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Sample records for supernatant ls sampled

  1. Sampling and analysis of high level waste tank supernatant: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant routinely samples its high level radioactive waste tank supernatants for analysis of major components. These results are important in maintaining proper levels of corrosion inhibiters for protection of the tank walls. Because the tank ambient temperature is elevated, the sample is heated to 70 0 C prior to removing aliquots for use in a variety of analytical methods. Typical analyses include density, pH, OH - , NO 3 - , and NO 2 - , with occasional requests for Al(OH) 4 - , CO 3 /sup =/, PO 4 /sup =/, SO 4 /sup =/, and various radionuclides

  2. Comparison of DOT-ELISA and Standard-ELISA for Detection of the Vibrio cholerae Toxin in Culture Supernatants of Bacteria Isolated from Human and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Lucas, Antonio; Pérez-Villagómez, María-Fernanda; Martínez-López, José-Patricio; García-Rodea, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelán, María-Guadalupe; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis; Villanueva-Zamudio, Altagracia

    2016-09-01

    A comparison of DOT-ELISA and Standard-ELISA was made for detection of Vibrio cholerae toxin in culture supernatants of bacteria isolated from human and environmental samples. A total of 293 supernatants were tested in a double blind assay. A correlation of 100 % was obtained between both techniques. The cholera toxin was found in 20 Inaba and 3 Ogawa strains. Positive samples were from seafood (17 samples), potable water (1 sample) and sewage (5 samples). The DOT-ELISA was useful as the standard-ELISA to confirm the presence of cholera toxin in the environmental samples.

  3. Assessment of real-time PCR method for detection of EGFR mutation using both supernatant and cell pellet of malignant pleural effusion samples from non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Saeam; Kim, Juwon; Kim, Yoonjung; Cho, Sun-Mi; Lee, Kyung-A

    2017-10-26

    EGFR mutation is an emerging biomarker for treatment selection in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, optimal mutation detection is hindered by complications associated with the biopsy procedure, tumor heterogeneity and limited sensitivity of test methodology. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of real-time PCR using malignant pleural effusion samples. A total of 77 pleural fluid samples from 77 NSCLC patients were tested using the cobas EGFR mutation test (Roche Molecular Systems). Pleural fluid was centrifuged, and separated cell pellets and supernatants were tested in parallel. Results were compared with Sanger sequencing and/or peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated PCR clamping of matched tumor tissue or pleural fluid samples. All samples showed valid real-time PCR results in one or more DNA samples extracted from cell pellets and supernatants. Compared with other molecular methods, the sensitivity of real-time PCR method was 100%. Concordance rate of real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing plus PNA-mediated PCR clamping was 98.7%. We have confirmed that real-time PCR using pleural fluid had a high concordance rate compared to conventional methods, with no failed samples. Our data demonstrated that the parallel real-time PCR testing using supernatant and cell pellet could offer reliable and robust surrogate strategy when tissue is not available.

  4. Investigation and Applications of In-Source Oxidation in Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Afterglow Microplasma Ionization (LS-APAG) Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhenpeng; Li, Yafeng; Zhan, Lingpeng; Nie, Zongxiu

    2017-06-01

    A liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure afterglow microplasma ionization (LS-APAG) source is presented for the first time, which is embedded with both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure afterglow microplasma ionization (APAG) techniques. This ion source is capable of analyzing compounds with diverse molecule weights and polarities. An unseparated mixture sample was detected as a proof-of-concept, giving complementary information (both polarities and non-polarities) with the two ionization modes. It should also be noted that molecular mass can be quickly identified by ESI with clean and simple spectra, while the structure can be directly studied using APAG with in-source oxidation. The ionization/oxidation mechanism and applications of the LS-APAG source have been further explored in the analysis of nonpolar alkanes and unsaturated fatty acids/esters. A unique [M + O - 3H] + was observed in the case of individual alkanes (C 5 -C 19 ) and complex hydrocarbons mixture under optimized conditions. Moreover, branched alkanes generated significant in-source fragments, which could be further applied to the discrimination of isomeric alkanes. The technique also facilitates facile determination of double bond positions in unsaturated fatty acids/esters due to diagnostic fragments (the acid/ester-containing aldehyde and acid oxidation products) generated by on-line ozonolysis in APAG mode. Finally, some examples of in situ APAG analysis by gas sampling and surface sampling were given as well. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Prediction of fetal lung maturity using the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio analysis with a simplified sample preparation, using a commercial microtip-column combined with mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ho-Seok; Chung, Hee-Jung; Choi, Young Sik; Min, Won-Ki; Jung, So Young

    2015-07-01

    Fetal lung maturity is estimated using the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S ratio) in amniotic fluid and it is commonly measured with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC method is time consuming and technically difficult; however, it is widely used because there is no alternative. We evaluated a novel method for measuring the L/S ratio, which involves a tip-column with a cation-exchange resin and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids in the amniotic fluid were extracted using methanol and chloroform. Choline-containing phospholipids such as lecithin and sphingomyelin were purified by passing them through the tip-column. LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF were used to directly analyze the purified samples. The L/S ratio by mass spectrometry was calculated from the sum peak intensity of the six lecithin, and that of sphingomyelin 34:1. In 20 samples, the L/S ratio determined with TLC was significantly correlated with that obtained by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF. There was a 100% concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by LC-MS/MS (kappa value=1.0). The concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by MALDI-TOF was also 100% (kappa value=1.0). Our method provides a faster, simpler, and more reliable assessment of fetal lung maturity. The L/S ratio measured by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF offers a compelling alternative method to traditional TLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Summary: after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojer, M.; Schmidt, R.

    2012-01-01

    After LS1 the energy will be about 6.5 TeV. The physics potential of LHC is determined by the integrated luminosity useful for the experiments and not only by the peak luminosity. The integrated luminosity is determined by the peak luminosity, the luminosity decay and the efficiency of operation (availability). In this session two of these parameters are addressed, the peak luminosity and the availability. In this paper peak luminosity is discussed through the performance potential of the injectors and through the global performance reach of LHC after LS1. LHC availability is tackled through the issues of the reliability of the magnet powering and of the beam system and of the occurrence of quenches

  7. Post LS1 schedule

    CERN Document Server

    Lamont, M

    2014-01-01

    The scheduling limits for a typical long year taking into account technical stops, machine development, spe- cial physics runs are presented. An attempt is then made to outline a ten year post LS1 schedule taking into account the disparate requirements outlined in the previous talks in this session. The demands on the planned long shutdowns and the impact of these demands on their proposed length will be discussed. The option of using ion running as a pre-shutdown cool-down period will be addressed.

  8. Half-liter supernatant sampler system engineering work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) pretreatment facility project W-236B, known as the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), requires samples of supernatants and sludges from 200 Area tank farms for planned hot testing work in support of IPM design. The IPM project has proposed the development of several new sampler systems. These systems include a 0.5-l supernatant sampler, 3-l and 25-l supernatant and sludge samplers, and a 4,000-l sampler system. The 0.5-l sampler will support IPM sampling needs in the 1 to 3 l range starting in late fiscal year 1995. This sampler is intended to be used in conjunction with the existing 100 ml bottle-on-a-string. The 3-l and 25-l systems will be based on the Savannah River Site's sampler system and will support IPM sampling needs in the 3 to 100 liter range. Most of the hot testing required for design of the IPM must be accomplished in the next 3 years. This work plan defines the tasks associated with the development of a 0.5-l sampler system. This system will be referred to as the Half-Liter Supernatant Sampler System (HLSSS). Specifically, this work plan will define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, identify major technical requirements, describe configuration control and verification requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule. The sampler system will be fully operational, including trained staff and operating procedures, upon completion of this task

  9. Quenches after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verweij, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I will give an overview of the different types of quenches that occur in the LHC, followed by an estimate of the number of quenches that we can expect after LS1. Beam-induced quenches and false triggering of the QPS will be the main cause of those quenches that cause a beam dump. Possibly in total up to 10-20 per year. After consolidation of the 13 kA joints, the approach for the BLM settings can be less conservative than in 2010-2012 in order to maximize beam time. This will cause some quenches but, anyhow, a beam.induced quench is not more risky than a quench provoked by false triggering. It is not easy to predict the number of BLM triggered beam dumps, needed to avoid magnet quenches, because it is not sure how to scale beam losses and UFO's from 3.5 TeV to 6.5 TeV, and it is not sure if the thresholds at 3.5 TeV are correct. Quench events will be much more massive (ex: RB quench at 6 kA → 2 MJ, RB quench at 11 kA → 6-20 MJ), and as a result cryo recuperation much longer. There will also be more ramp induced quenches after a FPA in other circuits due to higher ramp rates and smaller temperature margins (mutual coupling)

  10. Forsskåls Fiskeherbarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    En beskrivelse af Peter Forsskåls fiskeherbarium og hans metoder i det marinbiologiske feltarbejde da han rejste i Egypten, Rødehavet og Yemen som ekspeditionsmedlem i den Arabiske Rejse 2061-67.......En beskrivelse af Peter Forsskåls fiskeherbarium og hans metoder i det marinbiologiske feltarbejde da han rejste i Egypten, Rødehavet og Yemen som ekspeditionsmedlem i den Arabiske Rejse 2061-67....

  11. Supernatant treatment system design through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, D.K.; Leonard, I.M.

    1988-12-01

    The main purpose of the Supernatant Treatment System (STS) is to remove more than 99.9 percent of the radioactive cesium (Cs-137) from the high-level waste stored in tank 8D-2. Cesium removal is accomplished in the STS by processing the supernatant (liquid) portion of the high-level waste through three or four ion exchange columns filled with zeolite. After treatment in the STS, the decontaminated supernatant is processed as low-level waste and finally encapsulated in cement for eventual disposal. The Cs-137 removed from the waste and absorbed onto zeolite ion exchange material is temporarily stored in tank 8D-1 until it can be encapsulated in glass and disposed of as high-level waste. This report discusses construction and testing of the STS. Design of the STS was started in 1982 in parallel with the selection of the ion exchange material. The construction of this system was accomplished in five phase in parallel with completion of design to allow for faster completion of the project. The existing high-level waste storage tanks -- 8D-1, 8D-2, and 8D-3 -- required major renovations to permit transfer of the high-level waste from tank 8D-2 to tank 8D-1, to house the components that comprise the STS in tank 8D-1, and to store decontaminated wastes in tank 8D-3. Testing in the STS started before construction was complete and was accomplished by first testing components individually. Then the system was retested using simulated supernatant. Integrated testing of the whole Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), which includes the STS, Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS), Cement Solidification System (CSS), and the Drum Cell, was also performed using simulated supernatant. Finally, slightly radioactive condensate water from tank 8D-1 was processed. After successfully completing this testing, the STS started operations with radioactive supernatant on May 23, 1988. 21 refs., 33 figs., 21 tabs

  12. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  13. LS1: exciting times ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    As the first and last proton-lead run of 2013 draws to a close, the extensive upgrade and maintenance programme of the LHC's first long shutdown (LS1) is about to get under way.   The LHC has provided physicists with a huge quantity of data to analyse since the first physics run in 2009. Now it's time for the machine, along with CERN's other accelerators, to get a facelift. LS1 will start on 13 February 2013, but this doesn’t mean that life at the Laboratory will be any less rich and exciting. Although there will be no collisions for a period of almost two years, the whole CERN site will be a hive of activity, with large-scale work under way to modernise the infrastructure and prepare the LHC for operation at higher energy. "A whole series of renovation work will be carried out around the LHC during LS1,” explains Simon Baird, deputy head of the EN Department. "The key driver is of course the consolidation of the 10,170 high-curren...

  14. Global Convergence of a Modified LS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu JinKui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The LS method is one of the effective conjugate gradient methods in solving the unconstrained optimization problems. The paper presents a modified LS method on the basis of the famous LS method and proves the strong global convergence for the uniformly convex functions and the global convergence for general functions under the strong Wolfe line search. The numerical experiments show that the modified LS method is very effective in practice.

  15. Immunomodulatory Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03, Alone and in Combination, on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Allergic Asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Gabrieli, Arianna; De Grandi, Roberta; Toscano, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 alone and in combination and their immunomodulatory activity in asthmatic subjects. Subjects affected by allergic asthma were recruited. Initially, LS01 and BR03 were analyzed for their growth compatibility by a broth compatibility assay. To study the antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains, an agar diffusion assay was performed. Finally, cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with LS01 and BR03 was determined by means of specific quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The growth of some clinical pathogens were slightly inhibited by LS01 and LS01-BR03 co-culture supernatant not neutralized to pH 6.5, while only the growth of E. coli and S. aureus was inhibited by the supernatant of LS01 and LS01-BR03 neutralized to pH 6.5. Furthermore, LS01 and BR03 combination was able to decrease the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by PBMCs, leading to an intense increase in IL-10 production. L. salivarius LS01 and B. breve BR03 showed promising probiotic properties and beneficial immunomodulatory activity that are increased when the 2 strains are used in combination in the same formulation.

  16. Detector Plans for LS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nessi, M [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    All experiments plan an effective usage of the LS1 shutdown period. After three years of running they will go through a consolidation phase, mostly to fix problems that have emerged over time, like single points of failure in the infrastructure, failures of low voltage power supplies and optical links. Upgrades of some detector components will start, mainly related to the beam pipe, the innermost tracker elements and the trigger system. Detector components, which had to be staged for cost reasons in 2003, will then enter into the detector setup. The goal is to be fully ready for the new energy regime at nominal luminosity.

  17. SPS completes LS1 activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 27 June, the SPS closed its doors to the LS1 engineers, bringing to an end almost 17 months of activities. The machine now enters the hardware-testing phase in preparation for an October restart.   Photo 1: The SPS transfer tunnel, TT10, reinforced with steal beams. Having completed their LS1 activities right on schedule (to the day!), the SPS team is now preparing the machine for its restart. Over the next eight weeks, hardware tests of the SPS dipole and quadrupole power converters will be underway, led by the TE-EPC (Electrical Power Converters) team. "OP start-up test activities will also be running in parallel, utilising the off hours when EPC is not using the machine," says David McFarlane, the SPS technical coordinator from the Engineering Department. "The primary beam testing phase will start at the beginning of September, once hardware tests and DSO safety tests have been completed." It has been a long journey to this point, with several major...

