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Sample records for supernatural beings religious

  1. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion...... implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming...... these representations, the show challenges our imaginations. These transformations of banal religious representations in Supernatural come about in three ways: (1) as a mainstreaming of occulture, (2) through connecting banal religious elements to existential themes, and (3) through playful intertextuality. The series...

  2. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion...... implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming...... these representations, the show challenges our imaginations. These transformations of banal religious representations in Supernatural come about in three ways: (1) as a mainstreaming of occulture, (2) through connecting banal religious elements to existential themes, and (3) through playful intertextuality. The series...

  3. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    is subsumed to media logic, and thus transformed religious representations are an example of a continuous process of mediatization of religion. This essay applies a three-sided theoretical approach, considering mediatization, cognitive anthropology, and social theory. The concept of mediatization applied here...... implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming......Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion...

  4. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in Supernatural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    is subsumed to media logic, and thus transformed religious representations are an example of a continuous process of mediatization of religion. This essay applies a three-sided theoretical approach, considering mediatization, cognitive anthropology, and social theory. The concept of mediatization applied here...... implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming......Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion...

  5. Renegotiating religious imaginations through transformations of "banal religion" in "Supernatural"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Supernatural is saturated with a wide range of religious representations. These elements often serve to instigate the storyline for one or more episodes, but do so in a way that is removed from their original setting in, for example, traditional religious contexts. In Supernatural, religion is subsumed to media logic, and thus transformed religious representations are an example of a continuous process of mediatization of religion. This essay applies a three-sided theoretical approach, considering mediatization, cognitive anthropology, and social theory. The concept of mediatization applied here implies long-term processes in which media play a role in cultural and social change. The theory of cognitive anthropology of religion allows us to understand how the series activates shared implicit knowledge of supernatural agents and events to evoke recognition and emotion; but by transforming these representations, the show challenges our imaginations. These transformations of banal religious representations in Supernatural come about in three ways: (1 as a mainstreaming of occulture, (2 through connecting banal religious elements to existential themes, and (3 through playful intertextuality. The series applies these narrative devices, which heighten plausibility and familiarity, while simultaneously offering viewers a change in perspective, thus creating opportunities for viewers to renegotiate existing religious imaginations.

  6. Fiction and Religion : How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidsen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Thematic issue on 'Fiction and Religion: How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief', volume 46(4) of Religion. The thematic issue inclues the following articles: Davidsen, Markus Altena, "Fiction and Religion: How Narratives About the Supernatural Inspire Religious Belief –

  7. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose.

  8. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in the Anthropomorphization of Supernatural Beings and Its Implications for Cognitive Theories of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive study of religion has been highly influenced by P. Boyer's (2001, 2003) claim that supernatural beings are conceptualized as persons with counterintuitive properties. The present study tests the generality of this claim by exploring how different supernatural beings are conceptualized by the same individual and how different…

  10. Supernatural agency and forgiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, W.; Schie, H.T. van; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that supernatural agency attributions underlie the relation between religion and forgiveness. In two experiments a priming procedure was used to make religious concepts temporarily more salient. In Experiment 1, a religion prime marginally enhanced

  11. Ethnobotany of religious and supernatural beliefs of the Mising tribes of Assam with special reference to the 'Dobur Uie'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegu Shyamanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.

  12. Ethnobotany of religious and supernatural beliefs of the Mising tribes of Assam with special reference to the 'Dobur Uie'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Uma Kanta; Pegu, Shyamanta

    2011-06-02

    Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.

  13. Measurement of supernatural belief: sex differences and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, T M; Desrosiers, M

    1980-10-01

    Although we live in an age dominated by science and technology, there exists an increasingly popular anti-science sentiment. This study describes the development of a scale to assess the degree of personal acceptance of supernatural causality versus acceptance of scientific explanation. In addition to the psychometric data concerning validity and reliability of the scale, data are presented which showed the personality factor of supernaturalism to be independent of orthodox religious attitudes. Results indicated a significantly greater supernatural acceptance for women, and a positive relation of supernaturalism with external locus of control.

  14. Distinguishing spirituality from other constructs: not a matter of well-being but of belief in supernatural spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Blomqvist, Sandra; Takada, Mikito

    2012-02-01

    We developed a new Spirituality Scale and tested the argument that the defining attribute of spirituality is belief in supernatural spirits. Study 1 (N = 1931) showed that religiosity and beliefs pertinent to supernatural spirits predicted most of the variation in spirituality. Study 2 (N = 848) showed that the stronger belief in supernatural spirits, the more the person experienced subjective spirituality; that belief in supernatural spirits had higher predictive value of spirituality than religiosity, paranormal beliefs, or values; and that most of the relationship between religiosity and spirituality could be explained through belief in supernatural spirits. Study 3 (N = 972) showed that mental or physical health, social relationships, or satisfaction in marriage or work were not associated with spirituality. In turn, finding life purposeful and inner peace in dealing with spiritual experiences correlated with spirituality. The results highlight the importance of differentiating spirituality from other psychological constructs.

  15. Shamanistic ecstasy and supernatural beings: a study based on field-work among the Kalash Kafirs of Chitral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halfdan Siiger

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Kafir shamanism and discusses the problem of the relationship of the supernatural beings and the shaman. When approached in the proper way, the supernatural beings may intervene in favour of the people. This intervention becomes manifest through symptoms beyond human control, i.e. through ceremonial shivering, etc. The supernatural beings may also give their help in a higher degree through replies to questions, and through dreams to the dehar when he is in an unconscious state. These interventions may take two forms: either the solving of an immediate problem which the people cannot solve for themselves, or warnings concerning future dangerous events.

  16. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eMcnamara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with supernatural agents because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: 1 mental simulations of alternative realities, 2 theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings and 3 attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’ and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during REM sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based supernatural agents are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s AAOM model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge.

  17. 从天命鬼神看孔子的人文情怀%From the Perspective of Destiny and Supernatural Beings to See Confucius Humanistic Feelings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振纲; 刘丽斌

    2016-01-01

    In the Spring and Autumn Period,with the rise of moral consciousness and humane spirit, the Shinto religious ideology changed significantly,and gradually replaced with the humanitarian,hu-man relations,and humanistic care.By means of the Heaven�s will,Confucius illustrated his ideal, knew the destiny and kept a sophisticated attitude to life.He respected the supernatural beings and kept a distance from them,while this notion of destiny vividly manifested this trend.Confucius�view of des-tiny and supernatural beings contains the spirit of humanism,which is different from Taoist natural-ism,as well as Mohist School of utilitarianism.It has had a profound influence on traditional culture and Chinese living in the ultimate concern,value orientation,and mode of thinking.%春秋时期,随着德性主体意识及人文精神的崛起,神道设教宗教意识形态发生明显变化,逐步为人道、人伦、人文关怀所取代;孔子借天意以明志,知命义而精进,敬鬼神而远之的天命鬼神观念,鲜明表现了这一趋势;孔子天命鬼神观所蕴含的人本主义精神,既不同于道家的自然主义,也有别于墨家的实用功利主义,对传统文化及中国人安身立命的终极关怀、价值取向、思维方式发生深远影响。

  18. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition-specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings, and (3) attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by 'good spirit beings'), and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters) to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during rapid eye movements (REM) sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based SAs are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn's ancient art of memory model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge.

  19. Supernatural MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangle; Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Raza, Shabbar

    2015-07-01

    We point out that the electroweak fine-tuning problem in the supersymmetric standard models (SSMs) is mainly due to the high energy definition of the fine-tuning measure. We propose supernatural supersymmetry which has an order one high energy fine-tuning measure automatically. The key point is that all the mass parameters in the SSMs arise from a single supersymmetry breaking parameter. In this paper, we show that there is no supersymmetry electroweak fine-tuning problem explicitly in the minimal SSM (MSSM) with no-scale supergravity and Giudice-Masiero mechanism. We demonstrate that the Z -boson mass, the supersymmetric Higgs mixing parameter μ at the unification scale, and the sparticle spectrum can be given as functions of the universal gaugino mass M1 /2. Because the light stau is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in the no-scale MSSM, to preserve R parity, we introduce a non-thermally generated axino as the LSP dark matter candidate. We estimate the lifetime of the light stau by calculating its two-body and three-body decays to the LSP axino for several values of axion decay constant fa, and find that the light stau has a lifetime ττ ˜1 in [10-4,100 ] s for an fa range [109,1012] GeV . We show that our next to the LSP stau solutions are consistent with all the current experimental constraints, including the sparticle mass bounds, B-physics bounds, Higgs mass, cosmological bounds, and the bounds on long-lived charged particles at the LHC.

  20. Supernatural Explanations: Science or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the advice of supposedly authoritative sources, the a priori exclusion of supernatural explanations or claims from scientific scrutiny is not appropriate. This paper shows how supernatural hypotheses or claims should be treated by science and, in the process, differentiates scientific and non-scientific hypotheses or claims.…

  1. Religious and Spiritual Struggles as Concerns for Health and Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Stauner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available People struggle with religion and spirituality in several ways, including challenges in trusting God, confronting supernatural evil, tolerating other perspectives on religion, maintaining moral propriety, finding existential meaning, and managing religious doubt. These religious and spiritual (R/S struggles relate to both physical and mental health independently of other religious and distress factors. Causality in this connection needs further study, but evidence supports many potential causes and moderators of the link between R/S struggle and health. These include personality, social, and environmental influences, including traumatic experiences and subcultural differences. Many theoretical questions remain unresolved, including how change in R/S struggle can predict or be predicted by change in health and other connected constructs, and how one might intervene to aid those who struggle with religious or spiritual challenges. Nonetheless, research momentum has grown, having already produced a wealth of information that underscores the need for greater attention to this domain. R/S struggle poses an important exception to generally positive overall associations between religion and well-being, though even R/S struggle may promote growth. This review offers a brief introduction to emerging psychological theory and research on R/S struggle with an emphasis on its relevance to wellness and illness.

  2. Hilltop Supernatural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.

    In this talk, I will explain how to reduce the spectral index to be n_s = 0.96 for supernatural inflation. I will also show the constraint to the reheating temperature from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis of both thermal and non-thermal gravitino production.

  3. Belief in supernatural agents in the face of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Hansen, Ian G

    2006-02-01

    Four studies examined whether awareness of mortality intensifies belief in supernatural agents among North Americans. In Studies 1 and 2, mortality salience led to more religiosity, stronger belief in God, and in divine intervention. In Studies 3 and 4, mortality salience increased supernatural agent beliefs even when supernatural agency was presented in a culturally alien context (divine Buddha in Study 3, Shamanic spirits in Study 4). The latter effects occurred primarily among the religiously affiliated, who were predominantly Christian. Implications for the role of supernatural agent beliefs in assuaging mortality concerns are discussed.

  4. Erosion of belief and disbelief: effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R; Miller, J P

    2001-04-01

    The authors investigated the effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural among 94 undergraduate students enrolled in psychology classes at a small, private U.S. university. They hypothesized that religiosity would predict differential beliefs in the supernatural versus the paranormal but that negative affect would attenuate these beliefs. In addition, the authors predicted that belief in the supernatural and negative affect would interact to predict belief in the paranormal. Overall, the results were consistent with predictions. The religious participants were skeptical of paranormal phenomena but were accepting of supernatural phenomena. In addition, increased reports of negative affect over the preceding year appeared to attenuate belief in the supernatural for the religious participants. By contrast, for the nonreligious participants, increased belief in both the supernatural and paranormal was predicted when reports of negative affect were high. Finally, the interaction of supernatural belief and negative affect significantly predicted belief in the paranormal.

  5. Religious Identity, Religious Participation, and Psychological Well-Being in Asian American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F; Kiang, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity plays a prominent spiritual and social role in adolescents' lives. Yet, despite its developmental salience, few studies have examined normative changes in religiosity or the implications of these changes for psychological well-being. We explored longitudinal variation in and associations between religiosity, as defined by private regard, centrality, and participation in religious activities, and diverse indicators of well-being including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and both the presence of and search for meaning in life. The participants were two cohorts of Asian American high school students (N = 180; 60 % female) followed for 4 years and living in the southeastern US. Using hierarchical linear modelling and controlling for gender and generational status, results revealed that religious identity (i.e., regard, centrality) did not normatively increase or decrease over time, but participation increased. Religious identity was significantly associated with higher self-esteem, greater positive affect, the presence of meaning in life, and reduced depressive symptoms (for females), and participation was positively associated with positive affect and the presence of meaning. Our results and discussion emphasize the utility of further examining how religion plays a role in health and well-being, particularly among immigrant youth.

  6. Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García-Alandete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.

  7. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, Matthias; Jong, Jonathan; Grevenstein, Dennis; Mikloušić, Igor; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2016-01-01

    Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively-or translated and applied cross-culturally-is currently unknown. Using the recent "Supernatural Belief Scale" (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity.

  8. Measuring Cross-Cultural Supernatural Beliefs with Self- and Peer-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, Matthias; Jong, Jonathan; Grevenstein, Dennis; Mikloušić, Igor; Halberstadt, Jamin

    2016-01-01

    Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively–or translated and applied cross-culturally–is currently unknown. Using the recent “Supernatural Belief Scale” (SBS), we present a primer on how to verify the strong assumptions of measurement invariance required in research on religion. A comparison of two independent samples, Croatians and New Zealanders, showed that, despite a sophisticated psychometric model, measurement invariance could be demonstrated for the SBS except for two noninvariant intercepts. We present a new approach for inspecting measurement invariance across self- and peer-reports as two dependent samples. Although supernatural beliefs may be hard to observe in others, the measurement model was fully invariant for Croatians and their nominated peers. The results not only establish, for the first time, a valid measure of religious supernatural belief across two groups of different language and culture, but also demonstrate a general invariance test for distinguishable dyad members nested within the same targets. More effort needs to be made to design and validate cross-culturally applicable measures of religiosity. PMID:27760206

  9. The use of supernatural entities in moral conversations as a cultural-psychological attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tófalvy, Tamás; Viciana, Hugo

    2009-06-01

    Social behavior in most human societies is characterized by the following of moral rules explicitly justified by religious belief systems. These systems constitute the diverse domain of human sacred values. Supernatural entities as founders or warranty of moral principles may be seen as a form of "conversation stoppers," considerations that can be dropped into a moral decision process in order to prevent endlessly reconsidering and endlessly asking for further justification. In this article we offer a general naturalistic framework toward answering the question of why supernatural entities are so attractive in moral argumentation. We present an explanatory model based on the phenomena of multiple channels of moral reasoning, the suspension of epistemic vigilance, and relevance assumptions through the attractiveness of the sacred, moral dumbfounding, and the expression of social coalitionary commitment. Thus, in light of much of current cognitive theory, sacred values make sense as basins in the evolutionary landscape of human morality.

  10. Supernatural Horror in English Literature and Means of it Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Nesterik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with linguistic means realizing supernatural horror in the language of fiction. The research is based on the hypothesis that the category of supernatural/irreal horrible being a part of literary space is realized by means of this global textual category.

  11. Supernatural Horror in English Literature and Means of it Realization

    OpenAIRE

    Ella V. Nesterik; Maiya A. Kazbekova

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with linguistic means realizing supernatural horror in the language of fiction. The research is based on the hypothesis that the category of supernatural/irreal horrible being a part of literary space is realized by means of this global textual category.

  12. Supernatural beliefs, natural kinds, and conceptual structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S J

    1992-11-01

    This article presents cross-cultural evidence in support of the notion that adults' natural kind concepts are theory based but may be informed by knowledge/belief systems other than the biological. Three groups of subjects from western Nigeria--rural, urban, and elite--participated in the study. Subjects heard stories describing alterations of appearance; that is, one natural kind was made to resemble another in both ritual and nonritual contexts. Subjects then were required to judge the identity of the altered item and to give an explanation for the category judgment. It was predicted that subjects would make more nonpreservation-of-identity category judgments supported by supernatural explanations in the ritual contexts and that subjects' use of supernatural explanations would reflect the extent of their engagement with the supernatural. The first prediction was borne out; the second prediction was only partially supported. Discussion of the results emphasizes the importance of exploring the role of sociocultural factors in conceptual structure.

  13. Leaving my religion: Understanding the relationship between religious disaffiliation, health, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Andrew; Danielsen, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    Religious disaffiliation-leaving the religious tradition in which one was raised for no religious affiliation in adulthood-has become more common in recent years, though few studies have examined its consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. We use an innovative approach, comparing the health and subjective well-being of religious disaffiliates to those who remain affiliated using pooled General Social Survey samples from 1973 through 2012. We find that religious disaffiliates experience poorer health and lower well-being than those consistently affiliated and those who are consistently unaffiliated. We also demonstrate that the disadvantage for those who leave religious traditions is completely mediated by the frequency of church attendance, as disaffiliates attend church less often. Our results point to the importance of the social processes surrounding religious disaffiliation and emphasize the role of dynamics in the relationship between religious affiliation and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yonatan I.

    2009-01-01

    Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper…

  15. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. How to Talk to the Supernatural in Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonglin, Yang

    1991-01-01

    Examines Shakespeare's use of thou forms to individual ghosts, witches, and spirits. The proposition is advanced that there is a role-governed rule in the use of this pronoun to individual supernatural beings. (31 references) (GLR)

  17. Supernatural versus medical: Responses to mental illness from undergraduate university students in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, AnMarie Kamanie; Donald, Casswina; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Background/Introduction: Perceptions about the aetiology of mental illness are likely to influence help-seeking behaviour. Understanding help-seeking behaviour will improve service provision and access. Therefore, this is likely to improve treatment outcomes. We assessed the perceptions and help-seeking behaviours surrounding mental illness in a Trinidadian population of 158 tertiary-level students (136 female, 22 male; mean age 30) by analysing their responses to a questionnaire which asked for responses regarding a case vignette of a 25-year-old young woman exhibiting symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia. Of the respondents, 32.3% attributed the symptoms to supernatural causes. Specifically, 27.8% to someone doing her bad and 24.1% to evil spirits. In all, 77.2% of respondents indicated that mental illness was caused by medical problems and 63.3% to work stress. A minimum of 9.5% of the students therefore have dual perceptions regarding causation (77.2 + 32.3 = 109.5) Those who perceived causation to be supernatural said they would seek help from both medical ( p = .000) and supernatural ( p = .000) modalities. This also applied significantly to those who said the causation was medical, that is, seeking both religious intervention ( p = .000) and medical intervention (.000) as the first path in the health-seeking pathway. Dual help-seeking behaviour seems to be the functional result of an integration of religious and medical models of mental illness causation even in respondents who clearly identified only one of these as the likely cause of the illness behaviour.

  18. Pulotu: Database of Austronesian Supernatural Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Sheehan, Oliver; Greenhill, Simon J; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Atkinson, Quentin D; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have debated naturalistic theories of religion for thousands of years, but only recently have scientists begun to test predictions empirically. Existing databases contain few variables on religion, and are subject to Galton's Problem because they do not sufficiently account for the non-independence of cultures or systematically differentiate the traditional states of cultures from their contemporary states. Here we present Pulotu: the first quantitative cross-cultural database purpose-built to test evolutionary hypotheses of supernatural beliefs and practices. The Pulotu database documents the remarkable diversity of the Austronesian family of cultures, which originated in Taiwan, spread west to Madagascar and east to Easter Island-a region covering over half the world's longitude. The focus of Austronesian beliefs range from localised ancestral spirits to powerful creator gods. A wide range of practices also exist, such as headhunting, elaborate tattooing, and the construction of impressive monuments. Pulotu is freely available, currently contains 116 cultures, and has 80 variables describing supernatural beliefs and practices, as well as social and physical environments. One major advantage of Pulotu is that it has separate sections on the traditional states of cultures, the post-contact history of cultures, and the contemporary states of cultures. A second major advantage is that cultures are linked to a language-based family tree, enabling the use phylogenetic methods, which can be used to address Galton's Problem by accounting for common ancestry, to infer deep prehistory, and to model patterns of trait evolution over time. We illustrate the power of phylogenetic methods by performing an ancestral state reconstruction on the Pulotu variable "headhunting", finding evidence that headhunting was practiced in proto-Austronesian culture. Quantitative cross-cultural databases explicitly linking cultures to a phylogeny have the potential to revolutionise the

  19. Pulotu: Database of Austronesian Supernatural Beliefs and Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Watts

    Full Text Available Scholars have debated naturalistic theories of religion for thousands of years, but only recently have scientists begun to test predictions empirically. Existing databases contain few variables on religion, and are subject to Galton's Problem because they do not sufficiently account for the non-independence of cultures or systematically differentiate the traditional states of cultures from their contemporary states. Here we present Pulotu: the first quantitative cross-cultural database purpose-built to test evolutionary hypotheses of supernatural beliefs and practices. The Pulotu database documents the remarkable diversity of the Austronesian family of cultures, which originated in Taiwan, spread west to Madagascar and east to Easter Island-a region covering over half the world's longitude. The focus of Austronesian beliefs range from localised ancestral spirits to powerful creator gods. A wide range of practices also exist, such as headhunting, elaborate tattooing, and the construction of impressive monuments. Pulotu is freely available, currently contains 116 cultures, and has 80 variables describing supernatural beliefs and practices, as well as social and physical environments. One major advantage of Pulotu is that it has separate sections on the traditional states of cultures, the post-contact history of cultures, and the contemporary states of cultures. A second major advantage is that cultures are linked to a language-based family tree, enabling the use phylogenetic methods, which can be used to address Galton's Problem by accounting for common ancestry, to infer deep prehistory, and to model patterns of trait evolution over time. We illustrate the power of phylogenetic methods by performing an ancestral state reconstruction on the Pulotu variable "headhunting", finding evidence that headhunting was practiced in proto-Austronesian culture. Quantitative cross-cultural databases explicitly linking cultures to a phylogeny have the potential

  20. Pulotu: Database of Austronesian Supernatural Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Sheehan, Oliver; Greenhill, Simon J.; Gomes-Ng, Stephanie; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have debated naturalistic theories of religion for thousands of years, but only recently have scientists begun to test predictions empirically. Existing databases contain few variables on religion, and are subject to Galton’s Problem because they do not sufficiently account for the non-independence of cultures or systematically differentiate the traditional states of cultures from their contemporary states. Here we present Pulotu: the first quantitative cross-cultural database purpose-built to test evolutionary hypotheses of supernatural beliefs and practices. The Pulotu database documents the remarkable diversity of the Austronesian family of cultures, which originated in Taiwan, spread west to Madagascar and east to Easter Island–a region covering over half the world’s longitude. The focus of Austronesian beliefs range from localised ancestral spirits to powerful creator gods. A wide range of practices also exist, such as headhunting, elaborate tattooing, and the construction of impressive monuments. Pulotu is freely available, currently contains 116 cultures, and has 80 variables describing supernatural beliefs and practices, as well as social and physical environments. One major advantage of Pulotu is that it has separate sections on the traditional states of cultures, the post-contact history of cultures, and the contemporary states of cultures. A second major advantage is that cultures are linked to a language-based family tree, enabling the use phylogenetic methods, which can be used to address Galton’s Problem by accounting for common ancestry, to infer deep prehistory, and to model patterns of trait evolution over time. We illustrate the power of phylogenetic methods by performing an ancestral state reconstruction on the Pulotu variable “headhunting", finding evidence that headhunting was practiced in proto-Austronesian culture. Quantitative cross-cultural databases explicitly linking cultures to a phylogeny have the potential to

  1. "HIC Sunt Dracones" ("Here Be Dragons"): Global Cartography, Transnational Pedagogy, Religious Formation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tran, Mai-Anh

    2011-01-01

    Religious learning within the currents of global cultural flows necessitates risky movements into "terra incognita"--be they unknown internal landscapes of the mind and heart in religious knowing, or external territories of culture, ideas, and the politics of identification. Drawing on insights gained from three seminary-sponsored…

  2. Hilltop supernatural inflation and gravitino problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics group, Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Lin, Chia-Min, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: cmlin@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we explore the parameter space of hilltop supernatural inflation model and show the regime within which there is no gravitino problem even if we consider both thermal and nonthermal production mechanisms. We make plots for the allowed reheating temperature as a function of gravitino mass by constraints from big-bang nucleosynthesis. We also plot the constraint when gravitino is assumed to be stable and plays the role of dark matter.

  3. 85 SECULARISM, SECULAR STATE AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    finds that, although more feasible within secular states, religious freedom and human ..... principle of natural morality independent of all revelation and supernatural .... In the Commonwealth Realms, the Head of State is required to take the.

  4. Influence of religion and supernatural beliefs on clinical manifestation and treatment practices in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Aneja, Jitender; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-08-01

    Religious and supernatural beliefs influence help seeking and treatment practices in bipolar disorder, but these are rarely explored by clinicians. This study aimed to understand religiousness, magico-religious beliefs, prevalence of religious and supernatural psychopathology and treatment practices among patients with bipolar disorder in euthymic state. A total of 185 patients of bipolar disorder currently in remission were assessed cross-sectionally for their clinical profile, current clinical status on the Hamilton Depression Rating Sscale (HDRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). A semi structured instrument for magico-religious beliefs, aetiological models, treatment seeking and treatment practices was administered. More than a third of patients (37.8%) had psychopathology with either religious or supernatural content or both in their lifetime. Almost half (45.4%) the patients believed in a supernatural/religious aetiology for their illness. Among the specific causes, planetary influences (13.5%) and God's will (30.8%) were the most common supernatural and religious cause, respectively. Almost half (44.3%) of patients had first treatment contact with religious/supernatural treatment providers. More than 90% of patients reported belief in God, yet about 70% reported that their doctors did not ask them sufficient questions to understand their religiosity. Magico-religious beliefs are common in bipolar disorder and a large number of patients attribute these as aetiological factors for their illness. Consequently they tend to seek treatment from traditional practitioners prior to approaching medical practitioners and may continue treatment with them alongside medical management.

  5. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.

  6. Religion as problem, religion as solution: religious buffers of the links between religious/spiritual struggles and well-being/mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Pargament, Kenneth I; Krause, Neal

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have established robust links between religious/spiritual struggles (r/s struggles) and poorer well-being and psychological distress. A critical issue involves identifying the religious factors that buffer this relationship. This is the first study to empirically address this question. Specifically, it examines four religious factors (i.e., religious commitment, life sanctification, religious support, religious hope) as potential buffers of the links between r/s struggle and one indicator of subjective well-being (i.e., happiness) and one indicator of psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptoms). We utilized a cross-sectional design and a nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 2140) dealing with a wide range of major life stressors. We found that the interactions between r/s struggle and all potential moderators were significant in predicting happiness and/or depression. The linkage between r/s struggle and lower levels of happiness was moderated by higher levels of each of the four proposed religious buffers. Religious commitment and life sanctification moderated the ties between r/s struggles and depressive symptoms. The findings underscore the multifaceted character of religion: Paradoxically, religion may be a source of solutions to problems that may be an inherent part of religious life.

  7. Psychological well-being among religious and spiritual-identified young gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S; Bauermeister, José A

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18-29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM's psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations.

  8. Priming with religion and supernatural agency enhances the perception of intentionality in natural phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, W.; Schie, H.T. van; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive theories of religion suggest that belief in supernatural agents finds a basis in the human tendency to (over) detect agency in the environment. The present research investigated whether activation of religious concepts enhances the attribution of agency in natural phenomena. In two

  9. The supernatural characters and powers of sacred trees in the Holy Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafni, Amots

    2007-02-25

    This article surveys the beliefs concerning the supernatural characteristics and powers of sacred trees in Israel; it is based on a field study as well as a survey of the literature and includes 118 interviews with Muslims and Druze. Both the Muslims and Druze in this study attribute supernatural dimensions to sacred trees which are directly related to ancient, deep-rooted pagan traditions. The Muslims attribute similar divine powers to sacred trees as they do to the graves of their saints; the graves and the trees are both considered to be the abode of the soul of a saint which is the source of their miraculous powers. Any violation of a sacred tree would be strictly punished while leaving the opportunity for atonement and forgiveness. The Druze, who believe in the transmigration of souls, have similar traditions concerning sacred trees but with a different religious background. In polytheistic religions the sacred grove/forest is a centre of the community's official worship; any violation of the trees is regarded as a threat to the well being of the community. Punishments may thus be collective. In the monotheistic world (including Christianity, Islam and Druze) the pagan worship of trees was converted into the worship/adoration of saints/prophets; it is not a part of the official religion but rather a personal act and the punishments are exerted only on the violating individual.

  10. Our Gods: Variation in Supernatural Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Sosis, Richard

    In this chapter we examine variation in the contents of supernatural minds across cultures and the social correlates of this variation. We first provide a sketch of how humans are capable of representing supernatural minds and emphasize the significance of the types of knowledge attributed to supernatural agents. We then argue that the contents of supernatural minds as represented cross-culturally will primarily rest on or between two poles: knowledge of people's moral behavior and knowledge of people's ritualized costly behavior. Communities which endorse omniscient supernatural agents that are highly concerned with moral behavior will emphasize the importance of shared beliefs (cultural consensus), whereas communities which possess supernatural agents with limited social knowledge who are concerned with ritual actions will emphasize shared behavioral patterns (social consensus).We conclude with a brief discussion about the contexts in which these patterns occur.

  11. Does the behavioral immune system prepare females to be religiously conservative and collectivistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrizzi, John A; Clay, Russ; Shook, Natalie J

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has indicated that females are more likely than males to endorse collectivistic values and religious conservatism. The present research investigated an evolutionary explanation for these sex differences. More specifically, the sex differences in social conservatism may be due to variation in the behavioral immune system (BIS). The BIS is a set of psychological mechanisms that are proposed to be evolved solutions to disease threat. Four studies were conducted to examine this evolutionary explanation. In Study 1, BIS measures (e.g., disgust sensitivity) fully mediated sex differences in collectivism. This effect was specific to sexual disgust (Study 2). In Studies 3 and 4, the effect was extended to other forms of social conservatism (i.e., religious conservatism) and measures of the BIS. Together, these results suggest that sex differences in collectivism and religious conservatism may be explained in part by sex differences in the BIS.

  12. Externalizing religious health beliefs and health and well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2016-10-01

    Certain religious beliefs related to perceptions of internal or external health control (including belief in the existence of miraculous healing, and beliefs deferring responsibility for health outcomes from the self and onto God) may be related to health behaviors and in turn to health outcomes. Using data from a nationally representative US survey of religion and health (N = 2948) this study evaluates a series of two structural equation models of the relationships between religious activity, externalizing religious health beliefs (belief in healing miracles and divine health deferral), health outcomes, and life satisfaction. Believing in healing miracles was related to greater divine health deferral. Greater divine health deferral was associated with poorer symptoms of physical health. Belief in miracles was related to greater life satisfaction. Comparison of coefficients across models indicated that externalizing beliefs had a significant suppressor effect on the relationship between religious activity and physical symptoms, but did not significantly mediate its relationship with life satisfaction. Religious beliefs emphasizing divine control over health outcomes may have negative consequences for health outcomes, although the same beliefs may contribute to a better sense of life satisfaction.

  13. Family, religious attendance, and trajectories of psychological well-being among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on adolescent well-being, longitudinal research on the influence of religion on well-being is lacking, and limited studies have looked at how family and religion may work in conjunction with one another to influence adolescent well-being. This study addresses these limitations by using longitudinal data on 5,739 youth to explore whether family structure, changes in family structure, parent-child relationship quality, and religious attendance (overall and with parents) influence trajectories of psychological well-being independently and in conjunction with one another. Results support previous research in showing that parental interaction and attending religious services with parent(s) in late childhood are associated with higher psychological well-being, whereas conflict with parents and residing in a nontraditional family in late childhood are associated with lower well-being among youth. Finally, there is evidence suggesting that attending religious services with parent(s) amplifies the positive influence of parental interaction on psychological well-being, and overall levels of religious attendance over time are less likely to increase well-being among adolescents raised by single parents than for adolescents raised by married parents.

  14. “Too Smart to be Religious?” Discreet Seeking Amidst Religious Stigma at an Elite College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateri Boucher

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To advance understandings of how religion manifests in subtle, nuanced ways in secular institutions, we examine student religiosity and spirituality at an elite liberal arts school marked by a strong intellectual collective identity. Using mixed research methods, we examine how the college’s structures and dominant culture influence students’ religiosity and spirituality. Despite an institutional commitment to promoting students’ self-exploration and inclusion of social “diversity,” we found both campus structures and mainstream culture deterred open spiritual and religious exploration and identification. The structure of the college and its dominant secular, intellectual culture reinforced: (1 a widespread stigma against religious and spiritual expression, (2 a lack of dialogue about the sacred, (3 discreetness in exploring and adhering to sacred beliefs and practices, and (4 a large degree of religious and spiritual pluralism. Our findings additionally illustrate that early exposure to the campus culture’s critical regard for religion had a long-lasting impact on students’ religiosity. A majority of students kept their religious and spiritual expressions hidden and private; only a marginalized minority of students embraced their expressions publically. To increase students’ comfort with religious and spiritual exploration, we propose that colleges foster intentional peer dialogues early in the college experience. Furthermore, we recommend that campus communities prioritize religious and spiritual literacy and respect.

  15. Holistic health and well-being: a psycho-spiritual/religious and theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalilkarottu, John

    2012-12-01

    Neuro-biological studies have established the perennial teaching of all the world's religious traditions that human persons are primarily religious/spiritual beings. They confirm that religion and spirituality are hardwired into the human brain and into human nature. The transcendental dimension of human nature demands that progress in man's ethical formation and inner growth is the most essential aspect of holistic health. Their experience of the divine led the Hindu sages to commit themselves to establish peace, happiness and well-being for all the human family and the universe. Judeo-Christian theology advocates that human beings created in the image of God have potential for theocentric-transcendence. Catholic theologians like St. Augustine propose that God has made humans for himself and that their hearts are restless until they rest in him. With the revolutionary shift in recent years from attacking faith and religion to the exploration of the benefits of spirituality and religion for human flourishing, the outstanding themes of Christian theology and other religious traditions became topics of research in health sciences. Interdisciplinary interaction will result in attaining a profound understanding of the human person and help him/her to achieve lasting fulfilment by adequately paying attention to the transcendental, religious and spiritual needs.

  16. Children's supernatural thinking as a signalling behaviour in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Bjorklund, David F; Ruiz Soler, Marcos

    2016-08-09

    In this study, we analysed the reaction times of 137 college students when making decisions on pairs of hypothetical children verbalizing different types of vignettes and/or exhibiting different physical appearance (photographs of faces). Vignettes depicted immature and mature versions of both supernatural (e.g., 'The sun's not out today because it's mad' vs. 'The sun's not out today because the clouds are blocking it') and natural ('I can remember all 20 cards!' vs. 'I can remember 6 or 7 cards') explanations to ordinary phenomena. Photographs of children's faces were morphed with a physical appearance of approximately 4-7 years old or approximately 8-10 years old. In earlier research, immature supernatural thinking produced positive-affect reactions from adults and older adolescents (14-18 years old) towards young children, with cognitive cues being more important than physical-appearance cues in influencing adults' judgements. Reaction times to make decisions varied for the Supernatural and Natural vignettes and for the immature and mature vignettes/faces, reflecting the differential cognitive effort adults used for making decisions about aspects of children's physical appearance and verbal expressions. The findings were interpreted in terms of the critical role that young children's immature supernatural thinking has on adults' perception, analogous to the evolved role of immature physical features on adults' perception of infants.

