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Sample records for supernatural beings religious

  1. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming...... applies these narrative devices, which heighten plausibility and familiarity, while simultaneously offering viewers a change in perspective, thus creating opportunities for viewers to renegotiate existing religious imaginations....

  2. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming...... applies these narrative devices, which heighten plausibility and familiarity, while simultaneously offering viewers a change in perspective, thus creating opportunities for viewers to renegotiate existing religious imaginations....

  3. Fiction and Religion : How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidsen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Thematic issue on 'Fiction and Religion: How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief', volume 46(4) of Religion. The thematic issue inclues the following articles: Davidsen, Markus Altena, "Fiction and Religion: How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief –

  4. Fiction and Religion: How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Thematic issue on 'Fiction and Religion: How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief', volume 46(4) of Religion. The thematic issue inclues the following articles: Davidsen, Markus Altena, "Fiction and Religion: How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief – Introducing the Thematic Issue". Petersen, Anders Klostergaard, "The Difference Between Religious Narratives and Fictional Literature: A Matter of Degree Only". Davidsen, Markus Altena, "The Religious ...

  5. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in the Anthropomorphization of Supernatural Beings and Its Implications for Cognitive Theories of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive study of religion has been highly influenced by P. Boyer's (2001, 2003) claim that supernatural beings are conceptualized as persons with counterintuitive properties. The present study tests the generality of this claim by exploring how different supernatural beings are conceptualized by the same individual and how different…

  8. Supernatural agency and forgiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, W.; Schie, H.T. van; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that supernatural agency attributions underlie the relation between religion and forgiveness. In two experiments a priming procedure was used to make religious concepts temporarily more salient. In Experiment 1, a religion prime marginally enhanced

  9. Ethnobotany of religious and supernatural beliefs of the Mising tribes of Assam with special reference to the 'Dobur Uie'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegu Shyamanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.

  10. Ethnobotany of religious and supernatural beliefs of the Mising tribes of Assam with special reference to the 'Dobur Uie'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Uma Kanta; Pegu, Shyamanta

    2011-06-02

    Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.

  11. Measurement of supernatural belief: sex differences and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, T M; Desrosiers, M

    1980-10-01

    Although we live in an age dominated by science and technology, there exists an increasingly popular anti-science sentiment. This study describes the development of a scale to assess the degree of personal acceptance of supernatural causality versus acceptance of scientific explanation. In addition to the psychometric data concerning validity and reliability of the scale, data are presented which showed the personality factor of supernaturalism to be independent of orthodox religious attitudes. Results indicated a significantly greater supernatural acceptance for women, and a positive relation of supernaturalism with external locus of control.

  12. Distinguishing spirituality from other constructs: not a matter of well-being but of belief in supernatural spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Blomqvist, Sandra; Takada, Mikito

    2012-02-01

    We developed a new Spirituality Scale and tested the argument that the defining attribute of spirituality is belief in supernatural spirits. Study 1 (N = 1931) showed that religiosity and beliefs pertinent to supernatural spirits predicted most of the variation in spirituality. Study 2 (N = 848) showed that the stronger belief in supernatural spirits, the more the person experienced subjective spirituality; that belief in supernatural spirits had higher predictive value of spirituality than religiosity, paranormal beliefs, or values; and that most of the relationship between religiosity and spirituality could be explained through belief in supernatural spirits. Study 3 (N = 972) showed that mental or physical health, social relationships, or satisfaction in marriage or work were not associated with spirituality. In turn, finding life purposeful and inner peace in dealing with spiritual experiences correlated with spirituality. The results highlight the importance of differentiating spirituality from other psychological constructs.

  13. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eMcnamara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with supernatural agents because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: 1 mental simulations of alternative realities, 2 theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings and 3 attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’ and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during REM sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based supernatural agents are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s AAOM model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge.

  14. Engaging the World of the Supernatural: Anthropology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Anthropology, Phenomenology and the Limitations of Scientific Rationalism in the Study of the .... Religious or supernatural knowledge could fall into ... causal explanation and as free as possible ..... facts.” In Quantum Physics, the existence.

  15. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge.

  16. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge. PMID:25852602

  17. Supernatural MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangle; Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Raza, Shabbar

    2015-07-01

    We point out that the electroweak fine-tuning problem in the supersymmetric standard models (SSMs) is mainly due to the high energy definition of the fine-tuning measure. We propose supernatural supersymmetry which has an order one high energy fine-tuning measure automatically. The key point is that all the mass parameters in the SSMs arise from a single supersymmetry breaking parameter. In this paper, we show that there is no supersymmetry electroweak fine-tuning problem explicitly in the minimal SSM (MSSM) with no-scale supergravity and Giudice-Masiero mechanism. We demonstrate that the Z -boson mass, the supersymmetric Higgs mixing parameter μ at the unification scale, and the sparticle spectrum can be given as functions of the universal gaugino mass M1 /2. Because the light stau is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in the no-scale MSSM, to preserve R parity, we introduce a non-thermally generated axino as the LSP dark matter candidate. We estimate the lifetime of the light stau by calculating its two-body and three-body decays to the LSP axino for several values of axion decay constant fa, and find that the light stau has a lifetime ττ ˜1 in [10-4,100 ] s for an fa range [109,1012] GeV . We show that our next to the LSP stau solutions are consistent with all the current experimental constraints, including the sparticle mass bounds, B-physics bounds, Higgs mass, cosmological bounds, and the bounds on long-lived charged particles at the LHC.

  18. Supernatural Explanations: Science or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the advice of supposedly authoritative sources, the a priori exclusion of supernatural explanations or claims from scientific scrutiny is not appropriate. This paper shows how supernatural hypotheses or claims should be treated by science and, in the process, differentiates scientific and non-scientific hypotheses or claims.…

  19. Religious and Spiritual Struggles as Concerns for Health and Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Stauner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available People struggle with religion and spirituality in several ways, including challenges in trusting God, confronting supernatural evil, tolerating other perspectives on religion, maintaining moral propriety, finding existential meaning, and managing religious doubt. These religious and spiritual (R/S struggles relate to both physical and mental health independently of other religious and distress factors. Causality in this connection needs further study, but evidence supports many potential causes and moderators of the link between R/S struggle and health. These include personality, social, and environmental influences, including traumatic experiences and subcultural differences. Many theoretical questions remain unresolved, including how change in R/S struggle can predict or be predicted by change in health and other connected constructs, and how one might intervene to aid those who struggle with religious or spiritual challenges. Nonetheless, research momentum has grown, having already produced a wealth of information that underscores the need for greater attention to this domain. R/S struggle poses an important exception to generally positive overall associations between religion and well-being, though even R/S struggle may promote growth. This review offers a brief introduction to emerging psychological theory and research on R/S struggle with an emphasis on its relevance to wellness and illness.

  20. Hilltop Supernatural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.

    In this talk, I will explain how to reduce the spectral index to be n_s = 0.96 for supernatural inflation. I will also show the constraint to the reheating temperature from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis of both thermal and non-thermal gravitino production.

  1. Religious well-being in noninstitutionalized elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, C R; Johnson, M T

    1997-01-01

    Spirituality is recognized as an important component of health care practice with elderly people. Yet, discussion of the role it plays in elderly women on a day-to-day basis is minimal, and it is frequently not addressed in quality-of-life studies in this population. The purposes of this study were to describe the level of religious well-being and selected characteristics of religiosity in a sample of 114 non-institutionalized, largely rural elderly women (Mdn age = 75), as well as to identify the relationship between selected factors and the level of religious well-being. Descriptive research revealed a high level of religious well-being among the participants and significant positive correlation between religious well-being and the variables of social support and hope (p hope emerged as the single significant predictor of religious well-being (p religious activities, highly rated the value or influence of religious beliefs in their lives, and identified that religious beliefs become increasingly important with age. Conducting a comprehensive assessment and implementing focused interventions associated with religious well-being will strengthen the scope of health care practice for elderly women.

  2. Belief in supernatural agents in the face of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Hansen, Ian G

    2006-02-01

    Four studies examined whether awareness of mortality intensifies belief in supernatural agents among North Americans. In Studies 1 and 2, mortality salience led to more religiosity, stronger belief in God, and in divine intervention. In Studies 3 and 4, mortality salience increased supernatural agent beliefs even when supernatural agency was presented in a culturally alien context (divine Buddha in Study 3, Shamanic spirits in Study 4). The latter effects occurred primarily among the religiously affiliated, who were predominantly Christian. Implications for the role of supernatural agent beliefs in assuaging mortality concerns are discussed.

  3. Religious Identity, Religious Participation, and Psychological Well-Being in Asian American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F; Kiang, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity plays a prominent spiritual and social role in adolescents' lives. Yet, despite its developmental salience, few studies have examined normative changes in religiosity or the implications of these changes for psychological well-being. We explored longitudinal variation in and associations between religiosity, as defined by private regard, centrality, and participation in religious activities, and diverse indicators of well-being including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and both the presence of and search for meaning in life. The participants were two cohorts of Asian American high school students (N = 180; 60 % female) followed for 4 years and living in the southeastern US. Using hierarchical linear modelling and controlling for gender and generational status, results revealed that religious identity (i.e., regard, centrality) did not normatively increase or decrease over time, but participation increased. Religious identity was significantly associated with higher self-esteem, greater positive affect, the presence of meaning in life, and reduced depressive symptoms (for females), and participation was positively associated with positive affect and the presence of meaning. Our results and discussion emphasize the utility of further examining how religion plays a role in health and well-being, particularly among immigrant youth.

  4. Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García-Alandete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.

  5. Religious meaning and subjective well-being in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religious meaning and subjective well-being. A major emphasis is placed on assessing race differences in the relationship between these constructs. Interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of older White and older Black adults. Survey items were administered to assess a sense of meaning in life that is derived specifically from religion. Subjective well-being was measured with indices of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The findings suggest that older adults who derive a sense of meaning in life from religion tend to have higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The data further reveal that older Black adults are more likely to find meaning in religion than older White adults. In addition, the relationships among religious meaning, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism tend to be stronger for older African Americans persons than older White persons. Researchers have argued for some time that religion may be an important source of resilience for older Black adults, but it is not clear how these beneficial effects arise. The data from this study suggest that religious meaning may be an important factor.

  6. Erosion of belief and disbelief: effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R; Miller, J P

    2001-04-01

    The authors investigated the effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural among 94 undergraduate students enrolled in psychology classes at a small, private U.S. university. They hypothesized that religiosity would predict differential beliefs in the supernatural versus the paranormal but that negative affect would attenuate these beliefs. In addition, the authors predicted that belief in the supernatural and negative affect would interact to predict belief in the paranormal. Overall, the results were consistent with predictions. The religious participants were skeptical of paranormal phenomena but were accepting of supernatural phenomena. In addition, increased reports of negative affect over the preceding year appeared to attenuate belief in the supernatural for the religious participants. By contrast, for the nonreligious participants, increased belief in both the supernatural and paranormal was predicted when reports of negative affect were high. Finally, the interaction of supernatural belief and negative affect significantly predicted belief in the paranormal.

  7. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, Matthias; Jong, Jonathan; Grevenstein, Dennis; Mikloušić, Igor; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2016-01-01

    Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively-or translated and applied cross-culturally-is currently unknown. Using the recent "Supernatural Belief Scale" (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity.

  8. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, Matthias; Jong, Jonathan; Grevenstein, Dennis; Mikloušić, Igor; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2016-01-01

    Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively–or translated and applied cross-culturally–is currently unknown. Using the recent “Supernatural Belief Scale” (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity. PMID:27760206

  9. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bluemke

    Full Text Available Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively-or translated and applied cross-culturally-is currently unknown. Using the recent "Supernatural Belief Scale" (SBS, we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity.

  10. The use of supernatural entities in moral conversations as a cultural-psychological attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tófalvy, Tamás; Viciana, Hugo

    2009-06-01

    Social behavior in most human societies is characterized by the following of moral rules explicitly justified by religious belief systems. These systems constitute the diverse domain of human sacred values. Supernatural entities as founders or warranty of moral principles may be seen as a form of "conversation stoppers," considerations that can be dropped into a moral decision process in order to prevent endlessly reconsidering and endlessly asking for further justification. In this article we offer a general naturalistic framework toward answering the question of why supernatural entities are so attractive in moral argumentation. We present an explanatory model based on the phenomena of multiple channels of moral reasoning, the suspension of epistemic vigilance, and relevance assumptions through the attractiveness of the sacred, moral dumbfounding, and the expression of social coalitionary commitment. Thus, in light of much of current cognitive theory, sacred values make sense as basins in the evolutionary landscape of human morality.

  11. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) the...

  12. Leaving my religion: Understanding the relationship between religious disaffiliation, health, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Andrew; Danielsen, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    Religious disaffiliation-leaving the religious tradition in which one was raised for no religious affiliation in adulthood-has become more common in recent years, though few studies have examined its consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. We use an innovative approach, comparing the health and subjective well-being of religious disaffiliates to those who remain affiliated using pooled General Social Survey samples from 1973 through 2012. We find that religious disaffiliates experience poorer health and lower well-being than those consistently affiliated and those who are consistently unaffiliated. We also demonstrate that the disadvantage for those who leave religious traditions is completely mediated by the frequency of church attendance, as disaffiliates attend church less often. Our results point to the importance of the social processes surrounding religious disaffiliation and emphasize the role of dynamics in the relationship between religious affiliation and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Supernatural beliefs, natural kinds, and conceptual structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S J

    1992-11-01

    This article presents cross-cultural evidence in support of the notion that adults' natural kind concepts are theory based but may be informed by knowledge/belief systems other than the biological. Three groups of subjects from western Nigeria--rural, urban, and elite--participated in the study. Subjects heard stories describing alterations of appearance; that is, one natural kind was made to resemble another in both ritual and nonritual contexts. Subjects then were required to judge the identity of the altered item and to give an explanation for the category judgment. It was predicted that subjects would make more nonpreservation-of-identity category judgments supported by supernatural explanations in the ritual contexts and that subjects' use of supernatural explanations would reflect the extent of their engagement with the supernatural. The first prediction was borne out; the second prediction was only partially supported. Discussion of the results emphasizes the importance of exploring the role of sociocultural factors in conceptual structure.

  14. Meaning in Life: One Link in the Chain from Religiousness to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Frazier, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Meaning in life has been identified as a potential mediator of the link between religiousness and psychological health. The authors tested this hypothesis in 2 studies, using multiple methods and measures of religiousness and well-being. In the studies, meaning in life mediated the relation between religiousness and life satisfaction (Study 1A),…

  15. Religion and Earnings: Is It Good to Be an Atheist with Religious Parental Background?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Cornelissen; Uwe Jirjahn

    2012-01-01

    Using German employee data, we find that being raised by two religious parents and having no current religious affiliation is associated with higher earnings. This conforms to the hypothesis that people who are raised religiously and reject religion as adults are economically more successful as they combine a strong, internalized work ethic with an increased interest in present consumption (as opposed to afterlife consumption).

  16. Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yonatan I.

    2009-01-01

    Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper…

  17. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Religiousness, Race, and Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Social Psychological Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Bruce; Crocker, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Examined predictions (n=125) that the relationship between religious belief and psychological well-being should be more positive among black than white individuals, and the relationship should be mediated by social psychological aspects of religion with positive implications for well-being. Religious belief salience and psychological well-being…

  19. Challenging the Teaching of Global Ethical Unity: Religious Ethical Claims as Democratic Iterations within Sustainability Didactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Olof

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the role of religiously motivated ethics within the field of sustainability didactics. The article starts with critical reflections on the idea that religion, by proposing claims for knowledge of absolute authorities such as "divine beings or supernatural dimensions", offers capacity for uniting…

  20. Marital Well-Being and Religiousness as Mediated by Relational Virtue and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Randal D.; Acock, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated religiousness and couple well-being as mediated by relational virtue and equality. Relational spiritual framework theory posits that religiousness is associated with couple well-being through relational virtues (e.g., forgiveness, commitment, and sacrifice). Theories of relational inequality postulate that religion…

  1. How to Talk to the Supernatural in Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonglin, Yang

    1991-01-01

    Examines Shakespeare's use of thou forms to individual ghosts, witches, and spirits. The proposition is advanced that there is a role-governed rule in the use of this pronoun to individual supernatural beings. (31 references) (GLR)

  2. Religiös-mythologische Vorstellungen bei den austronesischen Völkern Taiwans

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The present dissertation focuses on religious and mythological beliefs, customs and traditions of the Austronesian peoples in Taiwan. The peoples in question have been studied in such various fields as anthropology (including ethnology or ethnography), linguistics, archaeology and so on since the 17th century. Chapter 1 is a brief survey of its research history. Chapter 2 discusses religious notions and practices like supernatural beings, deities and spirits, soul, right and left, and shamani...

  3. How sustainable is pupil self-esteem as an educational objective for religious minorities?

    OpenAIRE

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of self-esteem in educational achievement is contested, it remains a significant touchstone of multicultural religious education. This study set out to establish differences in demographics and attitudes between high self-esteem and low self-esteem Buddhist teenagers who are a small religious minority in Britain. Low self-esteem teens expressed less well-being, more worry in relationships with their family and friends, low motivation in school, more supernatural belief...

  4. A Category Mistake: Why Contemporary Australian Religious Education in Catholic Schools May Be Doomed to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Assuming religious education to be the same as other subject areas of a Catholic school's curriculum by, for example, applying the outcomes based philosophy and language of other subject areas to religious education renders a category mistake. A prominent notion in the work of metaphysical philosopher Gilbert Ryle, a category mistake arises when…

  5. Supernatural versus medical: Responses to mental illness from undergraduate university students in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, AnMarie Kamanie; Donald, Casswina; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Background/Introduction: Perceptions about the aetiology of mental illness are likely to influence help-seeking behaviour. Understanding help-seeking behaviour will improve service provision and access. Therefore, this is likely to improve treatment outcomes. We assessed the perceptions and help-seeking behaviours surrounding mental illness in a Trinidadian population of 158 tertiary-level students (136 female, 22 male; mean age 30) by analysing their responses to a questionnaire which asked for responses regarding a case vignette of a 25-year-old young woman exhibiting symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia. Of the respondents, 32.3% attributed the symptoms to supernatural causes. Specifically, 27.8% to someone doing her bad and 24.1% to evil spirits. In all, 77.2% of respondents indicated that mental illness was caused by medical problems and 63.3% to work stress. A minimum of 9.5% of the students therefore have dual perceptions regarding causation (77.2 + 32.3 = 109.5) Those who perceived causation to be supernatural said they would seek help from both medical ( p = .000) and supernatural ( p = .000) modalities. This also applied significantly to those who said the causation was medical, that is, seeking both religious intervention ( p = .000) and medical intervention (.000) as the first path in the health-seeking pathway. Dual help-seeking behaviour seems to be the functional result of an integration of religious and medical models of mental illness causation even in respondents who clearly identified only one of these as the likely cause of the illness behaviour.

  6. Pulotu: Database of Austronesian Supernatural Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Sheehan, Oliver; Greenhill, Simon J.; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have debated naturalistic theories of religion for thousands of years, but only recently have scientists begun to test predictions empirically. Existing databases contain few variables on religion, and are subject to Galton’s Problem because they do not sufficiently account for the non-independence of cultures or systematically differentiate the traditional states of cultures from their contemporary states. Here we present Pulotu: the first quantitative cross-cultural database purpose-built to test evolutionary hypotheses of supernatural beliefs and practices. The Pulotu database documents the remarkable diversity of the Austronesian family of cultures, which originated in Taiwan, spread west to Madagascar and east to Easter Island–a region covering over half the world’s longitude. The focus of Austronesian beliefs range from localised ancestral spirits to powerful creator gods. A wide range of practices also exist, such as headhunting, elaborate tattooing, and the construction of impressive monuments. Pulotu is freely available, currently contains 116 cultures, and has 80 variables describing supernatural beliefs and practices, as well as social and physical environments. One major advantage of Pulotu is that it has separate sections on the traditional states of cultures, the post-contact history of cultures, and the contemporary states of cultures. A second major advantage is that cultures are linked to a language-based family tree, enabling the use phylogenetic methods, which can be used to address Galton’s Problem by accounting for common ancestry, to infer deep prehistory, and to model patterns of trait evolution over time. We illustrate the power of phylogenetic methods by performing an ancestral state reconstruction on the Pulotu variable “headhunting", finding evidence that headhunting was practiced in proto-Austronesian culture. Quantitative cross-cultural databases explicitly linking cultures to a phylogeny have the potential to

  7. Pulotu: Database of Austronesian Supernatural Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Sheehan, Oliver; Greenhill, Simon J; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Atkinson, Quentin D; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have debated naturalistic theories of religion for thousands of years, but only recently have scientists begun to test predictions empirically. Existing databases contain few variables on religion, and are subject to Galton's Problem because they do not sufficiently account for the non-independence of cultures or systematically differentiate the traditional states of cultures from their contemporary states. Here we present Pulotu: the first quantitative cross-cultural database purpose-built to test evolutionary hypotheses of supernatural beliefs and practices. The Pulotu database documents the remarkable diversity of the Austronesian family of cultures, which originated in Taiwan, spread west to Madagascar and east to Easter Island-a region covering over half the world's longitude. The focus of Austronesian beliefs range from localised ancestral spirits to powerful creator gods. A wide range of practices also exist, such as headhunting, elaborate tattooing, and the construction of impressive monuments. Pulotu is freely available, currently contains 116 cultures, and has 80 variables describing supernatural beliefs and practices, as well as social and physical environments. One major advantage of Pulotu is that it has separate sections on the traditional states of cultures, the post-contact history of cultures, and the contemporary states of cultures. A second major advantage is that cultures are linked to a language-based family tree, enabling the use phylogenetic methods, which can be used to address Galton's Problem by accounting for common ancestry, to infer deep prehistory, and to model patterns of trait evolution over time. We illustrate the power of phylogenetic methods by performing an ancestral state reconstruction on the Pulotu variable "headhunting", finding evidence that headhunting was practiced in proto-Austronesian culture. Quantitative cross-cultural databases explicitly linking cultures to a phylogeny have the potential to revolutionise the

  8. Pulotu: Database of Austronesian Supernatural Beliefs and Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Watts

    Full Text Available Scholars have debated naturalistic theories of religion for thousands of years, but only recently have scientists begun to test predictions empirically. Existing databases contain few variables on religion, and are subject to Galton's Problem because they do not sufficiently account for the non-independence of cultures or systematically differentiate the traditional states of cultures from their contemporary states. Here we present Pulotu: the first quantitative cross-cultural database purpose-built to test evolutionary hypotheses of supernatural beliefs and practices. The Pulotu database documents the remarkable diversity of the Austronesian family of cultures, which originated in Taiwan, spread west to Madagascar and east to Easter Island-a region covering over half the world's longitude. The focus of Austronesian beliefs range from localised ancestral spirits to powerful creator gods. A wide range of practices also exist, such as headhunting, elaborate tattooing, and the construction of impressive monuments. Pulotu is freely available, currently contains 116 cultures, and has 80 variables describing supernatural beliefs and practices, as well as social and physical environments. One major advantage of Pulotu is that it has separate sections on the traditional states of cultures, the post-contact history of cultures, and the contemporary states of cultures. A second major advantage is that cultures are linked to a language-based family tree, enabling the use phylogenetic methods, which can be used to address Galton's Problem by accounting for common ancestry, to infer deep prehistory, and to model patterns of trait evolution over time. We illustrate the power of phylogenetic methods by performing an ancestral state reconstruction on the Pulotu variable "headhunting", finding evidence that headhunting was practiced in proto-Austronesian culture. Quantitative cross-cultural databases explicitly linking cultures to a phylogeny have the potential

  9. Hilltop supernatural inflation and gravitino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lin, Chia-Min

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the parameter space of hilltop supernatural inflation model and show the regime within which there is no gravitino problem even if we consider both thermal and nonthermal production mechanisms. We make plots for the allowed reheating temperature as a function of gravitino mass by constraints from big-bang nucleosynthesis. We also plot the constraint when gravitino is assumed to be stable and plays the role of dark matter

  10. Hilltop supernatural inflation and gravitino problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lin, Chia-Min

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we explore the parameter space of hilltop supernatural inflation model and show the regime within which there is no gravitino problem even if we consider both thermal and nonthermal production mechanisms. We make plots for the allowed reheating temperature as a function of gravitino mass by constraints from big-bang nucleosynthesis. We also plot the constraint when gravitino is assumed to be stable and plays the role of dark matter.

  11. Religiousness, well-being and ageing – selected explanations of positive relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to research that have been conducted in the field of gerontology, sociology and psychology of ageing, there is a relationship between the level of religious involvement and health status/ well-being/quality of life in older age. How does religiousness influence aging process and health status? The aim of the article is to review explanations of a positive relationship between religiousness and health that are discussed in the literature. Those explanations may be grouped in three broad categories reflecting three functions of religion that play a role for well-being in older age. Those functions are: (1 religiousness as a source of coherence and the role of religious coping and provision of meaning in dealing with stressful life events (including ageing losses (2 religiousness as a source of positive self-perception and a sense of personal control, (3 provision of social resources (i.e. social ties and social support within religious community and emphasis on interpersonal relations (with special focus on forgiveness as a norm in interpersonal relations. Those functions of religion are discussed in the context of their potential role in successful ageing, as determined by - among others - active engagement in life.

  12. Influence of religion and supernatural beliefs on clinical manifestation and treatment practices in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Aneja, Jitender; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-08-01

    Religious and supernatural beliefs influence help seeking and treatment practices in bipolar disorder, but these are rarely explored by clinicians. This study aimed to understand religiousness, magico-religious beliefs, prevalence of religious and supernatural psychopathology and treatment practices among patients with bipolar disorder in euthymic state. A total of 185 patients of bipolar disorder currently in remission were assessed cross-sectionally for their clinical profile, current clinical status on the Hamilton Depression Rating Sscale (HDRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). A semi structured instrument for magico-religious beliefs, aetiological models, treatment seeking and treatment practices was administered. More than a third of patients (37.8%) had psychopathology with either religious or supernatural content or both in their lifetime. Almost half (45.4%) the patients believed in a supernatural/religious aetiology for their illness. Among the specific causes, planetary influences (13.5%) and God's will (30.8%) were the most common supernatural and religious cause, respectively. Almost half (44.3%) of patients had first treatment contact with religious/supernatural treatment providers. More than 90% of patients reported belief in God, yet about 70% reported that their doctors did not ask them sufficient questions to understand their religiosity. Magico-religious beliefs are common in bipolar disorder and a large number of patients attribute these as aetiological factors for their illness. Consequently they tend to seek treatment from traditional practitioners prior to approaching medical practitioners and may continue treatment with them alongside medical management.

  13. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.

  14. Intrinsic religiousness and well-being among cancer patients: the mediating role of control-related religious coping and self-efficacy for coping with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, John E; Rex Smith, Amy

    2015-04-01

    We examined the relationship between intrinsic religiousness and well-being, with control-related religious coping and self-efficacy for coping with cancer as potential mediators of this relationship among cancer patients. In a cross-sectional design, 179 ambulatory cancer patients completed measures of intrinsic religiousness, religious coping, self-efficacy for coping with cancer, well-being, and demographic variables. Type of cancer, stage of cancer, and time since diagnosis were collected from electronic medical charts. In a path model, the positive association between intrinsic religiousness and three types of well-being--physical, functional, and social-was fully mediated by active religious surrender and self-efficacy for coping with cancer. In addition, the negative association between passive religious deferral and all four types of well-being--physical, functional, social, and emotional--was fully mediated by self-efficacy for coping with cancer. Finally, there was a negative direct association between pleading for God's direct intercession and emotional well-being. These findings suggest pathways by which intrinsic religiousness and control-related religious coping are linked to various dimensions of well-being among cancer patients.

  15. Relationship Between Religious Spiritual Well-Being and Death Anxiety in Iranian Elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Dadfar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the relationship between religious spiritual well-being and death anxiety among Iranian elders. Subjects were 146 volunteer elders. They were selected by a convenient sampling. Instruments were Multidimensional Inventory of Religious Spiritual Well-Being (MI RSWB 48 the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA factors. On the MI RSWB 48 and the ASDA, there were no significant association between religious spiritual well-being and death anxiety total scores. There were significant association between Hope Transcendent (HT, and Experiences of Sense and Meaning (SM subscales of MI RSWB 48. Limitations of the present study were using of self-report scales, selectin of anold-age sample, a Muslim reliogion and an Iranian culture. Present results can be considered in the religious spiritual oriented interventions for reducing of death anxiety for elders in Muslim countries.

  16. Religion as problem, religion as solution: religious buffers of the links between religious/spiritual struggles and well-being/mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Pargament, Kenneth I; Krause, Neal

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have established robust links between religious/spiritual struggles (r/s struggles) and poorer well-being and psychological distress. A critical issue involves identifying the religious factors that buffer this relationship. This is the first study to empirically address this question. Specifically, it examines four religious factors (i.e., religious commitment, life sanctification, religious support, religious hope) as potential buffers of the links between r/s struggle and one indicator of subjective well-being (i.e., happiness) and one indicator of psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptoms). We utilized a cross-sectional design and a nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 2140) dealing with a wide range of major life stressors. We found that the interactions between r/s struggle and all potential moderators were significant in predicting happiness and/or depression. The linkage between r/s struggle and lower levels of happiness was moderated by higher levels of each of the four proposed religious buffers. Religious commitment and life sanctification moderated the ties between r/s struggles and depressive symptoms. The findings underscore the multifaceted character of religion: Paradoxically, religion may be a source of solutions to problems that may be an inherent part of religious life.

  17. Psychological well-being among religious and spiritual-identified young gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799

  18. An interpersonal approach to religiousness and spirituality: implications for health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin D; Masters, Kevin S; Hooker, Stephanie A; Ruiz, John M; Smith, Timothy W

    2014-10-01

    The interpersonal tradition (Horowitz & Strack, 2011) provides a rich conceptual and methodological framework for theory-driven research on mechanisms linking religiousness and spirituality (R/S) with health and well-being. In three studies, we illustrate this approach to R/S. In Studies 1 and 2, undergraduates completed various self-report measures of R/S, interpersonal style, and other aspects of interpersonal functioning. In Study 3, a community sample completed a wide variety of R/S measures and a measure of interpersonal style. Many, but not all, aspects of religiousness (e.g., overall religiousness, intrinsic religiousness) were associated with a warm interpersonal style, and most aspects and measures of spirituality were associated with a warm and somewhat dominant style. Spirituality and related constructs (i.e., gratitude, compassion) were associated with interpersonal goals that emphasize positive relationships with others, and with beneficial interpersonal outcomes (i.e., higher social support, less loneliness, and less conflict). However, some aspects of R/S (e.g., extrinsic religiousness, belief in a punishing God) were associated with a hostile interpersonal style. R/S have interpersonal correlates that may enhance or undermine health and emotional adjustment. This interpersonal perspective could help clarify why some aspects of religiousness and spirituality are beneficial and others are not. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The supernatural characters and powers of sacred trees in the Holy Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafni, Amots

    2007-02-25

    This article surveys the beliefs concerning the supernatural characteristics and powers of sacred trees in Israel; it is based on a field study as well as a survey of the literature and includes 118 interviews with Muslims and Druze. Both the Muslims and Druze in this study attribute supernatural dimensions to sacred trees which are directly related to ancient, deep-rooted pagan traditions. The Muslims attribute similar divine powers to sacred trees as they do to the graves of their saints; the graves and the trees are both considered to be the abode of the soul of a saint which is the source of their miraculous powers. Any violation of a sacred tree would be strictly punished while leaving the opportunity for atonement and forgiveness. The Druze, who believe in the transmigration of souls, have similar traditions concerning sacred trees but with a different religious background. In polytheistic religions the sacred grove/forest is a centre of the community's official worship; any violation of the trees is regarded as a threat to the well being of the community. Punishments may thus be collective. In the monotheistic world (including Christianity, Islam and Druze) the pagan worship of trees was converted into the worship/adoration of saints/prophets; it is not a part of the official religion but rather a personal act and the punishments are exerted only on the violating individual.

  20. The Contribution of Religious Education to the Well-Being of Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Religious education (RE) is under serious political and professional pressure to justify its existence and, for some, positive psychology seems to offer a more compelling route to well-being. In response, this article establishes a case for the inherent value of the subject whilst showing that the well-being of pupils, in the broader sense of…

  1. Our Gods: Variation in Supernatural Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Sosis, Richard

    In this chapter we examine variation in the contents of supernatural minds across cultures and the social correlates of this variation. We first provide a sketch of how humans are capable of representing supernatural minds and emphasize the significance of the types of knowledge attributed to supernatural agents. We then argue that the contents of supernatural minds as represented cross-culturally will primarily rest on or between two poles: knowledge of people's moral behavior and knowledge of people's ritualized costly behavior. Communities which endorse omniscient supernatural agents that are highly concerned with moral behavior will emphasize the importance of shared beliefs (cultural consensus), whereas communities which possess supernatural agents with limited social knowledge who are concerned with ritual actions will emphasize shared behavioral patterns (social consensus).We conclude with a brief discussion about the contexts in which these patterns occur.

  2. Personality Influences the Relationship Between Primary Emotions and Religious/Spiritual Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Fuchshuber, Jürgen; Dröscher, Heidrun; Vajda, Christian; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human F.

    2018-01-01

    The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the parameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions – ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality – interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality – formed by bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation – might act as a link between primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being. A total sample of 167 (78% female) student participants completed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (primary emotions), the Big Five Personality Inventory and the Multidimensional Inventory of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (higher emotions). Correlation analyses confirmed the link between primary and higher emotions as well as their relation to personality. Further regression analyses indicated that personality dimensions mediate the relationship between primary and higher emotions. A substantial interaction between primary emotions, personality dimensions, and religious/spiritual well-being could be confirmed. From a developmental perspective, cortical top-down regulation might influence religious/spiritual well-being by forming relevant personality dimensions. Hence, CARE as well as Agreeableness seem of special importance. Future studies might focus on implications for clinical groups. PMID:29615950

  3. Personality Influences the Relationship Between Primary Emotions and Religious/Spiritual Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Fuchshuber, Jürgen; Dröscher, Heidrun; Vajda, Christian; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human F

    2018-01-01

    The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the parameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions - ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality - interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality - formed by bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation - might act as a link between primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being. A total sample of 167 (78% female) student participants completed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (primary emotions), the Big Five Personality Inventory and the Multidimensional Inventory of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (higher emotions). Correlation analyses confirmed the link between primary and higher emotions as well as their relation to personality. Further regression analyses indicated that personality dimensions mediate the relationship between primary and higher emotions. A substantial interaction between primary emotions, personality dimensions, and religious/spiritual well-being could be confirmed. From a developmental perspective, cortical top-down regulation might influence religious/spiritual well-being by forming relevant personality dimensions. Hence, CARE as well as Agreeableness seem of special importance. Future studies might focus on implications for clinical groups.