  18. Detectors plans for LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessi, M.

    2012-01-01

    All experiments plan an effective usage of the LS1 shutdown period. After three years of running they will go through a consolidation phase, mostly to fix problems that have emerged over time, like single points of failure in the infrastructure, failures of low-voltage power supplies and optical links. Upgrades of some detector components will start, mainly related to the beam pipe, the innermost tracker elements and the trigger system. Detector components, which had to be staged for cost reasons in 2003, will then enter into the detector setup. The goal is to be fully ready for the new energy regime at nominal luminosity. This article reviews the planned maintenance and modification works for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE experiments. (author)

  19. Treatment of supernatant from sewage sludge by elctron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hidehiko; Sugiyama, Masashi; Shimizu, Ken.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the results was presented on the investigation of treatment of supernatant from sewage sludge by combination of electron beam irradiation and microbiological treatment. Supernatant is electron-beam irradiated after microbiologically treated, and then treated microbiologically again. Based this method, by irradiation of 10 kGy, chemical oxygen demand (COD) in supernatant can be decreased lower than 30 ppm. Moreover, electron-beam irradiation induces remarkable decolorization and deodorization. (author)

  20. Recovery of urinary nanovesicles from ultracentrifugation supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Saraswat, Mayank; Ravidà, Alessandra; Byrne, Barry; Holthofer, Harry

    2013-06-01

    Urinary vesicles represent a newly established source of biological material, widely considered to faithfully represent pathological events in the kidneys and the urogenital epithelium. The majority of currently applied isolation protocols involve cumbersome centrifugation steps to enrich vesicles from urine. To date, the efficiency of these approaches has not been investigated with respect to performing quantitative and qualitative analyses of vesicle populations in the pellet and supernatant (SN) fractions. After the series of differential centrifugations, the final SN was reduced to one-twentieth of the original volume by ammonium sulphate precipitation, with the precipitate pellet subjected to another round of differential centrifugations. Electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and western blot analysis were used to characterize the vesicles present in individual fractions of interest. Pellets obtained after the second set of centrifugations at 200 000 g revealed the presence of vesicles which share a common marker profile, but with distinct differences from those seen in the initial 200 000 g pellet used as the reference. This suggests an enrichment of previously uncharacterized urinary vesicles still in solution after the initial centrifugation steps. Analysis of protein yields recovered post-ultracentrifugation revealed an additional 40% of vesicles retained from the SN. Moreover, these structures showed a formidable resistance to harsh treatments (e.g. 95% ammonium sulphate saturation, hypotonic dialysis, 0.3 M sodium hydroxide). Methods which employ differential centrifugations of native urine are remarkably ineffective and may lose a substantial population of biologically important vesicle species.

  1. LS-SVM: uma nova ferramenta quimiométrica para regressão multivariada. Comparação de modelos de regressão LS-SVM e PLS na quantificação de adulterantes em leite em pó empregando NIR LS-SVM: a new chemometric tool for multivariate regression. Comparison of LS-SVM and pls regression for determination of common adulterants in powdered milk by nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco F. Ferrão

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM were used as an alternative multivariate calibration method for the simultaneous quantification of some common adulterants found in powdered milk samples, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Excellent models were built using LS-SVM for determining R², RMSECV and RMSEP values. LS-SVMs show superior performance for quantifying starch, whey and sucrose in powdered milk samples in relation to PLSR. This study shows that it is possible to determine precisely the amount of one and two common adulterants simultaneously in powdered milk samples using LS-SVM and NIR spectra.

  2. LS1: electrical engineering upgrades and consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, F.

    2012-01-01

    3 different types of activities are planned by the Engineering Department Electrical Engineering (EN-EL) Group for the first long shut down (LS1). First, the consolidation of EN-EL's ageing infrastructure elements. It is part of a 15- year programme aiming at increasing the reliability and availability of the power distribution network. Secondly, the maintenance of the accelerators infrastructure. In addition to the usual periodic operations and those delayed until LS1, the group will address more demanding activities like the replacement campaigns for irradiated cables and non-radiation resistant fibres as well as the removal of unused cables in particularly overcrowded areas. Thirdly, a vast amount of user copper and optical fibre cabling requests: EN-EL estimates that only 50% of LS1 requests are currently known. The main activities will be EN-EL's contributions to the R2E project, BE-BI upgrade projects, and the RF upgrade project in SPS BA3

  3. Standard LS-TTL IC data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This book is one of semiconductor device data manual series. It introduces standard logic 74LS fast series. It has general information, circuit characteristic, note of design and test and FAST Data Sheets, which includes gates, Flip-Flop, Decoder and Encoder, Counter, Master reset, Counter, Shift register, octal Buffer/Line Driver/3-state, generator/Checker, Full adder, Error Detection and correction circuit controller and synchronous address Multiplexer. It also lists LS Data Sheets including NAND gate, NOR gate, Hex Inverter, Delay Element, Frequency Divider, Decode Counter, Function generator, Dual Decode Counter, Memory cycle controller and voltage controlled Oscillator.

  4. Incubation of Aquilaria subintegra with Microbial Culture Supernatants Enhances Production of Volatile Compounds and Improves Quality of Agarwood Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monggoot, Sakon; Kulsing, Chadin; Wong, Yong Foo; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

    2018-06-01

    Incubation with microbial culture supernatants improved essential oil yield from Aquilaria subintegra woodchips. The harvested woodchips were incubated with de man, rogosa and sharpe (MRS) agar, yeast mold (YM) agar medium and six different microbial culture supernatants obtained from Lactobacillus bulgaricus , L. acidophilus , Streptococcus thermophilus , Lactococcus lactis , Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae prior to hydrodistillation. Incubation with lactic acid bacteria supernatants provided higher yield of agarwood oil (0.45% w/w) than that obtained from yeast (0.25% w/w), agar media (0.23% w/w) and water (0.22% w/w). The composition of agarwood oil from all media and microbial supernatant incubations was investigated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Overall, three major volatile profiles were obtained, which corresponded to water soaking (control), as well as, both YM and MRS media, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast supernatant incubations. Sesquiterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives were key components of agarwood oil. Fifty-two volatile components were tentatively identified in all samples. Beta-agarofuran, α-eudesmol, karanone, α-agarofuran and agarospirol were major components present in most of the incubated samples, while S. cerevisiae -incubated A. subintegra provided higher amount of phenyl acetaldehyde. Microbial culture supernatant incubation numerically provided the highest yield of agarwood oil compared to water soaking traditional method, possibly resulting from activity of extracellular enzymes produced by the microbes. Incubation of agarwood with lactic acid bacteria supernatant significantly enhanced oil yields without changing volatile profile/composition of agarwood essential oil, thus this is a promising method for future use.

  5. Proteomics of apheresis platelet supernatants during routine storage: Gender-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieciatkowska, Monika; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Burke, Timothy A; Kelher, Marguerite R; Moore, Ernest E; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C; West, Bernadette F; Hansen, Kirk C

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics has identified potential pathways involved in platelet storage lesions, which correlate with untoward effects in the recipient, including febrile non-haemolytic reactions. We hypothesize that an additional pathway involves protein mediators that accumulate in the platelet supernatants during routine storage in a donor gender-specific fashion. Apheresis platelet concentrates were collected from 5 healthy males and 5 females and routinely stored. The 14 most abundant plasma proteins were removed and the supernatant proteins from days 1 and 5 were analyzed via 1D-SDS-PAGE/nanoLC-MS/MS, before label-free quantitative proteomics analyses. Findings from a subset of 18 proteins were validated via LC-SRM analyses against stable isotope labeled standards. A total of 503 distinct proteins were detected in the platelet supernatants from the 4 sample groups: female or male donor platelets, either at storage day 1 or 5. Proteomics suggested a storage and gender-dependent impairment of blood coagulation mediators, pro-inflammatory complement components and cytokines, energy and redox metabolic enzymes. The supernatants from female donors demonstrated increased deregulation of structural proteins, extracellular matrix proteins and focal adhesion proteins, possibly indicating storage-dependent platelet activation. Routine storage of platelet concentrates induces changes in the supernatant proteome, which may have effects on the transfused patient, some of which are related to donor gender. The rationale behind this study is that protein components in platelet releasates have been increasingly observed to play a key role in adverse events and impaired homeostasis in transfused recipients. In this view, proteomics has recently emerged as a functional tool to address the issue of protein composition of platelet releasates from buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates in the blood bank. Despite early encouraging studies on buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates, platelet

  6. Supernatants from culture of type I collagen-stimulated PBMC from patients with cutaneous systemic sclerosis versus localized scleroderma demonstrate suppression of MMP-1 by fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monica; Postlethwaite, Arnold E; Myers, Linda K; Hasty, Karen A

    2012-06-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic fibrosing disease characterized by vasculopathy, autoimmunity, and an accumulation of collagen in tissues. Numerous studies have shown that compared to healthy or diseased controls, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with SSc produce a variety of cytokines or proliferate when cultured with solubilized type I collagen (CI) or constituent α1(II) and α2(I) polypeptide chains. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PBMC isolated from patients with SSc and cultured in vitro with soluble CI elaborated soluble mediators that inhibit the production of collagenase (i.e., matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-1) by fibroblasts. Supernatants of CI-stimulated PBMC from juvenile and adult diffuse cutaneous (dc)SSc patients significantly reduced MMP-1 production by SSc dermal fibroblasts, while supernatants of CI-stimulated PBMC from patients with localized scleroderma (LS) did not. CI-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants from patients with dcSSc in contrast to patients with LS exhibited increased levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, PDGF-BB, TNF-α, IL-13, and EGF. Prolonged culture of SSc dermal fibroblasts with recombinant PDGF-BB or IL-13 inhibited the induction of MMP-1 in response to subsequent TNF-α stimulation. These data suggest that therapies aimed at reducing these cytokines may decrease collagen accumulation in SSc, preventing the development of chronic fibrosis.

  7. Salt Selection for the LS-VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Clarno, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    Molten fluorides were initially developed for use in the nuclear industry as the high temperature fluid-fuel for a Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). The Office of Nuclear Energy is exploring the use of molten fluorides as a primary coolant (rather than helium) in an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design, also know as the Liquid-Salt cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This paper provides a review of relevant properties for use in evaluation and ranking of candidate coolants for the LS-VHTR. Nuclear, physical, and chemical properties were reviewed and metrics for evaluation are recommended. Chemical properties of the salt were examined for the purpose of identifying factors that effect materials compatibility (i.e., corrosion). Some preliminary consideration of economic factors for the candidate salts is also presented. (authors)

  8. Calculation of “LS-curves” for coincidence summing corrections in gamma ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Tim; Korun, Matjaž

    2006-01-01

    When coincidence summing correction factors for extended samples are calculated in gamma-ray spectrometry from full-energy-peak and total efficiencies, their variation over the sample volume needs to be considered. In other words, the correction factors cannot be computed as if the sample were a point source. A method developed by Blaauw and Gelsema takes the variation of the efficiencies over the sample volume into account. It introduces the so-called LS-curve in the calibration procedure and only requires the preparation of a single standard for each sample geometry. We propose to replace the standard preparation by calculation and we show that the LS-curves resulting from our method yield coincidence summing correction factors that are consistent with the LS values obtained from experimental data.

  9. Controlling a Conventional LS-pump based on Electrically Measured LS-pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the increasing use of sensors in mobile hydraulic equipment, the need for hydraulic pilot lines is decreasing, being replaced by electrical wiring and electrically controllable components. For controlling some of the existing hydraulic components there are, however, still a need...... this system, by either generating a copy of the LS-pressure, the LS-pressure being the output, or letting the output be the pump pressure. The focus of the current paper is on the controller design based on the first approach. Specifically a controlled leakage flow is used to avoid the need for a switching...

  10. LS1 Report: nearing the finish line

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The LS1 team will be popping the champagne next week, on Tuesday 27 May, celebrating the completion of the consolidation of the splices in the framework of the SMACC project.   A technician works on one of the final shunts during LS1. "It has been a long journey into the heart of the LHC, tackling over 27,000 shunts*," says Luca Bottura, TE-MSC Group leader. "We are happy that the final train has, at last, reached its rest station, and look forward to sending it on many new adventures," confirm Frédéric Savary, TE-MSC Large Magnet Facility Section leader, and Jean-Philippe Tock, SMACC Project leader. Also in the LHC, pressure tests in Sector 1-2 - the third sector to be tackled - are almost complete. The temperature in Sector 6-7 is around 100K and it will be accessible again from next week. As for the SPS, all the LSS1 beam elements excluding one monitor are back in position. Vacuum teams are now ...

  11. Non-stop training during LS1!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    The year 2013 is a busy year for the Safety Training team, who are seeing a dramatic increase in their activities during LS1. The Safety Training Service within the HSE Unit offers training courses all year round to people working on the CERN site who are exposed to a variety of potential hazards (e.g. chemical hazards, fire hazards, etc.) either because of the activities they perform (e.g. work in confined spaces or on machines) and/or their place of work (e.g. workshops, laboratories, underground areas, etc.).   LS1 has triggered an increase in the number of requests for training, mainly from people requiring to carry out work on the LHC. Indeed, in order to access the underground areas, it is obligatory to have taken certain safety courses such as the self-rescue mask or radiation protection training courses. Consequently, the number of training sessions and the number of people trained is currently twice what it was during the same period in 2012, with almost 4,600 people trained in 530 s...

  12. A study on the modeling techniques using LS-INGRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Park, S. W

    2001-03-01

    For the development of radioactive material transport packages, the verification of structural safety of a package against the free drop impact accident should be carried out. The use of LS-DYNA, which is specially developed code for impact analysis, is essential for impact analysis of the package. LS-INGRID is a pre-processor for LS-DYNA with considerable capability to deal with complex geometries and allows for parametric modeling. LS-INGRID is most effective in combination with LS-DYNA code. Although the usage of LS-INGRID seems very difficult relative to many commercial mesh generators, the productivity of users performing parametric modeling tasks with LS-INGRID can be much higher in some cases. Therefore, LS-INGRID has to be used with LS-DYNA. This report presents basic explanations for the structure and commands, basic modelling examples and advanced modelling of LS-INGRID to use it for the impact analysis of various packages. The new users can build the complex model easily, through a study for the basic examples presented in this report from the modelling to the loading and constraint conditions.

  13. Experimental and Analytical Studies on Improved Feedforward ML Estimation Based on LS-SVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqian Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximum likelihood (ML algorithm is the most common and effective parameter estimation method. However, when dealing with small sample and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, threshold effects are resulted and estimation performance degrades greatly. It is proved that support vector machine (SVM is suitable for small sample. Consequently, we employ the linear relationship between least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR’s inputs and outputs and regard LS-SVR process as a time-varying linear filter to increase input SNR of received signals and decrease the threshold value of mean square error (MSE curve. Furthermore, it is verified that by taking single-tone sinusoidal frequency estimation, for example, and integrating data analysis and experimental validation, if LS-SVR’s parameters are set appropriately, not only can the LS-SVR process ensure the single-tone sinusoid and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel characteristics of original signals well, but it can also improves the frequency estimation performance. During experimental simulations, LS-SVR process is applied to two common and representative single-tone sinusoidal ML frequency estimation algorithms, the DFT-based frequency-domain periodogram (FDP and phase-based Kay ones. And the threshold values of their MSE curves are decreased by 0.3 dB and 1.2 dB, respectively, which obviously exhibit the advantage of the proposed algorithm.

  14. UFOs in the LHC after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, T.; Barnes, M.J.; Carlier, E.; Cerutti, F.; Dehning, B.; Ducimetiere, L.; Ferrari, A.; Garrel, N.; Gerardin, A.; Goddard, B.; Holzer, E.B.; Jackson, S.; Jimenez, J.M.; Kain, V.; Lechner, A.; Mertens, V.; Misiowiec, M.; Moron Ballester, R.; Nebot del Busto, E.; Norderhaug Drosdal, L.; Nordt, A.; Uythoven, J.; Velghe, B.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wenninger, J.; Zamantzas, C.; Zimmermann, F.; Fuster Martinez, N.

