- the Volterra process for continuous defects, used to classify the Poincar\\'e symmetry breakings. We reassess the classification of Minkowski spacetime defects in the same theoretical frame, starting from the conjecture that these defects fall into two classes, as on they relate to massive particles or to radiation. This we justify on the empirical evidence of the Hubble's expansion. We introduce timelike and null congruences of geodesics treated as ordered media, viz. 'm'-crystals of massive particles and 'r'-crystals of massless particles, with parallel 4-momenta in M^4. Classifying their defects (or 'forms') we find (i) 'm'- and 'r'- Volterra continuous line defects and (ii) quantized topologically stable 'r'-defects, these latt...

  14. FormCalc 7

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, S; Mirabella, E

    2011-01-01

    We present additions and improvements in Version 7 of FormCalc, most notably analytic tensor reduction, choice of OPP methods, and MSSM initialization via FeynHiggs, as well as a parallelized Cuba library for numerical integration.

  15. Transplant Center Search Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Your Story Give Us Feedback - A + A Transplant Center Search Form Welcome to the Blood & Marrow ... transplant centers for patients with a particular disease. Transplant Center login Username: * Password: * Request new password Join ...

  16. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  17. Fannish form and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue showcases a variety of investigations into a myriad of platforms, featuring several essays that switch the focus from content to form and illustrate the importance of a range of different fan engagements.

  18. NOAA Form 370 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information from submitted NOAA Form 370s, also known as the Fisheries Certificate of Origin, for imported shipments of frozen and/or processed...

  19. FORM, Diagrams and Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Franz; Ueda, Takahiro; Vermaseren, J A M; Vogt, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a number of FORM features that are essential in the automatic processing of very large numbers of diagrams as used in the Forcer program for 4-loop massless propagator diagrams. Most of these features are new.

  20. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  1. Getting in-formed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    det vi undersøger på form gennem vores beskrivelser. Paperet tager afsæt i empiriske eksempler fra et postdoc projekt om et såkaldt 'serious game' - Mingoville. Projektet følger circuleringer og etableringer af Mingoville 'på en global markedsplads'. I paperet diskuteres hvordan vi som forskere samler....../performer de fænomener vi forsker i. Aktør-Netværks-Teoretiker Bruno Latour (2005) pointerer at enhver beskrivelse også er en form for forklaring. En form for forklaring, der putter ting ind i et skript og dermed også putter ting på form. Paperet diskuterer to tilgange til at gøre serious games og derved skabe viden om...... engagementer med disse fænomener i serious games forskning: experimentel og etnografisk....

  2. form-Z

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Kompendiet gennemgår 3d-modellering, lyssætning og rendering med form-Z. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie.......Kompendiet gennemgår 3d-modellering, lyssætning og rendering med form-Z. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie....

  3. Achieving form in autobiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas (Nick Meihuizen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that, unlike biographies which tend to follow patterns based on conventional expectations, salient autobiographies achieve forms unique to themselves. The article draws on ideas from contemporary formalists such as Peter McDonald and Angela Leighton but also considers ideas on significant form stemming from earlier writers and critics such as P.N. Furbank and Willa Cather. In extracting from these writers the elements of what they consider comprise achieved form, the article does not seek to provide a rigid means of objectively testing the formal attributes of a piece of writing. It rather offers qualitative reminders of the need to be alert to the importance of form, even if the precise nature of this importance is not possible to define. Form is involved in meaning, and this continuously opens up possibilities regarding the reader’s relationship with the work in question. French genetic critic Debray Genette distinguishes between ‘semantic effect’ (the direct telling involved in writing and ‘semiological effect’ (the indirect signification involved. It is the latter, the article argues in summation, which gives a work its singular nature, producing a form that is not predictable but suggestive, imaginative.

  4. FormFlavor Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage and structure of FormFlavor, a Mathematica-based tool for computing a broad list of flavor and CP observables in general new physics models. Based on the powerful machinery of FeynArts and FormCalc, FormFlavor calculates the one-loop Wilson coefficients of the dimension 5 and 6 Standard Model effective Lagrangian entirely from scratch. These Wilson coefficients are then evolved down to the low scale using one-loop QCD RGEs, where they are transformed into flavor and CP observables. The last step is accomplished using a model-independent, largely stand-alone package called FFObservables that is included with FormFlavor. The SM predictions in FFObservables include up-to-date references and accurate current predictions. Using the functions and modular structure provided by FormFlavor, it is straightforward to add new observables. Currently, FormFlavor is set up to perform these calculations for the general, non-MFV MSSM, but in principle it can be generalized to arbitrary FeynArts...

  5. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  6. Forms of Inattentiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and kept out of sight in the decision processes by looking at a specific case study involving the construction of a model intended to control, and render transparent, the quality of health services in Denmark. This paper outlines the forms of inattentiveness which make communication blind to information...... that could question the quality model. Five forms of inattentiveness are identified that function as answers to the question of how communication avoids actualizing relevant but also potentially destructive information. This study documents a considerable amount of blindness to potentially relevant themes...... and it points to activities that produce this blindness as they reduce the probability that potentially destructive subjects are actualized. Information is not only something organizations need, but may also be something they protect themselves against. In that case, the forms of inattentiveness may...

  7. Physical forms of MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffis, Andrea; Dvorakova, Gita; Falcimaigne-Cordin, Aude

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art in the development of methodologies for the preparation of MIPs in predetermined physical forms is critically reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the forms most widely employed in practical applications, such as spherical beads in the micro- to nanometer range, microgels, monoliths, membranes. Although applications of the various MIP physical forms are mentioned, the focus of the paper is mainly on the description of the various preparative methods. The aim is to provide the reader with an overview of the latest achievements in the field, as well as with a mean for critically evaluating the various proposed methodologies towards an envisaged application. The review covers the literature up to early 2010, with special emphasis on the developments of the last 10 years.

  8. Methods for forming particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  9. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  10. Incentive to Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Madsen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Projektet ’Incitament til Form' har identificeret en række tematiske angreb på formstudier - i stærkt papir – som skaber nye former, hvor af en eller flere ofte indeholder stærkere kvaliteter end udgangspunktet. Incitamenter er, i denne sammenhæng, former skabt ved foldning over variationer af lige...... af hans formstudierne gennem dialog og præsentation af incitamenter. Dialogen om form og læringsrums aktiviteter der var centrale for Lynges pædagogik. Dialogen og formeksperimenter kombineres med opfordringer til at søge inspiration i naturen og videnskabelige udredninger. De tematiske angreb er...

  11. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  12. Metal forming and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Lubrication is essential in most metal forming processes. The lubricant film has two basic functions, [1]: i. to separate the work piece and tool surfaces and ii. to cool the workpiece and the tool. Separation of the two surfaces implies lower friction facilitating deformation and lowering the tool...... deformation step to avoid overheating and breakdown of the lubricant....

  13. Geodiversity and land form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  14. Measuring urban form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghauser Pont, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    For many, the notion of ‘measuring urban form’ will sound disturbing. Urban form is about visual images of cities, experiences, feelings, memories of place, thoughts and intellectual constructs anchored in the realm of the arts and the humanities. Anne Vernez Moudon however gives in the paper Urbani

  15. Supercongruences via modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Osburn, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We prove two supercongruences for the coefficients of power series expansions in t of modular forms where t is a modular function. As a result, we settle two recent conjectures of Chan, Cooper and Sica. Additionally, we provide a table of supercongruences for numbers which appear in similar power series expansions and in the study of integral solutions of Apery-like differential equations.

  16. Forming of Thermoplastic Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, S.P.; Sachs, U.; Thije, ten R.H.W.; Rietman, A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2012-01-01

    Design and production guidelines for UD reinforced thermoplastic composites are highly desirable. Therefore, forming experiments and simulations with a realistic complex shaped product were conducted. Thermoforming experiments with quasi-isotropic UD carbon/PEEK and 8HS woven glass/PPS composites sh

  17. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  18. On Quadratic Differential Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.C.; Trentelman, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theory around the notion of quadratic differential forms in the context of linear differential systems. In many applications, we need to not only understand the behavior of the system variables but also the behavior of certain functionals of these variables. The obvious cases w

  19. eta ' transition form factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amo Sanchez, del P.; Raven, H.G.; Snoek, H.; BaBar, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    eta((')) transition form factors in the momentum-transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV(2). The analysis is based on 469 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  20. Three-form cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Tomi S., E-mail: T.Koivisto@ThPhys.Uni-Heidelberg.d [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany); Nunes, Nelson J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Cosmology of self-interacting three-forms is investigated. The minimally coupled canonical theory can naturally generate a variety of isotropic background dynamics, including scaling, possibly transient acceleration and phantom crossing. An intuitive picture of the cosmological dynamics is presented employing an effective potential. Numerical solutions and analytical approximations are provided for scenarios which are potentially important for inflation or dark energy.

  1. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  2. Tube-Forming Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  3. The Form of Gentrification

    CERN Document Server

    Venerandi, Alessandro; Romice, Ombretta; Porta, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Many socioeconomic studies have been carried out to explain the phenomenon of gentrification. Although results of these works shed light on the process around this phenomenon, a perspective which focuses on the relationship between city form and gentrification is still missing. With this paper we try to address this gap by studying and comparing, through classic methods of mathematical statistics, morphological features of five London gentrified neighbourhoods. Outcomes confirm that areas which have undergone gentrification display similar and recognizable morphological patterns in terms of urban type and geographical location of main and local roads as well as businesses. These initial results confirm findings from previous research in urban sociology, and highlight the role of urban form in contributing to shape dynamics of non-spatial nature in cities.

  4. Sleep disorders - resistant forms

    OpenAIRE

    Koláčková, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Pavla Koláčková Supervisor: Doc. RNDr. Vladimír Semecký, CSc. Name of dissertation: Sleep disorders - resistant forms The diploma thesis is about sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are a global problem, lots of people have these problems. This diploma thesis focuses on American International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) and its application in clinical practice...

  5. Parking and Urban Form

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Jan K.; Franco, Sofia F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the provision of residential parking in a monocentric city, with the ultimate goal of appraising the desirability and effects of regulations such as a minimum-parking requirement (MPR) per dwelling. The analysis considers three different regimes for provision of parking space: surface parking, underground parking, and structural parking, with the latter two regimes involving capital investment either in the form of an underground parking garage or an above-ground parking s...

  6. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  7. 78 FR 58605 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F, and 8879-EMP. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request...- file Return; Form 8453-EMP, Employment Tax Declaration for an IRS e- file Return; Form 8879-EMP, IRS...