  17. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Lim, C.S. [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman' s Christian University, Tokyo, 167-8585 (Japan); Lin, Chia-Min [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112 (Japan); Mimura, Yukihiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp, E-mail: lin@chuo-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  18. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  19. Religious Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkowski, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Considers that because of an assurance of religious liberty, Americans tend to restrict religious convictions within their private domains even though most consider themselves to be religious or spiritual. Discusses how newspapers and broadcasters do not take religion stories seriously and as a result, student journalists seldom see or read…

  20. Traditional Christian belief and belief in the supernatural: Diverging trends in the Netherlands between 1979 and 2005?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, N.D. de; Grotenhuis, H.F. te

    2008-01-01

    Is there an ongoing decline in religious beliefs in the Netherlands? Using cross-sectional data from 1979 up to 2005, we focus on traditional Christian faith and belief in the supernatural; the literature suggests that they undergo diverging trends. We first describe these trends using the Social

  1. Traditional Christian Belief and Belief in the Supernatural : Diverging Trends in the Netherlands Between 1979 and 2005?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Nan Dirk de; Grotenhuis, Manfred te

    2008-01-01

    Is there an ongoing decline in religious beliefs in the Netherlands? Using cross-sectional data from 1979 up to 2005, we focus on traditional Christian faith and belief in the supernatural; the literature suggests that they undergo diverging trends. We first describe these trends using the Social

  2. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism.

  3. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  4. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  5. Spirituality and Well-Being: The Relationship between Religious Coping and Recovery from Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…

  6. Religious diversity and pluralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlin, Lars; Borup, Jørn; Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup

    2012-01-01

    . Religious diversity has grown in Denmark with the arrival of new immigrant groups and with new forms and interpretations of traditional religious and spiritual traditions. More importantly, the relations and interactions between religious groups -- the hallmarks of religious pluralism -- are still incipient....... Both religious diversity and religious pluralism build on assumptions of stable relationships between religion and religious adherents and clear-cut boundaries between religious groups, assumptions which may be difficult to sustain in late modern societies. This article gives an overview of the Project......'s findings and discusses theoretical challenges related to religious diversity and religious pluralism....

  7. Religious Education towards Justice: What Kind of Justice Is to Be Taught in a Christian Context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bobbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Education is a human right. It prepares human beings for life, helps to develop individual abilities and opens up social opportunities—e.g., earning one’s own living. Religion interprets our human existence in connection to a transcendental dimension. Religion can also influence moral values and behavior. The Christian religion established a basis for social life, and thus deals with religious and moral justice. As the Christian faith is understood as the identity of the qualities of love of God, of your neighbor and even of your enemy, it has to look for justice in the world. Modern Christian ethics does unfold interpersonal and global justice for all people and tries to give good reasons for moral claims. Religious education in a Christian context has to answer the question of what kind of justice is to be taught and by what means justice, as a goal of education, can be reached within such a setting. This article will unfold, from an ethical point of view, what kind of knowledge and competence teachers must have and what kind of goals can be followed with regard to their pupils or students. The results of this reflection imply certain pedagogical methods and means and exclude others—although it is not possible to go more deeply into a pedagogical discussion.

  8. Magico-religious Beliefs in Schizophrenia: A study from Eastern part of Nepal

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    Nidesh Sapkota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Schizophrenia is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders which require immediate interventions. Magico-Religious beliefs may affect the expression of psychopathology as beliefs are entrenched into human psyche. Local and community beliefs in such phenomena appeared to be a factor in influencing the decision to seek magico-religious treatment. This study aimed (1 to determine attitude of patients and relatives with respect to magico-religious beliefs and its influence on psychopathology, and (2 to examine the relationship between psychopathology and major sociodemographic variables.Materials & Methods: All 50 consecutive cases of schizophrenia attending psychiatric services during study period were thoroughly evaluated. All the cases were diagnosed as per ICD 10 DCR criteria. The supernatural attitude questionnaire was applied.Results: Fifty cases were studied. Among them, 48% belonged to the age-group of 25 to 34 years, the majority of them were male (62%, 82% were Hindus, and 64% married. Majority of the patients had undergone magico-religious treatment (n = 35. Among the sample, 68% consulted faith healer and 42% performed religious treatment during the illness period; 60% acknowledged personal belief in sorcery, 58% in ghosts, and 52% in spirit intrusion. Among them, 20% believed there was a link between sorcery and mental illness, and 20% believe spirit could cause mental illness. Among the samples, 38% found the link between sorcery and abnormal behaviour, 38% with evil spirit, and 22% due to planetary influences. Statistically significant association was noted in the belief that rituals can improve patient behaviour and local belief in supernatural influences.Conclusion: There is a common belief in the relationship between supernatural influences and mental illness among the relatives of the patients. Such beliefs and magicoreligious treatment do occur during the course of the illness.

  9. American television fiction transforming Danish teenagers' religious imaginations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    of religion is strengthened by three dominating factors: the absence of a homogenous religious worldview in Danish culture, the importance of high production values and visual credibility to supernatural concepts in these shows, and the appeal of transformed religious content in open-structured serial...

  10. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA); Constantin SASU; Geanina Constanța SPĂTARU (PRAVĂȚ)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presente...

  11. Emotional Well-Being Following Religious Conversion Among Women in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenwong, Suangsuda; Chirawatkul, Siriporn; Manderson, Lenore

    2017-02-01

    Religious conversion can have a profound impact on individual mental health and emotional well-being. These changes may need specific nursing care. In this article, we describe the lived experiences of 21 women who converted from Buddhism to Islam and who live in Isan, the northeast region of Thailand. The data derive from in-depth interviews, natural conversations, and observations. Thematic analysis revealed two dominant themes: women's sense of happiness in their new faith, and their suffering following from and as a result of their conversion. To provide appropriate care to and prevent mental health problems among Isan women who convert from Buddhism to Islam, and other women in similar contexts, health providers need to enhance their understanding of conversion and to be aware of life experiences that impact on their emotional well-being.

  12. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  13. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  14. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  15. Religious Orientation, Endorser Credibility, and the Portrayal of Female Nurses by the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chyong-Ling; Yeh, Jin-Tsann; Wu, Mong-Chun; Lee, Wei-Chung

    2015-10-01

    Medical consumption and media culture in Taiwan contain clear religious elements. It is common for people to believe that medicine is a supernatural treatment and to rely on thoughts of unseen power instead of rational consciousness. Religious-influenced patriarchy, seen in cultural gender roles, significantly influences religious adherents and degrades women as being part of a secondary class in society. As a contradictory tradition, women, in comparison to men, are considered best at undertaking certain jobs that require careful, detailed thought (such as nurses). Nursing and other occupations requiring a high degree of professionalism by women contradict the past religious-based concept of "ignorance is a woman's virtue." This study aims to probe female imagery in eastern and western Taiwan and explores whether religious culture and practice influences people's cognition of female nurses in advertising. The constructs are analyzed through structural equation modeling. Results reveal that religious followers do not necessarily trust female nurses more just because they are portrayed as professional medical specialists. Most consumers reflect this negative cognition through purchase intentions of products. For example, in comparing portrayals of attractiveness with portrayals of professionalism, attractiveness results in a better advertising effect. People with intrinsic or extrinsic religious orientation have gradually lowered their negative impressions of women; however, religious followers still more strongly insist on women's secondary position. Attractive female nurses are more likely judged as reliable, and this may be transferred to trust in their professional medical skills.

  16. Parental participation in religious services and parent and child well-being: findings from the National Survey of America's Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the 1999 and 2002 National Survey of America's Families, a large-scale nationally representative sample, this study finds that parental religious attendance is positively associated with parent self-rated health, parent mental well-being, positive parenting attitudes, child health, and child school engagement. Although the strength of these associations varies to some extent according to socio-demographic factors, the interactive patterns are not consistently predictable. Moreover, parental health and well-being and positive attitudes toward parenting appear to be important pathways linking parental religious attendance to child well-being. These findings suggest that opportunities for participation in local religious services offered by faith-based organizations may be fruitful avenues through which the government and society can help American families enhance parent and child well-being.

  17. Tales of the Supernatural. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Monsters have haunted the literary imagination from earliest times (e.g., the Cyclops, Grendel, etc.), but a particular interest in horror and the Gothic form dates back to the 18th and early 19th centuries. Taking their name from the Gothic architecture that often served as a backdrop to the action, these novels present supernatural events in…

  18. How natural is the supernatural? Synthesis of the qualitative literature from low and middle income countries on cultural practices and traditional beliefs influencing the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Nicholls, Rachel; Ritchie, Jan; Razee, Husna; Shafiee, Samaneh

    2016-08-01

    to review qualitative research studies conducted in low resource settings around the perinatal continuum over the past two decades, with particular focus on the cultural realm; to identify common themes in the research-base, in order to provide policy direction for culturally appropriate perinatal interventions. systematic literature search of electronic databases from 1990 to 2014, including Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using relevant search terms such as traditional beliefs, practices, pregnancy, childbirth; established criteria used to determine quality of studies; and thematic synthesis of the literature enabled by NVivo 10 software. low and middle income countries using the World Bank classification. religious and spiritual beliefs strongly influenced behaviour over the perinatal period. Beliefs in supernatural influences, particularly malevolent forces were widespread, such that pregnancy was concealed in many parts of Africa and Asia. In most low resource settings, pregnancy and childbirth were seen as normal phenomena. Rituals played an important part for women and their infants, reinforced by inter-generational support. Cross-cutting themes that emerged were: (1) the role of women as mothers, demonstrating their'goodness' by bearing pain and suffering; (2) the idea of the 'natural' incorporating the supernatural; and (3) negotiating change across generations. a diverse repertoire of cultural practices influences perinatal well-being across low resource settings. Health practitioners and policy-makers need to acknowledge the primacy of women's reproductive roles, the cultural constructions of motherhood; that supernatural forces are believed to exert powerful influences on the health of mother and infant; that inter-generational tensions result in resisting or embracing change. Public health planners and practitioners need to take culture seriously, not ignore the contribution of culture in shaping women's behaviours and choices throughout the

  19. Being hopeful and continuing to move ahead: religious coping in Iranian chemical warfare poisoned veterans, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Taleghani, Fariba; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2010-09-01

    There is a substantial number of Iranian war veterans, exposed to sulfur mustard, who suffer from serious long term progressive health problems involving their respiratory organs, eyes, and skin. Little is known, however, about these casualties' experiences of living with the consequences of sulfur mustard poisoning. This qualitative study aims to provide greater insight into how war veterans live with the consequences of the poisoning and involved 17 Iranian war veterans who had been poisoned by sulfur mustard during the Iran-Iraq conflict. Each participant was interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule and the data generated through this process was analyzed using constant comparative data analysis technique. Data analysis resulted in "religious beliefs and practices" as a main category, which included two sub-categories: religious value centered life and religious support. Findings suggest that religious belief assists veterans to accept the impact of poisoning on their lives and adapt their lifestyles accordingly, to participate in religious social activities and feel socially supported, and to be hopeful about the future and live their lives as fully as possible.

  20. "Hey, check it out, there's actually fans": (Disempowerment and (misrepresentation of cult fandom in "Supernatural"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Felschow

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As Supernatural enters season 5, its status as a cult hit is becoming more evident both in the press and within the text of the series itself. The open acknowledgment of the show's fandom within 4.18 "The Monster at the End of This Book" has altered the power relationship between the product and its fans and brought on controversy regarding the creative team's attitude toward fandom in general. To investigate this relationship between Supernatural and its devoted fans, I will first develop a working definition of the cult fan and illustrate the many ways in which Supernatural is an ideal cult text, despite not having been marketed by its producers and network as such. Having set forth this framework, I will outline the dynamic that existed between Supernatural and its cult fans prior to "The Monster at the End of This Book." I will then demonstrate how "The Monster at the End of This Book" simultaneously empowers and disempowers Supernatural's cult fans by representing them within the show's diegesis and what the consequences of these (misrepresentations might be.

  1. When Introverts Ceased to Be More Religious: A Study among 12- to 16-Year-Old Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr; Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 279 12- to 16-year-old pupils completed the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and the short-form Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Contrary to the findings of research using earlier junior versions of the Eysenck scales, the data demonstrate that introverts have ceased to be more religious. (Contains 1…

  2. Christian Commitment and Personal Well Being: Exploring the Connection between Religious Affect and Global Happiness among Young Churchgoers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess the connection between religious affect (as a measure of Christian commitment) and global happiness (as a measure of personal well being) among a sample of 6,194 young churchgoers in Australia between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a…

  3. Christian Commitment and Personal Well Being: Exploring the Connection between Religious Affect and Global Happiness among Young Churchgoers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess the connection between religious affect (as a measure of Christian commitment) and global happiness (as a measure of personal well being) among a sample of 6,194 young churchgoers in Australia between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a…

  4. Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2001-03-01

    Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.

  5. Should religious beliefs be allowed to stonewall a secular approach to withdrawing and withholding treatment in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Joe; Linthicum, Jim; Petros, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Religion is an important element of end-of-life care on the paediatric intensive care unit with religious belief providing support for many families and for some staff. However, religious claims used by families to challenge cessation of aggressive therapies considered futile and burdensome by a wide range of medical and lay people can cause considerable problems and be very difficult to resolve. While it is vital to support families in such difficult times, we are increasingly concerned that deeply held belief in religion can lead to children being potentially subjected to burdensome care in expectation of 'miraculous' intervention. We reviewed cases involving end-of-life decisions over a 3-year period. In 186 of 203 cases in which withdrawal or limitation of invasive therapy was recommended, agreement was achieved. However, in the 17 remaining cases extended discussions with medical teams and local support mechanisms did not lead to resolution. Of these cases, 11 (65%) involved explicit religious claims that intensive care should not be stopped due to expectation of divine intervention and complete cure together with conviction that overly pessimistic medical predictions were wrong. The distribution of the religions included Protestant, Muslim, Jewish and Roman Catholic groups. Five of the 11 cases were resolved after meeting religious community leaders; one child had intensive care withdrawn following a High Court order, and in the remaining five, all Christian, no resolution was possible due to expressed expectations that a 'miracle' would happen.

  6. Intercultural Identity and Inter-Religious Dialogue: A Holy Place to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The paper critically engages with contemporary theories of intercultural and inter-religious dialogue found in the areas of linguistic pragmatics and intercultural theology. Drawing on Ducrot's theory of polyphony, it takes preliminary steps in formulating an alternative conception of the individual subject that incorporates a polyphonic…

  7. Challenges of Being Simultaneously Gay or Lesbian and Spiritual and/or Religious: A Narrative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Melinda; Dzelme, Kristina; Harris, Dale; Hecker, Lorna

    2001-01-01

    Describes the struggle that gays and lesbians face as they incorporate their sexual orientation and identity within the context of an existing religious or spiritual identity. Narrative directions are suggested for marriage and family therapists and their work with gays and lesbians who are confronted with these issues. (BF)

  8. Intercultural Identity and Inter-Religious Dialogue: A Holy Place to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The paper critically engages with contemporary theories of intercultural and inter-religious dialogue found in the areas of linguistic pragmatics and intercultural theology. Drawing on Ducrot's theory of polyphony, it takes preliminary steps in formulating an alternative conception of the individual subject that incorporates a polyphonic…

  9. Challenges of Being Simultaneously Gay or Lesbian and Spiritual and/or Religious: A Narrative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Melinda; Dzelme, Kristina; Harris, Dale; Hecker, Lorna

    2001-01-01

    Describes the struggle that gays and lesbians face as they incorporate their sexual orientation and identity within the context of an existing religious or spiritual identity. Narrative directions are suggested for marriage and family therapists and their work with gays and lesbians who are confronted with these issues. (BF)

  10. Investigation of the Relations between Religious Activities and Subjective Well-Being of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation between participation in religious activities and the subjective wellbeing of high school students. The study group involves 196 participants, 99 female and 97 male; all of the participants were adolescents attending high school in Eskisehir, Turkey, their ages varying from 14 to 16. The measurement…

  11. Robert Ervin Howard’s Vision of the Supernatural in Beyond the Black River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIOTR GULANOWSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plot and the presented world of Robert Ervin Howard’s Beyond the Black River are representative of sword and sorcery, a subgenre of fantasy fiction that Howard is claimed to have pioneered. It has been proposed that the worlds in fantasy fiction are coherently organised, natural, and material. Nevertheless, supernatural elements that are not consistent with the structure of the universe are present. The struggle between the structured worlds and the chaotic supernatural that is resolved by an intervention of a barbarian hero constitute the essence of the sword and sorcery subgenre. These elements can also be found in Beyond the Black River by Howard, who employs contrastive images to present the supernatural.

  12. God's punishment and public goods : A test of the supernatural punishment hypothesis in 186 world cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dominic D P

    2005-12-01

    Cooperation towards public goods relies on credible threats of punishment to deter cheats. However, punishing is costly, so it remains unclear who incurred the costs of enforcement in our evolutionary past. Theoretical work suggests that human cooperation may be promoted if people believe in supernatural punishment for moral transgressions. This theory is supported by new work in cognitive psychology and by anecdotal ethnographic evidence, but formal quantitative tests remain to be done. Using data from 186 societies around the globe, I test whether the likelihood of supernatural punishment-indexed by the importance of moralizing "high gods"-is associated with cooperation.

  13. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.

  14. Energy as the Mediator between Natural and Supernatural Realms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Kivari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses contemporary vernacular theory about the elusive energies that emanate from the ground. These energies are reported to be the ultimate reason for different remarkable occurrences, both natural and supernatural. The hypothesis of special energies is expressed in local tourism, in ecological debates and healing practises, driving the curiosity of amateur science. In these expressions knowledge as a form of engagement with the supernatural plays an integrating role between the individual and the forces beyond. Dowsing reveals the ‘energetic’ nature of reality, which will be discussed using three examples. Tuhala Nõiakaev (the Witch’s Well as a peculiar natural sight in the north of Estonia has drawn together many reports of energy columns that are linked to underground rivers and cultic stones. Another place under discussion is also famous for healing energy points: Kirna Manor works as a centre for spreading knowledge of the interdependence of physical health and the search for a spiritual path with the help of energies that the next example, the Society of Dowsers, attempts to discover using scientific methods. In these examples ‘energy’ designates the position of the individual, in which the participative relationship with the environment works as a form of folk epistemology within the limits of cultural understanding.

  15. SuperNatural: a searchable database of available natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Mathias; Fullbeck, Melanie; Neumann, Stefanie; Preissner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Although tremendous effort has been put into synthetic libraries, most drugs on the market are still natural compounds or derivatives thereof. There are encyclopaedias of natural compounds, but the availability of these compounds is often unclear and catalogues from numerous suppliers have to be checked. To overcome these problems we have compiled a database of approximately 50,000 natural compounds from different suppliers. To enable efficient identification of the desired compounds, we have implemented substructure searches with typical templates. Starting points for in silico screenings are about 2500 well-known and classified natural compounds from a compendium that we have added. Possible medical applications can be ascertained via automatic searches for similar drugs in a free conformational drug database containing WHO indications. Furthermore, we have computed about three million conformers, which are deployed to account for the flexibilities of the compounds when the 3D superposition algorithm that we have developed is used. The SuperNatural Database is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural. Viewing requires the free Chime-plugin from MDL (Chime) or Java2 Runtime Environment (MView), which is also necessary for using Marvin application for chemical drawing.

  16. Religious Affiliation, Religious Service Attendance, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han

    2015-12-01

    Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time.

  17. Priming of supernatural agent concepts and agency detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.; Rutjens, B.T.; van der Pligt, J.; van Harreveld, F.

    2016-01-01

    In evolutionary approaches to religion it is argued that belief in supernatural agents is strongly related to a perceptual bias to over-detect the presence of agents in the environment. We report five experiments that investigate whether processing concepts about supernatural agents facilitates

  18. A Clear Stand: Religious Schools Are Being Pressed to Spell Out Their Policies Regarding Gay Students and the Children of Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how religious schools are being pressed to spell out their policies regarding gay students and the children of same-sex couples. As homosexuality has become one of the fiercest battlefronts in the "culture wars," religious schools have found it harder to exclude gays or their children without lawsuits or…

  19. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychaskiw George

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic". -Arthur C. Clarke

  20. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research

    OpenAIRE

    Mychaskiw George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic". -Arthur C. Clarke

  1. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychaskiw, George

    2011-09-06

    Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic".-Arthur C. Clarke.

  2. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs.

  3. Analytic Cognitive Style Predicts Religious and Paranormal Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined…

  4. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  5. Supernatural A-Term Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    Following Ref. 10, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is V0 plus MSSM (or A-term) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the potential V0 with the soft SUSY breaking mass m O(1) TeV. The implication to MSSM (or A-term) inflation is that the flat directions which is lifted by the non-renormalizable terms described by the superpotential W=λ p φ p-1/Mp-3 P with p = 4 and p = 5 are also suitable to be an inflaton field for λp = O(1) provided there is an additional false vacuum term V0 with appropriate magnitude. The flat directions correspond to p = 6 also works for 0 < ˜ V0/M_ P4 < ˜ 10-40.

  6. American television fiction transforming Danish teenagers' religious imaginations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that American television fiction with supernatural themes offers Danish teenage audiences a playground for exploring different religious imaginations in a continuous process of internal negotiations; thereby transforming their imaginations. This process of the mediatization...... narratives. This essay presents the findings of an empirical qualitative study of seventy-two Danish teenagers and considers two primary parameters for the case-based reception study: the teenagers' levels of fandom and their connection with institutionalized religion. In other words, how are religious...

  7. Development of inhibition as a function of the presence of a supernatural agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author examined the developmental differences in inhibition and cognition of 4-8-year-old children as a function of the suggested presence of a supernatural agent. Previous evolutionarily-relevant research has suggested that humans are naturally primed to think in terms of supernatural agents and that, given the correct context, individuals readily accept novel supernatural entities and alter their behavior accordingly. All children in this study played 4 games designed to assess their present level of inhibitory and cognitive development. Children in the experimental condition were also introduced to an invisible Princess Alice and were told that she was watching during the games. Following these measures, all children engaged in a resistance-to-temptation task. Results revealed that cognitively advanced children were more likely to express belief in Princess Alice than were less cognitively advanced children. This research provides support that cognitive maturity, rather than immaturity, may be necessary for children to express belief in novel supernatural agents.

  8. When Will It Be …?: U.S. Naval Observatory Religious Calendar Computers Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Ziegler, Cross; Lesniak, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    Reflecting increasing sensitivity to differing religious practices, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) has expanded its on-line calendar resources to compute additional religious dates for specific years via an Application Programming Interface (API). This flexible method now identifies Christian, Islamic, and Jewish events in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that anyone can use.Selected Christian Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/easter.php) returns dates of eight events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.D. 1582): Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, Whit Sunday, Trinity Sunday, and the first Sunday of Advent. The determination of Easter, a moveable feast, uses the method of western Christian churches.Selected Islamic Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/islamic.php) returns approximate Gregorian dates of three events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.H. 990) and Julian dates for 622-1582 C.E. (A.H. 1-990) along with the corresponding Islamic year (anno Hegirae). Ramadân, Shawwál, and the Islamic year begin at sunset on the preceding Gregorian or Julian date. For planning purposes, the determination of these dates uses a tabular calendar; in practice, observation of the appropriate waxing crescent Moon determines the actual date, which may vary.Selected Jewish Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/passover.php) returns Gregorian dates of six events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.M. 5342) and Julian dates for the years 360-1582 C.E. (A.M. 4120-5342) along with the corresponding Jewish year (anno Mundi). Passover, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Hanukkah begin at sunset on the preceding Gregorian or Julian date.On-line documentation for using the API-enabled calendar computers, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The webpage also describes how to use the API with the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Solar Eclipse Computer, Day and Night

  9. “Secret Language” in Oral and Graphic Form: Religious-Magic Discourse in Aztec Speeches and Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mikulska Dąbrowska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze a particular linguistic register of the Nahua (Aztec people that has been classified as “magical-religious” because it was used for communication with the sacred realm. A hypothesis is developed that in the Mesoamerican pictographic calendar-religious manuscripts, which treat matters strictly linked to the supernatural world, a similar register should be evident. Far from considering the information presented in these resources as resulting from the direct transcription of oral language, the idea is that the graphic form represents elements emblematic of orality, although adapted to this particular context and mode for expression.

  10. God, Moses and Levinas: On being the other and relating to the other. A perspective on transcendence from religious experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Veldsman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Within the context of religious experience, understood as testimony to transcendence (Stoker, this article focus on a specific constitutive element thereof, namely intentionality. It is discussed as concept in relation to three other concepts, namely religious experience, experience and transcendence. To elaborate on the importance of the qualification of the concept of intentionality, three conversation partners are engaged. The French Jewish philosopher and Talmudic commentator Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995 since his view point on “The (Oother” makes the concept of “transcendence” problematic in a very insightful manner. The Dutch philosopher of religion Wessel Stoker and his proposal for “trans-intentionality” as a constitutive element of religious experience, and the experience of Moses with God as narrated in Ex 3. The contributions on transcendence by Levinas and Stoker are finally critically evaluated in relation to the Moses experience.

    And God said to Moses: “I will be who I will be” (Ex 3:14

    For if God is God, then it is impossible for God to be given in any intuition orphenomenal experience, to be contained by any concept governed by any principal. But it is this very impossibility – this infinity and incomprehensibility – that makes God “possible” as God. God alone lets God self be defined by indefinable impossibility, for God begins where human possibility ends. What is impossible for us is precisely God’s characteristic possibility, for with God nothing is impossible (Jean-Luc Marion

    Divinity is not transcendent (“wholly other”, but incarnate; and the incarnation, the event “inaugurating the dissolution of divine transcendence” (Gianni Vattimo.

  11. Dimensions of religiousness and spirituality as predictors of well-being in advanced chronic heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Lim, Haikel; Newlon, Max; Suresh, D P; Bliss, Deborah E

    2014-04-01

    We examined relationships between seven dimensions of religion/spirituality (RS) (forgiveness, daily spiritual experiences, belief in afterlife, religious identity, religious support, public practices, and positive RS coping) and three dimensions of well-being (physical, mental, and existential) in a sample of 111 patients with advanced chronic heart failure. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline and 3 months later. Results showed that fairly high levels of RS were reported on all seven dimensions. Furthermore, RS dimensions were differentially related to well-being. No aspect of RS was related to physical well-being, and only a few aspects were related to mental well-being. Forgiveness was related to less subsequent depression, while belief in afterlife was related to poorer mental health. All aspects of RS were related to at least one aspect of existential well-being. In particularly, daily spiritual experiences were linked with higher existential well-being and predicted less subsequent spiritual strain. These results are consistent with the view that in advanced disease, RS may not affect physical well-being but may have potent influences on other aspects of well-being, particularly existential aspects.

  12. Supernatural/Paranormal Phenomena: A Passionate Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Robinson, G.; Maulton, J.

    2003-05-01

    A collaboration between a psychologist, a philosopher, and an astronomer resulted in an inter-term (January) course, titled "Supernatural/Paranormal Phenomena: A Passionate Closer Look" at Smith College. The main purpose of the course was to provide students with the tools to evaluate the pseudo-sciences that are so enticing in today's complex and stressful world. We examined some of the reasons why people are attracted to New-Age enterprises that claim to: provide personal insight and social guidance from stars and planets; communicate with the dead; predict the future; prove contact with extraterrestrial beings. The course provided us with an opportunity to introduce the methodology of science and compare it with the claims made by the defenders of pseudo-sciences. We also conducted a survey of paranormal beliefs of enrolled students before and after our inter-term class.

  13. Esperança e religião

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lehmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo desenvolve três modelos de relacionamento com o sobrenatural. Primeiramente, o ritual de aposta, pelo qual o indivíduo se assegura de ter feito o que era possível fazer para evitar um perigo. A natureza detalhada da preparação do ritual é essencial, assim como a rede social que se tece ao redor do rito. Segundo, focaliza a relação de troca com o sobrenatural, mediada pelo shaman, que é aquele que detém os segredos do procedimento e a confiança dos "clientes". Terceiro, trata das relações de troca representadas pela religião popular católica e explica que todas as religiões "mundiais" (judaísmo, cristianismo, islamismo se edificam sobre uma dialética do erudito com a religião popular. Tudo isso como introdução à análise do pentecostalismo e do neopentecostalismo, que representam formas inusitadas de religiosidade, nas quais o sobrenatural está presente. Mas a troca é com a Igreja, não com entidades sobrenaturais. A Igreja funciona mais como um "Pronto-Socorro Espiritual" do que como um lugar de construção de uma ordem moral ou como lugar em que os humanos fazem as pazes com Deus. O pentecostalismo faz parte de uma tendência ocidental que deixa as religiões includentes (católica, anglicana em estagnação, enquanto as mais excludentes, aquelas que requerem muito sacrifício dos seguidores, ganham terreno.This article develops three models of humans' relationship with the supernatural. First that of ritual as a kind of protection through which the individual ensures that whatever had to be done to avoid a danger was done. The detailed nature of the ritual procedures are essential to it as is the social network which is woven around the rite. Secondly, the article focuses on the exchange relationship with the supernatural, mediated by a shaman who holds the secrets of the procedure and also the trust of his "clients". Thirdly, it deals with the exchange relationships represented by Catholic popular religion

  14. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  15. Cultural variances in composition of biological and supernatural concepts of death: a content analysis of children's literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Seong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Younyoung; Koo, Ja Hyouk

    2014-01-01

    Children's reasoning about the afterlife emerges naturally as a developmental regularity. Although a biological understanding of death increases in accordance with cognitive development, biological and supernatural explanations of death may coexist in a complementary manner, being deeply imbedded in cultural contexts. This study conducted a content analysis of 40 children's death-themed picture books in Western Europe and East Asia. It can be inferred that causality and non-functionality are highly integrated with the naturalistic and supernatural understanding of death in Western Europe, whereas the literature in East Asia seems to rely on naturalistic aspects of death and focuses on causal explanations.

  16. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel;

    2014-01-01

    Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age...... scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further...... studies on religious coping in secular societies are required....

  17. The remote prayer delusion: clinical trials that attempt to detect supernatural intervention are as futile as they are unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, G

    2008-09-01

    Extreme rates of premature death prior to the advent of modern medicine, very low rates of premature death in First World nations with low rates of prayer, and the least flawed of a large series of clinical trials indicate that remote prayer is not efficacious in treating illness. Mass contamination of sample cohorts renders such clinical studies inherently ineffectual. The required supernatural and paranormal mechanisms render them implausible. The possibility that the latter are not benign, and the potentially adverse psychological impact of certain protocols, renders these medical trials unethical. Resources should no longer be wasted on medical efforts to detect the supernatural and paranormal.

  18. Varieties of Religious Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Noah Olawoyin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious Pluralism is one of many forms of pluralism in contemporary globalised world.  Some others include ethnic pluralism, value pluralism, doctrinal pluralism, ethical pluralism, political pluralism.  Religious pluralism is, however, one of the most important in contemporary society, considering globalization and the role of religions in many conflicts.  It has its root in poltitical liberalism. Religious pluralism is a hot debate in social sciences and in Theology and Religious Studies. This paper argues that religious pluralism, which is an acceptance of plurality as normative, is not a monolithic theory. The different religious context in which it is being discussed, the different disciplinary and philosophical influences resulted in various and even contradictory types.  However, this paper is a ‘mapping’ of the contour of contemporary discussions.  Critically reviewing relevant literature, two major theories of religious pluralism were identified: identist and differential/complementary.  Each of these also has subdivision.

  19. Discussing the Supernatural in Contemporary Finland: Discourses, Genres, and Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina Koski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The supernatural is a debated issue on the Internet even though people generally avoid face-to-face discussion about it. This article1 gives an analytical overview of discussions about the supernatural in contemporary Finland. The research material consists of a sample of Finnish media and online discussions about the supernatural, as well as letters describing and interpreting personal experiences. Texts published on different forums show different generic features of style, content, and the traditionality of expression and interpretations. The texts can be entertaining or argue about moral and ontological issues, about the emergence of these experiences in human mind, or the status and sanity of people who have had these experiences. Opinions and interpretations on all forums draw on various discourses, of which five are presented. The science-oriented and mental discourses seek for natural explanations. The spiritual reality is accounted for, albeit in different forms, in the popular Christian, fundamental Christian, and alternative spiritual discourses. The discourses can be combined in various ways. The experiencers themselves primarily seek legitimate interpretations and sometimes they modify or stretch the collectively accepted scientific or Christian worldview to fit their experiences. However, sometimes the experiences lead to a change of the worldview. The sciences are also criticised for their narrow attitude.

  20. The Super-Natural Supersymmetry and Its Classic Example: M-Theory Inspired NMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianjun; Wang, Xiao-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We briefly review the super-natural supersymmetry (SUSY), which provides a most promising solution to the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning problem. In particular, we address its subtle issues as well. Unlike the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard model (MSSM), the Next to MSSM (NMSSM) can be scale invariant and has no mass parameter in its Lagrangian before SUSY and gauge symmetry breakings. Therefore, the NMSSM is a perfect framework for super-natural SUSY. To give the SUSY breaking soft mass to the singlet, we consider the moduli and dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenarios in M-theory on $S^1/Z_2$. In these scenarios, SUSY is broken by one and only one $F$-term of moduli or dilaton, and the SUSY breaking soft terms can be determined via the K\\"ahler potential and superpotential from Calabi-Yau compactification of M-theory on $S^1/Z_2$. Thus, as predicted by super-natural SUSY, the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning measure is of unity order. In the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the right-handed sleptons are r...

  1. Ethnic, Familial, and Religious Identity of Roma Adolescents in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania in Relation to Their Level of Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Taušová, Jitka; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; Buzea, Carmen; Uka, Fitim; Tair, Ergyul

    2017-05-01

    This study examines ethnic, national, familial, and religious identity and well-being of 632 Roma minority and 589 majority adolescents (age: M = 15.98 years, SD = 1.34) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. Results indicated that Roma showed lower endorsement of national identity but stronger religious identity than their majority counterparts. Path models showed positive associations of familial and religious identities with well-being, whereas Roma identity was negatively associated with well-being, particularly for Roma in Bulgaria and Kosovo (countries with a less active policy toward improving conditions of Roma). In the latter countries, Roma ethnic identity is less relevant and weakly associated with psychological well-being of youth. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Cultural Explanations of Sleep Paralysis in Italy: The Pandafeche Attack and Associated Supernatural Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Romanelli, Andrea; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines cultural explanations regarding sleep paralysis (SP) in Italy. The study explores (1) whether the phenomenology of SP generates culturally specific interpretations and causal explanations and (2) what are the beliefs and local traditions associated with such cultural explanations. The participants were Italian nationals from the general population (n = 68) recruited in the region of Abruzzo, Italy. All participants had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP. The sleep paralysis experiences and phenomenology questionnaire were orally administered to participants. We found a multilayered cultural interpretation of SP, namely the Pandafeche attack, associated with various supernatural beliefs. Thirty-eight percent of participants believed that this supernatural being, the Pandafeche-often referred to as an evil witch, sometimes as a ghost-like spirit or a terrifying humanoid cat-might have caused their SP. Twenty-four percent of all participants sensed the Pandafeche was present during their SP. Strategies to prevent Pandafeche attack included sleeping in supine position, placing a broom by the bedroom door, or putting a pile of sand by the bed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the study findings. The Pandafeche attack thus constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in the Abruzzo region of Italy.

  3. Religious Education towards Justice: What Kind of Justice Is to Be Taught in a Christian Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Education is a human right. It prepares human beings for life, helps to develop individual abilities and opens up social opportunities--e.g., earning one's own living. Religion interprets our human existence in connection to a transcendental dimension. Religion can also influence moral values and behavior. The Christian religion established a…

  4. Modern religiousness: determinanty, personal touches, progress trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Pivovarova

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical data show the contemporary religiosity an inhomogeneous, constantly developing polyfunctional and multi­confessional (Christian tradition dominates phenomenon. There is a certain contradiction between its rapid development in quantitative terms and the stagnation in qualitative terms. The major characteristic is contradictory dualism between its open and non­dogmatic character, tolerance, syncretism, loyalty, privatisation, etc. and spiritual entropy, eclecticism, populism, conformity, fragmented character, the focus on the ritual part, prgmatisation, etc. The evolution of religiosity was marked by «abstractisation» of the idea of supernatural  as well as the development  of ethical norms and the religious etiquette, active development of religiosity out of confession or church, de­centralisation of  religious postulates and religious «time­serving».