  4. Personality Influences the Relationship Between Primary Emotions and Religious/Spiritual Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hiebler-Ragger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the parameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions – ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality – interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality – formed by bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation – might act as a link between primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being. A total sample of 167 (78% female student participants completed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (primary emotions, the Big Five Personality Inventory and the Multidimensional Inventory of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (higher emotions. Correlation analyses confirmed the link between primary and higher emotions as well as their relation to personality. Further regression analyses indicated that personality dimensions mediate the relationship between primary and higher emotions. A substantial interaction between primary emotions, personality dimensions, and religious/spiritual well-being could be confirmed. From a developmental perspective, cortical top-down regulation might influence religious/spiritual well-being by forming relevant personality dimensions. Hence, CARE as well as Agreeableness seem of special importance. Future studies might focus on implications for clinical groups.

  5. Religiousness, social support and subjective well-being: An exploratory study among adolescents in an Asian atheist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Zhang, Baoshan; You, Xuqun; Alterman, Valeria; Li, Yongkang

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have focused on the relationships among religiousness, social support and subjective well-being in Chinese adolescent populations. This study tries to fill this gap. Using cluster sampling, we selected two groups: Group A, which included 738 Tibetan adolescents with a formal religious affiliation and represented adolescents from a religious culture, and Group B, which included 720 Han adolescents without a religious affiliation and represented adolescents from an irreligious culture. Structural equation modelling showed that only in Group A did social support mediate (partially) the relationship between religious experience and subjective well-being; furthermore, the results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that only in Group A did social support moderate the relationship between religious ideology and subjective well-being. Possible explanations for the discrepancies between the findings obtained in this study and those obtained in previous studies are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Humility, Relational Spirituality, and Well-being among Religious Leaders: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Peter J; Sandage, Steven J; Bell, Chance A; Ruffing, Elizabeth G; Adams, Chris

    2018-02-06

    Prior research has demonstrated positive associations between general humility and well-being, and posited a protective effect for intellectual humility against maladjustment among religious leaders. We tested a model that extended findings on general humility to include intellectual humility among religious leaders (N = 258; M age = 42.31; 43% female; 63.7% White; 91.9% Christian affiliation). We observed a positive general humility-well-being association. Contrary to expectations, we observed risk effects for religion-specific intellectual humility. Our findings also point to the possibility that these risk effects might be attenuated by the integration of high levels of general and intellectual humility.

  7. Children's supernatural thinking as a signalling behaviour in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Bjorklund, David F; Ruiz Soler, Marcos

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we analysed the reaction times of 137 college students when making decisions on pairs of hypothetical children verbalizing different types of vignettes and/or exhibiting different physical appearance (photographs of faces). Vignettes depicted immature and mature versions of both supernatural (e.g., 'The sun's not out today because it's mad' vs. 'The sun's not out today because the clouds are blocking it') and natural ('I can remember all 20 cards!' vs. 'I can remember 6 or 7 cards') explanations to ordinary phenomena. Photographs of children's faces were morphed with a physical appearance of approximately 4-7 years old or approximately 8-10 years old. In earlier research, immature supernatural thinking produced positive-affect reactions from adults and older adolescents (14-18 years old) towards young children, with cognitive cues being more important than physical-appearance cues in influencing adults' judgements. Reaction times to make decisions varied for the Supernatural and Natural vignettes and for the immature and mature vignettes/faces, reflecting the differential cognitive effort adults used for making decisions about aspects of children's physical appearance and verbal expressions. The findings were interpreted in terms of the critical role that young children's immature supernatural thinking has on adults' perception, analogous to the evolved role of immature physical features on adults' perception of infants. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  9. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Lim, C.S. [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman' s Christian University, Tokyo, 167-8585 (Japan); Lin, Chia-Min [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112 (Japan); Mimura, Yukihiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp, E-mail: lin@chuo-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  10. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n s = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton

  11. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Traditional Christian Belief and Belief in the Supernatural : Diverging Trends in the Netherlands Between 1979 and 2005?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Nan Dirk de; Grotenhuis, Manfred te

    2008-01-01

    Is there an ongoing decline in religious beliefs in the Netherlands? Using cross-sectional data from 1979 up to 2005, we focus on traditional Christian faith and belief in the supernatural; the literature suggests that they undergo diverging trends. We first describe these trends using the Social

  13. Traditional Christian belief and belief in the supernatural: Diverging trends in the Netherlands between 1979 and 2005?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, N.D. de; Grotenhuis, H.F. te

    2008-01-01

    Is there an ongoing decline in religious beliefs in the Netherlands? Using cross-sectional data from 1979 up to 2005, we focus on traditional Christian faith and belief in the supernatural; the literature suggests that they undergo diverging trends. We first describe these trends using the Social

  14. Religious Education towards Justice: What Kind of Justice Is to Be Taught in a Christian Context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bobbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Education is a human right. It prepares human beings for life, helps to develop individual abilities and opens up social opportunities—e.g., earning one’s own living. Religion interprets our human existence in connection to a transcendental dimension. Religion can also influence moral values and behavior. The Christian religion established a basis for social life, and thus deals with religious and moral justice. As the Christian faith is understood as the identity of the qualities of love of God, of your neighbor and even of your enemy, it has to look for justice in the world. Modern Christian ethics does unfold interpersonal and global justice for all people and tries to give good reasons for moral claims. Religious education in a Christian context has to answer the question of what kind of justice is to be taught and by what means justice, as a goal of education, can be reached within such a setting. This article will unfold, from an ethical point of view, what kind of knowledge and competence teachers must have and what kind of goals can be followed with regard to their pupils or students. The results of this reflection imply certain pedagogical methods and means and exclude others—although it is not possible to go more deeply into a pedagogical discussion.

  15. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  16. Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief

    OpenAIRE

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracle...

  17. Sensing supernatural agency : An empirical quest on the socio-cognitive foundations of supernatural beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij, D.L.R.

    2018-01-01

    Why did people started to belief in the supernatural (i.e., in culturally specific unverifiable beliefs about non-physical phenomena that do not coincide with a naturalistic worldview) independently from each other? According to proponents of evolutionary ‘by-product’ theories, supernatural beliefs

  18. Religious Coping Styles, General Health, and Psychological Well-Being Among Mothers of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The results of the current study suggest that the religious coping styles affect the general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. This study also indicated that paying attention to the type of religious coping used by these mothers is essential.

  19. Magico-religious Beliefs in Schizophrenia: A study from Eastern part of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidesh Sapkota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders which require immediate interventions. Magico-Religious beliefs may affect the expression of psychopathology as beliefs are entrenched into human psyche. Local and community beliefs in such phenomena appeared to be a factor in influencing the decision to seek magico-religious treatment. This study aimed (1 to determine attitude of patients and relatives with respect to magico-religious beliefs and its influence on psychopathology, and (2 to examine the relationship between psychopathology and major sociodemographic variables.Materials & Methods: All 50 consecutive cases of schizophrenia attending psychiatric services during study period were thoroughly evaluated. All the cases were diagnosed as per ICD 10 DCR criteria. The supernatural attitude questionnaire was applied.Results: Fifty cases were studied. Among them, 48% belonged to the age-group of 25 to 34 years, the majority of them were male (62%, 82% were Hindus, and 64% married. Majority of the patients had undergone magico-religious treatment (n = 35. Among the sample, 68% consulted faith healer and 42% performed religious treatment during the illness period; 60% acknowledged personal belief in sorcery, 58% in ghosts, and 52% in spirit intrusion. Among them, 20% believed there was a link between sorcery and mental illness, and 20% believe spirit could cause mental illness. Among the samples, 38% found the link between sorcery and abnormal behaviour, 38% with evil spirit, and 22% due to planetary influences. Statistically significant association was noted in the belief that rituals can improve patient behaviour and local belief in supernatural influences.Conclusion: There is a common belief in the relationship between supernatural influences and mental illness among the relatives of the patients. Such beliefs and magicoreligious treatment do occur during the course of the illness.

  20. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  1. What Does it Mean to be a Christian? Exploring the Religious Identity of Intrinsically and Extrinsically Religious Black Seventh-Day Adventist University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Octavio; Ashley, George; Cort, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the religious identity of Black Seventh-day Adventist University students and the elements that helped form their religious identity. The unidirectional, bidirectional and channeling models of socialization was used to describe the formation of religious identity. The data were collected in two stages. At the first stage, a…

  2. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-M.; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-01-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is n s > or approx. 1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to n s =0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  3. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  4. Predicting dimensions of psychological well being based on religious orientations and spirituality: an investigation into a causal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Soleimani Khashab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of predicting psychological well-being based on spirituality and religiousness.A sample of 300 participants was selected from the whole entrants to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University using a random cluster sampling. The tools of this study were the Spiritual Scale of Ironson, the Internal and External Orientations of Allport and Ross, Spiritual Religious Orientation of Betson and Showinerdand and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. To analyze the results of this study, we used the statistical method of Pearson correlation and we also performed the path analysis. Multiple regressions were used in a hierarchical simultaneous way in accordance with the stages of Barron and Kenny.The following results were obtained in this study: 1Spirituality positively predicted two religious orientations (question and internal among which the internal spirituality possessed a higher degree of predictability; 2Through intra-religious orientation, and in a direct way, spirituality predicted psychological well-being; 3The internal orientation was the only strong mediator in the relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being.Spirituality and religiosity were significant determinants of mental health, and they had more shares in psychological well-being, and made religious beliefs profound and internalized them.

  5. The Effect of Religious Involvement on Life Satisfaction among Korean Christians: Focused on the Mediating Effect of Spiritual Well-Being and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jieun

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the relationship between two categories of religious involvement, namely religious belief and religious behavior, and life satisfaction among Korean Christians (N = 278) with spiritual well-being and self-esteem as potential mediators in this relationship by using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results supported the full mediated structural model and indicated that religious belief had a significant indirect effect on life satisfaction through the mediators, spiritual well-being and self-esteem. Religious behavior did not have an indirect or direct effect on life satisfaction among Korean Christians. The significance, implications, and limitations of the study were discussed.

  6. Religious Orientation, Endorser Credibility, and the Portrayal of Female Nurses by the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chyong-Ling; Yeh, Jin-Tsann; Wu, Mong-Chun; Lee, Wei-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Medical consumption and media culture in Taiwan contain clear religious elements. It is common for people to believe that medicine is a supernatural treatment and to rely on thoughts of unseen power instead of rational consciousness. Religious-influenced patriarchy, seen in cultural gender roles, significantly influences religious adherents and degrades women as being part of a secondary class in society. As a contradictory tradition, women, in comparison to men, are considered best at undertaking certain jobs that require careful, detailed thought (such as nurses). Nursing and other occupations requiring a high degree of professionalism by women contradict the past religious-based concept of "ignorance is a woman's virtue." This study aims to probe female imagery in eastern and western Taiwan and explores whether religious culture and practice influences people's cognition of female nurses in advertising. The constructs are analyzed through structural equation modeling. Results reveal that religious followers do not necessarily trust female nurses more just because they are portrayed as professional medical specialists. Most consumers reflect this negative cognition through purchase intentions of products. For example, in comparing portrayals of attractiveness with portrayals of professionalism, attractiveness results in a better advertising effect. People with intrinsic or extrinsic religious orientation have gradually lowered their negative impressions of women; however, religious followers still more strongly insist on women's secondary position. Attractive female nurses are more likely judged as reliable, and this may be transferred to trust in their professional medical skills.

  7. Tales of the Supernatural. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Monsters have haunted the literary imagination from earliest times (e.g., the Cyclops, Grendel, etc.), but a particular interest in horror and the Gothic form dates back to the 18th and early 19th centuries. Taking their name from the Gothic architecture that often served as a backdrop to the action, these novels present supernatural events in…

  8. How natural is the supernatural? Synthesis of the qualitative literature from low and middle income countries on cultural practices and traditional beliefs influencing the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Nicholls, Rachel; Ritchie, Jan; Razee, Husna; Shafiee, Samaneh

    2016-08-01

    to review qualitative research studies conducted in low resource settings around the perinatal continuum over the past two decades, with particular focus on the cultural realm; to identify common themes in the research-base, in order to provide policy direction for culturally appropriate perinatal interventions. systematic literature search of electronic databases from 1990 to 2014, including Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using relevant search terms such as traditional beliefs, practices, pregnancy, childbirth; established criteria used to determine quality of studies; and thematic synthesis of the literature enabled by NVivo 10 software. low and middle income countries using the World Bank classification. religious and spiritual beliefs strongly influenced behaviour over the perinatal period. Beliefs in supernatural influences, particularly malevolent forces were widespread, such that pregnancy was concealed in many parts of Africa and Asia. In most low resource settings, pregnancy and childbirth were seen as normal phenomena. Rituals played an important part for women and their infants, reinforced by inter-generational support. Cross-cutting themes that emerged were: (1) the role of women as mothers, demonstrating their'goodness' by bearing pain and suffering; (2) the idea of the 'natural' incorporating the supernatural; and (3) negotiating change across generations. a diverse repertoire of cultural practices influences perinatal well-being across low resource settings. Health practitioners and policy-makers need to acknowledge the primacy of women's reproductive roles, the cultural constructions of motherhood; that supernatural forces are believed to exert powerful influences on the health of mother and infant; that inter-generational tensions result in resisting or embracing change. Public health planners and practitioners need to take culture seriously, not ignore the contribution of culture in shaping women's behaviours and choices throughout the

  9. Intercultural Identity and Inter-Religious Dialogue: A Holy Place to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The paper critically engages with contemporary theories of intercultural and inter-religious dialogue found in the areas of linguistic pragmatics and intercultural theology. Drawing on Ducrot's theory of polyphony, it takes preliminary steps in formulating an alternative conception of the individual subject that incorporates a polyphonic…

  10. Christian Commitment and Personal Well Being: Exploring the Connection between Religious Affect and Global Happiness among Young Churchgoers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess the connection between religious affect (as a measure of Christian commitment) and global happiness (as a measure of personal well being) among a sample of 6,194 young churchgoers in Australia between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a…

  11. When Introverts Ceased to Be More Religious: A Study among 12- to 16-Year-Old Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr; Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 279 12- to 16-year-old pupils completed the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and the short-form Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Contrary to the findings of research using earlier junior versions of the Eysenck scales, the data demonstrate that introverts have ceased to be more religious. (Contains 1…

  12. "Hey, check it out, there's actually fans": (Disempowerment and (misrepresentation of cult fandom in "Supernatural"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Felschow

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As Supernatural enters season 5, its status as a cult hit is becoming more evident both in the press and within the text of the series itself. The open acknowledgment of the show's fandom within 4.18 "The Monster at the End of This Book" has altered the power relationship between the product and its fans and brought on controversy regarding the creative team's attitude toward fandom in general. To investigate this relationship between Supernatural and its devoted fans, I will first develop a working definition of the cult fan and illustrate the many ways in which Supernatural is an ideal cult text, despite not having been marketed by its producers and network as such. Having set forth this framework, I will outline the dynamic that existed between Supernatural and its cult fans prior to "The Monster at the End of This Book." I will then demonstrate how "The Monster at the End of This Book" simultaneously empowers and disempowers Supernatural's cult fans by representing them within the show's diegesis and what the consequences of these (misrepresentations might be.

  13. Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2001-03-01

    Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.

  14. Seneca Storytelling: Effect of the Kinzua Dam on Interpretations of Supernatural Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Borgia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes supernatural lore of the Hodinöhŝyönih (Iroquois of the Northeastern United States, specifically the Seneca people living near the Kinzua Dam. After briefly tracing the historical richness of Iroquois and Seneca stories about supernatural beings and occurrences, it offers interpretations on these stories that are pertinent to a new generation. Traditional storytellers such as the various Indigenous peoples of North America use their tales as vehicles for instruction in their communities; an important part of this instruction is maintenance and strengthening of cultural traditions within communities and families. The building of the Kinzua Dam on the Seneca Allegany Territory in the late 1960s and subsequent upheavals in the community have deepened the tradition of stories about supernatural incidents while serving as a means through which old stories have gained strength and guided those removed by the dam’s construction to overcome those tragic events.

  15. God's punishment and public goods : A test of the supernatural punishment hypothesis in 186 world cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dominic D P

    2005-12-01

    Cooperation towards public goods relies on credible threats of punishment to deter cheats. However, punishing is costly, so it remains unclear who incurred the costs of enforcement in our evolutionary past. Theoretical work suggests that human cooperation may be promoted if people believe in supernatural punishment for moral transgressions. This theory is supported by new work in cognitive psychology and by anecdotal ethnographic evidence, but formal quantitative tests remain to be done. Using data from 186 societies around the globe, I test whether the likelihood of supernatural punishment-indexed by the importance of moralizing "high gods"-is associated with cooperation.

  16. Energy as the Mediator between Natural and Supernatural Realms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Kivari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses contemporary vernacular theory about the elusive energies that emanate from the ground. These energies are reported to be the ultimate reason for different remarkable occurrences, both natural and supernatural. The hypothesis of special energies is expressed in local tourism, in ecological debates and healing practises, driving the curiosity of amateur science. In these expressions knowledge as a form of engagement with the supernatural plays an integrating role between the individual and the forces beyond. Dowsing reveals the ‘energetic’ nature of reality, which will be discussed using three examples. Tuhala Nõiakaev (the Witch’s Well as a peculiar natural sight in the north of Estonia has drawn together many reports of energy columns that are linked to underground rivers and cultic stones. Another place under discussion is also famous for healing energy points: Kirna Manor works as a centre for spreading knowledge of the interdependence of physical health and the search for a spiritual path with the help of energies that the next example, the Society of Dowsers, attempts to discover using scientific methods. In these examples ‘energy’ designates the position of the individual, in which the participative relationship with the environment works as a form of folk epistemology within the limits of cultural understanding.

  17. Energy as the Mediator between Natural and Supernatural Realms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Kivari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses contemporary vernacular theory about the elusive energies that emanate from the ground. These energies are reported to be the ultimate reason for different remarkable occurrences, both natural and supernatural. The hypothesis of special energies is expressed in local tourism, in ecological debates and healing practises, driving the curiosity of amateur science. In these expressions knowledge as a form of engagement with the supernatural plays an integrating role between the individual and the forces beyond.  Dowsing reveals the ‘energetic’ nature of reality, which will be discussed using three examples. Tuhala Nõiakaev (the Witch’s Well as a peculiar natural sight in the north of Estonia has drawn together many reports of energy columns that are linked to underground rivers and cultic stones. Another place under discussion is also famous for healing energy points: Kirna Manor works as a centre for spreading knowledge of the interdependence of physical health and the search for a spiritual path with the help of energies that the next example, the Society of Dowsers, attempts to discover using scientific methods. In these examples ‘energy’ designates the position of the individual, in which the participative relationship with the environment works as a form of folk epistemology within the limits of cultural understanding.

  18. SuperNatural: a searchable database of available natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Mathias; Fullbeck, Melanie; Neumann, Stefanie; Preissner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Although tremendous effort has been put into synthetic libraries, most drugs on the market are still natural compounds or derivatives thereof. There are encyclopaedias of natural compounds, but the availability of these compounds is often unclear and catalogues from numerous suppliers have to be checked. To overcome these problems we have compiled a database of approximately 50,000 natural compounds from different suppliers. To enable efficient identification of the desired compounds, we have implemented substructure searches with typical templates. Starting points for in silico screenings are about 2500 well-known and classified natural compounds from a compendium that we have added. Possible medical applications can be ascertained via automatic searches for similar drugs in a free conformational drug database containing WHO indications. Furthermore, we have computed about three million conformers, which are deployed to account for the flexibilities of the compounds when the 3D superposition algorithm that we have developed is used. The SuperNatural Database is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural. Viewing requires the free Chime-plugin from MDL (Chime) or Java2 Runtime Environment (MView), which is also necessary for using Marvin application for chemical drawing.

  19. Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2012-06-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of need-based spiritual/religious intervention on spiritual well-being and anxiety of elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elham, Hedayati; Hazrati, Maryam; Momennasab, Marzieh; Sareh, Keshavarzi

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and spiritual distress are the most common problems among the patients admitted in intensive care units. The elderly are more vulnerable to this problem due to impairment of their adaptation mechanisms. Hence, helping to reduce anxiety is one of the most effective nursing interventions. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of need-based spiritual/religious interventions on spiritual well-being (SWB) and anxiety of the elderly admitted to coronary care unit (CCU). This quasi-experimental study with pre- and posttest control group design was conducted on 66 patients admitted to CCU of Imam Reza hospital in Lar, southern Iran, in 2014. After obtaining informed consents, the data were collected using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the SWB Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed through interviewing the patients before and after the intervention. The participants of the intervention group underwent 60- to 90-minute sessions of spiritual and religious need-based interventions for 3 consecutive days. The results showed a significant increase in the mean scores of SWB in the intervention group after the intervention (P = .001). Also, a significant decrease was found in mean scores of trait and state anxiety in the intervention group in comparing to control group (P Spiritual/religious interventions could enhance SWB and reduce anxiety in the elderly admitted to CCU.

  1. Priming of supernatural agent concepts and agency detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.; Rutjens, B.T.; van der Pligt, J.; van Harreveld, F.

    2016-01-01

    In evolutionary approaches to religion it is argued that belief in supernatural agents is strongly related to a perceptual bias to over-detect the presence of agents in the environment. We report five experiments that investigate whether processing concepts about supernatural agents facilitates

  2. Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined…

  3. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychaskiw, George

    2011-09-06

    Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic".-Arthur C. Clarke.

  4. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research

    OpenAIRE

    Mychaskiw George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic". -Arthur C. Clarke

  5. Becky is my hero: The power of laughter and disruption in Supernatural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith May Fathallah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Interpreted through Mikhail Bakhtin's theories of resistant laughter, the fan insert character of Becky from Supernatural can be read as an invitation to appropriate the narrative for their own pleasure. However, outsiders to the fan community may not recognize that Becky's depiction is hyperbolic and may thus read the character as a damaging stereotype.

  6. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  7. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs.

  8. When Will It Be …?: U.S. Naval Observatory Religious Calendar Computers Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Ziegler, Cross; Lesniak, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    Reflecting increasing sensitivity to differing religious practices, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) has expanded its on-line calendar resources to compute additional religious dates for specific years via an Application Programming Interface (API). This flexible method now identifies Christian, Islamic, and Jewish events in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that anyone can use.Selected Christian Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/easter.php) returns dates of eight events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.D. 1582): Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, Whit Sunday, Trinity Sunday, and the first Sunday of Advent. The determination of Easter, a moveable feast, uses the method of western Christian churches.Selected Islamic Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/islamic.php) returns approximate Gregorian dates of three events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.H. 990) and Julian dates for 622-1582 C.E. (A.H. 1-990) along with the corresponding Islamic year (anno Hegirae). Ramadân, Shawwál, and the Islamic year begin at sunset on the preceding Gregorian or Julian date. For planning purposes, the determination of these dates uses a tabular calendar; in practice, observation of the appropriate waxing crescent Moon determines the actual date, which may vary.Selected Jewish Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/passover.php) returns Gregorian dates of six events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.M. 5342) and Julian dates for the years 360-1582 C.E. (A.M. 4120-5342) along with the corresponding Jewish year (anno Mundi). Passover, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Hanukkah begin at sunset on the preceding Gregorian or Julian date.On-line documentation for using the API-enabled calendar computers, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The webpage also describes how to use the API with the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Solar Eclipse Computer, Day and Night

  9. American television fiction transforming Danish teenagers' religious imaginations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that American television fiction with supernatural themes offers Danish teenage audiences a playground for exploring different religious imaginations in a continuous process of internal negotiations; thereby transforming their imaginations. This process of the mediatization...... narratives. This essay presents the findings of an empirical qualitative study of seventy-two Danish teenagers and considers two primary parameters for the case-based reception study: the teenagers' levels of fandom and their connection with institutionalized religion. In other words, how are religious...

  10. Supernatural A-Term Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    Following Ref. 10, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is V0 plus MSSM (or A-term) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the potential V0 with the soft SUSY breaking mass m O(1) TeV. The implication to MSSM (or A-term) inflation is that the flat directions which is lifted by the non-renormalizable terms described by the superpotential W=λ p φ p-1/Mp-3 P with p = 4 and p = 5 are also suitable to be an inflaton field for λp = O(1) provided there is an additional false vacuum term V0 with appropriate magnitude. The flat directions correspond to p = 6 also works for 0 < ˜ V0/M_ P4 < ˜ 10-40.

  11. Religious and Spiritual Salience, Well-Being, and Psychosocial Functioning Among Psychotherapy Clients: Moderator Effects for Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, David R; Sandage, Steven J; Ruffing, Elizabeth G; Hill, Peter C

    2018-04-21

    A number of studies have examined the mediating factors in the relationship between religion and spirituality (R/S) and psychological health. Humility is a virtue that has been positively correlated with R/S variables, measures of well-being, and indicators of psychosocial functioning. In this study, we investigate dispositional humility as a potential moderator in the relationship between religious and spiritual salience and (1) well-being and (2) psychosocial functioning outcomes in a clinical sample. Results indicated that dispositional humility significantly moderated the relationships tested. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Development of inhibition as a function of the presence of a supernatural agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author examined the developmental differences in inhibition and cognition of 4-8-year-old children as a function of the suggested presence of a supernatural agent. Previous evolutionarily-relevant research has suggested that humans are naturally primed to think in terms of supernatural agents and that, given the correct context, individuals readily accept novel supernatural entities and alter their behavior accordingly. All children in this study played 4 games designed to assess their present level of inhibitory and cognitive development. Children in the experimental condition were also introduced to an invisible Princess Alice and were told that she was watching during the games. Following these measures, all children engaged in a resistance-to-temptation task. Results revealed that cognitively advanced children were more likely to express belief in Princess Alice than were less cognitively advanced children. This research provides support that cognitive maturity, rather than immaturity, may be necessary for children to express belief in novel supernatural agents.

  13. God is: children’s Bibles and Bible storybooks’ presentation of religious values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. du Toit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers children’s Bibles and Bible storybooks as vehicles for the transfer of God concepts from one generation to the next – as God is considered central to the portrayal of the confessional attributes of the religious collective. It identifies both the commercial and religious imperatives controlling the prevailing attributes assigned as characteristic of the divine. The presentation of the nature of God is found to align with the commercial target audience for children’s Bibles: mothers and female caregivers who purchase the books on behalf of their charges and read and interpret the Bibles to the child. But it also coincides with the preferred attributes associated with a supernatural being by young children. Ultimately, God is found to be consistently portrayed by means of maternal attributes of love, protection and care in contrast to the more ambivalent portrayal of God in the adult biblical text.

  14. “Secret Language” in Oral and Graphic Form: Religious-Magic Discourse in Aztec Speeches and Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mikulska Dąbrowska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze a particular linguistic register of the Nahua (Aztec people that has been classified as “magical-religious” because it was used for communication with the sacred realm. A hypothesis is developed that in the Mesoamerican pictographic calendar-religious manuscripts, which treat matters strictly linked to the supernatural world, a similar register should be evident. Far from considering the information presented in these resources as resulting from the direct transcription of oral language, the idea is that the graphic form represents elements emblematic of orality, although adapted to this particular context and mode for expression.

  15. Supernatural/Paranormal Phenomena: A Passionate Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Robinson, G.; Maulton, J.

    2003-05-01

    A collaboration between a psychologist, a philosopher, and an astronomer resulted in an inter-term (January) course, titled "Supernatural/Paranormal Phenomena: A Passionate Closer Look" at Smith College. The main purpose of the course was to provide students with the tools to evaluate the pseudo-sciences that are so enticing in today's complex and stressful world. We examined some of the reasons why people are attracted to New-Age enterprises that claim to: provide personal insight and social guidance from stars and planets; communicate with the dead; predict the future; prove contact with extraterrestrial beings. The course provided us with an opportunity to introduce the methodology of science and compare it with the claims made by the defenders of pseudo-sciences. We also conducted a survey of paranormal beliefs of enrolled students before and after our inter-term class.

  16. The divided mind of a disbeliever: Intuitive beliefs about nature as purposefully created among different groups of non-religious adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnefelt, Elisa; Canfield, Caitlin F; Kelemen, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Do non-religious adults - despite their explicit disavowal of religious beliefs - have a tacit tendency to view nature as purposefully created by some being? This question was explored in three online studies using a speeded judgment procedure, which assessed disbelievers in two different Western cultures (United States and Finland). Despite strong performance on control trials, across all three studies non-religious individuals displayed a default bias to increasingly judge pictures of natural phenomena as "purposefully made by some being" under processing constraints. Personal beliefs in the supernatural agency of nature ("Gaia beliefs") consistently predicted this tendency. However, beliefs in nature as purposefully made by some being persisted even when such secular agency beliefs were controlled. These results suggest that the tendency to view nature as designed is rooted in evolved cognitive biases as well as cultural socialization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Esperança e religião

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lehmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo desenvolve três modelos de relacionamento com o sobrenatural. Primeiramente, o ritual de aposta, pelo qual o indivíduo se assegura de ter feito o que era possível fazer para evitar um perigo. A natureza detalhada da preparação do ritual é essencial, assim como a rede social que se tece ao redor do rito. Segundo, focaliza a relação de troca com o sobrenatural, mediada pelo shaman, que é aquele que detém os segredos do procedimento e a confiança dos "clientes". Terceiro, trata das relações de troca representadas pela religião popular católica e explica que todas as religiões "mundiais" (judaísmo, cristianismo, islamismo se edificam sobre uma dialética do erudito com a religião popular. Tudo isso como introdução à análise do pentecostalismo e do neopentecostalismo, que representam formas inusitadas de religiosidade, nas quais o sobrenatural está presente. Mas a troca é com a Igreja, não com entidades sobrenaturais. A Igreja funciona mais como um "Pronto-Socorro Espiritual" do que como um lugar de construção de uma ordem moral ou como lugar em que os humanos fazem as pazes com Deus. O pentecostalismo faz parte de uma tendência ocidental que deixa as religiões includentes (católica, anglicana em estagnação, enquanto as mais excludentes, aquelas que requerem muito sacrifício dos seguidores, ganham terreno.This article develops three models of humans' relationship with the supernatural. First that of ritual as a kind of protection through which the individual ensures that whatever had to be done to avoid a danger was done. The detailed nature of the ritual procedures are essential to it as is the social network which is woven around the rite. Secondly, the article focuses on the exchange relationship with the supernatural, mediated by a shaman who holds the secrets of the procedure and also the trust of his "clients". Thirdly, it deals with the exchange relationships represented by Catholic popular religion

  18. The Place of Identity Dissonance and Emotional Motivations in Bio-Cultural Models of Religious Experience: A Report from the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Durham University's 'Hearing the Voice' project involves a multi-disciplinary exploration of hallucinatory-type phenomena in an attempt to revaluate and reframe discussions of these experiences. As part of this project, contemporaneous religious experiences (supernatural voices and visions) in the United States from the first half of the nineteenth century have been analysed, shedding light on the value and applicability of contemporary bio-cultural models of religious experience for such historical cases. In particular, this essay outlines four historical cases, seeking to utilise and to refine four theoretical models, including anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann's 'absorption hypothesis', by returning to something like William James' concern with 'discordant personalities'. Ultimately, the paper argues that emphasis on the role of identity dissonance must not be omitted from the analytical tools applied to these nineteenth-century examples, and perhaps should be retained for any study of religious experience generally.

  19. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  20. Cultural variances in composition of biological and supernatural concepts of death: a content analysis of children's literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Seong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Younyoung; Koo, Ja Hyouk

    2014-01-01

    Children's reasoning about the afterlife emerges naturally as a developmental regularity. Although a biological understanding of death increases in accordance with cognitive development, biological and supernatural explanations of death may coexist in a complementary manner, being deeply imbedded in cultural contexts. This study conducted a content analysis of 40 children's death-themed picture books in Western Europe and East Asia. It can be inferred that causality and non-functionality are highly integrated with the naturalistic and supernatural understanding of death in Western Europe, whereas the literature in East Asia seems to rely on naturalistic aspects of death and focuses on causal explanations.

  1. Varieties of Religious Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Noah Olawoyin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious Pluralism is one of many forms of pluralism in contemporary globalised world.  Some others include ethnic pluralism, value pluralism, doctrinal pluralism, ethical pluralism, political pluralism.  Religious pluralism is, however, one of the most important in contemporary society, considering globalization and the role of religions in many conflicts.  It has its root in poltitical liberalism. Religious pluralism is a hot debate in social sciences and in Theology and Religious Studies. This paper argues that religious pluralism, which is an acceptance of plurality as normative, is not a monolithic theory. The different religious context in which it is being discussed, the different disciplinary and philosophical influences resulted in various and even contradictory types.  However, this paper is a ‘mapping’ of the contour of contemporary discussions.  Critically reviewing relevant literature, two major theories of religious pluralism were identified: identist and differential/complementary.  Each of these also has subdivision.

  2. The Relationship between Religious-Spiritual Well-Being and Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Taheri-Kharameh; Mohammad Abdi; Reza Omidi Koopaei; Mostafa Alizadeh; Vahid Vahidabi; Hesam Mirhoseini

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between dimensions of religious and spiritual wellbeing, stress, anxiety, and depression in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences and as well as to access the predictability of stress, anxiety, and depression from the levels of religious-spiritual dimension in students. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 138 students in Qom University of Medical Sciences were selected via ra...

  3. The remote prayer delusion: clinical trials that attempt to detect supernatural intervention are as futile as they are unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, G

    2008-09-01

    Extreme rates of premature death prior to the advent of modern medicine, very low rates of premature death in First World nations with low rates of prayer, and the least flawed of a large series of clinical trials indicate that remote prayer is not efficacious in treating illness. Mass contamination of sample cohorts renders such clinical studies inherently ineffectual. The required supernatural and paranormal mechanisms render them implausible. The possibility that the latter are not benign, and the potentially adverse psychological impact of certain protocols, renders these medical trials unethical. Resources should no longer be wasted on medical efforts to detect the supernatural and paranormal.