  8. Technological experiment research of superplastic welding of 1.6C%-UHCS/40Cr with preset interlayer%预置中间层的1.6C-UHCS/40Cr超塑性焊接工艺试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡中皓; 张柯柯; 邱然锋; 涂益民; 乔騻; 李臣阳

    2012-01-01

    The experiments without vacuum or protection atmosphere was conducted based on the optimized design of superplastic welding of 1.6C%-UHCS/40Cr with preset interlayer. The results showed that choosing rolled industrial pure iron as an interlayer could improve the 1.6C%-UHCS/40Cr interface's plastic deformation and their weldability effectively. When the initial pressure was 56.6 MPa, welding temperature was 750 XI, initial strain rate was 1.5x10- 4s-1, after 10 min welding, the joint tensile strength could reach 702 MPa, which was 35% larger than without interlayer and equal with the tensile strength of 40Cr base metal after thermodynamic cycle.%基于对预置中间层的1.6C-UHCS/40Cr超塑性焊接工艺方案的优化设计,在非真空及无保护气氛下,进行了超塑性焊接工艺试验.试验结果表明:选用轧制态工业纯铁中间层,能有效改善1.6C-UHCS/40Cr超塑焊界面区的塑性变形能力,提高焊接性.在预压应力56.6 MPa、焊接温度750℃、初始应变速率1.5×10-4/s的条件下,经10 min压接,接头抗拉强度为702 MPa,比不加中间层的接头强度提高35%,达相同热力循环下40Cr母材的抗拉强度.

  9. [Adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafiţanu, E; Matei, I; Mungiu, O C; Pavelescu, M; Mîndreci, I; Apostol, I; Ionescu, G

    1989-01-01

    The adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms aimed to local action release the drug substance in view of a dermatological, traumatological, antirheumatic, cosmetic action. Two such preparations were obtained and their stability, consistency and pH were determined. The "in vitro" tests of their bioavailability revealed the dynamics of calcium ions release according to the associations of each preparation. The bioavailability determined by evaluating the pharmacological response demonstrated the antiinflammatory action obtained by the association of calcium ions with the components extracted from poplar muds. The therapeutical efficiency of the studied preparations has proved in the treatment of some sport injuries.

  10. Advanced forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kliber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forming is usually the final stage of metallurgical production of steel (90 % of the 1,7 billion tons of total steel production in the world and traditionally also largely of the products made of non-ferrous metals. Many procedures and methods exist and we will focus only on some of them. The aim is usually to achieve ultra-fine grained structure, the proper microstructure and (mechanical / electrical properties in innovative materials. The presented article mentions only some examples.

  11. Code Optimization in FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Kuipers, J; Vermaseren, J A M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  12. Do naked singularities form?

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, C; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    1995-01-01

    A naked singularity is formed by the collapse of a Sine-Gordon soliton in 1+1 dimensional dilaton gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We examine the quantum stress tensor resulting from the formation of the singularity. Consistent boundary conditions require that the incoming soliton is accompanied by a flux of incoming radiation across past null infinity, but neglecting the back reaction of the spacetime leads to the absurd conclusion that the total energy entering the system by the time the observer is able to receive information from the singularity is infinite. We conclude that the back reaction must prevent the formation of the naked singularity.

  13. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  14. The forms of prophecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayco González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prophecy is a kind of text holding therefore its own textual marks, differing from other kinds of texts. In order to do a discursive analysis of it, we must bring a semiotic study of its own possible forms. It includes its intertextual connections, as well as the use of typical tropos and topoi. Our aim is to describe the features of a kind of text that seems to appear in every well-known culture. Our analysis is limited to religious prophecies, showing mainly several examples from Judeo-Christian tradition, but also from other cultures, according to our line of argument. Amongst its features we find the use of allusion, forcing to any addressee to expand all possible interpretations. Likewise the prophecy seems to fulfill the double function of threat/promise, depending on each addressee.

  15. Le forme del fondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non è vero che la natura ha paura del vuoto. Forse addirittura si completa. Il vuoto è anche una modalità dell'essere. È possibile nidificarvisi, avvolgersi pigramente e, così, proteggersi dall'angoscia del tempo che passa. Il vuoto delle apparenze è, in alcuni momenti, una delle forme d'espressione della vita sociale. Oltretutto occorre saperle riconoscere. Certamente, abbiamo tutti un'esistenza personale, ma siamo, ugualmente, i rappresentanti, a volte anche le vittime, di uno "spirito comune", forse anche di un "inconscio collettivo" che si è costituito di secolo in secolo. E, molto spesso, quando crediamo di esprimere le nostre idee, siamo soltanto dei portavoce, comparse di un vasto "theatrum mundi" dalle dimensioni infinite.

  16. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  17. Paramodular Cusp Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Cris

    2009-01-01

    We classify Siegel modular cusp forms of weight two for the paramodular group K(p) for primes p< 600. We find that weight two Hecke eigenforms beyond the Gritsenko lifts correspond to certain abelian varieties defined over the rationals of conductor p. The arithmetic classification is in a companion article by A. Brumer and K. Kramer. The Paramodular Conjecture, supported by these computations and consistent with the Langlands philosophy and the work of H. Yoshida, is a partial extension to degree 2 of the Shimura-Taniyama Conjecture. These nonlift Hecke eigenforms share Euler factors with the corresponding abelian variety $A$ and satisfy congruences modulo \\ell with Gritsenko lifts, whenever $A$ has rational \\ell-torsion.

  18. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  19. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  20. Weird past tense forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Pinker, S

    1995-10-01

    It is often assumed that children go through a stage in which they systematically overapply irregular past tense patterns to inappropriate verbs, as in wipe-wope, bring-brang, trick-truck, walk-has walken. Such errors have been interpreted both as reflecting over-use of minor grammatical rules (e.g. 'change i to a'), and as reflecting the operation of a connectionist pattern associator network that superimposes and blends patterns of various degrees of generality. But the actual rate, time course, and nature of these errors have never been documented. We analysed 20,000 past tense and participle usages from nine children in the CHILDES database, looking for overapplications of irregular vowel-change patterns, as in brang, blends, as in branged, productive suffixations of -en, as in walken, gross distortions, as in mail-membled, and double-suffixation, as in walkeded. These errors were collectively quite rare; children made them in about two tenths of one per cent of the opportunities, and with few stable patterns: the errors were not predominantly word-substitutions, did not occur predominantly with irregular stems, showed no consistency across verbs or ages, and showed no clear age trend. Most (though not all) of the errors were based closely on existing irregular verbs; gross distortions never occurred. We suggest that both rule-theories and connectionist theories have tended to overestimate the predominance of such errors. Children master irregular forms quite accurately, presumably because irregular forms are just a special case of the arbitrary sound-meaning pairings that define words, and because children are good at learning words.

  1. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  2. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2016-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  3. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  4. Group valued differential forms revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders

    We study the relationship between combinatorial group valued differential forms, and classical differential forms with values in the corresponding Lie algebra. In particular, we compare simplicial coboundary and exterior derivative for 1-forms. The results represent strengthenings of results...

  5. Group valued differential forms revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders

    We study the relationship between combinatorial group valued differential forms, and classical differential forms with values in the corresponding Lie algebra. In particular, we compare simplicial coboundary and exterior derivative for 1-forms. The results represent strengthenings of results...

  6. Les formes du fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il n'est pas vrai que la nature a horreur du vide. Peut-être même s'y complait-elle. Le creux est aussi une modalité de l'être. Il est possible de s'y nicher, de s'y lover paresseusement et, ainsi, de se protéger contre l'angoisse du temps qui passe. Le creux des apparences est, à certains moments, une des formes d'expression de la vie sociale. Encore faut-il savoir le reconnaître. Certes, nous avons tous une existence personnelle, mais nous sommes, également, les représentants, parfois même les victimes, d'un "esprit commun", peut-être même d'un "inconscient collectif" qui s'est constitué de siècle en siècle. Et, très souvent, là où nous croyons exprimer nos propres idées, nous ne sommes que les porte-voix, les figurants d'un vaste "theatrum mundi" aux dimensions infinies.

  7. Massive star forming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kathryn Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    We present a study of the earliest stages of massive star formation, in which we focus on Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) and young massive clusters. We present Very Large Array spectral line observations of ammonia (NH 3) and CCS toward four IRDCs. The NH3 lines provide diagnostics of the temperature and density structure within IRDCs. Based upon the NH 3 column density, IRDCs have masses of ˜ 103 to 10 4 M⊙ . We detect twenty NH3 clumps within four IRDCs, with radii regions are presented from the Near Infrared Imager (NIRIM) camera on the 3.5 m WIYN telescope. We report J, H, and K' band photometry in the clusters AFGL437, AFGL5180, and AFGL5142 and use these results to probe the stellar populations, extinction, and ages of the clusters. We find that all three clusters suffer significant extinction (AK ˜1), have ages ≤ 5 Myr, and are actively forming stars. We conclude that the properties of these embedded clusters are consistent with their evolving from IRDC clumps.

  8. Image forming apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    An image H(x, y) for displaying a target image G(x, y) is displayed on a liquid-crystal display panel and illumination light from an illumination light source is made to pass therethrough to form an image on a PALSLM. Read light hv is radiated to the PALSLM and a phase-modulated light image alpha...... (x, y) read out of the PALSLM is subjected to Fourier transform by a lens. A phase contrast filter gives a predetermined phase shift to only the zero-order light component of Fourier light image alpha f(x, y). The phase-shifted light image is subjected to inverse Fourier transform by a lens...... to project an output image O(x, y) to an output plane. A light image O'(x, y) branched by a beam sampler is picked up by a pickup device and an evaluation value calculating unit evaluates conformity between the image O(x, y) and the image G(x, y).; A control unit performs feedback control of optical...

  9. Detection of vvIBDV in vaccinated SPF chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Li, Yiping

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our experiment was to investigate, if apparently healthy, vaccinated chickens may be involved in maintaining and spreading infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in poultry environments. We aimed at simultaneous detection and identification of very virulent field strain IBDV (vvIBD...

  10. Watching How Planets Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be

  11. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  12. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-forms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M. tuberculosis L-forms researches done in China during the recent years were reviewed in this article. M. tuberculosis L-forms could be produced spontaneously or induced by isoniazid or D-cyclic serine, that influenced the synthesis of cell walls. Among the acid-fast organisms isolated from the patients, more L-forms were found than vegetative forms. In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis disseminated through the blood mainly in L-forms, L-forms could adhere on the surface or harbor...

  14. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  15. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New form...

  16. Matryoshka of Special Democratic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Weingart, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    Special p-forms are forms which have components \\phi_{\\mu_1...\\mu_p} equal to +1,-1 or 0 in some orthonormal basis. A p-form \\phi\\in \\Lambda^p R^d is called democratic if the set of nonzero components {\\phi_{\\mu_1...\\mu_p}} is symmetric under the transitive action of a subgroup of O(d,Z) on the indices {1,...,d}. Knowledge of these symmetry groups allows us to define mappings of special democratic p-forms in d dimensions to special democratic P-forms in D dimensions for successively higher P \\geq p and D \\geq d. In particular, we display a remarkable nested stucture of special forms including a U(3)-invariant 2-form in six dimensions, a G_2-invariant 3-form in seven dimensions, a Spin(7)-invariant 4-form in eight dimensions and a special democratic 6-form \\Omega in ten dimensions. The latter has the remarkable property that its contraction with one of five distinct bivectors, yields, in the orthogonal eight dimensions, the Spin(7)-invariant 4-form. We discuss various properties of this ten dimensional form.