  5. Religious Dogma without Religious Fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Baldwin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: New Atheists and Anti-Theists (such as Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris, Christopher Hutchins affirm that there is a strong connection between being a traditional theist and being a religious fundamentalist who advocates violence, terrorism, and war. They are especially critical of Islam. On the contrary, I argue that, when correctly understood, religious dogmatic belief, present in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, is progressive and open to internal and external criticism and revision. Moreover, acknowledging that human knowledge is finite and that humans are fallible and have much to learn, dogmatic religious believers accept that they ought to value and seek to acquire moral and intellectual virtues, including the virtues of temperance and reasonability. Conclusion/Recommendations: While some Muslims advocate violence, terrorism, and war, others accept the concept of dogma articulated here and even speak out against the very things that Dawkins et al abhor. The contentious claims of the New Atheists and Anti-Theists to the contrary, therefore, while popular and rhetorically forceful, are false and do not withstand careful scrutiny.

  6. Supernatural impotence: historical review with anthropological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, J; Witztum, E

    1989-12-01

    The historical and cultural background of the belief in supernatural impotence is presented, emphasizing its possible implications for clinical practice. A brief historical survey of the concept in Judaism and Christianity is followed by a short anthropological survey of supernatural impotence in different ethnic subcultures in Israel. A case demonstration exemplifies the connection between understanding the patient's cultural background and beliefs and the clinical competence of the therapist. The relationship between the clinical-therapeutic process in psychiatric practice and knowledge of the patient's cultural background and beliefs is stressed.

  7. The role of religious and existential well-being in families with Lynch syndrome: prevention, family communication, and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bronwyn A; Hadley, Donald W; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the role of religious (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) on psychosocial factors, support network characteristics, and screening practices in families with Lynch syndrome, also referred to as hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Participants were individuals with Lynch syndrome associated cancers and their first-degree relatives at risk of inheriting an identified deleterious mutation. Analyses considered both family RWB and EWB norms and individual deviations from that norm. Analyses controlled for age, gender, cancer diagnosis, number of respondents, and network size. Higher family RWB was associated with increased depressive symptoms (p family EWB was related to decreased depression symptoms (p family EWB was associated with fecal occult blood testing (p family communication about genetic counselling and testing (p family-level effects. Individuals with lower EWB than their family had lower perceived risk for colorectal cancer (p communicated disease risk information to less family members (p family also had higher cancer worry (p family network and being aware of family characteristics which may impact individual adjustment to disease risk. Interventions considering family-level factors may provide efficient pathways to improving psychosocial factors, screening practices, communication about disease risk and genetic testing, and cancer prevention.

  8. Common Ground with "A Common Faith": Dewey's Idea of the "Religious"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    In "A Common Faith", Dewey rejects organized religion and belief in the supernatural, instead arguing for an authentically "religious" attitude which this interpretive essay analyzes in terms of four propositions: (1) Knowledge is unified. (2) Knowledge is democratic. (3) The pursuit of moral ideals requires moral faith. (4) The authority for…

  9. The Influence of Divine Rewards and Punishments on Religious Prosociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleam, James; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    A common finding across many cultures has been that religious people behave more prosocially than less (or non-) religious people. Numerous priming studies have demonstrated that the activation of religious concepts via implicit and explicit cues (e.g., ‘God,’ ‘salvation,’ among many others) increases prosociality in religious people. However, the factors underlying such findings are less clear. In this review we discuss hypotheses (e.g., the supernatural punishment hypothesis) that explain the religion-prosociality link, and also how recent findings in the empirical literature converge to suggest that the divine rewards (e.g., heaven) and punishments (e.g., hell) promised by various religious traditions may play a significant role. In addition, we further discuss inconsistencies in the religion-prosociality literature, as well as existing and future psychological studies which could improve our understanding of whether, and how, concepts of divine rewards and punishments may influence prosociality. PMID:27536262

  10. Man and SuperNature. Lecture 12, September 27, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2015-01-01

    "Man and SuperNature" is a lyrical chapter in the 1946 London course following the emergence of Cosmic Education in Kodaikanal, India. Montessori contrasts the adaptation required of animals for their survival to conscious human adaptation. Animals exist and adapt to nature, but man can alter nature and change the environment.…

  11. Supernatural Themes in Selected Children's Stories of Isaac Bashevis Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, June H.; Vanderryst, June D.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the traditional folklore theme of good versus evil on children's development and analyzes the development of this theme using magical and supernatural situations in the work of Isaac Bashevis Singer. A selected bibliography of work by and literary criticisms of Singer's writings is provided. (five references) (CLB)

  12. Epistemic Similarities between Students' Scientific and Supernatural Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The evidential support for scientific claims is quantitatively and qualitatively superior to that for supernatural claims, yet students may not appreciate this difference in light of the fact that both types of claims are learned in similar ways (through testimony rather than firsthand observation) and perform similar functions (explaining…

  13. The Relationship between Religious-Spiritual Well-Being and Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Taheri-Kharameh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between dimensions of religious and spiritual wellbeing, stress, anxiety, and depression in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences and as well as to access the predictability of stress, anxiety, and depression from the levels of religious-spiritual dimension in students. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 138 students in Qom University of Medical Sciences were selected via random sampling method. Theycompleted the MI RSWB- 48, Depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver.16 ,utilizing descriptive statistics and the statistical tests of Independent t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: Religious-spiritual wellbeing was correlated with depression, anxiety and stress (p<0.05. The results of multiple liner regression showed that hope predicted stress, anxiety, and depression after controlling demographic variables. In addition, general religiosity was associated with depression. Conclusion: The findings indicated that immanent hope and general religiosity were, respectively, the most important religious-spiritual components which may affect psychological distress in students.

  14. Religious and Psychological Implications of Positive and Negative Religious Coping in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Tahbaz, Sahar; Chen, Zhuo Job

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the religious and psychological implications of religious coping in Iran. University students (N = 224) responded to the Brief Positive and Negative Religious Coping Scales along with measures of Religious Orientation, Integrative Self-Knowledge, Self-Control, Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, Self-Esteem, Guilt, Shame, and Self-Criticism. As in previous research elsewhere, Positive Religious Coping was stronger on average than Negative Religious Coping, and Positive and Negative Religious Coping predicted adjustment and maladjustment, respectively, In addition, this study demonstrated that direct relationships between Positive and Negative Religious Coping appeared to be reliable in Iran; that Positive Religious Copings was broadly compatible with, and Negative Religious Coping was largely irrelevant to, Iranian religious motivations; and that Negative Religious Coping obscured linkages of Positive Religious Coping with religious and psychological adjustment.

  15. Naturalisme en theïsme : de integratie van wetenschap en religie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In my thesis ‘Naturalisme en Theïsme’ (Naturalism & Theism) I defend the view that a supernatural reality does exist. We can argue for the existence of such a supernatural reality with the help of evolutionary theory. The argument revolves around the intuitive idea that human beings need to keep the

  16. Naturalisme en theïsme : de integratie van wetenschap en religie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In my thesis ‘Naturalisme en Theïsme’ (Naturalism & Theism) I defend the view that a supernatural reality does exist. We can argue for the existence of such a supernatural reality with the help of evolutionary theory. The argument revolves around the intuitive idea that human beings need to keep

  17. In defense of a supernatural foundation to morality: reply to Shermer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    In my original paper, I claimed that our moral obligations are real, objective, and grounded in the supernatural. In particular, I endorsed the claim that God's will is the basis or source of our moral obligations, where "God" is to be understood as the theistic being who is omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent, who created the universe, and who is still actively involved in the universe after creating it. In his critical article, Michael Shermer has raised a number of important challenges to my view. Here I try to defend the position and respond to at least his most serious objections. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Supernatural supersymmetry and its classic example: M-theory inspired NMSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjun; Raza, Shabbar; Wang, Xiao-Chuan

    2016-06-01

    We briefly review the supernatural supersymmetry (SUSY), which provides a most promising solution to the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning problem. In particular, we address its subtle issues as well. Unlike the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the next to MSSM (NMSSM) can be scale invariant and has no mass parameter in its Lagrangian before SUSY and gauge symmetry breakings. Therefore, the NMSSM is a perfect framework for supernatural SUSY. To give the SUSY breaking soft mass to the singlet, we consider the moduli and dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenarios in M-theory on S1/Z2. In these scenarios, SUSY is broken by one and only one F term of moduli or dilaton, and the SUSY breaking soft terms can be determined via the Kähler potential and superpotential from Calabi-Yau compactification of M-theory on S1/Z2. Thus, as predicted by supernatural SUSY, the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning measure is of unity order. In the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the right-handed sleptons are relatively light around 1 TeV, stau can even be as light as 580 GeV and degenerate with the lightest neutralino, chargino masses are larger than 1 TeV, the light stop masses are around 2 TeV or larger, the first two-generation squark masses are about 3 TeV or larger, and gluinos are heavier tha.n squarks. In the dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the qualitative picture remains the same but we have heavier spectra as compared to the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario. In addition to it, we have Higgs H2/A1-resonance solutions for dark matter (DM). In both scenarios, the minimal value of DM relic density is about 0.2. To obtain the observed DM relic density, we can consider the dilution effect from supercritical string cosmology or introduce the axino as the lightest supersymmetric particle.

  19. Supernatural Power in Hardy’s Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀萍

    2012-01-01

      Thomas Hardy is the writer who stretches across for two centuries. In the work he is called“the disposition and the en⁃vironment novel”more importantly several lengthy, in which outstanding has“Tess of the d’Urbervilles”(1891) and“Jude the Obscure”(1895). After his work had reflected capitalism invades aspect and so on social economy, politics, morals, custom which the English countryside cities causes profound changes as well as the people (in particular woman) the pitiful destiny, has exposed the bourgeoisie morals, legal and religious false. His work links the preceding with the following, also has inherited the England critical realism outstanding tradition, the 20th century English literature has developed the path. Hardy’s creation had reflected profoundly after the capitalism factor invades the English countryside aspect and so on social economy, politics, morals and cus⁃tom huge changes, has demonstrated the specific historical period countryside working people’s pitiful destiny and the mental scar. In the English history of literature, the countryside theme receives the neglect continuously, is precisely Hardy with own cre⁃ation, opened this domain. Hardy’s work, specially the novel creation subject, the general performance is the human and social, the disposition and the environment opposition, specially through to love (Hardy thought love is the human most intense senti⁃ment), question and so on marriage descriptions, displays individual resistance society outmoded rules and regulations, the reli⁃gious law, the moral custom as well as the mystical strength tragic conflict.

  20. Religious narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2013-01-01

    Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...

  1. Malaria, from natural to supernatural: a qualitative study of mothers' reactions to fever (Dienga, Gabon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Hugo; Mayombo, Justice; Aubouy, Nicolas; Deloron, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Decision making for health care at the household level is a crucial factor for malaria management and control among young children. This study sought to determine exactly how mothers reacted when faced with fever in a child. Qualitative study based on in depth semistructured interviews of mothers and free form discussion with traditional healers (Nganga). Village of Dienga, a rural area of Gabon (Central Africa). 12 mothers and three traditional healers. All mothers thought that fever and malaria were identical. Mothers home treated or went to the village treatment centre, or both, on the last episode of fever, if they judged it to be "natural" fever. However, if fever was thought to be a result of malicious intent, then a Nganga was consulted first. It was believed that strong and above all persistent fever was "supernatural". In this case, traditional treatment was thought to be best. Results indicate that fever is perceived as a dual condition, with two distinct but non-mutually exclusive aetiologies (either "natural" or from witchcraft). In contrast with what is commonly believed, there seems to be no clear cut distinction between diseases suitable for management by western medicine and diseases to be managed solely by traditional health practitioners. Moreover, these data do not support the commonly held notion that the decision to seek western medicine to treat fever is considered a "last resort". Results strongly imply that some severe cases of fever, being initially considered supernatural, may partially or completely escape medical attention.

  2. Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions in delusions and hallucinations of Chinese schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-Shing

    2003-06-01

    Religious beliefs and superstitions have an important impact on the psychopathology of psychiatric patients. Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions, such as fortune telling, Buddhist gods, Taoist gods, historical heroic gods and ancestor worship, have important influence on subjective psychotic experiences, in particular delusions and hallucinations. By means of empirical phenomenological case narration, the writer shows that all these traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions tend to affect the contents, manifestation and meaningfulness of delusion and hallucination. They also serve as a means to replace clients' self-identity. They appear in the form of a supernatural force to resolve all difficulties, cause of troubles and misfortune, stress and coping mechanisms.

  3. Monstrous melodrama: Expanding the scope of melodramatic identification to interpret negative fan responses to "Supernatural"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Schmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines fan responses to an episode of the CW television series Supernatural; the episode features a metatext including a number of shout-outs and jokes about fandom. The most controversial of the shout-outs related to "Wincest," a form of slash featuring an incestuous sexual relationship between the two lead characters. Ien Ang's notion of melodramatic identification is revamped for use in relation to contemporary television reception and specifically to interpret negative fan responses to this episode. I argue that the theory of melodramatic identification can be employed not only to understand soap opera viewers but also viewers of many other kinds of television, particularly cult TV with its frequent reliance on serialized melodramatic narratives. I further argue that not only is Supernatural a melodramatic text, but also that text must be viewed as extending beyond the narrative world proper to the multiple narratives or texts comprised by the industrial and cultural context of the show. These together constitute a multilayered melodrama with which the fan identifies and to which she can also contribute through extratextual fan activities. That is, participation in slash and Wincest communities can be viewed as expression of melodramatic identification. This accounts for the strong negative responses of some fans who perceive that the show's producers are exposing and/or mocking them.

  4. Classification of natural and supernatural causes of mental distress. Development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, M

    1990-11-01

    This paper describes the background and development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire designed to explore how people from different cultures explain mental distress. A 45-item questionnaire was developed with items derived from the Murdock et al. categories, with additional items covering western notions of physiological causation and stress. The questionnaire was administered to 261 people, mostly college students. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis shows four clusters of mental distress: a) stress; b) western physiological; c) nonwestern physiological; and d) supernatural. These clusters form two dimensions: western physiological vs. supernatural and impersonal vs. personalistic explanations. Natural and stress items are separated from supernatural and nonwestern physiological items along the first dimension. Brain damage, physical illness, and genetic defects have the greatest separation along the first dimension. Being hot, the body being out of balance, and wind currents passing through the body most strongly represent the non-western physiological category. The questionnaire has the potential to be used for community health screening and for monitoring patient care, as well as with students in the health sciences and with health practitioners.

  5. On European Religious Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.

  6. The Coexistence of Natural and Supernatural Explanations across Cultures and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H.; Evans, E. Margaret; Rosengren, Karl S.; Harris, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Although often conceptualized in contradictory terms, the common assumption that natural and supernatural explanations are incompatible is psychologically inaccurate. Instead, there is considerable evidence that the same individuals use both natural and supernatural explanations to interpret the very same events and that there are multiple ways in…

  7. Pastoral care and religious support as a part of treatment of religious patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Đurović Aleksandar; Sovilj Saša; Đokić Ivana; Brdareski Zorica; Vukomanović Aleksandra; Ilić Nataša; Milavić-Vujković Merica

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care a...

  8. The English Version of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB-E: First Results from British College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Human-Friedrich Unterrainer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a steadily growing interest of religious/spiritual issues in several areas of psychology; a variety of reliable and valid means of assessing the different facets of religiosity/spirituality have been developed. However, there is still some need for multidimensional approaches. With respect to the positive experience with the German version of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being, we developed an English version of this scale (MI-RSWB-E in order to facilitate research in this budding field. The MI-RSWB-E was tested and validated on a sample of British college-students (n = 400. First, the factor structure and psychometric properties of the MI-RSWB-E were analysed. As a second step, MI-RSWB-E dimensions were related to a variety of indicators of personality and mental health. An in-depth analysis provided evidence in support of the psychometric quality of the MI-RSWB-E, and the ability of its proposed six-factor structure. The MI-RSWB-E dimensions were also found to be substantially related to personality factors as well as with indicators of subjective well-being and mental illness. In light of these findings the MI-RSWB-E could be considered as a suitable tool in the assessment of different facets of religiosity/spirituality.

  9. Supernatural in society. (Cho) to shakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S. (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    The technologies prefixed with 'super' have offered the conveniences in the various aspects of the society including the industrial field up to present. Firstly a conception 'super high speed transportation system' has realized the 'supersonic aircraft' and 'ultra super express train', etc. such as a linear motor car, and moreover is developing the 'superconducting propulsive ship' and so forth. In the information oriented society, the information processing speed of computer has made a rapid progress by the development of very high speed large scale integrated circuit etc. In the field of manufacture, there are the magnetic head of video tape recorder and the lens of camera as products close to us manufactured by the 'super precision working.' As for the products adhered closely to ous lives, there are medical equipments, wedling machine, fish detector, etc. utilizing the 'ultrasonic wave', as well as 'supermultistoried building,' etc. Furthermore, turning a loon on the world of culture and art, the activities of the 'surrealism' are giving a substantial effect. It is important that the technology prefixed with 'super' will be let developed, and not only the conveniences, but also the harmony between the human being and nature will be realized in a better form in the future as well.

  10. Religious Harmony Within Religious Manuscript (The Study of Serat Purwocampur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisri Ruchani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Javanese manuscript is a noble  heritage that should be preserved. This study was conducted to determine the values of harmony contained in the Serat Purwocampur. The method used in this study on a content analysis and philology. Serat Purwocampur consists of four kinds of macapat song: Asmaradhana, Girisa, Pangkur, and Dhandhanggula. Briefly, this manuscript contains ancient stories and supernatural, such as gods associated with the prophets or otherwise. Value of harmony contained in this manuscript is the acculturation between Hinduism and Islam (Islamic Javanization. Islam spread peacefully in Java, in additions Islam also taught its followers (the Javanese to perform religion both syari’at and hakikat.

  11. Morality is real, objective, and supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to briefly introduce and defend the idea that God is the source of our moral obligations. In contrast to Michael Shermer's paper, which defends a naturalistic position about the foundations of morality, this approach is explicitly supernaturalistic. The paper begins by defining how "God" will be understood, and then spells out some of the details of how, on the proposed view, moral obligations are to depend upon God. The third section briefly reviews some of the leading arguments for this view, before the paper concludes with a discussion of the Euthyphro dilemma. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Political liberalism and religious claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  13. Annihilating love and heterosexuality without women: Romance, generic difference, and queer politics in "Supernatural" fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Flegel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the differing generic tropes and sexual politics evident in Supernatural slash and in J2 fan fic. We argue that while some stories within Supernatural fan fiction provide happy endings to the characters that are denied them in the show's canon, dark!fic instead focuses on the intensity and exclusivity of Sam and Dean's love, thus illuminating dangers at the heart of the one-true-love trope. We also argue that RPS written within the Supernatural fan community demonstrates greater adherence to conventional romance tropes and normative sexualities, and thus reveals important ideological constructs of heteronormativity.

  14. Relationship between first treatment contact and supernatural beliefs in caregivers of patients with Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grover, Sandeep; Nebhinani, Naresh; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Avasthi, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. Methods...

  15. Cultural diversity in causal attributions for illness: the role of the supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, H; Klonoff, E A

    1994-04-01

    We investigated cultural diversity in beliefs about the causes of illness and assessed the possibility that popular free-form methodologies (asking subjects to generate causes) inhibit minorities from expressing their belief in supernatural causes. As predicted, when asked to generate causes of illness and rate these in terms of their importance, whites and minorities did not differ in the number or type (natural vs supernatural) of causes they generated or in the importance rating they assigned to these. However, when these same subjects were provided with natural and supernatural causes to rate in terms of importance, minorities rated supernatural causes significantly more important than did whites, and more minorities than whites endorsed such causes. Cultural differences in causal attributions for illness are examined, and the role of methodology in determining such attributions is highlighted.

  16. Religiousness and prostate cancer screening in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.

  17. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness among Malay patients: impact on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, S M; Khan, U A; Hasanah, C I

    1996-10-01

    The concept of aetiology of mental illness in 134 Malay patients was investigated by means of a 20-item checklist. About 53% of the patients attributed their illnesses to supernatural agents. Witchcraft and possession by evil spirits were regarded as common causes of illness. The number of patients who believed in supernatural causes of their mental illness was significantly higher among those who had consulted bomohs (Malay traditional healers) than among those who had not consulted them. The belief that mental illness is caused by supernatural agents is firmly held by bomohs, who reinforce this notion in those who seek their advice. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness was not significantly associated with age, gender, level of education or occupation of the patients. Patients who believed in supernatural causes of mental illness were also found to show poor drug compliance, and the number of such patients at 6 months follow-up was significantly lower than the corresponding figure for those who did not believe in supernatural causes. The importance of understanding the patients' cultural background when treating psychiatric patients is highlighted.

  18. Relationship between first treatment contact and supernatural beliefs in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Nebhinani, N; Chakrabarti, S; Shah, R; Avasthi, A

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. METHODS. A total of 122 caregivers (aged ≥ 18 years, staying with patient ≥ 1 year and involved in patients' care) of consecutive patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (according to the ICD-10) were evaluated for their supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact. RESULTS. The first treatment contact was a government or private psychiatrist in slightly more than half (53.3%) of the patients, while it was faith healers in 23.8% of the patients. Around three quarters (74.6%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to ≥ 1 supernatural belief (like sorcery / witchcraft, ghosts, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary influences, evil spirits, and bad deeds in previous life) and more than half (57.4%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to > 1 supernatural belief. It was observed that those who contacted faith healers for their patients' treatment had significantly higher attribution of the symptoms to supernatural causes. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatural beliefs were common in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and the majority attributed their patients' symptoms to these beliefs. It signifies an urgent need for mental health literacy in India.

  19. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Verkaaik

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buil

  20. The Case for Humanism in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, David

    2015-01-01

    A dialogic approach to religious education is advanced in which subject matter emerges or transforms in the educational event. An example of religious dialogue is considered, through which it is demonstrated that religious education, in order to be considered educational, must take seriously the possibility of the transformation of its subject…

  1. The Case for Humanism in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, David

    2015-01-01

    A dialogic approach to religious education is advanced in which subject matter emerges or transforms in the educational event. An example of religious dialogue is considered, through which it is demonstrated that religious education, in order to be considered educational, must take seriously the possibility of the transformation of its subject…

  2. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  3. Why religious human beings need evolutionary epistemology! A theological and evolutionary viewpoint of 'why humans need to embrace evolutionary epistemology'

    OpenAIRE

    Johan A. van Rooyen

    2016-01-01

    I put forward an understanding of evolutionary epistemology that rescues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we as theologians should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams. The author feels that scholars, especially theologians, should firstly take evolution seriously and secondly regard evolutionary epistemology as important as evolution itself, the reason being theologians should know that it is of paramount importan...

  4. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society: the gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2014-10-01

    Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further studies on religious coping in secular societies are required.

  5. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Watson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  6. Why religious human beings need evolutionary epistemology! A theological and evolutionary viewpoint of 'why humans need to embrace evolutionary epistemology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan A. van Rooyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I put forward an understanding of evolutionary epistemology that rescues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we as theologians should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams. The author feels that scholars, especially theologians, should firstly take evolution seriously and secondly regard evolutionary epistemology as important as evolution itself, the reason being theologians should know that it is of paramount importance for their systematic-theological intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications, which is embarking on a way of thinking that regards evolutionary epistemology as a friend in their accommodation of their respective theological fields of interest. This accommodation is substantial as it will enhance their respective theological disciplines as �an exhilarating vision of God�. Evolutionary epistemology takes a pragmatic view of humans. Evolutionary epistemologists question how humans really behave and what the true origin of their behaviour is. In contrast to this programme, many conceptions of humans are based on an idealisation of our species.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Evolutionary epistemology takes a pragmatic view of humans. Evolutionary epistemologists question how humans really behave and what the true origin of their behaviour is. In contrast to this programme, many conceptions of humans are based on an idealisation of our species. I then put forward my own understanding of evolutionary epistemology and conclude that evolutionary epistemology recues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams.Keywords: Evolutionary epistemology

  7. The Validation of a Spanish Version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being in Mexican College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Daniela; Fink, Andreas; Perez Gomez, Maria Margarita; Lewis, Andrew; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich

    2016-02-18

    After the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was validated as a reliable instrument for the Western European context it is primarily intended in this study to translate the measure into Spanish and adapt it for the Mexican culture. Furthermore we investigate whether spirituality/religiosity has a similar impact on indicators of personality and subjective well-being in Mexico as it does in samples drawn from Western European cultures. 190 students (99 females) from public and private universities in Guadalajara, all Mexican citizens, were involved in this study. We found strong evidential support for the six factor solution of the Original MI-RSWB in this Mexican population. By mirroring previous research the measure showed a highly satisfying internal consistency (α = .91 for the total score and .75 or higher for all six sub dimensions). Furthermore the total RSWB score was observed to be related with Eysenck's personality dimensions Extraversion (r = .24, p Neuroticism. There was also a positive correlation with Sense of Coherence (r = .31, p subjective well-being was well supported in this first application within a Mexican cultural context.

  8. Religiousness and health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    % CI 0.75, 0.98) and depressive symptoms 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93), whereas being religiously educated lowered odds of poor self-rated health (SRH) 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.93) and long-term health problems 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.95). The more religious had lower odds of limitations with activities of daily...... living 0.76 (95% CI 0.58, 0.99) and depressive symptoms 0.77 (95% CI 0.64, 0.92) than other respondents, and compared to people who only prayed and did not have organizational involvement, they had lower odds of poor SRH 0.71 (95% CI 0.52, 0.97) and depressive symptoms 0.66 (95% CI 0.50, 0.......87). Conversely, people who only prayed had higher odds of depressive symptoms than non-religious people 1.46 (95% CI 1.15, 1.86). Our findings suggest two types of religiousness: 1. Restful religiousness (praying, taking part in a religious organization and being religiously educated), which is associated...

  9. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    of these activities (heart rate variability, blood pressure, cortisol and oxytocin levels). Questionnaires and short interviews will give us a further assessment of the pain experience of the participants, their religious beliefs and practices as well as their previous experience with religious coping strategies. We......Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic...... resonance imaging) experiments and use experimental pain stimuli to assess how a target group of religious participants react to and experience pain during religious activities/stimuli, prayer and religious symbols. In addition, different biomarkers will be measured to register the somatic response...

  10. Are Religious Tolerance and Pluralism Reachable Ideals? A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the psychological mechanisms that may prevent individuals from achieving religious tolerance and religious pluralism. After defining these concepts and explaining why they are desirable outcomes, four psychological obstacles to the achievement of religious tolerance and religious pluralism will be explored by…

  11. Meta-concepts, thinking skills and religious education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education

  12. Supernatural believers attribute more intentions to random movement than skeptics: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Raij, Tuukka T

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has attempted to explain why some believe in the supernatural and some do not. One suggested explanation for commonly held supernatural beliefs is that they are a by-product of theory of mind (ToM) processing. However, this does not explain why skeptics with intact ToM processes do not believe. We employed fMRI to investigate activation differences in ToM-related brain circuitries between supernatural believers (N = 12) and skeptics (N = 11) while they watched 2D animations of geometric objects moving intentionally or randomly and rated the intentionality of the animations. The ToM-related circuitries in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were localized by contrasting intention-rating-related and control-rating-related brain activation. Compared with the skeptics, the supernatural believers rated the random movements as more intentional and had stronger activation of the ToM-related circuitries during the animation with random movement. The strength of the ToM-related activation covaried with the intentionality ratings. These findings provide evidence that differences in ToM-related activations are associated with supernatural believers' tendency to interpret random phenomena in mental terms. Thus, differences in ToM processing may contribute to differences between believing and unbelieving.

  13. Suitability of Local Resource Management Practices Based on Supernatural Enforcement Mechanisms in the Local Social-cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Sasaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental anthropological studies on natural resource management have widely demonstrated and thematized local resource management practices based on the interactions between local people and supernatural agencies and their role in maintaining natural resources. In Indonesia, even though the legal status of local people's right to the forest and forest resources is still weak, the recent transition toward decentralization presents a growing opportunity for local people to collaborate with outsiders such as governmental agencies and environmental nongovernmental organizations in natural resource management. In such situations, in-depth understanding of the value of local resource management practices is needed to promote self-directed and effective resource management. Here, we focus on local forest resource management and its suitability in the local social-cultural context in central Seram, east Indonesia. Local resource management appears to be embedded in the wider social-cultural context of the local communities. However, few intensive case studies in Indonesia have addressed the relationship between the Indigenous resource management practices closely related to a people's belief in supernatural agents and the social-cultural context. We illustrate how the well-structured use of forest resources is established and maintained through these interactions. We then investigate how local resource management practices relate to the social-cultural and natural resources context of an upland community in central Seram and discuss the possible future applications for achieving conservation.

  14. The Religious in Responses to Mass Atrocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the possibilities and problems pertaining to attempts to bring religious – or semi-religious – allegiances and perspectives to bear in responses to the mass atrocities of our time: When and how can religious language or religious beliefs and practices be either necessary or helpful? And what are the problems......A peculiar and fascinating aspect of many responses to mass atrocities is the creative and eclectic use of religious language and frameworks. Some crimes are so extreme that they “cry out to heaven,” drawing people to employ religious vocabulary to make meaning of and to judge what happened......, to deal with questions of guilt and responsibility, and to re-establish hope and trust in their lives. Moreover, in recent years, religious actors have become increasingly influential in worldwide contexts of conflict-resolution and transitional justice. This collection offers a critical assessment...

  15. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    Economics offers an analytical framework to consider human behaviour including religious behaviour. Within the realm of Expected Utility Theory, religious belief and activity could be interpreted as an insurance both for current life events and for afterlife rewards. Based on that framework, we...... would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results. However, a general concern...... regards the problems of spurious correlations due to underlying omitted or unobservable characteristics shaping both religious activities and risk attitudes. This paper examines empirically the demand for religion by analysing the association between risk attitudes on the one hand, and church attandance...

  16. Religious competence as cultural competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of cultural competence often refer to the need to be aware and attentive to the religious and spiritual needs and orientations of patients. However, the institution of psychiatry maintains an ambivalent attitude to the incorporation of religion and spirituality into psychiatric practice. This is despite the fact that many patients, especially those from underserved and underprivileged minority backgrounds, are devotedly religious and find much solace and support in their religiosity. I use the case of mental health of African Americans as an extended example to support the argument that psychiatric services must become more closely attuned to religious matters. I suggest ways in which this can be achieved. Attention to religion can aid in the development of culturally competent and accessible services, which in turn, may increase engagement and service satisfaction among religious populations. PMID:22421686

  17. NON-HUMAN SPIRITS, INHUMAN SPIRITS: THE SUPERNATURE WORLD OF THE SURUWAHA FROM THE PURUS RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aparicio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Suruwaha, a group from the Purus River basin, Western Amazonia, that speaks an Arawan language, conceive beings inhabiting other regions of the cosmos as jadawasu, non-human - and even some of them as inhuman. These “spirits” have bodies with human appearance and are able to interact with humans’ bodies. The Suruwaha identify various supernatural beings profiles: kurimia, karuji, uhwamy, zamakusa - a panorama of multiplicity integrating homogeneity and difference. On the one hand there is a possible similarity with humans; on the other, a difference that enables constant unfolding (consequently raising confusion and incommensurability, danuzy. The descriptions of their bodies are recurrent, presenting them as subjects who develop a peculiar "physiology" which prevents them of being characterized as intangible or invisible. What exactly defines these beings is not, strictly, their "spiritual" condition, but their heterotopic condition: they are different from humans mainly because their place is constitutively other, not because their nature is different. “Heterotopy” is the trait that distinguishes them from the jadawa, inhabitants of the humanized space.

  18. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer...... to the compatibility question is not obvious and requires a systematic analysis of secularism. Based on a distinction between a general concept and specific conceptions of secularism I offer a general structure for conceptions of secularism that incorporates both a) basic values, e.g. political equality and freedom...... of conscience, b) intermediate political principles of separation, e.g. rights to religious liberty, and c) derived normative prescriptions, e.g. that an established church is unacceptable. I illustrate the structure using the conceptions of secularism advocated by Robert Audi and by Charles Taylor and Jocelyn...

  19. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  20. The secular and the supernatural: madness and psychiatry in the short stories of Muriel Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, A W

    2015-01-01

    Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic.

  1. Why there is no supernatural morality: response to Miller's opening statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    If one is going to argue that objective morality depends on an Archimedean point outside the natural world, then it would seem to imply that this source is necessarily supernatural. Thus, Christian Miller begins by defining precisely who he thinks this supernatural moral law giver is: the omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent creator of the universe who is still actively involved with human affairs-Elohim, Jehovah, Yahweh, or Allah-aka God. Already I'm skeptical. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. The sacred construction: healers and religious practices in Cambé/Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Maceda Rubert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to comprehend the intrinsic relations of multiple memories present in the disposition of religious images of faith healer ladies in the city of Cambé. Through the dialogue with the oral source and the image source, we seek to relate the historic aspects to the particularities present in the studied cases. We reflected in this research on the concepts of identity, memory and healing present in these relations of exchange between the supernatural and the terrestrial, paying attention to the meaning of the plurality of images present in this space through the image analysis and the narratives and histories of ex-votes described in the faith healers testimony. The research discussed the religious reminiscences based on memories, identities and family heritages of the devotees, relating their particular and private lives with the processes of the Brazilian cultural and religious formation.

  3. Individual characteristics and religiousness among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Snežana D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the research data on religiousness collected at different periods in Serbia and former Yugoslavia. The aim of the paper is to point to the tendencies in religious practice and the expansion of religiousness among young people in different periods, as well as individual psychological factors of religiousness. The data shows that the number of young people who declare themselves religious has increased significantly in the last 15 years, compared to the period of a quarter of century ago. In addition to the revival of tradition as an answer to social crisis and uncertainty which affects young people most, the increase in religiousness is connected to certain forms of social democratization as well as it being socially desirable. The data on social-demographic correlates of religiousness shows that the degree of religiousness varies depending on the age, gender, social background and education level. However, the more recent research data shows that these differences have become smaller which indicates a certain homogenization among young people. Religiousness is consistently and positively connected to authoritarianism, conformism and intolerance, while certain changes have occurred in regard to its connection with desirable social values. Similar to the tendency observed in other research on values the data on factors and correlates of religiousness, especially among young people, point to a specific value relativism and confused values.

  4. A psychology of religious plurality: from intra-religious dialogue to intra-psychic reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism.

  5. From canon to fanon and back again: The epic journey of "Supernatural" and its fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gray

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Supernatural and its fans is tested through the suspension of disbelief with its evolving mythos and through its canonical portrayal of fandom. This testing has allowed the relationship to grow deeper and more extensive than most similar relationships, and while it is not always smooth, it remains largely positive.

  6. From canon to fanon and back again: The epic journey of "Supernatural" and its fans

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Gray

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between Supernatural and its fans is tested through the suspension of disbelief with its evolving mythos and through its canonical portrayal of fandom. This testing has allowed the relationship to grow deeper and more extensive than most similar relationships, and while it is not always smooth, it remains largely positive.

  7. Far Out: Some Approaches to Teaching the Speculative Literature of Science Fiction and the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Instructional Planning and Services.