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (Unidentified Falling Objects) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. With large-scale increases of the BLM thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated in the second half of 2011. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. In this paper, the state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation after LS1 are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified. (authors)

  15. UFOs in the LHC after LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Gérardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Morón Ballester, R; Nebot del Busto, E; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster Martinez, N

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (Unidentified Falling Objects) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. With large-scale increases of the BLM thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated in the second half of 2011. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. In this paper, the state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation after LS1 are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  16. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled "Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria" (Liu et al., 2017) [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  17. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled “Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria” (Liu et al., 2017) [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  18. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled “Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria” (Liu et al., 2017 [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  19. Influence of Terraced area DEM Resolution on RUSLE LS Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongming; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Yang, Xiaomei; Gai, Lingtong; Geissen, Viollette

    2017-04-01

    Topography has a large impact on the erosion of soil by water. Slope steepness and slope length are combined (the LS factor) in the universal soil-loss equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE) for predicting soil erosion. The LS factor is usually extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). The grid size of the DEM will thus influence the LS factor and the subsequent calculation of soil loss. Terracing is considered as a support practice factor (P) in the USLE/RUSLE equations, which is multiplied with the other USLE/RUSLE factors. However, as terraces change the slope length and steepness, they also affect the LS factor. The effect of DEM grid size on the LS factor has not been investigated for a terraced area. We obtained a high-resolution DEM by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) photogrammetry, from which the slope steepness, slope length, and LS factor were extracted. The changes in these parameters at various DEM resolutions were then analysed. The DEM produced detailed LS-factor maps, particularly for low LS factors. High (small valleys, gullies, and terrace ridges) and low (flats and terrace fields) spatial frequencies were both sensitive to changes in resolution, so the areas of higher and lower slope steepness both decreased with increasing grid size. Average slope steepness decreased and average slope length increased with grid size. Slope length, however, had a larger effect than slope steepness on the LS factor as the grid size varied. The LS factor increased when the grid size increased from 0.5 to 30-m and increased significantly at grid sizes >5-m. The LS factor was increasingly overestimated as grid size decreased. The LS factor decreased from grid sizes of 30 to 100-m, because the details of the terraced terrain were gradually lost, but the factor was still overestimated.

  20. Use of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube culture supernatants for measurement of antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G Kimuda

    Full Text Available QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT supernatants may be important samples for use in assessment of anti-tuberculosis (TB antibodies when only limited volumes of blood can be collected and when a combination of antibody and cytokine measurements are required. These analytes, when used together, may also have the potential to differentiate active pulmonary TB (APTB from latent TB infection (LTBI. However, few studies have explored the use of QFT-GIT supernatants for investigations of antibody responses. This study determined the correlation and agreement between anti-CFP-10 and anti-ESAT-6 antibody concentrations in QFT-GIT nil supernatant and serum pairs from 68 TB household contacts. We also explored the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb specific antibodies, or ratios of antibody to interferon gamma (IFN-γ in QFT-GIT supernatants, to differentiate 97 APTB cases from 58 individuals with LTBI. Sputum smear microscopy was used to define APTB, whereas the QFT-GIT and tuberculin skin test were used to define LTBI. There were strong and statistically significant correlations between anti-CFP-10 and anti-ESAT-6 antibodies in unstimulated QFT-GIT supernatants and sera (r = 0.89; p<0.0001 for both, and no significant differences in antibody concentration between them. Anti-CFP-10 & anti-ESAT-6 antibodies differentiated APTB from LTBI with sensitivities of 88.7% & 71.1% and specificities of 41.4% & 51.7% respectively. Anti-CFP-10 antibody/M.tb specific IFN-γ and anti-ESAT-6 antibody/M.tb specific IFN-γ ratios had sensitivities of 48.5% & 54.6% and specificities of 89.7% and 75.9% respectively. We conclude that QFT-GIT nil supernatants may be used in the place of sera when measuring antibody responses, reducing blood volumes needed for such investigations. Antibodies in QFT-GIT nil supernatants on their own discriminate APTB from LTBI with high sensitivity but have poor specificity, whereas the reverse is true when antibodies are used in

  1. Phosphate removal from digested sludge supernatant using modified fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Deng, Tong; Liu, Juntan; Peng, Weigong

    2012-05-01

    The removal of phosphate in digested sludge supernatant by modified coal fly ash was investigated in this study. Modification of the fly ash by the addition of sulfuric acid could significantly enhance its immobilization ability. The experimental results also showed that adsorption of phosphate by the modified fly ash was rapid with the removal percentage of phosphate reaching an equilibrium of 98.62% in less than 5 minutes. The optimum pH for phosphate removal was 9 and the removal percentage increased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The effect of temperature on phosphate removal efficiency was not significant from 20 to 40 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses showed that phosphate formed an amorphous precipitate with water-soluble calcium, aluminum, and iron ions in the modified fly ash.

  2. Electrolytic destruction of oxalate ions in plutonium oxalate supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Talnikar, S.G.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.; Venkataraman, N.

    1996-01-01

    A simple and efficient electrolytic method is described for the destruction of the oxalate ions present in plutonium oxalate supernatant. Using platinum electrode and very little KMnO 4 , in situ generation of Mn 3+ ions is achieved which in turn destroys the oxalate. The use of lower current density helps in achieving maximum current efficiency. The end point is easily detectable by the pink colour of permanganate. By reversing the current, this slight excess of permanganate can be destroyed, thus avoiding the use of hydrogen peroxide. By this simple electrolytic method, the corrosive oxalate ion is completely destroyed and the salt content of the waste solution is considerably reduced. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  3. FERMI/LAT OBSERVATIONS OF LS 5039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    The first results from observations of the high-mass X-ray binary LS 5039 using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope data between 2008 August and 2009 June are presented. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated with a period of 3.903 ± 0.005 days; the first detection of this modulation at GeV energies. The light curve is characterized by a broad peak around superior conjunction in agreement with inverse Compton scattering models. The spectrum is represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux (100 MeV-300 GeV) of 4.9 ± 0.5(stat) ± 1.8(syst) x10 -7 photon cm -2 s -1 , with a cutoff at 2.1 ± 0.3(stat) ± 1.1(syst) GeV and photon index Γ = 1.9 ± 0.1(stat) ± 0.3(syst). The spectrum is observed to vary with orbital phase, specifically between inferior and superior conjunction. We suggest that the presence of a cutoff in the spectrum may be indicative of magnetospheric emission similar to the emission seen in many pulsars by Fermi.

  4. LS1 Report: short-circuit tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    As the LS1 draws to an end, teams move from installation projects to a phase of intense testing. Among these are the so-called 'short-circuit tests'. Currently under way at Point 7, these tests verify the cables, the interlocks, the energy extraction systems, the power converters that provide current to the superconducting magnets and the cooling system.   Thermal camera images taken during tests at point 4 (IP4). Before putting beam into the LHC, all of the machine's hardware components need to be put to the test. Out of these, the most complicated are the superconducting circuits, which have a myriad of different failure modes with interlock and control systems. While these will be tested at cold - during powering tests to be done in August - work can still be done beforehand. "While the circuits in the magnets themselves cannot be tested at warm, what we can do is verify the power converter and the circuits right up to the place the cables go into the magn...

  5. LS1 Report: achieving the unachievable

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The dismantling and extraction of a defective DFBA module from LHC Point 6, announced a few weeks ago, has been completed without a hitch. The DFBAs in the LHC are unique and irreplaceable components that must be handled with care.   The Transport team extract the defective module in one of the two DFBAs at Point 6. This module was brought to the surface, where it is currently being repared. Dismantling and extracting part of an electrical feed box (DFBA) had not been planned and could not have been foreseen. Nonetheless, that is what had to be done. When the LS1 teams discovered that the bellows of one of the DFBAs in Sector 5-6 were damaged - and completely inaccessible - they were not exactly overwhelmed with solutions. In fact, they had only one option: to dismantle them and take them up to the surface. Step 1: measure the alignment of the module to be taken out in relation to the beam lines to ensure that when the DFBA is put back in, it is in the right position for the beam to pass thr...

  6. LS1 Report: Setting the bar high

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    This week LS1 successfully passed an important milestone: the first pressure test of a complete sector, sector 6-7.  The objective of this test was to check the mechanical integrity and overall leak-tightness of this section of the LHC by injecting it with pressurised helium.   The team in charge of the preparation and of the realisation of the pressure tests in sector 6-7. “Given the scale of the work and of the operations carried out during 2013, particularly in the framework of the SMACC project and of the repair of the compensators of the cryogenic distribution line (QRL), we need to revalidate the integrity of the systems before the accelerator starts up again,” explains Olivier Pirotte, who is in charge of the pressure tests (TE-CRG). The pressure tests are performed over a single day after two weeks of intensive activity to prepare and specially configure the cryogenic instrumentation in the tunnel, and the pressure within a sector is increased in stages,...

  7. LS1 Report: Summer cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    As the final LS1 activities are carried out in the machine, teams have been cooling down the accelerator sector by sector in preparation for beams.   The third sector of the LHC to be cooled down - sector 1-2 - has seen the process begin this week. During the cool-down phase, survey teams are measuring and smoothing (or realigning) the magnets at cold. By the end of August, five sectors of the machine will be in the process of cooling down, with one (sector 6-7) at cold. The LHC Access Safety System (LASS) is now being commissioned, and will be validated during the DSO tests at the beginning of October. As teams consolidate the modifications made to LASS during the shutdown, many points were closed for testing purposes. The CSCM (copper stabiliser continuity measurement) tests have been completed in the first sector (6-7) and no defect has been found. These results will be presented to the LHC Machine Committee next week. CSCM tests will start in the second sector in mid-August. Following many...

  8. Parallel Calculations in LS-DYNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanovich Mkrtychev, Oleg; Aleksandrovich Reshetov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, structural mechanics exhibits a trend towards numeric solutions being found for increasingly extensive and detailed tasks, which requires that capacities of computing systems be enhanced. Such enhancement can be achieved by different means. E.g., in case a computing system is represented by a workstation, its components can be replaced and/or extended (CPU, memory etc.). In essence, such modification eventually entails replacement of the entire workstation, i.e. replacement of certain components necessitates exchange of others (faster CPUs and memory devices require buses with higher throughput etc.). Special consideration must be given to the capabilities of modern video cards. They constitute powerful computing systems capable of running data processing in parallel. Interestingly, the tools originally designed to render high-performance graphics can be applied for solving problems not immediately related to graphics (CUDA, OpenCL, Shaders etc.). However, not all software suites utilize video cards’ capacities. Another way to increase capacity of a computing system is to implement a cluster architecture: to add cluster nodes (workstations) and to increase the network communication speed between the nodes. The advantage of this approach is extensive growth due to which a quite powerful system can be obtained by combining not particularly powerful nodes. Moreover, separate nodes may possess different capacities. This paper considers the use of a clustered computing system for solving problems of structural mechanics with LS-DYNA software. To establish a range of dependencies a mere 2-node cluster has proven sufficient.

  9. CMS outreach event to close LS1

    CERN Multimedia

    Achintya Rao

    2015-01-01

    CMS opened its doors to about 700 students from schools near CERN, who visited the detector on 16 and 17 February during the last major CMS outreach event of LS1.   Pellentesque sapien mi, pharetra vitae, auctor eu, congue sed, turpis. Enthusiastic CMS guides spent a day and a half showing the equally enthusiastic visitors, aged 10 to 18, the beauty of CMS and particle physics. The recently installed wheelchair lift was called into action and enabled a visitor who arrived on crutches to access the detector cavern unimpeded.  The CMS collaboration had previously devoted a day to school visits after the successful “Neighbourhood Days” in May 2014 and, encouraged by the turnout, decided to extend an invitation to local schools once again. The complement of nearly 40 guides and crowd marshals was aided by a support team that coordinated the transportation of the young guests and received them at Point 5, where a dedicated safety team including first-aiders, security...

  10. LS1 Report: onwards and upwards

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    For the first time since 2008, engineers have taken most of the LHC’s electromagnetic circuits up to the current needed for magnets to guide beams around the machine at the design energy of 7 TeV. This first phase of intensive tests has been instrumental for the planning of upcoming machine interventions.   All of the circuits in Sector 67 were powered to a 7 TeV equivalent current, with the main circuits (to be consolidated during LS1) powered at 4 TeV. Around 1700 magnet circuits are needed to circulate beams in the LHC. Come 2015, each and every one of these circuits will have to be able to accept their 7 TeV equivalent current. For the LHC’s 24 main dipole and quadrupole circuits, this will mean the consolidation of all their interconnections. But what about the rest of the LHC’s circuits that had been mostly operating at around 60% of the nominal value? How will they handle the ramp-up to design energy? Those questions were asked and answered during the rec...

  11. LS1 Report: the clouds are lifting

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    To combat the problem of electron clouds, which perturbate the environment of the particle beams in our accelerators, the Vacuum team have turned to amorphous carbon. This material is being applied to the interior of 16 magnets in the SPS during LS1 and will help prevent the formation of the secondary particles which are responsible for these clouds.   This photo shows the familiar coils of an SPS dipole magnet in brown. The vacuum chamber is the metallic rectangular part in the centre. The small wheeled device you can see in the vacuum chamber carries the hollow cathodes  along the length of the chamber. When a particle beam circulates at high energy in a vacuum chamber, it unavoidably generates secondary particles. These include electrons produced by the ionisation of residual molecules in the vacuum or indirectly generated by synchrotron radiation. When these electrons hit the surface of the vacuum chamber, they produce other electrons which, through an avalanche-like process, re...

  12. LS1 Report: Thank you magnetic horn!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments at the Antimatter Decelerator (AD) have been receiving beams since the beginning of this week. There is a crucial element at the heart of the chain that prepares the antiproton beam: the so-called magnetic horn, a delicate piece of equipment that had to be refurbished during LS1 and that is now showing just how well it can perform.   View from the top of the target and horn trolley, along the direction of the beam. Antiprotons for the AD are produced by smashing a beam of protons from the PS onto an iridium target. However, the particles produced by the nuclear interactions are emitted at very wide angles; without a focussing element, all these precious particles would be lost. “A magnetic horn is placed at the exit of the target to focus back a large fraction of the negative particles, including antiprotons, parallel to the beam line and with the right momentum,” explains Marco Calviani, physicist in the EN Department and the expert in charge of the AD targe...

  13. LS1 Report: ALICE ups the ante

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    SPS up and running... LHC almost cold... CCC Operators back at their desks... all telltale signs of the start of Run 2! For the experiments, that means there are just a few short months left for them to prepare for beams. The CERN Bulletin will be checking in with each of the Big Four to see how they are getting on during these closing months...   It has been a long road for the ALICE LS1 team. From major improvements to the 19 sub-detectors to a full re-cabling and replacement of LEP-era electrical infrastructure, no part of the ALICE cavern has gone untouched.* With the experiment set to close in early December, the teams are making finishing touches before turning their focus towards re-commissioning and calibration. "Earlier this week, we installed the last two modules of the di-jet calorimeter," explains Werner Riegler, ALICE technical coordinator. "These are the final parts of a 60 degree calorimeter extension that is installed opposite the present calorimeter, c...

  14. LS1 Report: LHCb's early Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator chain up and running... CCC Operators back at their desks... all telltale signs of the start of Run 2! For the experiments, that means there are just a few short weeks left for them to prepare for beams. Over at LHCb, teams have kept ahead of the curve by focusing on new installations and improvements.   A delicate task: re-connecting the beam pipe in LHCb. From the primary detector services to the DAQ system to the high level trigger, November's injector test beams saw their way through a well-prepared LHCb experiment. “We set the transfer line tests as our deadline for the restart - the entire experiment had to be at nominal position and conditions,” says Eric Thomas, LHCb deputy Technical Coordinator and LHCb LS1 Project Coordinator. “Achieving this was a major milestone for the collaboration. If beam were to come tomorrow, we would be ready.” The injector tests gave the LHCb team a chance to synchronise their detectors, and to al...