  17. FormLink/FeynCalcFormLink : Embedding FORM in Mathematica and FeynCalc

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Feng

    2012-01-01

    FORM, a symbolic manipulation system, has been widely used in a lot of calculations for High Energy Physics due to its high performance and fficient design. Mathematica, another computational software program, has also widely been used, but more for reasons of generality and user-friendliness than for speed. Especially calculations involving tensors and noncommutative operations like calculating Dirac traces can be rather slow in Mathematica, compared to FORM. In this article we describe FormLink and FeynCalcFormLink, two Mathematica packages to link Mathematica and FeynCalc with FORM. FormLink can be used without FeynCalc and FeynCalcFormLink, which is an extension loading FormLink and FeynCalc automatically. With these two packages the impressive speed and other special features of FORM get embedded into the generality of Mathematica and FeynCalc in a simple manner. FeynCalcFormLink provides a FORM-based turbo for FeynCalc, making it much more efficient. FormLink turns Mathematica into an editor and code or...

  18. Detection of antibodies against bivalent inactivated vaccines containing newcastle disease virus and unequal contents of avian influenza virus in SPF chickens%不同禽流感病毒含量的新-流二联灭活疫苗免疫SPF鸡后抗体水平的监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江兴华; 赵华娥; 林晓荣; 包松英; 崔龙萍; 王全溪

    2016-01-01

    将未浓缩的新城疫抗原分别与未浓缩的、浓缩3倍、浓缩6倍的禽流感抗原混合,并制备成三组鸡新城疫、禽流感(H9N2 HP株)二联灭活疫苗(简称新-流二联灭活疫苗),分别免疫21日龄SPF鸡,每羽0.3 mL,同时设置未免疫的空白对照组,免疫组与对照组均在免疫前及免疫后7、14、21、28、35 d进行采血,检测新城疫和禽流感抗体。结果发现,各免疫组在免后不同日龄的新城疫抗体基本一致,禽流感病毒抗原浓缩倍数越高(即禽流感病毒含量越高)的新-流二联灭活疫苗,免后14、21 d的抗体也越高;从免后21 d开始,各免疫组的禽流感抗体水平差异逐渐减小,免疫后禽流感抗体水平的高低可以反映该疫苗的免疫效果。试验结果表明,该疫苗可以通过浓缩提高抗原病毒含量的方法来提高免后早期抗体水平,取得良好的早期免疫效果。%21-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with three kinds of bivalent newcastle disease and avian influenza(H9N2 HP strain) inactivated vaccines, which contained original newcastle disease virus(NDV) and primal, three folds of con-centration, six folds of concentration of avian influenza virus(AIV), respectively. Every chicken in immune group was inoculated with a dose of 0.3 mL, and simultaneously, chickens were mock inoculated as control group.In order to detection antibodies of NDV and AIV blood samples were collected from both immune group and control group before immunization and at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 day post-immunization(dpi), respectively.Results showed that, the antibody levels against NDV in each immune groups were basically consistent at different timepoints of post-immunization, the antibody levels against AIV increased depending on the virus quantity at 14 and 21 dpi, and then decreased gradually till to non-difference.Overall, antibody levels against AIV could represent the

  19. The semantics of biological forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language.

  20. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition...... of tones, pauses, and timbre arranged into harmonies and rhythms. In interaction design it is, for instance, the behaviors of pixels on a screen or the movements in shape-changing interfaces. In this paper we show the power of working explicitly with temporal form in designing computational things. We give...... temporal forms by letting a series of expert designers reflect upon them. We borrow a framework from Boorstin’s film theory in which he distinguishes between the voyeuristic, the vicarious, and the visceral experience. We show how to use rhythms, complexity, gentle or forceful behavior, etc., to create...

  1. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI)has emerged,intending to bring language forms instructionback to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types of application.The tentative conclusion is FFI does show some explicit and reliable effects on accuracy and error elimination in language teaching;however,the investigation into its application is not simply either Focus on Form Or Focus on FormS,but focuses on the optimal combination of the two in teaching.

  2. Isometric Spacelike Immersions of Space Forms in Indefinite Space Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海中; 吴岚

    2001-01-01

    Let M be a connected n-dimensional space form spacelike isometrically immersed in a (2n -1)-dimensional indefinite space form. If M is maximal, we prove that either M is totally geodesic or M is apiece of the n-dimensional hyperbolic cylinder in the (2n - 1)-dimensional pseudo-hyperbolic space.``

  3. Forming processes and mechanics of sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchitz, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The report is dealing with the numerical analysis of forming processes. Forming processes is the large group of manufacturing processes used to obtain various product shapes by means of plastic deformations. The report is organized as follows. An overview of the deformation processes and the materia

  4. Laser forming and welding processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shuja, Shahzada Zaman

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces model studies and experimental results associated with laser forming and welding such as laser induced bending, welding of sheet metals, and related practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser forming and welding. The analytical study covers the formulation of laser induced bending while the model study demonstrates the simulation of bending and welding processes using the finite element method. Analytical and numerical solutions for laser forming and welding problems are provided.

  5. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI) has emerged,intending to bring language forms instruction back to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types ...

  6. Strange nucleon form-factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, F. E.; Paschke, K. D.

    2017-07-01

    A broad program measuring parity-violation in electron-nuclear scattering has now provided a large set of precision data on the weak-neutral-current form-factors of the proton. Under comparison with well-measured electromagnetic nucleon form-factors, these measurements reveal the role of the strange quark sea on the low-energy interactions of the proton through the strange-quark-flavor vector form-factors. This review will describe the experimental program and the implications of the global data for the strange-quark vector form-factors. We present here a new fit to the world data.

  7. [Pseudotumor form of urinary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, Redouane; Moufid, Kamal; Joual, Abdenbi; Maani, Ahmed; Bennani, Saad; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2002-12-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis is an increasingly frequent serious disease. The diagnosis is often delayed due to the marked clinical polymorphism, leading to serious sequelae. The diagnosis of typical forms is easy, but some forms are misleading and can lead to an incorrect diagnosis. The authors report a pseudoneoplastic form of urogenital tuberculosis in a young patient that was initially diagnosed as lymphoma. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors emphasize the diagnostic difficulties of these forms and the treatment modalities.

  8. A compiler for variational forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Robert C; 10.1145/1163641.1163644

    2011-01-01

    As a key step towards a complete automation of the finite element method, we present a new algorithm for automatic and efficient evaluation of multilinear variational forms. The algorithm has been implemented in the form of a compiler, the FEniCS Form Compiler FFC. We present benchmark results for a series of standard variational forms, including the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and linear elasticity. The speedup compared to the standard quadrature-based approach is impressive; in some cases the speedup is as large as a factor 1000.

  9. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  10. System for forming janus particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang [Midland, MI; Jiang, Shan [Champaign, IL; Granick, Steve [Champaign, IL

    2011-01-25

    The invention is a method of forming Janus particles, that includes forming an emulsion that contains initial particles, a first liquid, and a second liquid; solidifying the first liquid to form a solid that contains at least a portion of the initial particles on a surface of the solid; and treating the exposed particle sides with a first surface modifying agent, to form the Janus particles. Each of the initial particles on the surface has an exposed particle side and a blocked particle side.

  11. INFORMATIONAL EFFECT OF A FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko V.F.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted by method of light scattering of laser emission. The influence of the form field, mutual influence of mental informational and form torsional fields as well as the following exposure of water samples in the form field after the cease of informational influence on water structure were examined. Paper forms of a pyramid, a cylinder, and a prism were used. The experimental findings show that mechanism of mutual influence on water structure of the form and informational torsional fields depended on the initial conditions of spin restructuring process – the configuration of a form, the type of the form field (internal and external ones, and the initial water structure. The influence of the form field on informational aftereffect was determined, the character of which was defined by ratio of intensities of torsional form field and an informational soliton. The phenomenon of the abnormally large amplification of the informational aftereffect in the internal field of a pyramid demonstrating the attributes of positive reverse connection between the informational soliton and torsional field of water structure and selection of generated cluster sizes were discovered.

  12. Intermetallic and titanium matrix composite materials for hypersonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, B.; Surdon, G.; Colin, C. [Dassault Aviation, Saint-Cloud (France)]|[Aersopatiale Space & Defence, St Medard en Jalles (France)

    1995-09-01

    As part of the French Program of Research and Technology for Advanced Hypersonic Propulsion (PREPHA) which was launched in 1992 between Aerospatiale, Dassault Aviation, ONERA, SNECMA and SEP, an important work is specially devoted to the development of titanium and intermetallic composite materials for large airframe structures. At Dassault Aviation, starting from a long experience in Superplastic Forming - Diffusion Bonding (SPF-DB) of titanium parts, the effort is brought on the manufacturing and characterization of composites made from Timet beta 21S or IMI 834 foils and Textron SCS6 fiber fabrics. At `Aersopatiale Espace & Defence`, associated since a long time about intermetallic composite materials with university research laboratories, the principal effort is brought on plasma technology to develop the gamma titanium aluminide TiAl matrix composite reinforced by protected silicon carbide fibers (BP SM 1240 or TEXTRON SCS6). The objective, is to achieve, after 3 years of time, to elaborate a medium size integrally stiffened panel (300 x 600 sq mm).

  13. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...... cooperating with the plurality of user equipment to decode the received data....

  14. Another Form for LAMBDA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yangmei; LIU Jingnan

    2003-01-01

    The LAMBDA methodthat was proposed by Teunissen is introduced. Then, on the basis of both the back-sequential conditional LS technique and the upper-triangular Cholesky decomposition, another form for LAMBDA method is proposed.This new form for LAMBDA method has the same principle and calculation speed as the traditional LAMBDA method.

  15. FormTracer - A Mathematica Tracing Package Using FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Cyrol, Anton K; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present FormTracer, a high-performance, general purpose, easy-to-use Mathematica tracing package which uses FORM. It supports arbitrary space and spinor dimensions as well as an arbitrary number of simple compact Lie groups. While keeping the usability of the Mathematica interface, it relies on the efficiency of FORM. An additional performance gain is achieved by a decomposition algorithm that avoids redundant traces in the product tensors spaces. FormTracer supports a wide range of syntaxes which endows it with a high flexibility. Mathematica notebooks that automatically install the package and guide the user through performing standard traces in space-time, spinor and gauge-group spaces are provided.

  16. Topics on the FORM software; Topicos do software FORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jorge, Patricia M. da; Peres, Patricia Duarte [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao

    1997-06-01

    These notes studies the compilation with FORM software as applied to high energy physics, covering the following topics: Command structures, statistics and numbers, Dirac matrices, optimization control, Gamma matrices, errors and polynomial substitution

  17. Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Susanna

    Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions

  18. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  19. Nitrogen Forms in Humic Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUOSU-NENG; WENQI-XIAO

    1992-01-01

    In this paper,the nitrogen forms in newly-formed humic substances,including humic acid (HA),fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid in humin (HAI),were studied by using the 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results show that the majority of nitrogen in HA,FA and HAI was in the amide form with some presented as aliphatic and/ or aromatic amines and some as pyrrole type nitrogen,although the contents of nonhydrolyzable nitrogen in them differed greatly from each other (15-55%).