    This curriculum guide contains course descriptions (for minicourses and semester-long courses), outlines, and class projects for teaching science fiction and the supernatural in junior and senior high schools. The eight course descriptions include objectives, methods, activities, and resources and materials. Lists of science fiction books and…

  8. An Integrated Perspective of Humanism and Supernaturalism for Education: C. S. Lewis's Version of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chun

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some theoretical reflections on the connection between C. S. Lewis's thoughts on the purpose and process of education and his understanding of supernatural human nature which has been relatively little explored. An introduction about Lewis's career as a college teacher blends into the background of this paper. It is followed by…

  9. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas E; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2015-04-07

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists-it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or 'moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cross-cultural studies claiming to support the MHG hypothesis rely on correlational analyses only and do not correct for the statistical non-independence of sampled cultures. Here we use a Bayesian phylogenetic approach with a sample of 96 Austronesian cultures to test the MHG hypothesis as well as an alternative supernatural punishment hypothesis that allows punishment by a broad range of moralizing agents. We find evidence that broad supernatural punishment drives political complexity, whereas MHGs follow political complexity. We suggest that the concept of MHGs diffused as part of a suite of traits arising from cultural exchange between complex societies. Our results show the power of phylogenetic methods to address long-standing debates about the origins and functions of religion in human society. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Bewitchment, Biology, or Both: The Co-Existence of Natural and Supernatural Explanatory Frameworks across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies examined the co-existence of natural and supernatural explanations for illness and disease transmission, from a developmental perspective. The participants (5-, 7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and adults; N = 366) were drawn from 2 Sesotho-speaking South African communities, where Western biomedical and traditional healing frameworks were…

  11. What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

  12. An Integrated Perspective of Humanism and Supernaturalism for Education: C. S. Lewis's Version of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chun

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some theoretical reflections on the connection between C. S. Lewis's thoughts on the purpose and process of education and his understanding of supernatural human nature which has been relatively little explored. An introduction about Lewis's career as a college teacher blends into the background of this paper. It is followed by…

  13. Relationship of supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Patra, Bichitra N; Aggarwal, Munish; Avasthi, Ajit; Chakrabarti, Subho; Malhotra, Savita

    2014-12-01

    The etiology of mental illness has been attributed to many different causes by people of various cultural backgrounds, including supernatural beliefs. This in turn affects the help-seeking behavior. Aim of this study was to explore the supernatural belief and pathways of care in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) attending a tertiary care hospital located in north India. In all, 89 consecutive patients diagnosed with OCD (according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10)) and ≥ 15 years of age were evaluated for their supernatural belief and help seeking. More than half of the patients (54%) believed in supernatural causes and 57.3% attributed their illness to supernatural causes. In addition to supernatural causes, many patients also attributed their illness to stress (household/work-related stress) or chemical imbalance in the body and or mind. About two-thirds of the patients (n = 58; 65.2%) first contacted a psychiatrist for their symptoms of OCD. Those who first contacted faith healers believed in one of the supernatural causations. Patients with OCD hold multiple beliefs regarding the etiology and treatment of mental illness which can affect their pathways to care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Is God just a big person? Children's conceptions of God across cultures and religious traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhof, Melanie A; Johnson, Carl N

    2017-03-01

    The present research examines the influence of intuitive cognitive domain and religion on the God concepts of children growing up in religious traditions that present God in ways varying from abstract to concrete. In Study 1, we compared children from a Latter-Day Saints (LDS) background with those from mainstream Christian (MC) backgrounds in the United States. In contrast to MC theology that holds that God is all-knowing, all-powerful, and disembodied, LDS theology depicts God as embodied. In Study 1, 3- to 7-year-olds from LDS and MC backgrounds were asked about supernatural mental and immaterial attributes of God, a ghost, a dad, and a bug. In Study 2, children ages 3-7 from Muslim and Catholic backgrounds in Indonesia were presented with a variant of Study 1. Taken together, the two studies examine the God concepts of children raised in three different religious traditions with God concepts that range from highly abstract to concrete. Overall, we find that the youngest children, regardless of religion, distinguish God from humans and hold similar ideas of God, attributing more supernatural psychological than physical properties. Older children's conceptions of God are more in line with the theological notions of their traditions. The results suggest that children are not simply anthropomorphic in their God concepts, but early on understand supernatural agents as having special mental properties and they continue to learn about differences between agents, influenced by their religious traditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Research on children's God concepts has established that children begin to distinguish the mind of God from that of humans by around age 4-5. The main debate in the field is whether children start out thinking about God in anthropomorphic terms or whether they start out with an undifferentiated idea of agents' minds as all having access to knowledge. Research on children's understanding of immortality has

  15. The minds of gods: a comparative study of supernatural agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant

    2013-10-01

    The present work is the first study to systematically compare the minds of gods by examining some of the intuitive processes that guide how people reason about them. By examining the Christian god and the spirit-masters of the Tyva Republic, it first confirms that the consensus view of the Christian god's mind is one of omniscience with acute concern for interpersonal social behavior (i.e., moral behaviors) and that Tyvan spirit-masters are not as readily attributed with knowledge or concern of moral information. Then, it reports evidence of a moralization bias of gods' minds; American Christians who believe that God is omniscient rate God as more knowledgeable of moral behaviors than nonmoral information. Additionally, Tyvans who do not readily report pro- or antisocial behavior among the things that spirit-masters care about will nevertheless rate spirit-masters' knowledge and concern of moral information higher than nonmoral information. However, this knowledge is distributed spatially; the farther away from spirits' place of governance a moral behavior takes place, the less they know and care about it. Finally, the wider the breadth of knowledge Tyvans attribute to spirit-masters, the more they attribute moral concern for behaviors that transpire beyond their jurisdiction. These results further demonstrate that there is a significant gulf between expressed beliefs and intuitive religious cognition and provides evidence for a moralization bias of gods' minds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Origins of Religiousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding

    Across 800 regions of the World, this research shows that people are more religious when living in regions that are more frequently razed by natural disasters. This is in line with psychological theory stressing that religious people tend to cope with adverse life events by seeking comfort...... in their religion or searching for a reason for the event; for instance that the event was an act of God. This is termed religious coping. Natural disasters are a source for adverse life events, and thus one way to interpret my findings is by way of religious coping. The results are robust to various measures...... religious people are less likely to move out of disaster areas as they see the disaster as an act of God), I further show that second generation immigrants whose mothers descend from natural disaster areas, are more religious than their counterparts with ancestors from calmer areas. Why should economists...

  17. Origins of Religiousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding

    Across 800 regions of the World, this research shows that people are more religious when living in regions that are more frequently razed by natural disasters. This is in line with psychological theory stressing that religious people tend to cope with adverse life events by seeking comfort...... in their religion or searching for a reason for the event; for instance that the event was an act of God. This is termed religious coping. Natural disasters are a source for adverse life events, and thus one way to interpret my findings is by way of religious coping. The results are robust to various measures...... religious people are less likely to move out of disaster areas as they see the disaster as an act of God), I further show that second generation immigrants whose mothers descend from natural disaster areas, are more religious than their counterparts with ancestors from calmer areas. Why should economists...

  18. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  19. Secularism, Criticism, and Religious Studies Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Secularization, the idea that religion would gradually diminish over time, was once widely assumed to be true by scholars of religion, but the unexpected resurgence of religious traditions has called it into question. Related debates on the distinction between religion and the secular have destabilized religious studies further. What does the…

  20. Research on Religious Identity of Orthodoxy Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khukhlaev O.E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of socio-psychological research of Orthodox youth religious identity. The research was carried out in the city of Smolensk, Russian Federation, on 261 respondents, high school pupils (9—10th grades. According to the models of G. Allport and R. Gorsuch & S. E. McPherson, the religious identity as a complex socio-psychological concept contains 4-factor structure basing on personal- social and inner-outer scales but doesn’t seem to be a simple Orthodox affiliation. Different components of the religious identity are studied through their connection with value orientations (according to S. Schwartz. To study the religious identity and value orientations we used the adapted version of 32 items questionnaire based on Individual / Social Religious Identity Measure by D. Van Camp and S. Schwartz’s Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-R2. Almost all values connected with religious identity components seem to be socially motivated. It can be said that contemporary Orthodox youth religious identity is figured out to possess a pronounced social character. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project № 15-06-10843 «Religious identity risks and resources in present-day Russia: cross-cultural analysis».

  1. Moralistic gods, supernatural punishment and the expansion of human sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin Grant; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-02-18

    Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality.

  2. Degeneracy and English Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhof, Marius

    2010-01-01

    Nietzsche accused Socrates of being degenerate. The question is posed whether practitioners of contemporary religious education may be suffering from this condition, in particular through the modern practice of associating religion with secular philosophies or "beliefs". Through the examination of tolerance and "respect for all" in the…

  3. Degeneracy and English Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhof, Marius

    2010-01-01

    Nietzsche accused Socrates of being degenerate. The question is posed whether practitioners of contemporary religious education may be suffering from this condition, in particular through the modern practice of associating religion with secular philosophies or "beliefs". Through the examination of tolerance and "respect for…

  4. "Kinda like the folklore of its day": "Supernatural," fairy tales, and ostension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tosenberger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the use of folklore in the television series Supernatural: the show does not simply retell folk narratives, but performs them both diegetically and metatextually in a process known as ostension. In the process of performance, main characters Sam and Dean often research and analyze the stories themselves, and perform portions of the folk narrative in order to bring about a resolution. This essay focuses upon episode 3.05 "Bedtime Stories," which does not simply depict the folk narrative genre of fairy tales, but also directly engages with the discourse surrounding fairy tales in popular culture; in particular, the episode reproduces widespread understandings of fairy tales as a gendered genre. The essay concludes with a discussion of fan fiction that uses fairy tales, seeing it as a transformative response to Supernatural's own transformation of folk narratives.

  5. The concept of body in religious studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Kamppinen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has become fashionable to speak about embodied religion, religion as bodily processes and embodiment in general. In this article the different uses of the concept of the body are analysed and the different contexts in which the concept can be used in coherent and systematic ways are clarified, and furthermore in such a way that it enhances the methodology of religious studies. Bodies are relevant in religious studies first and foremost for the reason that some bodies support religious beliefs, desires and actions, such as priests in the Catholic Church or members of the organizations of charismatic Christianity. Secondly, bodies are ascribed religious meanings. That is, in addition to a human body x, we have one or more religious actors who ascribe religious meanings to this particular body. Even though bodily issues are important for biological creatures such as human beings, they are not relevant for religious studies if they do not involve secondary theories that attach religious contents to them.

  6. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications...

  7. Healing the Wounds: St. Augustine, Catechesis, and Religious Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    St. Augustine of Hippos' writing on education offers a fresh lens through which the conceptual framework of religious education in the Catholic school can be understood. Recent teaching of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church on the distinctive nature of religious education and catechesis has challenged religious educators to find an alternative…

  8. Healing the Wounds: St. Augustine, Catechesis, and Religious Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    St. Augustine of Hippos' writing on education offers a fresh lens through which the conceptual framework of religious education in the Catholic school can be understood. Recent teaching of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church on the distinctive nature of religious education and catechesis has challenged religious educators to find an alternative…

  9. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joscph G

    2005-03-01

    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  10. Religious Education for Generating Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how religious education began at Esperanza College in North Philadelphia, one of the poorest counties of the United States. It also is the largest community of returning citizens in Pennsylvania. Student access and success in higher education continues to be impacted by the effects of structural racism and systemic poverty.…

  11. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters and the...

  12. Froebel and Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marion

    1983-01-01

    Describes the background of Froebel's religious ideas, focusing on experiences gained while a young child at home, an adolescent apprentice, and a young adult at university. Discusses briefly the reaction of the church to Froebel's thought and shows how Froebel's religious ideas influenced his ideas about educating young children. (RH)

  13. Inter-religious feelings of Sunni and Alevi Muslim minorities : The role of religious commitment and host national identification

    OpenAIRE

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines inter-religious attitudes from the perspective of Muslim minorities living in Western Europe. We examine both Sunni and Alevi Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, and focus on their global feelings towards multiple religious out-groups (Christians, Jews, Muslim out-group, and non-believers). We hypothesize that Sunnis would dislike religious out-groups more than Alevis, and that these group differences in religious out-group feelings can be expl...

  14. Pluralism and Religious Harmony in Religious Elites Perspectives in Malang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Sumbulah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in  Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts  and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research  data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same as tolerance, mutual respect, the goal of all religions are the same, and recognize the fact that there are many religions in this world. Second, religiousharmony have meaning as a condition where there is no oppression and domination of one religion over other religions, awakening a deep awareness of diversity, respect for human rights, and the willingness to spread kindness and love for fellow human beings. Third, religious harmony can be achieved through internal efforts to strengthen the faith of each and build awareness to develop a positive attitude towards other religions. In external efforts to create harmony done through emancipatory dialogue and cooperation to resolve humanitarian issues. Fourth, positive attitude that supports the creation of harmony of religions is the willingness and awareness to understand each other and share experiences. Egoism, truth claims, fanaticism, and exclusivism is a negative attitude and expression recognized by the religious elite can interfere with the establishment of inter-religious harmony.

  15. Neurology of ecstatic religious and similar experiences: Ecstatic, orgasmic, and musicogenic seizures. Stendhal syndrome and autoscopic phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M

    2016-06-20

    All human experiences, including mystical and religious ones, are the result of brain functional activity. Thanks to the study of cases of ecstatic epilepsy with structural (MRI) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI, PET, SPECT) and neurophysiological technologies (recording and stimulation with intracranial electrodes), we now have a better knowledge of certain mental states which involve pleasant and affective symptoms and clarity of mind. These ecstatic experiences are thought to be caused by the activation of the anterior insular cortex and some neuronal networks (basically related to mirror neurons and salience) participating in introspection, social cognition, memory, and emotional processes. Thus, neuroscience could explain in a retrospective way some facts surrounding the situations of such relevant figures as Paul the Apostle, Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada, and Dostoevsky, whose origin was previously considered paranormal or supernatural. Ecstatic epilepsy shares symptoms and mechanisms with orgasmic epilepsy (spontaneous orgasms in the course of epileptic seizures), musicogenic epilepsy (epileptic seizures triggered by listening to a certain musical piece), and also with Stendhal syndrome (neuropsychiatric disturbances caused when an individual is exposed to large amounts of art) and some autoscopic phenomena (out-of-body experiences that occasionally take place in imminent death situations). In all these events, there are pleasant and affective symptoms which have a great impact on patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Religious Studies, Religious Education and the Aims of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    This article interacts with a recent article by Denise Cush and Catherine Robinson in which they call for a new dialogue between religious studies in universities and religious education, and identify a number of developments in religious studies that have implications for the practice of religious education in schools. Cush and Robinson are…

  17. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KUNZMAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately helpstrengthen the broader civic fabric.

  18. A Religious Worldview: Protecting One's Meaning System Through Religious Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby

    2015-11-01

    For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people.

  19. Dimensions of religious involvement and leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Ellison, Christopher G; Burdette, Amy M; Taylor, John; Friedman, Katherine L

    2016-08-01

    Although numerous studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with a wide range of favorable health outcomes, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to cellular aging. In this paper, we tested whether leukocyte telomere length varies according to several dimensions of religious involvement. We used cross-sectional data from the Nashville Stress and Health Study (2011-2014), a large probability sample of 1252 black and white adults aged 22 to 69 living in Davidson County, TN, USA. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction method with albumin as the single-copy reference sequence. Dimensions of religious involvement included religiosity, religious support, and religious coping. Our multivariate analyses showed that religiosity (an index of religious attendance, prayer frequency, and religious identity) was positively associated with leukocyte telomere length, even with adjustments for religious support, religious coping, age, gender, race, education, employment status, income, financial strain, stressful life events, marital status, family support, friend support, depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load. Unlike religiosity, religious support and religious coping were unrelated to leukocyte telomere length across models. Depressive symptoms, smoking, heavy drinking, and allostatic load failed to explain any of the association between religiosity and telomere length. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to link religious involvement and cellular aging. Although our data suggest that adults who frequently attend religious services, pray with regularity, and consider themselves to be religious tend to exhibit longer telomeres than those who attend and pray less frequently and do not consider themselves to be religious, additional research is needed to establish the mechanisms underlying this association.

  20. Religious capital and religious rewards: A study in the economics of religious life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flere Sergej

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious life is studied by way suggested by the rational choice theory and the religious capital theory. The basic contentions of the theory on the nature of religious life having to do with an exchange upon a religious market, by firms offering compensators and rewards, and consumers, is considered. In the empirical analysis, it was validated that the independent (religious capital and dependent (religious rewards of two types were empirically separate constructs. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data indicated a very strong association between religious capital and institutional and ritual experience rewards within religious life, at a cross-cultural analysis, including Bosnian Muslims, Serbian Orthodox, Slovenian Catholics and US Protestants. The association was confirmed as robust at regression inspection with religious socialization. This extends further support for the empirical validity these novel theories of religious life and extensions of economic analysis into religious life.

  1. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.

  2. Religious Doubts and Mental Health in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Association with Religious Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezdy, Aniko; Martos, Tamas; Boland, Vivian; Horvath-Szabo, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Religious doubts seem to be a part of identity and faith development in adolescence and young adulthood. Such doubts, however, are often linked with psychological distress, though the results in the field are not consistent. It seems important therefore to explore further the relationship between religious doubts and mental health. This study…

  3. Religious coping methods of Taiwanese folk religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Jung

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms.

  4. The Religious Spirituality of an Indiana Public School Leader and Its Influence on the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Peters, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    As schools expand secularization and laws limiting religious expression increase, one must not forget the religious spirituality of the individual. Individual religious spirituality is still protected under the United States Constitution. Many researchers feel that this religious spirituality should be nurtured, not discouraged in public schools.…

  5. School religious education in a liberating perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Meza Rueda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Religious education in Colombia, according to Law 115 of 1994, is an area of fundamental training. However, its purpose of promoting the religious dimension of human beings and understanding the role of religion in culture is far from being achieved, because, in practice, it is considered as an area of second order, is disjointed from the curriculum and is still working as the “religion lesson” of the past. What to do against this? Could it be another way of thinking about religious education? We estimate that, as presuppositions and motivations of both liberation theology and liberating pedagogy are still valid today, they may provide clues in this respect. Consequently, this paper not only makes a detailed reading of this reality in some official educational institutions in Colombia, but also sheds light for the school religious education (ERE to be liberating.

  6. Is Giving Up Traditional Religious Culture Part of the Price to be Paid for Acquiring Higher Education? Adaptation of Academic Western Culture by Jewish Israeli University Students of Middle Eastern Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Peri; Bar-Lev, Mordechai

    1983-01-01

    A study of whether the Middle Eastern student feels that attaining the status of "Western modern man" is incompatible with maintaining a traditional, religious way of life is reported. Some loosening of extreme religious practices was found among college students, but there was no evident revolt against home or tradition. (MSE)

  7. The coexistence of natural and supernatural explanations within and across domains and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Justin T A; Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2017-03-01

    People across highly diverse cultural contexts use both natural and supernatural explanations to explain questions of fundamental concern such as death, illness, and human origins. The present study examines the development of explanatory coexistence within and across domains of existential concern in individuals in Tanna, Vanuatu. We examined three age groups: 7- to 12-year-old children, 13- to 18-year-old adolescents, and 19- to 70-year-old adults (N = 72). Within the domain of death, biological and spontaneous explanations were most common across all ages. For illness, children showed the highest rates of explanatory coexistence, while adolescents and adults favoured biological explanations. Within the human origins domain, theistic explanations were most common across the age groups. Overall, these data show that coexistence reasoning in these domains is pervasive across cultures, yet at the same time it is deeply contextually specific, reflecting the nuanced differences in local ecologies and cultural beliefs. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Individuals across highly diverse cultural contexts use both natural and supernatural explanations to understand the events that occur in their lives. Context and cultural input play a large role in determining when and how individuals incorporate natural and supernatural explanations. The development of explanatory coexistence has primarily studied explanations for isolated domains. What does this study add? We examined explanatory coexistence in a culture with recent conversion to Christianity and formal education. The current research examines how individuals reason within and across the domains of human origins, illness, and death. Developmental differences associated with explanatory coexistence are examined. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Religious needs in the tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Weidenfeld, Adi; Ron, Amos

    2008-01-01

    Similar to other tourism subgroups, e.g. elderly, gay, and disabled tourists, the special desires of religious tourists need not be marginalized. Given that religion and tourism can be competitive by nature, it is plausible to question whether tourists who practise their religion at home do so in a similar way while away from home. It is suggested that the relationship between tourism and religion constitutes a valid and important area of research and that satisfying religious needs in the to...

  9. Being Your Own Pictograph Artist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortilla, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    Pictographs may be used by outdoor educators to promote expression of individual ideas, understanding and respect for nature and history, and sharing of ideas. The main categories of rock art are abstract, supernatural and mythological creatures, human figures and man-made objects, hand prints, and animals and birds. Includes a story told in…

  10. Supernatural T cells: genetic modification of T cells for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Michael H; Teng, Michele W L; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K

    2005-12-01

    Immunotherapy is receiving much attention as a means of treating cancer, but complete, durable responses remain rare for most malignancies. The natural immune system seems to have limitations and deficiencies that might affect its ability to control malignant disease. An alternative to relying on endogenous components in the immune repertoire is to generate lymphocytes with abilities that are greater than those of natural T cells, through genetic modification to produce 'supernatural' T cells. This Review describes how such T cells can circumvent many of the barriers that are inherent in the tumour microenvironment while optimizing T-cell specificity, activation, homing and antitumour function.

  11. Bifactor Models of Religious and Spiritual Struggles: Distinct from Religiousness and Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Stauner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS measures important psychological constructs in an underemphasized section of the overlap between religion and well-being. Are religious/spiritual struggles distinct from religiousness, distress, and each other? To test the RSS’ internal discriminant validity, we replicated the original six-factor measurement model across five large samples (N = 5705 and tested the fit of a restricted bifactor model, which supported the mutual viability of multidimensional and unidimensional scoring systems for the RSS. Additionally, we explored a bifactor model with correlated group factors that exhibited optimal fit statistics. This model maintained the correlations among the original factors while extracting a general factor from the RSS. This general factor’s strong correlations with religious participation and belief salience suggested that this factor resembles religiousness itself. Estimating this general factor seemed to improve Demonic and Moral struggles’ independence from religiousness, but did not change any factor’s correlations with neuroticism, depression, anxiety, and stress. These distress factors correlated with most of the independent group factors corresponding to the original dimensions of the RSS, especially Ultimate Meaning and Divine struggles. These analyses demonstrate the discriminant validity of religious/spiritual struggles and the complexity of their relationships with religiousness and distress.

  12. Religious dietary rules and the protection of religious freedom: some evidence from practice in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Abu Salem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian system freedom of worship provided by the Constitution is safeguarded by unilateral and contractual norms, sanctioned for minority confessions by an agreement, named intesa, that also concerns dietary issues. Muslim communities, however, as they have no intesa with the Italian state, are always compelled to negotiate in respect of their religious norms. Religious freedom concerns- not only ritual acts, but also behaviours including dietary ones, which are based on religious beliefs. The aim of this paper is to critically reconstruct how Italy takes charge of religiously-motivated needs concerning food and beverages, both for those confessions holding an intesa (such as Hebraism and for those not (Islam, in order to trace the real degree to which freedom of worship is guaranteed in Italy. The analysis will be focused on the bargaining for religious dietary rules in schools and in constraining institutes, as they are main social spaces of confrontation between believers and the state.

  13. Religious Desecration and Ethnic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    the very source of the universe (Appleby, 2000, pp. 28-30). The concept of the sacred enables the adherents to understand the world around them and be...represents attempts by primitive man to explain the peculiar nature of the universe . His argument is based on the logic that religious behavior was an...activities, he shifted his headquarters to the hostel complex outside the Golden Temple. Due to increased threats, both from the authorities and rival

  14. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui

    2004-01-01

    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  15. Shamans and Kushtakas: North Coast Tales of the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mary Giraudo

    The Tlingit and Haida are Native Americans who inhabit southeast Alaska and share many traditions and stories. Written by a non-native scholar, this book contains nine Tlingit and Haida tales concerned with shamans and kushtakas. Land otters were fearful hybrid beings of the spirit world. Able to live on land and in water, they had the special…

  16. Confronting, Representing, and Believing Counterintuitive Concepts: Navigating the Natural and the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Harris, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Recent research shows that even preschoolers are skeptical; they frequently reject claims from other people when the claims conflict with their own perceptions and concepts. Yet, despite their skepticism, both children and adults come to believe in a variety of phenomena that defy their first-hand perceptions and intuitive conceptions of the world. In this review, we explore how children and adults acquire such concepts. We describe how a similar developmental process underlies mental representation of both the natural and the supernatural world, and we detail this process for two prominent supernatural counterintuitive ideas-God and the afterlife. In doing so, we highlight the fact that conceptual development does not always move in the direction of greater empirical truth, as described within naturalistic domains. We consider factors that likely help overcome skepticism and, in doing so, promote belief in counterintuitive phenomena. These factors include qualities of the learners, aspects of the context, qualities of the informants, and qualities of the information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Non-religious Christians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Day

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholars who recently rejected secularisation theses on the grounds that they were insufficiently defined or contextualised now seem to be accepting with unseemly, uncritical haste, the new, in vogue notion of the post-secular. Scholars seem tempted to drop the term ‘post-secular’ into their papers and presentations as if it is a generally accepted and understood term. It is not and nor, as this paper will argue, is it plausible unless applied to a limited and specific range of phenomena. Far from disappearing, religion is often used publicly as a marker of group identity. This is not a return to religion, or a resurgence in spirituality, but a fluctuating form of contextualised religious identity. Christian nominalists may not believe in God or Jesus, at least if belief is understood as ‘faith’. It would be incorrect, however, to dismiss them as ‘unbelievers’, or their nominalist beliefs as not having essential or substantive reality. They believe in many things, usually related to ‘belonging’. By closely examining people’s sense of Christian ‘belonging’, we find other more subtle, interwoven ‘belongings’ related to, for example, history, nation, morality, gender, and ‘culture’.

  18. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic institut......Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic...... institutions, i.e. the Religion, Cognition and Culture (RCC) research area at The Faculty of Theology, Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and The Danish Pain Research Centre (DPRC) at the University of Aarhus and Aarhus University Hospital. The team will design fMRI (functional magnetic...... hypothesize that the target group will have a higher pain threshold and pain tolerance during religious practice compared to a non-religious control group, and the fMRI experiments are expected to show reduced neural activity (BOLD) in areas of the brain correlating with pain experience during personal prayer...

  19. The Sticky Subject of Religion: Can It Ever be the Glue for a Stable Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    understandable, two notable scholars from very different perspectives, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) and later Emile Durkheim (1858–1917), questioned...an endorsement from the emerging field of sociology. Although Emile Durkheim denied religion had a supernatural origin, he nonetheless argued for...Like Rousseau, Durkheim was intrigued by the commonalities among religions and attempted to identify essential core elements across religious

  20. Religious thought and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ernest Thomas

    2012-09-01

    While earlier approaches to religious thought and practice searched for 'magic bullet' approaches to explain religious thought and behavior, seeing it as an example of irrationality, illusion, integrative force, symbolism, or false explanations of origins, cognitive scientific approaches have suggested that we see it rather as an aggregate of the products of various cognitive mechanisms. Studies in the cognitive science of religion, informed by experimental work, have converged on a standard model of explaining religious thought and behavior by focussing on the role of minimally counter-intuitive concepts, agent and animacy detection, ritual representations, notions of contagion and contamination avoidance, theory of mind, coalitions, and moral intuitions. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1189 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  1. Rawls and religious paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M; Busch, Jacob

    2012-08-01

    MacDougall has argued that Rawls's liberal social theory suggests that parents who hold certain religious convictions can legitimately refuse blood transfusion on their children's behalf. This paper argues that this is wrong for at least five reasons. First, MacDougall neglects the possibility that true freedom of conscience entails the right to choose one's own religion rather than have it dictated by one's parents. Second, he conveniently ignores the fact that children in such situations are much more likely to die than to survive without blood. Third, he relies on an ambiguous understanding of what is "rational" and treats children as mere extensions of their parents. Fourth, he neglects the fact that those in the original position would seek to protect themselves from persecution and enslavement and thus would not allow groups of children to be killed because of their parents' beliefs. Finally, Rawls makes it clear that we should choose for children as we would choose for ourselves in the original position, with no particular conception of the good (such as that held by Jehovah's Witnesses).

  2. Religious building energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielvogel, L.G.; Rudin, A.

    1988-02-01

    The Interfaith Coalition on Energy (ICE) was organized in 1980 by the Philadelphia area religious community and, funded in 1982 by local private foundations and corporations, began an energy management program for religious buildings whose utility bills are paid by congregations. Since that time, ICE has completed on-site energy audits for 226 congregations with a total of 546 buildings. Each audit report contains a description of the facilities and their energy systems, a baseline year of energy data, a computation of energy use per square foot, and a list of recommendations to reduce energy costs in order of simple payback.

  3. STATE POLICIES ON RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujiburrahman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how Indonesian state manages its religious diversity. The state policies on religious diversity cannot be understood without analyzing the history of how the founding fathers decided to choose Indonesia as neither secular nor Islamic country, but somewhere between the two. The author discusses three topics, namely the recognized religions, Muslim fear of Christianization, and dialogue and inter-religious harmony. Based on the Decree No.1/1965, Confucianism was one of six religions recognized by the state. However, in the Soeharto era, around 1979, this religion was dropped from the list, and only after his fall Confucianism has been rehabilitated, and even the Chinese New Year has been included as one of the national holidays in Indonesia. In terms of Muslim-Christian relations, there were tensions since 1960s, particularly dealt with the issue of the high number of Muslims who converted to Christianity. It was in this situation that in 1967 a newly built Methodist Church in Meulaboh, Aceh, was closed by Muslims, arguing that the Church was a concrete example of the aggressiveness of Christian missions because it was built in a Muslim majority area. Since the Meulaboh case, the Muslims consistently insisted the government to accommodate their four demands: (1 restriction on establishing new places of worship; (2 restriction onreligious propagation, and control of foreign aid for religious institutions; (4 Islamic religion classes should be given to Muslim students studying in Christian schools; (5 inter-religious marriage should not be allowed. Apart from these contested issues, the government and religious leaders have been trying to avoid conflict and to establish cooperation and peace among religious groups in the country through inter-religious dialogues, either organized by the government or sponsored by the leaders of religious groups themselves. The author argues that specific socio-political contexts should be

  4. Religiöses Lernen und religiöse Sozialisation in der Sekundarstufe 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Benesch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This article builds a connection between Huber‘s centrality scale and Bucher‘s scale of efficiency for religious education, while both scales have been modified. The two scales can be considered as a one dimensional factor in a factor-analytical approach. In addition to demographic variables the survey used further items as co-variables (e.g. „Do you think you obtain a religious education?”, „Do you like to read in Sacred Scriptures such as the Bible or the Quran?”. The religious education is relevant in case of the centrality scale as well as of religious learning. During the research for the prediction of religious learning by bivariate regression (corrected coefficient of determination is 75.8 percent it can be pointed out the relevance of the centrality scale (p<0,001 and of the interest in the Holy Scriptures (p=0,006.DEUTSCH: Der Artikel bringt die modifizierte Zentralitätsskala nach Huber mit einer modifizierten Skala der Effizienz des Religionsunterrichts nach Bucher in Verbindung. Beide Skalen können als eindimensionaler Faktor anhand einer faktoren-analytischen Betrachtung angesehen werden. Neben den demographischen Variablen wurden Items als Co-Variablen (z.B. „Findest du, dass du religiös erzogen wirst?“, „Liest du gerne in Heiligen Schriften z.B. Bibel, Koran?“ erhoben. So hat die religiöse Erziehung auf die Zentralitätsskala und auf das religiöse Lernen eine entscheidende Rolle. Bei der Frage einer Vorhersage des religiösen Lernens mittels bivariater Regression (korrigiertes Bestimmtheitsmaß ist 75,8 Prozent ergab sich die Wichtigkeit der Zentralitätsskala (p<0,001 und des Interesses an der Heiligen Schrift (p=0,006.

  5. Political liberalism and religious claims: Four blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.

  6. Fearing religious satire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy...

  7. Homeschooling and Religious Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…

  8. Fearing religious satire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy l...

  9. A Religious Media Revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard-Petersen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    . It argues that the conflict has completely altered the means and modes of Sunni religious communication, transforming classical genres and bypassing them with new ones. It concludes that the lack of formal authority in the messaging of the jihadist groupings, and their failed efforts to build up credible...

  10. Conditions for religious discourse in secularized ethical health care deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nistelrooy, Inge; Vosman, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Religious discourse is no longer self-evident in professional health care ethical deliberation in the North Atlantic cultural sphere. However, in a world of pluralism, care professionals still seek substantive views of good care. Religious and non-religious beliefs should not be excluded from ethical deliberation. They offer patients and professionals a helpful language for expressing values and beliefs. Chaplains have a role to play as allies in sense-making processes and resourcing care.

  11. Entrepreneurship development in destinations of religious tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction which summarizes the basic guidelines for the development of entrepreneurship in special interest tourism, the author explores the development and application as well as the management of entrepreneurship in religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism. Religious components and motives for visiting shrines as an integral part of human culture and tradition have a strenuous impact on the tourism industry, both on the offering and demanding side. The most visited shrines such as Fatima or Lourdes attract four to eight million visitors per year. Considering the fact that this type of tourism is economically very useful in a particular local environment, many shrines as sites have become centres of religious, commercial and cultural events in certain regions throughout history. Their development was followed by investment in infrastructure, culture, catering and other facilities. The implementation of entrepreneurship is based on various segments that enable the development of religious tourism in a particular area, such as catering industry, hospitality industry, tourist mediation, transportation companies and other complementary activities (agriculture, fishing, wine production, commerce and other services. The author explores the indicators of entrepreneurship development in the field of religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism indicating the possibilities it has on the destination development. The development of special interest tourism should be based on effective investment in tourism offer through entrepreneurial projects (catering and other tourist facilities in accordance with market trends. The investment in tourism offer in the context of religious tourism would result in the growth of religious passengers' consumption as well as the increase in income from religious tourism, and thus the economic development of the sites with religious content. Examples of such shrines in the world are

  12. Imams and other Religious Authorities in Italy

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    Francesco Alicino

    2015-01-01

      SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. The Relationship State-Confessions and Religious Ministers – 2.1. The “Common” Legislation of intese and the 1929 Act – 2.2. State’s Law and Religious Ministers – 3. Imam in Italy. Is that a Religious Minister? – 3.1. The Connection State-Islamic Organizations – 3.2. Islamic Groups as Religious Denominations – 3.3. The Bilateral Legislation – 3.4. A Possible Collaboration – 4. Conclusion.   Abstract: In Italy imams are more than 800 members. As imams, they are almost all self-taught people. As citizens, most of the times they have a precarious job. During the week, they normally take care of things other than religion. They perform religious functions in their spare time. Moreover, to see them working as imams, you have to go down in some underground parking or in apartments converted into mosques, where sometimes you see minaret and other Islamic symbols, but only in either the picture or in the paintings hanging on the wall. In the end of the day, we know little or almost nothing about imams. Besides, the Italian law normally do not recognise them as religious authorities. Nevertheless, as imams they play a very important role in local Muslim communities that, under the pressing process of immigration, hold nowadays more than two millions persons. The paper will analyse the status of Islamic imams in Italy, comparing them with the status of other religious authorities (priests, rabbis, pastors ecc.. In particular, this comparative perspective will be focused on both angles: on the one hand, the research will compare the role of imams with those of religious authorities within their respective community; on the other, we will compare imams with considered the different way through which Italian law treats both imams and other religious authority. This perspective will give us a possibility to underline how both the social context and the Italian legal framework (regulating the State

  13. Religious Belief, Motivation and Moral Commitment

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    zahra khazaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the

  14. Religious Belief, Motivation and Moral Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra khazaei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the

  15. Exploring the existential function of religion and supernatural agent beliefs among Christians, Muslims, atheists, and agnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kenneth E; Arndt, Jamie; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein

    2012-10-01

    Building on research suggesting one primary function of religion is the management of death awareness, the present research explored how supernatural beliefs are influenced by the awareness of death, for whom, and how individuals' extant beliefs determine which god(s), if any, are eligible to fulfill that function. In Study 1, death reminders had no effect among Atheists, but enhanced Christians' religiosity, belief in a higher power, and belief in God/Jesus and enhanced denial of Allah and Buddha. Similarly, death reminders increased Muslims' religiosity and belief in a higher power, and led to greater belief in Allah and denial of God/Jesus and Buddha (Study 2). Finally, in Study 3, death reminders motivated Agnostics to increase their religiosity, belief in a higher power, and their faith in God/Jesus, Buddha, and Allah. The studies tested three potential theoretical explanations and were consistent with terror management theory's worldview defense hypothesis. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  16. [A nosology for supernatural phenomena and the construction of the 'possessed' brain in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Valeria Portugal; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind.