  15. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ultrafiltration and Characterization of AW-101 Supernatant and Entrained Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R.; Hartley, S.A.; Urie, M.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Rappe, K.G.; Jagoda, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) (1996) flow sheet uses cross-flow filtration as the solid/liquid separation technique. Unlike traditional dead-end filtration, which has a declining rate caused by the growth of a filter cake on the surface of the filter medium, in cross-flow filtration, the filter cake is swept away by the fluid flowing across it. This filtration method is especially beneficial when there are very fine particles and when system simplicity is required. The objective of this work was to test cross-flow filtration using actual Envelope A Hanford tank waste. Similar to the Phase 1A study, they evaluated the permeability of an Envelope A feed through a single element filter as a function of transmembrane pressure, axial velocity, solids concentration, and time. In addition, the efficiency of back pulse and chemical cleaning on the filter performance was evaluated. The chemical and radiochemical composition of the filtrate and solids was measured to determine efficiency of the filtration process. This report describes the test apparatus, the experimental approach, the results of the tests, and the chemical and radiochemical analysis for supernatants taken from Hanford Tank AW-101. This report also provides a means of transmitting to British Nuclear Fuels, Limited (BNFL) the completed test instruction and raw filtration and analytical data

  17. Characteristics of CdLS (Cornelia de Lange Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celebration and Memorial Gifts Planned Giving Monthly Giving Corporate Partnership Matching Gifts Stocks, Trusts and Other Gifts ... 25 percent of individuals with CdLS. Behavioral and communication issues and developmental delays often exist. Major Characteristics ...

  18. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  19. Diagnosing feline infectious peritonitis using the Sysmex XT-2000iV based on frozen supernatants from cavitary effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Angelica; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2017-05-01

    The delta total nucleated cells (ΔTNC) measurement with the Sysmex XT-2000iV (Sysmex Europe, Norderstedt, Germany) has high diagnostic accuracy on effusions in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) cases, but the test can be performed only on fresh samples. We evaluated whether supernatants from effusions retain the ability to induce cell clumping and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of this modified ΔTNC method. Effusions were collected from FIP cats ( n = 19) and from cats with other diseases ( n = 15). ΔTNC was measured on fresh samples and on frozen-thawed supernatants after the addition of feline blood at 1:10 dilution. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed at the cutoffs of suggestive of FIP (ΔTNC = 1.7) and consistent with FIP (ΔTNC = 3.4). The influence of the protein content, number of added cells, and magnitude of dilution were also investigated. Specificity and positive predictive value were 100% for both the methods. Sensitivity and negative predictive value were higher for the modified ΔTNC (84.2% and 83.3%, respectively, at the cutoff of 1.7; 78.9% and 78.9%, respectively, at the cutoff of 3.4) than for the ΔTNC on fresh samples (78.6% and 81.3%, respectively, at the cutoff of 1.7; 57.1% and 68.4%, respectively, at the cutoff of 3.4). Protein content, total cell count of the added blood, and magnitude of dilutions did not influence the results. Supernatants of frozen effusions from FIP cats retain the ability to induce cell clumping, thus the modified ΔTNC measurement is a reliable tool to diagnose FIP on samples that cannot be analyzed immediately.

  20. The effects of three types of macrophages culture supernatant on CFU-GM in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Hongxun; Fu Li; Zhao Fengchen; Han Fen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of peritional macrophyge(PM), alveolar macrophage (AM), and Kupffer cell (KC) on colony forming unite granulacyte/macrophage (CFU -GM) in irradiated mice. Methods: Using techniques of hemopoietic progenitors in vitro, the authors studied the effects of three types of macrophages culture supernatant on CFU - GM. Results: It is shown that three types of macrophages culture supernatant may stimulate proliferation and differentiation of CFU-GM in irradiated mice, and KC is the best one in comparison to others. Conclusion: three types of macrophages culture supernatant may protect CFU-GM irradiated mice with KC being the best method. (authors)

  1. Multi-scale Material Parameter Identification Using LS-DYNA® and LS-OPT®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stander, Nielen [Livermore Software Technology Corporation, CA (United States); Basudhar, Anirban [Livermore Software Technology Corporation, CA (United States); Basu, Ushnish [Livermore Software Technology Corporation, CA (United States); Gandikota, Imtiaz [Livermore Software Technology Corporation, CA (United States); Savic, Vesna [General Motors, Flint, MI (United States); Sun, Xin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, XiaoHua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pourboghrat, Farhang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Park, Taejoon [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mapar, Aboozar [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kumar, Sharvan [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Ghassemi-Armaki, Hassan [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Abu-Farha, Fadi [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Ever-tightening regulations on fuel economy and carbon emissions demand continual innovation in finding ways for reducing vehicle mass. Classical methods for computational mass reduction include sizing, shape and topology optimization. One of the few remaining options for weight reduction can be found in materials engineering and material design optimization. Apart from considering different types of materials by adding material diversity, an appealing option in automotive design is to engineer steel alloys for the purpose of reducing thickness while retaining sufficient strength and ductility required for durability and safety. Such a project was proposed and is currently being executed under the auspices of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) funded by the Department of Energy. Under this program, new steel alloys (Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel or 3GAHSS) are being designed, tested and integrated with the remaining design variables of a benchmark vehicle Finite Element model. In this project the principal phases identified are (i) material identification, (ii) formability optimization and (iii) multi-disciplinary vehicle optimization. This paper serves as an introduction to the LS-OPT methodology and therefore mainly focuses on the first phase, namely an approach to integrate material identification using material models of different length scales. For this purpose, a multi-scale material identification strategy, consisting of a Crystal Plasticity (CP) material model and a Homogenized State Variable (SV) model, is discussed and demonstrated. The paper concludes with proposals for integrating the multi-scale methodology into the overall vehicle design.

  2. Multi-scale Material Parameter Identification Using LS-DYNA® and LS-OPT®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stander, Nielen; Basudhar, Anirban; Basu, Ushnish; Gandikota, Imtiaz; Savic, Vesna; Sun, Xin; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Hu, Xiaohua; Pourboghrat, F.; Park, Taejoon; Mapar, Aboozar; Kumar, Shavan; Ghassemi-Armaki, Hassan; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2015-09-14

    Test Ban Treaty of 1996 which banned surface testing of nuclear devices [1]. This had the effect that experimental work was reduced from large scale tests to multiscale experiments to provide material models with validation at different length scales. In the subsequent years industry realized that multi-scale modeling and simulation-based design were transferable to the design optimization of any structural system. Horstemeyer [1] lists a number of advantages of the use of multiscale modeling. Among these are: the reduction of product development time by alleviating costly trial-and-error iterations as well as the reduction of product costs through innovations in material, product and process designs. Multi-scale modeling can reduce the number of costly large scale experiments and can increase product quality by providing more accurate predictions. Research tends to be focussed on each particular length scale, which enhances accuracy in the long term. This paper serves as an introduction to the LS-OPT and LS-DYNA methodology for multi-scale modeling. It mainly focuses on an approach to integrate material identification using material models of different length scales. As an example, a multi-scale material identification strategy, consisting of a Crystal Plasticity (CP) material model and a homogenized State Variable (SV) model, is discussed and the parameter identification of the individual material models of different length scales is demonstrated. The paper concludes with thoughts on integrating the multi-scale methodology into the overall vehicle design.

  3. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  4. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  5. Decon2LS: An open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high resolution mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitly, Navdeep; Mayampurath, Anoop; Littlefield, Kyle; Adkins, Joshua N; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D

    2009-03-17

    Data generated from liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based studies of a biological sample can contain large amounts of biologically significant information in the form of proteins, peptides, and metabolites. Interpreting this data involves inferring the masses and abundances of biomolecules injected into the instrument. Because of the inherent complexity of mass spectral patterns produced by these biomolecules, the analysis is significantly enhanced by using visualization capabilities to inspect and confirm results. In this paper we describe Decon2LS, an open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high-resolution MS data. Drawing extensively on algorithms developed over the last ten years for ICR2LS, Decon2LS packages the algorithms as a rich set of modular, reusable processing classes for performing diverse functions such as reading raw data, routine peak finding, theoretical isotope distribution modelling, and deisotoping. Because the source code is openly available, these functionalities can now be used to build derivative applications in relatively fast manner. In addition, Decon2LS provides an extensive set of visualization tools, such as high performance chart controls. With a variety of options that include peak processing, deisotoping, isotope composition, etc, Decon2LS supports processing of multiple raw data formats. Deisotoping can be performed on an individual scan, an individual dataset, or on multiple datasets using batch processing. Other processing options include creating a two dimensional view of mass and liquid chromatography (LC) elution time features, generating spectrum files for tandem MS data, creating total intensity chromatograms, and visualizing theoretical peptide profiles. Application of Decon2LS to deisotope different datasets obtained across different instruments yielded a high number of features that can be used to identify and quantify peptides in the

  6. Decon2LS: An open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high resolution mass spectrometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gordon A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data generated from liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based studies of a biological sample can contain large amounts of biologically significant information in the form of proteins, peptides, and metabolites. Interpreting this data involves inferring the masses and abundances of biomolecules injected into the instrument. Because of the inherent complexity of mass spectral patterns produced by these biomolecules, the analysis is significantly enhanced by using visualization capabilities to inspect and confirm results. In this paper we describe Decon2LS, an open-source software package for automated processing and visualization of high-resolution MS data. Drawing extensively on algorithms developed over the last ten years for ICR2LS, Decon2LS packages the algorithms as a rich set of modular, reusable processing classes for performing diverse functions such as reading raw data, routine peak finding, theoretical isotope distribution modelling, and deisotoping. Because the source code is openly available, these functionalities can now be used to build derivative applications in relatively fast manner. In addition, Decon2LS provides an extensive set of visualization tools, such as high performance chart controls. Results With a variety of options that include peak processing, deisotoping, isotope composition, etc, Decon2LS supports processing of multiple raw data formats. Deisotoping can be performed on an individual scan, an individual dataset, or on multiple datasets using batch processing. Other processing options include creating a two dimensional view of mass and liquid chromatography (LC elution time features, generating spectrum files for tandem MS data, creating total intensity chromatograms, and visualizing theoretical peptide profiles. Application of Decon2LS to deisotope different datasets obtained across different instruments yielded a high number of features that can be used to

  7. A mid-term report for LS1

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    As the LHC’s first long shutdown, LS1, enters its second calendar year, it’s a good time for a mid-term report on how things are progressing.    Towards the end of last year, I had the pleasure to go down to the LHC tunnel to witness the closure of the first of the machine’s sectors to be completed. As I write, three sectors are now closed up, with a fourth not far behind. These are important milestones, and you can follow progress in detail in the regular LS1 reports in the Bulletin. They show that we’re on schedule for physics to resume in about a year from now, but more than that, they are an important reminder of the LS1 motto: safety, quality, schedule. It is fantastic news that we are on schedule, and testimony to the rigour that went into the detailed and complex planning of all the work that had to be undertaken in LS1. But more important than the schedule is the fact that we’ve carried out the work safely and that the qualit...

  8. Safety, Quality, Schedule: the motto of LS1

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The LHC’s first long shutdown, LS1, is a marathon that began on 16 February and will take us through to the beginning of 2015. Just as Olympic marathon runners have a motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius, so the athletes of LS1 work to the mantra of Safety, Quality, Schedule. Four months into LS1, they have settled into their rhythm, and things are going to plan.   The first task of LS1 was to bring the LHC up to room temperature - this was achieved in just 10 weeks. In parallel, preliminary tests for electrical quality assurance and leaks revealed essentially the level of wear and tear we’d expect after three years of running. One slightly anxious moment came when we looked at the RF fingers – the devices that ensure electrical contact in the beam pipes as they pass from one magnet to the next. Those of you with long memories will recall that before start-up, some of these got damaged at warm-up. The good news today is that with all eight sectors test...

  9. Novel Hybrid of LS-SVM and Kalman Filter for GPS/INS Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenkai; Li, Yong; Rizos, Chris; Xu, Xiaosu

    Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) technologies can overcome the drawbacks of the individual systems. One of the advantages is that the integrated solution can provide continuous navigation capability even during GPS outages. However, bridging the GPS outages is still a challenge when Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors are used. Methods being currently explored by the research community include applying vehicle motion constraints, optimal smoother, and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. In the research area of AI, the neural network (NN) approach has been extensively utilised up to the present. In an NN-based integrated system, a Kalman filter (KF) estimates position, velocity and attitude errors, as well as the inertial sensor errors, to output navigation solutions while GPS signals are available. At the same time, an NN is trained to map the vehicle dynamics with corresponding KF states, and to correct INS measurements when GPS measurements are unavailable. To achieve good performance it is critical to select suitable quality and an optimal number of samples for the NN. This is sometimes too rigorous a requirement which limits real world application of NN-based methods.The support vector machine (SVM) approach is based on the structural risk minimisation principle, instead of the minimised empirical error principle that is commonly implemented in an NN. The SVM can avoid local minimisation and over-fitting problems in an NN, and therefore potentially can achieve a higher level of global performance. This paper focuses on the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), which can solve highly nonlinear and noisy black-box modelling problems. This paper explores the application of the LS-SVM to aid the GPS/INS integrated system, especially during GPS outages. The paper describes the principles of the LS-SVM and of the KF hybrid method, and introduces the LS-SVM regression algorithm. Field

  10. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AP-107 in May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, W. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Page, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-12

    A boildown study was completed on a composite prepared from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-107 in May of 2010. The composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (25-27 °C). The density of the test composite was 1.216 g/mL at 26.8 °C. The boiling temperature curves generated at three reduced pressures—40-, 60-, and 80 Torr—displayed steadily increasing boiling temperatures with increasing volume reduction with no significant discontinuities. Only minimal foaming was observed after the volume reduction proceeded beyond 50 %WVR (percent waste volume reduction). The bulk densities (D{sub Bulk}{sup 18 °C}) and quantities of settled and centrifuged solids present were measured on samples of the boildown concentrates that were kept at 18 °C for 7-8 days. Estimated values of the bulk densities of the concentrates at 60-Torr boiling temperatures (D{sub Bulk}{sup 60 Torr}) were also calculated. Solids were observed in all boildown concentrates at process temperatures, at hot cell ambient temperatures (25-27 °C), and at 18 °C. The quantity of solids found in the cooled concentrates increased slowly through 50.2 %WVR. The quantity of solids found in concentrates after 54.0 %WVR was noticeably greater. Beyond 54.0 %WVR, the quantity of solids found in cooled concentrates increased dramatically. Analysis of boildown test samples indicated that sodium oxalate and sodium carbonate solids form in cooled concentrates after volume reduction of 8.4 %WVR or less. The major contributors to the large increase in the quantity of solids found in concentrates after 54 %WVR were sodium nitrate and sodium carbonate.

  11. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  12. Residual urinary extracellular vesicles in ultracentrifugation supernatants after hydrostatic filtration dialysis enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Tataruch-Weinert, Dorota; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Holthofer, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) appear an ideal source of biomarkers for kidney and urogenital diseases. The majority of protocols designed for their isolation are based on differential centrifugation steps. However, little is still known of the type and amount of vesicles left in the supernatant. Here we used an isolation protocol for UEVs which uses hydrostatic filtration dialysis as first pre-enrichment step, followed by differential centrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mass spectrometry (MS), western blot, ELISA assays and tuneable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) were used to characterise and quantify UEVs in the ultracentrifugation supernatant. TEM showed the presence of a variety of small size vesicles in the supernatant while protein identification by MS matched accurately with the protein list available in Vesiclepedia. Screening and relative quantification for specific vesicle markers showed that the supernatant was preferentially positive for CD9 and TSG101. ELISA tests for quantification of exosome revealed that 14%, was left in the supernatant with a particle diameter of 110 nm and concentration of 1.54 × 10 10 /ml. Here we show a comprehensive characterisation of exosomes and other small size urinary vesicles which the conventional differential centrifugation protocol may lose.