  20. Differential forms theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Differential forms are utilized as a mathematical technique to help students, researchers, and engineers analyze and interpret problems where abstract spaces and structures are concerned, and when questions of shape, size, and relative positions are involved. Differential Forms has gained high recognition in the mathematical and scientific community as a powerful computational tool in solving research problems and simplifying very abstract problems through mathematical analysis on a computer. Differential Forms, 2nd Edition, is a solid resource for students and professionals needing a solid g

  1. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, L.; Catenacci, R.; Grassi, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

  2. Supergravity Actions with Integral Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, L; Grassi, P A

    2014-01-01

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincare' dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

  3. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castellani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called “Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem”, relating superfield actions to component actions.

  4. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, L., E-mail: leonardo.castellani@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Catenacci, R., E-mail: roberto.catenacci@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Grassi, P.A., E-mail: pietro.grassi@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called “Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem”, relating superfield actions to component actions.

  5. Multiple forming tools in incremental forming - Influence of the forming strategies on sheet contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T.; Tebaay, L. M.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a well known process which is used for rapid prototyping or for small-quantity production. The feature of this process is the flexible manufacturing of complex hollow shapes with the use of basic equipments. However, this forming process takes very long time. To speed up the process time, multiple forming tools can be used simultaneously. This paper presents the influence of the multiple tools in SPIF on the formed shape. The conventional SPIF with a single tool is taken into account for a comparative analysis. The results in this study showed that the tool arrangements and its distance have a significant effect on the geometrical accuracy. Moreover, it is shown the influence between the vertical step size of the tool and the strain distributions. This knowledge can be used for generation of new forming strategies.

  6. Fields and Forms on -Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cătălin Ciupală

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we introduce non-commutative fields and forms on a new kind of non-commutative algebras: -algebras. We also define the Frölicher–Nijenhuis bracket in the non-commutative geometry on -algebras.

  7. Distances to star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The determination of accurate distances to star-forming regions are discussed in the broader historical context of astronomical distance measurements. We summarize recent results for regions within 1 kpc and present perspectives for the near and more distance future.

  8. Movement in aesthetic form creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the good practice based experiences found when movement is used to strengthen form creation and to create flow in the process of artistic education. Faced with the design engineering students’ problems with creating forms with aesthetic statements, the experiences with movement...... inspired the thesis that the design engineers’ training in aesthetic form creation can be improved by integrating the movement potential into their education. The paper documents the on-going work on developing a model for embodied creation of form called ‘Somatechne model’. The study also identifies...... a lens to assess the students’ development of mind-body skills, known as ‘The Three Soma’. The Somatechne model also helps to identify the activity that gives the students the opportunity to develop their sensibility and thus aesthetic attention....

  9. Detection of Life Forms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gaia Genomics proposes to develop an instrument for the detection of earthborn and/or planetary life forms that are based on a nucleic acid paradigm. Highly...

  10. BILINEAR FORMS AND LINEAR CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莹

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Lempel et al[1] made a connection between linear codes and systems of bilinear forms over finite fields. In this correspondence, a new simple proof of a theorem in [1] is presented; in addition, the encoding process and the decoding procedure of RS codes are simplified via circulant matrices. Finally, the results show that the correspondence between bilinear forms and linear codes is not unique.

  11. Methods of forming CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2017-09-19

    Methods for forming CIGS films are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, a method of forming a CIGS film includes a precursor step, which includes simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate. The Se is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 .ANG./s. The method also includes a selenization step, which includes evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.

  12. Virksomhedens formål

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2009-01-01

    Formålsdiskussionen hører naturligt sammen med overvejelser om virksomhedens identitet og mission. Hvem er vi? Hvad er vores eksistensberettigelse? Hvad er det, vi kan, som andre ikke kan?......Formålsdiskussionen hører naturligt sammen med overvejelser om virksomhedens identitet og mission. Hvem er vi? Hvad er vores eksistensberettigelse? Hvad er det, vi kan, som andre ikke kan?...

  13. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G

    2002-01-01

    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  14. Mechanics of Forming Ring Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan R.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of forming ring disk of constant thickness in conditions of large plastic deformations taking into account the interconnected change of effective strain and deformation hardening is carried out. The analytical dependences characterizing the relative size of plastic area are obtained. The interrelation between the initial and final form of a product is established at maximum possible size of internal pressure.

  15. Terra firma-forme dermatosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis is characterized by ′dirty′ brown-grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can simply be eradicated by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. Although affected patients present with typical lesions, the disorder is not well-known by dermatologists. In this report, we describe two patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis in the setting of xerosis cutis and atopic dermatitis. From a clinical...

  16. Oxidized Form of Creatine Kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希成; 王帆; 邹晓明; 周海梦

    1994-01-01

    The purified rabbit muscle creatine kinase (R-CK) was previously considered homogeneousand without disulfide bonds.By the method of NR/R two-dimensional diagonal SDS-PAGE,two forms of R-CK,designated respectively "oxidized form" of creatine kinase which contained intrachain disulfide bondsand "reduced form" of creatine kinase which did not have any —S—S— bridges,were for the first time sepa-rated.They were found to be the same in amino acid composition,in subunit molecular Weight and in isoelec-tric point,and were almost identical in enzyme activities.Thus it is hard to isolate one from the other bycommon biochemical methods.More extensive studies show that the oxidized form of CK also contains a pair of reactive thiol groupswhich are essential to the enzyme activity,and it has one intrachain disulfide bond per subunit.In the nativestate,this —S—S— bond cannot be reduced by DTT,but by treating the reduced form of CK with some ox-idants,these —S—S— bonds can be formed in vitro.Thus it is presumed that the disulfide bonds are cross-linked through the oxidization of two shallowly buried —SH groups.

  17. Conjoint Forming - Technologies for Simultaneous Forming and Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groche, P.; Wohletz, S.; Mann, A.; Krech, M.; Monnerjahn, V.

    2016-03-01

    The market demand for new products optimized for e. g. lightweight applications or smart components leads to new challenges in production engineering. Hybrid structures represent one promising approach. They aim at higher product performance by using a suitable combination of different materials. The developments of hybrid structures stimulate the research on joining of dissimilar materials. Since they allow for joining dissimilar materials without external heating technologies based on joining by plastic deformation seem to be of special attractiveness. The paper at hand discusses the conjoint forming approach. This approach combines forming and joining in one process. Two or more workpieces are joined while at least one workpiece is plastically deformed. After presenting the fundamental joining mechanisms, the conjoint forming approach is discussed comprehensively. Examples of conjoint processes demonstrate the effectiveness and reveal the underlying phenomena.

  18. 鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗对SPF鸡和商品肉鸡的免疫效果观察%The immune effect of duplex inactivated vaccines of newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease on SPF chicken and commercial broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹先强

    2016-01-01

    1, 7, 14 days of age SPF chicken are respectively vaccinated with a new, efficient inactivated vaccine of infectious bursal disease, and group 1 of chicken immune at 1 day-age, blood collecting at 25 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to15.5log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10; group 2 of chicken immune at 7 days-age, blood collecting at 30 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to 14.8log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10; group 3 of chicken immune at 14 days-age, blood collecting at 35 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to 15.4log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10.At 50 days-age of three groups chickenˊs neutralizing antibody are respectively up to16log2,16.1log2 and15.9log2, and poison attack protection all reaches 10/10. A new, effi-cient inactivated vaccine immune 1, 7, 14 days old commercial broilers with maternal antibody, after 25 days, sera-neutralizing anti-bodies are respectively up to 12.4log2, 15log2 and 14.2log2, poison attack protection respectively reach 8/10, 10/10 and 9/10; Three groups commercial broilers at the age of 50 days,their neutralizing antibody titers are respectively up to16.2log2,15.7log2,15.5log2, and poison attack protection reaches all 10/10.%用鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗(La Sota+HQ株)分别免疫1、7、14日龄SPF雏鸡,1日龄免疫组于25日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为15.5log2,攻毒保护10/10;7日龄免疫组于30日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为14.8log2,攻毒保护10/10;14日龄免疫组于35日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为15.4log2,攻毒保护10/10。3组在50日龄时法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值依次为16log2、16.1log2、15.9log2,攻毒保护均为10/10。用鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗(La Sota+HQ株)免疫带有母源抗体的1、7、14日龄商品肉鸡,免后25 d血清法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值分别为12

  19. Effects of different duration of cold stress on production of cytokines in serum of SPF wistar rats%不同时间强度冷刺激对大鼠血清中炎症相关细胞因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭爽; 郭景茹; 汪志; 臧琳; 王建发; 计红; 郭丽; 杨焕民

    2013-01-01

    将170只SPF级Wistar大鼠随机分为常温对照组及冷刺激试验组,冷刺激试验组又分为急性应激组及慢性应激组.急性冷刺激时间为3、6、12、24 h,慢性冷刺激时间为3、6、9、12d.试验大鼠均于人工气候室中饲养,对照组及冷刺激试验组的饲养温度分别为(24±0.05)C和(4±0.05)C.经不同时间强度的冷刺激后,采用心脏采血,采集大鼠血液,并分离血清,利用Luminex xMAP技术检测大鼠血清中IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α、IL-2、IFN-γ、IL-4、IL-10以及IP-10的含量.结果显示,冷刺激能够提高各试验组大鼠血清中IL-6的含量,急性应激组与对照组相比TNF-α、IP-10 、L2和IL-4的含量变化水平呈上调趋势,而慢性应激组TNF-α、IL-2和IL4的含量变化呈下调趋势,IFN-γ和IP-10的含量在冷刺激9、12d时显著增强(P<0.05).研究结果表明,冷刺激能够引起大鼠炎症相关细胞因子以及辅助性T细胞亚群的分泌,随着应激时间的延长,细胞免疫(Th1)向体液免疫(Th2)漂移,从促炎症细胞因子(特点是IL-1和TNF-α的升高)向抗炎症细胞因子(特点是伴随IL-4和IL-10的增强)转化,机体产生细胞免疫并刺激机体产生体液免疫.%The changes and correlation of correlated cytokines in serum of SPF wistar rats under different duration of cold stress and were studied,and 170 rats were randomly divided into control groups and cold stress groups. Cold stress treatment groups were divided into acute or chronic cold stress groups. The duration of acute cold stress were 3 h,6 h,12 h,and 24 h,and the duration of chronic cold stress were 3 d,6 d,9 d and 12 d. Tenvironment temperature in cold stress groups was regulated through the artificial intelligent climate chamber The temperature of cold stress was (4 + 0. 05)℃. After the different duration of cold stress,4 mL blood were taken from heart, and then separate serum. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IP-10 were