  4. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age....... Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender...... differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who...

  5. Cultural Explanations of Sleep Paralysis in Italy: The Pandafeche Attack and Associated Supernatural Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Romanelli, Andrea; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines cultural explanations regarding sleep paralysis (SP) in Italy. The study explores (1) whether the phenomenology of SP generates culturally specific interpretations and causal explanations and (2) what are the beliefs and local traditions associated with such cultural explanations. The participants were Italian nationals from the general population (n = 68) recruited in the region of Abruzzo, Italy. All participants had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP. The sleep paralysis experiences and phenomenology questionnaire were orally administered to participants. We found a multilayered cultural interpretation of SP, namely the Pandafeche attack, associated with various supernatural beliefs. Thirty-eight percent of participants believed that this supernatural being, the Pandafeche-often referred to as an evil witch, sometimes as a ghost-like spirit or a terrifying humanoid cat-might have caused their SP. Twenty-four percent of all participants sensed the Pandafeche was present during their SP. Strategies to prevent Pandafeche attack included sleeping in supine position, placing a broom by the bedroom door, or putting a pile of sand by the bed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the study findings. The Pandafeche attack thus constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in the Abruzzo region of Italy.

  6. Supernatural impotence: historical review with anthropological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, J; Witztum, E

    1989-12-01

    The historical and cultural background of the belief in supernatural impotence is presented, emphasizing its possible implications for clinical practice. A brief historical survey of the concept in Judaism and Christianity is followed by a short anthropological survey of supernatural impotence in different ethnic subcultures in Israel. A case demonstration exemplifies the connection between understanding the patient's cultural background and beliefs and the clinical competence of the therapist. The relationship between the clinical-therapeutic process in psychiatric practice and knowledge of the patient's cultural background and beliefs is stressed.

  7. Ethnic, Familial, and Religious Identity of Roma Adolescents in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania in Relation to Their Level of Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Tausova, Jitka; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; Buzea, Carmen; Uka, Fitim; Tair, Ergyul

    2017-01-01

    This study examines ethnic, national, familial, and religious identity and well-being of 632 Roma minority and 589 majority adolescents (age: M = 15.98 years, SD = 1.34) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. Results indicated that Roma showed lower endorsement of national identity

  8. Common Ground with "A Common Faith": Dewey's Idea of the "Religious"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    In "A Common Faith", Dewey rejects organized religion and belief in the supernatural, instead arguing for an authentically "religious" attitude which this interpretive essay analyzes in terms of four propositions: (1) Knowledge is unified. (2) Knowledge is democratic. (3) The pursuit of moral ideals requires moral faith. (4) The authority for…

  9. The Influence of Divine Rewards and Punishments on Religious Prosociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleam, James; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    A common finding across many cultures has been that religious people behave more prosocially than less (or non-) religious people. Numerous priming studies have demonstrated that the activation of religious concepts via implicit and explicit cues (e.g., ‘God,’ ‘salvation,’ among many others) increases prosociality in religious people. However, the factors underlying such findings are less clear. In this review we discuss hypotheses (e.g., the supernatural punishment hypothesis) that explain the religion-prosociality link, and also how recent findings in the empirical literature converge to suggest that the divine rewards (e.g., heaven) and punishments (e.g., hell) promised by various religious traditions may play a significant role. In addition, we further discuss inconsistencies in the religion-prosociality literature, as well as existing and future psychological studies which could improve our understanding of whether, and how, concepts of divine rewards and punishments may influence prosociality. PMID:27536262

  10. Can Religious Beliefs be a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior? A Decision Tree Analysis in a Mid-Sized City in Iran, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Zolala, Farzaneh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Jalali, Maryam; Tabrizi, Reza; Akbari, Maryam

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess using tree-based models the impact of different dimensions of religion and other risk factors on suicide attempts in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Three hundred patients who attempted suicide and 300 age- and sex-matched patient attendants with other types of disease who referred to Kerman Afzalipour Hospital were recruited for this study following a convenience sampling. Religiosity was assessed by the Duke University Religion Index. A tree-based model was constructed using the Gini Index as the homogeneity criterion. A complementary discrimination analysis was also applied. Variables contributing to the construction of the tree were stressful life events, mental disorder, family support, and religious belief. Strong religious belief was a protective factor for those with a low number of stressful life events and those with a high mental disorder score; 72 % of those who formed these two groups had not attempted suicide. Moreover, 63 % of those with a high number of stressful life events, strong family support, strong problem-solving skills, and a low mental disorder score were less likely to attempt suicide. The significance of four other variables, GHQ, problem-coping skills, friend support, and neuroticism, was revealed in the discrimination analysis. Religious beliefs seem to be an independent factor that can predict risk for suicidal behavior. Based on the decision tree, religious beliefs among people with a high number of stressful life events might not be a dissuading factor. Such subjects need more family support and problem-solving skills.

  11. Natural and Supernatural: Intersections Between the Spiritual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural and Supernatural: Intersections Between the Spiritual and Natural Worlds in African Witchcraft and Healing with Reference to Southern Africa. ... In its presentation of an essentially anthropological case study focused on southern Africa, the paper draws on various ethnographic examples of African communities in ...

  12. Epistemic Similarities between Students' Scientific and Supernatural Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The evidential support for scientific claims is quantitatively and qualitatively superior to that for supernatural claims, yet students may not appreciate this difference in light of the fact that both types of claims are learned in similar ways (through testimony rather than firsthand observation) and perform similar functions (explaining…

  13. \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the Khotso legend. Felicity Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) Vol. 4(1) 2005: 347-359. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Supernatural Themes in Selected Children's Stories of Isaac Bashevis Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, June H.; Vanderryst, June D.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the traditional folklore theme of good versus evil on children's development and analyzes the development of this theme using magical and supernatural situations in the work of Isaac Bashevis Singer. A selected bibliography of work by and literary criticisms of Singer's writings is provided. (five references) (CLB)

  15. Man and SuperNature. Lecture 12, September 27, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2015-01-01

    "Man and SuperNature" is a lyrical chapter in the 1946 London course following the emergence of Cosmic Education in Kodaikanal, India. Montessori contrasts the adaptation required of animals for their survival to conscious human adaptation. Animals exist and adapt to nature, but man can alter nature and change the environment.…

  16. Religious narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2013-01-01

    Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...

  17. Religious Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Badulescu; Olimpia Ban

    2005-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents the past and present of the religious tourism in the world and in Romania and its implications on traveling. The second part describes the regions with religious tourism potential in Romania and the activities that could enhance and help the development of this kind of tourism in our country.

  18. Evaluating ritual efficacy: evidence from the supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Souza, André L

    2012-07-01

    Rituals pose a cognitive paradox: although widely used to treat problems, rituals are causally opaque (i.e., they lack a causal explanation for their effects). How is the efficacy of ritual action evaluated in the absence of causal information? To examine this question using ecologically valid content, three studies (N=162) were conducted in Brazil, a cultural context in which rituals called simpatias are used to treat a great variety of problems ranging from asthma to infidelity. Using content from existing simpatias, experimental simpatias were designed to manipulate the kinds of information that influences perceptions of efficacy. A fourth study (N=68) with identical stimuli was conducted with a US sample to assess the generalizability of the findings across two different cultural contexts. The results provide evidence that information reflecting intuitive causal principles (i.e., repetition of procedures, number of procedural steps) and transcendental influence (i.e., presence of religious icons) affects how people evaluate ritual efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Counselor Responsiveness to Client Religiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Presents eight categories of client attitudes toward religion and suggests opportunities for religiously oriented counselor responses. Uses four categories to describes how religion may be associated with specific client issues. Contends that an informed appreciation of clients' religiousness and the religious dimensions of many client issues can…

  20. In defense of a supernatural foundation to morality: reply to Shermer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    In my original paper, I claimed that our moral obligations are real, objective, and grounded in the supernatural. In particular, I endorsed the claim that God's will is the basis or source of our moral obligations, where "God" is to be understood as the theistic being who is omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent, who created the universe, and who is still actively involved in the universe after creating it. In his critical article, Michael Shermer has raised a number of important challenges to my view. Here I try to defend the position and respond to at least his most serious objections. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Supernatural supersymmetry and its classic example: M-theory inspired NMSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjun; Raza, Shabbar; Wang, Xiao-Chuan

    2016-06-01

    We briefly review the supernatural supersymmetry (SUSY), which provides a most promising solution to the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning problem. In particular, we address its subtle issues as well. Unlike the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the next to MSSM (NMSSM) can be scale invariant and has no mass parameter in its Lagrangian before SUSY and gauge symmetry breakings. Therefore, the NMSSM is a perfect framework for supernatural SUSY. To give the SUSY breaking soft mass to the singlet, we consider the moduli and dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenarios in M-theory on S1/Z2. In these scenarios, SUSY is broken by one and only one F term of moduli or dilaton, and the SUSY breaking soft terms can be determined via the Kähler potential and superpotential from Calabi-Yau compactification of M-theory on S1/Z2. Thus, as predicted by supernatural SUSY, the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning measure is of unity order. In the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the right-handed sleptons are relatively light around 1 TeV, stau can even be as light as 580 GeV and degenerate with the lightest neutralino, chargino masses are larger than 1 TeV, the light stop masses are around 2 TeV or larger, the first two-generation squark masses are about 3 TeV or larger, and gluinos are heavier tha.n squarks. In the dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the qualitative picture remains the same but we have heavier spectra as compared to the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario. In addition to it, we have Higgs H2/A1-resonance solutions for dark matter (DM). In both scenarios, the minimal value of DM relic density is about 0.2. To obtain the observed DM relic density, we can consider the dilution effect from supercritical string cosmology or introduce the axino as the lightest supersymmetric particle.

  2. Religious Fundamentalism/Religious Modernism: Conceptual Adversaries or Ambivalent Phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GOLOVUSHKIN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Both religious modernism and religious fundamentalism appeared as problems in academic and theological literature at the beginning of the 20th century. They came about as the result of the dynamic development of modernistic ideology in Russia, the United States, Western Europe and the Islamic world. Today, the concepts of religious modernism and religious fundamentalism are widely used to describe religious processes and phenomena which are the result of interaction between religion (as a dynamic spiritual and social subsystem and society - as a social system experiencing evolution. The concept of religious modernism is traditionally associated with religious renewal, the contemporary world, and innovation. Fundamentalism, on the contrary, is an ideological commitment to the “roots and origins” of religion. Under the aegis of fundamentalism, any religious idea, value or concept has a right to exist. Religious Studies, during the course of time and the production of ever new material, encountered a serious theoretic-methodological problem: How can various religious movements and religious traditions be organized into groups since some of them combine elements of religious modernism and of religious fundamentalism? Already at the end of the nineteen-eighties, the well-established view defining “fundamentalism-modernism” as contrary positions had to be rethought. Studies dating from the nineteen-nineties and the beginning of the new millennium concentrated on noting the social origins and the political character of these phenomena. They demonstrated that neither fundamentalism nor modernism present the whole picture. The lines dividing them are so blurred, that they become confl uent. Consequently, the author concludes that religious fundamentalism and religious modernism are ambivalent phenomena, which can, on occasion, interact with each other.

  3. Adolescents' sensitivity to children's supernatural thinking: A preparation for parenthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Bjorklund, David F

    2018-05-01

    Young children often use magical explanations to account for ordinary phenomena (e.g., "The sun's not out today because it is mad"). We labeled these explanations supernatural thinking. Previous research reports that supernatural thinking attributed to preschool-age children evokes both positive affect and perceptions of helplessness from both adults and older (14-17 years old) but not younger (10-13 years old) adolescents. In this study, we asked if cues of cognitive immaturity are more influential in affecting adolescents' judgments of children than physical cues (faces). 245 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 rated pairs of children who physically and/or cognitively resembled either a 4- to 7-year-old or an 8- to 10-year-old child in three between-subject conditions (Consistent, Inconsistent, Faces-Only) for 14 traits classified into four trait dimensions (Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Intelligence, Helplessness). For both younger and older adolescents, cognitive cues had a greater influence on judgments than facial cues. However, only the older adolescents demonstrated a positive bias for children expressing immature supernatural thinking. Adopting an evolutionary developmental perspective, we interpreted this outcome in late (but not early) adolescence as preparation for potential parenthood.

  4. Do religious activities among young–old immigrants act as a buffer against the effect of a lack of resources on well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klokgieters, S.S.; van Tilburg, Theo G.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Huisman, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Despite a large body of sociological and psychological literature suggesting that religious activities may mitigate the effects of stress, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of religious activities among immigrants. Immigrants in particular may stand to benefit from

  5. Do religious activities among young–old immigrants act as a buffer against the effect of a lack of resources on well-being?

    OpenAIRE

    Klokgieters, S.S.; van Tilburg, Theo G.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Huisman, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Despite a large body of sociological and psychological literature suggesting that religious activities may mitigate the effects of stress, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of religious activities among immigrants. Immigrants in particular may stand to benefit from these activities because they often report a religious affiliation and often occupy disadvantaged positions. This study investigates whether private and public religious activities reduce the negative...

  6. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...... youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding of homegrown religious radicalization...

  7. Malaria, from natural to supernatural: a qualitative study of mothers' reactions to fever (Dienga, Gabon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Hugo; Mayombo, Justice; Aubouy, Nicolas; Deloron, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Decision making for health care at the household level is a crucial factor for malaria management and control among young children. This study sought to determine exactly how mothers reacted when faced with fever in a child. Qualitative study based on in depth semistructured interviews of mothers and free form discussion with traditional healers (Nganga). Village of Dienga, a rural area of Gabon (Central Africa). 12 mothers and three traditional healers. All mothers thought that fever and malaria were identical. Mothers home treated or went to the village treatment centre, or both, on the last episode of fever, if they judged it to be "natural" fever. However, if fever was thought to be a result of malicious intent, then a Nganga was consulted first. It was believed that strong and above all persistent fever was "supernatural". In this case, traditional treatment was thought to be best. Results indicate that fever is perceived as a dual condition, with two distinct but non-mutually exclusive aetiologies (either "natural" or from witchcraft). In contrast with what is commonly believed, there seems to be no clear cut distinction between diseases suitable for management by western medicine and diseases to be managed solely by traditional health practitioners. Moreover, these data do not support the commonly held notion that the decision to seek western medicine to treat fever is considered a "last resort". Results strongly imply that some severe cases of fever, being initially considered supernatural, may partially or completely escape medical attention.

  8. Do religious activities among young-old immigrants act as a buffer against the effect of a lack of resources on well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klokgieters, Silvia S; van Tilburg, Theo G; Deeg, Dorly J H; Huisman, Martijn

    2018-01-30

    Despite a large body of sociological and psychological literature suggesting that religious activities may mitigate the effects of stress, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of religious activities among immigrants. Immigrants in particular may stand to benefit from these activities because they often report a religious affiliation and often occupy disadvantaged positions. This study investigates whether private and public religious activities reduce the negative effects of a lack of physical, social, and socio-economic resources on wellbeing among Turkish and Moroccan young-old immigrants in the Netherlands. Using data from the Longitudinal Study Amsterdam, cluster analysis revealed three patterns of absence of resources: physically disadvantaged, multiple disadvantages, and relatively advantaged. Linear regression analysis assessed associations between patterns of resources, religious activities and wellbeing. Persons who are physically disadvantaged or have multiple disadvantages have a lower level of wellbeing compared to persons who are relatively advantaged.  More engagement in private religious activities was associated with higher wellbeing. Among those with multiple disadvantages, however, more engagement in private religious activities was associated with lower wellbeing. Public religious activities were not associated with wellbeing in the disadvantaged group. Private religious activities are positively related to wellbeing among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. In situations where resources are lacking, however, the relation between private religious activities and wellbeing is negative. The study's results highlight the importance of context, disadvantage and type of religious activity for wellbeing.

  9. On European Religious Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.

  10. Classification of natural and supernatural causes of mental distress. Development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, M

    1990-11-01

    This paper describes the background and development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire designed to explore how people from different cultures explain mental distress. A 45-item questionnaire was developed with items derived from the Murdock et al. categories, with additional items covering western notions of physiological causation and stress. The questionnaire was administered to 261 people, mostly college students. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis shows four clusters of mental distress: a) stress; b) western physiological; c) nonwestern physiological; and d) supernatural. These clusters form two dimensions: western physiological vs. supernatural and impersonal vs. personalistic explanations. Natural and stress items are separated from supernatural and nonwestern physiological items along the first dimension. Brain damage, physical illness, and genetic defects have the greatest separation along the first dimension. Being hot, the body being out of balance, and wind currents passing through the body most strongly represent the non-western physiological category. The questionnaire has the potential to be used for community health screening and for monitoring patient care, as well as with students in the health sciences and with health practitioners.

  11. The English Version of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB-E: First Results from British College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Human-Friedrich Unterrainer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a steadily growing interest of religious/spiritual issues in several areas of psychology; a variety of reliable and valid means of assessing the different facets of religiosity/spirituality have been developed. However, there is still some need for multidimensional approaches. With respect to the positive experience with the German version of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being, we developed an English version of this scale (MI-RSWB-E in order to facilitate research in this budding field. The MI-RSWB-E was tested and validated on a sample of British college-students (n = 400. First, the factor structure and psychometric properties of the MI-RSWB-E were analysed. As a second step, MI-RSWB-E dimensions were related to a variety of indicators of personality and mental health. An in-depth analysis provided evidence in support of the psychometric quality of the MI-RSWB-E, and the ability of its proposed six-factor structure. The MI-RSWB-E dimensions were also found to be substantially related to personality factors as well as with indicators of subjective well-being and mental illness. In light of these findings the MI-RSWB-E could be considered as a suitable tool in the assessment of different facets of religiosity/spirituality.

  12. The Coexistence of Natural and Supernatural Explanations across Cultures and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H.; Evans, E. Margaret; Rosengren, Karl S.; Harris, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Although often conceptualized in contradictory terms, the common assumption that natural and supernatural explanations are incompatible is psychologically inaccurate. Instead, there is considerable evidence that the same individuals use both natural and supernatural explanations to interpret the very same events and that there are multiple ways in…

  13. Engaging the World of the Supernatural: Anthropology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is related to the issue of the role of scientific rationalism. This debate is indeed part of the history of anthropology and is as yet unresolved As such, the ideas of several earlier scholars will be referred to in an attempt to contextualise the arguments presented in this paper. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 6, ...

  14. Political liberalism and religious claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  15. Supernatural in society. (Cho) to shakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S. (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    The technologies prefixed with 'super' have offered the conveniences in the various aspects of the society including the industrial field up to present. Firstly a conception 'super high speed transportation system' has realized the 'supersonic aircraft' and 'ultra super express train', etc. such as a linear motor car, and moreover is developing the 'superconducting propulsive ship' and so forth. In the information oriented society, the information processing speed of computer has made a rapid progress by the development of very high speed large scale integrated circuit etc. In the field of manufacture, there are the magnetic head of video tape recorder and the lens of camera as products close to us manufactured by the 'super precision working.' As for the products adhered closely to ous lives, there are medical equipments, wedling machine, fish detector, etc. utilizing the 'ultrasonic wave', as well as 'supermultistoried building,' etc. Furthermore, turning a loon on the world of culture and art, the activities of the 'surrealism' are giving a substantial effect. It is important that the technology prefixed with 'super' will be let developed, and not only the conveniences, but also the harmony between the human being and nature will be realized in a better form in the future as well.

  16. Morality is real, objective, and supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to briefly introduce and defend the idea that God is the source of our moral obligations. In contrast to Michael Shermer's paper, which defends a naturalistic position about the foundations of morality, this approach is explicitly supernaturalistic. The paper begins by defining how "God" will be understood, and then spells out some of the details of how, on the proposed view, moral obligations are to depend upon God. The third section briefly reviews some of the leading arguments for this view, before the paper concludes with a discussion of the Euthyphro dilemma. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. The origins of religious disbelief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M

    2013-01-01

    Although most people are religious, there are hundreds of millions of religious disbelievers in the world. What is religious disbelief and how does it arise? Recent developments in the scientific study of religious beliefs and behaviors point to the conclusion that religious disbelief arises from multiple interacting pathways, traceable to cognitive, motivational, and cultural learning mechanisms. We identify four such pathways, leading to four distinct forms of atheism, which we term mindblind atheism, apatheism, inCREDulous atheism, and analytic atheism. Religious belief and disbelief share the same underlying pathways and can be explained within a single evolutionary framework that is grounded in both genetic and cultural evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Religiousness and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Vitved, Astrid Roll; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2017-10-01

    Recent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004-2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006-2007), 4 (2011) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associations. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98) and depressive symptoms 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93), whereas being religiously educated lowered odds of poor self-rated health (SRH) 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.93) and long-term health problems 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.95). The more religious had lower odds of limitations with activities of daily living 0.76 (95% CI 0.58, 0.99) and depressive symptoms 0.77 (95% CI 0.64, 0.92) than other respondents, and compared to people who only prayed and did not have organizational involvement, they had lower odds of poor SRH 0.71 (95% CI 0.52, 0.97) and depressive symptoms 0.66 (95% CI 0.50, 0.87). Conversely, people who only prayed had higher odds of depressive symptoms than non-religious people 1.46 (95% CI 1.15, 1.86). Our findings suggest two types of religiousness: 1. Restful religiousness (praying, taking part in a religious organization and being religiously educated), which is associated with good health, and 2. Crisis religiousness (praying without other religious activities), which is associated with poor health.

  19. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Statute for Religious Freedom, in which Thomas Jefferson wrote that ``all men shall be free to profess... country that is tolerant, just, and strong. My Administration continues to defend the cause of religious...

  20. "Spiritual but not religious": Cognition, schizotypy, and conversion in alternative beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2017-08-01

    The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e.g. have mystical experiences and feelings of universal connectedness), but are similar to religious participants in their profile of cognitive biases. SBNR participants score higher on measures of schizotypy than the religious or non-religious. Reported conversions from one group (religious, SBNR, or non-religious) to another since childhood corresponds with predictable differences in cognitive biases, with dualism predicting conversion to religion and schizotypy predicting conversion to SBNR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cultural diversity in causal attributions for illness: the role of the supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, H; Klonoff, E A

    1994-04-01

    We investigated cultural diversity in beliefs about the causes of illness and assessed the possibility that popular free-form methodologies (asking subjects to generate causes) inhibit minorities from expressing their belief in supernatural causes. As predicted, when asked to generate causes of illness and rate these in terms of their importance, whites and minorities did not differ in the number or type (natural vs supernatural) of causes they generated or in the importance rating they assigned to these. However, when these same subjects were provided with natural and supernatural causes to rate in terms of importance, minorities rated supernatural causes significantly more important than did whites, and more minorities than whites endorsed such causes. Cultural differences in causal attributions for illness are examined, and the role of methodology in determining such attributions is highlighted.

  2. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  3. Religiousness and prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.

  4. Religious education in public schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim

    2017-01-01

    With special attention to Denmark, this article discusses to what degree religious education in public school in the Scandinavian countries, often said to be among the frontrunners as regards non-confessional religious education, reflects and accommodates an increased religious pluralism as well...... the 'repoliticization' and 'securitization' of religion (with special regard to Islamophobia, Islam and immigrant Muslim minorities), concludes, inter alia, that parts of the RE curricula do not just include a wider variety of religions but also helps to counter, if not stop, changes that have to do with the new...... plurality of religions. The analysis indicates that religious education is meant to serve the promotion of social cohesion by way of promoting knowledge and understanding of the new multi-religious world, at the same time as it continues to promote and propagate, for example, Danish culture as Christian...

  5. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J.; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Currie, Thomas E.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists—it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or ‘moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cro...

  6. Development of Religiousness in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rydz, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    In the chapter forming of religiousness in young adults in the view of current concepts, both normative (stadial concepts of religiousness) and non-normative, will be presented. The majority of research on religiousness of youth is carried out in the normative understanding of development, which refers to general trends of human psychological development, especially cognitive development (cognitive developmental concepts of religiousness), personality development (humanistic concepts of the d...

  7. Religiousness and Non-Hopeless Suicide Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Randy H.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals who think about suicide but do not feel suicidally hopeless tend to be less religious and can therefore entertain thoughts of suicide unabated by religiousness. Religiousness, suicide ideation, and hopelessness were surveyed among 279 Idaho college students, 37 (13%) of whom were non-hopeless suicide ideators. A total of only 21 (7%)…

  8. TRUTH AS DETERMINANT OF RELIGIOUS FAITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of values like any other institution”. Our concern here is how religious truth that ought to be absolute has become relative thus producing many different religions in the world. Relativity of Religious Truths As Determinant. Of Religious Faith. Truth has been defined as that which conforms to essential reality, but is it absolute?

  9. Relationship between first treatment contact and supernatural beliefs in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Nebhinani, N; Chakrabarti, S; Shah, R; Avasthi, A

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. METHODS. A total of 122 caregivers (aged ≥ 18 years, staying with patient ≥ 1 year and involved in patients' care) of consecutive patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (according to the ICD-10) were evaluated for their supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact. RESULTS. The first treatment contact was a government or private psychiatrist in slightly more than half (53.3%) of the patients, while it was faith healers in 23.8% of the patients. Around three quarters (74.6%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to ≥ 1 supernatural belief (like sorcery / witchcraft, ghosts, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary influences, evil spirits, and bad deeds in previous life) and more than half (57.4%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to > 1 supernatural belief. It was observed that those who contacted faith healers for their patients' treatment had significantly higher attribution of the symptoms to supernatural causes. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatural beliefs were common in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and the majority attributed their patients' symptoms to these beliefs. It signifies an urgent need for mental health literacy in India.

  10. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness among Malay patients: impact on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, S M; Khan, U A; Hasanah, C I

    1996-10-01

    The concept of aetiology of mental illness in 134 Malay patients was investigated by means of a 20-item checklist. About 53% of the patients attributed their illnesses to supernatural agents. Witchcraft and possession by evil spirits were regarded as common causes of illness. The number of patients who believed in supernatural causes of their mental illness was significantly higher among those who had consulted bomohs (Malay traditional healers) than among those who had not consulted them. The belief that mental illness is caused by supernatural agents is firmly held by bomohs, who reinforce this notion in those who seek their advice. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness was not significantly associated with age, gender, level of education or occupation of the patients. Patients who believed in supernatural causes of mental illness were also found to show poor drug compliance, and the number of such patients at 6 months follow-up was significantly lower than the corresponding figure for those who did not believe in supernatural causes. The importance of understanding the patients' cultural background when treating psychiatric patients is highlighted.

  11. FOR RELIGIOUS CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN NIGERIA By Ogbuehi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the natural phenomena in which man responded to this divine self disclosure by depending on the supernatural powers. Anyacho. Clarification of ... between man and a transcendental being conceived as a personal being, capable of .... conflict is inevitable in human relationship and not only that it is an essential part of the ...

  12. [Religious/spiritual well-being in mentally ill persons II: the development of a short scale and comparison scores for clinical psychiatric groups and healthy controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was successfully applied in several clinical as well as non-clinical studies. However, the original version of the scale often showed to be as too comprehensive especially for clinical surroundings. There for the aim of this study is to develop a short version of the scale comprising 12 items. Based on a sample representative of the Austrian general population (N = 1,500), a first MI-RSWB short version is developed by means of factor- and reliability analysis. Furthermore the new short version of the scale is initially validated through several indicators of mental illness. The MI-RSWB short version shows convincing psychometric properties. The total scale as well as the sub scales exhibit at least a sufficient internal consistency. A significant negative association with several indicators of psychiatric illness is also confirmed for the short version of the scale. The MI-RWSB 12 scale is especially recommended for further research focusing on the clinical relevance of religiosity and spirituality.

  13. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society: the gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2014-10-01

    Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further studies on religious coping in secular societies are required.

  14. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Watson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  15. Church Attendance and Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Nilsen Kvande

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that gender may moderate the relationship between religiousness and mental health in most countries, but few studies have been conducted in Norway and Denmark. This study examined gender differences in religious experiences and church attendance as predictors of existential well-being among 295 women and 233 men from the general Norwegian population. Analyses showed that the structural equation models for women and men did not differ significantly on the global level. The models for women and men, however, showed different patterns. Among men, church attendance and negative religious experiences predicted existential well-being; among women, positive and negative religious experiences were related to existential well-being, but church attendance was not. The present findings suggest that men may benefit more from active religiousness, whereas women may benefit more from affective religiousness. Comparing these results with research in other cultural contexts, we find that different operationalizations of church attendance yield the same types of patterns across cultural contexts. Consequently, the benefits of religiousness may be similar for women and men irrespective of cultural context.

  16. Religious Coping in a Religious Minority Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Religious coping in Denmark has primarily been studied among the Danish majority with whom religious practice is limited. The aim of this study is to explore a small sample of Danish Pentecostals’ experiences of religious coping. The study includes semi-structured interviews with eighteen Danish...... Pentecostals facing a psychological crisis. Qualitative methods are applied for generating and analyzing the data material. The theme of religious individualism ran through the participants’ talk of religious coping in relation to fellow believers, reading the Bible, and personal experiences of God. Religious...... individualism was characterized by: A lived expectation of having one’s specific individual needs met through one’s religiosity. The findings from this study show that having specific individual needs met was central for the religious faith of the participants. They used both individualistic and institutional...

  17. Religious diversity and pluralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlin, Lars; Borup, Jørn; Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup

    2012-01-01

    . Religious diversity has grown in Denmark with the arrival of new immigrant groups and with new forms and interpretations of traditional religious and spiritual traditions. More importantly, the relations and interactions between religious groups -- the hallmarks of religious pluralism -- are still incipient...

  18. Association of sense of coherence and supernatural beliefs with death anxiety and death depression among Romanian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolică, Roxana; Enea, Violeta; Dafinoiu, Ion; Petrov, Iuliana; Azoicăi, Doina

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association of supernatural beliefs and sense of coherence with death anxiety and death depression in a Romanian sample of cancer patients. We found support for the terror management theory worldview defence hypothesis postulating the presence of a curvilinear relation between death anxiety and supernatural beliefs among cancer patients. Results conformed to an inverted U-shape quadratic regression, indicating that cancer patients who scored moderately on supernatural beliefs were afraid of death the most, while death anxiety was lowest for the extreme atheists and extreme believers in supernatural entities.

  19. Stability and Change in Religiousness during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Laura B.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the development of religiousness is an important endeavor because religiousness has been shown to be related to positive outcomes. The current study examined mean-level, rank-order, and individual-level change in females' religiousness during emerging adulthood. Genetic and environmental influences on religiousness and its change and…

  20. Meta-concepts, thinking skills and religious education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education

  1. Religiousness, religious doubt, and death anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrie, James; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2014-01-01

    Terror Management Theory (TMT) (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) suggests that culturally-provided worldviews (e.g., religion) may protect individuals from experiencing death anxiety, and several studies have supported this position. However, if one's worldview can offer protection, doubts concerning one's worldview could undermine this protection. The current study investigated whether age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt were associated with death anxiety. Using data from 635 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, a structural equation model with age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt predicting death anxiety was tested. The model had a good fit (chi2 (76) = 193.467, p religiousness was inversely associated with death anxiety, while religious doubt was positively associated with death anxiety.

  2. Supernatural believers attribute more intentions to random movement than skeptics: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Raij, Tuukka T

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has attempted to explain why some believe in the supernatural and some do not. One suggested explanation for commonly held supernatural beliefs is that they are a by-product of theory of mind (ToM) processing. However, this does not explain why skeptics with intact ToM processes do not believe. We employed fMRI to investigate activation differences in ToM-related brain circuitries between supernatural believers (N = 12) and skeptics (N = 11) while they watched 2D animations of geometric objects moving intentionally or randomly and rated the intentionality of the animations. The ToM-related circuitries in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were localized by contrasting intention-rating-related and control-rating-related brain activation. Compared with the skeptics, the supernatural believers rated the random movements as more intentional and had stronger activation of the ToM-related circuitries during the animation with random movement. The strength of the ToM-related activation covaried with the intentionality ratings. These findings provide evidence that differences in ToM-related activations are associated with supernatural believers' tendency to interpret random phenomena in mental terms. Thus, differences in ToM processing may contribute to differences between believing and unbelieving.

  3. Asymmetrical Religious Commitments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics in a ...... that are inherited from the modernization of both religions in their transition to the Western world. How far a religiously engaged scholarship is acceptable or not is finally discussed at the institutional level....

  4. Suitability of Local Resource Management Practices Based on Supernatural Enforcement Mechanisms in the Local Social-cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Sasaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental anthropological studies on natural resource management have widely demonstrated and thematized local resource management practices based on the interactions between local people and supernatural agencies and their role in maintaining natural resources. In Indonesia, even though the legal status of local people's right to the forest and forest resources is still weak, the recent transition toward decentralization presents a growing opportunity for local people to collaborate with outsiders such as governmental agencies and environmental nongovernmental organizations in natural resource management. In such situations, in-depth understanding of the value of local resource management practices is needed to promote self-directed and effective resource management. Here, we focus on local forest resource management and its suitability in the local social-cultural context in central Seram, east Indonesia. Local resource management appears to be embedded in the wider social-cultural context of the local communities. However, few intensive case studies in Indonesia have addressed the relationship between the Indigenous resource management practices closely related to a people's belief in supernatural agents and the social-cultural context. We illustrate how the well-structured use of forest resources is established and maintained through these interactions. We then investigate how local resource management practices relate to the social-cultural and natural resources context of an upland community in central Seram and discuss the possible future applications for achieving conservation.