  13. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a recycled supernatant: Effects on biomass production and medium quality

    KAUST Repository

    Hadj-Romdhane, F.; Zheng, Xing; Jaouen, Pascal; Pruvost, Jé ré my; Grizeau, Dominique; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Bourseau, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Reusing supernatant of microalgae culture medium can have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biomass production because of the release of organic metabolites by cells in the culture medium during their growth. This work investigated the impact of Chlorella vulgaris medium recycling on culture productivity, cells quality and accumulation of excreted metabolites in the culture medium. No significant impact on the C. vulgaris growth was observed after 63days of recycling, the productivity remained stable at around 0.55kgm-3day-1. Organic matters accumulated in supernatant were identified as biopolymers (BP) poor in nitrogen and with a size above 40kDa (probably polysaccharides), and small organic molecules (SOM) richer in nitrogen with a molecular size ranging from 1 to 3kDa. The concentration of biopolymers in the supernatant increased till to a maximum and then decreased, possibly consumed by bacteria, whereas small organic compounds accumulated in the medium. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a recycled supernatant: Effects on biomass production and medium quality

    KAUST Repository

    Hadj-Romdhane, F.

    2013-03-01

    Reusing supernatant of microalgae culture medium can have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biomass production because of the release of organic metabolites by cells in the culture medium during their growth. This work investigated the impact of Chlorella vulgaris medium recycling on culture productivity, cells quality and accumulation of excreted metabolites in the culture medium. No significant impact on the C. vulgaris growth was observed after 63days of recycling, the productivity remained stable at around 0.55kgm-3day-1. Organic matters accumulated in supernatant were identified as biopolymers (BP) poor in nitrogen and with a size above 40kDa (probably polysaccharides), and small organic molecules (SOM) richer in nitrogen with a molecular size ranging from 1 to 3kDa. The concentration of biopolymers in the supernatant increased till to a maximum and then decreased, possibly consumed by bacteria, whereas small organic compounds accumulated in the medium. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Rapid point-of-care testing for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in patients with lung cancer using cell-free DNA from cytology specimen supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Shiho; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Saito, Kazusa; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Negishi, Tatsuya; Nakata, Rie; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Akemi; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are associated with responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our previous study revealed a rapid point-of-care system for detecting EGFR mutations. This system analyzes cell pellets from cytology specimens using droplet-polymerase chain reaction (d-PCR), and has a reaction time of 10 min. The present study aimed to validate the performance of the EGFR d-PCR assay using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from supernatants obtained from cytology specimens. Assay results from cfDNA supernatant analyses were compared with those from cell pellets for 90 patients who were clinically diagnosed with, or suspected of having, lung cancer (80 bronchial lavage fluid samples, nine pleural effusion samples and one spinal fluid sample). EGFR mutations were identified in 12 and 15 cases using cfDNA supernatants and cell pellets, respectively. The concordance rates between cfDNA-supernatant and cell‑pellet assay results were 96.7% [kappa coefficient (K)=0.87], 98.9% (K=0.94), 98.9% (K=0.79) and 98.9% (K=0.79) for total EGFR mutations, L858R, E746_A750del and T790M, respectively. All 15 patients with EGFR mutation-positive results, as determined by EGFR d-PCR assay using cfDNA supernatants or cell pellets, also displayed positive results by conventional EGFR assays using tumor tissue or cytology specimens. Notably, EGFR mutations were even detected in five cfDNA supernatants for which the cytological diagnoses of the corresponding cell pellets were 'suspicious for malignancy', 'atypical' or 'negative for malignancy.' In conclusion, this rapid point-of-care system may be considered a promising novel screening method that may enable patients with NSCLC to receive EGFR-TKI therapy more rapidly, whilst also reserving cell pellets for additional morphological and molecular analyses.

  16. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  17. Performance potential of the injectors after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosik, H.; Carli, C.; Damerau, H.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Hancock, S.; Hanke, K.; Lombardi, A.; Mikulec, B.; Raginel, V.; Rumolo, G.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Vretenar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU Project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects etc. in the SPS. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons into the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H - injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160 MeV H - injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB-PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than nominal luminosity in the LHC. (authors)

  18. Optimized exosome isolation protocol for cell culture supernatant and human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lobb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles represent a rich source of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. However, there is currently limited information elucidating the most efficient methods for obtaining high yields of pure exosomes, a subset of extracellular vesicles, from cell culture supernatant and complex biological fluids such as plasma. To this end, we comprehensively characterize a variety of exosome isolation protocols for their efficiency, yield and purity of isolated exosomes. Repeated ultracentrifugation steps can reduce the quality of exosome preparations leading to lower exosome yield. We show that concentration of cell culture conditioned media using ultrafiltration devices results in increased vesicle isolation when compared to traditional ultracentrifugation protocols. However, our data on using conditioned media isolated from the Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC SK-MES-1 cell line demonstrates that the choice of concentrating device can greatly impact the yield of isolated exosomes. We find that centrifuge-based concentrating methods are more appropriate than pressure-driven concentrating devices and allow the rapid isolation of exosomes from both NSCLC cell culture conditioned media and complex biological fluids. In fact to date, no protocol detailing exosome isolation utilizing current commercial methods from both cells and patient samples has been described. Utilizing tunable resistive pulse sensing and protein analysis, we provide a comparative analysis of 4 exosome isolation techniques, indicating their efficacy and preparation purity. Our results demonstrate that current precipitation protocols for the isolation of exosomes from cell culture conditioned media and plasma provide the least pure preparations of exosomes, whereas size exclusion isolation is comparable to density gradient purification of exosomes. We have identified current shortcomings in common extracellular vesicle isolation methods and provide a

  19. Validity of antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant in diagnosing tuberculosis in severely malnourished children presenting with pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB in young children can be challenging, especially in severely malnourished children. There is a critical need for improved diagnostics for children. Thus, we sought to evaluate the performance of a technique that measures antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS for the diagnosis of TB in severely malnourished children presenting with suspected pneumonia.Children less than 5 years with severe acute malnutrition and radiological features of pneumonia admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, were enrolled consecutively following informed written consent. In addition to clinical and radiological assessment, samples taken for TB diagnosis included gastric lavage fluid and induced sputum for microbiological confirmation. ALS was measured from venous blood, and results were evaluated in children classified as "confirmed", "non-confirmed TB" or "not TB".Among 224 children who had ALS analysis, 12 (5.4% children had microbiologically "confirmed TB", a further 41 (18% had clinically diagnosed "non-confirmed TB" and the remaining 168 (75% were considered not to have TB. ALS was positive in 89 (40% and negative in 85 (39% of children, with a large number (47 or 21% reported as "borderline". These proportions were similar between the three diagnostic groups. The sensitivity and specificity of ALS when comparing "Confirmed TB" to "Not TB" was only 67% (95% CI: 31-91% and 51% (95% CI: 42-60%, respectively.Our data suggest that ALS is not sufficiently accurate to improve the diagnosis of TB in children with severe malnutrition.

  20. Revitalising Mathematics Classroom Teaching through Lesson Study (LS): A Malaysian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chap Sam; Kor, Liew Kee; Chia, Hui Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how implementation of Lesson Study (LS) has brought about evolving changes in the quality of mathematics classroom teaching in one Chinese primary school. The Japanese model of LS was adapted as a teacher professional development to improve mathematics teachers' teaching practices. The LS group consisted of five mathematics…

  1. Assessment of chemical composition and microbiological properties of titanium nickelide supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruzbaev R.M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, in the structure of internal injuries, burns occur in 2.1 per 1000 adults. In practice, all victims after stabilization of the condition are treated surgically with the autodermoplasty, which in the late period is accompanied by a rough scarring, sometimes with the deformation of the damaged area. In addition, infectious complications worsen and aggravate the wound healing process, and also significantly prolong the epithelialization time. A wound is usually infected by opportunistic pathogenic microflora resistant to various groups of antibiotics and antiseptics, by which the affected areas are treated. Modern researches are aimed at finding ways to accelerate regenerative processes of the affected area, to avoid surgical treatment and prevent infection contamination. The object of this study was titanium nickelide supernatant. Currently, there are no published data on the chemical composition of the supernatant, as well as its microbiological safety. This alloy is actively and successfully used in traumatology, dentistry and other fields of medicine. The supernatant was prepared under sterile conditions at a rate of 10 g of titanium nickelide powder per 1 liter of distilled water. In the course of the studies it was proved that nickel and titanium ions are present in the solution, in addition, its bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties are reflected. Thus, the supernatant of nitinol can be used in biological environment and is safe for them.

  2. Neuronal activation by mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients is linked to visceral sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhner, Sabine; Braak, Breg; Li, Qin; Kugler, Eva Maria; Klooker, Tamira; Wouters, Mira; Donovan, Jemma; Vignali, Sheila; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Grundy, David; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Schemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Based on the discomfort/pain threshold during rectal distension, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients may be subtyped as normo- or hypersensitive. We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from IBS patients activated enteric and visceral afferent neurons. We tested the hypothesis that

  3. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  4. Fate of cyanobacteria in drinking water treatment plant lagoon supernatant and sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carlos J.; Reeve, Petra J.; Sawade, Emma [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Voldoire, Camille F. [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM), Strasbourg 67087 (France); Newton, Kelly; Praptiwi, Radisti [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Collingnon, Lea [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM), Strasbourg 67087 (France); Dreyfus, Jennifer [Allwater, Adelaide Services Alliance, Wakefield St, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Hobson, Peter [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Gaget, Virginie [University of Adelaide, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Newcombe, Gayle, E-mail: gayle.newcombe@sawater.com.au [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    In conventional water treatment processes, where the coagulation and flocculation steps are designed to remove particles from drinking water, cyanobacteria are also concentrated into the resultant sludge. As a consequence, cyanobacteria-laden sludge can act as a reservoir for metabolites such as taste and odour compounds and cyanotoxins. This can pose a significant risk to water quality where supernatant from the sludge treatment facility is returned to the inlet to the plant. In this study the complex processes that can take place in a sludge treatment lagoon were investigated. It was shown that cyanobacteria can proliferate in the conditions manifest in a sludge treatment lagoon, and that cyanobacteria can survive and produce metabolites for at least 10 days in sludge. The major processes of metabolite release and degradation are very dependent on the physical, chemical and biological environment in the sludge treatment facility and it was not possible to accurately model the net effect. For the first time evidence is provided to suggest that there is a greater risk associated with recycling sludge supernatant than can be estimated from the raw water quality, as metabolite concentrations increased by up to 500% over several days after coagulation, attributed to increased metabolite production and/or cell proliferation in the sludge. - Highlights: • Cyanobacteria in water treatment sludge significantly impact supernatant quality • Cyanobacteria can survive, and thrive, in sludge lagoon supernatant and in treatment sludge • Metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria in sludge can increase up to 500% • The risk associated with supernatant recycling was assessed relative to available treatment barriers.

  5. Fate of cyanobacteria in drinking water treatment plant lagoon supernatant and sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Carlos J.; Reeve, Petra J.; Sawade, Emma; Voldoire, Camille F.; Newton, Kelly; Praptiwi, Radisti; Collingnon, Lea; Dreyfus, Jennifer; Hobson, Peter; Gaget, Virginie; Newcombe, Gayle

    2016-01-01

    In conventional water treatment processes, where the coagulation and flocculation steps are designed to remove particles from drinking water, cyanobacteria are also concentrated into the resultant sludge. As a consequence, cyanobacteria-laden sludge can act as a reservoir for metabolites such as taste and odour compounds and cyanotoxins. This can pose a significant risk to water quality where supernatant from the sludge treatment facility is returned to the inlet to the plant. In this study the complex processes that can take place in a sludge treatment lagoon were investigated. It was shown that cyanobacteria can proliferate in the conditions manifest in a sludge treatment lagoon, and that cyanobacteria can survive and produce metabolites for at least 10 days in sludge. The major processes of metabolite release and degradation are very dependent on the physical, chemical and biological environment in the sludge treatment facility and it was not possible to accurately model the net effect. For the first time evidence is provided to suggest that there is a greater risk associated with recycling sludge supernatant than can be estimated from the raw water quality, as metabolite concentrations increased by up to 500% over several days after coagulation, attributed to increased metabolite production and/or cell proliferation in the sludge. - Highlights: • Cyanobacteria in water treatment sludge significantly impact supernatant quality • Cyanobacteria can survive, and thrive, in sludge lagoon supernatant and in treatment sludge • Metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria in sludge can increase up to 500% • The risk associated with supernatant recycling was assessed relative to available treatment barriers

  6. LHC Experimental Beam Pipe Upgrade during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, G; Baglin, V; Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    The LHC experimental beam pipes are being improved during the ongoing Long Shutdown 1 (LS1). Several vacuum chambers have been tested and validated before their installation inside the detectors. The validation tests include: leak tightness, ultimate vacuum pressure, material outgassing rate, and residual gas composition. NEG coatings are assessed by sticking probability measurement with the help of Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper the motivation for the beam pipe upgrade, the validation tests of the components and the results are presented and discussed.

  7. Collimated scanning LS-INAA for testing trace elements homogeneity in Brazilian coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, F.S.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Bode, P.; Baas, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The degree of homogeneity is normally assessed by the variability of the results of independent analyses of several (e.g., 15) normal-scale replicates. Large sample instrumental neutron activation analysis (LS-INAA) with a collimated Ge detector allows inspecting the degree of homogeneity of the initial batch material, using a kilogram-size sample. The test is based on the spatial distributions of induced radioactivity. Such test was applied to samples of Brazilian whole (green) coffee beans (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of approximately 1 kg in the frame of development of a coffee reference material. Results indicated that the material do not contain significant element composition inhomogeneities between batches of approximately 30-50 g, masses typically forming the starting base of a reference material. (author)

  8. LS1 Report: The cryogenic line goes through the scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the complexity of LS1, with many different activities taking place in parallel and sometimes overlapping, the dashboard shows that work is progressing on schedule. This week, teams have started X-raying the cryogenic line to examine its condition in minute detail.   The LS1 schedule is pretty unfathomable for those who don't work in the tunnels or installations, but if you look down all the columns and stop at the line indicating today’s date, you can see that all of the priority and critical items are bang on time, like a Swiss watch. More specifically: the SMACC project in the LHC is on schedule, with a new testing phase for the interconnections which have already been consolidated; preparations are under way for the cable replacement campaign at Point 1 of the SPS (about 20% of the cables will not be replaced as they are completely unused); and the demineralised water distribution line is back in service, as are the electrical substations for the 400 and 66 kV line...

  9. LS1 Report: Handing in the ATLAS keys

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso, Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    After completing more than 250 work packages concerning the whole detector and experimental site, the ATLAS and CERN teams involved with LS1 operations are now wrapping things up before starting the commissioning phase in preparation for the LHC restart. The giant detector is now more efficient, safer and even greener than ever thanks to the huge amount of work carried out over the past two years.   Cleaning up the ATLAS cavern and detector in preparation for Run 2. Hundreds of people, more than 3000 certified interventions, huge and delicate parts of the detector completely refurbished: the ATLAS detector that will take data during Run 2 is a brand new machine, which will soon be back in the hands of the thousands of scientists who are preparing for the high-energy run of the LHC accelerator. “During LS1, we have upgraded the detector’s basic infrastructure and a few of its sub-detectors,” explains Beniamino Di Girolamo, ATLAS Technical Coordinator. &...