  20. 嗜碱芽孢杆菌Bacillus sp.F26过氧化氢酶的分离纯化及性质研究%Purification and Characterization of a Monofunctional Catalase from an Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. F26

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心齐; 薛燕芬; 赵爱民; 堵国成; 许正宏; 陈坚; 马延和

    2005-01-01

    从一株低度嗜盐、兼性嗜碱芽孢杆菌Bacillus sp.F26中纯化得到一种碱性过氧化氢酶,并对该酶进行了性质研究.纯化过程经硫酸铵沉淀、阴离子交换层析、凝胶过滤层析及疏水层析四步最终获得电泳纯的目标酶(纯化58.5倍).该过氧化氢酶的分子量为140kD,由两个大小相同的亚基组成.天然酶分子在408 nm处显示特征吸收峰(Soret band).吡啶血色素光谱显示了酶分子以原卟啉Ⅸ(protohemeⅨ)作为辅基.计算获得酶的表观米氏常数为32.5 mmol/L.该过氧化氢酶不受连二亚硫酸钠的还原作用影响,但被氰化物、叠氮化物和3-氨基-1,2,4-三唑(单功能过氧化氢酶的专一抑制剂)强烈抑制.以邻联茴香胺、邻苯二胺和二氨基联苯胺作为电子供体测定酶活时,该酶不显示过氧化物酶活性.同时,酶的N-端序列比对结果说明,该过氧化氢酶与单功能过氧化氢酶亚群有一定的相似性,而与双功能过氧化氢酶亚群及猛过氧化氢酶亚群均没有同源性.因此,本文将纯化的碱性过氧化氢酶定性为单功能过氧化氢酶.此外,该酶具有热敏感的特点,且酶活在pH 5~9的范围内不受pH影响,此后,活性随着pH的升高而升高,并在pH 11处有明显的酶活高峰.20℃、pH 11条件下的酶活半衰期达49h.在pH 11的高碱条件下表现出最高活力和一定的稳定性,这在已报道的过氧化氢酶中还未见描述.同时,该酶也显示了良好的盐碱稳定性,0.5 mol/L NaCl、pH 10.5条件下的酶活半衰期达90 h.另一方面,本文所研究的过氧化氢酶是第一个来源于嗜碱微生物的同源二聚体单功能过氧化氢酶,也是第一个来源于天然碱湖的单功能过氧化氢酶,它能部分地反映出细胞抗氧化体系对相应环境的适应情况.%An alkaline catalase has been purified and characterized from a slightly halophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus sp. F26. The purification was performed

  1. TRASYS form factor matrix normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

  2. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  3. Sixth-Form Colleges: An Endangered Organisational Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoten, David William

    2014-01-01

    The sixth-form college sector is often marginalised in policy and academic discourse, where the much larger school and further education sectors dominate. This paper sets out to describe the sector's key features, assess its position within the wider education system and consider its future in an increasingly competitive education market. The…

  4. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  5. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  6. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro......-containers has shown potential to prevent or delay recrystallization. Another recent approach is the formation of co-amorphous mixtures between either two drugs or one drug and one low molecular weight excipient. Molecular interactions between the two molecules provide an energy barrier that has to be overcome...

  7. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  8. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  9. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    or preferences can be demonstrated, and how the move can be made from observing structured oppositions in cultural consumptions to claims about the existence of cultural capital? We note that current research frequently lack a clear argument about how the cultural forms possessed by the culturally privileged...... Distinction about the significance and content of emerging forms of cultural capital in different Western societies. Among the claims to be discussed are the following: - the claim about a decline in the adherence to traditional highbrow or classic high culture - the claim about increased omnivorousness and...... - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference...

  10. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  11. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  12. Method of forming structural heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1984-06-26

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  13. New directions in Dirichlet forms

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen; Mosco, Umberto; Rockner, Michael; Sturm, Karl-Theodor

    1998-01-01

    The theory of Dirichlet forms brings together methods and insights from the calculus of variations, stochastic analysis, partial differential and difference equations, potential theory, Riemannian geometry and more. This book features contributions by leading experts and provides up-to-date, authoritative accounts on exciting developments in the field and on new research perspectives. Topics covered include the following: stochastic analysis on configuration spaces, specifically a mathematically rigorous approach to the stochastic dynamics of Gibbs measures and infinite interacting particle systems; subelliptic PDE, homogenization, and fractals; geometric aspects of Dirichlet forms on metric spaces and function theory on such spaces; generalized harmonic maps as nonlinear analogues of Dirichlet forms, with an emphasis on non-locally compact situations; and a stochastic approach based on Brownian motion to harmonic maps and their regularity. Various new connections between the topics are featured, and it is de...

  14. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasick, David A; Enders, Tara A; Strader, Lucia C

    2013-06-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development.

  15. $K_{13}$ transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Chueng Ryong Ji

    2001-01-01

    The rainbow truncation of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation is combined with the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the meson bound state amplitudes and the dressed quark-W vertex in a manifestly covariant calculation of the K/sub l3/ transition form factors and decay width in the impulse approximation. With model gluon parameters previously fixed by the chiral condensate, the pion mass and decay constant, and the kaon mass, our results for the K/sub l3/ form factors and the kaon semileptonic decay width are in good agreement with the experimental data. (37 refs).

  16. Language, Culture and Symbolic Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Theis, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    As Ernst Cassierer introduced in his “Philosophie der symbolischen Formen” in 1923, he specifically mentioned “language” as well as a way of symbolic forms. In 1991, the self declared “researcher on human sciences”, Norbert Elias, published his work called “The Symbol Theory” where he mainly writes about language as an application of symbolic forms and symbols. Elias does not make any reference to Cassirer at all, but states that languages are a part of a civilization process and part of cult...

  17. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  18. 75 FR 26782 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I- 864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W... Collection Under Review; Form I- 864, Affidavit of Support Under Section 213A of the Act; Form I-864A, Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member, Form I-864EZ, Affidavit of Support Under Section 213A of...

  19. Free Form Technology from Delft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.J.C.M.; Van Gelder, B.L.; Lockefeer, W.A.A.M.; Veltkamp, M.; Vollers, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, designed and engineered by Frank O. Gehry and inaugurated in 1997, opened the eyes of the world to the plastic possibilities of Free Form Design. That is, on the side of architects and their admiring clients. Some architects draw up complicated but sur

  20. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    a nuanced account of what temporal form is in interaction design, and we look at related work synthesizing what we already know of the temporal concerns in interaction design and HCI. In the second part we present a design experiment through which we explore the experiential qualities of a set of 11 simple...

  1. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  2. Education fees – New forms

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The application forms for the payment of education fees have been updated and are now available in the Admin e-guide (under the “Useful Documents” heading):   Payment of education fees (including language course fees) – AC12A (form to be used by staff members recruited before 1 January 2007, with the exception of former “local staff”).   Payment of education fees – AC12B (form to be used by staff members recruited on or after 1 January 2007, by fellows, scientific associates and guest professors and by former “local staff” whose contracts started before 1 January 2007). The Education Fees service will continue to accept the old forms until the end of the current academic year, i.e. until 31 August 2015. Members of the personnel are reminded that any false declaration or failure to declare information with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain that would result in a financial loss for CERN or...

  3. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    of tones, pauses, and timbre arranged into harmonies and rhythms. In interaction design it is, for instance, the behaviors of pixels on a screen or the movements in shape-changing interfaces. In this paper we show the power of working explicitly with temporal form in designing computational things. We give...

  4. Application of Incremental Sheet Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some manufacturing aspects and an example of application of the Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF technology which was used for production of the craniofacial prosthesis. The brief description of prosthesis designing was presented as well. The main topic of the paper is comparison of milling and ISF technologies for preparing the tools for prosthesis thermoforming.

  5. Multiplicative forms and Spencer operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, Marius; Salazar Pinzon, Maria; Struchiner, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by our attempt to recast Cartan’s work on Lie pseudogroups in a more global and modern language, we are brought back to the question of understanding the linearization of multiplicative forms on groupoids and the corresponding integrability problem. From this point of view, the novelty of

  6. Spin-forming Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

    2009-03-20

    In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

  7. Polynomial Algebra in Form 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.

    2012-06-01

    New features of the symbolic algebra package Form 4 are discussed. Most importantly, these features include polynomial factorization and polynomial gcd computation. Examples of their use are shown. One of them is an exact version of Mincer which gives answers in terms of rational polynomials and 5 master integrals.

  8. English Pidgins: Form and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights similarities and variation in both form and function of English pidgins the world over. It is argued that English pidgins are related more by socio-historical conditions and directions of development than by details of their formal structure. Reference list includes 68 citations. (Author/DJD)

  9. Green Lubricants for Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The increasing focus on legislation towards diminishing the impact on working environment as well as external environment has driven efforts to develop new, environmentally benign lubricants for metal forming. The present paper gives an overview of these efforts to substitute environmentally haza...

  10. PIC Reading Readiness Test Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. J.

    This rating form concerns the measurement of basic skills in connection with assessing reading readiness. Motor skills, ability to adjust to learning situations, familiarity with the alphabet, and general knowledge are assessed. See TM 001 111 for details of the Regional PIC program in which it is used. (DLG)

  11. Forms representing forms and linear spaces on hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brandes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    A generalisation of Waring's problem, considered first by Arkhipov and Karatsuba, is the question of representing not an integer, but a given polynomial, as a sum of powers of linear polynomials. We investigate a related problem and prove a Hasse principle for the number of identical representations of a set of given forms by homogeneous polynomials of general shape. The result leads to sizeable improvements for estimates of the number of linear spaces on the intersection of hypersurfaces.

  12. A technique to study the granular flow during superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Andrade, J.D. [DCBI, Dept. de Materiales, Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico); Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas. Facultad de Ingenieria; Mendoza-Allende, A.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J.A. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica; Torres-Villasenor, G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones en Materiales

    1999-07-01

    A new technique for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which provides a mesoscopic coordinate system inscribed on the surface of the center of a tension test specimen, and relates this system to another fixed at rest in laboratory it is developed. Such technique allows to establish in a repeatable way any angle relative to any axis of any coordinate system, or distances between grains, or to measure local or global true deformation in parallel or perpendicular direction relatives to the tension axis. This technique was applied to give some results on a Zn-20.2% Al-1.8% Cu Alloy tension test specimen with 412 {mu}m length. (orig.)

  13. Newtonian Viscous Flow and Superplasticity in Fine Grained Metallic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-31

    Propriedas Mecanicas de Materiales Laminados Mg-9%Li de Pequeno Tamano de Grano", 7th National Conference on Metallurgical Science and Technology...34in Proceedings of Sampe Symposium, Reno, Nevada, (1984). 8 7. 0. A. Ruano and 0. D. Sherby, "Caracterizaci6n Y obtenci6n de materiales superpllsticos

  14. Nanostructural materials: production, structure, high strain rate superplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myshlyaev; M.; M.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of rods subjected to the equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing has been studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, back electron scattering diffraction and orientation image microscopy.……

  15. Nanostructural materials: production, structure, high strain rate superplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The structure of rods subjected to the equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing has been studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, back electron scattering diffraction and orientation image microscopy.