  17. Mayores institucionalizados: Valoración de la satisfacción y el bienestar en una residencia geriátrica religiosa Institutionalized older: Rating of satisfaction and well-being in a religious nursing home

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    Asunción Ors Montenegro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica cómo viven 24 personas mayores en una residencia geriátrica religiosa. Manifiestan que viven bien, en lo que cabe. Se sienten satisfechos, y consideran una suerte haber logrado una plaza en esa residencia. La vida en el hogar, como consideran y les gusta llamar a la residencia, les ha dado paz, sosiego y bienestar. En un segundo análisis de los resultados, se puede apreciar ambigüedad en los sentimientos de bienestar y puede explicar ese vivir bien en lo que cabe: la resignación es lo que les ayuda a encontrarse bien. La entrevista y la observación han sido las herramientas de la investigación.This article explains how twenty-four people living in a nursing home over religious. They express: live well in what can be. They are happy and feel fortunate to have achieved a place in that residence. Life at home, as they see and like to call the residence has given them peace, tranquility and welfare. In a second analysis of the result can be seen unambiguously in feelings of wellbeing and can explain that to live well on what it is: resignation is what helps them be well. The face to face interview and observation were the tools of research.

  18. Fiction and Religious Education: Be Not Afraid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejk, Cate

    2009-01-01

    This article is the conversion story of a university professor and voracious reader who has always been afraid to incorporate fiction into her classes. It maps her journey from believing that novels and short stories are effective pedagogical tools only when they are in the hands of competent English professors to recognizing the innumerable…

  19. Religious socialization of youth involved in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jill C; Culbertson, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Increased religiosity is associated with a variety of improved outcomes, especially for youth in disadvantaged contexts. Although youth involved in child welfare may experience protective effects of religious participation or values, little is known about the impact of maltreatment on religious development. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative study of child welfare involved families, correlates of religious attendance and importance of religion for youth were investigated using weighted logistic regression at two waves 18 months apart. Youth self-reports of religious attendance and their ratings of its importance were associated with religious attendance of their caregivers, whether birth-parents or foster parents. Foster parents were more likely to attend religious services than birth parents. Increases in youth attendance from Wave 1 to Wave 2 were associated with high youth religious importance at Wave 1, whereas decreases in attendance were associated with moving between home and foster placements. Increases in religious importance from Wave 1 to Wave 2 were associated with religious attendance at Wave 1 and with the youth being Black.

  20. Explaining away the body: experiences of supernaturally caused touch and touch on non-hand objects within the rubber hand illusion.

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    Jakob Hohwy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically

  1. From a religious view of madness to religious mania: the Encyclopédie, Pinel, Esquirol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneman, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    This paper focuses on the shift from a concept of insanity understood in terms of religion to another (as entertained by early psychiatry, especially in France) according to which it is believed that forms of madness tinged by religion are difficult to cure. The traditional religious view of madness, as exemplified by Pascal (inter alia), is first illustrated by entries from the Encyclopédie. Then the shift towards a medical view of madness, inspired by Vitalistic physiology, is mapped by entries taken from the same publication. Firmed up by Pinel, this shift caused the abandonment of the religious view. Esquirol considered religious mania to be a vestige from the past, but he also believed that mental conditions carrying a religious component were difficult to cure.

  2. DESTINASI WISATA BUDAYA DAN RELIGI DI CIREBON

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    Oda Ignatius Besar Hariyanto

    2016-10-01

    ABSTRACT Ministry of Tourism currently focused on the development of tourism, especially tourist destinations, because the tourism sectors expected to become the responsibility of the economies on non-oil sector. The wealth of Indonesia tourist destinations is a culture tourism, natural tourism, and man-made tourism. Indonesia has a cultural diversity that spread to 34 provinces. Each tribe and region has a diversity of different cultures, influenced by geography, region of origin and historical background and religion are different. It is the uniqueness and attractiveness of cultural and religious tourism in Indonesia. Cirebon is one area in West Java has many unique and appeal to be develops into a cultural and religious tourist destination. Previously Cirebon had been a “Jalur Sutra Perdagangan” of various nationalities who came from China, India, Turkey, Persia, and the Middle East, who transit through the port of Cirebon. Thus, eventually occur of acculturation to the natives Cirebon. It is increased the repertoire of cultural diversity which is owned by the people of Cirebon. The palace of Kasepuhan, Kanoman and Kacirebon, Hindu-Buddhist relics, the history entry and the development of Islam in Cirebon, then Cirebon has the potential to be develops into a cultural and religious tourism. This research used qualitative descriptive method with multi-disciplinary approach for reasons of tourism is part of a culture that is very complex. The aim of research got description of tourist destinations and religious possessed by Cirebon. Keywords: Tourist Destination, Culture, Religious

  3. Epistemologies of Religious Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette; Osbeck, Christina

    2015-01-01

    to the conference subtheme: Borders between research methods General subject didactics in the Nordic countries has developed in relation to teacher education and the need to bring questions about teaching and learning closer to specific subject-content areas. The discussions started at slightly different times...... in the different countries, for instance in the 1970s in Norway and in the 1980s in Sweden (Kroksmark 1989, Ongstad 2006). However, at that time religious education was already an academic field in the faculties of theology in many of the Nordic countries, namely as religionspedagogik[k] (e.g. Osbeck & Lied 2012...... to the subject didactics of RE in different national contexts in the Nordic sphere.Aim and main questions:The aim of this symposium is to examine different conditions for knowledge re/production concerning Religious Education in the Nordic countries and discuss how disciplines work as frames for ongoing...

  4. An Islamic Perspective in Managing Religious Diversity

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    Hilal Wani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of “diversity” as mentioned in the Qur’an and how commonalities in diverse religions may be used as a model for civilizational dialogue towards achieving harmony. This study reveals that religious and cultural diversity are laws of nature which cannot be changed while the concept of “identity” is a contested issue in modern discourse. Results also show that peace may be established among diverse religions through their commonalities and the best way to exploit these commonalities and to reduce the religious divide is through civilizational dialogue. The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR and other methods for changing the nature of religious differences and reaching a consensus—thus arriving at a peaceful co-existence—are also discussed. It was found that people are often misguided or divided in the name of religion and culture, despite the fact that the philosophy of every religion is based on peace and harmony.

  5. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries.Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  6. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries. Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  7. Ideological conflicts in Slovenia over religious issues

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    Flere Sergej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since attaining independence, Latin pattern (Martin, 1978 disputes and conflicts have characterized the Slovenian political scene, particularly as to relations between the state and religious communities. Slovenia adopted a law on the issue only in 2006, availing itself of the law from the 1970s. The 2007 Religious Freedom Act contained many privileges for the dominant Roman Catholic Church, including those of a symbolic nature and those of an economic one. The Constitutional Court declared the Act unconstitutional and void, departing from the European Convention of Human Rights and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. Thus, it set other beliefs at the same level with religious ones, did away with many privileges and obstacles 81 in recognition and registration of new religious communities. However, this decision has legislatively been implemented only in a small portion, remaining to be fully implemented. However, the absence of substantive agreements with the Holy See and the absence of religious instruction in public schools indicate a predominance of liberalism on the public scene.

  8. Inter-Religious Dialogue Models in Malaysia

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    Wan Sabri Wan Yusof

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, many organizations have involved in the implementation of inter-religious dialogue in Malaysia. However, there are stillthose who doubt the role and purpose of interreligious dialogue. This might be due to lack of information and understanding regardingthe methodology of dialogue and also about different types that it may take. The present study is aimed at exploring a few models ofinter-religious dialogue that have been practised by some organizations that actively involved in dialogue. The study focuses on a review of selected organizational or institutional dialoguemodels such as Center for Civilizational Dialogue (CCD, Students Representative Council of Malaysia Science University (HealthCampus and Inter-faith Spiritual Fellowship (INSaF. This study provides information concerning the various designs of inter-religiousdialogue model in Malaysia and proposes that different designs of inter-religious dialogue rely on its different types and goals. It is found that, the commonly practiced type of dialogue in Malaysia is educational type which focuses on exploring inter-religious commonalities as well as differences which consequently willincrease understanding and foster meaningful engagement between people of different ethnic and religious background in Malaysia. Thistype of dialogue is distinguished from conflict resolution types of dialogue which aims at identifying issues and generating action plansto conflicts or disputes.

  9. Is it just a brick wall or a sign from the universe? An fMRI study of supernatural believers and skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani; Raij, Tuukka; Hari, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    We examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain activity of 12 supernatural believers and 11 skeptics who first imagined themselves in critical life situations (e.g. problems in intimate relationships) and then watched emotionally charged pictures of lifeless objects and scenery (e.g. two red cherries bound together). Supernatural believers reported seeing signs of how the situations were going to turn out in the pictures more often than skeptics did. Viewing the pictures activated the same brain regions among all participants (e.g. the left inferior frontal gyrus, IFG). However, the right IFG, previously associated with cognitive inhibition, was activated more strongly in skeptics than in supernatural believers, and its activation was negatively correlated to sign seeing in both participant groups. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on the universal processes that may underlie supernatural beliefs and the role of cognitive inhibition in explaining individual differences in such beliefs.

  10. Religious processes as intercultural interaction: Contours of a sociological discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Sergej

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During 'cyclic' historical periods it would be correct to interpret religious processes in terms of interaction of two essentially different, but substantially, structurally and functionally comparative types of integrating cultural complexes that, in historical perspective, compete with each other on the effect on individuals and society in general. Such complexes represent secular and religious culture. Contemporary socio-cultural situation can be defined as an asymmetric representativeness of both secular and religious cultures. In a modern secular society, dominance of a secular culture over a religious one can be manifested in three basic dimensions: substantial, regulative and subjective ones. Secular culture is adopted during the primary socialization process. However, religious culture is still adopted through conscious, voluntary selection in younger or more mature age. It may be possible to determine two basic attitudes of the contemporary ('secularized' man towards religion. The first attitude may be called 'reversive' and the other one 'conversive'.

  11. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  12. The Effects of Denomination on Religious Socialization for Jewish Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony G.; Lester, Ashlie M.; Brooks, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transmission model of religious socialization was tested using a sample of American Jewish parents and adolescents. The authors expected that measures of religiousness among parents would be associated with those among their children. Interaction effects of denominational membership were also tested. Data were collected from a sample of 233…

  13. Relations among and between Career Values and Christian Religious Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mary Miller; Hardin, Susan I.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical research and vocational theory indicate that values are important in career counseling and vocational choice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of career values to Christian religious values as they might be assessed in career counseling. Results indicate that there was some overlap between religious and…

  14. Relations among and between Career Values and Christian Religious Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mary Miller; Hardin, Susan I.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical research and vocational theory indicate that values are important in career counseling and vocational choice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of career values to Christian religious values as they might be assessed in career counseling. Results indicate that there was some overlap between religious and…

  15. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  16. Why education in public schools should include religious ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Merry, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to open a new line of debate about religion in public schools by focusing on religious ideals. The article begins with an elucidation of the concept ‘religious ideals’ and an explanation of the notion of reasonable pluralism, in order to be able to explore the dangers and positive

  17. The Promise of Mobile Technology for Public Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the history of public religious education in the United States with an eye to its learning outcomes, contexts, and approaches. That history suggests that public religious education is still needed today but that informal learning contexts may be more appropriate than public schools. Recent trends in learning habits are then…

  18. UNDERSTANDING RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDONESIA: Theological, Structural and Cultural Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Salehudin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lately Indonesia is facing a lot of tremendous experience about religious violence. Indonesian Islam which is previously assumed as peaceful religion is suddenly changing to be frightening religion. The destruction in some places such as Bali Bombing, JW Marriot Bombing, and Sampang riot in some places Islam is the trigger of religious violence. This paper discusses the repetition of religious violence in Indonesia especially after New Order era. The writer argues that religious violence in Indonesia is as natural disaster, historical process in human evolution and as close experience that presenting and relating to human history. It may be caused by political condition and the response to economic injustice. In doing so, it is kind of social acceleration toward the process of change and also being a factor of the emergence of new agenda. This is because every disaster, including religious violence, requires an adjustment and a new formulation of the functions that have been damaged.

  19. Experience and Reality in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Mike

    2011-01-01

    A central task of religious education is to show how the puzzlements to human intelligence and the experiences that are associated with spirituality, are compelling in relation to our development as human beings. There are always more theories than objects or events to be explained, and while the spiritual "data" that gives rise to our puzzlements…

  20. Unpacking religious affiliation: Exploring associations between Christian children's religious cultural context, God image, and self-esteem across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin I; Crosby, Robert G

    2017-03-01

    In developmental research, religiousness is typically measured with omnibus affiliation or attendance variables that underspecify how the religious cultural contexts and experiences that affiliation represents influence developmental outcomes. This study explores associations between five aspects of a religious cultural context (family religiosity, religious schooling, church-based relationships with peers and adults, and view of God) in 844 seven- to 12-year-old Christian children to examine how they differentially predict self-esteem. Results of a structural equation model (SEM) analysis indicated that God image and peer church relationships directly predicted self-esteem, whereas God image mediated the influence of adult church relationships and family religious practices on self-esteem. A multiple group SEM analysis met the criterion for weak, but not strong, evidence that self-esteem is more related to younger children's adult church relationships but older children's peer church relationships. God image tended to be more related to younger children's family religious practices but older children's adult church relationships. Implications for developmental researchers and practitioners are discussed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious affiliation is an omnibus variable representing multiple contexts of development. Self-esteem is an important outcome variable with different influences across development. Religious affiliation is associated with increased self-esteem. What does this study add? Children's experience in the contexts of religious affiliation influences development differently. It is not just affiliation, but specific religious contexts that influence children's self-esteem. The role of religious contexts in shaping children's self-esteem shifts across development. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Developments in Religious Studies: Towards a Dialogue with Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The early days of non-confessional, multi-faith religious education in Britain benefitted from close collaboration between academics in universities, teacher educators and teachers. This article attempts to initiate a revival of such a dialogue, by summarizing some developments in religious studies at university level and suggesting possible…

  2. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  3. RELIGIOUS RESPONSES TO GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatib A. Kadir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sociological discussion of globalisation is preoccupied with the political, economic, and military dimension of it, with little attention to its religious aspect. This paper attempts to trace the impacts of globalisation on religion and religious responses, the argument of which derives mainly from the so-called “Bridge-Building Program” organised by CRCS & ICRS-UGM in 2008. It argues that though they share a common concern, people of different faiths are at risk of deepening the problems rather than offering solutions in view of their different responses for which we categorise them into different but overlapping categories -ideological, ambivalent, integrative, exclusive, and imitative. It then leads to a more fundamental question of whether interfaith cooperation is possible given those different and sometime opposing responses. [Dalam kajian sosiologi, diskusi mengenai globalisasi kerap kali semata-mata ditinjau dari sisi politik, enonomi dan militer, sementara dimensi agama sering kali dikesampingkan. Artikel ini membahas dampak globalisasi terhadap agama dan respon komunitas agama terhadap globalisasi. Data yang muncul dalam artikel ini diambil dari sebuah workshop berjudul“Bridge- Building Program.” Melalui artikel ini, saya berpendapat bahwa, meskikomunitas agama-agama memiliki keprihatinan yang sama terhadap dampak globalisasi, namun respon mereka cenderung mempertajam persoalan yang diakibatkan globalisasi, ketimbang memberikan solusi. Respon tersebut dalam dikategorikan –meski tidak kaku- dalam: respon ideologis, ambivalen, integratif, ekslusif dan imitatif. Selanjutnya, artikel juga mengulas pada pertanyaan mendasar mengenai apakah kerjasama antar agama mungkin dilakukan menyimak ragam respon yang saling bertentangan tersebut.

  4. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit

  5. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit

  6. Sex, secularism and religious influence in US politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties.

  7. "Let's get those Winchesters pregnant": Male pregnancy in "Supernatural" fan fiction

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    Berit Åström

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates mpreg slash fiction—same-sex relationships featuring male pregnancy—based on the television series Supernatural, looking at issues of gender and genre. It has been argued that slash writing is a highly subversive and resisting activity, appropriating someone else's characters and rewriting the romance script to suit different tastes than those prescribed by patriarchy. Yet fan fic texts are very diverse and it is difficult, if not impossible, to draw any general conclusions from them. The theme of male pregnancy has the potential to produce narratives that challenge our notions of gender, identity, sexual and social practices, as well as parenthood. Although the fan fiction I have analyzed all deals with these notions in various ways, the focus lies elsewhere. The authors of the texts focus more on exploring Sam and Dean as fathers and homemakers, on writing about family life, with all its traditional trappings. When the authors bring pregnancy into the equation, they draw on narrative and social conventions that follow this experience, resulting in conventional stories set in a very unconventional universe.

  8. Carnival: A Religious Rite of Passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Clement B. G.

    1979-01-01

    In this article, historical aspects of the pre-Lenten celebration of Carnival are discussed and the Carnival is examined in terms of its meaning as a "rite of passage." One of the most important functions of Carnival is its original one of being a ritual with profound secular and religious implications. (Author/MC)

  9. Religious Experience from a Neuro-Psychological View

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    Hadi Vakili

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of  religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of  the present paper mean by the concept of  religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.

  10. Religious ecstasy in classical Sufism

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    Göran Ogén

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to shed some light on the phenomenon of religious ecstasy as met within Islamic mysticism and there particularly during its classical period. In this case, the expression "classical Sufism" refers to the period of Sufi history from about 850 A.D. until circa 1100 A.D. In the Sufi vocabulary there is even a rather differentiated terminology concerning these ecstatic experiences or states; whether different descriptions of one and the same experience are involved or whether the terms actually describe different experiences is a question that we must set aside for the present. There are, however, Sufis expressing the opinion that these different states of mind are based on one single experience in spite of the difference in terms. A generic term for these experiences or states is not to be found in the Sufi terminology however, so the problem of which of these phenomena must be present in order for ecstasy to be evidenced—or which of them would be sufficient— does not therefore arise for the Sufis. So instead of speaking of religious ecstasy in general, they either refer to the single specific terms in question or else use the plural of one of the words employed to designate one of the terms we include in "religious ecstasy". They thus speak of "ecstasies", mawagid from the singular form wagd—if one should at all attempt a translation of this plural. This plural is a genuine Sufi construction and does not otherwise seem to occur in the Arabic language, except as a later borrowing. Psalmody based on the Koranic vocabulary remains the main procedure for putting oneself in ecstasy. If we add 'and listening to psalmody', we then obtain a fairly satisfactory picture of the external conditions for the Sufis' ecstasy until the eleventh century, when various innovations begin to appear. As far as the darwiš-dance is concerned, it is not until the thirteenth century with Rumi that it becomes transformed from an expression

  11. Religiøs omvendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ida Marie; Geertz, Armin W

    2007-01-01

    Selvom religiøs omvendelse har været gennemanalyseret inden for psykologien og socio­logien er det vor opfattelse at den seneste neurovidenskabelige forskning kan kaste nyt lys på emnet. Det er vor påstand at omvendelse drejer sig om religiøse identitetsdannelsesprocesser, hvor der er tale om gru...

  12. Buddhists' religious and health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, W H; Sullivan, B M; St George, D M; Wayment, H A

    2012-03-01

    A web survey of Buddhists' religious practices and beliefs, and health history and practices was conducted with 886 Buddhist respondents. Eighty-two percent were residents of the USA. Ninety-nine percent practiced Buddhist meditation and 70% had attended a formal retreat for intensive meditation practice. Eighty-six percent were converts to Buddhism and had been a Buddhist for a median of 9 years. Sixty-eight percent of respondents rated their health as very good or excellent. A one-point increase on a Buddhist Devoutness Index was associated with a 15% increase in the odds of being a non-smoker and an 11% increase in the odds of being in good to excellent health.

  13. Religious social capital: Its measurement and utility in the study of the social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselko, Joanna; Hughes, Cayce; Cheney, Rose

    2014-01-01

    As a social determinant of health, religiosity remains not well understood, despite the prevalence of religious activity and prominence of religious institutions in most societies. This paper introduces a working measure of Religious Social Capital and presents preliminary associations with neighborhood social capital and urban stressors. Religious social capital is defined as the social resources available to individuals and groups through their social connections with a religious community. Domains covered include group membership, social integration, values/norms, bonding/bridging trust as well as social support. Cross-sectional data come from a convenience sample of 104 community dwelling adults residing in a single urban neighborhood in a large US city, who also provided information on neighborhood social capital, and experiences of urban stressors. Results suggest that religious social capital is a valid construct that can be reliably measured. All indicators of religious social capital were higher among those who frequently attended religious services, with the exception of bridging trust (trust of people from different religious groups). A weak, inverse, association was also observed between religious and neighborhood social capital levels. Levels of religious social capital were correlated with higher levels of reported urban stressors, while neighborhood social capital was correlated with lower urban stressor levels. A significant percent of the sample was unaffiliated with a religious tradition and these individuals were more likely to be male, young and more highly educated. Social capital is a promising construct to help elucidate the influence of religion on population health. PMID:21802182

  14. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  15. Depressie en religie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Botha

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting roles regarding the mental health of man have been attributed to religion in the course of history. On the one hand, the presence of religion and faith in a person has been regarded as pathogenic, with the absence the reof as remedial On the other hand religion and faith in a person have been regarded as remedial, with the absence thereof as pathogenic. The most important finding is that depression is an experience of paradoxes. If the person cannot offer any solution for the paradox, he remains trapped in the vicious spiral of depression. Expressed differently, despair is then constituted. The religious individual attempts to offer a solution fo r the paradox through his interpretation of faith on the basis of his concept of God. Through a newly-discovered concept of God an interpretation of faith becomes possible by which the pe rso n discovers sense and meaning. Expressed differently, hope is then constituted.

  16. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study

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    Karimollahi Mansoureh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  17. Religiousness and mental health: a review

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    Moreira-Almeida Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.

  18. Is religious education compatible with science education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-04-01

    This paper tackles a highly controversial issue: the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education respectively. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible or even complementary. In order to do so, we give a brief characterization of our conceptions of science and religion. Conspicuous differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological and attitudinal level are noted. Regarding these aspects, closer examination reveals that science and religion are not only different but in fact incompatible. Some consequences of our analysis for education as well as for education policy are explored. We submit that a religious education, particularly at an early age, is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality. For this and other reasons, religious education should be kept away from public schools and universities. Instead of promoting a religious world view, we should teach our children what science knows about religion, i.e., how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms.

  19. Religious Studies and Anti-Religious Propaganda in USSR in 1920-1930s

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    Marianna M. Shakhnovich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows, that in 1920- 1930s simultaneously with the anti-religious propaganda, the history of world religions and religious movements, anthropological and sociological studies of religion, the history of religious freethinking and atheism were carried out. The systematic work on the study of the religious beliefs and practices in everyday life has been designed and created on the basis of large scale field research in accordance with the achievements of modern theoretical works. There were two groups inside the academic community with opposite views on the nature and sense of religious studies: one group, explored the opportunity to make the research without clerical censorship, wanted to study religion as a cultural phenomenon, using different methodological approaches including Marxism, and understood the expression “critique of religion” in the philosophical sense as a historical and sociological analysis. The majority of them did not deny the Marxist idea of the gradual disappearance of religion in secularized world. Another group ‒ of left political radicals ‒ sought only to expose religion, looking for evidence of possible exposure. Among the works on the history of religion, published in the Soviet period, it is necessary to distinguish between the works done with the exclusive purpose for propaganda, from the works in which the free investigation and academic research might be found inside the ideologically and politically correct chains of that time.

  20. Rezar para sanar: el recurso mágico-religioso en la búsqueda de la salud (Praying for healing: the magical-religious resort in the search for health

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    Carmen Castilla-Vázquez

    2011-12-01

    anthropological fieldwork conducted by the author in the field of popular Catholicism in Andalusia (Spain, work funded by the Commission of Ethnology of the Andalucian government for the realization of her thesis PhD. In order to fight and end disease, different cultural systems offer both empirical and supernatural answers, especially in situations where scientific medicine lacks one. In those circumstances, people resort to metaphysical explanations in an attempt to propitiate supernatural beings so that they apply their healing powers. In traditional catholic societies –Andalusia for the case that concerns us– people have used, and still do, a magical-religious model based on the belief that supernatural beings (God, the Virgin or the saints possess enough power to interrupt the course of any disease. In addition, this model comprises a ritual to invoke the participation of the supernatural beings in the rearrangement of some fact in exchange for a votive offering. My aim in this paper is to present this religious ritual whose main motivation is the resolution of health-related problems. The votive offering is the last link in a ritual process that begins with a situation of disease, accident or risk suffered by a subject; this circumstance is followed by an invocation and a promise to be fulfilled by the subject or another person in her name, requesting the intervention of the supernatural being to end that threat. When the request is granted to the petitioner’s satisfaction, it commits her to fulfill the promise. Here is where the votive offering plays its part –a material object of lasting character that appears as the materialization of the miraculous fact.

  1. Rezar para sanar: el recurso mágico-religioso en la búsqueda de la salud (Praying for healing: the magical-religious resort in the search for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilla-Vazquez, Carmen

    2011-12-01

    anthropological fieldwork conducted by the author in the field of popular Catholicism in Andalusia (Spain, work funded by the Commission of Ethnology of the Andalucian government for the realization of her thesis PhD. In order to fight and end disease, different cultural systems offer both empirical and supernatural answers, especially in situations where scientific medicine lacks one. In those circumstances, people resort to metaphysical explanations in an attempt to propitiate supernatural beings so that they apply their healing powers. In traditional catholic societies Andalusia for the case that concerns us people have used, and still do, a magical-religious model based on the belief that supernatural beings (God, the Virgin or the saints possess enough power to interrupt the course of any disease. In addition, this model comprises a ritual to invoke the participation of the supernatural beings in the rearrangement of some fact in exchange for a votive offering. My aim in this paper is to present this religious ritual whose main motivation is the resolution of health-related problems. The votive offering is the last link in a ritual process that begins with a situation of disease, accident or risk suffered by a subject; this circumstance is followed by an invocation and a promise to be fulfilled by the subject or another person in her name, requesting the intervention of the supernatural being to end that threat. When the request is granted to the petitioners satisfaction, it commits her to fulfill the promise. Here is where the votive offering plays its part a material object of lasting character that appears as the materialization of the miraculous fact.

  2. Technology. Theosophy. Theology: The Religious Character of UFO Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Sinani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the most important factors that have played a role in the emergence and development of UFO religiosity and UFO alternative religious movements, from occult, spiritualist and theosophical teachings, to alternative ideas and debates on the origin of mankind. By analyzing the basic theological premises, the paper discusses the basic religious and culturological paradigms to be found in UFO movements. It also shows how a major part of their corpus can be recognized in existing "traditional" religious groups, and suggests that UFO religions represent just another variation on the numerous concepts that offer answers to key existential questions.

  3. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

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    Laura Yoffe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make

  4. Kafka, Benjamin: o natural e o sobrenatural Kafka, Benjamin: natural and supernatural

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    Sônia Campaner Miguel Ferrari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se explorar alguns aspectos da obra de Franz Kafka que vinculam as experiências do escritor às experiências do homem das grandes cidades modernas, e, por outro lado, colocam essas mesmas experiências "sob violenta tensão em relação às místicas". Alguns elementos da obra de Kafka, como a impessoalidade, o anonimato, os inúmeros corredores ou repartições sufocantes, representam um diagnóstico, tido muitas vezes como sombrio, mas essencialmente crítico da modernidade. A partir da parábola Diante da Lei , inserida no romance O Processo e contada ao protagonista como uma forma de ligar sua experiência à tradição, procurar-se-á discutir tanto o papel da crítica à modernidade como o papel desempenhado pela tradição ( a teologia judaica, além das noções de culpa e lei, natural e sobrenatural.We intend to explore certain aspects of Kafka’s work which connect his experiences with the experiences of the man which lives in big modern cities, and that, on the other hand, put these experiences in "violent tension with the mistic ones". Some elements of Kafka’s work such as impersonality, anonymity, the many suffocating corridors and offices represent a diagnosis considered somber, but critical of modernity. We will discuss the role of the critic of modernity and the role of tradition, as well as the notions of guilt, and law, natural and supernatural from the parable Before the law, which is told to Joseph K in The Trial as a way to connect his experience to the tradition.

  5. A study on religious values

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    Robabeh Poorjebelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate and to compare the adherence rate of religious values between the two ethnic groups of Turkish and Kurdish who live in West Azerbaijan province. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, low, medium and high, and distributes it among a sample of 200 people who live in these two regions. The result of our survey indicates that Azeri people were more religious than Kurdish people were. In addition, the study investigates the relationship between personal characteristics including age, gender and marital status and adherence rate of religious values and detects some meaningful relationships between these two items.

  6. Muslim American adolescents' explanations of changing religious practices: Cultural tools in cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kathleen M; Schiro, Isabella N; Gregory, Wesley E; Westberg, Lindsay M; Lee, Samantha R; Boyle, Colleen D

    2017-03-01

    , especially in regard to religious development. Participants reported a wide array of changes in religious practices, and they described these changes as responses to social and cultural influences. Participants' descriptions of changing practices can be understood through a Vygotskian framework in which religious practices are cultural tools that both respond to and shape surrounding cultural contexts.

  7. Cognitive "babyness": developmental differences in the power of young children's supernatural thinking to influence positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-09-01

    Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Religious pluralism into Lusophony: a question of freedom

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    Lisete S. Mendes Mónico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.

  9. Veteran Religious Affiliation by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...

  10. Religious Identity in Iranian Society: A Systematic Review of Previous Studies (2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    literature on identity, evidence suggests that the role of religion in shaping individuals' and group's identity is widely ignored. However, a growing number of studies have begun to take into consideration the key role of religion (Arweck & Nesbitt 2010, King and Boyatzis 2004, Peek 2005. This article has attempted to review systematically previous research and conceptualizations on the religious identity based on national studies and surveys and academic dissertations.     Materials and Methods   As mentioned, the purpose of this study was to review the results of some influential researches in the field of religious identity. To get this purpose, one of the best known methods for reviewing previous studies, a systematic review, was applied. Systematic review deals with establishing and synthesizing of researches and evidences with focus on a specific question. This occurs through the organized, transparent, formal, clear and flexible procedures and processes. A systematic review of research is not limited to review the history and this overview and review can be used in different levels, fields and goals. During the first phase of the study, terms of "religious identity", "Islamic identity", "Iranian identity" and "religious identity" was searched at libraries and research centers and in databases such as Center for Scientific Information Database (SID, a database of Iranian journals and magazines (Magiran, Noor specialized journals database, and Science and Information Technology Institute (IrnaDoc. After reviewing the gathered documents and specifying its relationship with the object and purpose of the study, a total of 47 documents were selected. Documents based on the five major parameter were summarized and reviewed: 1-general information, 2-goals and research questions, 3-research methodology, 4-variables, 5-findings     Discussion of Results and Conclusion   Findings show that in the highest percentage (38.2% of researches, religious identity has been

  11. Network Theory and Religious Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collar, Anna

    Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge......Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge...

  12. The future size of religiously affiliated and unaffiliated populations

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    Conrad Hackett

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who are religiously unaffiliated (including self-identifying atheists and agnostics, as well as those who say their religion is "nothing in particular" made up 16.4Š of the world's population in 2010. Unaffiliated populations have been growing in North America and Europe, leading some to expect that this group will grow as a share of the world's population. However, such forecasts overlook the impact of demographic factors, such as fertility and the large, aging unaffiliated population in Asia. Objective: We project the future size of religiously affiliated and unaffiliated populations around the world. Methods: We use multistate cohort-component methods to project the size of religiously affiliated and unaffiliated populations. Projection inputs such as religious composition, differential fertility, and age structure data, as well as religious switching patterns, are based on the best available census and survey data for each country. This research is based on an analysis of more than 2,500 data sources. Results: Taking demographic factors into account, we project that the unaffiliated will make up 13.2Š of the world's population in 2050. The median age of religiously affiliated women is six years younger than unaffiliated women. The 2010-15 Total Fertility Rate for those with a religious affiliation is 2.59 children per woman, nearly a full child higher than the rate for the unaffiliated (1.65 children per woman. Conclusions: The religiously unaffiliated are projected to decline as a share of the world's population in the decades ahead because their net growth through religious switching will be more than offset by higher childbearing among the younger affiliated population.

  13. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    OpenAIRE

    Rietveld, Niels; van Burg, Elco

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit of entrepreneurship. However, how and which specific religious beliefs play a role in this relationship remains unknown. Therefore, we study the relation between two key religious beliefs and entre...

  14. Religious ritual contested: anti-religious activities and women’s ritual practice in rural Soviet Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Keinänen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks sought to establish a new atheistic order which would eradicate from the public consciousness all vestiges of "religious prejudices", which were regarded as a residue from the imperial era and an instrument used to exploit the masses. Even though it was generally held that religion would automatically disappear from socialist society when its material precondition, the class society, was abolished, the regime made concentrated efforts to speed up the process by means of virulent anti-religious propaganda. The ultimate goal was to wipe out the persistent remains of the bourgeois system of values. No force was to be used since it was feared this would merely offend the religious sentiments of the people and strengthen their adherence to religion. Theoretically, the ultimate goal was to be achieved through education and information, but in practice, anti-religious activities were at times quite brutal. These attacks were successful in curtailing the activities of religious institutions in Karelia, but did not bring to an end the religious practices of lay people, which were continued, in one form or another, throughout the entire Soviet period. One fundamental reason for the survival of religious rituals, both Christian and indigenous, was the fact that they were so deeply embedded in people's consciousness and intimately integrated with their everyday lives. Every important phase and turn in human life was sanctified by rituals. The goal of the present paper is to examine what forms anti-religious attacks took in Soviet Karelia and how people reacted to them. The focus is on the attacks against the very fundaments of the ritual complex of the church and, by extension, on the effects of these attacks on the indigenous ritual complex, which co-existed in parallel with that of the "official" religious institutions.

  15. Changes in Religiousness and Spirituality Attributed to HIV/AIDS: Are There Sex and Race Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sian; Tsevat, Joel; Szaflarski, Magdalena; Kudel, Ian; Sherman, Susan N; Feinberg, Judith; Leonard, Anthony C; Holmes, William C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Having a serious illness such as HIV/AIDS raises existential issues, which are potentially manifested as changes in religiousness and spirituality. The objective of this study was (1) to describe changes in religiousness and spirituality of people with HIV/AIDS, and (2) to determine if these changes differed by sex and race. METHODS Three-hundred and forty-seven adults with HIV/AIDS from 4 sites were asked demographic, clinical, and religious/spiritual questions. Six religious/spiritual questions assessed personal and social domains of religiousness and spirituality. RESULTS Eighty-eight participants (25%) reported being “more religious” and 142 (41%) reported being “more spiritual” since being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Approximately 1 in 4 participants also reported that they felt more alienated by a religious group since their HIV/AIDS diagnosis and approximately 1 in 10 reported changing their place of religious worship because of HIV/AIDS. A total of 174 participants (50%) believed that their religiousness/spirituality helped them live longer. Fewer Caucasians than African Americans reported becoming more spiritual since their HIV/AIDS diagnosis (37% vs 52%, respectively; P<.015), more Caucasians than African Americans felt alienated from religious communities (44% vs 21%, respectively; P<.001), and fewer Caucasians than African Americans believed that their religiousness/spirituality helped them live longer (41% vs 68% respectively; P<.001). There were no significantly different reported changes in religious and spiritual experiences by sex. CONCLUSIONS Many participants report having become more spiritual or religious since contracting HIV/AIDS, though many have felt alienated by a religious group—some to the point of changing their place of worship. Clinicians conducting spiritual assessments should be aware that changes in religious and spiritual experiences attributed to HIV/AIDS might differ between Caucasian and African

  16. Are religiously affiliated hospitals more than just nonprofits? A study on stereotypical patient perceptions and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Ann-Kathrin; Drevs, Florian; Gebele, Christoph; Tscheulin, Dieter K

    2015-06-01

    Recent research on patients' perceptions of different hospitals predominantly concentrates on whether hospitals are nonprofit or for-profit. Nonprofit hospitals can be subdivided into hospitals that are affiliated with a religious denomination and those that are not. Referring to the stereotypic content model, this study analyzes patients' perceptions of religious hospitals based on the factors of warmth, competence, trustworthiness and Christianity. Using a survey of German citizens (N = 300) with a one-factorial between-subject design (for-profit vs. nonprofit vs. religious nonprofit), we found that religious affiliation increases the perceptions of hospitals' trustworthiness and attractiveness. The study indicated that patients' perceptions of nonprofit hospitals with a religious affiliation differ from patients' beliefs about nonprofit hospitals without a religious affiliation, implying that research into ownership-related differences must account for hospital subtypes. Furthermore, religious hospitals that communicate their ownership status may have competitive advantages over those with a different ownership status.