  10. EN-CV during LS1: upgrade, consolidation, maintenance, operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonis, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Cooling and Ventilation (CV) Group in the Engineering Department (EN) will be heavily involved in several projects and activities during the long shutdown in 2013 and 2014 (LS1) within a time-frame limited to around twelve months. According to the requests received so far, most projects are related to the upgrade of users' equipment, consolidation work, and the construction of new plants. However, through the experience gained from the first years of the LHC run, some projects are also needed to adapt the existing installations to the new operating parameters. Some of these projects are presented hereafter, outlining the impact that they will have on operational working conditions or risks of breakdown. Among these projects we find: the PM32 raising pumps, the cooling of the CERN Control Center, R2E, the backup cooling towers for ATLAS and cryogenics, a thermosyphon for ATLAS, or new pumps in UWs. Finally, EN-CV activities during LS1 for maintenance, operation, and commissioning will be mentioned since they represent a major workload for the Group

  11. Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) in infants and children: techniques and scintigraphic patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, J.; Parsons, G.; Howman-Giles, R.; Lewis, G.; Uren, R.; Mansberg, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclide imaging of the lymphatic system with intradermal injection of radiopharmaceutical is a rapid, safe and simple technique for the evaluation of lymphatic abnormalities in infants and children. 99 Tc m -antimony sulphide colloid is the agent of choice. The radiopharmaceutical (dose 5 mBq in 0.1 ml) is injected intradermally into both limbs being investigated. Emla cream is useful to reduce the initial discomfort of the injection. Imaging is performed immediately for approximately 30-60 min to assess the flow rate and lymph channels to the draining node fields. Further imaging at 2 and 4 h may be necessary. Normal LS in the lower limbs shows the tracer to pass into lymphatics almost immediately and channels are usually visualized within 5 min. In the lower limbs, symmetrical lymph flow to nodes are seen in the groin, iliac and paravertebral region with activity later seen in the liver. In 31 patients studied over the last 3 years, 17 studies were normal and 14 were abnormal: Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (n = 4) with delayed flow and dermal backflow; congenital lymph/vascular malformations (n = 6) with various delayed flow patterns and focal accumulations; congenital lymphoedema (n 3) and pulmonary lymphangiectasia (n = 1). Aplasia and hypoplasia of lymph systems are readily identified. In conclusion, LS is a valuable diagnostic technique to assess lymph flow and diagnose lymphatic malformations and the causes of lymphoedema in children

  12. People typically experience extended periods of relative happiness or unhappiness due to positive feedback loops between LS and variables which are both causes and consequences of LS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Long term panel data enable researchers to construct trajectories of LS for individuals over time. Bar charts of trajectories, and subsequent statistical analysis, show that respondents typically spend multiple consecutive years above and below their own long-term mean level of LS. We attempt to

  13. Recovery of plutonium from oxalate supernatant using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) from oxalate supernatant was carried out employing varying concentrations of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP). Near quantitative extraction of Pu(IV) from an aqueous solution of 0.2M oxalic acid and 3M HNO 3 was possible employing 0.05M PMBP solution in xylene. Extraction studies at different uranium loading conditions were carried out and conditions for quantitative stripping were arrived at. (author). 2 refs., 4 tabs

  14. The Effect of Anaerobic and Aerobic Fish Sludge Supernatant on Hydroponic Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobilization of nutrients from fish sludge (i.e., feces and uneaten feed plays a key role in optimizing the resource utilization and thus in improving the sustainability of aquaponic systems. While several studies have documented the aerobic and anaerobic digestion performance of aquaculture sludge, the impact of the digestate on plant growth has yet to be understood. The present study examines the impact of either an aerobic or an anaerobic digestion effluent on lettuce plant growth, by enriching a mixture of aquaculture and tap water with supernatants from both aerobic and anaerobic batch reactors. The lettuce plants grown in the hydroponic system supplied with supernatant from an anaerobic reactor had significantly better performance with respect to weight gain than both, those in the system where supernatant from the aerobic reactor was added, as well as the control system. It can be hypothesized that this effect was caused by the presence of NH4+ as well as dissolved organic matter, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and fungi, and humic acid, which are predominantly present in anaerobic effluents. This study should therefore be of value to researchers and practitioners wishing to further develop sludge remineralization in aquaponic systems.

  15. Cement waste form qualification report: WVDP [West Valley Demonstration Project] PUREX decontaminated supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVay, C.W.; Stimmel, J.R.; Marchetti, S.

    1988-08-01

    This report provides a summary of work performed to develop a cement-based, low-level waste formulation suitable for the solidification of decontaminated high-level waste liquid produced as a by-product of PUREX spent fuel reprocessing. The resultant waste form is suitable for interim storage and is intended for ultimate disposal as low-level Class C waste; it also meets the stability requirements of the NRC Branch Technical Position on Waste Form Qualification, May 1983 and the requirements of 10 CFR 61. A recipe was developed utilizing only Portland Type I cement based on an inorganic salts simulant of the PUREX supernatant. The qualified recipe was tested full scale in the production facility and was observed to produce a product with entrained air, low density, and lower-than-expected compressive strength. Further laboratory scale testing with actual decontaminated supernatant revealed that set retarders were present in the supernatant, precluding setting of the product and allowing the production of ''bleed water.'' Calcium nitrate and sodium silicate were added to overcome the set retarding effect and produced a final product with improved performance when compared to the original formulation. This report describes the qualification process and qualification test results for the final product formulation. 7 refs., 38 figs., 21 tabs

  16. Bacterial Population in Intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Probiotics or Probiotic Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yujie; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Qi, Cancan; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-28

    The interactions of microbiota in the gut play an important role in promoting or maintaining the health of hosts. In this study, in order to investigate and compare the effects of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 (HC-2), Enterococcus faecium NRW-2, or the bacteria-free supernatant of a HC-2 culture on the bacterial composition of Litopenaeus vannamei , Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that unique species exclusively existed in specific dietary groups, and the abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the intestinal bacterial community of shrimp fed with the bacteria-free supernatant of an HC-2 culture compared with the control. In addition, the histology of intestines of the shrimp from the four dietary groups was also described, but no obvious improvements in the intestinal histology were observed. The findings in this work will help to promote the understanding of the roles of intestinal bacteria in shrimps when fed with probiotics or probiotic supernatant.

  17. R2E strategy and activities during LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The level of the flux of hadrons with energy in the multi MeV range expected from the collimation system at Point 7 and from the collisions at the interaction Points 1, 5 and 8 will induce Single Event Errors (SEEs) of the standard electronics present in the equipment located around these Points. Such events would perturb LHC operation. As a consequence, within the framework of the R2E (Radiation to Electronics) Mitigation Project, the sensitive equipment will be shielded or relocated to safer areas. These mitigation activities will be performed mainly during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1). About 15 groups (including equipment owners) will be involved in these activities with work periods from a few days to several months. Some of them will have to work in parallel in several LHC points. This document presents these mitigation activities with their associated planning, organization process, and main concerns as identified today. (author)

  18. ATLAS TDAQ application gateway upgrade during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    KOROL, A; The ATLAS collaboration; BOGDANCHIKOV, A; BRASOLIN, F; CONTESCU, A C; DUBROV, S; HAFEEZ, M; LEE, C J; SCANNICCHIO, D A; TWOMEY, M; VORONKOV, A; ZAYTSEV, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Gateway service is implemented with a set of dedicated computer nodes to provide a fine-grained access control between CERN General Public Network (GPN) and ATLAS Technical Control Network (ATCN). ATCN connects the ATLAS online farm used for ATLAS Operations and data taking, including the ATLAS TDAQ (Trigger and Data Aquisition) and DCS (Detector Control System) nodes. In particular, it provides restricted access to the web services (proxy), general login sessions (via SSH and RDP protocols), NAT and mail relay from ATCN. At the Operating System level the implementation is based on virtualization technologies. Here we report on the Gateway upgrade during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) period: it includes the transition to the last production release of the CERN Linux distribution (SLC6), the migration to the centralized configuration management system (based on Puppet) and the redesign of the internal system architecture.

  19. Nonlinear Time Series Prediction Using LS-SVM with Chaotic Mutation Evolutionary Programming for Parameter Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ruirui; Chen Tianlun; Gao Chengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear time series prediction is studied by using an improved least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression based on chaotic mutation evolutionary programming (CMEP) approach for parameter optimization. We analyze how the prediction error varies with different parameters (σ, γ) in LS-SVM. In order to select appropriate parameters for the prediction model, we employ CMEP algorithm. Finally, Nasdaq stock data are predicted by using this LS-SVM regression based on CMEP, and satisfactory results are obtained.

  20. Fuzzy Pruning Based LS-SVM Modeling Development for a Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity and uncertainty of microbial fermentation processes, data coming from the plants often contain some outliers. However, these data may be treated as the normal support vectors, which always deteriorate the performance of soft sensor modeling. Since the outliers also contaminate the correlation structure of the least square support vector machine (LS-SVM, the fuzzy pruning method is provided to deal with the problem. Furthermore, by assigning different fuzzy membership scores to data samples, the sensitivity of the model to the outliers can be reduced greatly. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated through two numerical examples as well as a simulator case of penicillin fermentation process.

  1. CMS DAQ current and future hardware upgrades up to post Long Shutdown 3 (LS3) times

    CERN Document Server

    Racz, Attila; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Contescu, Cristian; da Silva Gomes, Diego; Darlea, Georgiana-Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, Marc; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Gigi, Dominique; Gladki, Maciej; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre; Janulis, Mindaugas; Lettrich, Michael; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orn, Samuel Johan; Orsini, Luciano; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Paus, Christoph; Petrova, Petia; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Rabady, Dinyar; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Simelevicius, Dainius; Vazquez Velez, Cristina; Vougioukas, Michail; Zejdl, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Following the first LHC collisions seen and recorded by CMS in 2009, the DAQ hardware went through a major upgrade during LS1 (2013- 2014) and new detectors have been connected during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 winter shutdowns. Now, LS2 (2019-2020) and LS3 (2024-mid 2026) are actively being prepared. This paper shows how CMS DAQ hardware has evolved from the beginning and will continue to evolve in order to meet the future challenges posed by High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) and the CMS detector evolution. In particular, post LS3 DAQ architectures are focused upon.

  2. LS1 general planning and strategy for the LHC, LHC injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foraz, K.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) is to perform the full maintenance of equipment and the necessary consolidation and upgrade activities in order to ensure reliable LHC operation at nominal performance from mid-2014. LS1 is scheduled to last 20 months. LS1 not only concerns the LHC but also its injectors. To ensure resources will be available an analysis is in progress to detect conflict/overload and decide what is compulsory, what we can afford, and what can be postponed until LS2. The strategy, time key drivers, constraints, and draft schedule are presented here. (author)

  3. Trimodal distribution of ozone and water vapor in the UT/LS during boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    The relation of ozone and water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) is strongly influenced by the off-equatorial Asian and North American monsoons in boreal summer. Both regions experience hydration, presumably as a result of deep convection. This behavior contrasts sharply with the apparent dehydrating influence of near-equatorial deep convection in boreal winter. There is also a striking difference in ozone between Asia and North America in boreal summer. Over Asia, ozone concentrations are low, evidently a result of ubiquitous deep convection and the vertical transport of ozone-poor air, while over North America, ozone concentrations are much higher. Since deep convection also occurs in the North American monsoon, it appears that the difference in ozone concentration between Asia and North America in boreal summer reflects a differing influence of the large-scale circulation in the two regions: specifically, (i) isolation of the Tibetan anticyclone versus (ii) the intrusion of filaments of ozone-rich air from the stratosphere over North America. During boreal summer, as in winter, near-equatorial concentrations of ozone and water vapor are low near the equator. The result of these geographical variations is a trimodal distribution of ozone and water-vapor correlation. Our talk reviews the observational evidence of this trimodal distribution and possible dynamical and microphysical causes, focusing primarily on the quality and possible sampling bias of satellite and aircraft measurements. A key issue is the ability of HALOE to sample areas of ubiquitous deep convection. Other issues include the vertical structure of tracer anomalies, isentropic stirring in the UT/LS, horizontal transport of biomass burning products lofted by deep convection, and connections to the moist phase of the tropical `tape recorder' signal in water vapor.

  4. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics

  5. Suppression of in vitro primary immune response by L1210 cells and their culture supernatant: evidence for cytotoxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, R.P.; Flad, H.D.; Opitz, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    L1210 cells and their culture supernatants were found to inhibit the generation of PFC in the in vitro primary immune response of spleen cells to SRBC. As few as 1 percent of L1210 cells and 1 percent of culture fluid were inhibitory. Inhibition of DNA or protein synthesis of L1210 cells did not abolish their immunosuppressive activity, excluding exhaustion of culture medium as a possible mechanism of inhibition of PFC. Heating of the supernatant completely abrogated the suppressive effect and resulted in a marked increase of PFC. Daily evaluation of cell viability in the cultures revealed that, in the presence of L1210 and supernatants, the fraction of surviving cells is markedly reduced. We conclude that a direct cytotoxic effect on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages is the predominant immunosuppressive mechanism of L1210 cells and their culture supernatants

  6. Isotope inequilibrium of glucose metabolites in intact cells and particlefree supernatants of Ehrlich ascites tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daehnfeldt, J.L.; Winge, P.

    1975-01-01

    With an enzyme degradative technique, isotope inequilibrium of glucose metabolites was demonstrated in intact cells and particle-free supernatants of Ehrlich ascites tumor using I- 14 C-glucose as tracer. Inequilibrium was found between glucose and glucose-6-phosphate, glucose and fructose-6-phosphate, glucose and 6-phosphogluconate, while glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate were found to be in near equilibrium within the incubation time investigated. Glucose and lactate were found to be in near equilibrium after 8 min in intact cells. Calculations based on the equilibrium levels found, showed that these inequilibria could not be explained by the effects of the pentose cycle. (U.S.)

  7. Ion exchange flowsheet for recovery of cesium from purex sludge supernatant at B Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Purex Sludge Supernatant (PSS) contains significant amounts of 137 Cs left after removal of strontium from fission product bearing Purex wastes. To remove cesium from PSS, an Ion Exchange Recovery system has been set up in Cells 17-21 at B Plant. The cesium that is recovered is stored within B Plant for eventual purification through the Cesium Purification process in Cell 38 and eventual encapsulation and storage in a powdered form at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility. Cesium depleted waste streams from the Ion Exchange processes are transferred to underground storage

  8. LS1 Report: antimatter research on the starting blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The consolidation work at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) has been very intensive and the operators now have a basically new machine to “drive”. Thanks to the accurate preparation work still ongoing, the machine will soon deliver its first beam of antiprotons to the experiments. The renewed efficiency of the whole complex will ensure the best performance of the whole of CERN’s antimatter research programme in the long term.   The test bench for the new Magnetic Horn stripline. On the left, high voltage cables are connected to the stripline, which then feeds a 6 kV 400 kA pulse to the Horn. The Horn itself (the cylindrical object on the right) can be seen mounted on its chariot. The consolidation programme at the AD planned during LS1 has involved some of the most vital parts of the decelerator such as the target area, the ring magnets, the stochastic cooling system, vacuum system, control system and various aspects of the instrumentation. In addit...