  16. Mechanisms of Superplastic Deformation of Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    CAMPBELL MZ436 30 44 D DEBUSSCHER MZ436 20 29 J ERIDON MZ436 21 24 W HERMAN MZ435 01 24 S PENTESCU MZ436 21 24 38500 MOUND RD... HESS & EISENHARDT G ALLEN D MALONE T RUSSELL 9113 LE SAINT DR FAIRFIELD OH 45014 NO. OF NO. OF COPIES ORGANIZATION COPIES

  17. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  18. Terra firma-forme dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Erkek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is characterized by ′dirty′ brown-grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can simply be eradicated by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. Although affected patients present with typical lesions, the disorder is not well-known by dermatologists. In this report, we describe two patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis in the setting of xerosis cutis and atopic dermatitis. From a clinical point of view, we lay emphasis on its unique expression and diagnosis/treatment. From a histological perspective, we highlight its resemblance to dermatosis neglecta and speculate on the role of ′neglect′ in a patient with seemingly adequate hygiene. The role of urea containing emollients in the development of this disorder remains to be determined.

  19. Free-form illumination optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Hernández, Maikel

    2016-04-01

    In many illumination problems, the beam pattern needed and/or some geometrical constraints lead to very asymmetric design conditions. These asymmetries have been solved in the past by means of arrangements of rotationally symmetric or linear lamps aimed in different directions whose patterns overlap to provide the asymmetric prescriptions or by splitting one single lamp into several sections, each one providing a part of the pattern. The development of new design methods yielding smooth continuous free-form optical surfaces to solve these challenging design problems, combined with the proper CAD modeling tools plus the development of multiple axes diamond turn machines, give birth to a new generation of optics. These are able to offer the performance and other advanced features, such as efficiency, compactness, or aesthetical advantages, and can be manufactured at low cost by injection molding. This paper presents two examples of devices with free-form optical surfaces, a camera flash, and a car headlamp.

  20. Form Factors of Few-Body Systems: Point Form Versus Front Form

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Rocha, Maria; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We present a relativistic point-form approach for the calculation of electroweak form factors of few-body bound states that leads to results which resemble those obtained within the covariant light-front formalism of Carbonell et al. Our starting points are the physical processes in which such form factors are measured, i.e. electron scattering off the bound state, or the semileptonic weak decay of the bound state. These processes are treated by means of a coupled-channel framework for a Bakamjian-Thomas type mass operator. A current with the correct covariance properties is then derived from the pertinent leading-order electroweak scattering or decay amplitude. As it turns out, the electromagnetic current is affected by unphysical contributions which can be traced back to wrong cluster properties inherent in the Bakamjian-Thomas construction. These spurious contributions, however, can be separated uniquely, as in the covariant light-front approach. In this way we end up with form factors which agree with tho...

  1. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobrist, B.; Marcolli, C.; Pedernera, D. A.; Koop, T.

    2008-01-01

    A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline) solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg

  2. Superprocesses on Two Space Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Superprocess is one class of measure-valued branching Markov processes. Many results of the process on abstract spaces and Euclidean spaces are obtained in the literature. In this paper, we discuss super-Brownian motions on two space forms and reveal partially the relationship between the properties of superprocesses and the geometric structure of the underlying state spaces. Finally, we also presents some open problems.

  3. SOD FORM OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the peculiarities of turf and sod, specificity of formation of kidneys for regeneration, types of shoots, vegetative mobility and specificity of growth in certain conditions, turf grasses are divided into loosely-and tightly-turf characterized, by specific features of environmental, biological characteristics; forming turf from generative rosettes, elongated and shortened vegetative, side ground shoots, differing specificity of morphological, biochemical and fitocoenotic...

  4. The Integral Form of Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, L; Grassi, P A

    2016-01-01

    By using integral forms we derive the superspace action of D=3, N=1 supergravity as an integral on a supermanifold. The construction is based on target space picture changing operators, here playing the role of Poincare' duals to the lower-dimensional spacetime surfaces embedded into the supermanifold. We show how the group geometrical action based on the group manifold approach interpolates between the superspace and the component supergravity actions, thus providing another proof of their equivalence.

  5. The faintest star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P

    2003-01-01

    I briefly report on the X-ray detection of 10 radio sub-mJy sources in the 2 Ms Chandra observation of the Hubble Deep Field North region. These sources follow the same radio/X-ray luminosities relation which holds for nearby galaxies. Making use of this relation, X-ray number counts from star forming galaxies are predicted from the deep radio Log N-Log S's.

  6. Lecture Notes on Differential Forms

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This is a series of lecture notes, with embedded problems, aimed at students studying differential topology. Many revered texts, such as Spivak's "Calculus on Manifolds" and Guillemin and Pollack's "Differential Topology" introduce forms by first working through properties of alternating tensors. Unfortunately, many students get bogged down with the whole notion of tensors and never get to the punch lines: Stokes' Theorem, de Rham cohomology, Poincare duality, and the realization of various t...

  7. The integral form of supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Catenacci, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Gruppo Nazionale di Fisica Matematica, INdAM,P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Grassi, P.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-11

    By using integral forms we derive the superspace action of D=3,N=1 supergravity as an integral on a supermanifold. The construction is based on target space picture changing operators, here playing the rôle of Poincaré duals to the lower-dimensional spacetime surfaces embedded into the supermanifold. We show how the group geometrical action based on the group manifold approach interpolates between the superspace and the component supergravity actions, thus providing another proof of their equivalence.

  8. Lie groups and automorphic forms

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Lizhen; Xu, H W; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    Lie groups are fundamental objects in mathematics. They occur naturally in differential geometry, algebraic geometry, representation theory, number theory, and other areas. Closely related are arithmetic subgroups, locally symmetric spaces and the spectral theory of automorphic forms. This book consists of five chapters which give comprehensive introductions to Lie groups, Lie algebras, arithmetic groups and reduction theories, cohomology of arithmetic groups, and the Petersson and Kuznetsov trace formulas.

  9. Current forms and gauge invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M Castrillon [Departemento de GeometrIa y TopologIa, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Masque, J Munoz [Instituto de FIsica Aplicada, CSIC, C/Serrano 144, 28006-Madrid (Spain)

    2004-05-14

    Let C be the bundle of connections of a principal G-bundle {pi}:P {yields} M, and let V be the vector bundle associated with P by a linear representation G {yields} GL(V) on a finite-dimensional vector space V. The Lagrangians on J{sup 1}(C x {sub M}V) whose current form is gauge invariant, are described and the gauge-invariant Lagrangians on J{sup 1}(V) are classified.

  10. Rib forming tool for tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, James P.; Lewandowski, Edward F.; Groh, Edward F.

    1976-01-01

    Three cylindrical rollers are rotatably mounted equidistant from the center of a hollow tool head on radii spaced 120.degree. apart. Each roller has a thin flange; the three flanges lie in a single plane to form an internal circumferential rib in a rotating tubular workpiece. The tool head has two complementary parts with two rollers in one part of the head and one roller in the other part; the two parts are joined by a hinge. A second hinge, located so the rollers are between the two hinges, connects one of the parts to a tool bar mounted in a lathe tool holder. The axes of rotation of both hinges and all three rollers are parallel. A hole exposing equal portions of the three roller flanges is located in the center of the tool head. The two hinges permit the tool head to be opened and rotated slightly downward, taking the roller flanges out of the path of the workpiece which is supported on both ends and rotated by the lathe. The parts of the tool head are then closed on the workpiece so that the flanges are applied to the workpiece and form the rib. The tool is then relocated for forming of the next rib.

  11. Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.

  12. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Peen Forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Xiaoming; Ma Zeen; Gu Lin; Chen ming

    2004-01-01

    Peen forming is the most important process for the manufacturing of integral wing skin panels. In order to determine peening parameters, an equivalent deformation theory was proposed in which peening parameters are transformed into equivalent nodal forces. In this study, a linear elastic shell finite element method is adopted. Other related problems such as wing skin panel modeling and peening scheme analysis were also outlined. The method has been applied to manufacturing panels of a certain Chinese aircraft and was proved to be effective in reducing peening experimental tests and improving products quality.

  14. Noncigarette forms of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis

    2008-12-01

    There are many preparations for tobacco use, which can be classified as smoking or smokeless tobacco. Among the noncigarette preparations that produce smoke, we cite cigars, pipes and narghiles. Smokeless tobacco can be found in preparations for chewing or for being absorbed by nasal and oral mucosae (snuff). However, all tobacco products deliver nicotine to the central nervous system and there is a confirmed risk of dependence. In addition, there is no safe form of tobacco use, and tobacco users have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality due to tobacco-related diseases.

  15. The Form of HWID Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of activities within the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) area named Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) is to establish relationships between empirical work-domain studies and recent developments in interaction design. Recent areas of research within HWID include design sketches for work...... in research presented at a recent working conference, and find that a frequent form of HWID theory may be a combination of a HCI theory, domain-specific theory and theorizing on the relation between empirical work analysis and interaction design. At the end of the paper, we propose some constraints...

  16. Strange chiral nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmert, T R; Meißner, Ulf G; Hemmert, Thomas R.; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the strange electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory to third order in the chiral expansion. All counterterms can be fixed from data. In particular, the two unknown singlet couplings can be deduced from the parity-violating electron scattering experiments performed by the SAMPLE and the HAPPEX collaborations. Within the given uncertainties, our analysis leads to a small and positive electric strangeness radius, $ = (0.05 \\pm 0.16) fm^2$. We also deduce the consequences for the upcoming MAMI A4 experiment.

  17. Baryon Form Factors at Threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Pacetti, Simone [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    An extensive study of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron }BABAR cross section data is presented. Two unexpected outcomes have been found: the modulus of the proton form factor is normalized to one at threshold, i.e.: |G{sup p}(4M{sub p}{sup 2})|=1, as a pointlike fermion, and the resummation factor in the Sommerfeld formula is not needed. Other e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} baryon-antibaryon cross sections show a similar behavior near threshold.

  18. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...... the decline of ‘highbrow’ culture which these studies reveal. However, we argue that this shift does not entail the erosion of cultural capital itself, or the rise of the ‘cultural omnivore’, so much as the emergence of a form of ‘cosmopolitan cultural capital’. We argue that this emerging cultural capital...

  19. Terra Firma-forme Dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagha Ramesh Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a cutaneous discoloration. ‘Dirty’ brown grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can be rid off by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads characterize it. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. It poses no medical threat. A 40-year-old male patient presented to the Department of Dermatology with a 2-3 month history of persistent pigmented patches on both upper arms. The lesions were not associated with itching or burning sensation. He gives no history of exacerbation on exposure to the sun.