  17. Muslim Spirituality, Religious Coping, and Reactions to Terrorism Among Pakistani University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziasma Haneef; Watson, P J; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-12-01

    Pakistani Muslim university students (N = 207) displayed Personal Distress, Public Distress, and Personal Defeat Reactions to Terrorism. All three reactions predicted poorer mental health with Personal Defeat being especially disturbed in its adjustment implications. In line with the assumptions of coping theory, scores on the Negative Religious Coping Scale correlated positively with Personal Distress and with Personal Defeat. However, Positive Religious Coping, the spirituality of Muslim Experiential Religiousness, and the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Personal Religious Orientations exhibited positive rather than the expected negative linkages with Personal Distress and Public Distress. Muslim Experiential Religiousness moderated associations of Positive and Negative Religious Coping with Public Distress. When spirituality was high, these relationships were negative. When spirituality was low, they became positive. These data documented the negative impacts that terrorism can have on Pakistanis and suggested that Muslim religious commitments may have an important role to play in resisting those influences.

  18. "A Wholly Breath-Taking Change of Substance Effected by a Form of Words": An Anatomy of Secular, Doctrinal and Supernatural Illocutionary Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Nils-Lennart

    John Searle's treatment of declarations in his (1976) classification of speech acts is examined. Some acts that are classified as declarations by that theorist, especially certain ones relating to religious rituals and literary usage, do not fit the definition of that class and should be reclassified, either in another one of Searle's classes…

  19. Religious Young Adults Recounting the Past: Narrating Sexual and Religious Cultures in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Sarah-Jane; Yip, Andrew Kam-Tuck

    2012-01-01

    Schooling can be a pivotal time in young people's formative experience when identities are negotiated and forged. However, contradictory dominant cultures can operate within the school context, making it very challenging for individuals to negotiate their religious and sexual identities within a sexualised and heteronormative space. This essay…

  20. Religious Belonging, Religious Agency, and Women's Autonomy in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T

    2015-09-01

    Women's autonomy has frequently been linked with women's opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women's autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition-Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women's religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women's empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings.

  1. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  2. Intersections of gender with religious diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The paper chapter examines the labour market, both private and public, and where different countries draw the lines between the right of the employers and the religious freedom of employees. Starting from an analysis of the debates about the Islamic headscarves, she asks why the labour market...... on headscarves would be direct religious discrimination and indirect gender discrimination of employees. The paper raises general questions about the meanings of and shifts in the framings of gender with religion on different sites on the basis of the European VEIL-project ( http://www.univie.ac.at/veil/Home3....../ ). Why has Scandinavia generally had an accommodating approach to veiling on the public arena in contrast to continental countries with restrictive regulation of veiling in the public arena, referring to principles of neutrality of public employees - for example banning headscarves France for pupils...

  3. `... for more and better religious education'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Michael

    1996-04-01

    Mahner and Bunge argue that (1) ‘science and religion are incompatible’, in order to develop their thesis, that (2) ‘a religious education ... is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality’, and that therefore we should only teach our children (3) ‘how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms’, and that (4) ‘religious education should be kept away from public schools ...’ I offer brief comments on each of these strands of their argument. ‘Religionists’, to use Mahner and Bunge's term, generally come from a specific stance so I shall make it clear, from the outset, that these remarks come from a Christian standpoint, even though many of them are much more widely applicable. Although I agree with some of the observations which Mahner and Bunge make, my conclusions are generally opposite to theirs on each of the four points.

  4. Religious coping, posttraumatic stress, psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth among female survivors four years after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E

    2013-04-01

    Positive and negative religious coping strategies and their relation with posttraumatic stress (PTS), psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) were examined in the context of Hurricane Katrina. Positive religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTG, whereas negative religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTS and psychological distress. Low-income mothers (N = 386, mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.43) were surveyed before, and 1 and 4 years after the storm. Results from structural regression modeling indicated that negative religious coping was associated with psychological distress, but not PTS. Positive religious coping was associated with PTG. Further analysis indicated significant indirect effects of pre- and postdisaster religiousness on postdisaster PTG through positive religious coping. Findings underscore the positive and negative effect of religious variables in the context of a natural disaster. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  6. Women's reproductive health: monotheistic religious perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, J G

    2000-07-01

    It is important to those who practice reproduction techniques to learn about the different religious attitudes related to reproductive health problems. Religion exerts an influence on civil authorities in the field of reproduction such as prevention or procreation and in issues such as abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards reproduction can be learned from the fact that the first commandment of God to Adam was be fruitful and multiply. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and sperm originate from the wife and husband, respectively. All Rabbinical rulings permit the use of contraception for medical indications. Economic difficulties and inconveniences of raising children are not indications for birth control practice. According to Judaism abortion on demand is forbidden but it may be performed if the mother's life is in danger. The attitude toward reproductive practice is different among the different divisions of Christianity. The practice of assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, however, it may be practiced by Protestant, Anglican and other Denomination's. According to the Roman Catholic doctrine the primary purpose of marriage is procreation. The contraceptive act destroys the potential of producing new life by sexual intercourse and violates the purpose of marriage and, therefore, is a sin against nature. The Christian tradition views the embryo as a human being since conception and, therefore, abortion is strictly forbidden. According to Islam, the procedure of IVF and ET is acceptable, however, it can be preformed only if it involves the husband and the wife. It allows contraception practice only under some circumstances and only in some special cases abortion can be preformed. Religion, being concerned with affairs that are regarded as extraordinary and as having unique importance in life, is an intrinsic aspect of the culture of all societies, religious groups, however

  7. WHO ARE MORE RELIGIOUS: WOMEN OR MEN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üzeyir OK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study whether the robust finding regarding the superiority of women on men in terms of religiosity reported in studies done in Christian tradition is valid for Muslim society or not was researched. The data obtained from 11 different studies conducted mostly with university samples were studied. Religiosity was tracked in three main variables: Absolute Religiosity (or faith/worldview, Religious Tension (or tension in faith/worldview, and Religious Openness (or openness in faith/worldview. In terms of Absolute Faith, whilst nearly half of the studies were found statistically non significant, the other half confirmed that women are more religious than man as it was reported in Christian tradition. In addition, women were found to be experiencing more tension and uncertainty on their religion (but not on faith/worldview and are more tolerant and open to the faith or religion of those who do not belong to their own. However, men tend to be experiencing more transformation, tension and uncertainty concerning their faith/or wordview. The results indicate, with less certainty, that men are interested in cognitive and wholistic aspect of their religion or faith whilst women are more interested in emotional and relational dimensions of their faith.

  8. Religious Ecstatics, "Deep Listeners," and Musical Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Penman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to begin to provide an explanation for the worldwide linkage of music and ecstatic religious ceremonies. The basic hypothesis is that the physiological ability to respond to musical stimuli with strong emotional responses is one of the pre-conditions for the propulsion into ecstasy. A second hypothesis is that a sub-set of the music-loving community, the "deep listeners" who are profoundly moved (chills, tears by musical listening will have emotional reactions similar to those of religious ecstatics. 60 participants, divided into five groups, were tested using galvanic skin response and heart rate measurements. The results seem to support the hypotheses by demonstrating 1 a correlation between being a religious ecstatic and having a strong GSR while listening to favorite music, in comparison with control groups, and 2 a correlation between being a secular "deep listener" and having a similarly strong GSR listening to favorite music, in comparison with control groups.

  9. Listening to Religious Music and Mental Health in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Fang, Qijuan; Mueller, Collin

    2015-12-01

    Research has linked several aspects of religion--including service attendance, prayer, meditation, religious coping strategies, congregational support systems, and relations with God, among others--with positive mental health outcomes among older U.S. adults. This study examines a neglected dimension of religious life: listening to religious music. Two waves of nationally representative data on older U.S. adults were analyzed (n = 1,024). Findings suggest that the frequency of listening to religious music is associated with a decrease in death anxiety and increases in life satisfaction, self-esteem, and a sense of control across the 2 waves of data. In addition, the frequency of listening to gospel music (a specific type of religious music) is associated with a decrease in death anxiety and an increase in a sense of control. These associations are similar for blacks and whites, women and men, and low- and high-socioeconomic status individuals. Religion is an important socioemotional resource that has been linked with desirable mental health outcomes among older U.S. adults. This study shows that listening to religious music may promote psychological well-being in later life. Given that religious music is available to most individuals--even those with health problems or physical limitations that might preclude participation in more formal aspects of religious life--it might be a valuable resource for promoting mental health later in the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Religiøsitet i livsformen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter.......Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter....

  11. Tales of the Supernatural: A Selected List of Recordings Made in the United States and Placed in the Archive of Folk Culture. Folk Archive Finding Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcambre, Angie C., Comp.; And Others

    This finding aid is a selected list of supernatural-related narratives recorded in the United States and held in the Archive of Folk Culture of the Library of Congress. Brief descriptions of the recordings are accompanied by identification numbers. Information about listening to or ordering any of the listed recordings is available from the…

  12. Grist to the Mill of Anti-Evolutionism: The Failed Strategy of Ruling the Supernatural out of Science by Philosophical Fiat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, Maarten; Blancke, Stefaan; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    According to a widespread philosophical opinion, science is strictly limited to investigating natural causes and putting forth natural explanations. Lacking the tools to evaluate supernatural claims, science must remain studiously neutral on questions of metaphysics. This (self-imposed) stricture, which goes under the name of "methodological…

  13. Positive and Negative Associations between Adolescents’ Religiousness and Health Behaviors via Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher J.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that self-regulation may be the explanatory mechanism for the relation between religiousness and positive health behaviors. However, different religious motivations have differential effects on a variety of health related outcomes, which may explain the adverse effects of religiousness found in some studies. The current study hypothesized that higher identification as religious motivation would be linked to higher health-promoting behavior and lower health-risk behavior through higher self-regulation, whereas higher introjection would be linked to lower health-promoting behavior and higher health-risk behavior through lower self-regulation. The sample included 220 adolescents (mean age = 15 years, 55% male) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling results supported the hypotheses and indicated that adolescent self-regulation mediated the relations between their religious motivation and health behavior. The findings suggest that different types of religious motivation may be promotive or hindering for adolescents’ health. PMID:27595048

  14. Divine Intersections: Hindu Ritual and the Incorporation of Religious Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathinka Frøystad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article throws the study of multireligious sociality in Western contexts into sharp relief by examining the case of India. Much of the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism tends to assume that religious beliefs, practices and spaces make the respective religious communities close entirely in upon themselves. While this assumption may hold true for most of the Western settings we study, it does not necessarily give an accurate description of the conditions for multireligious sociality in other parts of the world. In India, for instance, religious boundaries still display signs of malleability despite the religious politicization and occasional interreligious violence of the past decades. Drawing on recent anthropological research, this article shows that people of different religious denominations still visit Sufi shrines, that Hindus still incorporate ritual elements and divine beings from the religious traditions of their Others and that they exercise a wide personal choice in terms of spiritual activities, thus enabling spiritual paths that cross in and out of Hinduism. In a Hindu context rituals do not necessarily have an insulating effect; they may also provide points of intersection that open up toward the Other, thus fostering familiarity and recognition. Similar arguments have been made for Buddhist settings. The question is thus whether the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism may entail a certain monotheistic bias that needs to accounted for, something that is of particular importance when theorizing in ways that make universal claims.

  15. Religious commitment, attitudes toward suicide, and suicidal behaviors among college students of different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2014-06-01

    The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths.

  16. Religious Tolerance in Oman: Addressing Religious Prejudice through Educational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sadi, Fatma H.; Basit, Tehmina N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a school-based intervention entitled "Our Brothers and Sisters in Humanity" on 10th grade female Omani students' religious tolerance. A questionnaire was administered before and after an intervention to a sample of 241 girls, of whom 116 were in the experimental group and 125 in the control group. A…

  17. Tendencies towards plurality and diversification of the religious landscape in contemporary Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renée de la Torre; Cristina Gutiérrez Zúñiga

    2008-01-01

      Even though Mexico continues to be predominantly Catholic, during the last few decades there have been significant transformations of this country's religious panorama that manifest themselves as...

  18. 38 CFR 61.64 - Religious organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., on the basis of religion or religious belief. (f) If a State or local government voluntarily..., practice and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use direct financial...

  19. RELIGIOUS PLURALISM: BETWEEN SYNCRETISM AND TANTULARISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Toriqul Chaer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has several objectives: first, to discover the background of religious pluralism in Javanese society, notably among the communities in Ketanggi; second, to recognize religious practice in Ketanggi; and third, to explore the religious attitudes of Ketanggi people towards religious pluralism. This article is based on field research carried out in Ketanggi sub-district of Ngawi, East Java, which is inhabited by the communities with different religious backgrounds. This paper argues that religious commitment among Ketanggi people is partly based on ‘tantularism’, a sort of ethical principle which emerges as a result of the encounters between religion and local wisdom. The reception of Ketanggi people towards religious and cultural pluralism is expressed through the concept of lilo legowo (voluntary reception towards the other which in turn becomes foundation of religious tolerance in that area.

  20. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  1. Religious aspects of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, P

    2008-05-01

    No religion formally forbid donation or receipt of organs or is against transplantation from living or deceased donors. Only some orthodox jews may have religious objections to "opting in." However, transplantation from deceased donors may be discouraged by Native Americans, Roma Gypsies, Confucians, Shintoists, and some Orthodox rabbis. Some South Asia Muslim ulemas (scholars) and muftis (jurists) oppose donation from human living and deceased donors because the human body is an "amanat" (trusteeship) from God and must not be desecrated following death, but they encourage xenotransplantation research. No religion formally obliges one to donate or refuse organs. No religion formally obliges one to consider cadaveric organs "a societal resource" or considers organ donation "a religious duty" (except some rabbis and isolated Muslim and Christian scholars) No religion has a formal position on "bonus points," which is priority on the waiting list. Living organ donation is strongly encouraged only between jesus christians (15 of 28 jesus christians worldwide have donated a kidney). No religion forbid this practice. Directed organ donation to people of the same religion has been proposed only by some Orthodox Jews and some Islamic Ulemas/Muftis. Only some Muslim Ulemas/Muftis and some Asian religions may prefer living donation over cadaveric donation. No religion prefers cadaveric over living donation. No religion formally forbid non-heart-beating donors (nhbd) cadaveric donation or cross-over donation. Due to the sacrad of human life, the Catholic Church is against donation from anencephalic donors or after active euthanasia. No religion formally forbid xenotransplantation. Addressing the participants of the First International Congress of the Society for Organ Sharing in 1991, Pope John Paul II said "There are many questions of an ethical, legal and social nature which need to be more deeply investigated. There are even shameful abuses which call for determined action

  2. Schools and Religious Communities' Contributions to the Religious Formation of Christian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kock, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the implications of tribal forms of religious socialization for (religious) schools' and communities' contributions to the religious formation of Christian youth. It clarifies that the religious education of a new generation of young Christians requires authorities and communities to connect in a worldwide pedagogical space…

  3. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  4. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence

  5. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence

  6. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  7. The DNA of Religious Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, David P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the tensions between science and religion. According to recent books--many of them by prominent biologists--the era of deference to religious belief--belief without evidence--is ending as faith is subjected to gimlet-eyed scrutiny. Like Mark Twain's celebrated comment about stopping smoking, scholars have…

  8. Religious Tourism in Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonna Marrien U. Asi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed religious tourism in Batangas, Philippines on the following aspects: historical significance, holiness and spirituality, and customs and traditions. The assessments made were also subjected to tests of differences when the respondents are grouped as to either residents or tourists and according to their age, sex, educational attainment and employment. Results show that both tourists and residents generally concurred on all religious tourism indicators presented to them for assessment, although there were also few indicators that had lower mean assessments than the others. While the differences on the assessments made by the different groups of respondents were not statistically significant, the slight differences are still noticeable. In particular, residents had somewhat more favourable assessment than the tourists, older respondents more than the younger, males more than the females, those with higher education more than those with lower education, and government employees more than those who are not in government service. These slight but still noticeable differences, together with religious tourism indicators having lower mean assessments than the others, can serve as bases for making proposals on how to further enrich the religious tourism in Batangas.

  9. Teachers and the religious socialization of adolescents: facilitation of meaningful religious identity formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Malayev, Maya; Schachter, Elli P; Rich, Yisrael

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of religious education on student religious identity over and above parent religiosity by examining student perceptions of two aspects of teacher functioning: teacher caring and teacher as role-model. We posited that effects of these variables on students' religious identity are mediated by student perceptions that the school provides a non-alienating religious atmosphere and meaningful religious studies. Participants were 2691 male and female students (grades 9-12) in 152 classes of 25 schools from the Jewish public-religious sector in Israel. Results indicate that in addition to their parents' religiosity, adolescents' perceptions of their teachers as role models and their religious studies as meaningful are important variables affecting their religious identity. Moreover, this research suggests that religious identity formation processes flourish in an educational environment which students perceive as accommodating religious exploration. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. "The epic love story of Sam and Dean": "Supernatural," queer readings, and the romance of incestuous fan fiction

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    Catherine Tosenberger

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines incestuous slash fan fiction produced for the CW television series Supernatural. I argue that "Wincest" fan fiction is best understood not as perverse, oppositional resistance to a heterosexual, nonincestuous show, but an expression of readings that are suggested and supported by the text itself. I examine the literary, cultural, and folkloric discourses of incest and queerness invoked by the series, paying special attention to Romanticism, the Gothic, and horror as underliers to those discourses, and how those genres inform both the series and the fan fiction. I discuss a number of Wincest stories in detail, focusing upon how these stories build upon thematic elements within the series. In conclusion, I argue that the most resistive aspect of Wincest fan fiction is that it gives the main characters a lasting happiness that the series eternally defers.

  11. The effects of religious socialization and religious identity on psychosocial functioning in Korean American adolescents from immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Richard M

    2012-06-01

    This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively associated with adolescents' religious identity and social competence. Religious identity fully mediated the relationship between religious socialization by parents and social competence, and partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by peers and social competence. A competing model with religious identity as a moderator found adolescents with low religious identity showed significantly more externalizing behavior problems when they received more religious socialization from parents.

  12. Redefining Religious Nones: Lessons from Chinese and Japanese American Young Adults

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    Russell Jeung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.

  13. Religiousness as a protective factor for substance use in dance sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Kostic, Radmila; Rodek, Jelena; Damjanovic, Vesna; Ostojic, Zdenko

    2009-09-01

    Although religiousness is found to be a significant protective factor in substance use, there is an evidential lack of studies of such in athletes. The aim of the study was to identify the predictive value of the religiousness and some social, educational, and sport factors on substance use in 43 sport dancers. An originally developed questionnaire for studying substance use and precipitation factors was applied. The Chi-square showed male dancers as more religious than females. Using the Spearman's correlation, religiousness was found to be a significant protective factor in cigarette smoking, sport nutritional supplementation, and the likelihood of doping. Data were interpreted emphasizing the previous findings from the literature.

  14. Religious Symbols in Public Functions: Unveiling State Neutrality. A Comparative Analysis of Dutch, English and French Justifications for Limiting the Freedom of Public Officials to Display Religious Symbols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Religious symbols are loaded with meaning, not only for those who display them. They have generated controversy in many circles, be they religious or secular, public or private, and within or outside academia. Debate has taken place throughout Europe and beyond, at times leading to limitations or

  15. Inside a Religious Education Research Project: The Influence of Theological and Educational Considerations on the Treatment of Religious Content within a Prescribed Pedagogic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmitt, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the underlying theological and educational issues which were addressed when incorporating an item of religious content within the "Gift Approach" to Primary Religious Education. It suggests that the significance of laying bare this process is in demonstrating how theological concerns (whatever the religion) will always be a…

  16. Religious Symbols in Public Functions: Unveiling State Neutrality. A Comparative Analysis of Dutch, English and French Justifications for Limiting the Freedom of Public Officials to Display Religious Symbols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Religious symbols are loaded with meaning, not only for those who display them. They have generated controversy in many circles, be they religious or secular, public or private, and within or outside academia. Debate has taken place throughout Europe and beyond, at times leading to limitations or ba

  17. Pastoral care and religious support as a part of treatment of religious patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis

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    Đurović Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care and religious support in hospital treatment of a 73-year-old patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis. Case report. The 73- year-old, highly religious patient with severe form of osteoarthritis was admitted at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, due to heterogeneous problems in the activities of daily living. The patient walked with difficulty using a stick, suffered pain, and was anxious and depressive. In order to objectively demonstrate effects of both pastoral care and religious support in this patient we performed multiple treatment with reversal design, in which the basic treatment consisting of hospital care, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy (the treatment A was alternatively changed with the treatment that included combination of the basic treatment and religious support provided by religious physiatrist and physiotherapist (the treatment B or combination of the basic treatment and pastoral care provided by military priest (the treatment C. The treatment A was applied three times and lasted two weeks, every time. Treatments B and C were applied once and lasted three weeks, each. The order of the treatments was: A→B→A→C→A. During the whole treatment period the patient’s condition was assessed by several measuring scale: the level of depression by The Hamilton Rang Scale for Depression and The Zung Self Rating Depression Scale; the level of anxiety by The Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scale; the functional capability of

  18. The neural correlates of religious and nonreligious belief.

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    Sam Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life, little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief at the level of the brain. Nor is it known whether religious believers and nonbelievers differ in how they evaluate statements of fact. Our lab previously has used functional neuroimaging to study belief as a general mode of cognition [1], and others have looked specifically at religious belief [2]. However, no research has compared these two states of mind directly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure signal changes in the brains of thirty subjects-fifteen committed Christians and fifteen nonbelievers-as they evaluated the truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions. For both groups, and in both categories of stimuli, belief (judgments of "true" vs judgments of "false" was associated with greater signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area important for self-representation [3], [4], [5], [6], emotional associations [7], reward [8], [9], [10], and goal-driven behavior [11]. This region showed greater signal whether subjects believed statements about God, the Virgin Birth, etc. or statements about ordinary facts. A comparison of both stimulus categories suggests that religious thinking is more associated with brain regions that govern emotion, self-representation, and cognitive conflict, while thinking about ordinary facts is more reliant upon memory retrieval networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While religious and nonreligious thinking differentially engage broad regions of the frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobes, the difference between belief and disbelief appears to be content-independent. Our study compares religious thinking with ordinary cognition and, as such, constitutes a step toward developing a neuropsychology of religion. However, these findings may also further our understanding of how the

  19. [Secular bioethics and religious bioethics. Keys to a contemporary argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Terán Velasco, M Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of the contemporary plural debate, it is common to use the adjective secular as if it were the only manner to participate in the bioethical debate of Western multi-ethnic society. This situation gives rise to the question of whether there can be a religious contribution to the current bioethical debate. There are two possible answers. The first, an affirmative one, is centered on the fact that contemporary society is characterized by pluralistic and secular values on which is based the obligations of its members, defined by consensus through democratic procedures. In this context, religious contribution, as something from the private sphere, must be excluded. The alternative response to our central question may be negative, based on the assertion that human beings are identified as members of different value systems, many of them imbued with religious elements. From this point of view, the religious phenomenon would be one of the most important elements in the debate on cultural pluralism, because it guides, and serves as an inspiration of our conduct. This article aims to answer our central question by analyzing each of the two possible positions. The article is divided into two sections; the first analyses the significance of the term secular when it is employed in the sphere of bioethics and the second examines whether, within the scope of democratic societies, the current religious contribution to the bioethics debate has any legitimacy. The article ends with some conclusions.

  20. Examination of the Relationship among Death Anxiety, Spirituality, Religious Orientation and Existential Anxiety

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    Merve Halıcı Kurtulan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations among death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, existential anxiety, and religious tendencies were examined. In addition, this study investigated whether these variables changed with respect to demographic characteristics. The study group was composed of 404 university students. Data was collected by administering the personal demographic form, Death Anxiety Scale, Existential Scale, Religious Tendency Scale, and Spirituality Scale. In line with the purpose of the study, the relational screening model and descriptive methods have been used and participants are identified as study groups. Male participants scored significantly higher than female participants. Gender was not found to have an effect on the other variables. Existential anxiety did not differ within groups with respect to having a religious education. Participants who had received a religious education had higher death anxiety and less spiritual tendencies. Motivation for religious tendencies was found to be external. According to the results, death anxiety and existential anxiety are negatively correlated; existential anxiety and spiritual tendencies are positively correlated; and religious tendencies, which have externally motivations, and spiritual tendencies are negatively correlated. Death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, and religious tendencies predict existential anxiety. As suggestions, the number of studies that examine the associations among existential anxiety, religious tendencies, and spiritual tendencies should be increased, and the quality of religious education should be discussed in detail.

  1. Religious communication and hegemony of mass media

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    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.

  2. Science and Faith: Discussing Astronomy Research with Religious Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2006-12-01

    An important component of our outreach as research astronomers involves interaction with the religious community. From my personal perspective, being an active research astronomer who is also a practicing Christian, I am sometimes invited to present the latest astronomical research to church audiences and other religious groups; belonging to both communities thereby provides a valuable means of contributing to the dialogue between science and religion. These opportunities can be used to explain that science and religion are not necessarily in conflict but can be considered to be quite complementary. For instance, an important aspect of religion deals with the purpose of our existence, while science is more focussed on providing physical explanations for what we observe in the world, using a well-defined scientific process. Hence, religious believers need not necessarily abandon their faith in order to accept mainstream scientific research; these address very different and complementary aspects of our existence. Recent ideas such as Intelligent Design attempt to address the scientific method, but do not address the ultimate religious question of purpose and do not contribute towards reconciling science and religion in this sense. Ultimately, every individual arrives at their own understanding of this rather complex interplay; I will present some personal reflections on general approaches for discussing mainstream astronomical research with religious audiences, aimed at helping to advance the dialogue between religion and science in general.

  3. ¿Religión sin Dios? XXI Conferencias Aranguren

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    Fraijó, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While faith in God seems to wane, interest in the many existing religions and religious movements grows. We are in front a new phenomenon. On the monotheistic field reigned the ancient assertion «no God, no religion ». Today, however, religion seems to walk alone. There are signs that religions, now independent of the old faith in God, have established by themselves. There is who think religions could even survive to God. The Conferences will discuss the alternations of God and the religion in power. Religion lived in the shadow of God until late modernity, but from that date on, it is God who lives in the shadow of religion. The lectures will also wonder what kind of religion will be in places of monotheistic tradition when God is dispensed.

    Mientras la fe en Dios parece decaer, crece el interés por las numerosas religiones y movimientos religiosos existentes. Estamos ante un fenómeno nuevo. En el ámbito monoteísta reinaba el antiguo aserto «ningún Dios, ninguna religión». Hoy, en cambio, la religión parece caminar sola. Hay signos de que las religiones, independizadas de la antigua fe en Dios, se han establecido por cuenta propia. Hay quien piensa incluso que podrían sobrevivir a Dios. Las Conferencias analizarán las alternancias de Dios y de la religión en el poder. Hasta bien entrada la modernidad, la religión vivió a la sombra de Dios; a partir de esa fecha, es Dios quien vive a la sombra de la religión. Las conferencias se preguntarán, además, qué clase de religión quedará en los lugares de tradición monoteísta cuando se prescinde de Dios.

  4. Features of the religious individualism formation by Danièle Hervieu­Léger

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    S. V. Trophimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper outlines concepts of the Religious individualism in modern Western society analyzed by the French sociologist Danièle Hervieu-Léger in “Religion in movement” (1999. Author proposes an assessment of the religious situation in the French society at the end of the XX century. Particular attention is given to crisis of secular regulation of the religious in the modern society. The weakening of the regulatory capacity of religious institutions leads to a weakening of the secular state. Religious institutions should be able to implement the regime of the truth of faith, which makes the institutional power of the superior guarantor of common faith principles shared by all believers of the denomination. Modern institutional disorganization in the religious field, contributing to the destabilization of the French model of secularism, weakened by political cultural and economic liberalization that undermine its principles values that historically based secular system itself. Institutional crisis of the truths of faith approval favors an increase in the number of belief systems of individual communities. The problem can not be solved a priori, legally separating the traditional, “recognized by law” and other religions. The changing religious situation the state must find a new model of interaction with religious groups and organizations. The material is useful for comparative studies of the religious situation in Russia and Western Europe.

  5. Does adolescents' religiousness moderate links between harsh parenting and adolescent substance use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher J; Longo, Gregory S

    2014-12-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents' psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (n = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control.

  6. Perceived religious discrimination as predictor of work engagement, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion

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    Freda van der Walt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although perceived religious discrimination has been studied in the past, much remains unknown about the topic. The focus of this study was the Rastafari religion, because this religious group has up to now been excluded from research studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 80 employees belonging to the Rastafari religion, chosen from organisations in two provinces in South Africa. The findings emanating from the quantitative research study indicated that, on average, the respondents perceived to be discriminated against. Furthermore, a positive relationship was established between perceived religious discrimination and work engagement. These findings advanced the understanding of perceived religious discrimination, and the impact that it may have on work engagement, particularly with reference to the Rastafari religion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse regarding perceived religious discrimination, with specific reference to the Rastafari religion which is a minority religious group in South Africa. Perceived religious discrimination is discussed and investigated in the context of the workplace, and the aim was to establish whether perceived religious discrimination influences work-related attitudes, such as work engagement. Because previous studies have associated perceived discrimination with less job involvement and career satisfaction, fewer career prospects, greater work conflict, lower feelings of power, decreased job prestige, and less organisational citizenship behaviour (Thomas 2008:80, it was expected that perceived religious discrimination would have a negative influence on work engagement. The findings show that religion possibly provides individuals with the necessary personal resources to persevere when faced with religious discrimination, and sustain performance as well as attain success within the context of the

  7. The relationship between religious activities and blood pressure in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, H G; George, L K; Hays, J C; Larson, D B; Cohen, H J; Blazer, D G

    1998-01-01

    To examine the relationship between religious activities and blood pressure in community-dwelling older adults. Blood pressure and religious activities were assessed in a probability sample of 3,963 persons age sixty-five years or older participating in the Duke EPESE survey. Participants were asked if their doctor had ever informed them that they had high blood pressure and if they were currently taking medication for high blood pressure. After the interview, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured following a standardized protocol. Data were available for three waves of the survey (1986, 1989-90, and 1993-94). Analyses were stratified by age (65-74 vs. over 75) and by race (Whites vs. Blacks) and were controlled for age, race, gender, education, physical functioning, body mass index, and, in longitudinal analyses, blood pressure from the previous wave. Cross-sectional analyses revealed small (1-4 mm Hg) but consistent differences in measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures between frequent (once/wk) and infrequent (activity at one wave predicted blood pressures three years later. Among participants who both attended religious services and prayed or studied the Bible frequently, the likelihood of having a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher was 40 percent lower than found in participants who attended religious services infrequently and prayed or studied the Bible infrequently (OR 0.60, 95% CI, 0.48-0.75, p high blood pressure, religiously active persons were more likely to be taking their blood pressure medication; this could not, however, explain the differences in blood pressure observed. While most religious activity was associated with lower blood pressure, those who frequently watched religious TV or listened to religious radio actually had higher blood pressures. Religiously active older adults tend to have lower blood pressures than those who are less active. This applies to attendance at religious services and private

  8. A Scalar Comparison of Motivations and Expectations of Experience within the Religious Tourism Market

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    Daniel H. Olsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic studies on tourism market segmentation have decreased in scale over time, with the focus on tourist segmentation changing from segmenting the market as a whole to segmenting specific tourism niche markets. This change in scale can also be seen in how academics have attempted to segment the religious tourism market moving from discussions related to the pilgrim-tourist dichotomy to segmenting visitors based on religious affiliation to world regions and countries to specific religious activities such as religious festivals and infrastructural amenities such as hotels. In this paper the author, following Wall’s (1997 discussion of the spatial characteristics of tourist attractions (i.e., points, lines, and areas, raises the question as to whether there is a scalar difference in the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of: people who travel to specific religious sites (points; those who travel along religiously - themed routes (lines and; those who travel to the Holy Land (area. To answer this question the author looks at and compares three case studies - Cathedrals in the United Kingdom (point, the Camino de Santiago de Compostela (line, and the Holy Land (area - and summarizes the academic literature pertaining to the characteristics, motivations and expectations of experience of visitors to these locations. Cursory findings show that there are differences regarding the motivations and the ‘expectation of experience’ of people who travel to religious points versus religious lines and religious areas.

  9. Programs of religious/spiritual support in hospitals - five "Whies" and five "Hows".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Marcelo; de Medeiros, Roberta

    2016-08-22

    A contemporary orientation of the hospital experience model must encompass the clients' religious-spiritual dimension. The objective of this paper is to share a previous experience, highlighting at least five reasons hospitals should invest in this direction, and an equal number of steps required to achieve it. In the first part, the text discourses about five reasons to invest in religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Religious-spiritual wellbeing is related to better health; 2. Religious-spiritual appreciation is a standard for hospital accreditation; 3. To undo religious-spiritual misunderstandings that can affect treatment; 4. Patients demand a religious-spiritual outlook from the institution; and 5. Costs may be reduced with religious-spiritual support. In the second part, the text suggests five steps to implement religious-spiritual support programs: 1. Deep institutional involvement; 2. Formal staff training; 3. Infrastructure and resources; 4. Adjustment of institutional politics; and 5. Agreement with religious-spiritual leaders. The authors hope the information compiled here can inspire hospitals to adopt actions toward optimization of the healing experience.

  10. Religious Cognitive-Emotional Therapy :A New Form of Psychotherapy

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    Ali Reza Rajaei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nFrom the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role ,and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health ; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies . Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific ,comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested . Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis , depression , and anxiety ; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well . Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  11. Religious cognitive-emotional therapy: a new form of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Ali Reza

    2010-01-01

    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area.

  12. Peripheral Facial Palsy: Does Patients' Religiousness Matter for the Otorhinolaryngologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; De Rossi, Janaina; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L Granero

    2016-06-01

    In order to deal with the suffering, a frequent strategy employed by patients is the use of religious beliefs and behaviors. Nevertheless, few studies in otorhinolaryngology have investigated this dimension. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the role of religiousness on quality of life, mental health, self-esteem and appearance in 116 patients with peripheral facial palsy (PFP). A cross-sectional, single-center study was carried out between 2010 and 2012 in PFP outpatients. We assessed socio-demographic data, PFP characteristics, depression, anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, appearance and religiosity. A linear regression (adjusted for confounders) was performed to investigate whether religiosity was associated with any outcomes. The present study found that religious attendance, but not other types of religiousness, was related to quality of life and mental health on PFP patients. In addition, ENT patients would like their doctors to ask them about their faith and religion as part of their medical care. These findings give further support to the importance of religious and spiritual beliefs on ENT patients. Otorhinolaryngologists should be aware of the positive and negative aspects of religion and be prepared to address these issues in clinical practice.