  9. QPS upgrade and machine protection during LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denz, R.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation will explain all the proposed changes and discuss the impact on other shutdown activities. The upgrade of the LHC Quench Protection System QPS during LS1 with respect to radiation to electronics will concern the re-location of equipment and installation of new radiation tolerant hardware. The mid-term plan for further R2E upgrades will be addressed. The protection systems for insertion region magnets and inner triplets will be equipped with a dedicated bus-bar splice supervision including some additional modifications in order to improve the EMC immunity. The extension of the supervision capabilities of the QPS will concern the quench heater circuits, the earth voltage feelers and some tools to ease the system maintenance. The protection of the undulators will be revised in order to allow more transparent operation. The installation of snubber capacitors and arc chambers for the main quad circuits will complete the upgrade of the energy extraction systems. Finally the re-commissioning of the protection systems prior to the powering tests will be addressed. (author)

  10. Range and railgun development results at LS and PA ''Soyuz''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babakov, Y.P.; Plekhanov, A.V.; Zheleznyi, V.B.

    1995-01-01

    A rail electromagnetic accelerator is one of the most reliable and simple devices for accelerating macroparticles up to high velocity. These accelerators allow scientists to carry out fundamental and applied investigations to study both equation-of-state of materials at high pressure due to high velocity encounters, and creation of conditions for shock thermonuclear fusion. In the department ''Energophyzika'' LS and PA ''Soyuz'' range was created. It was equipped with an inductor with storage capacity up to 12.5 MJ energized by a solid propellant MHD generator and a capacitor bank (energy capacity up to 6 MJ). These systems deliver currents of 1 MA and 2 MA, respectively. Diagnostic, recording, and autocalculation systems allow use of as many as 120 data channels with acquisition frequency up to 10 MHz. Recent technical successes in railgun construction, using special methods to compact plasma armature and produce high velocity trailing contact, creation of hybrid armatures, and optimizing acceleration made possible to gain velocities in the range of 6.2 to 6.8 km/s (masses of 3.8 to 10 g) and velocities 2.7 to 3.8 km/s (masses of 50 to 100 g) on railguns with length 2 to 4 m

  11. LS1 Report: the electric atmosphere of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2013-01-01

    In the LHC, testing of the main magnet (dipole and quadrupole) circuits has been completed. At the same time, the extensive tests of all the other circuits up to current levels corresponding to 7 TeV beam operation have been performed, and now the final ElQA (Electrical Quality Assurance) tests of the electrical circuits are proceeding.   In Sectors 4-5 and 5-6, where the ElQA checks have been finished, the process of removing and storing the helium has started (see the article Heatwave warning for the LHC, in this issue). This is the first step in warming up the whole machine to room temperature so that the main LS1 activities, SMACC (Super Conducting Magnet and Circuit Consolidation) and the R2E (Radiation Two Electronics) programmes, which are scheduled to start on 19 April and 22 March respectively, can get under way. As far as the LHC injectors are concerned, LINAC2 and the PS Booster are in shutdown mode, having completed their preparatory hardware test programmes, and shutdown work has alr...

  12. LS1 Report: on the home straight in 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    At 7.24 a.m. on 14 February 2013 the last beams for physics were absorbed into the LHC, marking the end of Run 1. The achievements since then over the first ten months of LS1 have been remarkable. The excellent progress of the maintenance work on CERN's accelerators, which is overwhelmingly on schedule – and even ahead of schedule in some cases! – was praised by the CERN Council last week.   That being said, there is still a long way to go before the LHC re-start, with many challenges and potential pitfalls to be overcome. An overview of what still lies ahead: For the injectors (Linac 2, PS booster, LEIR, PS and AD), 2014 will begin with the recommissioning of all the access systems (scheduled for mid-February). The first power tests (to check the magnets and the power converters) will follow hot on its heels, starting in early April in the case of the PS booster. The final power tests of the injectors will be carried out at the Antiproton Decelerator in June. Th...

  13. TRISO fuel thermal simulations in the LS-VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Mario C.; Scari, Maria E.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: marc5663@gmail.com, E-mail: melizabethscari@yahoo.com, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR) is a reactor that presents very good characteristics in terms of energy production and safety aspects. It uses as fuel the TRISO particles immersed in a graphite matrix with a cylindrical shape called fuel compact, as moderator graphite and as coolant liquid salt Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} called Flibe. This work evaluates the thermal hydraulic performance of the heat removal system and the reactor core by performing different simplifications to represent the reactor core and the fuel compact under steady-state conditions, starting the modeling from a single fuel element, until complete the studies with the entire core model developed in the RELAP5-3D code. Two models were considered for representation of the fuel compact, homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, as well as different geometries of the heat structures was considered. The aim to develop several models was to compare the thermal hydraulic characteristics resulting from the construction of a more economical and less discretized model with much more refined models that can lead to more complexes analyzes to representing TRISO effect particles in the fuel compact. The different results found, mainly, for the core temperature distributions are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. LS1 Report: PS Booster prepares for beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With Linac2 already up and running, the countdown to beam in the LHC has begun! The next in line is the PS Booster, which will close up shop to engineers early next week. The injector will be handed over to the Operations Group who are tasked with getting it ready for active duty.   Taken as we approach the end of LS1 activities, this image shows where protons will soon be injected from Linac2 into the four PS Booster rings. Over the coming two months, the Operations Group will be putting the Booster's new elements through their paces. "Because of the wide range of upgrades and repairs carried out in the Booster, we have a very full schedule of tests planned for the machine," says Bettina Mikulec, PS Booster Engineer in Charge. "We will begin with cold checks; these are a wide range of tests carried out without beam, including system tests with power on/off and with varying settings, as well as verification of the controls system and timings." Amon...

  15. Extending JPEG-LS for low-complexity scalable video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Anna; Sergeev, Anton; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    JPEG-LS, the well-known international standard for lossless and near-lossless image compression, was originally designed for non-scalable applications. In this paper we propose a scalable modification of JPEG-LS and compare it with the leading image and video coding standards JPEG2000 and H.264/SVC...

  16. Immunoproteomic analysis of antibody in lymphocyte supernatant in patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Richelle C; Liang, Li; Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, M Abu; Hung, Chris; Leung, Daniel T; Baker, Stephen; Ludwig, Albrecht; Harris, Jason B; Larocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Felgner, Philip L; Ryan, Edward T

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the S. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to S. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724 S. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic.

  17. Food waste co-digestion with slaughterhouse waste and sewage sludge: Digestate conditioning and supernatant quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Boniecki, Paweł; Kubacki, Przemysław; Czyżowska, Agata

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of food waste (FW) with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and slaughterhouse waste (SHW) was undertaken in 3-dm 3 laboratory reactors as well as in 50-dm 3 reactors operated in semi-continuous conditions. The highest methane yield of around 0.63 m 3 CH 4 /kgVS fed was achieved for the mixture of FW and SHW treated in the laboratory digester operated at solids retention time (SRT) of 30 days, whereas the co-digestion of FW with MSS under similar operating conditions produced 0.46 m 3 of methane from 1 kgVS fed . No significant differences between methane yields from laboratory digesters and large-scale reactors were reported. The conditioning tests with the digestates from reactor experiments revealed the highest efficiency of inorganic coagulants among all investigated chemicals, which applied in a dose of 10 g/kg allowed to reduce capiliary suction time (CST) of the digestate below 20 s. The combined conditioning with coagulants and bentonite did not further reduce the CST value but improved the quality of the digestate supernatant. In particular, the concentrations of suspended solids, COD as well as metals in the supernatant were considerably lowered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Selection of the treatment method for the West Valley alkaline supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.; Leonard, I.M.

    1987-02-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), th PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8d-2 will be partially decontaminated before encapsulation in the final glass form. This report discusses selection of a method for removing Cs-137, the major radioactive ion in the supernatant. Methods considered were: (1) electrodialysis; (2) hyperfiltration; (3) precipitation with ferrocyanide, NaTPB, or PTA; (4) organic ion exchange using Cs-100 or a biologically derived media; (5) chelation using DeVoe/Holbein compostions; and (6) inorganic ion exchange using Durasil, natural zeolities, IE-95 or IE-96 media. Several different methods of using inorganic ion exchange media were also reviewed including (1) four columns with elution, and (2) two, three, or four columns without elution. After the careful evaluation of experimental data with all process constraints taken into account, the inorganic exchange media IE-96 (Linde Ionsiv IE-96 synthetic zeolite) was chosen for WVDP cesium recovery. IE-96 was chosen for the following reasons: high sorption rate, a decontamination factor (DF) over 1000, excellent exchange capacity at WVDP conditions, compatability with the glass formers used for borosilicate glass in direct melter feed applications, and a history of successful application in radio chemical seperation for waste streams. 34 refs., 29 figs., 27 tabs

  19. Fate of cyanobacteria in drinking water treatment plant lagoon supernatant and sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Carlos J; Reeve, Petra J; Sawade, Emma; Voldoire, Camille F; Newton, Kelly; Praptiwi, Radisti; Collingnon, Lea; Dreyfus, Jennifer; Hobson, Peter; Gaget, Virginie; Newcombe, Gayle

    2016-09-15

    In conventional water treatment processes, where the coagulation and flocculation steps are designed to remove particles from drinking water, cyanobacteria are also concentrated into the resultant sludge. As a consequence, cyanobacteria-laden sludge can act as a reservoir for metabolites such as taste and odour compounds and cyanotoxins. This can pose a significant risk to water quality where supernatant from the sludge treatment facility is returned to the inlet to the plant. In this study the complex processes that can take place in a sludge treatment lagoon were investigated. It was shown that cyanobacteria can proliferate in the conditions manifest in a sludge treatment lagoon, and that cyanobacteria can survive and produce metabolites for at least 10days in sludge. The major processes of metabolite release and degradation are very dependent on the physical, chemical and biological environment in the sludge treatment facility and it was not possible to accurately model the net effect. For the first time evidence is provided to suggest that there is a greater risk associated with recycling sludge supernatant than can be estimated from the raw water quality, as metabolite concentrations increased by up to 500% over several days after coagulation, attributed to increased metabolite production and/or cell proliferation in the sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the Antibody in Lymphocyte Supernatant Assay to Detect Active Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Sariko

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS assay as a biomarker to diagnose tuberculosis among adults from Tanzania with and without HIV.Adults admitted with suspicion for tuberculosis had sputa obtained for GeneXpert MTB/RIF, acid-fast bacilli smear and mycobacterial culture; blood was obtained prior to treatment initiation and after 4 weeks. Adults hospitalized with non-infectious conditions served as controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured unstimulated for 72 hours. Anti-mycobacterial antibodies were measured from culture supernatants by ELISA, using BCG vaccine as the coating antigen. Median ALS responses were compared between cases and controls at baseline and between cases over time.Of 97 TB cases, 85 were microbiologically confirmed and 12 were clinically diagnosed. Median ALS responses from TB cases (0.366 OD from confirmed cases and 0.285 from clinical cases were higher compared to controls (0.085, p<0.001. ALS responses did not differ based on HIV status, CD4 count or sputum smear status. Over time, the median ALS values declined significantly (0.357 at baseline; 0.198 after 4-weeks, p<0.001.Robust ALS responses were mounted by patients with TB regardless of HIV status, CD4 count, or low sputum bacillary burden, potentially conferring a unique niche for this immunologic biomarker for TB.

  1. Cytokine profiles of tumor supernatants in invasive ductal cancer and fibroadenoma of the breast and its relationship with VEGF-A expression in the tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenshlyus, Alexander I; Arkhipov, Sergey A; Kunts, Tatiana A; Marinkin, Igor O; Mikhailova, Elena S; Karpukhina, Xenia V; Varaksin, Nikolay A

    2017-03-01

    Interrelations between cytokines, produced by invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and fibroadenoma (FA) of the breast, and angiogenic growth factor VEGF-A, expressed in IDC and FA, were investigated. The analysis of the cytokine profiles of IDC and FA was performed by cultivation of tumor biopsy specimens in vitro. Testing of the cytokine-producing reserve of the tumors for production of VEGF-A was conducted by culturing samples of IDC and FA in a medium containing polyclonal activator (a complex of phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide). Levels of cytokines and growth factors (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, TNF-α, IFN-γ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, VEGF-A) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) in tumor supernatants were determined by an ELISA. Expression of VEGF-A was analyzed in tumor biopsy specimens by immunohistochemical analysis. In the IDC supernatants, the concentrations of IL-17, IL-18, and IFN-γ were higher and the concentrations of IL-10 and MCP-1 were lower in comparison with the FA supernatants. We observed negative correlations between the macrophage infiltration and VEGF-A concentration in the IDC supernatants (r = -0.508; P = 0.011) and between VEGF-A expression and the IDC vascularization degree (r = -0.423, P = 0.039). Spontaneous expression of VEGF-A in samples of IDC significantly exceeded the VEGF-A expression in FA. There was no difference between IDC and FA in VEGF-A expression after treatment with the polyclonal activators. Our results indicate that greater malignancy may have a paradoxical effect that is controlled by cytokines and characterized by weakening of tumor angiogenesis during overproduction of VEGF-A. These findings point to complex mechanisms of positive and negative regulation of tumor angiogenesis by cytokines that are produced by the tumor and by cells in its microenvironment, whose cytokine profiles may change at different stages of tumor progression.

  2. Culture Supernatants of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. crispatus Inhibit Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Adhesion to HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuko; Cho, Otomi; Sugita, Takashi; Ogishima, Daiki; Takeda, Satoru

    2018-03-30

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common superficial infection of the vaginal mucous membranes caused by the fungus Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. crispatus, the predominant microbiota in Asian healthy women, on C. albicans biofilm formation. The inhibition of C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells by Lactobacillus culture supernatant was also investigated. Candida albicans biofilm was formed on polystyrene flat-bottomed 96-well plates, and the inhibitory effects on the initial colonization and maturation phases were determined using the XTT reduction assay. The expression levels of biofilm formation-associated genes (HWP1, ECE1, ALS3, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, and CPH1) were determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The inhibition of C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells by Lactobacillus culture supernatant was evaluated by enumerating viable C. albicans cells. The culture supernatants of both Lactobacillus species inhibited the initial colonization and maturation of C. albicans biofilm. The expression levels of all biofilm formation-related genes were downregulated in the presence of Lactobacillus culture supernatant. The culture supernatant also inhibited C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells. The culture supernatants of L. gasseri and L. crispatus inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation by downregulating biofilm formation-related genes and C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells. These findings support the notion that Lactobacillus metabolites may be useful alternatives to antifungal drugs for the management of VVC.