  20. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  1. Screening three-form fields

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, Tiago; Nunes, Nelson J

    2016-01-01

    Screening mechanisms for a three-form field around a dense source such as the Sun are investigated. Working with the dual vector, we can obtain a thin-shell where field interactions are short range. The field outside the source adopts the configuration of a dipole which is a manifestly distinct behaviour from the one obtained with a scalar field or even a previously proposed vector field model. We identify the region of parameter space where this model satisfies present solar system tests.

  2. Screening three-form fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Tiago; Bertello, Ugo; Nunes, Nelson J.

    2017-10-01

    Screening mechanisms for a three-form field around a dense source such as the Sun are investigated. Working with the dual vector, we can obtain a thin-shell where field interactions are short range. The field outside the source adopts the configuration of a dipole which is a manifestly distinct behaviour from the one obtained with a scalar field or even a previously proposed vector field model. We identify the region of parameter space where this model satisfies present solar system tests.

  3. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  4. Capillary flows with forming interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

    2007-01-01

    PREFACEINTRODUCTION Free-surface flows in nature and industryScope of the bookFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Main concepts Governing equations Elements of thermodynamics Classical boundary conditions Physically meaningful solutions and paradoxes of modelingMOVING CONTACT LINES: AN OVERVIEW Essence of the problem Experimental observations Molecular dynamics simulations Review of theoriesThe key to the moving contact-line problemBOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON FORMING INTERFACES Modeling of interfacesConservation lawsLiquid-gas and liquid-solid interfacesLiquid-liquid interfaces SummaryOpen questions an

  5. Instructions & Forms for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of Materials Sciences & Technology is a monthly journal for the rapid dissemination of new, impor- tant results in material and related fields. Submission Electronic files of MS Word and PDF are acceptable. Please visit http://www.jmst.org and submit online. Submission of a manuscript must be the original work of the author(s) and has not been published elsewhere or under consideration for another publication, or a substantially similar form in any language. Authors are encouraged to recommend three to five individuals (including their research fields, e-mail, phone numbers and addresses) who are qualified to serve as referees for their paper.

  6. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    parts. The first material system employs a novel rotated joint design to allow the structural tuning of quasi-reciprocal timber frame elements fabricated from multi-axis machined plywood sheet stock. The second em-loys discontinuous post-tensioning to assemble unique precast concrete components......This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically unique...

  7. AMERICAN QUARTER HORSES’ BEHAVIORAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  8. Gravity, light and plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangarter, R P

    1997-06-01

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive and selective mechanisms that detect and respond to various aspects of their environment. As a plant develops, it integrates the environmental information perceived by all of its sensory systems and adapts its growth to the prevailing environmental conditions. Light is of critical importance because plants depend on it for energy and, thus, survival. The quantity, quality and direction of light are perceived by several different photosensory systems that together regulate nearly all stages of plant development, presumably in order to maintain photosynthetic efficiency. Gravity provides an almost constant stimulus that is the source of critical spatial information about its surroundings and provides important cues for orientating plant growth. Gravity plays a particularly important role during the early stages of seedling growth by stimulating a negative gravitropic response in the primary shoot that orientates it towards the source of light, and a positive gravitropic response in the primary root that causes it to grow down into the soil, providing support and nutrient acquisition. Gravity also influences plant form during later stages of development through its effect on lateral organs and supporting structures. Thus, the final form of a plant depends on the cumulative effects of light, gravity and other environmental sensory inputs on endogenous developmental programs. This article is focused on developmental interactions modulated by light and gravity.

  9. Prosodic form and parsing commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, S M; Murray, W S

    1996-03-01

    This paper examines the question of whether there are effects of prosody on the syntactic parsing of temporarily ambiguous sentences containing complement verbs. It reports the results of five experiments employing cross-modal response tasks where the visually presented target word was either an ¿appropriate' or an ¿inappropriate' continuation in terms of the prosodic form of the preceeding auditory sentence fragment. Two experiments employing cross-modal naming only showed indications of sensitivity to syntactic and appropriateness manipulations when coupled with a simultaneous appropriateness judgment task. In contrast, the experiments employing cross-modal lexical decision showed greater sensitivity to syntactic and appropriateness effects. However, while the results from these studies replicated our earlier auditory parsing results and provided support for the suggestion that there are differences in visual and auditory parsing processes and for a ¿constituent-based, ' ¿minimal commitment' type auditory parser, none of the studies demonstrated an effect of prosodic form on the parsing process.

  10. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, B.; Marcolli, C.; Pedernera, D. A.; Koop, T.

    2008-09-01

    A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline) solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, Thom, and ice melting temperatures, Tm, of various aqueous inorganic, organic and multi-component solutions are investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter. The investigated solutes are: various polyols, glucose, raffinose, levoglucosan, an aromatic compound, sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate and mixtures of dicarboxylic acids (M5), of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate (M5AS), of two polyols, of glucose and ammonium nitrate, and of raffinose and M5AS. The results indicate that aqueous solutions of the investigated inorganic solutes show Tg values that are too low to be of atmospheric importance. In contrast, aqueous organic and multi-component solutions readily form glasses at low but atmospherically relevant temperatures (≤230 K). To apply the laboratory data to the atmospheric situation, the measured phase transition temperatures were transformed from a concentration to a water activity scale by extrapolating water activities determined between 252 K and 313 K to lower temperatures. The obtained state diagrams reveal that the higher the molar mass of the aqueous organic or multi-component solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. To a lesser extent, Tg also depends on the hydrophilicity of the organic solutes. Therefore, aerosol particles containing larger (≳150 g mol-1) and more hydrophobic organic molecules are more likely to form glasses at intermediate to high relative humidities in the upper troposphere

  11. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pedernera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, Thom, and ice melting temperatures, Tm, of various aqueous inorganic, organic and multi-component solutions are investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter. The investigated solutes are: various polyols, glucose, raffinose, levoglucosan, an aromatic compound, sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate and mixtures of dicarboxylic acids (M5, of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate (M5AS, of two polyols, of glucose and ammonium nitrate, and of raffinose and M5AS. The results indicate that aqueous solutions of the investigated inorganic solutes show Tg values that are too low to be of atmospheric importance. In contrast, aqueous organic and multi-component solutions readily form glasses at low but atmospherically relevant temperatures (≤230 K. To apply the laboratory data to the atmospheric situation, the measured phase transition temperatures were transformed from a concentration to a water activity scale by extrapolating water activities determined between 252 K and 313 K to lower temperatures. The obtained state diagrams reveal that the higher the molar mass of the aqueous organic or multi-component solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. To a lesser extent, Tg also depends on the hydrophilicity of the organic solutes. Therefore, aerosol particles containing larger (≳150 g mol−1 and

  12. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zobrist

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new process is presented by which water-soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, Thom, and ice melting temperatures, Tm, of various aqueous inorganic, organic and multi-component solutions are investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter. The investigated solutes are: various polyols, glucose, raffinose, levoglucosan, an aromatic compound, sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulphate and mixtures of dicarboxylic acids (M5, of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate (M5AS, of two polyols, of glucose and ammonium nitrate, and of raffinose and M5AS. The results indicate that aqueous solutions of the investigated inorganic solutes show Tg-values that are too low to be of atmospheric importance. In contrast, aqueous organic and multi-component solutions readily form glasses at low but atmospherically relevant temperatures (≤230 K. To apply the laboratory data to the atmospheric situation, the measured phase transition temperatures were transformed from a concentration to a water activity scale by extrapolating water activities determined between 252 K and 313 K to lower temperatures. The obtained state diagrams reveal that the higher the molar mass of the aqueous organic or multi-component solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. To a lesser extent, Tg also depends on the hydrophilicity of the organic solutes. Therefore, aerosol particles containing larger and more hydrophobic organic

  13. Alumina forming iron base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Brady, Michael P.

    2014-08-26

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, consists essentially of, in weight percent 2.5 to 4 Al; 25 to 35 Ni; 12 to 19 Cr; at least 1, up to 4 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; 0.5 to 3 Ti; less than 0.5 V; 0.1 to 1 of at least on element selected from the group consisting of Zr and Hf; 0.03 to 0.2 C; 0.005 to 0.1 B; and base Fe. The weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni. The alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, and contains coherent precipitates of .gamma.'-Ni.sub.3Al, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure. The austenitic matrix is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  14. Innovative forms of citizen participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyseth, Torill; Ringholm, Toril; Agger, Annika

    Formal procedures of citizen participation in planning and urban governance in Norway and Denmark share many similarities. Although the planning laws are intended to give all affected stakeholders a chance to air their concerns within a limited time frame, then few use these channels for voice......: What characterises the new and innovative forms of citizen participation in urban planning in terms of innovation? And in what ways and to what degree is input from these processes fed into the formal planning processes? Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the concept of: ‘planning...... interact within the field of urban governance. This is for example seen in urban regeneration projects in Denmark and planning experiments in Norway where we are witnessing more inclusive and bottom-up initiated interactions between public authorities and local actors. The key question in this paper is...

  15. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference......This paper reviews recent European studies to assess whether cultural capital now has the same characteristics – or may be rather the same functions - as when Distinction was written. The paper will examine empirical applications of the concept of cultural capital in leading European studies...... – and hence are highly appropriate for direct comparisons with that study. This paper will begin by raising general issues regarding the meaning of the concept, and about how one may make assessments and claims about cultural capital. Here we consider how the legitimacy of certain cultural competencies...

  16. New marine science organization formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Warren S.

    A new international organization, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) will be established to promote and coordinate marine scientific research in the northern North Pacific Ocean and the Berlin Sea. This was decided in Ottawa on December 12, 1990, when a draft convention was approved by representatives of Canada, China, Japan, the United States, and the Soviet Union. PICES will focus on research on the ocean environment and its interactions with land and atmosphere, its role and response to global weather and climate change, its flora, fauna and ecosystems, its uses and resources, and impacts upon it from human activities. Such studies relate not only to the effects of fishing and environmental change on fish stocks but also to such issues as the impacts of oil spills and other forms of pollution and the eventual consequences of climate change for uses of the ocean and its resources.

  17. The Form of HWID Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of activities within the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) area named Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) is to establish relationships between empirical work-domain studies and recent developments in interaction design. Recent areas of research within HWID include design sketches for work......, usability in context, work analysis for HCI, and integration of work analysis and interaction design methods for pervasive and smart workplaces. Across these areas, the question emerges what form of theory may HWID research produce? The aim with this paper is to investigate the requirements of different...... research purposes to a common framework. We take the position that we should approach HWID with a lightweight, medium-level framework that is useful to guide the application of other theories to study the relation between work analysis and interaction design. We analyse the requirements to theory found...

  18. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... three-dimensional geometries of interfering spheres are created. Textiles are generally a very good sound dampening material. To dampen the sound most effective it should be placed where the sound energy is highest. To find these invisible spots of energy and to reveal the geometry of them, two...... experiments were carried out. One experiment was done in a laboratory with a sound measure instrument and textiles arranged in different positions and shapes. Here the high energy spots were located. The other experiment is ongoing and is an investigation of how textiles can take the shape of the sound...