  13. Religious Cognitive–Emotional Therapy: A New Form of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    From the ancient times up to this date, it has been thought that religion and spirituality have important effects on human being's mental life. However, some psychologists and psychotherapists have ignored this role, and thus neglected to study the effects of applying religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. However, many psychologists and psychotherapists have recently studied the relationship between religion or spirituality and mental health; or used religious interventions in psychotherapies. Although different kinds of religious psychotherapies have been proposed, no comprehensive theory has been presented in this area. In this article a scientific, comprehensive and applied spiritual method of psychotherapy is suggested. Religious Cognitive- Emotional Therapy (RCET) is a new form of cognitive therapy that uses the basic religious beliefs and insights in psychotherapy. RCET is a new integration of cognitive, humanistic, and existential psychotherapies that takes into account religious beliefs and insights of the clients. RCET is an effective method of psychotherapy for the treatment of those who suffer from identity crisis, depression, and anxiety; and it can be developed to address other psychological disorders as well. Because RCET is a new approach, practically is needed to do further theoretical research in this area. PMID:22952497

  14. Comparative Theology and Religious Studies in a Non-religious Environment

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    Jacques Scheuer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.

  15. Dialogic skills for religious education

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    Mike Castelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of religious education, pedagogies have featured regularly as teachers strive for the most effective methodology to promote pupils’ learning but their current success rate has been called into question by two critical Subject Reports in 2010 and 2013 from the English Government’s Office for Standards in Education (OfSTED. This paper reports on a piece of action research that sets Bloom’s taxonomy within a framework of classroom dialogue skills with the intention of addressing the OfSTED-identified shortcomings. Furthermore, the paper proposes that in a world where young people often hear and see a close relationship between religion and conflict, religious education cannot remain silent and the skills for enhancing dialogue in the classroom may also have a contribution to make to issues around religion, conflict and education.

  16. Religious culture as a barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2016-01-01

    with their religious and cultural frames of reference? The study uses a case study approach with interviews of ten 13–17-year-old Danish Muslim girls, as well as explorative observations in two football clubs and interviews with five coaches and club leaders. In further developing an analytical model for interpreting......Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...

  17. Documentary Media and Religious Communities

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    Marie-Therese Mäder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.

  18. Religious space, humanitarian space

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    May Ngo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Protestant church in Morocco is struggling with tensions as it navigates between being a church organisation and being – in its work with refugees and migrants – something more like a non-governmental organisation.

  19. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  20. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  1. The Micro and Macro Analysis of English and Arabic Religious Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araji, Baida Faisal; Al-Azzawi, Sarab Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Religious discourse has been treated differently in various types of studies. In the present study, the English Biblical and Arabic Prophetic Hadiths will be tackled on two bases namely the micro and macro levels. In other words, the data will be analyzed at both micro and macro levels to maintain the organizational status of the religious texts.…

  2. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  3. Dianomy: understanding religious women's moral agency as creative conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucar, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This essay seeks to contribute to work on moral agency of religious women through the creative naming of a dynamic that is emerging in recent scholarship. Drawing on fieldwork in Iran in 2004, I argue that prominent models of agency based on autonomy, heteronomy, and theonomy are unable take into account both religious influence on and individual creativity of women's actions. I propose the neologism, "dianomy," meaning dual-sources of the moral law, to account for moral agency that relies neither exclusively upon the self as a source of moral authority nor exclusively upon religious traditions. Dianomy also attempts to comprehend creative ruptures in obedience to tradition, even when these innovations are unintentional. Such a concept is particularly important in order to correct past tendencies to ignore or even negate feminist politics that do not resist or strategically reform religious norms. With dianomy, tactical moves, actions that are not "freely chosen," and even happy accidents can be studied as productive within traditional religious communities. I call these types of actions, which confound the actions theorized by autonomy, heteronomy, and theonomy, "creative conformity."

  4. When the mosque goes Beethoven: Expressing religious belongings through music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Salzbrunn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article will provide insight on music as a vector of religious belonging: a female choir at a mosque in the Lake Geneva Metropolitan Region has reinterpreted Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with new text about the glory of the Messenger, and a regional political and religious event which has united music from Syria, Kosovo and Tunisia in order to put on stage the cosmopolitan characteristics of Swiss Muslims. Religious and national belonging as well as cultural references can be expressed in different ways through ritual practices (prayer, celebrations, food or clothing. These practices, influenced by gender and age, are highly diverse. Celebrations that are performed in public also depend on the local and global political context, the specific social situation and the specific place (location, public, legal framework etc.. As part of a broader research project on “(Invisible Islam in the city,” a research team directed by Monika Salzbrunn has observed various forms of celebration – both religious and secular festive events – in which Muslim citizens are involved. At what audience are these musical performances directed? Can we really separate an analysis of religious belongings from an analysis of political and/or cultural performances?

  5. An Exploration of the Associations Among Multiple Aspects of Religiousness, Body Image, Eating Pathology, and Appearance Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Carol; Henrie, James; Szymanski, Lynda

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of positive and negative aspects of religiousness on eating pathology, body satisfaction, and appearance investment beyond previously established variables (age, BMI, exercise frequency, weight stability, and self-esteem). Data collected from 168 adult females at a Catholic-affiliated university were analyzed using hierarchical linear regressions. As expected, some religiousness variables (spirituality and seeing one's body as having sacred qualities) were associated with eating pathology, body satisfaction, and appearance investment in potentially beneficial ways, and others (negative interaction with one's religious community) were associated in potentially harmful ways. Interestingly, greater religious meaning, or the importance of religion in one's life, was associated with greater eating pathology, and some variables (religious coping, participation in and support from one's religious community) expected to be associated with greater body satisfaction were unrelated. Results are discussed in terms of mechanisms through which the aspects of religiousness may influence body satisfaction, appearance investment, and eating pathology.

  6. THE RELIGIOUS ECONOMY OF TEXAS: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lile

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing market shares of major Texas religious groups during this century. Market shares are computed by dividing membership by Texas population. Results show that certain religious groups (firms have performed much better in terms of market share than others. The better performers are the more conservative Protestant denominations along with the Roman Catholic Church. Groups losing market share tendto be the more liberal Protestant denominations. This finding would appear to be consistent with Niebuhr’s church-sect theory which, among other things, predicts that religious groups (sects characterized by a high degree of tension with society grow whereas groups (churches characterized by alow degree of tension with society tend to decline.

  7. Gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lydia K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States to investigate the effect gender and religiosity has on volunteer behavior in later life. This study looks specifically at the gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life. Accounting for gender and religious differences, more specifically, this study examines the assumption that older women are more likely to volunteer in later life as opposed to men, and that gender is a better predictor than being religious for the likelihood of occupying a volunteer role in later life. This study poses questions about the differences in gender and religiosity associated with volunteering in later life; the results indicate there is more work to be done as we conduct research that is clearer about how volunteerism and religiosity are measured in relation to gender, and the overall impact these differences have for older women and their respective communities.

  8. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community will be proposed...

  9. Theoretical Views in Inter-religious Dialog in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jafarian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   It has almost passed one century from the emergence of the idea of the inter-religious dialog. The idea, being based on the assumption that no religion has the absolute truth, believes that there is the possibility of the dialog between all the existent religions in the social world. The dialog could make the coexistence and peace between the religions possible. The importance of this issue is increasingly growing and different ideas have been presented in the different religion departments worldwide. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution, a new image of Islam was offered to the world. An image whose true exposure made the use of the inter-religious dialog unavoidable. This also caused appearance of different views between the Muslim scholars. This article seeks to provide a presentation of three different approaches to the inter-religious dialog by exploring the works of three eminent scholars in the field; Mohaghegh Damad, Abolhassan Navab and Mohammad Masjed Jamei. These three approaches are:   · Inter-religious dialog as an interaction-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a necessity-oriented action    · Inter-religious dialog as a backgroubd-oriented action    The necessity-oriented action is the approach taken by Mohaghegh Damad. He emphasizes on the acceptance of other religions. The active action referring to this acceptance is the foundation of this approach. This approach, accepting the developmental discourse in the meaning of inter-religious dialog, believes that this kind of dialog has been evolved from defensive and opposing to a new meaning. Hence, the inter-religious dialog in its new meaning possesses three conditions; the existence of common rights, emphasis on mutual respect and the effort for the two sides for religious exchange. This approach­ assumes that we must first establish a pattern from the current experiences of inter-religious dialogs in order to have an ideal cooperation and to fortify it

  10. Threats or Victims: The Ambiguous Nature of Supernatural Creatures in Andrzej Sapkowski’s and George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy

    OpenAIRE

    Piven, Sviatoslav

    2015-01-01

    Many postcolonial readings of fantasy fiction focus on exploring complicated relationships between different fantastic races that inhabit a certain secondary world. However, such studies often overlook interactions of these races with the supernatural animals and beasts that live alongside them. Fantasy narratives like Andrzej Sapkowski’s The Witcher Saga and George R. R. Martin’s A Song of Ice and Fire depict fantastic settings where the relationship between the inhabitants of...

  11. Homeostasis and religious behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Uffe

    2007-01-01

    The classic dichotomy between bodily and cognitive processes has survived in scientific thought and can still be seen undiminished in the classic paradigm of the cognitive sciences. Lately, however, the notion of amodal cognitive systems has been challenged by new insights. More and more findings...

  12. Asymmetrical Religious Commitments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics...

  13. Religious Neutrality, Toleration and Recognition in Moderate Secular States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical discussion with point of departure in the case of Denmark of some of the theoretical issues concerning the relation liberal statesmay have to religion in general and religious minorities in particular. Liberal political philosophy has long taken for granted...... that liberal states have to be religiously neutral. The paper asks what a liberal state is with respect to religion and religiousminorities if it is not a strictly religiously neutral state with full separation of church and state and of religion and politics. To illuminate this question, the paper...... investigates a particular case of an arguably reasonably liberal state, namely the Danish state, which is used as a particular illustration of themore general phenomenon of “moderately secular” states, and considers how one might understand its relations to religion. The paper then considers the applicability...

  14. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  15. Broadening the Boundary of "Textbooks" for Intercultural Communication in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boyung

    2010-01-01

    No one in this global age can teach and learn without engaging one's neighbors. The cosmos's far-reaching cultural flow forces Religious Education scholars and practitioners to be fluent in intercultural communication. Notwithstanding this pursuit, the author finds that one of the obstacles for religious educators is their textbooks' cultural…

  16. Teachers, the State and Religious Symbols: A Question of Professional Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kevin; Maxwell, Bruce; Waddington, David

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the question of whether policies that propose to forbid public officials, most notably teachers, from wearing religious clothing in the classroom can be justified by political principles of secularism--specifically, the principle of state neutrality and the principle of state autonomy from religious influence. Two prominent…

  17. The Search for a Usable Knowledge in Religious Education: Educating Reflective Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Robert T.

    1988-01-01

    Examining the relationship between theory and practice in religious education, O'Gorman contends that in the search for useable knowledge, the discipline of religious education must challenge the hierarchical relationship between theory and practice. Proposes that theory and practice be unified in a way to develop reflective practitioners. (GEA)

  18. Biology Students' and Teachers' Religious Beliefs and Attitudes towards Theory of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay Kose, Esra

    2010-01-01

    Evolution has not being well addressed in schools partly because it is a controversial topic in religious views. In the present study, it is explored to what extent Turkish secondary school biology teachers and students accommodate the theory of biological evolution with their religious beliefs. Two-hundred fifty secondary school students and…

  19. Biology Students' and Teachers' Religious Beliefs and Attitudes towards Theory of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay Kose, Esra

    2010-01-01

    Evolution has not being well addressed in schools partly because it is a controversial topic in religious views. In the present study, it is explored to what extent Turkish secondary school biology teachers and students accommodate the theory of biological evolution with their religious beliefs. Two-hundred fifty secondary school students and…

  20. Teachers, the State and Religious Symbols: A Question of Professional Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kevin; Maxwell, Bruce; Waddington, David

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the question of whether policies that propose to forbid public officials, most notably teachers, from wearing religious clothing in the classroom can be justified by political principles of secularism--specifically, the principle of state neutrality and the principle of state autonomy from religious influence. Two prominent…

  1. Including Secular Philosophies Such as Humanism in Locally Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The 2004 "National Framework for Religious Education" (NFRE) innovatively recommended that secular philosophies such as humanism, or secular worldviews, be included in locally agreed syllabuses for religious education (RE) in England. However, the NFRE is a non-statutory document, and Agreed Syllabus Conferences (ASCs) and Standing…

  2. Disruptive Behaviour in Religious and Secular High Schools: Teachers' and Students' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Shlomo

    2004-01-01

    This two-phase study, conducted in religious and secular high schools, investigated the attitudes of teachers and students to disruptive behaviour. The first phase examined a religious school, then applied the same research tools to a secular school. It was assumed that differences of attitude would be found, with teachers viewing disruptive…

  3. Cognitive Dissonance Theory and the Induced-Compliance Paradigm: Concerns for Teaching Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlene P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory and the Induced-Compliance Paradigm pose some interesting questions for those teaching religious studies in publicly funded colleges and universities. Given that religious beliefs can be challenged by the historical-critical study of scriptures, for example, and that the cognitive dissonance generated when this occurs…

  4. Money or Ethics : Multinational corporations and religious organisations operating in an era of corporate responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. van Cranenburgh (Katinka)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIt is a general assumption that Religious Organisations (ROs) are driven by religious beliefs and values, whilst multinational corporations (MNCs) are considered to be concerned about their profits, their share price and their reputation. When ROs invest in capital markets, they part

  5. 24 CFR 5.109 - Equal Participation of Religious Organizations in HUD Programs and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the definition, practice, and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not engage in... program beneficiary or prospective program beneficiary on the basis of religion or religious belief. (g) Acquisition, construction, and rehabilitation of structures. HUD funds may not be used for the...

  6. Non-governmental religious schools in Europe: institutional opportunities, associational freedoms, and contemporary challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maussen, M.; Bader, V.

    2015-01-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights guarantees freedom of education, including opportunities to create and operate faith-based schools. But as European societies become religiously more diverse and ‘less religious’ at the same time, the role of religious schools increasingly is being contested.

  7. Religious Values and Conflict of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tonolo

    2016-02-01

    Abstract: The wide evolution of private international law is currently recalling attention to the general aspects of the discipline. Europeanization and globalisation of sources of private international law do not preclude the chance that conflict of laws should also deal with individual identities. To the extent that the European systems have hitherto offered to the application of foreign laws, we are faced with the problem of survival in Europe of an idea of the personality of laws. In fact it’s generally accepted that conflict of laws faces the individual identities of people involved in international relations. Cultural identity may be considered collective and individual at the same time, because each member of the group has an identity of its own. Religious values ontribute to defining the cultural identity of individuals: be it in Europe or other countries, cultures, values, civilization, religion, are never absent from the solutions of personal status. Stepping back from the analysis of some cases where religious values are relevant, this Article aims at a theoretical analysis of the subject, involving the contrast between value pluralism, conflict of laws and fundamental rights.

  8. Asymmetrical Religious Commitments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics...... in a more general perspective of the scholar’s responsibilities in relation to the public. The evidence examined consists partly of different types of public material including scholarly works, institutional and personal webpages, and the results from two anonymous questionnaire surveys set up on Hindu...

  9. Can religious priming induce truthful preference revelation?

    OpenAIRE

    Stachtiaris, Spiros; Drichoutis, Andreas; Nayga, Rodolfo; Klonaris, Stathis

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether religious priming can induce more truthful preference revelation in valuation research. Using induced value second price Vickrey auctions in both hypothetical and non-hypothetical contexts, our results suggest that religious priming can indeed induce more truthful bidding and eliminate hypothetical bias in hypothetical contexts. In non-hypothetical contexts where there are real economic incentives, religious priming induces similar truthful bidding as the absence of religio...

  10. Temple or Prison: Religious Beliefs and Attitudes Toward the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Heather L; Hall, M Elizabeth Lewis; Anderson, Tamara L; Willingham, Michele M

    2016-12-01

    Most research on religion and the body has focused on the relationship between broad dimensions of religion, such as religious commitment or religious orientation, and body image or eating behaviors. The present study extends existing research by examining two specific religiously influenced beliefs about the body within a Protestant Christian sample, radical dualism and sanctification, and by focusing on a wider range of attitudes toward the body. The view of radical dualism sees the body as corrupt and separate from oneself, while the view of sanctification sees the body as holy, worthy of respect, and integral to one's being. This study examined how both radically dualistic and sanctified views of the body relate to attitudes people hold about their bodies including body appreciation and two components of body objectification: self-surveillance and body shame. To date, none of these attitudes have been examined in relation to specific, nuanced religious beliefs about the body. Participants were 243 adults from a variety of Protestant denominations. Using an online survey system and self-report measures, participants indicated the degree to which they hold radically dualistic and sanctified views about their bodies as well as their attitudes toward their bodies. Radical dualism was found to be negatively related to body appreciation and positively related to body shame. Sanctification was found to predict body appreciation. Body shame mediated the relationship between religious beliefs about the body and self-surveillance. This study contributes to a greater understanding of how religiously based beliefs about the body are related to attitudes about the body.

  11. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  12. A Typology of Religious Attitudes among Young People in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kalbheim, Boris; Riegel, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Issues like faith and Church, religion and religiousness are not valued particularly highly among the young. At the same time a search for the meaning of life and an orientation in one's own behaviour still seem to be significant and transcendent focal points are being sought to deal with these issues. This article questions the value that…

  13. Means of Harmonization in Religious Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ščukina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Means of harmonization of religious discourse are considered by studying communicational behaviour (verbal and nonverbal between the religion institution and believers. The following factors defining specificity of realization of harmonization in Orthodox and other religious texts are taken into account: the communication channel between the author and the reader, a defining speech genre, the command of language (communication code, and extra-linguistic factors. It is shown that sharing the general social, historical and national experience, as well as a lexical overlapping of actors on both sides of the communication channel are the deciding elements of the harmonization process. The analysis also shows that usage of rational argumentation is more likely to lead to harmonisation in comparison to other rhetoric tools (i. e. affective ones or story-telling. Rational and unemotional sermonic discourse is perceived as a sign of respect (namely, for the listener's intelligence. Another successful and much-applied way seems to be evoking a feeling of equality, unity and/or identity between clerics and their flocks.

  14. God, Can I Tell You Something? The Effect of Religious Coping on the Relationship between Anxiety Over Emotional Expression, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Lucas, Sydnee; Quist, Michelle C; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Lu, Qian

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated whether religious coping would moderate the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms such that the positive relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms would be weaker among those higher in religious coping. Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduates (M age=23.51 years, SD=6.80; 84.4% female) completed study materials. Contrary to expectations, results revealed a significant interaction between religious coping and AEE such that religious coping exacerbated the relationship between higher AEE and distress symptoms. The implications of this study suggest that religious coping may not be an ideal coping mechanism for individuals with high levels of AEE. These results indicate the need to further examine the role of AEE in religious coping, and have potential implications for clinicians, healthcare professionals, and religious mentors who may promote the use of religious coping in treatment.

  15. Relationship between Religious Identity and Social Capital (Research Subject: Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    .5 percent have a strong level of social capital. Also, based on the average score of religious identity, only 5 percent of respondents have a weak religious identity and 11.3 percent have a moderate religious identity, and more than two-third (that is, 2/88 percent have a strong religious identity. According to the results of this study, a significant positive relationship exist between religious identity and social capital. This is in line with most of the studies conducted in this subject. This is because most of religious doctrines are based on principles such as respect for the rights of others, cooperation with community members, well interactions with coreligionists, having trust in others and other good and positive religious moral values, which if members of the society act according to them, the consequence would be increase in the level of social capital in society.

  16. Religious Affiliation Among Older Age Groups Worldwide: Estimates for 2010 and Projections Until 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Potancoková, Michaela; Hackett, Conrad; Stonawski, Marcin

    2016-11-09

    The religious landscape of older adults around the world is changing profoundly. Yet until now, no study has chronicled these changes or compared expected aging patterns of religious groups. Differential aging among religious groups can have important economic and social consequences. This study estimates and projects the future religious composition by age at the global and regional levels. This study presents estimates of age structures by religion for 2010 and projections until 2050. It is based on analyses of more than 2,500 censuses, registers, and surveys from 198 countries. Regional and global results are the aggregate of demographic projections carried out at the country level. In 2010, Muslims were least likely to be aged 60 or older (7% of all Muslims), and Jews were most likely to be in this age group (20% of all Jews). By 2050, we project that Buddhists and the religiously unaffiliated will have the oldest populations (both will have 32% above the age of 60), whereas Muslims will remain the youngest religious group (with only 16% above the age of 60). Christians will, globally, age relatively slowly, from 14% to 21% above the age of 60 from 2010 to 2050. The religious landscape among the world's seniors will change fundamentally in the coming years, due to the combination of rapid aging among the religiously unaffiliated and Buddhist populations and the persistence of relatively young age structures among Muslims and Christians, which are the dominant religions in Africa.

  17. Expectations contribute to reduced pain levels during prayer in highly religious participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Vase, Lene; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Terkelsen, Astrid Juhl; Hansen, John; Geertz, Armin W; Roepstorff, Andreas; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2013-08-01

    Although the use of prayer as a religious coping strategy is widespread and often claimed to have positive effects on physical disorders including pain, it has never been tested in a controlled experimental setting whether prayer has a pain relieving effect. Religious beliefs and practices are complex phenomena and the use of prayer may be mediated by general psychological factors known to be related to the pain experience, such as expectations, desire for pain relief, and anxiety. Twenty religious and twenty non-religious healthy volunteers were exposed to painful electrical stimulation during internal prayer to God, a secular contrast condition, and a pain-only control condition. Subjects rated expected pain intensity levels, desire for pain relief, and anxiety before each trial and pain intensity and pain unpleasantness immediately after on mechanical visual analogue scales. Autonomic and cardiovascular measures provided continuous non-invasive objective means for assessing the potential analgesic effects of prayer. Prayer reduced pain intensity by 34 % and pain unpleasantness by 38 % for religious participants, but not for non-religious participants. For religious participants, expectancy and desire predicted 56-64 % of the variance in pain intensity scores, but for non-religious participants, only expectancy was significantly predictive of pain intensity (65-73 %). Conversely, prayer-induced reduction in pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were not followed by autonomic and cardiovascular changes.

  18. [« Co-occurrence of religious, superstitious, and delusional-like beliefs »].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Marie; Debruille, Jacques Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Empirical data supporting a relationship between religious beliefs, superstitious beliefs and delusion-like beliefs remain sparse, even though these 3 types of beliefs have a common point: the fact that they rest on little or no proof. This suggests that these beliefs could be underlain by a common cognitive mechanism and thus, should be observed in the same individuals. To test this last hypothesis, we asked 95 participants without any psychiatric history to complete questionnaires of delusion-like, religious, and superstitious beliefs. Superstitious beliefs positively correlated with religious and delusion-like beliefs and thus tended to appear in the same individuals. However, delusion-like beliefs were only partially linked to religious beliefs. Therefore, their relation to religious beliefs remains ambiguous.

  19. Religion and the Political Engagement of Latino Immigrants: Bridging Capital or Segmented Religious Assimilation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Leal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Latino Immigrant National Election Study (LINES to better understand the relationship between religion and immigrant political and civic engagement. Over the last half century, both American religion and the immigration landscape have changed in important ways. The LINES, which includes a number of religious questions from the American National Election Study and a rare focus on Latino newcomers, provides the opportunity to better understand the contemporary relationship between the two. We find that measures of religious belongings, beliefs, and behaviors (the Three Bs are not generally associated with the civic and political engagements of Latino immigrants. We posit that such null results may be explained by the varying religious experiences of immigrants—some developing bridging social capital through religious institutions, but others experiencing what might be called segmented religious assimilation.

  20. A Supernatural World in Christabel%超自然视阈下的《克丽斯德蓓》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳

    2015-01-01

    As one of Coleridge’s most critically acclaimed works, Christabel reflects the implied mystery with the supernatural ele⁃ments, and meanwhile wittingly mirrors the potential crisis in reality. And this paper intends to disclose the significance of this vi⁃sionary world and reveal Coleridge’s humanistic concern for the redemption and restoration of the relationship between human and Nature.%作为柯尔律治最具影响的作品之一,《克丽斯德蓓》假借超自然元素,展露出故事中隐含着的神秘诡谲,而在冥冥中又影射出现实社会潜藏着的危机。该文拟借超自然意象剖析纵观全诗,以揭示该世界的存在意蕴,并展露出诗人对人与自然关系的救赎重构与人文关怀。

  1. The Cunning-man, the Parson and the Inquisitor. The Saludadores and the Boundaries of the Supernatural in Baroque Spain

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    Fabián Alejandro CAMPAGNE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a period in which the truth seemed to get confused so easily with the untruth, a new field of battle for the assignment of meanings and the capture of symbols arises in Renaissance and Baroque Spain. It is the mythical complex of the Iberian saludador, a belief that succesfully challenged the most sophisticated thelogical devices —such as the agustinian doctrine on superstition or the discernment of spirits—, which were unable to assign an unequivocal meaning to the myth. As a consequence of this theoretical disability, the mythical complex of the Iberian saludador became an object of dispute, a sensitive space for the tracing of those borders of the supernatural that so intensely obsessed the early modern culture. The most diverse social actors, such as charismatic-healers, rural priests, aspiring saints, and inquisitors, sought to turn the legend of the saludador into another device for the formation of subjectivities, into a cultural tool capable of simultaneously constructing otherness and the proper identity.

  2. Scoring the ballo fantastico: supernatural characters and their music in Italy’s ballets during the Risorgimento

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    Matilda Ann Butkas Ertz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ballets with the designation fantastico first appeared in Italy’s theaters during the Risorgimento period. Ultramontane romanticism and fantastic topics were a minority within a diverse repertoire, reflecting the Italian revolution for independence. While some of these ballets were imports (often greatly adapted of successful French romantic ballets, many were Italian choreographers’ own brand of theater. The fantastic could even appear in the guise of allegorical characters within ballet genres more common to the Italian stage. This article situates the fantastic in Italy's theatrical scene and offers an investigation of the musical manifestation of supernatural characters in Italy's ballets through the case studies of four works that span six decades of performance—Il Noce di Benevento (1812, Fausto (1849,Bianchi e Negri (1853, and Gretchen (1868. This topical music is an important part of Italy's musical-theatrical participation in romanticism. While musicologists have largely focused on Italy's operas and dance scholars on French ballet for the nineteenth century, this article begins to bridge the gap with a focus on Italian ballet music.

  3. The Linguistic Roots of Religious Studies

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    G. Tselkovsky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses how linguistics influenced the formation of the methodology and the theory of religious studies. Changes in religious paradigms were connected with the following new theories in linguistics: comparative methodology, structuralism, and cognitive linguistics. It was these three branches of linguistic studies which were most influential for the formation and later development of religious studies. The author asks precisely why it was that linguistics constituted the source of global changes in the methodology of religious studies. According to the author, this fundamental role was played by the understanding of language and its rapport with religion. By examining both language and religion together, one may study religious phenomena through the prism of linguistic phenomena. Models for combining religion and language include the following: 1 religion as a linguistic phenomenon; 2 religion as the product of linguistic processes; 3 religion and language are homologous phenomena; 4 religion is formed by means of linguistic instruments. All this allows us to understand the history of religious studies in rapport with the development of linguistics. The author demonstrates that the problem of the rapport linking language and thought helped constitute the tie between linguistics and religious studies. It unifies in itself all the various linguistic theories of religion: nature-mythological, structuralist, and cognitive. The author then discusses the various attainments of each of these theories. Comparative-historical linguistics begets the comparative and nature-mythological theory in religious studies. Structural linguistics and semiotics explains the symbolic nature of religion and its communicative character. The appearance of extra-linguistic science will allow religious studies to defi ne new subjects of study, such as the link uniting religion language and the religious group (ethno-linguistics and socio-linguistics or to

  4. Religious and Ethnic Discrimination: Differential Implications for Social Support Engagement, Civic Involvement, and Political Consciousness

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    Renate Ysseldyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social identity threats, depending on the content of the identity targeted, may evoke varying socio-political responses. In this regard, religious discrimination may be especially threatening, challenging both the social group and its belief system, thereby promoting more active collective responses. This research examined how religious and ethnic identification differentially evoked engagement with support resources (ingroup and spiritual, civic involvement (including individual and collective action-taking, and political participation (voting or political consciousness following group-based threats. Study 1 drew from the Canadian Ethnic Diversity Survey (N = 1806. Participants who reported religious discrimination demonstrated greater religious identification, ingroup social engagement, and civic involvement—comparable associations were absent for ethnic discrimination. Study 2 (N = 287 experimentally primed participants to make salient a specific incident of religious or ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic discrimination elicited greater ingroup support-seeking and political consciousness, religious discrimination was perceived as especially harmful and evoked more individual and collective action-taking. Further to this, religious high-identifiers’ responses were mediated by engagement with ingroup or spiritual support in both studies, whereas no mediated relations were evident for ethnic identification. Findings are discussed in terms of distinct socio-political responses to threats targeting identities that are grounded in religious belief systems.

  5. Processes linking parents' and adolescents' religiousness and adolescent substance use: monitoring and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents' and adolescents' religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45 % female) who were interviewed at ages 10-16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents' religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents' religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents' religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes.

  6. Adolescents who are less religious than their parents are at risk for externalizing and internalizing symptoms: the mediating role of parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    Parents generally take pains to insure that their children adopt their own religious beliefs and practices, so what happens psychologically to adolescents who find themselves less religious than their parents? We examined the relationships among parents' and adolescents' religiousness, adolescents' ratings of parent-adolescent relationship quality, and adolescents' psychological adjustment using data from 322 adolescents and their parents. Adolescent boys who had lower organizational and personal religiousness than their parents, and girls who had lower personal religiousness than their parents, had more internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms than did adolescents whose religiousness better matched their parents'. The apparent effects of subparental religiousness on adolescents' psychological symptoms were mediated by their intermediate effects on adolescents' ratings of the quality of their relationships with their parents. These findings identify religious discrepancies between parents and their children as an important influence on the quality of parent-adolescent relationships, with important implications for adolescents' psychological well-being.

  7. Buying an Afterlife: Mapping the Social Impact of Religious Beliefs through Consumer Death Goods

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    Candi K. Cann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choosing to have a body embalmed, the choice of interment locations and type, including the selection of a particular casket, are all deeply intertwined with various understandings of the afterlife, and views of the body after death. Consumer choices in these cases are often determined by imagined embodiment, and are determined in part by non-rational consumer choices based on religious upbringing and belief. In turn, diasporic and religious identity can be reinforced and solidified through consumer choices that then fulfill religious imaginations of post-death embodiment. This article traces the relationship of two consumer death goods—embalming and caskets—in the contemporary United States, examining both the implicit and explicit relationships these products have with religious worldviews, mapping the social impact of religious beliefs on consumer death choices.

  8. Self-Representation and Cultural Expectations: Yogi Chen and Religious Practices of Life-Writing

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    Richard K. Payne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Explores the differences in self-representation as found in the autobiographical writings of Yogi Chen, Billy Graham, and the Dalai Lama. While the latter two are widely recognized in American popular religious culture, the former is virtually invisible outside the immigrant Chinese American community. This invisibility is consistent with fact that the religious praxes of immigrant communities remain largely under-studied. However, one additional factor appears to be the mismatch between the expectations of the dominant religious culture and the immigrant culture in terms of the ways in which religious leaders represent themselves. Both Billy Graham and the Dalai Lama present themselves in very humble terms, consistent with the expectations of the Pietist background to American popular religion. Yogi Chen on the contrary tends toward a self-aggrandizing style, which although consistent with the competitive nature of premodern Tibetan religious culture is not congruent with the expectations of American popular religion.

  9. Hitting the target: why existing measures of "religiousness" are really reverse-scored measures of "secularism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel E; Koenig, Harold G; Meador, Keith G

    2008-01-01

    Over 100 measures of religiousness and spirituality are used in research investigating the associations between religion and health. These measures are often used to assess "religiousness in general," but this approach lumps together widely divergent worldviews in ways that can distort religion beyond recognition. The authors suggest that the existing measures of religiousness are perhaps better understood as reverse-coded measures of "secularism." This argument suggests that the existing data regarding religiousness and health might be best interpreted as demonstrating a small, robust health liability associated with a deliberately secular worldview. If true, this conclusion might change the direction of future research, and it would imply that meaningful inferences about the health associations of religious practice will depend on developing tools that measure specific religions in their particularity.

  10. Religious participation and substance use behaviors in a Canadian sample of homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Strehlau, Verena; Linden, Isabelle Aube; Krausz, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This study examined religious behaviors in 380 homeless individuals. We hypothesized that higher frequency of religious attendance is associated with lower rates of use of all substances, lower rates of drug and alcohol dependence, and lower psychological distress. Individuals attending religious ceremonies at least weekly ("frequent attendees") were compared to infrequent attendees. Participants also provided qualitative information about their faith. In univariate analyses, frequent attendees had significantly lower rates of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid use than infrequent attendees. They also had lower rates of alcohol and drug dependence, lifetime suicide attempts, and psychological distress, but these differences were not significant. In multivariate analyses, religious attendance remained significantly associated with alcohol use and opioid use. Researchers need to examine how spiritual and religious practices can be effectively incorporated as a part of substance abuse treatment.

  11. Understanding Suicide Terrorism: Premature Dismissal of the Religious-Belief Hypothesis

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    James R. Liddle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We comment on work by Ginges, Hansen, and Norenzayan (2009, in which they compare two hypotheses for predicting individual support for suicide terrorism: the religious-belief hypothesis and the coalitional-commitment hypothesis. Although we appreciate the evidence provided in support of the coalitional-commitment hypothesis, we argue that their method of testing the religious-belief hypothesis is conceptually flawed, thus calling into question their conclusion that the religious-belief hypothesis has been disconfirmed. In addition to critiquing the methodology implemented by Ginges et al., we provide suggestions on how the religious-belief hypothesis may be properly tested. It is possible that the premature and unwarranted conclusions reached by Ginges et al. may deter researchers from examining the effect of specific religious beliefs on support for terrorism, and we hope that our comments can mitigate this possibility.

  12. Parental religious transmission after migration: The case of Dutch Muslims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.I.; Lubbers, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a secular host society where Islam is not reinforced outside the family or ethnic community, little is known of the extent to which Muslim immigrants succeed in transmitting their religion to their second-generation children. Parents are generally found to be important religious socialisation age

  13. A Relational Approach to the Study of Religious Survival Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels

    2012-01-01

    , a religion can be defined and studied as the result of complex set of dynamic relations, where a central tenet of a religion is that it relates to the significant religious other. As such religion is not a stable phenomenon but embedded in a dynamic historical process, which can explain the difficulties...

  14. The religious transition - A long-run perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Gundlach, Erich

    components of the demand for religion are reduced by development. The supply of religion declines once churches lose control over the institutions providing collective goods like education, health, and social security. These goods used to be supplied by churches jointly with religious services but tend...

  15. Religiousness in times of job insecurity: job demand or resource?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.; van Emmerik, H.; De Cuyper, N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, M.; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact

  16. The Educative Value of Dewey's Religious Attitude for Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey's "religious attitude" has great potential for the educative development of children's spirituality. This is because it enables their spiritual understandings to become more intelligently composed--not just in a cognitive or hyper-rational sense, but as a way of being. This paper provides an outline of Dewey's approach, which is…

  17. Empty Selves and Multiple Belonging: Gadamer and Nāgārjuna on Religious Identity’s Hidden Plurality

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    Hustwit J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction to multiple religious belonging has been fraught with anxiety in the monotheistic traditions. Nevertheless, increasing numbers of people report belonging to multiple religions. I propose that it is most useful to think of multiple religious belonging not so much as an expression of choice, but just the opposite. Multiple religious belonging is best explained as the ontological condition of two or more religious traditions constituting the self, so that the self’s possibilities are constrained by those religions. Furthermore, I argue that multiple religious belonging per se does not threaten traditional religious communities. Threats are by definition future possibilities, and ontologically speaking, we always already belong to multiple religions. We belong to multiple religions because every religious tradition is an amalgam of earlier distinct traditions. There is nothing new about multiple religious belonging. It is nearly unremarkable. Two philosophers in particular-one a twentieth-century German phenomenologist, the other a second-century Indian Buddhist-have given particularly careful examination of the phenomenon of belonging. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s concept of Wirkungsgeschichte [history of effects] and Nāgārjuna’s teaching of śūnyatā [emptiness] both imply that multiple religious belonging is the ontological condition of all human beings, and that producing any monolithic religious identity requires significant mental gymnastics.