  5. Creating a Past and a Future for Humans and Supernaturals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead but not Forgotten is a collection of short stories about the characters presented in the thirteen Sookie Stackhouse novels published by Charlaine Harris between 2001 and 2013. The fifteen short stories were not written by Harris herself, but by a series of novelists and best-selling authors. The tales are compelling and their plots are as suspenseful as the original novels by Harris, whose contents they are consistent with. Indeed, the characters are faithful to the spirit of Harris' books and their adventures are a (supernatural and logical continuation or anticipation of what occurs to them in Harris' fictional universe. The stories are indeed set in different time periods: they fill the gaps between the novels or they either precede or follow the facts narrated in Harris' books. Jeffrey J. Mariotte's “Taproot,” for example, focuses on a case assigned to Detective Andy Bellefleur during Sookie's sojourn in Dallas in the second novel. “Nobody's Business,” written by Rachel Caine, narrates instead about two secondary characters of the saga, white agent Kevin Pryor and his colored colleague Kenya Jones, and how they fall in love with one another during a dangerous mission that precedes the events described in the first book of the series (Dead Until Dark. Jeanne C. Stein's “Love Story,” however, is set decades before Sookie's birth and narrates about her grandmother Adele’s extramarital affair with a male fairy. On the other hand, Christopher Golden's “Tyger, Tyger” – which is focused on the kidnapping of mighty weretyger Quinn by a militaristic organization that uses the “two-natured” as mercenary soldiers – is set soon after the end of Harris' last book in the series (Dead Ever After.

  6. Religious Attitudes and Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    C. Reggiani; G. Rossini

    2008-01-01

    Home bias affects trade in goods, services and financial assets. It is mostly generated by "natural" trade barriers. Among these dividers we may list many behavioral and sociological factors, such as status quo biases and a few kind of ‘embeddedness’. Unfortunately these factors are difficult to measure. An important part of ‘embeddedness’ may be related to religious attitudes. Is there any relation between economic home bias and religious attitudes at the individual tier? Our aim is to provi...

  7. Spirituality amid Dogma? Some Approaches to Educating for Religious Belief within in a State Religious School in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztokman, Elana Maryles

    2009-01-01

    The religious school, where young people are brought into religious life and practice, the development of a religious belief system is often neglected. Religiousness is often instilled as a linear end product, a monolithic corpus of ideas to be singularly transmitted and subsequently owned by youth. However, educational research by Gareth…

  8. Religious bias among religiously conscious black christians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Debbie; Sloan, Lloyd Ren; Elbassiouny, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Research with White participants has demonstrated religious intergroup bias; however, religious identity may be different for Black Americans. Only religiously conscious Black Christians demonstrated a preference for Christian targets over Muslim and Atheist targets. Future research should consider what factors result in a person becoming conscious of other's religion.

  9. Supernatural Belief Is Not Modulated by Intuitive Thinking Style or Cognitive Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Miguel; van Mulukom, Valerie; Kahane, Guy; Kreplin, Ute; Joyce, Anna; Soares, Pedro; Oviedo, Lluis; Hernu, Mathilde; Rokita, Karolina; Savulescu, Julian; Möttönen, Riikka

    2017-11-08

    According to the Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, supernatural belief relies heavily on intuitive thinking-and decreases when analytic thinking is engaged. After pointing out various limitations in prior attempts to support this Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, we test it across three new studies using a variety of paradigms, ranging from a pilgrimage field study to a neurostimulation experiment. In all three studies, we found no relationship between intuitive or analytical thinking and supernatural belief. We conclude that it is premature to explain belief in gods as 'intuitive', and that other factors, such as socio-cultural upbringing, are likely to play a greater role in the emergence and maintenance of supernatural belief than cognitive style.

  10. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  11. Religious affiliations and consumer behavior: an examination of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeleeb, S S

    1993-01-01

    The author re-examines the conclusions of an earlier study which contends that religious affiliation of a hospital is important in influencing hospital selection and contributes to overall patient satisfaction. In this new survey, patients ranked religious affiliation low in importance when choosing among hospitals. However, hospitals of a particular religious affiliation were more likely to be recalled, preferred, and selected by people of the same religious affiliation. Furthermore, on quality-of-care measures, religious affiliation influenced hospital evaluations.

  12. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  13. The secular and the supernatural: madness and psychiatry in the short stories of Muriel Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, A W

    2015-01-01

    Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic.

  14. Why there is no supernatural morality: response to Miller's opening statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    If one is going to argue that objective morality depends on an Archimedean point outside the natural world, then it would seem to imply that this source is necessarily supernatural. Thus, Christian Miller begins by defining precisely who he thinks this supernatural moral law giver is: the omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent creator of the universe who is still actively involved with human affairs-Elohim, Jehovah, Yahweh, or Allah-aka God. Already I'm skeptical. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. The sacred construction: healers and religious practices in Cambé/Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Maceda Rubert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to comprehend the intrinsic relations of multiple memories present in the disposition of religious images of faith healer ladies in the city of Cambé. Through the dialogue with the oral source and the image source, we seek to relate the historic aspects to the particularities present in the studied cases. We reflected in this research on the concepts of identity, memory and healing present in these relations of exchange between the supernatural and the terrestrial, paying attention to the meaning of the plurality of images present in this space through the image analysis and the narratives and histories of ex-votes described in the faith healers testimony. The research discussed the religious reminiscences based on memories, identities and family heritages of the devotees, relating their particular and private lives with the processes of the Brazilian cultural and religious formation.

  16. Individual characteristics and religiousness among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Snežana D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the research data on religiousness collected at different periods in Serbia and former Yugoslavia. The aim of the paper is to point to the tendencies in religious practice and the expansion of religiousness among young people in different periods, as well as individual psychological factors of religiousness. The data shows that the number of young people who declare themselves religious has increased significantly in the last 15 years, compared to the period of a quarter of century ago. In addition to the revival of tradition as an answer to social crisis and uncertainty which affects young people most, the increase in religiousness is connected to certain forms of social democratization as well as it being socially desirable. The data on social-demographic correlates of religiousness shows that the degree of religiousness varies depending on the age, gender, social background and education level. However, the more recent research data shows that these differences have become smaller which indicates a certain homogenization among young people. Religiousness is consistently and positively connected to authoritarianism, conformism and intolerance, while certain changes have occurred in regard to its connection with desirable social values. Similar to the tendency observed in other research on values the data on factors and correlates of religiousness, especially among young people, point to a specific value relativism and confused values.

  17. Religious tourism: devotion or business opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Aida

    2012-01-01

    Religious tourism can be understood as an activity in which people travel either for worshipping purposes or to participate in events of religious significance. It can be seen as an alternative to mass tourism activities, aiming for specific targets. Portugal has a significant and rich religious heritage which can help to revitalize traditionally neglected rural areas. The active participation of the Church is of utmost importance as far as the visitors are concerned. On one hand it sh...

  18. Religious Tourism - a Finnish Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Katri

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with religious tourism. The objectives of this study are firstly to understand what religious tourism is, who the tourists attracted to religious tourism are, what the destinations and motives for religious holidays are and what the future of religious tourism looks like. This study is limited to dealing with Christian religious tourism. There is a survey made to find out firstly how religious tourism is understood and what the important destinations for religious touri...

  19. A psychology of religious plurality: from intra-religious dialogue to intra-psychic reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism.

  20. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  1. Understanding religious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S

    1979-01-01

    The attached (to mother) fetus-infant finds his religious expression in Buddhism. The attached (to group) juvenile finds his religious expression in Judaism and other tribalisms. The attached (to spouse) adult finds his religious expression in agnosticism and secularism. Attached phases are placid and of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The three detaching phases are hurtful and hence soteriological, and are also of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The toddler-young child finds his religious expression in Christianity, the adolescent in atheism and/or Marxism, and the aged, sick or dying plucks at any religious or secular aid.

  2. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The article of record may be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23296151.2016.1239978 thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  3. The Religious in Responses to Mass Atrocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A peculiar and fascinating aspect of many responses to mass atrocities is the creative and eclectic use of religious language and frameworks. Some crimes are so extreme that they “cry out to heaven,” drawing people to employ religious vocabulary to make meaning of and to judge what happened...... of the possibilities and problems pertaining to attempts to bring religious – or semi-religious – allegiances and perspectives to bear in responses to the mass atrocities of our time: When and how can religious language or religious beliefs and practices be either necessary or helpful? And what are the problems...... and reasons for caution or critique? In this book, a group of distinguished scholars explore these questions and offer a range of original explanatory and normative perspectives....

  4. Connecting the dots : Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Douglas, Karen M.; De Inocencio, Clara

    A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated

  5. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas E; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2015-04-07

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists-it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or 'moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cross-cultural studies claiming to support the MHG hypothesis rely on correlational analyses only and do not correct for the statistical non-independence of sampled cultures. Here we use a Bayesian phylogenetic approach with a sample of 96 Austronesian cultures to test the MHG hypothesis as well as an alternative supernatural punishment hypothesis that allows punishment by a broad range of moralizing agents. We find evidence that broad supernatural punishment drives political complexity, whereas MHGs follow political complexity. We suggest that the concept of MHGs diffused as part of a suite of traits arising from cultural exchange between complex societies. Our results show the power of phylogenetic methods to address long-standing debates about the origins and functions of religion in human society. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. An Integrated Perspective of Humanism and Supernaturalism for Education: C. S. Lewis's Version of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chun

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some theoretical reflections on the connection between C. S. Lewis's thoughts on the purpose and process of education and his understanding of supernatural human nature which has been relatively little explored. An introduction about Lewis's career as a college teacher blends into the background of this paper. It is followed by…

  7. Bewitchment, Biology, or Both: The Co-Existence of Natural and Supernatural Explanatory Frameworks across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies examined the co-existence of natural and supernatural explanations for illness and disease transmission, from a developmental perspective. The participants (5-, 7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and adults; N = 366) were drawn from 2 Sesotho-speaking South African communities, where Western biomedical and traditional healing frameworks were…

  8. From canon to fanon and back again: The epic journey of "Supernatural" and its fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gray

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Supernatural and its fans is tested through the suspension of disbelief with its evolving mythos and through its canonical portrayal of fandom. This testing has allowed the relationship to grow deeper and more extensive than most similar relationships, and while it is not always smooth, it remains largely positive.

  9. What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

  10. Far Out: Some Approaches to Teaching the Speculative Literature of Science Fiction and the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Instructional Planning and Services.

    This curriculum guide contains course descriptions (for minicourses and semester-long courses), outlines, and class projects for teaching science fiction and the supernatural in junior and senior high schools. The eight course descriptions include objectives, methods, activities, and resources and materials. Lists of science fiction books and…

  11. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer...... to the compatibility question is not obvious and requires a systematic analysis of secularism. Based on a distinction between a general concept and specific conceptions of secularism I offer a general structure for conceptions of secularism that incorporates both a) basic values, e.g. political equality and freedom...

  12. Relationship of supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Patra, Bichitra N; Aggarwal, Munish; Avasthi, Ajit; Chakrabarti, Subho; Malhotra, Savita

    2014-12-01

    The etiology of mental illness has been attributed to many different causes by people of various cultural backgrounds, including supernatural beliefs. This in turn affects the help-seeking behavior. Aim of this study was to explore the supernatural belief and pathways of care in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) attending a tertiary care hospital located in north India. In all, 89 consecutive patients diagnosed with OCD (according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10)) and ≥ 15 years of age were evaluated for their supernatural belief and help seeking. More than half of the patients (54%) believed in supernatural causes and 57.3% attributed their illness to supernatural causes. In addition to supernatural causes, many patients also attributed their illness to stress (household/work-related stress) or chemical imbalance in the body and or mind. About two-thirds of the patients (n = 58; 65.2%) first contacted a psychiatrist for their symptoms of OCD. Those who first contacted faith healers believed in one of the supernatural causations. Patients with OCD hold multiple beliefs regarding the etiology and treatment of mental illness which can affect their pathways to care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Religious perspectives on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, J

    1999-11-01

    A donor's or family's religious beliefs are to be ascertained in discussions about organ donation. The positions of the major faith groups about donation are reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large majority of faiths take a positive stance toward donation. Other factors such as the emotional response, the cultural values, and the spiritual issues may be even more compelling for family members than religious beliefs. Conflicts between one's personal beliefs and the position of one's faith group about donation are to be assessed and processed.

  14. Evaluation of Religious Animations in the IRIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematoallah Moussa Pour

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Religious education has an elevated status and a great value in Iranian religious society. Using different methods and instruments to realize this goal has been always considered by those involved in education. At the present time, television is an effective means for communicating with social groups. One of those groups is children who can be exposed to messages by animations. The effectiveness of animation is a function of the manner in which it has been produced. Therefore, we can ask whether psychological principles have been observed in the production of religious animations for children. This article, written for evaluating religious animations used in the television, aims at identifying sixteen principles governing the production of animations for children. To do this, the authors referred to authentic sources in psychology and media studies after gathering data and composing them, managed to identify the principles governing the production of animation. The numbers of these principles have been applied to the production of animations, a checklist was prepared and the data were extracted from analyzing two religious animations, two domestic non-religious animations and two foreign non-religious animations. Non-religious animations were analyzed to make possible the suggested that the producers of religious animations pay special attention to do this point.

  15. Is God just a big person? Children's conceptions of God across cultures and religious traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhof, Melanie A; Johnson, Carl N

    2017-03-01

    The present research examines the influence of intuitive cognitive domain and religion on the God concepts of children growing up in religious traditions that present God in ways varying from abstract to concrete. In Study 1, we compared children from a Latter-Day Saints (LDS) background with those from mainstream Christian (MC) backgrounds in the United States. In contrast to MC theology that holds that God is all-knowing, all-powerful, and disembodied, LDS theology depicts God as embodied. In Study 1, 3- to 7-year-olds from LDS and MC backgrounds were asked about supernatural mental and immaterial attributes of God, a ghost, a dad, and a bug. In Study 2, children ages 3-7 from Muslim and Catholic backgrounds in Indonesia were presented with a variant of Study 1. Taken together, the two studies examine the God concepts of children raised in three different religious traditions with God concepts that range from highly abstract to concrete. Overall, we find that the youngest children, regardless of religion, distinguish God from humans and hold similar ideas of God, attributing more supernatural psychological than physical properties. Older children's conceptions of God are more in line with the theological notions of their traditions. The results suggest that children are not simply anthropomorphic in their God concepts, but early on understand supernatural agents as having special mental properties and they continue to learn about differences between agents, influenced by their religious traditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Research on children's God concepts has established that children begin to distinguish the mind of God from that of humans by around age 4-5. The main debate in the field is whether children start out thinking about God in anthropomorphic terms or whether they start out with an undifferentiated idea of agents' minds as all having access to knowledge. Research on children's understanding of immortality has

  16. Religious education in public schools and religious identity in post-communist Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Sima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses types of religious education in European and Serbian state-run schools searching for an innovative approach to existing classifications. He suggests four criteria to differ and categorize types of religious education in public schools, claiming that the actual taxonomy is often insufficient, inconsistent or perplexed (having usually been based upon one or two elements. He proposes categorization which encompasses point of view and interests of tax payers, of the politics, of the pupils and of the religious teachers. More criteria could lead to a better assessment of particular system of religious education. He also suggests that, apart from usual categorization in confessional and non-confessional religious education, it would be useful to introduce categories like 'mostly confessional' and 'mostly non-confessional', as clear-cut models are very rare. In addition to this he offers arguments why 'cognitive' type of religious education would be more proper label instead of 'non-confessional'. Further on the author examines controversies, disputes and manner of reintroduction of religious instruction in Serbian legislation after the fall of the communist regime in 2000 and presents the current situation, including very recent changes considering curricula. He points to some very distinctive features of religious education model in Serbia which could be of interest in comparative perspective, particularly in the time when many states in Europe tend to improve their religious education system. Finally, he points to importance of religious education in building religious identity of young generations in post-communist countries, and differs two types of religious identity - perceptive (intuitive and cognitive (rational. He concludes that 'educating into religion' has to exist for some time in post-communist countries due to historical circumstances (within more or less confessional model. Additionally, he finds that it should be

  17. Religious Architecture : Anthropological Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buildings take their place in opposition to the secular surroundings, how they, as evocations of the sublime, help believers to move beyond the boundaries of modern subjectivity, and how they, in their...

  18. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  19. The minds of gods: a comparative study of supernatural agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant

    2013-10-01

    The present work is the first study to systematically compare the minds of gods by examining some of the intuitive processes that guide how people reason about them. By examining the Christian god and the spirit-masters of the Tyva Republic, it first confirms that the consensus view of the Christian god's mind is one of omniscience with acute concern for interpersonal social behavior (i.e., moral behaviors) and that Tyvan spirit-masters are not as readily attributed with knowledge or concern of moral information. Then, it reports evidence of a moralization bias of gods' minds; American Christians who believe that God is omniscient rate God as more knowledgeable of moral behaviors than nonmoral information. Additionally, Tyvans who do not readily report pro- or antisocial behavior among the things that spirit-masters care about will nevertheless rate spirit-masters' knowledge and concern of moral information higher than nonmoral information. However, this knowledge is distributed spatially; the farther away from spirits' place of governance a moral behavior takes place, the less they know and care about it. Finally, the wider the breadth of knowledge Tyvans attribute to spirit-masters, the more they attribute moral concern for behaviors that transpire beyond their jurisdiction. These results further demonstrate that there is a significant gulf between expressed beliefs and intuitive religious cognition and provides evidence for a moralization bias of gods' minds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative religious groups. ... religion generally has on human beings has been suggested by different studies. ... emotions. Adherence to the tenets of the group then occurred as a result of ...

  1. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  2. Is it still possible to study religion religiously today? Mircea Eliade's religious apologetic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Ngcobo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines� interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.

  3. Is it still possible to study religion religiously today? Mircea Eliade's religious apologetic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Ngcobo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines’ interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.

  4. A Religious Media Revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard-Petersen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This article is a preliminary survey of the media usage of Sunni religious actors during the Syrian conflict. It traces the adoption of new media by religious actors, and analyses the kind of authority these actors have sought to embody, whether regime supporting, oppositional or jihadist...

  5. Religious intolerance and Euroscepticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobolt, S.B.; van der Brug, W.; de Vreese, C.H.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Hinrichsen, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Research on Euroscepticism focuses increasingly on the role of group identities: national identities and attitudes towards multiculturalism. Yet hardly any attention has been paid to the way in which religious intolerance shapes Euroscepticism. We argue that religious intolerance influences not only

  6. Origins of Religiousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding

    Across 800 regions of the World, this research shows that people are more religious when living in regions that are more frequently razed by natural disasters. This is in line with psychological theory stressing that religious people tend to cope with adverse life events by seeking comfort in the...

  7. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-02-18

    Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality.

  8. Connecting the dots: Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M.; De Inocencio, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs. In Study 4, we found that agreement with texts supporting paranormal phenomena or conspiracy theories predicted pattern perception. In Study 5, we manipulated belief in a specific conspiracy theory. This manipulation influenced the extent to which people perceive patterns in world events, which in turn predicted unrelated irrational beliefs. We conclude that illusory pattern perception is a central cognitive mechanism accounting for conspiracy theories and supernatural beliefs. PMID:29695889

  9. Connecting the dots: Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Douglas, Karen M; De Inocencio, Clara

    2018-04-01

    A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs. In Study 4, we found that agreement with texts supporting paranormal phenomena or conspiracy theories predicted pattern perception. In Study 5, we manipulated belief in a specific conspiracy theory. This manipulation influenced the extent to which people perceive patterns in world events, which in turn predicted unrelated irrational beliefs. We conclude that illusory pattern perception is a central cognitive mechanism accounting for conspiracy theories and supernatural beliefs.

  10. Religious Education for Generating Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how religious education began at Esperanza College in North Philadelphia, one of the poorest counties of the United States. It also is the largest community of returning citizens in Pennsylvania. Student access and success in higher education continues to be impacted by the effects of structural racism and systemic poverty.…

  11. Supernatural belief is not modulated by intuitive thinking style or cognitive inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Miguel; van Mulukom, Valerie; Kahane, Guy; Kreplin, Ute; Joyce, Anna; Soares, Pedro; Oviedo, Lluis; Hernu, Mathilde; Rokita, Karolina; Savulescu, Julian; Möttönen, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    According to the Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, supernatural belief relies heavily on intuitive thinking—and decreases when analytic thinking is engaged. After pointing out various limitations in prior attempts to support this Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, we tested it across three new studies using a variety of paradigms, ranging from a pilgrimage field study to a neurostimulation experiment. In all three studies, we found no relationship between intuitive or analytical thinking and supernatura...

  12. Conveying a Stance of Religious Pluralism in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jennifer; Foyil, Kris; Graff, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Religious discrimination is a global concern, as social dissonance and devastating violence result from religious intolerance. In order to develop socially competent, global citizens and create a peaceful society, religious diversity must be explored in public school classrooms; yet it remains a controversial and seldom addressed topic. Children's…

  13. Healing the Wounds: St. Augustine, Catechesis, and Religious Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    St. Augustine of Hippos' writing on education offers a fresh lens through which the conceptual framework of religious education in the Catholic school can be understood. Recent teaching of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church on the distinctive nature of religious education and catechesis has challenged religious educators to find an alternative…

  14. Pluralism and Religious Harmony in Religious Elites Perspectives in Malang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Sumbulah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in  Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts  and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research  data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same as tolerance, mutual respect, the goal of all religions are the same, and recognize the fact that there are many religions in this world. Second, religiousharmony have meaning as a condition where there is no oppression and domination of one religion over other religions, awakening a deep awareness of diversity, respect for human rights, and the willingness to spread kindness and love for fellow human beings. Third, religious harmony can be achieved through internal efforts to strengthen the faith of each and build awareness to develop a positive attitude towards other religions. In external efforts to create harmony done through emancipatory dialogue and cooperation to resolve humanitarian issues. Fourth, positive attitude that supports the creation of harmony of religions is the willingness and awareness to understand each other and share experiences. Egoism, truth claims, fanaticism, and exclusivism is a negative attitude and expression recognized by the religious elite can interfere with the establishment of inter-religious harmony.

  15. Religious beliefs are factual beliefs: Content does not correlate with context sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Neil Van Leeuwen argues that religious beliefs are not factual beliefs: typically, at least, they are attitudes of a different type. He argues that they exhibit much more sensitivity to context than factual beliefs: outside of contexts in which they are salient, they do not govern behaviour or inference, or provide background assumptions for cognition. This article surveys a large range of data to show that the kind of context sensitivity that Van Leeuwen thinks is the province of religious beliefs does not correlate with belief content. Beliefs about matters of fact beyond the theological realm exhibit this kind of sensitivity too. Conversely, theological and supernatural beliefs often guide behaviour across contexts. It is the intuitiveness of representations across contexts that predicts context (in)sensitivity, and intuitiveness is powerfully influenced by processing fluency. Fluency, in turn, is sensitive to cues that vary across contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution Controversy: A Phenomenon Prompted by the Incompatibility between Science and Religious Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2015-06-01

    The incompatibility between science and the belief in supernatural causation helps us understand why people do not accept evolution. Belief disrupts, distorts, delays, or stops (3Ds + S) the acceptance of scientific evidence. Here we examine the evolution controversy under three predictions of the incompatibility hypothesis. First, chronological-conflict-and-accommodation, which explains the historical re-emergence of antagonism between evolution and religion when advances in science continue to threaten the belief in supernatural causation; in such situations, creationists' rejection of and subsequent partial acceptance of the new scientific discoveries are expected. Second, change in evolution's acceptance as function of educational attainment, which explains the positive association between acceptance of evolution and level of education. And third, change in evolution's acceptance as function of religiosity, which explains the negative association between acceptance of evolution and level of religious beliefs. We rely on an ample assessment of the attitudes toward evolution by highly-educated audiences (i.e. research faculty, educators of prospective teachers, and college students in the United States) to characterize the associations among the understanding of science and evolution, personal religious convictions, and conservative ideology. We emphasize that harmonious coexistence between science and religion is illusory. If co-persisting in society, their relationship will fluctuate from moderate to intense antagonism.

  17. Evolution Controversy: A Phenomenon Prompted by the Incompatibility between Science and Religious Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2016-01-01

    The incompatibility between science and the belief in supernatural causation helps us understand why people do not accept evolution. Belief disrupts, distorts, delays, or stops (3Ds + S) the acceptance of scientific evidence. Here we examine the evolution controversy under three predictions of the incompatibility hypothesis. First, chronological-conflict-and-accommodation, which explains the historical re-emergence of antagonism between evolution and religion when advances in science continue to threaten the belief in supernatural causation; in such situations, creationists’ rejection of and subsequent partial acceptance of the new scientific discoveries are expected. Second, change in evolution's acceptance as function of educational attainment, which explains the positive association between acceptance of evolution and level of education. And third, change in evolution's acceptance as function of religiosity, which explains the negative association between acceptance of evolution and level of religious beliefs. We rely on an ample assessment of the attitudes toward evolution by highly-educated audiences (i.e. research faculty, educators of prospective teachers, and college students in the United States) to characterize the associations among the understanding of science and evolution, personal religious convictions, and conservative ideology. We emphasize that harmonious coexistence between science and religion is illusory. If co-persisting in society, their relationship will fluctuate from moderate to intense antagonism. PMID:26877774

  18. Religiousness and health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    % CI 0.75, 0.98) and depressive symptoms 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93), whereas being religiously educated lowered odds of poor self-rated health (SRH) 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.93) and long-term health problems 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.95). The more religious had lower odds of limitations with activities of daily......Recent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004-2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006-2007), 4 (2011......) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associations. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95...

  19. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kunzman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.

  20. Tourist Evaluation of Religious Buildings in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Maria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article value of sacred objects like a resource for development of cultural and religious tourism is being emphased. It ia being described the current state of religious monuments, their wilingness that in existing conditions be functional factors of tourist offer. For research it is being used: qualitative and quantitative methods with which are being described recognized elements of tourist valorization: tourism-geographical location, ambiance, atractiveness and identity, decoration and equipment of the space in tourist wealth. Then, the segmenta of valorisation are being quantified through evaluation of the most representative religious monuments in Montenegro. With this work, we want to draw attention to the value of this heritage and its ability to relatively easy be recognized as a resource of cultural and religious tourism. It is being wanted to explore which segments of tourist valorization can be improved, so on the base of it and incorporated in a system of a tourist offer.

  1. A Religious Worldview: Protecting One's Meaning System Through Religious Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby

    2015-11-01

    For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Religious and Sacred Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Czasopismo poświęcone poezji religijnej i sakralnej, edukacji, religii, kulturze i wychowaniu. The Periodical is dedicated to religious poetry and sacred poetry, education, religion, culture and upbringing.

  3. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  4. The Belief in the Existence of Supernatural Beings in the Community of Moslem Sundanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan - Kasmana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sunda Muslims today living with modernity in various aspects. In contrast, they are still embedded their minds in the spirits which come from the view of tradition and customs and teachings of Islam. The article discusses the conception of belief in the existence of spirits in today's Sundanese society. Described descriptively, the data is the result of micro-ethnographic research through in-depth interviews of selected informants. In addition to Allah, angels, demons, jinn and qarin (Islamic teachings, there are also spirits whose its existence is regarded as reality, namely the lelembut, the subtle creatures that existed before man including the gods, the devil and the dedemit. And the lelembutan that comes from the human spirit, namely ririwa, and sileman/karuhun. It is believed there are people who can interact for a variety of interests and motives including witchcraft and pesugihan (devil worship. This research provides a new perspective on the identity of Sunda Muslims today, as a basis in mapping the Sundanese with their thinking.

  5. Is Giving Up Traditional Religious Culture Part of the Price to be Paid for Acquiring Higher Education? Adaptation of Academic Western Culture by Jewish Israeli University Students of Middle Eastern Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Peri; Bar-Lev, Mordechai

    1983-01-01

    A study of whether the Middle Eastern student feels that attaining the status of "Western modern man" is incompatible with maintaining a traditional, religious way of life is reported. Some loosening of extreme religious practices was found among college students, but there was no evident revolt against home or tradition. (MSE)

  6. School religious education in a liberating perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Meza Rueda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Religious education in Colombia, according to Law 115 of 1994, is an area of fundamental training. However, its purpose of promoting the religious dimension of human beings and understanding the role of religion in culture is far from being achieved, because, in practice, it is considered as an area of second order, is disjointed from the curriculum and is still working as the “religion lesson” of the past. What to do against this? Could it be another way of thinking about religious education? We estimate that, as presuppositions and motivations of both liberation theology and liberating pedagogy are still valid today, they may provide clues in this respect. Consequently, this paper not only makes a detailed reading of this reality in some official educational institutions in Colombia, but also sheds light for the school religious education (ERE to be liberating.

  7. Religious Freedom Ethic’s Dimensions: Individual vs. Communitarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Oni Ardelean

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vivid debates were encountered in recent years on the subject of religious freedom ethics. The politic correctness attitude became many times a coercion instrument for suppressing the communitarian interests by promoting individual interests, instituting the minority tyranny that reduced to silence the communitarian interests. This might also create a disproportional representation in society for communitarian religious interests. The question is: whose religious interests should prevail? Should there be more guarantees given by the governments for the long existing, larger, and traditional religious groups, compare with the guarantees provided for the newer and smaller religious groups? Those questions provide a glimpse of the existing tension in the society on the subject of religious freedom. The present paper should answer these types of questions, explaining the tension and giving possible answers from a religious freedom normative approach.

  8. The coexistence of natural and supernatural explanations within and across domains and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Justin T A; Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2017-03-01

    People across highly diverse cultural contexts use both natural and supernatural explanations to explain questions of fundamental concern such as death, illness, and human origins. The present study examines the development of explanatory coexistence within and across domains of existential concern in individuals in Tanna, Vanuatu. We examined three age groups: 7- to 12-year-old children, 13- to 18-year-old adolescents, and 19- to 70-year-old adults (N = 72). Within the domain of death, biological and spontaneous explanations were most common across all ages. For illness, children showed the highest rates of explanatory coexistence, while adolescents and adults favoured biological explanations. Within the human origins domain, theistic explanations were most common across the age groups. Overall, these data show that coexistence reasoning in these domains is pervasive across cultures, yet at the same time it is deeply contextually specific, reflecting the nuanced differences in local ecologies and cultural beliefs. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Individuals across highly diverse cultural contexts use both natural and supernatural explanations to understand the events that occur in their lives. Context and cultural input play a large role in determining when and how individuals incorporate natural and supernatural explanations. The development of explanatory coexistence has primarily studied explanations for isolated domains. What does this study add? We examined explanatory coexistence in a culture with recent conversion to Christianity and formal education. The current research examines how individuals reason within and across the domains of human origins, illness, and death. Developmental differences associated with explanatory coexistence are examined. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Bifactor Models of Religious and Spiritual Struggles: Distinct from Religiousness and Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Stauner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS measures important psychological constructs in an underemphasized section of the overlap between religion and well-being. Are religious/spiritual struggles distinct from religiousness, distress, and each other? To test the RSS’ internal discriminant validity, we replicated the original six-factor measurement model across five large samples (N = 5705 and tested the fit of a restricted bifactor model, which supported the mutual viability of multidimensional and unidimensional scoring systems for the RSS. Additionally, we explored a bifactor model with correlated group factors that exhibited optimal fit statistics. This model maintained the correlations among the original factors while extracting a general factor from the RSS. This general factor’s strong correlations with religious participation and belief salience suggested that this factor resembles religiousness itself. Estimating this general factor seemed to improve Demonic and Moral struggles’ independence from religiousness, but did not change any factor’s correlations with neuroticism, depression, anxiety, and stress. These distress factors correlated with most of the independent group factors corresponding to the original dimensions of the RSS, especially Ultimate Meaning and Divine struggles. These analyses demonstrate the discriminant validity of religious/spiritual struggles and the complexity of their relationships with religiousness and distress.

  10. Alcohol use, daily hassles, and religious coping among students at a religiously affiliated college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Kenneth M; Farkas, Kathleen J

    2012-08-01

    This article presents empirical findings which suggest that religious coping moderates the relationship between daily hassles stress and alcohol use among female college students. This study utilized a cross-sectional data collection strategy and convenience sampling to examine the relationship between alcohol use, daily hassles stress, and religious coping among 423 undergraduate students (269 females and 154 males) at a religiously affiliated college in the Midwestern USA. Data were collected in 2008. Instruments utilized for data collection included the Inventory of College Student Recent Life Experiences, the Brief RCOPE, and quantity/frequency measures of alcohol use. Involvement in positive religious coping was significantly related to lower rates of alcohol use. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that among women, positive religious coping moderated the relationship between two types of daily hassles stress (academic alienation and romantic problems) and alcohol use. This study found that among female college students, the relationship between daily hassles stress and alcohol use weakened with increased participation in religious coping. This finding suggests that religious coping may protect against alcohol use among female college students. The results of this study also suggest that it may be important for university-based treatment and prevention practitioners to assess involvement in religious coping practices and to include such practices in the treatment planning process, when culturally appropriate and desired by consumers. Study limitations and areas for further research are also discussed.

  11. Religious dietary rules and the protection of religious freedom: some evidence from practice in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Abu Salem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian system freedom of worship provided by the Constitution is safeguarded by unilateral and contractual norms, sanctioned for minority confessions by an agreement, named intesa, that also concerns dietary issues. Muslim communities, however, as they have no intesa with the Italian state, are always compelled to negotiate in respect of their religious norms. Religious freedom concerns- not only ritual acts, but also behaviours including dietary ones, which are based on religious beliefs. The aim of this paper is to critically reconstruct how Italy takes charge of religiously-motivated needs concerning food and beverages, both for those confessions holding an intesa (such as Hebraism and for those not (Islam, in order to trace the real degree to which freedom of worship is guaranteed in Italy. The analysis will be focused on the bargaining for religious dietary rules in schools and in constraining institutes, as they are main social spaces of confrontation between believers and the state.

  12. Supernatural T cells: genetic modification of T cells for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Michael H; Teng, Michele W L; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K

    2005-12-01

    Immunotherapy is receiving much attention as a means of treating cancer, but complete, durable responses remain rare for most malignancies. The natural immune system seems to have limitations and deficiencies that might affect its ability to control malignant disease. An alternative to relying on endogenous components in the immune repertoire is to generate lymphocytes with abilities that are greater than those of natural T cells, through genetic modification to produce 'supernatural' T cells. This Review describes how such T cells can circumvent many of the barriers that are inherent in the tumour microenvironment while optimizing T-cell specificity, activation, homing and antitumour function.