  19. Forms and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    spaces of Veronese varieties. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal......We present a general theory to obtain linear network codes utilizing forms and obtain explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces intersect in the same small dimension. The theory is inspired by the methods of the author utilizing the osculating...... them suitable for linear network coding. The parameters of the resulting linear network codes are determined....

  20. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  1. Growth and form of spherulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gránásy, László; Pusztai, Tamás; Tegze, György; Warren, James A.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2005-07-01

    Many structural materials (metal alloys, polymers, minerals, etc.) are formed by quenching liquids into crystalline solids. This highly nonequilibrium process often leads to polycrystalline growth patterns that are broadly termed “spherulites” because of their large-scale average spherical shape. Despite the prevalence and practical importance of spherulite formation, only rather qualitative concepts of this phenomenon exist. It is established that phase field methods naturally account for diffusional instabilities that are responsible for dendritic single-crystal growth. However, a generalization of this model is required to describe spherulitic growth patterns, and in the present paper we propose a minimal model of this fundamental crystal growth process. Our calculations indicate that the diversity of spherulitic growth morphologies arises from a competition between the ordering effect of discrete local crystallographic symmetries and the randomization of the local crystallographic orientation that accompanies crystal grain nucleation at the growth front [growth front nucleation (GFN)]. This randomization in the orientation accounts for the isotropy of spherulitic growth at large length scales and long times. In practice, many mechanisms can give rise to GFN, and the present work describes and explores three physically prevalent sources of disorder that lead to this kind of growth. While previous phase field modeling elucidated two of these mechanisms—disorder created by particulate impurities or other static disorder or by the dynamic heterogeneities that spontaneously form in supercooled liquids (even pure ones)—the present paper considers an additional mechanism, crystalline branching induced by a misorientation-dependent grain boundary energy, which can significantly affect spherulite morphology. We find the entire range of observed spherulite morphologies can be reproduced by this generalized phase field model of polycrystalline growth.

  2. 76 FR 41279 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-864, Form I- 864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 864, Affidavit of...

  3. 75 FR 51093 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I- 864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W; Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 864, Affidavit...

  4. Disjoint forms in graphical user interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Achten, P.M.; Plasmeijer, M.J.; Loidl, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Forms are parts of a graphical user interface (GUI) that show a set of values and allow the user to update them. The declarative form construction library FunctionalForms is extended with disjoint form combinators to capture some common patterns in which the form structure expresses a choice. We dem

  5. 48 CFR 3053.303 - Agency forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section illustrates agency-specified forms. To access these forms go to: http://www.dhs.gov (under “Business, Acquisition Information”) or https://dhsonline.dhs.gov/portal/jhtml/general/forms.jhtml....

  6. Are There Various Forms of Lupus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lupus Understanding lupus Are there various forms of lupus? Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ... and tissues at “ Lupus and the Body ”. Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus This form of lupus is limited to ...

  7. A Framework for Interactively Helpful Web Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Gammelmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    AdapForms is a framework for adaptive forms, consisting of a form definition language designating structure and constraints upon acceptable input, and a software architecture that continuously validates and adapts the form presented to the user. The validation is performed server-side, which enab...... enables the use of complex business logic without du- plicate code. Thus, the state of the form is kept persistently at the server, and the system ensures that all submitted forms are valid and type safe....

  8. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  9. Faith and Form on Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bacon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand any aspect of being-in-the-world in general or cinematic experience in particular, both reductionist and holistic approaches are needed. Psychological accounts can give us only functional explanations of human behaviour or responses to signifying artifacts such as art. To understand the significance of these experiences the psychological must be complemented by a study on a level which may be termed spiritual. This line of thought is applied to analyses of Robert Bresson’s Pickpocket, starting from David Bordwell’s formalist and cognitive account of why many people experience this film as religious despite there being no explicit reference to religion. Paul Schrader’s analysis of the formal structure of this film in terms of his notion of transcendental style in film goes a step forward by explaining how the formal structure as he analyses it suggests a transcendental dimension which cannot be addressed directly. This approach connects in an illuminating way with Slavoj Žižek’s notions of the imaginary and the symbolic sphere. Bordwell’s approach, functioning on the psychological level, is basically reductionist, while Schrader’s, boosted with Žižek’s ideas as appropriated for the purposes of this article, is holistic and operative on the spiritual level. This two-tiered analysis reveals how cinematic form in Pickpocket serves as an indirect expression of faith.

  10. Miscellaneous Waste-Form FEPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Schenker

    2000-12-08

    The US DOE must provide a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) potential radioactive-waste repository can be achieved for a 10,000-year post-closure period. The guidance that mandates this direction is under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 63 and the US Department of Energy's ''Revised Interim Guidance Pending Issuance of New US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulations (Revision 01, July 22, 1999), for Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (Dyer 1999 and herein referred to as DOE's Interim Guidance). This assurance must be demonstrated in the form of a performance assessment that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the performance of the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of such FEPs on the performance of the potential geologic repository; (3) estimates the expected annual dose to a specified receptor group; and (4) provides the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs.

  11. Fundamental alloy design of oxide ceramics and their composites. [Annual] report, May 1, 1990--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I.W.

    1992-12-31

    The main research was on microstructural development of oxide ceramics. Projects were completed and the publications given. Abstracts are given on: Reactive CeO{sub 2}powders by homogeneous precipitation, SiC whisker-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate composite, solute drag on grain boundary in ionic solids (space charge effect), in-situ alumina/aluminate platelet composites, exaggerated texture and grain growth of superplastic silicon nitride (SiAlON), hot extrusion of ceramics, control of grain boundary pinning in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} composites with Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+} doping, superplastic forming of ceramic composites, computer simulation of final stage sintering (model, kinetics, microstructure, effect of initial pore size), development of superplastic structural ceramics, and superplastic flow of two-phase ceramics containing rigid inclusions (zirconia/mullite composites). A proposed research program is outlined: materials, solute drag, densification and coarsening, and grain boundary electrical behavior.

  12. Fundamental alloy design of oxide ceramics and their composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I.W.

    1992-01-01

    The main research was on microstructural development of oxide ceramics. Projects were completed and the publications given. Abstracts are given on: Reactive CeO[sub 2]powders by homogeneous precipitation, SiC whisker-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate composite, solute drag on grain boundary in ionic solids (space charge effect), in-situ alumina/aluminate platelet composites, exaggerated texture and grain growth of superplastic silicon nitride (SiAlON), hot extrusion of ceramics, control of grain boundary pinning in Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]/ZrO[sub 2] composites with Ce[sup 3+]/Ce[sup 4+] doping, superplastic forming of ceramic composites, computer simulation of final stage sintering (model, kinetics, microstructure, effect of initial pore size), development of superplastic structural ceramics, and superplastic flow of two-phase ceramics containing rigid inclusions (zirconia/mullite composites). A proposed research program is outlined: materials, solute drag, densification and coarsening, and grain boundary electrical behavior.

  13. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  14. A Framework for Interactively Helpful Web Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Gammelmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    AdapForms is a framework for adaptive forms, consisting of a form definition language designating structure and constraints upon acceptable input, and a software architecture that continuously validates and adapts the form presented to the user. The validation is performed server-side, which...

  15. E-Forms in E-Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The form-based application framework is proposed as a straightsolution for E-bu siness applications. A Rapid Application Development (RAD) tool FormNet is desi gned for developing complex enterprise network applications. Its main features and a comparison with Microsoft Windows Forms are presented in this paper. The tool can be also perfectly applied to the government form applications.

  16. Stability of polymorphic forms of ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, V; Rades, T; Saville, D J

    2000-07-01

    Ranitidine-HCl can exist in two different polymorphic forms: form I (m.p. 134-140 degrees C) and form II (m.p. 140-144 degrees C). In the present study the stability of form I of ranitidine-HCl to a selection of powder pretreatments, to reflect conditions which might occur in manufacturing procedures, and also to a limited range of storage conditions was investigated. The original samples of form I and form II used were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A quantitative XRPD method for determining the fraction of form II in the presence of form I was used. XRPD data were analysed using regression techniques and artificial neural networks (ANN). The quantitative XRPD technique was then used to monitor the relative proportion of form II in each treated sample. Pretreatments of form I included (i) mixing with form II or with common excipients (ii) compression and grinding (iii) contact with solvents (followed by drying) before storage. Storage conditions involved three temperatures (20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 42 degrees C) and three relative humidities (45% RH; 55% RH; 75% RH). Samples were stored for a period of 6 months. A limited factorial design was used. No increase in the form II:form I ratio was observed in the following pretreatment processes: introduction of form II nuclei into form I; introduction of excipients to form I; compression of form I powder at 5 and 15 tons; normal mixing and grinding processes; addition of isopropanol (IPA) or water/IPA mix followed by drying. In the pretreatment process where water was added to form I powder (with most or all of the powder dissolving), drying of the liquefied mass led to a mix of form I and form II. On storage at room temperature (20-30 degrees C), low relative humidity (45-55% RH), and in an air-tight container there was no increase in the form II:form I ratio. Storage of form I/form II mixes, particularly at high humidity

  17. Pre-form ceramic matrix composite cavity and method of forming and method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, Philip Harold; Delvaux, John McConnell; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-06-09

    A pre-form CMC cavity and method of forming pre-form CMC cavity for a ceramic matrix component includes providing a mandrel, applying a base ply to the mandrel, laying-up at least one CMC ply on the base ply, removing the mandrel, and densifying the base ply and the at least one CMC ply. The remaining densified base ply and at least one CMC ply form a ceramic matrix component having a desired geometry and a cavity formed therein. Also provided is a method of forming a CMC component.

  18. New CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) forms

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    New versions of the following forms for claims and requests to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) have been released:   form for claiming reimbursement of medical expenses,   form for requesting advance reimbursement, and   dental estimate form (for treatments foreseen to exceed 800 CHF).   The new forms are available in French and English. They can either be completed electronically before being printed and signed, or completed in paper form. New detailed instructions can be found at the back of the claim form; CHIS members are invited to read them carefully. The electronic versions (PDF) of all the forms are available on the CHIS website and on the UNIQA Member Portal. CHIS Members are requested to use these new forms forthwith and to discard any previous version. Questions regarding the above should be addressed directly to UNIQA (72730 or 022.718 63 00 or uniqa.assurances@cern.ch).

  19. Sub-structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available to ensure that it enhances the overall performance of the building and maximises energy savings associated with heating and cooling. One way of achieving the correct insulation performance is to use a closed-cell spray polyurethane foam (ccSPF...) insulation and waterproofing system. A typical application of ccSPF would entail casting a rough concrete slab, covering that with a layer of ccSPF, and applying another layer of concrete to form a sandwich...

  20. Linearized gravity in terms of differential forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Ahmet; Dereli, Tekin

    2017-01-01

    A technique to linearize gravitational field equations is developed in which the perturbation metric coefficients are treated as second rank, symmetric, 1-form fields belonging to the Minkowski background spacetime by using the exterior algebra of differential forms.