  18. Gegenwarts-KünstlerInnen reagieren auf Religion: Eine Horizonterweiterung für religiöse Bildung

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    Viera Pirker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gegenwartskunst gilt als umfassend säkularisierter Diskurs der Gesellschaft. Künstlerinnen und Künstler wenden sich auch religiösen Themen und Symbolwelten zu, ohne sich jedoch von Verkündigung und Verzweckung vereinnahmen zu lassen. Für das Feld der religiösen Bildung ist es notwendig und lohnend, die Zeichen dieser aktuellen Kunst sensibel wahrzunehmen. Dieser Beitrag analysiert einige aktuelle, hoch divergierende Werke von Christoph Büchel, Danh Vo, Kudzanai Chiurai, Berlinde de Brukhyere, Lawrence Carroll und Winter/Hörbelt, die in unterschiedlichen Ausstellungskontexten gezeigt wurden. Ihnen gemeinsam ist ein Bezug auf religiöse Themenwelten. Von ihnen ausgehend stellen sich Fragen an herrschende religiöse Praktiken und theologische Deutungen. Contemporary artists react on religion: how does this affect religious education? Contemporary art is a broadly secularized discourse within today’s society. However, artists refer to religious topics, signs and symbols, whereas they always carefully avoid to be instrumentalised for religious proclamation. The field of religious education and formation is well advised to decrypt these signs of art sensitively. This article shows analyses of several recently shown pieces of contemporary art which have in common different relations to religious topics (Christoph Büchel, Danh Vo, Kudzanai Chiurai, Berlinde de Brukhyere, Lawrence Carroll, Winter/Hörbelt. They all allow posing questions about dominant religious practices and theological constructions.

  19. Including Religious Voices on Disability: Which Ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaventa, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Religious beliefs and traditions shape cultural and personal understandings of life issues, and, in turn, are shaped by new understanding in other arenas of life, such as medicine, science, and politics. Religious and faith traditions have sometimes enshrined prevailing attitudes about disability and differences but have also challenged them.…

  20. The Spirituality of the Religious Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groome, Thomas H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reflecting upon his own spirituality, Groome states that religious educators must have a passion for people, the gift of hospitality, a love for tradition, and a commitment to educate for God's reign. Following the article are 13 religious educators responses to the author's questions and reflections. (GEA)

  1. The Significance of Postliberalism for Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Gregory C.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that there is a relationship between theology and religious education. Outlines the metaphysical, experiential-expressivism, and cultural linguistic approaches to religious study. Discusses the teaching methodologies of catechism and experiential learning which dominate the various approaches. Examines the impact of postliberalism on…

  2. Humanisme en religie. Controverses, bruggen, perspectieven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyndam, J.; Poorthuis, M.; Wit, Th. de

    2005-01-01

    * Recensie door Peter Henk Steenhuis ('Theologen zoeken met filosofen naar een menselijke God') in Trouw, De Verdieping, Religie en Filosofie, 28-09-2005, zie: http://www.trouw.nl/deverdieping/religie_filosofie/article21697.ece/Theologen+zoeken+met+filosofen+naar+een+menselijke+God#readmore * Bespr

  3. 77 FR 2907 - Religious Freedom Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... call America home and seek to follow their consciences in peace. Our long history of religious... United States of America A Proclamation For nearly four centuries, men and women have immigrated to America's shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from diverse backgrounds and faiths,...

  4. Religious Syncretism in Mexico. Project Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, David

    This document is an outline for a three-week unit of study focusing on religious syncretism in Mexico as part of a community college course in comparative religions or philosophy of religion. While this outline is intended to give information and direction to the instructor wishing to use Mexico as an example of religious syncretism, unit goals…

  5. Claiming Luther as a Religious Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Vejrup

    2011-01-01

    The article examines references to a specific religious heritage (Lutheran Christianity) within the debate sections of two national Danish newspapers. The aim of the analysis is to provide empirical data as a background for a discussion of conflicts concerning the connection between religious her...

  6. Awakening the Erotic in Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejk, Cate

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on exploring and understanding the epistemological significance of eros and the place of the erotic in contemporary religious education. Shows, through concrete examples, how a fully human epistemology makes possible an authentic religious education that promotes both personal and communal transformation. (CAJ)

  7. Religious Texts as Models of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastfelt, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The chapter analyses the connection between Biblical interpretation and the making of political communities in northern Nigeria in the 20th century. Generally, it studies the use of religious scriptures in developing models of society which can both include and exclude particular religious and et...... and ethnic groups from society....

  8. Duties: Legal? Moral? Religious? or Social?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Ann

    1990-01-01

    Presents activities in which students are asked to (1) identify sources of duties affecting individual behavior; (2) define and give examples of legal, as well as social, religious and moral duties; (3) and compare social, religious, moral, and legal duties and discuss their relationships. (DB)

  9. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  10. Challenging Christianity: Leo Tolstoy and Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The religious thought of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy is a well documented but often overlooked example of unorthodox Christianity. This paper uses the example of Tolstoy's religious thinking to question the integrity of the current representation of Christianity in UK schools. It also uses Tolstoy's criticism of orthodox Christianity to suggest a…

  11. Religious Orientation and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.

    2011-01-01

    Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…

  12. 20 CFR 638.536 - Religious rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Religious rights. 638.536 Section 638.536 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.536 Religious rights. The...

  13. Delay discounting as a function of intrinsic/extrinsic religiousness, religious fundamentalism, and regular church attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Plumm, Karyn M

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting occurs when the subjective value of an outcome decreases because its delivery is delayed. Previous research has suggested that the rate at which some, but not all, outcomes are discounted varies as a function of regular church attendance. In the present study, 509 participants completed measures of intrinsic religiousness, extrinsic religiousness, religious fundamentalism, and whether they regularly attended church services. They then completed a delay-discounting task involving five outcomes. Although religiousness was not a significant predictor of discounting for all outcomes, participants scoring high in intrinsic religiousness tended to display less delay discounting than participants scoring low. Likewise, participants scoring high in religious fundamentalism tended to display more delay discounting than participants scoring low. These results partially replicate previous ones in showing that the process of discounting may vary as a function of religiousness. The results also provide some direction for those interested in altering how individuals discount.

  14. Religious Coping Strategies and Mental Health Among Religious Jewish Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Guy; Yossef, Ifat; Savaya, Riki

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of positive and negative religious coping strategies on the mental health of 113 Israeli gay and bisexual Jewish males with high levels of religiosity, and how sexual identity formation (internalized homophobia and coming out) and societal variables (family and friends' acceptance of sexual orientation and social connections within the LGBT community) mitigated the effects of religious coping strategies on mental health. Findings showed that when dealing with the stress arising from the conflict between religious and sexual identities, individuals used both positive and negative religious coping strategies, but only negative religious coping was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, only in the presence of social resources (social connections with the LGBT community and the acceptance of sexual orientation by friends), did the use of positive religious coping result in better mental health outcomes. These findings underlined the importance of these resilience social factors in the lives of religious Jewish gay and bisexual men.

  15. RSAS-3: validation of a very brief measure of Religious Commitment for use in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Andrea D; Fletcher, Tifani R; Cyphers, Natalie A; Ermakova, Anna V; Bailey, Beth

    2015-02-01

    Religious Commitment is a construct known to be predictive of various health-related factors of importance to researchers. However, data collection efficiency and instrument brevity in healthcare settings are priorities regardless of the construct being measured. Brief, valid instruments are particularly valuable in health research and will be vital for testing mechanisms by which health may be improved or maintained. This series of studies aims to demonstrate that Religious Commitment can be validly measured with a very brief instrument, the Religious Surrender & Attendance Scale-3 (RSAS-3), which combines a 2-item measure of Surrender, a specific type of religious coping, with a 1-item measure of Attendance at religious services. Three studies are reported, two utilizing undergraduate university students (Ns = 964 and 466) and one utilizing a clinical-based pregnant population (N = 320), all in southern Appalachia. The original 12-item Surrender Scale, a 2-item subset of Surrender items, and Attendance were found to be highly positively correlated with each other and with Intrinsic Religiosity, an additional measure of Religious Commitment employed to demonstrate concurrent validity. Religiosity variables were found to be strongly negatively correlated with Anxiety and stress, which were the health outcomes of interest. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to confirm the similarity of Anxiety and stress prediction using the 12-item and 2-item Surrender measures and to confirm the superior stress prediction of the 3-item instrument RSAS-3. The RSAS-3 is recommended as a measure of Religious Commitment in future health research.

  16. 7 CFR 16.2 - Rights of religious organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retain its independence and may continue to carry out its mission, including the definition, practice... and programs without removing religious art, icons, scriptures, or other religious symbols, (2)...

  17. Logistic Modeling of a Religious Sect Features

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The financial characteristics of sects are challenging topics. The present paper concerns the Antoinist Cult community (ACC), which has appeared at the end of the 19-th century in Belgium, have had quite an expansion, and is now decaying. The historical perspective is described in an Appendix. Although surely of marginal importance in religious history, the numerical and analytic description of the ACC growth AND decay evolution per se should hopefully permit generalizations toward behaviors of other sects, with either longer life time, i.e. so called religions or churches, or to others with shorter life time. Due to the specific aims and rules of the community, in particular the lack of proselytism, and strict acceptance of only anonymous financial gifts, an indirect measure of their member number evolution can only be studied. This is done here first through the time dependence of new temple inaugurations, between 1910 and 1940. Besides, the community yearly financial reports can be analyzed. They are legal...

  18. Religious Experience and its Essentialism in William James and Ghazzali’s Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ebadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religious experience is an approach to which Western thinkers are considered pioneers among whom Schleiermacher is the most prominent. "The essentialism of religious experience" is one of the several approaches that have been adopted in the case of religious experience. Accordingly, the religion that has sides and various dimensions has been reduced to a religious experience and the religious experience is introduced as the essence of religion. What is presented in this article is a comparative study of the essence of religious experience from the perspective of William James and Ghazzāli. Although mystical experience has a different structure form the religious experience and Ghazali as well as other Muslim philosophers and mystics paid more attention to the way of mystical experience, in the works of Ghazali there are also a traces of religious experience and hence, they are adaptable to some aspects of religious experience offered by William James. William James defines the religion “as the feelings, acts, and experiences that can occur for every individual in their solitudes and he believes that feeling is the essential pillar of religion and inherently reinforces it”. Religious experience is the essence of religion and it means that-the truth of the faith is the same as feelings and emotions that emerge from rational reflections on concrete reality as such, and other spiritual, transcendental, mystical and psychological actions are the consequences of these experiences. On the other hand, in the Muslim world, Al-Ghazzali believes that: The ultimate and holy aim of religion is the perception and experience of ultimate truth that can be achieved through good deeds, worship, asceticism and piety. This article tries to find similarities and differences in essence of religious experience of the two thinkers, because it is only in the theory of the essentialism of religious experience that the similarities and differences of

  19. Saint Agatha Religious Festival in Catania: Stakeholders’ Functions and Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Cannizzaro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop an explorative analysis of the functions and relations among actors involved in the organization and implementation of the Saint Agatha Religious Festival in Catania attracting nearly one million presences during the first week of February. The research is based on the survey of different sources of information, such as literature, news, media, and deep interviews with key informants pertaining to civil and religious institutions. The survey is designed to profile the Festival in terms of history, the character of the stakeholders, size, origin of assets, venues used, decision-making structure, and programs. The Festival’s use of volunteers and sponsors is specifically addressed. Empirical research sketches the network of stakeholders, the relationship between organizations, the importance of local social actors and strategies in enhancing local culture and sustainable tourism, regarding, in particular, the socio-cultural impacts of religious tourism. The local society has historical peculiarities which impose prudential considerations in generalizing about findings, and a comparative study with other Sicilian and/or Italian religious festivals will be important, mainly in order to delineate the actual sustainability of Festivals. The framework developed in this study can be helpful in the application of local social policies and also help comparative festival studies.

  20. The role of religious context in children's differentiation between God's mind and human minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Rebekah A; Saide, Anondah R; Lesage, Kirsten A; Shaman, Nicholas J

    2017-03-01

    The current study examined the cultural factors (i.e., religious background, religious participation, parents' views of prayer, and parents' concepts of God) that contribute to children's differentiation between the capabilities of human minds and God's mind. Protestant Christian, Roman Catholic, Muslim, and Religiously Non-Affiliated parents and their preschool-aged children were interviewed (N = 272). Children of Muslim parents differentiated the most between God's mind and human minds (i.e., human minds are fallible but God's is not), and children who had greater differentiation between God's and humans' minds had parents who had the least anthropomorphic conceptions of God. Additionally, there was a unique effect of being raised in a Religiously Non-Affiliated home on the degree of children's differentiation between God's and human minds after religious context factors had been accounted for; in other words, children of Religious Non-Affiliates differentiated between humans and God the least and their differentiation was unrelated to religious context factors. These findings delineate the ways in which religious context differences influence concepts of God from the earliest formation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children's concept of God develops during the preschool years. The degree of anthropomorphism in children's concept of God varies. What does this study add? Muslim children have a strong differentiation between what God's mind and human minds can do. Religiously Non-Affiliated children have almost no differentiation between God's and human minds. Parent anthropomorphism explains variance in children's God concepts, both within and across religious groups.

  1. Television and Religious Identity (Case Study: Students of Mazandaran University

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    Mohammad Esmaeil Riahi

    2014-05-01

    The findings of the study indicate that in general students have a high level of religious identity. However, there are some variances as one considers different levels of religious identity by its four dimensions; for example, the highest and lowest reported scores belonged to theological (average of 4.61 out of 5 and ritual (average of 3.63 dimensions, respectively. Also, research findings on the rate of television consumption indicate that the status of television consumption among students is at a moderate to low level (average of 2.37 from 5. Furthermore, a considerable number of students (7.5 percent never watch television. As explained in the Cultivation Theory, as a low-consuming audience of television, students watch TV in a selective and programmed fashion, only for 2 or less hours per day, but the usage of other media, especially the Internet, is higher among them. When Students consume television as a cultural commodity, they try to be "active", which means they try to interpret the content of the received program "actively". It seems that using other mass media (the Internet, books, magazines, etc., and lack of access to the TV, and/or reluctance to watch national television programs, are responsible for this low level of TV consumption among students. This finding would be more important if one notice that according to sociologists' views (e.g. Giddens, today television could have very serious effects on daily-life patterns. One of the important findings of the present study is that it seems that along with increase in the consumption of national TV among students, the level of religious identity also tends to increase. This finding must be paid attention to by policy makers. Another important result of this study is the content of the programs watched by students as well as their effects on their religious identity. Entertainment and leisure programs (average of 3.29 from 5 were the first favorable programs; while the least are those oriented towards

  2. Negative Religious Coping and Emotional Distress Among College Students: Exploring the Influences of Religiousness, Fading Affect, and Neuroticism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman A Lee; Jeffrey A Gibbons; Andrew Hartzler; Jennifer K Hartzler

    2015-01-01

    .... To extend this line of research, we examined whether neuroticism, fading affect, and religiousness could influence the relationship between negative religious coping and two forms of emotional distress...

  3. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  4. Religious practices, beliefs, and mental health: Variations across Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Williams, David R.; Musick, Marc A.; Buck, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether Black Americans and Hispanic Americans experienced greater mental health benefits from religious involvement than White Americans, and whether these benefits would be mediated through three psychosocial factors—social support, meaning and forgiveness. Methods Utilizing data from a probability sample of Chicago-based adults (n=3103), ethnicity-stratified multivariate regression models estimated the association of religiosity with depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Models controlled for potential confounders and psychosocial mediators. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, religiously involved Black Americans and Hispanic Americans did not experience greater mental health benefits than their White counterparts. For White Americans alone, service attendance was inversely related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Religious saliency was consistently associated with worse mental health for Hispanic Americans only. However, both meaning and forgiveness conferred mental health benefits for all three groups. Conclusions The benefits of specific aspects of religious involvement vary across ethnicity. Caution is necessary in any effort to bring religion into the health domain. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that initiatives that facilitate a sense of purpose or forgiveness are likely to prove promising in improving mental health, regardless of race or ethnicity. PMID:22296590

  5. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

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    Todd Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.

  6. MENGUNJUNGI TEMPAT SUCI; RAGAM MOTIVASI WISATA RELIGIOUS

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    Ah. Fawaid Ah. Fawaid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available   Ah. Fawaid (Penulis, dosen STAIN Pamekasan, Jl. Pahlawan Km. 04 Pamekasan, Kontak, fawaid.sjadzili@gmail.com     Abstract The journey to the sacred place is a fairly old tradition. In the history of ancient civilization, the sacred place became a magnet for religious believers to do the pilgrimage and magical rituals. The sacred place has become a tourist object from generation to generation. To visit the sacred place is not always identical with rural communities, communities that often are identified as followers of khurafat. Visiting the sacred place is also a city-educated public interest. Like the form of tourism in general, visiting the sacred place may be just pure entertainment, education, or indeed release a spiritual thirst for community. Kata-kata kunci tourism, wisata religius, migrasi, travel

  7. Kenyan Religious Leaders' Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G M; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew

    2016-12-16

    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country's specific context. A total of 212 Catholic, Islamic, and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study. The leaders' perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in Kenya's Constitution were considered to be applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one's religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders' mind-sets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities.

  8. General health and religious coping strategies in patients suffering from asthma

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    Seyyed Hassan Adeli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.

  9. Assessing Whether Religious Behaviors and Positive and Negative Affect are Associated with Alcohol Use and Abuse Among a Sample of College Students Living in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed.

  10. Religiousness, religious coping methods and distress level among psychiatric patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurasikin, M S; Khatijah, L A; Aini, A; Ramli, M; Aida, S A; Zainal, N Z; Ng, C G

    2013-06-01

    Patients having psychiatric diagnoses often experience high level of distress. Religiousness is often used by them as part of their coping mechanism and problem-solving strategies. To determine the level of religious commitment and coping methods in psychiatric patients and its relationship with distress level. Religious commitment and coping patterns were measured with the Duke University Religious Index (DUREL) and Brief RCOPE, respectively. Psychopathology was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and distress level was assessed with the Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Social support and experiences of recent threatening events were measured with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Life Threatening Events (LTE). A total of 228 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 40.2 years. The majority were male, Malay, Muslim, single and with psychotic disorder. The subjects had a high level of religious commitment and had used more positive coping methods. Negative religious coping, psychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depression were significantly associated with high distress level. Higher religious commitment was significantly associated with lower distress (p < .05). Psychiatric patients were religiously committed and used more positive religious coping methods. Practices of negative religious coping, severe psychiatric symptoms and anxiety/depression were associated with higher distress.

  11. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.

  12. Why are religious people happy? The effect of the social norm of religiosity across countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrova, Olga; Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Schlösser, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on social norms theories, we suggest that religiosity substantially increases subjective well-being if it is considered normative in a certain national context. In Study 1, we test this hypothesis using an indicator of a country's social norm of religiosity that includes both the national level of religiosity and the social desirability of religion. The results of a multilevel regression analysis suggest that religious individuals are on average happier and more satisfied with life than non-religious individuals. This effect is stronger in religious countries with dominant negative attitudes towards non-believers. In Study 2, we further examine whether the differences in social recognition of religious and non-religious individuals in countries where religiosity is normative account for this finding. The results of a moderated mediation analysis indicate that in religious countries, religious people report being treated with more respect, which partially explains their higher levels of happiness and life satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychobiology of drug-induced religious experience: from the brain "locus of religion" to cognitive unbinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencini, Paolo; Grant, Kathleen A

    2010-11-01

    The recent interest in the psychopharmacological underpinnings of religious experiences has led to both the laboratory characterizations of drug-induced mystical events and psychobiological models of religious experiences rooted in evolution and fitness. Our examination of this literature suggests that these theories may be congruent only within more modern religious and cultural settings and are not generalizable to all historical beliefs, as would be expected from an evolutionarily conserved biological mechanism. The strong influence of culture on the subjective effects of drugs as well as religious thoughts argues against the concept of a common pathway in the brain uniquely responsible for these experiences. Rather, the role of personal beliefs, expectations and experiences may interject bias into the interpretation of psychoactive drug action as a reflection of biologically based religious thought. Thus, psychobiological research proposing specific brain mechanisms should consider anthropological and historical data to address alternative explanations to the "fitness" of religious thought. A psychobiological model of the religious experience based on the concept of cognitive unbinding seems to accommodate these data better than that of a specific brain locus of religion.

  14. The Demystification of Nick Zangwill’s “Myth of Religious Experience”

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    Fasko Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The debate about religious experiences has recently been shaped by the question of whether they exist or if they are a myth. One of the most compelling arguments for the non-existence of religious experience was put forward by Nick Zangwill. In his “The myth of religious experience” (2004 he argued that God can be perceived neither by our ordinary five senses nor by some special sixth sense. While I agree with Zangwill that God cannot be perceived with our ordinary five senses (or a sixth religious sense, I do not think his argument shows that religious experience - based on Zangwill’s own understanding of the term - is a myth. In this paper, I offer in two steps a philosophical defence - in the analytical tradition - of the possible existence of religious experience as perceptual experiences. In the first step, I adumbrate Zangwill’s argument for the myth of religious experience, which fails because it ultimately begs the question - as I argue in the second step, by presenting a Berkelean answer to Zangwill’s challenge.

  15. The Religious Identities and Social Stucture of Bosnia-Herzegovina

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    Nebojša Šavija-Valha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structural preconditions of articulation of religious identities in Bosnia-Herzegovina from the historical perspective. These have been produced by the processes of Christianization and Islamization at the intersection of heterogeneous origin of Bosnian-Herzegovinian population, the influence of paganism and folk beliefs, and the geopolitical situation on the border line between the great empires. Due to the influence of these factors, these processes have never been successful in encompassing the entire population, which has always been divided among several simultaneously co-existing religious institutions: Catholicism, Christian Orthodoxy, the Bosnian Church and Islam. Through the institution of Millet, allowing its subjects relative cultural and social freedoms within their religious communities, the Ottoman Empire provides the communities with preconditions for ethnic modelling, but also for “political” articulation. The interplay of these agents has provided a base for interaction among the religious groups, which can be seen at two complementary levels: the vertical one, “the political”, ruled by hierarchical and discriminative relations; and the lateral one, “the social”, which is a sphere of egalitarian trans- and inter-ethnic social practices. Both levels have their religious aspects: at the first, it is about institutionalized religions; at the second, about “folk” religion, a syncretism of pre-Christian tradition and Christian and Islamic elements. Hence, religion has been acting in a totalizing way in Bosnian-Herzegovinian society, appearing both as a primary repertoire of symbolic elements and as a basic mechanism of further group identifications – ethnic and national.

  16. Religious and Cultural Dress at School: A Comparative Perspective

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    E de Waal,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US, as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionally entrenched right to all of the different religions and cultures. The crisis of values in education arises from the disparity between the value system espoused by the school and the community, and that expressed in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which guarantees learners' fundamental rights, including those of freedom of religion, culture, expression and human dignity. On the one hand, the South African Schools Act requires of School Governing Bodies to develop and implement a Code of Conduct for learners, and on the other, that they strictly adhere to the Constitution of the country when drawing up their dress codes. The right of a religious group to practise its religion or of a cultural group to respect and sustain its culture must be consistent with the provisions of the Bill of Rights (which is entrenched in the Constitution and this implies that other rights may not infringe on the right to freedom of religion and culture. In the US, although there is no legislation that protects learners' freedom of religion and culture at schools, their First Amendment guides the way. Their Supreme Court respects the religious values of all citizens provided that they are manifested off public school premises. While we acknowledge the existence of religious and cultural diversity at South African schools, this paper focuses on the tension among and on the existence of different approaches towards the human rights of learners from different

  17. Association between autozygosity and major depression: stratification due to religious assortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Xiao, Xiangjun; Scheet, Paul; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Hudziak, James J; Smit, Dirk J A; Bartels, Meike; Willemsen, Gonneke; Brooks, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smit, Johannes H; de Geus, Eco J; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-11-01

    The effects of inbreeding on the health of offspring can be studied by measuring genome-wide autozygosity as the proportion of the genome in runs of homozygosity (F roh) and relate F roh to outcomes such as psychiatric phenotypes. To successfully conduct these studies, the main patterns of variation for genome-wide autozygosity between and within populations should be well understood and accounted for. Within population variation was investigated in the Dutch population by comparing autozygosity between religious and non-religious groups. The Netherlands have a history of societal segregation and assortment based on religious affiliation, which may have increased parental relatedness within religious groups. Religion has been associated with several psychiatric phenotypes, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether there is an association between autozygosity and MDD, and the extent to which this association can be explained by religious affiliation. All F roh analyses included adjustment for ancestry-informative principal components (PCs) and geographic factors. Religious affiliation was significantly associated with autozygosity, showing that F roh has the ability to capture within population differences that are not captured by ancestry-informative PCs or geographic factors. The non-religious group had significantly lower F roh values and significantly more MDD cases, leading to a nominally significant negative association between autozygosity and depression. After accounting for religious affiliation, MDD was not associated with F roh, indicating that the relation between MDD and inbreeding was due to stratification. This study shows how past religious assortment and recent secularization can have genetic consequences in a relatively small country. This warrants accounting for the historical social context and its effects on genetic variation in association studies on psychiatric and other related traits.

  18. Religious Orientations: The Role of College Environment and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Lee B.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Dubois, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of college environment and classification on religious orientation. The current study compared private, religious versus public, nonreligious college students to determine if there was a difference over time and environment in religious orientation, as measured by the Religious Orientation Scale. The results…

  19. Religious Life of Tibetan Monks and Lay People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAMGYI&DORQOINBENBA

    2003-01-01

    Since the year of 1979, the Central Government has invested more than 400 million Yuan on the maintenance and construction of monasteries and religious sites in Tibet.At present, there have been 1780 monasteries and religious sites in Tibet, including 130 nunneries. So many religious sites are owned by the 2 million religious

  20. Belief into Action Scale: A Comprehensive and Sensitive Measure of Religious Involvement

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    Harold G. Koenig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.

  1. Religious factors associated with alcohol involvement: results from the Mauritian Joint Child Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Prescott, Carol A; Dalais, Cyril; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine religious factors associated with alcohol involvement in Mauritius. The three main religions on the island, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Islam, promote different views of the appropriate use of alcohol. Based on reference group theory, we hypothesized that both the content of a religion's alcohol norms and an individual's religious commitment would relate to alcohol use behavior. Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study that has followed a birth cohort of 1.795 individuals since 1972 when they were 3 years old. All available participants (67%; 55% male) were assessed in mid-adulthood on religious variables, lifetime drinking, and lifetime alcohol use disorders. Across religions, individuals who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence were less likely to be drinkers. Religious commitment was associated with reduced probability of drinking only in those who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence. Among drinkers, abstention norms and religious commitment were not associated with lower likelihood of alcohol use disorders. In Catholics who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence and still were drinkers, high religious commitment was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders. Predictions based on reference group theory were largely supported, with religious norms and commitment differentially related to alcohol use and problems both across religions and among individuals within religions. Findings highlight the importance of examining multiple aspects of religion to better understand the relationship of religion with alcohol behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The significance of the use of ganja as a religious ritual in the Rastafari movement

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    SP Pretorius

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the South African Constitutional Court ruled that religious freedom, including the exercise of religious rituals, may not contradict the laws of the country. This ruling came as a result of the Western Cape Law Society�s refusal to admit a Rastafarian as lawyer because of his habit of smoking marijuana. He appealed to the Constitutional Court and claimed that the ruling infringed upon his right to religious freedom. The Constitutional Court upheld the decision that no exception may be made for one religion.�

  3. Religiously Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A New Method of Treatment for Major Depression in Patients With Chronic Medical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle J.; Koenig, Harold G.; Robins, Clive J.; Nelson, Bruce; Shaw, Sally F.; Cohen, Harvey J.; King, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies have found that psychotherapeutic interventions that explicitly integrate clients’ spiritual and religious beliefs in therapy are as effective, if not more so, in reducing depression than those that do not for religious clients. However, few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of religiously (vs. spiritually) integrated psychotherapy, and no manualized mental health intervention had been developed for the medically ill with religious beliefs. To address this gap, we developed and implemented a novel religiously integrated adaptation of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression in individuals with chronic medical illness. This article describes the development and implementation of the intervention. First, we provide a brief overview of CBT. Next, we describe how religious beliefs and behaviors can be integrated into a CBT framework. Finally, we describe Religiously Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (RCBT), a manualized therapeutic approach designed to assist depressed individuals to develop depression-reducing thoughts and behaviors informed by their own religious beliefs, practices, and resources. This treatment approach has been developed for 5 major world religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism), increasing its potential to aid the depressed medically ill from a variety of religious backgrounds. PMID:25365155

  4. Religious Values In Song Lyrics Tingkilan

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    Muhammad Sadli Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This globalization era brought people of East Kalimantan tend to prefer modern music and western music. This cause the local or traditional music art is marginalized. On the other hand, they have a local music art containing a lot of local wisdom. One of them is tingkilan music. Lyrics of tingkilan contain religious values. Therefore, this study intends to find and to describe the religious values in the song lyrics of the tingkilan musical arts. This study uses a qualitative research method. The research shows that in fact some tingkilan song lyrics have a deep religious value. Some of those religious values are thanksgiving favors, learning of the holly Qur’an, the way of eating and drinking in accordance with the Islamic teaching.

  5. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... matters of religion.'' The fundamental principle of religious freedom--guarded by our Founders and... religion as they choose, including the right to believe in no religion at all. However, these liberties...

  6. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RELIGIOUS TOURISM IN CROATIA

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    Eddy Rot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has a rich sacral (tangible and intangible heritage, which undoubtedly has great cultural value, and part of the religious heritage has been included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The fact is, however, that, except when it comes to top attractions, churches as tourist facilities, are poorly attended and do not get almost no direct tourism income.. In this paper, after the introductory explanations of basic terms related to religious tourism and pilgrimage, we explore the basic features of religious tourism in Croatia, both on tourist attractions, as well as on the tourist demand. It also presents the results of empirical research on the socio-demographic profile of the author, the role of religion in the life of pilgrims and the satisfaction of the visitors to the Shrine of Mary of Bistrica in 2013 among 50 pilgrims in Marija Bistrica. The main objective is to determine how the pilgrims perceived the tourism offer in religious tourism.

  7. Ethical And Religious Analysis On Euthanasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdi Omar Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an analysis on euthanasia from ethical and religious perspectives. Historically, the classical Greek thinkers including Aristotle had categorically accepted euthanasia with the main reason of minimizing pain...

  8. Religiously oriented mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, William; Tan, Erica

    2009-02-01

    The interface of religiously accommodative and oriented treatments and the cognitive-behavioral tradition is explored. In terms of Hayes' characterization of the evolution of the cognitive-behavioral tradition through three waves, considerable theoretical, clinical, and empirical work emerged to support a religiously accommodative cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) during the second-generation CBTs. Rather than including religion and spirituality, the third-wave CBT traditions have engaged in spiritual themes inspired heavily from Eastern religious traditions. The authors discuss the application of a religiously congruent third-wave cognitive therapy with a depressed conservatively Christian client. Some conceptual challenges and rationales for adopting such treatments with Christian or other theist clients are described.

  9. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

  10. Commodification of Religious Tradition: Critical Study on Religious Tradition Tourism Haul at Pasar Kliwon Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ferri Setiawan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The policy on tourism development program of Surakarta especially on the calendar of the event takes advantage from religious tradition as tourism commodity. The purpose of this study is to describe the religious tradition haul, the programs by the tourism department of Surakarta, and how commodification through a well implemented marketing communications process, messaging, and other media, as well as responses from the audience regarding the marketing of haul tradition in general toward creating a leading tourism object. Haul which is a tradition for commemorating the death of clerics (ulama who are followed by some local communities in Surakarta, especially those in Pasar Kliwon Regency, is utilized in tourism. Through critical study, the cultural values that are supposed to be preserved, changed into marketing values to attract visitors. The used media are the advertisement and the calendar of events. The local community gain advantages economically from this policy, but they object to it socio-culturally. Meanwhile, the tourists are generally interested in haul tradition.

  11. From Religious Practices to Religious Narratives as Sense-Making Models Supporting Solidarity in Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleeva Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account Durkheim’s declaration about religion as a base for human solidarity, this article aims to trace the dynamics of those mechanisms that allow religion to play this role in transient conditions. The paper demonstrates how E. Durkheim’s theoretical programme is interpreted by one of his followers, the founder of cultural sociology J. Alexander, and how it is used in cultural and sociological methodology. The paper also draws attention to the fact that J. Alexander remains within the paradigm proposed by E. Durkheim, in which cognitive and social structures correlate and interact; however, at the same time he develops the Weberian approach emphasising an important role of such symbolic systems as language, myth, narrative in the organisation of human experience, behaviour and consciousness. J. Alexander draws on both approaches to the understanding of religion, but redefines religion as a discourse or as a series of narratives that transmits, on the one hand, a certain tradition of describing social reality, and, on the other hand, makes possible for this reality to be rewritten and to acquire a different meaning. The paper demonstrates the relevance of E. Durkheim’s basic assumption about the solidifying role of religion and describes the way how the emphasis on the authorising role of religious practices is gradually moving to the sense-building function of religious narratives.

  12. Prevention of HIV/AIDS as perceived by religious leaders in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of HIV/AIDS as perceived by religious leaders in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. ... diseases., Nigeria has been identified as HIV/AIDS endemic country. ... perceived HIV/AIDS as being preventable through well adjusted sexual behaviour.

  13. Religious attitude scale: scale development and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Üzeyir Ok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a scale of religious attitude (in an Islamic tradition) was constructed and its metric properties were introduced on the basis of its tests on two different samples (ns=930 and 388) of university students. It was found that the scale, which was named as Ok-Religious Attitude Scale, recorded high alpha scores (.81 and .91). Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses confirm that the scale with its four subscales (cognitive, emotional, behavioural and relational) form an id...

  14. Ethical And Religious Analysis On Euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi Omar Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an analysis on euthanasia from ethical and religious perspectives. Historically, the classical Greek thinkers including Aristotle had categorically accepted euthanasia with the main reason of minimizing pain. However, as science develops ethical and religious isuues related to the subject have increasingly created fervent debates on euthanesia. ABSTRAK: Kertas ini mengkaji euthanasia dari perspektif agama dan etika. Sejarah telah melihat para pemikir Greek termasuk Aristotle sec...

  15. Is religious fundamentalism our default spirituality?: Implications for teacher education

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    Ferdinand J. Potgieter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Using experiential interpretivism as underpinning methodology, this article investigates whether religious fundamentalism is the default spirituality of human beings. Our research is based on a hermeneutic reconstructive interpretation of religion, fundamentalism, radicalism, extremism, spirituality, life- and worldview, and the role of education in bringing about peaceful coexistence amongst people. We concluded that the natural religious-fundamentalist inclination of the human being tends to be (and needs to be counterbalanced by the education – that is, socialisation – that he or she receives from the moment of birth, the important first six or seven years of life, and throughout his or her life. Based on this conclusion, the article ends with the articulation of ten implications for teacher education.

  16. Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.

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    Jean M Twenge

    Full Text Available In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million, American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013, 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013, and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014. Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.

  17. Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Exline, Julie J; Grubbs, Joshua B; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-01-01

    In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s) give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.

  18. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins.

  19. Generational and Time Period Differences in American Adolescents’ Religious Orientation, 1966–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M.; Exline, Julie J.; Grubbs, Joshua B.; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W. Keith

    2015-01-01

    In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976–2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991–2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966–2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%–40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s–70s) give their religious affiliation as “none,” as do 40%–50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age. PMID:25962174

  20. Development of Religious Identity through Doubts among Religious Adolescents in Israel: An Empirical Perspective and Educational Ramifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have been demonstrating interest in doubts regarding religious faith for thirty years. The current study goal was examining differences between three groups of religious male adolescents in Israel, regarding faith identity, doubts in religious faith (past and present), religious behavior, and the connection between them. Three…