  13. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui

    2004-01-01

    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  14. Religious characteristics of US women physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, E; Dell, M L; Chopp, R

    1999-12-01

    Physicians' religious attributes are unknown, and may affect patient care. The Women Physicians' Health Study (WPHS) is a random sample (n = 4501 respondents, 59% response rate) of US women physicians aged 30-70; the first large, national study of US women physicians. In this study US women physicians were less likely to be Christian than were other Americans (61.2% of women physicians versus 85.1% of the general population), but were more likely to be Jewish (13.2% vs 2.0%), Buddhist (1.4% vs 0.3%), Hindu (3.9% vs 0.4%), or atheist/agnostic (5.9% vs 0.6%). Protestantism (29.3% of the population) and Catholicism (24.9%) were the most commonly reported religious identities. The strongest religious identity was claimed by Mormons and Seventh Day Adventists. Thus, women physicians' religious beliefs differ from those of the general population in the US. This may be particularly important for physicians practicing with patient populations with different religious affiliations, and in addressing clinical questions with ethical or religious dimensions.

  15. Managing Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: The Inter-Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... pay special attention to this challenge by putting in place innovative structures ... mediation strategy in terms of religious conflict management, prevention ..... Peace Moves towards Resolving Religious Conflicts in Nigeria.

  16. Chancen und Herausforderungen der religiösen Bildung im Lebensraum Schule aus muslimischer Perspektive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Dursun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert – mit dem Hinweis auf die zunehmende Präsenz der herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa – auf dem Argument, dass die islamisch-religiöse Bildung in den Schulen Europas überdacht werden muss und ihr eine entscheidende Rolle zukommt. Neben den herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa wird in diesem Beitrag die Bedeutung des islamischen Religionsunterrichts aus dem Blickwinkel des kontextualisierten Islams beleuchtet. Mittels Fallbeispielen zur religiösen Bildung am religiösen Markt (= religiöse Institutionen außerhalb des Schulraums wird in diesem Beitrag aufgezeigt, dass der islamische Religionsunterricht im Gegensatz zu den religiösen Institutionen keine Monopolkirche sein darf, in der vorwiegend eine Art Volksfrömmigkeit vermittelt wird. Opportunities and Challenges of Religious Education in Schools – A Muslim Perspective This contribution is based on the argument that the role of Islamic religious education at schools should be reconceived in relation to the growing presence of origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe. In addition to the origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe, this paper aims to present the importance of Islamic religious education from the perspective of contextualized Islam. Based on case studies for religious education in the religious market (outside the education area this paper shows that the Islamic religious education cannot offer Church`s monopoly and act like origin-oriented religious institutions to mediate popular piety.

  17. The religious lives of students at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whilst significant research has been conducted on religious affiliation and on general levels of religiosity in the South African context, few studies specifically investigated the religious lives of South African university students in a comprehensive way. This is unfortunate as such research could significantly inform and support the effectiveness of youth and student ministries. As such, this article explored the religious lives of students at a university in the Gauteng province of South Africa, focusing specifically on students’ self-assessed religiosity, the maturity of their religious attitudes, their spiritual well-being, the religious practices in which they engage and the relationship between such practices and their spiritual well-being. Gender, racial and religious differences concerning these variables were also investigated. Data were collected from 356 undergraduate students by means of a structured survey consisting of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire, the Religious Fundamentalism Scale and two other scales aimed at assessing religiosity and religious practices. Results indicated that 98.9% of participants were religious with the majority (86.9% being Christian. Generally, students espoused highly fundamentalist religious attitudes but had high levels of spiritual well-being. Prayer and virtual or in-person attendance of religious gatherings such as church services were the most prevalent religious practices whereas fasting and meditation were practiced least. All practices were positively correlated with students’ spiritual well-being. Based on these findings, the article concludes with several specific, practical recommendations relevant to student ministries and those working with university students in religious contexts.

  18. Confronting, Representing, and Believing Counterintuitive Concepts: Navigating the Natural and the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Harris, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Recent research shows that even preschoolers are skeptical; they frequently reject claims from other people when the claims conflict with their own perceptions and concepts. Yet, despite their skepticism, both children and adults come to believe in a variety of phenomena that defy their first-hand perceptions and intuitive conceptions of the world. In this review, we explore how children and adults acquire such concepts. We describe how a similar developmental process underlies mental representation of both the natural and the supernatural world, and we detail this process for two prominent supernatural counterintuitive ideas-God and the afterlife. In doing so, we highlight the fact that conceptual development does not always move in the direction of greater empirical truth, as described within naturalistic domains. We consider factors that likely help overcome skepticism and, in doing so, promote belief in counterintuitive phenomena. These factors include qualities of the learners, aspects of the context, qualities of the informants, and qualities of the information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Religious Education and Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…

  20. Fearing religious satire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy l...

  1. Religie, Bijbel en geweld

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    belangrijke rol speelt als inspiratiebron van geweld. • Tegelijkertijd is het duidelijk dat religie, zowel binnen het christendom als daarbuiten, als een belangrijke bemiddelende en helende factor functioneert, die mensen helpt met ervaringen van geweld om te gaan. Wat de Bijbel aangaat is er voor deze punten duidelijk een ...

  2. STATE POLICIES ON RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujiburrahman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how Indonesian state manages its religious diversity. The state policies on religious diversity cannot be understood without analyzing the history of how the founding fathers decided to choose Indonesia as neither secular nor Islamic country, but somewhere between the two. The author discusses three topics, namely the recognized religions, Muslim fear of Christianization, and dialogue and inter-religious harmony. Based on the Decree No.1/1965, Confucianism was one of six religions recognized by the state. However, in the Soeharto era, around 1979, this religion was dropped from the list, and only after his fall Confucianism has been rehabilitated, and even the Chinese New Year has been included as one of the national holidays in Indonesia. In terms of Muslim-Christian relations, there were tensions since 1960s, particularly dealt with the issue of the high number of Muslims who converted to Christianity. It was in this situation that in 1967 a newly built Methodist Church in Meulaboh, Aceh, was closed by Muslims, arguing that the Church was a concrete example of the aggressiveness of Christian missions because it was built in a Muslim majority area. Since the Meulaboh case, the Muslims consistently insisted the government to accommodate their four demands: (1 restriction on establishing new places of worship; (2 restriction onreligious propagation, and control of foreign aid for religious institutions; (4 Islamic religion classes should be given to Muslim students studying in Christian schools; (5 inter-religious marriage should not be allowed. Apart from these contested issues, the government and religious leaders have been trying to avoid conflict and to establish cooperation and peace among religious groups in the country through inter-religious dialogues, either organized by the government or sponsored by the leaders of religious groups themselves. The author argues that specific socio-political contexts should be

  3. Race, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and education are associated with gay and bisexual men's religious and spiritual participation and beliefs: Results from the One Thousand Strong cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Jonathan M; Saleh, Lena; Starks, Tyrel; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the rates of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance in addition to the sociodemographic correlates of those factors in a U.S. national cohort of 1,071 racially and ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Descriptive statistics were used to assess levels of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance. Multivariable regressions were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity with four outcome variables: (1) spirituality, (2) religiosity, (3) religious coping, and (4) current religious service attendance. Overall, participants endorsed low levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping, as well as current religious service attendance. Education, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity were associated with differences in endorsement of spirituality and religious beliefs and behaviors among gay and bisexual men. Men without a 4-year college education had significantly higher levels of religiosity and religious coping as well as higher odds of attending religious services than those with a 4-year college education. Gay and bisexual men who endorsed being religiously affiliated had higher levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping as well as higher odds of religious service attendance than those who endorsed being atheist/agnostic. White men had significantly lower levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping compared to Black men. Latino men also endorsed using religious coping significantly less than Black men. The implications of these findings for future research and psychological interventions with gay and bisexual men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Political liberalism and religious claims: Four blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.

  5. Entrepreneurship development in destinations of religious tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction which summarizes the basic guidelines for the development of entrepreneurship in special interest tourism, the author explores the development and application as well as the management of entrepreneurship in religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism. Religious components and motives for visiting shrines as an integral part of human culture and tradition have a strenuous impact on the tourism industry, both on the offering and demanding side. The most visited shrines such as Fatima or Lourdes attract four to eight million visitors per year. Considering the fact that this type of tourism is economically very useful in a particular local environment, many shrines as sites have become centres of religious, commercial and cultural events in certain regions throughout history. Their development was followed by investment in infrastructure, culture, catering and other facilities. The implementation of entrepreneurship is based on various segments that enable the development of religious tourism in a particular area, such as catering industry, hospitality industry, tourist mediation, transportation companies and other complementary activities (agriculture, fishing, wine production, commerce and other services. The author explores the indicators of entrepreneurship development in the field of religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism indicating the possibilities it has on the destination development. The development of special interest tourism should be based on effective investment in tourism offer through entrepreneurial projects (catering and other tourist facilities in accordance with market trends. The investment in tourism offer in the context of religious tourism would result in the growth of religious passengers' consumption as well as the increase in income from religious tourism, and thus the economic development of the sites with religious content. Examples of such shrines in the world are

  6. Knife - Holders in Ancient Egyptian Tombs (Religious and Artistic Study)

    OpenAIRE

    dr.Rasha Omran

    2015-01-01

    Studying ancient Egyptian tombs have long been an important source of information regarding many aspects of Egyptian religion. Walls of New Kingdom tombs are often decorated with plenty of painted religious scenes. While they were primarily private structures containing images selected by the person who expected to be housed there for eternity, the funerary monuments also reflect religious beliefs. While numerous researches focused on many of the religious scenes depicted on the walls of anci...

  7. Rearing Environmental Influences on Religiousness: An Investigation of Adolescent Adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Laura B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-10-01

    Religiousness is widely considered to be a culturally transmitted trait. However, twin studies suggest that religiousness is genetically influenced in adulthood, although largely environmentally influenced in childhood/adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a self-report measure of religiousness in a sample consisting of 284 adoptive families (two adopted adolescent siblings and their rearing parents); 208 biological families (two full biological adolescent siblings and their parents); and 124 mixed families (one adopted and one biological adolescent sibling and their parents). A sibling-family model was fit to the data to estimate genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects on religiousness, as well as cultural transmission and assortative mating effects. Religiousness showed little evidence of heritability and large environmental effects, which did not vary significantly by gender. This finding is consistent with the results of twin studies of religiousness in adolescent and preadolescent samples.

  8. Would the Discovery of ETI Provoke a Religious Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ted

    Noting how some prophets of crisis forecast that traditional religious traditions are vulnerable to challenge if not collapse upon confirmation of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent beings, this chapter subjects this claim to examination. Citing findings from the Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey, we find evidence that those who affirm religious belief have no difficulty affirming the existence of ETI and incorporating ETI into their respective worldviews. This applies to Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, mainline Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, Jews, Mormons, Buddhists, and to those who self-identify as non-religious. Surprisingly, the self-identified non-religious respondents are the only ones who fear a religious crisis precipitated by contact with extraterrestrials, a crisis expected to happen to others but not to themselves. Turning to the new field of Astrotheology, the question of de-centering both geocentrism and anthropocentrism is raised in light of the prospect of discovering intelligent celestial neighbors.

  9. RELIGIOUS DEMOCRATIZATION IN INDONESIA: STRENGTHENING THE PRO-CEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIAL RELIGIOUS DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Hendry AR.

    2013-06-01

    communities as well as the need to revitalize the true Indonesian Islamic model which will be intrinsically familiar with the principles of democracy. Key words: Democracy, religious procedural, substantial democracy, intole­rance, law and system of disobedience.

  10. RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION AND SOCIAL DISTANCE BETWEEN RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyo Pamungkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how political, religious, and economic changes in Yogyakarta affect the formation of religious identity and social distance between different religious groups. The strengthening of religious identity in this area took place in the period of the Diponegoro War (1825-1830 when religious issues were used in the mobilization against the Dutch colonialist. Then, the spread of Christianity in Java at the end of 19th led to several tensions between missionaries and several Islamic organizations, but never developed into communal violence. In 1930s, the relation between religious groups remain harmonious due to the development of tolerant culture and pluralism. During the 1980s, the use of religious identity grew both in urban and rural areas in line with social processes of modernization. Da’wat activities on Campus (Lembaga Dakwah Kampus plays important roles in promoting religious life in urban areas. The 1998 political reform marked the rise of religious fundamentalist movements that to a certain degree contributes to social distance between religious groups.

  11. [A nosology for supernatural phenomena and the construction of the 'possessed' brain in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Valeria Portugal; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind.

  12. Exploring the existential function of religion and supernatural agent beliefs among Christians, Muslims, atheists, and agnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kenneth E; Arndt, Jamie; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein

    2012-10-01

    Building on research suggesting one primary function of religion is the management of death awareness, the present research explored how supernatural beliefs are influenced by the awareness of death, for whom, and how individuals' extant beliefs determine which god(s), if any, are eligible to fulfill that function. In Study 1, death reminders had no effect among Atheists, but enhanced Christians' religiosity, belief in a higher power, and belief in God/Jesus and enhanced denial of Allah and Buddha. Similarly, death reminders increased Muslims' religiosity and belief in a higher power, and led to greater belief in Allah and denial of God/Jesus and Buddha (Study 2). Finally, in Study 3, death reminders motivated Agnostics to increase their religiosity, belief in a higher power, and their faith in God/Jesus, Buddha, and Allah. The studies tested three potential theoretical explanations and were consistent with terror management theory's worldview defense hypothesis. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  13. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results. However, a general concern...... and prayer frequency on the other controlling for unobservable variables using survey data of Danish same-sex twin pairs. We verify the correlation between risk preferences and religion found previously by carrying out cross-sectional analyses. We also show that the association between risk attitudes...

  14. DESTINASI WISATA BUDAYA DAN RELIGI DI CIREBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda Ignatius Besar Hariyanto

    2016-10-01

    ABSTRACT Ministry of Tourism currently focused on the development of tourism, especially tourist destinations, because the tourism sectors expected to become the responsibility of the economies on non-oil sector. The wealth of Indonesia tourist destinations is a culture tourism, natural tourism, and man-made tourism. Indonesia has a cultural diversity that spread to 34 provinces. Each tribe and region has a diversity of different cultures, influenced by geography, region of origin and historical background and religion are different. It is the uniqueness and attractiveness of cultural and religious tourism in Indonesia. Cirebon is one area in West Java has many unique and appeal to be develops into a cultural and religious tourist destination. Previously Cirebon had been a “Jalur Sutra Perdagangan” of various nationalities who came from China, India, Turkey, Persia, and the Middle East, who transit through the port of Cirebon. Thus, eventually occur of acculturation to the natives Cirebon. It is increased the repertoire of cultural diversity which is owned by the people of Cirebon. The palace of Kasepuhan, Kanoman and Kacirebon, Hindu-Buddhist relics, the history entry and the development of Islam in Cirebon, then Cirebon has the potential to be develops into a cultural and religious tourism. This research used qualitative descriptive method with multi-disciplinary approach for reasons of tourism is part of a culture that is very complex. The aim of research got description of tourist destinations and religious possessed by Cirebon. Keywords: Tourist Destination, Culture, Religious

  15. An Islamic Perspective in Managing Religious Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Wani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of “diversity” as mentioned in the Qur’an and how commonalities in diverse religions may be used as a model for civilizational dialogue towards achieving harmony. This study reveals that religious and cultural diversity are laws of nature which cannot be changed while the concept of “identity” is a contested issue in modern discourse. Results also show that peace may be established among diverse religions through their commonalities and the best way to exploit these commonalities and to reduce the religious divide is through civilizational dialogue. The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR and other methods for changing the nature of religious differences and reaching a consensus—thus arriving at a peaceful co-existence—are also discussed. It was found that people are often misguided or divided in the name of religion and culture, despite the fact that the philosophy of every religion is based on peace and harmony.

  16. Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison

    2007-10-01

    The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.

  17. Inter-Religious Dialogue Models in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sabri Wan Yusof

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, many organizations have involved in the implementation of inter-religious dialogue in Malaysia. However, there are stillthose who doubt the role and purpose of interreligious dialogue. This might be due to lack of information and understanding regardingthe methodology of dialogue and also about different types that it may take. The present study is aimed at exploring a few models ofinter-religious dialogue that have been practised by some organizations that actively involved in dialogue. The study focuses on a review of selected organizational or institutional dialoguemodels such as Center for Civilizational Dialogue (CCD, Students Representative Council of Malaysia Science University (HealthCampus and Inter-faith Spiritual Fellowship (INSaF. This study provides information concerning the various designs of inter-religiousdialogue model in Malaysia and proposes that different designs of inter-religious dialogue rely on its different types and goals. It is found that, the commonly practiced type of dialogue in Malaysia is educational type which focuses on exploring inter-religious commonalities as well as differences which consequently willincrease understanding and foster meaningful engagement between people of different ethnic and religious background in Malaysia. Thistype of dialogue is distinguished from conflict resolution types of dialogue which aims at identifying issues and generating action plansto conflicts or disputes.

  18. Religious content of hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystanek, Marek; Krysta, Krzysztof; Klasik, Adam; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2012-09-01

    Different environmental factors are thought to be responsible for 15-20% of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Religion has long been considered a major force in human life, regardless of economic, social or political affiliation. How the perception of religion has changed over time, especially in the context of mental illness, was the focal point of this long-term comparative study. A random selection of 100 case histories from the years 1932, 1952, 1972 and 1992 was selected. By reviewing the subject history and medical notes, information on the presence of religious hallucinations and/or delusions were collected and grouped. Religious topics were demonstrated in 46.8% of the test population. Whereas there was a clear diversity of religious-themed delusions, "God", "Christ", "Mary", "Satan/devil" and "hell" all figured prominently across all reviewed years. There is a progressive decrease in the number of religious topics in paranoid schizophrenia. The transfer of holiness from historical saints onto a subject was observed. Evil dominates over good in productive symptoms in paranoid schizophrenia. The phenomenon of apocalyptic subjects in paranoid hallucinations and delusions increased after the Second World War. Religious topics of hallucinations and delusions change over time and relate to objective historical events and reflect changes in religiosity in society.

  19. Explaining away the body: experiences of supernaturally caused touch and touch on non-hand objects within the rubber hand illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Hohwy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion.A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur.A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically induced temperature changes that occur during the illusion.

  20. Radiodisinfestation of cultural and religious objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    The ionizing radiation treatment of cultural and religious objects to control the arthropod fauna seems to be a non toxic, non contaminant process that, at the radiation dose needed to control the insects and other arthropods, is not detrimental to the objects. Since 1999 CNEA has been working on the radiodisinfestation of cultural and religious objects. The Laboratory of Radiodisinfestation of the Ezeiza Atomic Center has studied musical instruments, books, religious imagery, oil paintings, embalmed animals, bones, tapestry, clothes and sculptures, to identify the contaminant arthropods and to treat them by ionizing radiation at doses between 3 and 5 kGy in the Semi-Industrial Irradiation Plant of the Center. At present, in addition to these activities, the effects of the radiation on paintings are being studied with the Pratt Institute of New York as well as the radiation effects on different types of fabrics with the University of Buenos Aires. (author)

  1. The role of religious leaders in promoting healthy habits in religious institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H; Smith, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    The growing obesity epidemic in the West, in general, and the U.S.A., in particular, is resulting in deteriorating health, premature and avoidable onset of disease, and excessive health care costs. The religious community is not immune to these societal conditions. Changing health behavior in the community requires both input from individuals who possess knowledge and credibility and a receptive audience. One group of individuals who may be uniquely positioned to promote community change but have been virtually ignored in the applied health and consulting psychology literature is religious leaders. These individuals possess extraordinary credibility and influence in promoting healthy behaviors by virtue of their association with time-honored religious traditions and the status which this affords them-as well as their communication skills, powers of persuasion, a weekly (captive) audience, mastery over religious texts that espouse the virtues of healthy living, and the ability to anchor health-related actions and rituals in a person's values and spirituality. This article focuses on ways in which religious leaders might promote healthy habits among their congregants. By addressing matters of health, nutrition, and fitness from the pulpit and in congregational programs, as well as by visibly adopting the tenets of a healthier lifestyle, clergy can deliver an important message regarding the need for healthy living. Through such actions, religious leaders can be effective agents in promoting critical change in these areas.

  2. Inter-religious dialogue in schools: A pedagogical and civic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    learners) should be allowed to engage in inter-religious dialogue as .... Religious leaders study the dogmas, ... All people share certain primordial questions at a ... This leads to the conviction that human behaviour can be perfected through ..... should also have the potential to bind them together as citizens of the same.

  3. The Religious Quest As Transformative Journey: Interspiritual Religious Belonging And The Problem Of Religious Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEntee Rory

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As scholars and the public grope towards understanding emergent forms of religiosity (multiple-religious belonging, spiritual but not religious, interspirituality, notions of discernment, religious depth, and spiritual practice figure prominently in defining and assessing these forms. Some form of commitment to a particular religious tradition is often considered the most important factor in the discernment of religious depth, while “spiritual but not religious” is often seen as the amorphous searching or the drifting whims of an immature ego. I will argue, however, that failing to take into account the most mature forms of emerging religiosity is bound to miss important developments, just as similar methodologies would for traditional religions. Further, I point out problems with correlating religious depth with belonging to a particular religious tradition, and offer an alternate way to conceive of religious depth. In doing so I develop the concept of the religious quest as transformative journey, allowing for a more capacious understanding of religious consciousness. I then introduce interspiritual religious belonging, contrasting it with certain understandings of “multiple-religious” belonging, and providing mature examples of its embodiment. Finally, utilizing new surveys from Pew and PPRI showing accelerating growth among the “spiritual but not religious” and “religiously unaffiliated”-as well as expanding religious and racial diversity within the United States-I briefly reference potential political ramifications the interspiritual movement might have, and address the importance of developing mature theological perspectives from within it. It is my hope that the Theology Without Walls project can provide academic space for the latter.

  4. Is it just a brick wall or a sign from the universe? An fMRI study of supernatural believers and skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani; Raij, Tuukka; Hari, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    We examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain activity of 12 supernatural believers and 11 skeptics who first imagined themselves in critical life situations (e.g. problems in intimate relationships) and then watched emotionally charged pictures of lifeless objects and scenery (e.g. two red cherries bound together). Supernatural believers reported seeing signs of how the situations were going to turn out in the pictures more often than skeptics did. Viewing the pictures activated the same brain regions among all participants (e.g. the left inferior frontal gyrus, IFG). However, the right IFG, previously associated with cognitive inhibition, was activated more strongly in skeptics than in supernatural believers, and its activation was negatively correlated to sign seeing in both participant groups. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on the universal processes that may underlie supernatural beliefs and the role of cognitive inhibition in explaining individual differences in such beliefs.

  5. Religious processes as intercultural interaction: Contours of a sociological discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Sergej

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During 'cyclic' historical periods it would be correct to interpret religious processes in terms of interaction of two essentially different, but substantially, structurally and functionally comparative types of integrating cultural complexes that, in historical perspective, compete with each other on the effect on individuals and society in general. Such complexes represent secular and religious culture. Contemporary socio-cultural situation can be defined as an asymmetric representativeness of both secular and religious cultures. In a modern secular society, dominance of a secular culture over a religious one can be manifested in three basic dimensions: substantial, regulative and subjective ones. Secular culture is adopted during the primary socialization process. However, religious culture is still adopted through conscious, voluntary selection in younger or more mature age. It may be possible to determine two basic attitudes of the contemporary ('secularized' man towards religion. The first attitude may be called 'reversive' and the other one 'conversive'.

  6. Dialogic Space and Religious Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Moate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review hopes to present an alternative model to confessional religious education and the kind of role religion can have in teaching and education. It is framed by the conceptualization of education as simultaneously being and becoming (van Manen 1991, 67. This dichotomous description underlines the challenging tension of balancing present realities with future anticipations, a tension which is perhaps the defining feature of education. In theoretical terms this review draws on sociocultural and dialogic educational research, particularly Rupert Wegerif’s notion of “dialogic space” (Wegerif 2007, 4, and a “Global Education: World Religions” -course recently run as part of the Summer School for Human Sciences at the University of Jyväskylä. The review opens by introducing the pedagogic orientation for the course and a simple cultural model developed within the course. Following this, the guidelines for the development of “dialogic space” are introduced with possible implications for Religious Education concluding the paper.

  7. Is it just a brick wall or a sign from the universe? An fMRI study of supernatural believers and skeptics

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M.; Riekki, Tapani; Raij, Tuukka; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain activity of 12 supernatural believers and 11 skeptics who first imagined themselves in critical life situations (e.g. problems in intimate relationships) and then watched emotionally charged pictures of lifeless objects and scenery (e.g. two red cherries bound together). Supernatural believers reported seeing signs of how the situations were going to turn out in the pictures more often than skeptics did. Viewing the pictures act...

  8. Intersections of gender with religious diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The paper chapter examines the labour market, both private and public, and where different countries draw the lines between the right of the employers and the religious freedom of employees. Starting from an analysis of the debates about the Islamic headscarves, she asks why the labour market...... on headscarves would be direct religious discrimination and indirect gender discrimination of employees. The paper raises general questions about the meanings of and shifts in the framings of gender with religion on different sites on the basis of the European VEIL-project ( http://www.univie.ac.at/veil/Home3...

  9. Religious Beliefs and Environmental Behaviors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of religion in the environment has yet to be empirically investigated in the country with the largest atheist population across the globe. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2013, we examined the effects of religious beliefs on environmental behaviors in China. Dependent variables of private and public environmental behaviors were identified by factor analysis. The estimation revealed a contradictory result that most religious beliefs had negative effects on private environmental behaviors while having positive effects on public environmental behaviors. The findings suggest a religion–politics interactive mechanism to enhance pro-environmental behavior in China.

  10. Komodifikasi Upacara Religi Dalam Pemasaran Pariwisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhyah Ayu Retno Widyastuti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of tourism program is basically done as an effort to support income sources. Policy of tourism is a key factor in its. Facts showed that the policy has not been fully align ed to the local societies. Commodification of religious ceremony is a form of marketing process undertaken to attract tourists. Critical theory approach is used which the implications can be explored through the political economy perspective in the case studies. The results showed that policies of tourism lead to economic political activities in the form of commodification of religious ceremony. Hindu’s communities as an “object” of tourism policy implementation.

  11. The Promise of Mobile Technology for Public Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the history of public religious education in the United States with an eye to its learning outcomes, contexts, and approaches. That history suggests that public religious education is still needed today but that informal learning contexts may be more appropriate than public schools. Recent trends in learning habits are then…

  12. The Effects of Denomination on Religious Socialization for Jewish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony G.; Lester, Ashlie M.; Brooks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transmission model of religious socialization was tested using a sample of American Jewish parents and adolescents. The authors expected that measures of religiousness among parents would be associated with those among their children. Interaction effects of denominational membership were also tested. Data were collected from a sample of 233…

  13. Religious Violence in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences | Iwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religious violence has been responsible for the collapse of many nations in many parts of the world. Responsible manipulation of religion has also been found to be behind the rapid growth and might of some powerful nations today. In Nigeria, experience shows that the incidence of religious violence has become a yearly ...

  14. Does religious identification of South African psychiatrists matter in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. It is not known whether psychiatrists' approach to religious matters in clinical practice reflects their own identification or non-identification with religion or their being active in religious activities. Objective. This question was investigated among South African (SA) psychiatrists and psychiatry registrars, including ...

  15. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  16. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

  17. Why education in public schools should include religious ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Merry, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to open a new line of debate about religion in public schools by focusing on religious ideals. The article begins with an elucidation of the concept ‘religious ideals’ and an explanation of the notion of reasonable pluralism, in order to be able to explore the dangers and positive

  18. The Problem of Evil and Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randolph C.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that children need assistance in dealing with the fundamental questions concerning evil and God. Discusses kinds of evil and God's omnipotence. Urges that the relationship of God to evil be dealt with in religious education so that both children and adults can be adequately prepared to deal with suffering and death. (KO)

  19. Religious Language: Problems and Meaning Emeka Ugwueye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    both religious communal body and life hereafter. Introduction .... often confuses or throws the devil off balance. .... work; only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way” ... Consequently, this solution would argue that god is not good ... make assertions about the world and then challenge us to prove it to be ...

  20. Managing Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: The Inter-Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria with over 150 million people consists of muslims and christians who live across the country. The religious divide in the country crisscrosses more than 250 ethnic groups as well as deep political divisions that cross religious lines. Over the last decade, numerous 'hotspots' around the country have suffered from ...

  1. RELIGIOUS RESPONSES TO GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatib A. Kadir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sociological discussion of globalisation is preoccupied with the political, economic, and military dimension of it, with little attention to its religious aspect. This paper attempts to trace the impacts of globalisation on religion and religious responses, the argument of which derives mainly from the so-called “Bridge-Building Program” organised by CRCS & ICRS-UGM in 2008. It argues that though they share a common concern, people of different faiths are at risk of deepening the problems rather than offering solutions in view of their different responses for which we categorise them into different but overlapping categories -ideological, ambivalent, integrative, exclusive, and imitative. It then leads to a more fundamental question of whether interfaith cooperation is possible given those different and sometime opposing responses. [Dalam kajian sosiologi, diskusi mengenai globalisasi kerap kali semata-mata ditinjau dari sisi politik, enonomi dan militer, sementara dimensi agama sering kali dikesampingkan. Artikel ini membahas dampak globalisasi terhadap agama dan respon komunitas agama terhadap globalisasi. Data yang muncul dalam artikel ini diambil dari sebuah workshop berjudul“Bridge- Building Program.” Melalui artikel ini, saya berpendapat bahwa, meskikomunitas agama-agama memiliki keprihatinan yang sama terhadap dampak globalisasi, namun respon mereka cenderung mempertajam persoalan yang diakibatkan globalisasi, ketimbang memberikan solusi. Respon tersebut dalam dikategorikan –meski tidak kaku- dalam: respon ideologis, ambivalen, integratif, ekslusif dan imitatif. Selanjutnya, artikel juga mengulas pada pertanyaan mendasar mengenai apakah kerjasama antar agama mungkin dilakukan menyimak ragam respon yang saling bertentangan tersebut.

  2. UNDERSTANDING RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDONESIA: Theological, Structural and Cultural Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Salehudin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lately Indonesia is facing a lot of tremendous experience about religious violence. Indonesian Islam which is previously assumed as peaceful religion is suddenly changing to be frightening religion. The destruction in some places such as Bali Bombing, JW Marriot Bombing, and Sampang riot in some places Islam is the trigger of religious violence. This paper discusses the repetition of religious violence in Indonesia especially after New Order era. The writer argues that religious violence in Indonesia is as natural disaster, historical process in human evolution and as close experience that presenting and relating to human history. It may be caused by political condition and the response to economic injustice. In doing so, it is kind of social acceleration toward the process of change and also being a factor of the emergence of new agenda. This is because every disaster, including religious violence, requires an adjustment and a new formulation of the functions that have been damaged.

  3. Unpacking religious affiliation: Exploring associations between Christian children's religious cultural context, God image, and self-esteem across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin I; Crosby, Robert G

    2017-03-01

    In developmental research, religiousness is typically measured with omnibus affiliation or attendance variables that underspecify how the religious cultural contexts and experiences that affiliation represents influence developmental outcomes. This study explores associations between five aspects of a religious cultural context (family religiosity, religious schooling, church-based relationships with peers and adults, and view of God) in 844 seven- to 12-year-old Christian children to examine how they differentially predict self-esteem. Results of a structural equation model (SEM) analysis indicated that God image and peer church relationships directly predicted self-esteem, whereas God image mediated the influence of adult church relationships and family religious practices on self-esteem. A multiple group SEM analysis met the criterion for weak, but not strong, evidence that self-esteem is more related to younger children's adult church relationships but older children's peer church relationships. God image tended to be more related to younger children's family religious practices but older children's adult church relationships. Implications for developmental researchers and practitioners are discussed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious affiliation is an omnibus variable representing multiple contexts of development. Self-esteem is an important outcome variable with different influences across development. Religious affiliation is associated with increased self-esteem. What does this study add? Children's experience in the contexts of religious affiliation influences development differently. It is not just affiliation, but specific religious contexts that influence children's self-esteem. The role of religious contexts in shaping children's self-esteem shifts across development. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Psychosocial mediation of religious coping styles: a study of short-term psychological distress following cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Park, Crystal L; Huang, Bu; Rodgers, Willard; Tice, Terrence N

    2007-06-01

    Although religiousness and religious coping styles are well-documented predictors of well-being, research on the mechanisms through which religious coping styles operate is sparse. This prospective study examined religious coping styles, hope, and social support as pathways of the influence of general religiousness (religious importance and involvement) on the reduced postoperative psychological distress of 309 cardiac patients. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that controlling for preoperative distress, gender, and education, religiousness contributed to positive religious coping, which in turn was associated with less distress via a path fully mediated by the secular factors of social support and hope. Furthermore, negative religious coping styles, although correlated at the bivariate level with preoperative distress but not with religiousness, were associated both directly and indirectly with greater post-operative distress via the same mediators.

  5. Green Fire and Religious Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza-Delay, Randolph

    2000-01-01

    Spirituality, even within traditional religious practices, can inspire environmentally aware lifestyles. To help this "green fire" burn well, experiential educators should acknowledge religious beliefs and practices and avoid perpetuating the modern spiritual-secular rift. A "critical experientialism" is needed when it comes to…

  6. Religiøs omvendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ida Marie; Geertz, Armin W

    2007-01-01

    Selvom religiøs omvendelse har været gennemanalyseret inden for psykologien og socio­logien er det vor opfattelse at den seneste neurovidenskabelige forskning kan kaste nyt lys på emnet. Det er vor påstand at omvendelse drejer sig om religiøse identitetsdannelsesprocesser, hvor der er tale om gru...

  7. Educating American Protestant Religious Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The voluntarism in Protestant theologies and practices has significantly shaped the education of lay and professional Protestant religious educators in networks of voluntary and academic training programs that through the years have emphasized the interdependence of pedagogical, religious/theological, and social science theories and practices.…

  8. Aesthetics of religious authority. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunier, J.T.; de Witte, M.; de Koning, M.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue brings together anthropologists in the field of religion with the aim of exploring the aesthetic dimensions of authority in religious leadership.Taking aesthetics to refer to the range of sensory forms and experiences that shape the relation between religious practitioners and

  9. Phenomenology and the Possibility of Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Ronald L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Work in what has been known as the theological turn in French phenomenology describes the way in which human beings are always, already open to a religious encounter. This paper will focus on Levinas as a proper transcendental phenomenologist as would be characterized by parts of Husserl and Husserl’s last assistant Eugen Fink. What Levinas does in his phenomenology of the face/other (which gets tied up in religious language is to describe an absolute origin out of which the subject arises. This point of origin structures the self in such a way as to always, already be open to that which overflows experience and, thus, makes possible the very experience of an encounter with the numinous. Such an approach to religious experience for which I am arguing simply takes Levinas at his word when he declares “The idea of God is an idea that cannot clarify a human situation. It is the inverse that is true.” (“Transcendence and Height” Understanding the structure of the subject as open to that which cannot be reduced/totalized/ encapsulated is to recognize that the human situation is ready for the possibility of religious experience.

  10. Religious violence: Implications for nation building | Mgbachu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religious violence in Nigeria has devaluated our national economy. Any interested observer of the Nigeria socio-political structure is all too easily aware of the multiplicity of voices and the diversity of cultures within the one nation. Nigeria has one of the highest ethnic nationalities to be found in one single nation in the ...

  11. Laughter, Power, and Motivation in Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Jerome W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the connections among laughter, power, and motivation for religious education by reviewing the history of laughter and four models for laughter. Discusses complexity and the laughter of complexity. Concludes that the laughter of complexity can be a guide towards the appropriate use of power by using intrinsic motivation. (CMK)

  12. Religious affiliation at time of death - Global estimates and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Todd, Megan; Stonawski, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    Religious affiliation influences societal practices regarding death and dying, including palliative care, religiously acceptable health service procedures, funeral rites and beliefs about an afterlife. We aimed to estimate and project religious affiliation at the time of death globally, as this information has been lacking. We compiled data on demographic information and religious affiliation from more than 2500 surveys, registers and censuses covering 198 nations/territories. We present estimates of religious affiliation at the time of death as of 2010, projections up to and including 2060, taking into account trends in mortality, religious conversion, intergenerational transmission of religion, differential fertility, and gross migration flows, by age and sex. We find that Christianity continues to be the most common religion at death, although its share will fall from 37% to 31% of global deaths between 2010 and 2060. The share of individuals identifying as Muslim at the time of death increases from 21% to 24%. The share of religiously unaffiliated will peak at 17% in 2035 followed by a slight decline thereafter. In specific regions, such as Europe, the unaffiliated share will continue to rises from 14% to 21% throughout the period. Religious affiliation at the time of death is changing globally, with distinct regional patterns. This could affect spatial variation in healthcare and social customs relating to death and dying.

  13. Religious ethics, Christianity, and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Syse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708

  14. Cognitive mechanisms for the evolution of religious thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, Sabela; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The reasons behind the cultural persistence of religious beliefs throughout human history and prehistory still generate unanswered questions requiring scientific explanations. Within the framework of the cognitive science of religion, this article reviews experimental evidence supporting human predisposition for religious thinking and focuses on the hypothesis that a reason why religious beliefs are successful is their minimal counterintuitiveness. According to this hypothesis, religious concepts or stories would be characterized by containing only a small number of world-knowledge violations, which attracts attention while improving memorizability. We conclude this review by summarizing recent findings from our group using brain electrical activity and delving further into these questions. Our research suggests parallels between the natural tendency of the human cognitive system to use metaphors and the minimal counterintuitiveness of religious beliefs. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Sex, secularism and religious influence in US politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties.

  16. Religious Experience from a Neuro-Psychological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Vakili

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of  religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of  the present paper mean by the concept of  religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.

  17. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  18. Associations of Religiousness with 12-Month Prevalence of Drug Use and Drug-Related Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that religious affiliation, attendance at religious services, and religious importance would be negatively associated with substance use and sexual behavior related to substance use. An additional hypothesis was tested to determine if age-related differences in the magnitude of these…

  19. "Mixed Blessings": Parental Religiousness, Parenting, and Child Adjustment in Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. Methods: We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and…

  20. IRIB’s Religious and Non-religious Programs and their Impacts on Religiosity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ravadrad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to study the correlation between IRIB’s Religious and Non-religious programs, and the levels of religiosity in Iran. Accordingly, I would firstly explain the key concepts as religious program, non-religious program, religious broadcasting, and Ideological broadcasting; then, analyzing some instant programs, from non-religious to religious, I would attempt to formulize their impacts on one’s definition of religion –either as a private or simultaneously private and public matter. It is shown that in the trilogy of purely religious, purely entertaining, and mediated religious programs, it is the third which satisfy a religious television’s ideal.

  1. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  2. A Being or To Be?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2006-01-01

    Can we find a theoretical framework that could build bridges between different disciplines that broadens our insight into the religious dimension of a human being? In the present paper it is suggested that being should be comprehended as comprising ‘being' in terms of ‘a being' (ein Wesen......) and in terms of ‘being' (sein). Hence ‘being' reflects the person's neurological-physiological aspects as well as her cultural-religious-personal aspects. If this distinction were to be applied to the study of a person suffering from Alzheimer's disease, this would entail that the neurological...... and physiological aspects of the person would be considered along with the psychological and spiritual person encapsulated in the damaged brain and body, as well as her relations towards her environment. It is also emphasized that, if a full explanation of a human (religious) being is to be given, it has to be done...

  3. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollahi Mansoureh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  4. Religiousness and mental health: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira-Almeida Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.

  5. Religiousness and mental health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Koenig, Harold G

    2006-09-01

    The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale) and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness). Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.

  6. Lucebert en de religie: Een oratorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Elst

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the intertextual relations between the poetry of the Dutch poet Lucebert and the Bible. Although Lucebert is by no means a religious poet he freely uses Biblical citations and allusions in his poetry. This has special relevance for one of his newest volumes of poetry entitled Troost de hysterische robot - Gedichten en een oratorium (Console the hysterical robot - Poems and an oratorio. The last part of this title refers to an oratorio - which can be defined as a lyrical-musical drama which usually has a religious substance. The Biblical jargon that Lucebert uses does not only refer to texts but also refers to isolated words or phrases which belong to Biblical or religious jargon in general. In his reflections on human destiny and fate, the poet uses many anchoring texts from the Bible. One comes to the conclusion that Lucebert's poems do not fall within the framework of a religious system, but he does use religion and then especially Biblical allusions to testify to his dissatisfaction with established institutions which include the church. The main stylistic device he uses to reach his objective is antithesis, which is also a topic of discussion in this article.

  7. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Masoomeh Aghamohammadi; Karimollahi, Mansoureh

    2007-06-29

    Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  8. Satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious and religious people: it's practicing one's religion that makes the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Anne; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    According to systematic reviews, religious beliefs and practices are related to higher life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect (Koenig and Larson, 2001). The present research extends previous findings by comparing satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious people, religious people, who practice their religion and people that have a religious affiliation but do not practice their religion. We assessed life satisfaction (SWLS), character strengths (VIA-IS) and the orientations to happiness (OTH) in a sample of N = 20538 participants. People with a religious affiliation that also practice their religion were found to be more satisfied with their life and scored higher on life of meaning than those who do not practice their religion and than non-religious people. Also religious people who practice their religion differed significantly from those who do not practice their religion and non-religious people regarding several character strengths; they scored higher on kindness, love, gratitude, hope, forgiveness, and on spirituality. There were no substantial differences between people who had no religious affiliation and those with a religious affiliation that do not practice their religion (all [Formula: see text]s religious affiliation if they also actively practice their religion.

  9. Religious legal systems: challenges of the modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. В. Лук’янов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of world globalization processes on the development of the religious legal systems has been analyzed in the paper. Globalization processes in the XXI century are regarding individuals, nations, and civilizations. Global transformations lead to qualitative changes in the socio-cultural relations and actualize a wide range of issues which are related to the formation of a new world culture. Modern globalization takes diverse range of public relations in its own orbit. The relationship between the legal systems in the twentieth century is some of the most important aspects of this process. However, the interaction of legal systems has significant differences from the interaction of economies of different countries. There are actual economic relations domination of Western financial and economic institutions and standardization of relevant rules. But the attempts to apply this approach to law lead to resistance to Western standards and the spread of major civilizational conflicts in different parts of the world. Globalization should be based on respect for cultural, religious and legal diversity. It has to ensure preservation of forced “Westernisation”. Significant differences in the impact of globalization on the convergence of legal systems of Western law (Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American and their impact on religious legal systems of Muslim, Hindu and Jewish law must be emphasized. The religious legal systems are not exposed to other systems and the related changes. This is due to such features as the divine nature, increased stability, specific sources of law etc. An important issue that requires further study is the reverse influence which religious law exercises to secularized modern legal system.

  10. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one’s custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family—but not a stepparent family—is positively associa...

  11. The quest for the understanding of Religious Studies: Seeing dragons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious Studies is concerned with studying religion or the absence thereof. The concept of religion has been discussed, disliked and dissected over centuries. Some have predicted the disappearance of religion, others have predicted the changing of location from the public to the private sphere and some even the re-emergence of religion. In trying to determine the place and relations of Religious Studies an understanding of what religion entails is necessary. It is clear that Religious Studies consists of a multiform subject field and a variety of disciplines with a multiplicity of issues, interests and topics together with a wide variety of approaches and methods. Some scholars have described religion as a �saturated phenomenon� trying to indicate how the diversity of elements described as religious came to shroud the true subject matter. All these hindrances on the road to comprehending religion are like dragons preventing one from completing a (holy! quest. This article does not want to provide new answers to an old debate. In this sense this article is not an attempt at slaying the dragons but identifying them. Three issues (dragons are discussed. How religion, the object of Religious Studies, should be viewed? What methods are employed by Religious Studies and the relatedness of Religious Studies to Theology? In the end the article wants to provide direction on how Religious Studies, as academic discipline, can collaborate with research in Theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article discusses the development of the subject of Religious Studies by providing a historic overview of sociological influences on the development. In this sense this article is not an attempt at slaying the dragons but identifying them. Three issues (dragons are discussed: how religion, the object of Religious Studies, should be viewed; what methods are employed by Religious Studies and the relatedness of Religious Studies to

  12. Illness cognitions as a pathway between religiousness and subjective health in chronic cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of illness cognitions as a possible pathway between religiousness and subjective health in chronic illness. A sample of 135 chronic cardiac patients completed questionnaires about intrinsic religiousness, frequency of church service attendance, basic illness cognitions (i.e., helplessness, illness acceptance, perceived benefits), and physical and emotional well-being. According to the results, religiousness was significantly associated with subjective health. However, this relationship was indirect, with helplessness and illness acceptance serving as mediators between intrinsic religiousness and health. This finding is significant for understanding the complex relation of religiousness to chronic patients' well-being.

  13. Technology. Theosophy. Theology: The Religious Character of UFO Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Sinani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the most important factors that have played a role in the emergence and development of UFO religiosity and UFO alternative religious movements, from occult, spiritualist and theosophical teachings, to alternative ideas and debates on the origin of mankind. By analyzing the basic theological premises, the paper discusses the basic religious and culturological paradigms to be found in UFO movements. It also shows how a major part of their corpus can be recognized in existing "traditional" religious groups, and suggests that UFO religions represent just another variation on the numerous concepts that offer answers to key existential questions.

  14. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yoffe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make

  15. Veteran Religious Affiliation by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...

  16. Structural Correlates of School Children's Religious Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Deborah; Kiger, Gary

    1987-01-01

    Determinants of religious prejudice were studied using 101 first, third, and fifth graders from rural and non-rural areas. Awareness of religious differences and living in religiously homogeneous rural areas were directly related to the expression of religious prejudice. Implications for curriculum development are discussed. (SLD)

  17. Network Theory and Religious Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collar, Anna

    Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge......Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge...

  18. Religious pluralism into Lusophony: a question of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete S. Mendes Mónico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.

  19. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  20. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören

    2016-01-01

    (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were......Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho...

  1. BESSARABIAN RELIGIOUS MUSIC OF BYZANTINE TRADITION REFLECTED IN AUTOCHTHONOUS MUSICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBANOI HRISTINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article below presents an overview of the main musicological studies that aim Bessarabian religious music of Byzantine tradition, developed by musicologists from the Republic of Moldova and Romania. The author emphasizes the idea that although the study of Byzantine religious music in the Bessarabian space is carried out by a limited number of people, their research results deserve attention, being of high scientific value. Some of these results are even internationally recognized. At the same time, the author notes that Bessarabian religious music of Byzantine tradition is not sufficiently researched.

  2. Religious diversity, intolerance and civil conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joseph Flavian

    2013-01-01

    We compute new measures of religious diversity and intolerance and study their effects on civil conflict. Using a religion tree that describes the relationship between different religions, we compute measures of religious diversity at three different levels of aggregation. We find that religious diversity is a significant and robust correlate of civil conflict. While religious fractionalization significantly reduces conflict, religious polarization increases it. This is most robust at the sec...

  3. Context-bound Islamic theodicies : the tsunami as supernatural retribution versus natural catastrophe in Southern Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Merli, C.

    2010-01-01

    After the tsunami of 26 December 2004, local discourses in the prevalently Muslim Satun province in Southern Thailand were characterized by religious interpretations of the disaster. The range of Islamic interpretations varied, and was far from homogeneous. Statements are framed in plural theodicies and ultimately impute disasters to human responsibility, in apparent contrast to both scientific explanations and other Islamic tenets. The aim of this article is to present the range of theodicie...

  4. Cognitive "babyness": developmental differences in the power of young children's supernatural thinking to influence positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-09-01

    Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. the role of religious values in extending social protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The religious sector networks' direct financial contribution to welfare, relief and development ..... 18 This statement should be understood within the context that: ..... Transforming the present — Protecting the future: Consolidated report. Preto-.

  6. Exploring the Geography of America's Religious Denominations: A Presbyterian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, Charles A.

    1977-01-01

    The historically sectional nature of the Presbyterian Church is examined as a case study which illustrates how study of the geography of religious groups can be applied at various academic levels. (AV)

  7. Religious Perceptions and Attitudes of Men towards Discontinuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Men's roles in any patriarchal society and the influence of their religious belief cannot be overemphasized especially in a culturally .... East, South West, and South South); educational attainment ... Wealth Status (Poor, Middle and Rich), and.

  8. Religious Involvement and the Use of Mental Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine M; Edlund, Mark J; Larson, Sharon L

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between religious involvement and mental health care use by adults age 18 or older with mental health problems. Methods We used data from the 2001–2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We defined two subgroups with moderate (n=49,902) and serious mental or emotional distress (n=14,548). For each subgroup, we estimated a series of bivariate probit models of past year use of outpatient care and prescription medications using indicators of the frequency of religious service attendance and two measures of the strength and influence of religious beliefs as independent variables. Covariates included common Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, disorders symptoms, substance use and related disorders, self-rated health status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Among those with moderate distress, we found some evidence of a positive relationship between religious service attendance and outpatient mental health care use and of a negative relationship between the importance of religious beliefs and outpatient use. Among those with serious distress, use of outpatient care and medication was more strongly associated with service attendance and with the importance of religious beliefs. By contrast, we found a negative association between outpatient use and the influence of religious beliefs on decisions. Conclusion The positive relationship between religious service participation and service use for those with serious distress suggests that policy initiatives aimed at increasing the timely and appropriate use of mental health care may be able to build upon structures and referral processes that currently exist in many religious organizations. PMID:16584455

  9. Effect of Religious Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Religious Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (3 and 6 months Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Aouchekian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic disorder that strongly affects one's life and social, emotional, and occupational functioning. Due to the effect of religious beliefs on phenomenology of OCD, in this paper, we assess the effectiveness of religious cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT within 3 and 6 months follow-up. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial with follow-ups which last 2 months consisting eight sessions of 1.5 h of religious CBT. The research is conducted in a group of 40, with pre- and post-test after 3 and 6 months. Used Yale-Brown OCD symptom scale, before, the end, after 3 months and after 6 months of intervention. Treatment is carried out by a psychiatrist and a clergyman through religious CBT. The trial is held in OCD clinic affiliated with Noor Hospital. Results are analyzed by ANOVA repeated measure with SPSS18. Results: The results showed a considerable decrease in OCD symptoms which remained almost persistent after 3 and 6 months (F = 3/54. P = 0/024. It also shows that religious CBT can leave substantial effect on OCD symptoms; permanency of this intervention after 3 and 6 months is noticeable (P < 0/001. In Conclusion this therapy could be helpful for OCD patients with religious content. Conclusion: RCBT have a positive effect on people with religious obsessive -compulsive.

  10. Religious ritual contested: anti-religious activities and women’s ritual practice in rural Soviet Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Keinänen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks sought to establish a new atheistic order which would eradicate from the public consciousness all vestiges of "religious prejudices", which were regarded as a residue from the imperial era and an instrument used to exploit the masses. Even though it was generally held that religion would automatically disappear from socialist society when its material precondition, the class society, was abolished, the regime made concentrated efforts to speed up the process by means of virulent anti-religious propaganda. The ultimate goal was to wipe out the persistent remains of the bourgeois system of values. No force was to be used since it was feared this would merely offend the religious sentiments of the people and strengthen their adherence to religion. Theoretically, the ultimate goal was to be achieved through education and information, but in practice, anti-religious activities were at times quite brutal. These attacks were successful in curtailing the activities of religious institutions in Karelia, but did not bring to an end the religious practices of lay people, which were continued, in one form or another, throughout the entire Soviet period. One fundamental reason for the survival of religious rituals, both Christian and indigenous, was the fact that they were so deeply embedded in people's consciousness and intimately integrated with their everyday lives. Every important phase and turn in human life was sanctified by rituals. The goal of the present paper is to examine what forms anti-religious attacks took in Soviet Karelia and how people reacted to them. The focus is on the attacks against the very fundaments of the ritual complex of the church and, by extension, on the effects of these attacks on the indigenous ritual complex, which co-existed in parallel with that of the "official" religious institutions.

  11. The Animal Sacrifice in Religious Rituals or Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Rodrigues Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bibliographical research, this article has the scope of the analysis of the sacrifice of nonhuman animals in religious rituals or beliefs practiced in Brazilian territory. By bringing moral, ethical and legal support, this national reality will be discussed in order to arrive at an answer of which good should be protected and guaranteed: religious freedom or the life of nonhuman animals?

  12. Religious Zionism and Israeli Settlement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    radicals, or they may be acts of terror such as the Tomb of the Patriarchs massacre. C. PROBLEMS AND HYPOTHESES Religious Zionism and its influence on...Jordanian West Bank and Egyptian Gaza Strip. Jordan, in fact, had annexed the West Bank on April 24th, 1950. The almost constant threat of invasion by Arab...of the 1994 Tomb of the Patriarchs massacre and Rabin’s assassination in November of 1995.158 Shimon Peres returned to the premiership for seven

  13. From Religious Diversity to Political Competition: The Differentiation Process of Pentecostalism in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto da Silva Moreira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing religious diversity in Brazil has more to do with a differentiation process within Pentecostalism itself than with the presence of very diverse religious groups. Starting with the analysis of such differentiation process, the article aims to discuss the need of terminological improvement and eventually the necessity of Keynesian rules adopted by the State to regulate ultraliberal religious markets. In unequal societies and religious markets such as those in Brazil, Pentecostal leaders’ greedy attitudes regarding their own adherents and aggressive intolerance against other religions’ followers are coherent with a functionalist religious market conception. In this view, highly aggressive strategies of some Pentecostal churches vis-à-vis other adversaries are seen as belonging to the normal functioning of a (neo-liberal self-regulated social subsystem. Therefore, reflections on religious diversity inspired on a market model assume neoliberal macro conditions (total deregulation and free competition as granted or desirable. Religious diversity would appear as the “natural” consequence of religious competition. However, put in Beckford’s terms, how can religious pluralism be achieved under terrible conditions of religious diversity? Intolerant attitudes of neo-Pentecostal leaders undermine the very bases of democracy and put the discussion on religious diversity and pluralism under new theoretical and political exigencies.

  14. Revivalist movements and religious contracultures in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Pentikäinen

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The religious behavior of the Finns has usually been characterised as an extremely static phenomenon which is further colored by a strong ecclesiastical tradition. This may be seen in that over 92 % of the Finnish population belongs to the Evangelical-Lutheran Church and that the largest religious movements function within this church. This conception seems to receive additional support by the fact that, with the exception of the most recent neo-pietism (uuspietismi organised during the period of the second world war, the main revivalist movements functioning within the church are more than a century old: Knee-praying (rukoilevaisuus from the 18th century, Revivalism (herännäisyys from the transitional period between the 18th and 19th century, Lestadianism (lestadiolaisuus and Evangialism (evankelisuus from the middle of the 19th century.

  15. `... for more and better religious education'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Michael

    1996-04-01

    Mahner and Bunge argue that (1) ‘science and religion are incompatible’, in order to develop their thesis, that (2) ‘a religious education ... is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality’, and that therefore we should only teach our children (3) ‘how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms’, and that (4) ‘religious education should be kept away from public schools ...’ I offer brief comments on each of these strands of their argument. ‘Religionists’, to use Mahner and Bunge's term, generally come from a specific stance so I shall make it clear, from the outset, that these remarks come from a Christian standpoint, even though many of them are much more widely applicable. Although I agree with some of the observations which Mahner and Bunge make, my conclusions are generally opposite to theirs on each of the four points.

  16. Religious Approaches on Business Ethics: Current Situation and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Melé, Domènec

    2015-01-01

    The Business Ethics Movement began in the mid-1970s. For the first two decades philosophical theories were dominant, but in recent years an increasing presence of religious approaches, in both empirical and conceptual research, can be noted, in spite of some objections to the presence of religions in the business ethics field. Empirical research, generally based on psychological and sociological studies, shows the influence of religious faith on several business issues. Conceptual research in...

  17. Radical atheism and religious power: new atheist politics

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart McAnulla

    2012-01-01

    The increased visibility of assertive forms of atheism has provoked much public debate. This article argues that new atheism primarily seeks to contest what it considers to be the unjustifiably powerful role of religion through a multifaceted challenge to religious beliefs, practices and institutions. Influential theories of power are drawn upon to unpack the character of new atheist positions. It is proposed that new atheism seeks to challenge four perceived ‘dimensions‘ of religious power, ...

  18. Classroom research in religious education: The potential of grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rothgangel, Martin; Saup, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common qualitative research strategies in social sciences. Currently, many applications of this theory are being developed for religious education. In the article it is argued that grounded theory deserves special attention for classroom research in religious education. For this reason, the basic features (fundamental openness and concurrence of data collection and analysis; constant comparison and asking analytical questions) as well as the coding strategie...

  19. Religious and cultural legitimacy of bioethics: lessons from Islamic bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Ayman

    2013-11-01

    Islamic religious norms are important for Islamic bioethical deliberations. In Muslim societies religious and cultural norms are sometimes confused but only the former are considered inviolable. I argue that respect for Islamic religious norms is essential for the legitimacy of bioethical standards in the Muslim context. I attribute the legitimating power of these norms, in addition to their purely religious and spiritual underpinnings, to their moral, legal, and communal dimensions. Although diversity within the Islamic ethical tradition defies any reductionist or essentialist reconstruction, legitimacy is secured mainly by approximation of Islamic ethical ideals believed to be inherent in the scriptural texts, rather than by the adoption of particular dogmatic or creedal views. With these characteristics, Islamic (bio) ethics may provide useful insights for comparative ethics and global bioethics.

  20. A Global Perspective on Religious Participation and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning

    2017-09-01

    Although sociological research in the Durkheimian tradition has generally accepted that religious involvement protects against suicide, few studies have examined this theoretical proposition outside Western industrialized settings. Using multilevel models to analyze data from the World Health Organization Mortality Database and the World Values Survey (1981-2007) across 42 countries in seven geographical-cultural regions, this study explores whether religious participation is more protective against suicide in some regions than others and, if so, why. Results indicate that while religious participation is protective in Latin America, eastern Europe, northern Europe, and English-speaking countries, it may aggravate the risk of suicide in East Asia, western Europe, and southern Europe. This regional variation is the result of differences in both the degree of integration/regulation of religious communities and suicide underreporting. Overall, the findings support the network perspective of Durkheim's classical theory and suggest that researchers should be more cautious about suicide underreporting in less industrialized settings.

  1. Religiøsitet i livsformen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter.......Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter....

  2. Religiousness and Levels of Hazardous Alcohol Use: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Peter J; Hardy, Sam A; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S; Schwartz, Seth J; Kim, Su Yeong; Forthun, Larry F; Bersamin, Melina M; Donovan, Roxanne A; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A; Cano, Miguel Ángel

    2015-10-01

    Prior person-centered research has consistently identified a subgroup of highly religious participants that uses significantly less alcohol when compared to the other subgroups. The construct of religious motivation is absent from existing examinations of the nuanced combinations of religiousness dimensions within persons, and alcohol expectancy valuations have yet to be included as outcome variables. Variable-centered approaches have found religious motivation and alcohol expectancy valuations to play a protective role against individuals' hazardous alcohol use. The current study examined latent religiousness profiles and hazardous alcohol use in a large, multisite sample of ethnically diverse college students. The sample consisted of 7412 college students aged 18-25 (M age = 19.77, SD age = 1.61; 75% female; 61% European American). Three latent profiles were derived from measures of religious involvement, salience, and religious motivations: Quest-Intrinsic Religiousness (highest levels of salience, involvement, and quest and intrinsic motivations; lowest level of extrinsic motivation), Moderate Religiousness (intermediate levels of salience, involvement, and motivations) and Extrinsic Religiousness (lowest levels of salience, involvement, and quest and intrinsic motivations; highest level of extrinsic motivation). The Quest-Intrinsic Religiousness profile scored significantly lower on hazardous alcohol use, positive expectancy outcomes, positive expectancy valuations, and negative expectancy valuations, and significantly higher on negative expectancy outcomes, compared to the other two profiles. The Extrinsic and Moderate Religiousness profiles did not differ significantly on positive expectancy outcomes, negative expectancy outcomes, negative expectancy valuations, or hazardous alcohol use. The results advance existing research by demonstrating that the protective influence of religiousness on college students' hazardous alcohol use may involve high levels on

  3. Ludic role of religious rituals. The use of play for religious ceremony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper was made as part of a wider research I made about rituals and their meaning and roles they are playing in the religious system of thinking. The way they are thought, displayed, precisely followed as instructed and believed, makes them a powerful social act that has been always provided by any religion, and also a tool for religion to make the human society what it is today. After I speak about what is a ritual and its religious content in general, I am enumerating roles and functions of play and theatre in particular have, both for profane and religious purpose. Do we still use play/games as adults because they are rewarding, they give us pleasure? They are used as means of relaxation, or for continuing the age of childhood; or it is in our nature to play games in everything we do? In this paper I have emphasized play as adaptive potentiation or adaptive variability useful both in therapy, as in religious ceremony. The relation and comparison of rituals with play is due to the fact that playing is the most engaging behavior performed by man and animals, and it can be found as foundation of almost any ritualist activity.

  4. Listening to Religious Music and Mental Health in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Fang, Qijuan; Mueller, Collin

    2015-12-01

    Research has linked several aspects of religion--including service attendance, prayer, meditation, religious coping strategies, congregational support systems, and relations with God, among others--with positive mental health outcomes among older U.S. adults. This study examines a neglected dimension of religious life: listening to religious music. Two waves of nationally representative data on older U.S. adults were analyzed (n = 1,024). Findings suggest that the frequency of listening to religious music is associated with a decrease in death anxiety and increases in life satisfaction, self-esteem, and a sense of control across the 2 waves of data. In addition, the frequency of listening to gospel music (a specific type of religious music) is associated with a decrease in death anxiety and an increase in a sense of control. These associations are similar for blacks and whites, women and men, and low- and high-socioeconomic status individuals. Religion is an important socioemotional resource that has been linked with desirable mental health outcomes among older U.S. adults. This study shows that listening to religious music may promote psychological well-being in later life. Given that religious music is available to most individuals--even those with health problems or physical limitations that might preclude participation in more formal aspects of religious life--it might be a valuable resource for promoting mental health later in the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Radical atheism and religious power: new atheist politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart McAnulla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased visibility of assertive forms of atheism has provoked much public debate. This article argues that new atheism primarily seeks to contest what it considers to be the unjustifiably powerful role of religion through a multifaceted challenge to religious beliefs, practices and institutions. Influential theories of power are drawn upon to unpack the character of new atheist positions. It is proposed that new atheism seeks to challenge four perceived ‘dimensions‘ of religious power, in particular (i religion’s role in public decision-making; (ii the ability of religious groups to shape policy agendas; (iii the power of religion to create preferences that run counter to an individual’s true interests and, (iv the role of religion in constituting forms of subjectivity more generally. Focussing particularly on the role of atheism in the UK, the paper also considers the implications such thinking has had on atheist practice and activism. The paper also considers how defenders of religion have reacted to the challenges posed by new atheism. It is argued that religious groups and authors have largely focussed on defending the role of religious faith and the significance of God in people’s lives, rather than explicitly defending what new atheists consider to be the unfair institutional privilege accorded to some religious organisations.

  6. Judeo - Igbo traditional religious conception of sin: socio – religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theword sin ismore of a religious termthan ordinary. It is basically an action of defiance. That is, an action through which one deviates from the correct way or through which one misses the mark. This paper looked at how the Jews of theOld andNewTestament periods understood the concept of sin in their society.

  7. Development of Wagle Health-Specific Religiousness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Ann M; Champion, Victoria L; Russell, Kathleen M; Rawl, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    African American women have a lower rate of regular mammography screening, resulting in higher incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer at diagnosis and a lower 5-year survival rate as compared with white women. Researchers have demonstrated that several health beliefs relate to mammography screening in African American women, but little attention has been paid to the importance of religiousness. Although some authors have attempted to determine a link between religiousness and health, we lack a valid and reliable instrument to measure religiousness that can be found in the context of health behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and psychometric testing of the Wagle Health-Specific Religiousness (WHSR) scale, an instrument used to measure religious beliefs and the influence of those beliefs on mammography screening for African American women. A sample of 344 low-income African American women who were nonadherent to mammography at accrual participating in a randomized trial completed the WHSR. Data from this trial were used to determine the validity and reliability of the WHSR. The 19-item WHSR scale had a Cronbach alpha of. 94. Construct validity was supported via factor analysis and analysis of theoretical relationships. Although further testing is warranted, this analysis indicates that the concept of religiousness is an important component of mammography behavior in African American women.

  8. Divine Intersections: Hindu Ritual and the Incorporation of Religious Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathinka Frøystad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article throws the study of multireligious sociality in Western contexts into sharp relief by examining the case of India. Much of the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism tends to assume that religious beliefs, practices and spaces make the respective religious communities close entirely in upon themselves. While this assumption may hold true for most of the Western settings we study, it does not necessarily give an accurate description of the conditions for multireligious sociality in other parts of the world. In India, for instance, religious boundaries still display signs of malleability despite the religious politicization and occasional interreligious violence of the past decades. Drawing on recent anthropological research, this article shows that people of different religious denominations still visit Sufi shrines, that Hindus still incorporate ritual elements and divine beings from the religious traditions of their Others and that they exercise a wide personal choice in terms of spiritual activities, thus enabling spiritual paths that cross in and out of Hinduism. In a Hindu context rituals do not necessarily have an insulating effect; they may also provide points of intersection that open up toward the Other, thus fostering familiarity and recognition. Similar arguments have been made for Buddhist settings. The question is thus whether the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism may entail a certain monotheistic bias that needs to accounted for, something that is of particular importance when theorizing in ways that make universal claims.

  9. Religious commitment, attitudes toward suicide, and suicidal behaviors among college students of different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2014-06-01

    The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths.

  10. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  11. Effects of Personality Traits, Religiousness/ Spirituality on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.

  12. 38 CFR 61.64 - Religious organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... over its internal governance, and it may retain religious terms in its organization's name, select its..., practice and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use direct financial assistance...

  13. Positive and Negative Associations between Adolescents’ Religiousness and Health Behaviors via Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher J.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that self-regulation may be the explanatory mechanism for the relation between religiousness and positive health behaviors. However, different religious motivations have differential effects on a variety of health related outcomes, which may explain the adverse effects of religiousness found in some studies. The current study hypothesized that higher identification as religious motivation would be linked to higher health-promoting behavior and lower health-risk behavior through higher self-regulation, whereas higher introjection would be linked to lower health-promoting behavior and higher health-risk behavior through lower self-regulation. The sample included 220 adolescents (mean age = 15 years, 55% male) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling results supported the hypotheses and indicated that adolescent self-regulation mediated the relations between their religious motivation and health behavior. The findings suggest that different types of religious motivation may be promotive or hindering for adolescents’ health. PMID:27595048

  14. Positive and Negative Associations between Adolescents' Religiousness and Health Behaviors via Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    It has been proposed that self-regulation may be the explanatory mechanism for the relation between religiousness and positive health behaviors. However, different religious motivations have differential effects on a variety of health related outcomes, which may explain the adverse effects of religiousness found in some studies. The current study hypothesized that higher identification as religious motivation would be linked to higher health-promoting behavior and lower health-risk behavior through higher self-regulation, whereas higher introjection would be linked to lower health-promoting behavior and higher health-risk behavior through lower self-regulation. The sample included 220 adolescents (mean age = 15 years, 55% male) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling results supported the hypotheses and indicated that adolescent self-regulation mediated the relations between their religious motivation and health behavior. The findings suggest that different types of religious motivation may be promotive or hindering for adolescents' health.

  15. Religious Tourism in Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonna Marrien U. Asi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed religious tourism in Batangas, Philippines on the following aspects: historical significance, holiness and spirituality, and customs and traditions. The assessments made were also subjected to tests of differences when the respondents are grouped as to either residents or tourists and according to their age, sex, educational attainment and employment. Results show that both tourists and residents generally concurred on all religious tourism indicators presented to them for assessment, although there were also few indicators that had lower mean assessments than the others. While the differences on the assessments made by the different groups of respondents were not statistically significant, the slight differences are still noticeable. In particular, residents had somewhat more favourable assessment than the tourists, older respondents more than the younger, males more than the females, those with higher education more than those with lower education, and government employees more than those who are not in government service. These slight but still noticeable differences, together with religious tourism indicators having lower mean assessments than the others, can serve as bases for making proposals on how to further enrich the religious tourism in Batangas.

  16. Sexual Violence on Religious Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwoerd, James R.; Cheng, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Religious colleges and universities make up a substantial segment of the higher education landscape in North America, but the incidence of sexual violence on these campuses remains understudied. This study estimates the incidence of sexual violence on independent Christian campuses using a sample of part-time and full-time undergraduate students…

  17. Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal that serves as a forum for disseminating research findings on issues relating to religion in general.The Journal aims at creating avenue for scholars to publish their research works on all aspects of religions. It seeks to promote critical research and ...

  18. Women Religious Leaders and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others

    This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…

  19. Grist to the Mill of Anti-Evolutionism: The Failed Strategy of Ruling the Supernatural out of Science by Philosophical Fiat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, Maarten; Blancke, Stefaan; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    According to a widespread philosophical opinion, science is strictly limited to investigating natural causes and putting forth natural explanations. Lacking the tools to evaluate supernatural claims, science must remain studiously neutral on questions of metaphysics. This (self-imposed) stricture, which goes under the name of "methodological…

  20. Tales of the Supernatural: A Selected List of Recordings Made in the United States and Placed in the Archive of Folk Culture. Folk Archive Finding Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcambre, Angie C., Comp.; And Others

    This finding aid is a selected list of supernatural-related narratives recorded in the United States and held in the Archive of Folk Culture of the Library of Congress. Brief descriptions of the recordings are accompanied by identification numbers. Information about listening to or ordering any of the listed recordings is available from the…

  1. Quality of life and religious-spiritual coping in palliative cancer care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiane Dionizio de Sousa Matos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to compare the quality of life and religious-spiritual coping of palliative cancer care patients with a group of healthy participants; assess whether the perceived quality of life is associated with the religious-spiritual coping strategies; identify the clinical and sociodemographic variables related to quality of life and religious-spiritual coping. Method: cross-sectional study involving 96 palliative outpatient care patient at a public hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo and 96 healthy volunteers, using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Brief Religious-Spiritual Coping scale. Results: 192 participants were interviewed who presented good quality of life and high use of Religious-Spiritual Coping. Greater use of negative Religious-Spiritual Coping was found in Group A, as well as lesser physical and psychological wellbeing and quality of life. An association was observed between quality of life scores and Religious-Spiritual Coping (p<0.01 in both groups. Male sex, Catholic religion and the Brief Religious-Spiritual Coping score independently influenced the quality of life scores (p<0.01. Conclusion: both groups presented high quality of life and Religious-Spiritual Coping scores. Male participants who were active Catholics with higher Religious-Spiritual Coping scores presented a better perceived quality of life, suggesting that this coping strategy can be stimulated in palliative care patients.

  2. RELIGIOUS AND MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION: INTRODUCING INTERFAITH DIALOGUE IN THE INDONESIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mariani Noor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Religious education which is taught in schools has a significant role in forming religious exclusivism and inclusivism, especially in Indonesia. It influences student’s views on others. It also depends on the way those religion educations taught. There is also a need to have more efforts to bring the idea of interfaith dialogue into educational system including in higher educational level. There are some educational institutions which already involved in inter-faith dialogue in their curriculum such as the CRCS (Center for Religious and Cross Cultural Studies and the ICRS (Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies at Gadjah Mada University. However, the number of primary educational institutions which involves interfaith dialogue is still limited. This work suggests that, for today’s situation in Indonesian multicultural society, a need for reforming religion education curriculum in primary education is emerging. To make interfaith dialogue real in schools, the Ministry of Education in collaboration with Ministry of Religious Affairs is in a front line to arrange a new curriculum on religious education to be more pluralistic and affirm religious diversity in Indonesia including multi-religious education or inter religious education. Key words: religious, multicultural, education, interfaith.

  3. The Myth of Religious Experience Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangwill Nick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article replies to Manuel Fasko’s “The Demystification of Nick Zangwill’s ‘Myth of Religious Experience’” (2017, showing how author’s argument against the possibility of religious experience presented in “The Myth of Religious Experience” (2004 remains in tact.

  4. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  5. Is Nuclear Deterrence Morally Defensible? Religious Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitre, Emmanuelle

    2016-07-01

    For a few years, the Holy See critics against nuclear weapons and the Vatican's calls in favor of disarmament have been very visible and have led to a new round of analysis and reflection in circles working on strategic issues. This renewed interest, which was in all probability increased by the media coverage generally conferred to Pope Francis, is also linked to the Church's declarations in themselves, which show a slight evolution of its position and a clearer moral condemnation of nuclear deterrence. This focus is also the proof that far from being a purely anecdotal issue reserved to theology experts, the compatibility between nuclear deterrence and religious ethics can have a very concrete impact on strategic realities. In a more direct way, the Pope's message to the Vienna Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons tends to reinforce the credibility and exposure of groups calling for immediate disarmament measures and believing that nuclear-weapon states do not fulfill the commitments taken under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). More deeply, it seems that the religious factor still plays (or something plays again) an important role in the 21. century in terms of geopolitics. In many places in the world, religious speeches are linked to nationalism and used to explain part of the geostrategic interests of nations, but also in a way define their behavior on the world stage. This influence does not spare the seemingly very cold and rational positioning towards nuclear weapons, as seen by the decision in 1998 of the nationalist and Hinduist party BJP to make official the nuclear-weapon status of India or the fatwa of Ayatollah Khamenei forbidding Iran to build a nuclear weapon. Even if in many states, religion plays a less and less important role and is considered a private and personal matter, in others, it remains an essential key to define individual as well as national identity. In that regard, it still participates, with more

  6. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  7. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, M K [US Department of Energy, Idaho Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), Idaho Falls (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  8. Religious Life-Styles and Mental Health: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Allen E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assessed lifestyles of religious college students. Subjects with continuous religious development and mild religious experiences were healthier than those with discontinuous development and intense religious experiences; however, intense religious experiences enhanced adjustment. Religiousness and mental health did not correlate significantly, but…

  9. The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative religious groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P. Pretorius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact that religion generally has on human beings has been suggested by different studies. However, it cannot be assumed that religion always contributes to the well-being of believers. Religious systems can be misused, resulting in people being spiritually and even physically hurt and harmed. This study investigates certain aspects of some alternative religious group in order to determine the impact it has on the well-being of the members of these groups. It was found that people are drawn to these groups because of the challenges they present, the display of true love amongst members and the ‘message’ of an authoritative charismatic leader that resonates with them and convinces them to become part. As time pass, members were challenged with questionable aspects that appear in the activities and teaching of these groups. Obtaining clarity on these concerns was strongly discouraged by the culture and other members of the group, resulting in members suppressing doubts and emotions. Adherence to the tenets of the group then occurred as a result of peer pressure and out of fear instead of true conviction. The study concludes that most of the respondents in the study reported that their experience in these groups did not contribute to their well-being, and emotionally, they struggled to adapt to society and other religious groups after leaving the group.

  10. Pastoral care and religious support as a part of treatment of religious patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care and religious support in hospital treatment of a 73-year-old patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis. Case report. The 73- year-old, highly religious patient with severe form of osteoarthritis was admitted at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, due to heterogeneous problems in the activities of daily living. The patient walked with difficulty using a stick, suffered pain, and was anxious and depressive. In order to objectively demonstrate effects of both pastoral care and religious support in this patient we performed multiple treatment with reversal design, in which the basic treatment consisting of hospital care, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy (the treatment A was alternatively changed with the treatment that included combination of the basic treatment and religious support provided by religious physiatrist and physiotherapist (the treatment B or combination of the basic treatment and pastoral care provided by military priest (the treatment C. The treatment A was applied three times and lasted two weeks, every time. Treatments B and C were applied once and lasted three weeks, each. The order of the treatments was: A→B→A→C→A. During the whole treatment period the patient’s condition was assessed by several measuring scale: the level of depression by The Hamilton Rang Scale for Depression and The Zung Self Rating Depression Scale; the level of anxiety by The Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scale; the functional capability of

  11. Religious communication and hegemony of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.

  12. "The epic love story of Sam and Dean": "Supernatural," queer readings, and the romance of incestuous fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tosenberger

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines incestuous slash fan fiction produced for the CW television series Supernatural. I argue that "Wincest" fan fiction is best understood not as perverse, oppositional resistance to a heterosexual, nonincestuous show, but an expression of readings that are suggested and supported by the text itself. I examine the literary, cultural, and folkloric discourses of incest and queerness invoked by the series, paying special attention to Romanticism, the Gothic, and horror as underliers to those discourses, and how those genres inform both the series and the fan fiction. I discuss a number of Wincest stories in detail, focusing upon how these stories build upon thematic elements within the series. In conclusion, I argue that the most resistive aspect of Wincest fan fiction is that it gives the main characters a lasting happiness that the series eternally defers.

  13. Empirically supported religious and spiritual therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Davis, Don E; Jennings, David J; Gartner, Aubrey L; Hook, Jan P

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the efficacy status of religious and spiritual (R/S) therapies for mental health problems, including treatments for depression, anxiety, unforgiveness, eating disorders, schizophrenia, alcoholism, anger, and marital issues. Religions represented included Christianity, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Some studies incorporated a generic spirituality. Several R/S therapies were found to be helpful for clients, supporting the further use and research on these therapies. There was limited evidence that R/S therapies outperformed established secular therapies, thus the decision to use an R/S therapy may be an issue of client preference and therapist comfort.

  14. Does Adolescents’ Religiousness Moderate Links between Harsh Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher J.; Longo, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents’ psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (N = 220, 45% female) a...

  15. Dark Ages Religious Conflicts and their Literary Representations: The Winter King, by Bernard Cornwell

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Sanz Mingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the religious situation in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries as reflected in Arthurian literature. This reflection usually depicts religious strife which brought a political division between the British kingdoms. This, in turn, provoked the final defeat against the Anglo-Saxons. Four religious creeds will be dealt with: the native Celtic religion and the cults that the Romans brought with them from the Eastern Mediterranean, including Christianity and the mysteries ...

  16. Factors and features of the religious modernization in Taiwan: socio–historical retrospective (part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the religious modernization in Taiwan. It has been concluded by the author that the modernization in traditional societies, as it comes from the analysis of key religious communities of Taiwan, to a limited extent can be implemented by means of traditional religions – Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The modernisation is possible only on the basis of syncretic religious cults, which allow putting rationalist values on the first place together with valu...

  17. Redefining Religious Nones: Lessons from Chinese and Japanese American Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Jeung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.

  18. The neural correlates of religious and nonreligious belief.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Harris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life, little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief at the level of the brain. Nor is it known whether religious believers and nonbelievers differ in how they evaluate statements of fact. Our lab previously has used functional neuroimaging to study belief as a general mode of cognition [1], and others have looked specifically at religious belief [2]. However, no research has compared these two states of mind directly.We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure signal changes in the brains of thirty subjects-fifteen committed Christians and fifteen nonbelievers-as they evaluated the truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions. For both groups, and in both categories of stimuli, belief (judgments of "true" vs judgments of "false" was associated with greater signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area important for self-representation [3], [4], [5], [6], emotional associations [7], reward [8], [9], [10], and goal-driven behavior [11]. This region showed greater signal whether subjects believed statements about God, the Virgin Birth, etc. or statements about ordinary facts. A comparison of both stimulus categories suggests that religious thinking is more associated with brain regions that govern emotion, self-representation, and cognitive conflict, while thinking about ordinary facts is more reliant upon memory retrieval networks.While religious and nonreligious thinking differentially engage broad regions of the frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobes, the difference between belief and disbelief appears to be content-independent. Our study compares religious thinking with ordinary cognition and, as such, constitutes a step toward developing a neuropsychology of religion. However, these findings may also further our understanding of how the brain accepts statements of all kinds to be valid descriptions of the

  19. Religious faith and psychosocial adaptation among stroke patients in Kuwait: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Onutobor; Al-Obaidi, Saud; Reynolds, Frances

    2014-04-01

    Religious faith is central to life for Muslim patients in Kuwait, so it may influence adaptation and rehabilitation. This study explored quantitative associations among religious faith, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction in 40 female stroke patients and explored the influence of religion within stroke rehabilitation through qualitative interviews with 12 health professionals. The quantitative measure of religious faith did not relate to life satisfaction or self-efficacy in stroke patients. However, the health professionals described religious coping as influencing adaptation post-stroke. Fatalistic beliefs were thought to have mixed influences on rehabilitation. Measuring religious faith among Muslims through a standardized scale is debated. The qualitative accounts suggest that religious beliefs need to be acknowledged in stroke rehabilitation in Kuwait.

  20. Science and Faith: Discussing Astronomy Research with Religious Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2006-12-01

    An important component of our outreach as research astronomers involves interaction with the religious community. From my personal perspective, being an active research astronomer who is also a practicing Christian, I am sometimes invited to present the latest astronomical research to church audiences and other religious groups; belonging to both communities thereby provides a valuable means of contributing to the dialogue between science and religion. These opportunities can be used to explain that science and religion are not necessarily in conflict but can be considered to be quite complementary. For instance, an important aspect of religion deals with the purpose of our existence, while science is more focussed on providing physical explanations for what we observe in the world, using a well-defined scientific process. Hence, religious believers need not necessarily abandon their faith in order to accept mainstream scientific research; these address very different and complementary aspects of our existence. Recent ideas such as Intelligent Design attempt to address the scientific method, but do not address the ultimate religious question of purpose and do not contribute towards reconciling science and religion in this sense. Ultimately, every individual arrives at their own understanding of this rather complex interplay; I will present some personal reflections on general approaches for discussing mainstream astronomical research with religious audiences, aimed at helping to advance the dialogue between religion and science in general.

  1. Religious coalition opposes gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1995-05-19

    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  2. Religious Expression or Religious Coercion: Commanders Caught in the Cross-Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ministers as chaplains with a rank of captain and a salary of $20 per month. With this action , the American government officially established the military...leadership and chaplains resulting in Airmen’s insidious harm or ruin? Are they being unconstitutionally raped of religious rights? Are groups like...military’s hierarchal command structure bears careful scrutiny of any potential coercive action created by a commander sharing his or her faith. Military

  3. Examination of the Relationship among Death Anxiety, Spirituality, Religious Orientation and Existential Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Halıcı Kurtulan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations among death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, existential anxiety, and religious tendencies were examined. In addition, this study investigated whether these variables changed with respect to demographic characteristics. The study group was composed of 404 university students. Data was collected by administering the personal demographic form, Death Anxiety Scale, Existential Scale, Religious Tendency Scale, and Spirituality Scale. In line with the purpose of the study, the relational screening model and descriptive methods have been used and participants are identified as study groups. Male participants scored significantly higher than female participants. Gender was not found to have an effect on the other variables. Existential anxiety did not differ within groups with respect to having a religious education. Participants who had received a religious education had higher death anxiety and less spiritual tendencies. Motivation for religious tendencies was found to be external. According to the results, death anxiety and existential anxiety are negatively correlated; existential anxiety and spiritual tendencies are positively correlated; and religious tendencies, which have externally motivations, and spiritual tendencies are negatively correlated. Death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, and religious tendencies predict existential anxiety. As suggestions, the number of studies that examine the associations among existential anxiety, religious tendencies, and spiritual tendencies should be increased, and the quality of religious education should be discussed in detail.

  4. Religious organizations debate nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.

    1984-08-01

    This paper reviews the history of the religious debate on nuclear energy over the last thirty years. In the 1950s, religious statements recognized the peaceful uses of atomic energy as a blessing from God and called upon world leaders to promote its use. Nuclear energy programmes were launched in this decade. In the 1960s, there was still religious approval of nuclear energy, but questions about ethics arose. It was not until the 1970s, after the oil crisis, that serious questioning and criticism of nuclear energy emerged. This was particularly true in the United States, where the majority of statements originated - especially in 1979, the year of the Three Mile Island accident. Around this time, the World Council of Churches developed the concept of the just, participatory and sustainable society. The meaning and use of these terms in the nuclear energy debate is examined. This paper also compares the balanced debate of the World Council with the case against the plutonium economy prepared by the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Three religious statements from the 1980s are examined. A United Church of Canada resolution, critical of nuclear energy, is compared with a favourable report from the Methodist Church in England. Both use similar values: in one case, justice, participation and sustainability; in the other case, concern for others, participation and stewardship. There are not many Catholic statements on nuclear energy. One which is cautious and favourable is examined in detail. It is concluded that the use of concepts of justice, participation and sustainability (or their equivalents) has not clarified the nuclear debate

  5. RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF COMPUTER GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Modern computer games are huge virtual worlds that raisesophisticated social and even religious issues. The “external” aspect of thereligious dimension of computer games focuses on the problem of the polysemanticrelation of world religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) to computer games. The“inner” aspect represents transformation of monotheistic and polytheisticreligions within the virtual worlds in the view of heterogeneity and genredifferentiation of computer games (arcades, acti...

  6. Documentary Media and Religious Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Therese Mäder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.

  7. Modest Reflections on the Term ‘Religious Experience’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre Michael Durham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper urges a reconsideration of the term “religious experience,” as it is presently used in textbooks in the Philosophy of Religion (to which it first refers. The term needs to include not only what might be termed “extraordinary” religious experience (as used in those texts, but the “ordinary” experience of most who practice a religion, and it needs to assess such experience not so much as a “proof” of God (or a “Transcendent Reality”, but rather as a credible witness to what it affirms. The central portion of the paper then investigates how “experience” was used and understood-as a conscious term of analysis-by Plato, Aristotle, and Aquinas. It then argues that this understanding of “experience” can be applied successfully to refer to “religious experience,” whether “ordinary” or “extraordinary”: it argues that such an understanding would fit well any phenomenological description of what most people mean by their “religious experience.” It concludes that there is work to be done both to develop adequate criteria to discern how credible religious experience is, as a witness to its object, and to apply such criteria to major religions.

  8. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  9. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  10. Comparative Theology and Religious Studies in a Non-religious Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Scheuer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.

  11. Does Adolescents’ Religiousness Moderate Links between Harsh Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher J.; Longo, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents’ psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (N = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control. PMID:24979658

  12. Does adolescents' religiousness moderate links between harsh parenting and adolescent substance use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher J; Longo, Gregory S

    2014-12-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents' psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (n = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control.

  13. Peripheral Facial Palsy: Does Patients' Religiousness Matter for the Otorhinolaryngologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; De Rossi, Janaina; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L Granero

    2016-06-01

    In order to deal with the suffering, a frequent strategy employed by patients is the use of religious beliefs and behaviors. Nevertheless, few studies in otorhinolaryngology have investigated this dimension. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the role of religiousness on quality of life, mental health, self-esteem and appearance in 116 patients with peripheral facial palsy (PFP). A cross-sectional, single-center study was carried out between 2010 and 2012 in PFP outpatients. We assessed socio-demographic data, PFP characteristics, depression, anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, appearance and religiosity. A linear regression (adjusted for confounders) was performed to investigate whether religiosity was associated with any outcomes. The present study found that religious attendance, but not other types of religiousness, was related to quality of life and mental health on PFP patients. In addition, ENT patients would like their doctors to ask them about their faith and religion as part of their medical care. These findings give further support to the importance of religious and spiritual beliefs on ENT patients. Otorhinolaryngologists should be aware of the positive and negative aspects of religion and be prepared to address these issues in clinical practice.

  14. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreen, M J

    1991-09-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it by strong anti-paternalists. This weight is sufficient, in their estimation, to justify honouring the patient's refusal. There is thus a tension between the strong anti-paternalist's commitment to the sufficiency of autonomy and our intuitions respecting such cases. Attempts can be made to relieve this tension, such as arguing that patients aren't really rational in the circumstances envisaged, or that other values, such as privacy or bodily integrity, if added to autonomy, are sufficient to justify an anti-paternalistic stance. All such attempts fail, however. But what does not fail is the addition of religious freedom, freedom respecting a patient's religious beliefs and values. Why religious freedom reduces the tension is then explained, and the specialness of religious beliefs and values examined.

  15. The religious message in action - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gothóni

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available We understand a religious message to be the product of a religious movement. In studying such a message, it is very much to the purpose to place it in the context in which it operates. The cultural and social context of a religious message is some religious movement. Hence, the message should be examined against that framework. Each message has a certain structure, and its detection is of prime importance. Messages are not only part of the tradition, but themselves unique in their respective communicative situations. Thus, in our view, structural analysis does not have analytical use-value unless the message's symbols are set into their communicative context. The aim of this paper is dual: On the one hand, we intend to analyze and clarify the structure of a religious message of the Laestadian movement, how the message operates, also how the members of that movement respond to the codes of the message, and what kind of functions it fulfills; on the other, to develop and test an analytical model which would combine structural and interactional analysis.

  16. Perceived religious discrimination as predictor of work engagement, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda van der Walt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although perceived religious discrimination has been studied in the past, much remains unknown about the topic. The focus of this study was the Rastafari religion, because this religious group has up to now been excluded from research studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 80 employees belonging to the Rastafari religion, chosen from organisations in two provinces in South Africa. The findings emanating from the quantitative research study indicated that, on average, the respondents perceived to be discriminated against. Furthermore, a positive relationship was established between perceived religious discrimination and work engagement. These findings advanced the understanding of perceived religious discrimination, and the impact that it may have on work engagement, particularly with reference to the Rastafari religion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse regarding perceived religious discrimination, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion which is a minority religious group in South Africa. Perceived religious discrimination is discussed and investigated in the context of the workplace, and the aim was to establish whether perceived religious discrimination influences work-related attitudes, such as work engagement. Because previous studies have associated perceived discrimination with less job involvement and career satisfaction, fewer career prospects, greater work conflict, lower feelings of power, decreased job prestige, and less organisational citizenship behaviour (Thomas 2008:80, it was expected that perceived religious discrimination would have a negative influence on work engagement. The findings show that religion possibly provides individuals with the necessary personal resources to persevere when faced with religious discrimination, and sustain performance as well as attain success within the context of the

  17. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  18. Abortion for fetal CNS malformations: religious aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2003-08-01

    Abortion is one of the most widely discussed medical-ethical subjects in medical, legal, philosophical, and religious literature as well as in the lay press. There is hardly a religion or country in the world that is not currently concerned about this issue. The complexity of the topic relates to the fact that it deals with a being that is close to us but not identical to us. On the other hand, the fetus is not like a plant or even like a living being in the animal kingdom. Yet the fetus is not a complete and independent human being either. There are strongly opposing philosophical/religious viewpoints on abortion. On the one hand, pro-life groups and the Roman Catholic Church absolutely oppose abortion. They view the fetus as a full and independent human being, with absolute rights equal to those of the mother. According to this view, the right of the fetus to life can never be disregarded, and abortion is viewed as murder. On the other hand, the permissive, feminist, liberal view, emphasizes the basic right of a woman over her body. This right justifies abortion on demand solely dependent on the woman's wishes at any stage of pregnancy and for any reason whatsoever. This view totally ignores the rights of the fetus and views it as a part of the mother's body. This article deals with some aspects of the approaches of various religions to abortion due to fetal indications, in particular the Jewish viewpoint.

  19. Feminism Challenges Religious Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Dimitra A.

    1983-01-01

    Most female theologians agree that the patriarchial symbolism of Western religions functions to oppress and exploit women and has to be transformed to incorporate all humanity. Hopefully female theologians will contribute to a revitalized sense of human worth which will enhance the quality of life for men and women. (SR)

  20. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  1. [Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach's alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.

  2. A Scalar Comparison of Motivations and Expectations of Experience within the Religious Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Olsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic studies on tourism market segmentation have decreased in scale over time, with the focus on tourist segmentation changing from segmenting the market as a whole to segmenting specific tourism niche markets. This change in scale can also be seen in how academics have attempted to segment the religious tourism market moving from discussions related to the pilgrim-tourist dichotomy to segmenting visitors based on religious affiliation to world regions and countries to specific religious activities such as religious festivals and infrastructural amenities such as hotels. In this paper the author, following Wall’s (1997 discussion of the spatial characteristics of tourist attractions (i.e., points, lines, and areas, raises the question as to whether there is a scalar difference in the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of: people who travel to specific religious sites (points; those who travel along religiously - themed routes (lines and; those who travel to the Holy Land (area. To answer this question the author looks at and compares three case studies - Cathedrals in the United Kingdom (point, the Camino de Santiago de Compostela (line, and the Holy Land (area - and summarizes the academic literature pertaining to the characteristics, motivations and expectations of experience of visitors to these locations. Cursory findings show that there are differences regarding the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of people who travel to religious points versus religious lines and religious areas.

  3. »When we enter into my Father's spacecraft«. Cargoistic hopes and millenarian cosmologies in new religious UFO movements

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Grünschloß

    1998-01-01

    Millenarian movements await an imminent, collective and ultimate liberation, usually (but not exclusively)within this world. This liberation implies the founding of a perfect age or pure country or kingdom, and the construction of a Homo Novus. In a similar way, the so-called "Cargo-Cults" of Melanesia or New Guinea relate to a dawning state of material, organisational and spiritual well-being, and the expected abundance of supernaturally acquired supplies can be turned into the central chara...

  4. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  5. When the mosque goes Beethoven: Expressing religious belongings through music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Salzbrunn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article will provide insight on music as a vector of religious belonging: a female choir at a mosque in the Lake Geneva Metropolitan Region has reinterpreted Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with new text about the glory of the Messenger, and a regional political and religious event which has united music from Syria, Kosovo and Tunisia in order to put on stage the cosmopolitan characteristics of Swiss Muslims. Religious and national belonging as well as cultural references can be expressed in different ways through ritual practices (prayer, celebrations, food or clothing. These practices, influenced by gender and age, are highly diverse. Celebrations that are performed in public also depend on the local and global political context, the specific social situation and the specific place (location, public, legal framework etc.. As part of a broader research project on “(Invisible Islam in the city,” a research team directed by Monika Salzbrunn has observed various forms of celebration – both religious and secular festive events – in which Muslim citizens are involved. At what audience are these musical performances directed? Can we really separate an analysis of religious belongings from an analysis of political and/or cultural performances?

  6. Homeostasis and religious behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Uffe

    2007-01-01

    The classic dichotomy between bodily and cognitive processes has survived in scientific thought and can still be seen undiminished in the classic paradigm of the cognitive sciences. Lately, however, the notion of amodal cognitive systems has been challenged by new insights. More and more findings...... from neurobiological and perceptual studies support the assumption that cognitive processes solely rely on the brain's modal activities - even the most complex ones. Discarding amodal systems, however, would have profound effects not only on the cognitive sciences, but also on the broader study...... with the self-regulation and optimization of the organism. Ignoring physiological activities, including homeostatic ones, in the mind's complex cognitive processes is unfortunately a characteristic of classic cognitivist theories, and this negligence, it seems to me, rules out a satisfying and realistic account...

  7. Gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lydia K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States to investigate the effect gender and religiosity has on volunteer behavior in later life. This study looks specifically at the gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life. Accounting for gender and religious differences, more specifically, this study examines the assumption that older women are more likely to volunteer in later life as opposed to men, and that gender is a better predictor than being religious for the likelihood of occupying a volunteer role in later life. This study poses questions about the differences in gender and religiosity associated with volunteering in later life; the results indicate there is more work to be done as we conduct research that is clearer about how volunteerism and religiosity are measured in relation to gender, and the overall impact these differences have for older women and their respective communities.

  8. Religious tourism potential of Gishen Derbe Kerbe Mariam, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermias Kifle Gedecho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to assess religious tourism potential of Gishen Mariam, in Ethiopia. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires, direct/participant observation, informal discussions and by managing secondary data. Categorical, explanatory and descriptive methods of qualitative data analysis techniques were employed for data interpretation. Eleven resources were identified as potential attractions for religious tourism development in the study area. Except for the museum which was under construction, resources such as landscape and scenery, religious festivals, church buildings, history of Gishen Mariam, holy water, the cave of king Lalibela, and the Natural cave were being utilized by and rated as attractive resources by the majority of respondents. Almost all the resources have utilized by domestic tourists alone. The article describes the splendors of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church landscape and argues that this unique spiritual area should be accessible to both international and domestic tourists.

  9. The basis of veterinary verdicts in religious signs and narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Harasi

    2010-08-01

    Nowadays, due to progress in different techniques of treatment, disease prevention, surgery and implication of various facilities in veterinary sciences and today's incidental problems, and considering the determining role of veterinary sciences in providing social health of society and also securing crude different livestock products dimensions, slaughter and various infected problems in slaughter-house and … more and more it seems that one could not be certain and assured or it should have asked religions problems for explanation of the new dimensions, for assuring the consumers to their healthy and hygienic livestock and attracting sufficient trust from point view of religious law. In this study, in addition to research in koranic resources, religious traditions and narratives the opinions of grand religious imitation references in the point of new topic problems will be sought.

  10. A Relational Approach to the Study of Religious Survival Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The article departs from the finding that religious texts and actors relate to other religions as for instance The Old Testament relates to Canaanites, the New Testament to Jews, Pagans etc. A consequence of this inter-relatedness of religion is that religion can be studied as a relational......, a religion can be defined and studied as the result of complex set of dynamic relations, where a central tenet of a religion is that it relates to the significant religious other. As such religion is not a stable phenomenon but embedded in a dynamic historical process, which can explain the difficulties...

  11. Homegrown religious radicalization and the quest for belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    this seemingly religious radicalization, from the point of view of the youngsters, by drawing on a study of young Muslims in religious communities in Copenhagen and combining it with existing blogs, twitter profiles etc. of youngsters sympathizing with Islamic radicalized movements. What are the youngsters...... framework based on a focus on belonging, self-construction and the sense of community will be proposed. The framework will be utilized in an analysis of narratives from youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging...

  12. Religious Values and Conflict of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tonolo

    2016-02-01

    Abstract: The wide evolution of private international law is currently recalling attention to the general aspects of the discipline. Europeanization and globalisation of sources of private international law do not preclude the chance that conflict of laws should also deal with individual identities. To the extent that the European systems have hitherto offered to the application of foreign laws, we are faced with the problem of survival in Europe of an idea of the personality of laws. In fact it’s generally accepted that conflict of laws faces the individual identities of people involved in international relations. Cultural identity may be considered collective and individual at the same time, because each member of the group has an identity of its own. Religious values ontribute to defining the cultural identity of individuals: be it in Europe or other countries, cultures, values, civilization, religion, are never absent from the solutions of personal status. Stepping back from the analysis of some cases where religious values are relevant, this Article aims at a theoretical analysis of the subject, involving the contrast between value pluralism, conflict of laws and fundamental rights.

  13. Religious and Communicative Encumbrances in HIV and AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has however being discovered that the language being used in discussing and communicating the spread of HIV and AIDS is derogatory. It must however, be stated that the analysis of the religious language here is from a Christian perspective This paper is an empirical investigation of what speakers actually say during ...

  14. An Exploration of the Associations Among Multiple Aspects of Religiousness, Body Image, Eating Pathology, and Appearance Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Carol; Henrie, James; Szymanski, Lynda

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of positive and negative aspects of religiousness on eating pathology, body satisfaction, and appearance investment beyond previously established variables (age, BMI, exercise frequency, weight stability, and self-esteem). Data collected from 168 adult females at a Catholic-affiliated university were analyzed using hierarchical linear regressions. As expected, some religiousness variables (spirituality and seeing one's body as having sacred qualities) were associated with eating pathology, body satisfaction, and appearance investment in potentially beneficial ways, and others (negative interaction with one's religious community) were associated in potentially harmful ways. Interestingly, greater religious meaning, or the importance of religion in one's life, was associated with greater eating pathology, and some variables (religious coping, participation in and support from one's religious community) expected to be associated with greater body satisfaction were unrelated. Results are discussed in terms of mechanisms through which the aspects of religiousness may influence body satisfaction, appearance investment, and eating pathology.

  15. Theoretical Views in Inter-religious Dialog in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masjed Jamei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It has almost passed one century from the emergence of the idea of the inter-religious dialog. The idea, being based on the assumption that no religion has the absolute truth, believes that there is the possibility of the dialog between all the existent religions in the social world. The dialog could make the coexistence and peace between the religions possible. The importance of this issue is increasingly growing and different ideas have been presented in the different religion departments worldwide. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution, a new image of Islam was offered to the world. An image whose true exposure made the use of the inter-religious dialog unavoidable. This also caused appearance of different views between the Muslim scholars. This article seeks to provide a presentation of three different approaches to the inter-religious dialog by exploring the works of three eminent scholars in the field; Mohaghegh Damad, Abolhassan Navab and Mohammad Masjed Jamei. These three approaches are:   · Inter-religious dialog as an interaction-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a necessity-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a backgroubd-oriented action    The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Mohaghegh Damad. He emphasizes on the acceptance of other religions. The active action referring to this acceptance is the foundation of this approach. This approach, accepting the developmental discourse in the meaning of inter-religious dialog, believes that this kind of dialog has been evolved from defensive and opposing to a new meaning. Hence, the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning possesses three conditions; the existence of common rights, emphasis on mutual respect and the effort for the two sides for religious exchange. This approach­ assumes that we must first establish a pattern from the current experiences of inter-religious dialogs in order to have an ideal cooperation and to fortify it. Then

  16. Theoretical Views in Inter-religious Dialog in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jafarian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   It has almost passed one century from the emergence of the idea of the inter-religious dialog. The idea, being based on the assumption that no religion has the absolute truth, believes that there is the possibility of the dialog between all the existent religions in the social world. The dialog could make the coexistence and peace between the religions possible. The importance of this issue is increasingly growing and different ideas have been presented in the different religion departments worldwide. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution, a new image of Islam was offered to the world. An image whose true exposure made the use of the inter-religious dialog unavoidable. This also caused appearance of different views between the Muslim scholars. This article seeks to provide a presentation of three different approaches to the inter-religious dialog by exploring the works of three eminent scholars in the field; Mohaghegh Damad, Abolhassan Navab and Mohammad Masjed Jamei. These three approaches are:   · Inter-religious dialog as an interaction-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a necessity-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a backgroubd-oriented action    The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Mohaghegh Damad. He emphasizes on the acceptance of other religions. The active action referring to this acceptance is the foundation of this approach. This approach, accepting the developmental discourse in the meaning of inter-religious dialog, believes that this kind of dialog has been evolved from defensive and opposing to a new meaning. Hence, the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning possesses three conditions; the existence of common rights, emphasis on mutual respect and the effort for the two sides for religious exchange. This approach­ assumes that we must first establish a pattern from the current experiences of inter-religious dialogs in order to have an ideal cooperation and to fortify it

  17. Religious teaching in the school context

    OpenAIRE

    Garutti, Selson; CESUMAR

    2007-01-01

    On 22nd July 1997, the then president of the Brazilian Republic Fernando Henrique Cardoso signed the law no. 9.475/97, concerning religious teaching in schools. That law caused generalized confusion all round Brazil by making facultative religious teaching in schools, and disorganizing even further the already troubled subject “Religious Teaching”. We cannot lose sight of the disorganization installed in the year of 1996 by the confusion introduced by the new National Education Basis Guidelin...

  18. Do religious or spiritual beliefs influence bereavement? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gerhild; Xander, Carola J; Blum, Hubert E; Lutterbach, Johannes; Momm, Felix; Gysels, Marjolein; Higginson, Irene J

    2007-04-01

    Responses to bereavement may be influenced by characteristics such as age or gender, but also by factors like culture and religion. A systematic review was undertaken to assess whether spiritual or religious beliefs alter the process of grief and/or bereavement. Fifteen computerized databases were searched. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Evidence was graded according to the standard grading system of the Clinical Outcomes Group and by the SIGNAL score. In total, 5715 persons were examined: 69% women, 87% white, 83% protestant. Ninety-four percent of studies show some positive effects of religious/spiritual beliefs on bereavement, but there was a great heterogeneity regarding included populations and outcome measurements. Available data do not allow for a definite answer on whether religious/spiritual beliefs effectively influence bereavement as most studies suffer from weaknesses in design and methodological flaws. Further research is needed. Recommendations for further research are given.

  19. PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS OF RELIGIOUS COPING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksiy Kuznetsov

    2018-01-01

    The paper characterizes the adaptation of Assessment of Beliefs and Behaviors in Coping. Its validity and reliability are shown. The scales of religious copings have been studied, namely: “Religion as a source of personal relationship with a higher power”, “Religion as a source of worldview that makes sense of life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of control in life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a s...

  20. Religious culture as a barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2016-01-01

    with their religious and cultural frames of reference? The study uses a case study approach with interviews of ten 13–17-year-old Danish Muslim girls, as well as explorative observations in two football clubs and interviews with five coaches and club leaders. In further developing an analytical model for interpreting...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...

  1. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded....

  2. Means of Harmonization in Religious Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ščukina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Means of harmonization of religious discourse are considered by studying communicational behaviour (verbal and nonverbal between the religion institution and believers. The following factors defining specificity of realization of harmonization in Orthodox and other religious texts are taken into account: the communication channel between the author and the reader, a defining speech genre, the command of language (communication code, and extra-linguistic factors. It is shown that sharing the general social, historical and national experience, as well as a lexical overlapping of actors on both sides of the communication channel are the deciding elements of the harmonization process. The analysis also shows that usage of rational argumentation is more likely to lead to harmonisation in comparison to other rhetoric tools (i. e. affective ones or story-telling. Rational and unemotional sermonic discourse is perceived as a sign of respect (namely, for the listener's intelligence. Another successful and much-applied way seems to be evoking a feeling of equality, unity and/or identity between clerics and their flocks.

  3. The Religious-Sublime in Music, Literature and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes-Aldunate, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to propose the semiotic aspect that produces the ”religious- sublime”. Most of the semiotic characteristics that we use to represent (and produce) the signifiers of the religious-sublime, nevertheless, share their mechanisms with other modalities of ”sublimeness......”. The sublime will be regarded as the representation (in the sense of staging) of a perception. I will propose how the subjective perception – in this case of the divinity - is (re)constructed by the subject in a piece of Spanish Gothic literature, in sacred music and in architecture – the room which houses...

  4. Use of Religious Tracts in the Teaching of an Introductory Course in Persuasive Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Howard

    The use of religious tracts in teaching a course in persuasive communication is described in this paper. Excerpts from a number of tracts are presented to show how religious tracts can be used in teaching about (1) persuasive messages that appeal to fear, (2) the question of ethics in persuasion, (3) appeals to concerns about physiological…

  5. The Introduction of Religious Charter Schools: A Cultural Movement in the Private School Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Marcia J. Harr; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2009-01-01

    Charter schools are opening, and religious associations are also sponsoring these schools since religious groups find private school tuitions to be high and prohibitive. This study includes studies of Tarek ibn Ziyad Academy, a Minnesota Arabic charter school (Blaine and Inver Grove Heights, MN); Ben Gamla Charter School, a Florida English-Hebrew…

  6. Cognitive Dissonance Theory and the Induced-Compliance Paradigm: Concerns for Teaching Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlene P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory and the Induced-Compliance Paradigm pose some interesting questions for those teaching religious studies in publicly funded colleges and universities. Given that religious beliefs can be challenged by the historical-critical study of scriptures, for example, and that the cognitive dissonance generated when this occurs…

  7. Money or Ethics : Multinational corporations and religious organisations operating in an era of corporate responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. van Cranenburgh (Katinka)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIt is a general assumption that Religious Organisations (ROs) are driven by religious beliefs and values, whilst multinational corporations (MNCs) are considered to be concerned about their profits, their share price and their reputation. When ROs invest in capital markets, they

  8. Biology Students' and Teachers' Religious Beliefs and Attitudes towards Theory of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay Kose, Esra

    2010-01-01

    Evolution has not being well addressed in schools partly because it is a controversial topic in religious views. In the present study, it is explored to what extent Turkish secondary school biology teachers and students accommodate the theory of biological evolution with their religious beliefs. Two-hundred fifty secondary school students and…

  9. Debates and diatribes in Milanese religious orders at the time of Boscovich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, F.

    Many religious orders were involved in education at the time of Boscovich, but I thought that it would be useful to focus on the Barnabites and the Jesuits, which were extremely active in Milan in that period. Debates and diatribes among these two religious orders are discussed.

  10. The New Evangelisation and Adult Religious Education in Slovenia: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegu, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    The Catholic Church in Slovenia is facing the challenge of the new evangelisation in the area of religious education which, at present, is mainly confined to the parish catechesis. She recognises the urgent need to pass from the religious education of children to adult catechesis. The latter is already being implemented in various forms by a…

  11. A Conversational Analysis of Developments in Religious Education in Europe and in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Fatih; ter Avest, Ina; Miedema, Siebren; Westerman, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This contribution is focusing on the question: "In what way is the issue of religious education in general and Islamic religious education in particular articulated in Europe and in Turkey, and what can be learned from the respective articulations for the interreligious dialogue?" In the first section, the historical context is presented…

  12. Some Life History Narratives of Religious Education Coordinators in Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymarz, Richard; Belmonte, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to gain a better understanding of religious education coordinators (RECs) in contemporary Catholic schools. This is done by using life history narratives to explore how participants came to be RECs. This study takes place in a wider cultural context that sees strong religious commitment, manifested by taking leadership positions…

  13. Religious Orthodoxy and Minority Prejudice: Casual Relationship of Reflection of Localistic World View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Wade Clark

    1974-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of religious orthodoxy to prejudice against minorities using a world-view perspective. It is argued that both religious belief and intolerance toward minorities are reflections of a localistic world view. An implication that can be drawn is the importance of education in developing a "breadth of perspective."…

  14. Contemporary Religious Conflicts and Religious Education in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chongsuh

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of (South) Korea is a multi-religious society. Naturally, large- or small-scale conflicts arise between religious groups. Moreover, inter-religious troubles related to the educational system, such as educational ideologies, textbook content and forced chapel attendance, have often caused social conflicts. Most of the problems derive…

  15. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  16. Issues On Religious Coexistence Tolerance In Albania 1912-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kalaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The religious tolerance is one of the rarest values of the tradition of the Albanian people. It is widely accepted that Albanian people are well known about these values about an excellent coexistence among the believers of different religious communities that are in Albania mainly Muslims and Christians. In this study we bring the essentials of this phenomenon promotional roots of these values while viewed from a previously untreated point of view and in an attempt to answer the questions Where does it stem from the religious coexistence in Albania What are the main promoters of this phenomenon What has been the attitude of the religious clergy in Albania Have they been and are the imams and priests the promotion of tolerance and religious coexistence in Albania These are some of the questions answered in this modest study focusing on how nice and with how much delicacy the lectures of the Clergy have addressed this issue to the faithful or to the world in general. Since they enjoyed undisputable reputation and influence in the majority of the population in the most critical moments of national history the leaders of Muslims believers not only have promoted tolerance and religious coexistence but they have considered the believers of other faiths as brothers preaching this conviction in front of their Muslim believers. These preachings were firstly begun by VehbiDibra who was the first Chairman of the Muslims and all clerics without exception to this day. Also unforgettable are the sermons of priests like Fr. GjergjFishta Fr. ShtjefnGjeovi or Metropolitan VisarionXhuvani to conclude with pearls of Orthodox priest Fan S. Noli who amazed the world with his three speeches in front of world leaders the League of Nations being representative of all Albanians although Orthodox believers were only 20 of the population.

  17. STRONGMEN AND RELIGIOUS LEADERS IN JAVA: Their Dynamic Relationship in Search of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwar Pribadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamic relationship between Javanese strongmen and religious leaders in search of power. Two groups of strongmen -jago in Central and East Java and jawara in Banten- and religious leaders, such as kyai, tarekat teachers and guru ngaji are the subjects of this discussion. I present two groups of strongmen and religious leaders and sketch how both groups, through their socio-political as well as religious roles, preserve the values of the Javanese and Bantenese. Religious leaders and strongmen have been the source of informal traditional leadership, particularly in villages. Religious leaders have represented leadership in knowledge, while strongmen have represented leadership with regard to braveness and physical magical power. The most visible roles of the strongmen are as power brokers. In the meantime, religious leaders have to be aware of the risk of being alienated and isolated from their horizontal networks within religious circles, but also more importantly, that their high position in society will gradually fade away if they place themselves too close to strongmen and the authorities. Keywords: Jago, jawara, kyai, power relations

  18. Expectations contribute to reduced pain levels during prayer in highly religious participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Vase, Lene; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Terkelsen, Astrid Juhl; Hansen, John; Geertz, Armin W; Roepstorff, Andreas; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2013-08-01

    Although the use of prayer as a religious coping strategy is widespread and often claimed to have positive effects on physical disorders including pain, it has never been tested in a controlled experimental setting whether prayer has a pain relieving effect. Religious beliefs and practices are complex phenomena and the use of prayer may be mediated by general psychological factors known to be related to the pain experience, such as expectations, desire for pain relief, and anxiety. Twenty religious and twenty non-religious healthy volunteers were exposed to painful electrical stimulation during internal prayer to God, a secular contrast condition, and a pain-only control condition. Subjects rated expected pain intensity levels, desire for pain relief, and anxiety before each trial and pain intensity and pain unpleasantness immediately after on mechanical visual analogue scales. Autonomic and cardiovascular measures provided continuous non-invasive objective means for assessing the potential analgesic effects of prayer. Prayer reduced pain intensity by 34 % and pain unpleasantness by 38 % for religious participants, but not for non-religious participants. For religious participants, expectancy and desire predicted 56-64 % of the variance in pain intensity scores, but for non-religious participants, only expectancy was significantly predictive of pain intensity (65-73 %). Conversely, prayer-induced reduction in pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were not followed by autonomic and cardiovascular changes.

  19. The relationship between quality of life and spirituality, religiousness, and personal beliefs of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Henning, Marcus A; Billington, Rex; Hawken, Susan J

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of spirituality, religiousness, and personal beliefs on the quality of life (QOL) of medical students affiliated with a religious faith and those without affiliation. Using a cross-sectional design, 275 medical students (78 % response rate) in their fourth and fifth year of study completed the WHOQOL-BREF quality of life instrument and the WHOQOL-SRPB module for spirituality, religiousness, and personal beliefs. For religious students, a larger range of characteristics of existential beliefs were positively related to quality of life. For all students, hope and optimism and meaning of life predicted higher scores on psychological. For religious and nonreligious medical students, reduced meaning in life and hope were the strongest indicators of psychological distress. Interventions to improve the mental well-being of medical students may be more effective if aimed at teaching students how to find meaning and purpose in their lives and how to foster an enduring sense of hope and optimism.

  20. The Cunning-man, the Parson and the Inquisitor. The Saludadores and the Boundaries of the Supernatural in Baroque Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alejandro CAMPAGNE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a period in which the truth seemed to get confused so easily with the untruth, a new field of battle for the assignment of meanings and the capture of symbols arises in Renaissance and Baroque Spain. It is the mythical complex of the Iberian saludador, a belief that succesfully challenged the most sophisticated thelogical devices —such as the agustinian doctrine on superstition or the discernment of spirits—, which were unable to assign an unequivocal meaning to the myth. As a consequence of this theoretical disability, the mythical complex of the Iberian saludador became an object of dispute, a sensitive space for the tracing of those borders of the supernatural that so intensely obsessed the early modern culture. The most diverse social actors, such as charismatic-healers, rural priests, aspiring saints, and inquisitors, sought to turn the legend of the saludador into another device for the formation of subjectivities, into a cultural tool capable of simultaneously constructing otherness and the proper identity.

  1. God, Can I Tell You Something? The Effect of Religious Coping on the Relationship between Anxiety Over Emotional Expression, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Lucas, Sydnee; Quist, Michelle C; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Lu, Qian

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated whether religious coping would moderate the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms such that the positive relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms would be weaker among those higher in religious coping. Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduates ( M age=23.51 years, SD =6.80; 84.4% female) completed study materials. Contrary to expectations, results revealed a significant interaction between religious coping and AEE such that religious coping exacerbated the relationship between higher AEE and distress symptoms. The implications of this study suggest that religious coping may not be an ideal coping mechanism for individuals with high levels of AEE. These results indicate the need to further examine the role of AEE in religious coping, and have potential implications for clinicians, healthcare professionals, and religious mentors who may promote the use of religious coping in treatment.

  2. Awakening the Erotic in Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejk, Cate

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on exploring and understanding the epistemological significance of eros and the place of the erotic in contemporary religious education. Shows, through concrete examples, how a fully human epistemology makes possible an authentic religious education that promotes both personal and communal transformation. (CAJ)

  3. Religious Education for Political Thinking and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    The curricular accommodation of religious education is almost always dissociated from the latter's political significance and the teaching of religious worldviews is often limited to serving social, (multi)culturalist and epistemological purposes. When RE is made relevant to political identity this occurs strictly within the confines of a liberal…

  4. Reflection on Religiousness and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, K. Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a short clinical vignette in terms of the theoretical concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations, faith development, and transcendence. Also discusses the therapeutic view of a client's religious orientation, faith development, and transcendence in helping to promote constructive change. (Author/MKA)

  5. The effect of income on religiousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2015-01-01

    How does income affect religiousness? Using self-collected survey data, we estimate the effects of income on religious behavior. As a source of exogenous income variation we use a change in the eligibility criteria for a government cash transfer in Ecuador and apply a regression discontinuity

  6. Assessing Students' Spiritual and Religious Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.; Lindholm, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive set of 12 new measures for studying undergraduate students' spiritual and religious development. The three measures of spirituality, four measures of "spiritually related" qualities, and five measures of religiousness demonstrate satisfactory reliability, robustness, and both concurrent and predictive validity.…

  7. Religious Texts as Models of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastfelt, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The chapter analyses the connection between Biblical interpretation and the making of political communities in northern Nigeria in the 20th century. Generally, it studies the use of religious scriptures in developing models of society which can both include and exclude particular religious...

  8. Challenging Christianity: Leo Tolstoy and Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The religious thought of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy is a well documented but often overlooked example of unorthodox Christianity. This paper uses the example of Tolstoy's religious thinking to question the integrity of the current representation of Christianity in UK schools. It also uses Tolstoy's criticism of orthodox Christianity to suggest a…

  9. Religious Choices and Preferences: North Carolina's Baskin Robbins Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Wortham

    2004-01-01

    The marketing of religion has become a big business. Wortham examines the current religious scene and shows that Americans want religious plurality, rather than religious homogamy. Just like shopping for ice cream, Americans want 57 choices when shopping for religion

  10. 28 CFR 548.18 - Observance of religious holy days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.18 Observance of religious... take earned vacation days, or to make up for missed work, or to change work assignments in order to...

  11. Religiousness in times of job insecurity: job demand or resource?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.; van Emmerik, H.; De Cuyper, N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, M.; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact

  12. Religiousness in times of job insecurity : job demand or resource?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.H.J.; Emmerik, van I.J.H.; Cuyper, De N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact

  13. THEORY AND PRAXIS OF RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE Igboin O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    person holds his religious or moral views exclusively as true while regarding opposing others ..... authorship and added that it was sponsored by some Jewish business men. ... This call has deep theological issues that need to be handled with ..... P. Moreland and William L., Craig, Philosophical foundations of a Christian ...

  14. Religious Conflicts and Education in Nigeria: Implications for National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushe, Ushe Mike

    2015-01-01

    The persistent religious conflicts and insecurity in Nigeria has given meaningful Nigerians a cause for deep concern in recent times. Many of them wonder why religion which used to be the cohesive factor and core of national unity, peaceful co-existence and national development has become a tool for political manipulation, violence, destruction of…

  15. Religious perceptions and attitudes of men towards discontinuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Men's roles in any patriarchal society and the influence of their religious belief cannot be overemphasized especially in a culturally encrypted matter like female genital cutting (FGC).The study sample consisted of 8,111 men who had previous awareness of FGC from a cross-sectional nationally representative survey in ...

  16. The Educative Value of Dewey's Religious Attitude for Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey's "religious attitude" has great potential for the educative development of children's spirituality. This is because it enables their spiritual understandings to become more intelligently composed--not just in a cognitive or hyper-rational sense, but as a way of being. This paper provides an outline of Dewey's approach, which is…

  17. Inter-religious dialogue in schools: A pedagogical and civic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social and civic conflict inspired by the fundamental convictions of different religious groups seems to be rife all over the world, also in schools. One way of addressing this problem is to promote interreligious dialogue. To establish the viability of this solution, the authors take several steps. They analyze the phenomenon ...

  18. Religious tolerance and intolerance: ‘Engravings’ on the soul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L. van der Walt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent violent anti-social acts by individuals and groups who feel deeply committed to some or other religious ideal have underscored the importance of the inculcation of religious tolerance in young children for the sake of peaceful coexistence in increasingly diverse and pluralistic communities. The key to such inculcation is education in the most positive sense of the word, i.e. as nurturing, guiding and equipping. Research has shown that some young people are being subjected to a form of negative pedagogy or anti-pedagogy that shapes them to be religiously intolerant. The purpose of this article is to show how education in the most positive sense of the word could be employed to make such etchings on the souls (personalities of young people that would shape them to become cultured and religiously tolerant persons. They could become people with integrity, equipped with life-maps helping them to live peacefully in increasingly diverse and pluralistic societies, able and willing to contribute to their own well-being and also to that of all other people.

  19. Gender and leadership in Christian religious circles in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at the implications of “the conservative practice of having mostly male leadership in Christian religious circles”. There seems to be a vibrant market of spiritualism in Africa (discourses and popular), with women leadership in churches observed and commented on by many, but remains aloof in terms of the ...

  20. Religious Justification, Elitist Outcome: Are Religious Schools Being Used to Avoid Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel Ben Shahar, Tammy; Berger, Eyal

    2018-01-01

    Despite ongoing efforts to promote ethnic, racial and socio-economic integration, segregation continues to challenge education administrators and legal scholars. Privileged parents seeking to avoid integration employ various strategies such as attending private schools or buying houses in neighbourhoods with good school. This paper offers a…

  1. Religious and Ethnic Discrimination: Differential Implications for Social Support Engagement, Civic Involvement, and Political Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Ysseldyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.

  2. Processes linking parents’ and adolescents’ religiousness and adolescent substance use: Monitoring and self-control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents’ and adolescents’ religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45% female) who were interviewed at ages 10–16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents’ religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents’ religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents’ religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes. PMID:23975353

  3. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Andrade Abdala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults.METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE. The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components. The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve = 0.91.RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.

  4. Processes linking parents' and adolescents' religiousness and adolescent substance use: monitoring and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents' and adolescents' religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45 % female) who were interviewed at ages 10-16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents' religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents' religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents' religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes.

  5. The Religious Facebook Experience: Uses and Gratifications of Faith-Based Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jo Brubaker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores why Christians ( N  = 335 use Facebook for religious purposes and the needs engaging with religious content on Facebook gratifies. Individuals who access faith-based content on Facebook were recruited to participate in an online survey through a series of Facebook advertisements. An exploratory factor analysis revealed four primary motivations for accessing religious Facebook content: ministering, spiritual enlightenment, religious information, and entertainment. Along with identifying the uses and gratifications received from engaging with faith-based Facebook content, this research reveals how the frequency of Facebook use, the intensity of Facebook use for religious purposes, and also religiosity predict motivations for accessing this social networking site for faith-based purposes. The data revealed those who frequently use Facebook for posting, liking, commenting, and sharing faith-based content and who are more religious are more likely to minister to others. Frequent use also predicted seeking religious information. The affiliation with like-minded individuals afforded by this medium provides faith-based users with supportive content and communities that motivate the use of Facebook for obtaining spiritual guidance, for accessing religious resources, and for relaxing and being entertained.

  6. THE RELIGIOUS GUIDANCE FOR PROSTITUTE A Descriptive Study at Palimanan Cirebon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murip Yahya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the implementation of religious guidance for prostitute and its influence to Woman Social Institution Silih Asih in Palimanan, Cirebon. It formulated on four research questions: 1 How is the process of religious guidance in Social Institution Silih Asih; 2 What is the participants’s efforts to achieve the goal of religious guidance; 3 How is the material of religious guidance in Social Institution Silih Asih Palimanan; 4 How is the approach and method of religious guidance applied in Social Institution Silih Asih Palimanan to support and achieve the aim of religious guidance. The study used qualitative-naturalistic, research design with descriptive method. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document analysis. The results of the study show that: 1 there were two stages of religious guidance: identification stage and rehabilitation process; 2 the participants were identified by their age, marital status, education background, parents’ job, and reasons of being prostitute; 3 the materials presented on theoretical and natural materials based on Islam thoughts; 4 the religious guidance used various approaches: experience, habituation, emotional, rational, and holistic.

  7. The Relationship between Religious Commitment, Religious Involvement and Empathy with Aggression Among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farhanfar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been done to determine the effect of religious commitment and religious involvement with aggression and as a mediator variable empathy was considered. This is a descriptive - correlational study and the population was all high school students of Isfahan. The sample consisted of 321 high school students that were selected by cluster random multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected using Aggression Questionnaire (Rhine, 2006, Worthington Religious Commitment (2003, Hill and Hood Religious Involvement (1999, David Empathy (1983 and Demographic ascertained Questionnaire. For Statistical Analysis, Correlation Pierson, regression analysis and structural equation method was applied. Achieved results showed that the direct effect of religious commitment on the empathy of 0/07 and the direct effect of religious involvement on empathy: /025, (P≥0/0/1, while the indirect effect of religious commitment on -/0 0231 aggression and indirect effects of religious devotion is an aggression- 54/21 representing the inverse relationship between commitment an inverse relationship between religious commitment and religious involvement by the aggression and Results of structural equation modeling show that the model has appropriate fitting based on fitting indicators (P≥0/0/1. Although, the effect of religious commitment on empathy was not confirmed.

  8. Claiming Luther as a Religious Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Vejrup

    2011-01-01

    heritage and contemporary culture: (1) strong connection; (2) no connection/disconnection; (3) negotiated connection. The conclusions of this analysis provide the foundation for a discussion of civil religion in zones of conflict over religious and cultural identity in a contemporary northern European......The article examines references to a specific religious heritage (Lutheran Christianity) within the debate sections of two national Danish newspapers. The aim of the analysis is to provide empirical data as a background for a discussion of conflicts concerning the connection between religious...... heritage and contemporary society. The themes of the public debate surveyed are identifi ed as related to changes in the religious and cultural landscape in Denmark, such as the presence of Muslim immigrants. Three main discourse packages are identifi ed in relation to the connection between religious...

  9. Delay discounting as a function of intrinsic/extrinsic religiousness, religious fundamentalism, and regular church attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Plumm, Karyn M

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting occurs when the subjective value of an outcome decreases because its delivery is delayed. Previous research has suggested that the rate at which some, but not all, outcomes are discounted varies as a function of regular church attendance. In the present study, 509 participants completed measures of intrinsic religiousness, extrinsic religiousness, religious fundamentalism, and whether they regularly attended church services. They then completed a delay-discounting task involving five outcomes. Although religiousness was not a significant predictor of discounting for all outcomes, participants scoring high in intrinsic religiousness tended to display less delay discounting than participants scoring low. Likewise, participants scoring high in religious fundamentalism tended to display more delay discounting than participants scoring low. These results partially replicate previous ones in showing that the process of discounting may vary as a function of religiousness. The results also provide some direction for those interested in altering how individuals discount.

  10. Three religious rules of nonlinear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The theory of strong turbulence is a part of nonlinear physics. The three open-quotes religious rulesclose quotes of nonlinear physics present a heuristic viewpoint that can be used to qualitatively predict the evolution of nonlinear systems. These rules are as follows. (1) The basic results can be obtained from the conservation laws. If some kind of process is not forbidden by these laws, it generally occurs. If it doesn't this means that another conserved quantity imposing the constraint is being missed. (2) The universal law of open-quotes 20/80close quotes takes place: 20% of people drink 80% of beer. In other words, interesting processes usually take place in localized structures occupying a small share of volume. The localized structures interact weakly and therefore maintain their identity. For this reason they are universal and can be investigated. (3) The open-quotes general situationclose quotes is nonintegrable. The special case of exact solutions in integrable models represent a degenerate (nontypical) behavior. Particular exact solutions cannot be taken as representative solutions unless they are attractors. The presence of attractors simplifies the analysis and clarifies the situation. In plasma physics one deals with infinite-dimensional (PDE) systems distributed in space. The application of the religious rules 1 and 2 then leads to the following. If the conservation laws do not prohibit the development of singularities they do occur. If the singularities are prohibited, then stable localized structures take place. Solitons (or solitary waves) and vortices are examples of such stable structures. Wave collapse, wave-breaking, shock waves, magnetic reconnection and singularities in ideal Euler liquid are the examples of singularities. According to rule 3, exact solutions are very essential if they are attractors in some sense. Analysis of this problem is presented for solitons in nonintegrable wave systems and 2D vortices

  11. Self-Representation and Cultural Expectations: Yogi Chen and Religious Practices of Life-Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Explores the differences in self-representation as found in the autobiographical writings of Yogi Chen, Billy Graham, and the Dalai Lama. While the latter two are widely recognized in American popular religious culture, the former is virtually invisible outside the immigrant Chinese American community. This invisibility is consistent with fact that the religious praxes of immigrant communities remain largely under-studied. However, one additional factor appears to be the mismatch between the expectations of the dominant religious culture and the immigrant culture in terms of the ways in which religious leaders represent themselves. Both Billy Graham and the Dalai Lama present themselves in very humble terms, consistent with the expectations of the Pietist background to American popular religion. Yogi Chen on the contrary tends toward a self-aggrandizing style, which although consistent with the competitive nature of premodern Tibetan religious culture is not congruent with the expectations of American popular religion.

  12. Comparative Theology: An Alternative to Religious Studies or Theology of Religions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül AVCI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between Comparative Theology, Religious Studies and Theology of Religions and questions whether Comparative Theology is an alternative to the last two. Comparative Theology, a faith seeking understanding practice, may be viewed as an alternative to the Enlightenment ideal of Religious Studies, which seeks “impartiality” and “scientific objectivity” in contrast to Comparative Theology’s enquiry into “truth” and “meaning.” I suggest, however, that the comparative method employed by both Religious Studies and Comparative Theology is not a neutral space. Hence, the new comparativism in Religious Studies reinstates its search for understanding and its political stand, which blurs the boundaries between Comparative Theology and Religious Studies. Likewise, while Comparative Theology is distinct from the Theology of Religions, it does not pose an alternative to it because Comparative Theology, too, often embodies either a pluralist or an inclusivist approach.

  13. The Role of Divine Revelation and Religious Teachings in Human Rights System: Security and Global Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghayyoum Zadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Peace and security have always been considered as one of man’s concerns. The basis of peace and security should be sought in the theoretical foundations. However, the drafters of universal human rights have struggled to attain peace and security away from religious principles. The present article intends to introduce universal human rights in the light of religious teachings and elaborate on the related religious principles. It also deals with the distinctions between the principles governing the present world with regard to human rights and religious principles to show that if religious principles are seriously followed in the international relations, they will bring about perpetual peace and security for mankind. Therefore, Religion has a unique role in peace and security.

  14. Buying an Afterlife: Mapping the Social Impact of Religious Beliefs through Consumer Death Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candi K. Cann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choosing to have a body embalmed, the choice of interment locations and type, including the selection of a particular casket, are all deeply intertwined with various understandings of the afterlife, and views of the body after death. Consumer choices in these cases are often determined by imagined embodiment, and are determined in part by non-rational consumer choices based on religious upbringing and belief. In turn, diasporic and religious identity can be reinforced and solidified through consumer choices that then fulfill religious imaginations of post-death embodiment. This article traces the relationship of two consumer death goods—embalming and caskets—in the contemporary United States, examining both the implicit and explicit relationships these products have with religious worldviews, mapping the social impact of religious beliefs on consumer death choices.

  15. Religious culture as a barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2016-01-01

    Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... barrier to participation in sports among Muslim girls and women. This article aims to provide a counter-narrative by focusing on young Muslim girls who simultaneously practice their religion and sports. The main research question was: How do young Danish Muslim girls align participation in sports...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...

  16. The case of the religious network group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R

    1999-01-01

    GenCorp, a Connecticut-based paper-goods manufacturer, has long supported employee-organized network groups. Its social support group for African-Americans, in fact, has been a particular success, having provided black employees with opportunities to further enhance their careers and helped the company retain top talent, meet its EEO goals, and gain favorable publicity. So when Alice Lawrence, a top accountant at GenCorp, called general manager Bill Thompson about the Christian network group being organized in one of the company's southern plants, Bill hardly flinched. After all, the Christian group was being organized by Russell Kramer, one of the company's most effective plant managers. What could be the problem there? But a couple of years ago, Alice noted, Russell had sent around a companywide letter that talked about the sinful nature of homosexuality. And that letter has made her and other gay and lesbian employees terribly uneasy. To complicate matters, the issue of "Christian rights" in the workplace was being widely discussed on radio talk shows, and several books on the topic had recently been published. An employee had even called the new region's head of human resources to get clarification on the topic. Up until now, GenCorp hadn't placed a lot of restrictions on network groups. But the emergence of a religious group was raising new questions for GenCorp's managers. Should the company accept religious groups or try to stop them? What policy, if any, should GenCorp adopt toward these network groups? Five experts comment on this fictional case study.

  17. Adolescents Who are Less Religious than Their Parents are at Risk for Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Parents generally take pains to insure that their children adopt their own religious beliefs and practices, so what happens psychologically to adolescents who find themselves less religious than their parents? We examined the relationships among parents’ and adolescents’ religiousness, adolescents’ ratings of parent-adolescent relationship quality, and adolescents’ psychological adjustment using data from 322 adolescents and their parents. Adolescent boys who had lower organizational and personal religiousness than their parents, and girls who had lower personal religiousness than their parents, had more internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms than did adolescents whose religiousness better matched their parents’. The apparent effects of sub-parental religiousness on adolescents’ psychological symptoms were mediated by their intermediate effects on adolescents’ ratings of the quality of their relationships with their parents. These findings identify religious discrepancies between parents and their children as an important influence on the quality of parent-adolescent relationships, with important implications for adolescents’ psychological well-being. PMID:22888785

  18. From Cloister to Commons: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Religious Studies. AAHE's Series on Service-Learning in the Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Richard, Ed.; Favazza, Joseph A., Ed.; McLain, F. Michael, Ed.

    This essays in this volume, 19th in a series, discuss why and how service-learning can be implemented in Religious Studies and what that discipline contributes to the pedagogy of service-learning. Part 1, "Service-Learning and the Dilemma of Religious Studies," contains: (1) "Service-Learning and the Dilemma of Religious Studies: Descriptive or…

  19. Saint Agatha Religious Festival in Catania: Stakeholders’ Functions and Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Cannizzaro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop an explorative analysis of the functions and relations among actors involved in the organization and implementation of the Saint Agatha Religious Festival in Catania attracting nearly one million presences during the first week of February. The research is based on the survey of different sources of information, such as literature, news, media, and deep interviews with key informants pertaining to civil and religious institutions. The survey is designed to profile the Festival in terms of history, the character of the stakeholders, size, origin of assets, venues used, decision-making structure, and programs. The Festival’s use of volunteers and sponsors is specifically addressed. Empirical research sketches the network of stakeholders, the relationship between organizations, the importance of local social actors and strategies in enhancing local culture and sustainable tourism, regarding, in particular, the socio-cultural impacts of religious tourism. The local society has historical peculiarities which impose prudential considerations in generalizing about findings, and a comparative study with other Sicilian and/or Italian religious festivals will be important, mainly in order to delineate the actual sustainability of Festivals. The framework developed in this study can be helpful in the application of local social policies and also help comparative festival studies.

  20. Spirituality and Religiousness are Associated With Fewer Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucette, Aurelie; Ironson, Gail; Pargament, Kenneth I; Krause, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of depressive symptoms among adults diagnosed with chronic health issues has been largely documented. Research is needed to clarify the effect of religiousness/spirituality in relation to chronic health conditions and depression, to establish whether these variables can serve as protective factors. Self-report data from a nationwide study of spirituality and health were used. Individuals with at least 1 chronic illness (N = 1696) formed the subsample for this study. Religiousness/spirituality variables included frequency of church attendance, prayer, religious meaning, religious hope, general meaning, general hope, peace, and view of God. Other variables included depressive symptoms and demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, and education). A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that chronic conditions were consistently associated with more depressive symptoms. Greater religiousness/spirituality was significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, contributing 16% of the variance above demographics and the number of chronic illnesses. The religiousness/spirituality variables conferring the greatest protection against depression were psychospiritual variables (general meaning and general hope, followed by peace). Also significant but making a smaller contribution to less depression were church attendance, religious meaning, religious hope, and positive view of God. Only prayer did not relate significantly to less depression. Maintaining a sense of spirituality or religiousness can benefit well-being of individuals diagnosed with a chronic health condition, especially having meaning, maintaining hope, and having a sense of peace. Patients could potentially benefit from being offered the resources that support their spiritual/religious practices and beliefs as they cope with chronic illness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.