  3. Biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putri, Zufira; Arcana, I Made

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) can be applied as a proton exchange membrane fuel cell due to its fairly good chemical stability. In order to be applied as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), membrane polymer should have a good ionic conductivity, high proton conductivity, and high mechanical strength. Lignosulfonate (LS) is a complex biopolymer which has crosslinks and sulfonate groups. SPS-LS blends with addition of SiO 2 are used to increase the proton conductivity and to improve the mechanical properties and thermal stability. However, the biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends is required to determine whether the application of these membranes to be applied as an environmentally friendly membrane. In this study, had been done the synthesis of SPS, biodegradability test of SPS-LS blends with variations of LS and SiO 2 compositions. The biodegradation test was carried out in solid medium of Luria Bertani (LB) with an activated sludge used as a source of microorganism at incubation temperature of 37°C. Based on the results obtained indicated that SPS-LS-SiO 2 blends are more decomposed by microorganism than SPS-LS blends. This result is supported by analysis of weight reduction percentage, functional groups with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and morphological surface with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

  4. Biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putri, Zufira, E-mail: zufira.putri@gmail.com, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: zufira.putri@gmail.com, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) can be applied as a proton exchange membrane fuel cell due to its fairly good chemical stability. In order to be applied as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), membrane polymer should have a good ionic conductivity, high proton conductivity, and high mechanical strength. Lignosulfonate (LS) is a complex biopolymer which has crosslinks and sulfonate groups. SPS-LS blends with addition of SiO{sub 2} are used to increase the proton conductivity and to improve the mechanical properties and thermal stability. However, the biodegradation test of SPS-LS blends is required to determine whether the application of these membranes to be applied as an environmentally friendly membrane. In this study, had been done the synthesis of SPS, biodegradability test of SPS-LS blends with variations of LS and SiO{sub 2} compositions. The biodegradation test was carried out in solid medium of Luria Bertani (LB) with an activated sludge used as a source of microorganism at incubation temperature of 37°C. Based on the results obtained indicated that SPS-LS-SiO{sub 2} blends are more decomposed by microorganism than SPS-LS blends. This result is supported by analysis of weight reduction percentage, functional groups with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and morphological surface with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

  5. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about

  6. Computing LS factor by runoff paths on TIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, Petr; Krasa, Josef; Bek, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    The article shows results of topographic factor (the LS factor in USLE) derivation enhancement focused on detailed Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) based DEMs. It describes a flow paths generation technique using triangulated irregular network (TIN) for terrain morphology description, which is not yet established in soil loss computations. This technique was compared with other procedures of flow direction and flow paths generation based on commonly used raster model (DEM). These overland flow characteristics together with therefrom derived flow accumulation are significant inputs for many scientific models. Particularly they are used in all USLE-based soil erosion models, from which USLE2D, RUSLE3D, Watem/Sedem or USPED can be named as the most acknowledged. Flow routing characteristics are also essential parameters in physically based hydrological and soil erosion models like HEC-HMS, Wepp, Erosion3D, LISEM, SMODERP, etc. Mentioned models are based on regular raster grids, where the identification of runoff direction is problematic. The most common method is Steepest descent (one directional flow), which corresponds well with the concentration of surface runoff into concentrated flow. The Steepest descent algorithm for the flow routing doesn't provide satisfying results, it often creates parallel and narrow flow lines while not respecting real morphological conditions. To overcome this problem, other methods (such as Flux Decomposition, Multiple flow, Deterministic Infinity algorithm etc.) separate the outflow into several components. This approach leads to unrealistic diffusion propagation of the runoff and makes it impossible to be used for simulation of dominant morphological features, such as artificial rills, hedges, sediment traps etc. The modern methods of mapping ground elevations, especially ALS, provide very detailed models even for large river basins, including morphological details. New algorithms for derivation a runoff direction have been developed as

  7. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using an endophytic fungal supernatant of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from supernatant of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from the healthy leaves of Raphanus sativus is studied. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural analysis is done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The stability of AgNPs is studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS method. The size and shape of AgNPs are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM and found to be spherical with an average particles size of 4–30 nm. Further, these AgNPs have been found to be highly toxic against human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting the possibility of using AgNPs as efficient antibacterial agents.

  8. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform by trichloroethene respiring anaerobic mixed cultures and supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickstrom, Kyle E; Azizian, Mohammad F; Semprini, Lewis

    2017-09-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) were transformed in batch reactor experiments conducted with anaerobic dechlorinating cultures and supernatant (ADC + S) harvested from continuous flow reactors. The Evanite (EV) and Victoria/Stanford (VS) cultures, capable of respiring trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to ethene (ETH), were grown in continuous flow reactors receiving an influent feed of saturated TCE (10 mM; 60 mEq) and formate (45 mM; 90 mEq) but no CT or CF. Cells and supernatant were harvested from the chemostats and inoculated into batch reactors at the onset of each experiment. CT transformation was complete following first order kinetics with CF, DCM and CS 2 as the measurable transformation products, representing 20-40% of the original mass of CT, with CO 2 likely the unknown transformation product. CF was transformed to DCM and likely CO 2 at an order of magnitude rate lower than CT, while DCM was not further transformed. An analytical first order model including multiple key reactions effectively simulated CT transformation, product formation and transformation, and provided reasonable estimates of transformation rate coefficients. Biotic and abiotic treatments indicated that CT was mainly transformed via abiotic processes. However, the presence of live cells was associated with the transformation of CF to DCM. In biotic tests both TCE and CT were simultaneously transformed, with TCE transformed to ETH and approximately 15-53% less CF formed via CT transformation. A 14-day exposure to CF (CF max  = 1.4 μM) reduced all rates of chlorinated ethene respiration by a factor of 10 or greater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Host markers in Quantiferon supernatants differentiate active TB from latent TB infection: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzl Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon gamma release assays, including the QuantiFERON® TB Gold In Tube (QFT have been shown to be accurate in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These assays however, do not discriminate between latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease. Methods We recruited twenty-three pulmonary TB patients and 34 household contacts from Cape Town, South Africa and performed the QFT test. To investigate the ability of new host markers to differentiate between LTBI and active TB, levels of 29 biomarkers in QFT supernatants were evaluated using a Luminex multiplex cytokine assay. Results Eight out of 29 biomarkers distinguished active TB from LTBI in a pilot study. Baseline levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, antigen stimulated levels of EGF, and the background corrected antigen stimulated levels of EGF and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β were the most informative single markers for differentiation between TB disease and LTBI, with AUCs of 0.88, 0.84, 0.87, 0.90 and 0.79 respectively. The combination of EGF and MIP-1β predicted 96% of active TB cases and 92% of LTBIs. Combinations between EGF, sCD40L, VEGF, TGF-α and IL-1α also showed potential to differentiate between TB infection states. EGF, VEGF, TGF-α and sCD40L levels were higher in TB patients. Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that active TB may be accurately differentiated from LTBI utilizing adaptations of the commercial QFT test that includes measurement of EGF, sCD40L, MIP-1β, VEGF, TGF-α or IL-1α in supernatants from QFT assays. This approach holds promise for development as a rapid diagnostic test for active TB.

  10. LS1 general planning and strategy for the LHC, LHC injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) is to perform the full maintenance of equipment, and the necessary consolidation and upgrade activities in order to ensure reliable LHC operation at nominal performance from mid 2014. LS1 not only concerns LHC but also its injectors. To ensure resources will be available an analysis is in progress to detect conflict/overload and decide what is compulsary, what we can afford, and what can be postponed to LS2. The strategy, time key drivers, constraints, and draft schedule will be presented here.

  11. Steady Modeling for an Ammonia Synthesis Reactor Based on a Novel CDEAS-LS-SVM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A steady-state mathematical model is built in order to represent plant behavior under stationary operating conditions. A novel modeling using LS-SVR based on Cultural Differential Evolution with Ant Search is proposed. LS-SVM is adopted to establish the model of the net value of ammonia. The modeling method has fast convergence speed and good global adaptability for identification of the ammonia synthesis process. The LS-SVR model was established using the above-mentioned method. Simulation results verify the validity of the method.

  12. Products of cells from gliomas: VIII. Multiple-well immunoperoxidase assay of immunoreactivity of primary hybridoma supernatants with human glioma and brain tissue and cultured glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, P E; Wahl, R L; Shakui, P; Jackson, G A; Letica, L H; Liebert, M; Taren, J A; Beierwaltes, W H; Hoff, J T

    1990-06-01

    To test the feasibility of primary screening of hybridoma supernatants against human glioma tissue, over 5000 combinations of hybridoma supernatants with glioma tissue, cultured glioma cells, and normal central neural tissue were screened with a new multiple-well (M-well) screening system. This is an immunoperoxidase assay system with visual endpoints for screening 20-30 hybridoma supernatants per single microscope slide. There were extensive differences between specificities to tissue and to cultured glioma cells when both were screened with M-wells and when cultured cells were screened with standard semi-automated fluorescence. Primary M-well screening with glioma tissue detected seven hybridoma supernatants that specifically identified parenchymal cells of glioma tissue and that were not detected with cultured cells. Immunoreactivities of individual supernatants for vascular components (nine supernatants), necrosis (five supernatants), and nuclei (three supernatants) were detected. Other supernatants bound multiple sites on glioma tissue and/or subpopulations of neurons and glia of normal tissue. The results show that primary screening with glioma tissue detects a number of different specificities of hybridoma supernatants to gliomas not detected by conventional screening with cultured cells. These are potentially applicable to diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Cell mediated lympholysis: CML. A microplate technique requiring few target cells and employing a new method of supernatant collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, A.; Thorsby, E.

    1977-01-01

    A micromethod for the 51 Cr release assay is described. Allogeneically induced cytotoxic lymphocytes are generated in mixed lymphocyte microcultures in the wells of microplates. Their cytotoxic capacity is assayed by adding 51 Cr-labelled PHA derived lymphoblasts directly into the microcultures with no pooling or transfer of the cytotoxic effector cells being required. The 51 Cr isotope released into the cell supernatants is collected by inserting a cellulose acetate absorption cartridge into each well. A glass fiber filter attached to the cartridge effectively separates the supernatant from the cellular elemets. This system allows the simultaneous collection of the supernatant from 96 wells, and can be used with either adherent or non-adherent target cells

  14. Influence of Helicobacter pylori culture supernatant on the ecological balance of a dual-species oral biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenling; Deng, Xiaohong; Zhou, Xuedong; Hao, Yuqing; Li, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic progressive disease occurring in the tooth hard tissue due to multiple factors, in which bacteria are the initial cause. Both Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis are main members of oral biofilm. Helicobacter pylori may also be detected in dental plaque, playing an important role in the development of dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of H. pylori culture supernatant on S. mutans and S. sanguinis dual-species biofilm and to evaluate its potential ability on affecting dental health. The effect of H. pylori supernatant on single-species and dual-species biofilm was measured by colony forming units counting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, respectively. The effect of H. pylori supernatant on S. mutans and S. sanguinis extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production was measured by both confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and anthrone-sulfuric acid method. The effect of H. pylori supernatant on S. mutans gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. H. pylori supernatant could inhibit both S. mutans and S. sanguinis biofilm formation and EPS production. S. sanguinis inhibition rate was significantly higher than that of S. mutans. Finally, S. mutans bacteriocin and acidogenicity related genes expression were affected by H. pylori culture supernatant. Our results showed that H. pylori could destroy the balance between S. mutans and S. sanguinis in oral biofilm, creating an advantageous environment for S. mutans, which became the dominant bacteria, promoting the formation and development of dental caries.

  15. Influence of Helicobacter pylori culture supernatant on the ecological balance of a dual-species oral biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dental caries is a chronic progressive disease occurring in the tooth hard tissue due to multiple factors, in which bacteria are the initial cause. Both Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis are main members of oral biofilm. Helicobacter pylori may also be detected in dental plaque, playing an important role in the development of dental caries. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of H. pylori culture supernatant on S. mutans and S. sanguinis dual-species biofilm and to evaluate its potential ability on affecting dental health. Material and methods The effect of H. pylori supernatant on single-species and dual-species biofilm was measured by colony forming units counting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assay, respectively. The effect of H. pylori supernatant on S. mutans and S. sanguinis extracellular polysaccharides (EPS production was measured by both confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and anthrone-sulfuric acid method. The effect of H. pylori supernatant on S. mutans gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR assays. Results H. pylori supernatant could inhibit both S. mutans and S. sanguinis biofilm formation and EPS production. S. sanguinis inhibition rate was significantly higher than that of S. mutans. Finally, S. mutans bacteriocin and acidogenicity related genes expression were affected by H. pylori culture supernatant. Conclusion Our results showed that H. pylori could destroy the balance between S. mutans and S. sanguinis in oral biofilm, creating an advantageous environment for S. mutans, which became the dominant bacteria, promoting the formation and development of dental caries.

  16. LS-SNP/PDB: annotated non-synonymous SNPs mapped to Protein Data Bank structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael; Diekhans, Mark; Lien, Stephanie; Liu, Yun; Karchin, Rachel

    2009-06-01

    LS-SNP/PDB is a new WWW resource for genome-wide annotation of human non-synonymous (amino acid changing) SNPs. It serves high-quality protein graphics rendered with UCSF Chimera molecular visualization software. The system is kept up-to-date by an automated, high-throughput build pipeline that systematically maps human nsSNPs onto Protein Data Bank structures and annotates several biologically relevant features. LS-SNP/PDB is available at (http://ls-snp.icm.jhu.edu/ls-snp-pdb) and via links from protein data bank (PDB) biology and chemistry tabs, UCSC Genome Browser Gene Details and SNP Details pages and PharmGKB Gene Variants Downloads/Cross-References pages.

  17. Shock Transmission Analyses of a Simplified Frigate Compartment Using LS-DYNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trouwborst, W

    1999-01-01

    This report gives results as obtained with finite element analyses using the explicit finite element program LS-DYNA for a longitudinal slice of a frigate's compartment loaded with a shock pulse based...

  18. Diagnosis of Elevator Faults with LS-SVM Based on Optimization by K-CV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several common elevator malfunctions were diagnosed with a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM. After acquiring vibration signals of various elevator functions, their energy characteristics and time domain indicators were extracted by theoretically analyzing the optimal wavelet packet, in order to construct a feature vector of malfunctions for identifying causes of the malfunctions as input of LS-SVM. Meanwhile, parameters about LS-SVM were optimized by K-fold cross validation (K-CV. After diagnosing deviated elevator guide rail, deviated shape of guide shoe, abnormal running of tractor, erroneous rope groove of traction sheave, deviated guide wheel, and tension of wire rope, the results suggested that the LS-SVM based on K-CV optimization was one of effective methods for diagnosing elevator malfunctions.

  19. Summary of sessions 5 and 6: long shutdown 1 (LS1) 2013-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordry, F.; Foraz, K.

    2012-01-01

    The minimal duration for LS1 is 20 months, meaning the time from physics to physics will be about 2 years. The actual start of LS1 is set for the 17. November 2012, which will allow the Liquid Helium emptying from the machine before Christmas. However, delivery dates for certain components are on the critical path of the experiments, which will allow the first beams for beam commissioning not before September 2014. Depending on the results of mid-2012 physics, the start date of LS1 will be reviewed. The actual plan for injectors is in line with the LHC plan, but the risk of running injectors for two years has to be assessed. The analysis of resources is progressing well throughout the complex (collaborations and internal mobility) and is being done according to priorities. Certain activities have already been postponed to LS2, and new requests will be carefully analyzed, as well as open issues

  20. Comparison of central corneal thickness measured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscanⅡ and ultrasonic pachmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Tao Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the difference of central corneal thickness(CCTmeasured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscahⅡ system and ultrasonic pachmetry, and to evaluate the correlation and consistency of the results for providing a theoretical basis for clinical application.METHODS: The mean value of CCT in 70 eyes of 35 patients measured three times by Lenstar LS900, OrbscahⅡ system and ultrasonic pachmetry underwent statistical analysis. The difference of CCT was compared, and the correlation and consistency of three measurements were analyzed to provide theoretical basis for clinical application. CCT values measured by different methods were analyzed with randomized block variance analysis. LSD-t test was used for pairwise comparison between groups. The correlation of three measurement methods were analyzed by linear correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman was used to analyze the consistency.RESULTS: The mean CCT values measured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscanⅡ and ultrasonic pachmetry were 542.75±40.06, 528.74±39.59, 538.54±40.93μm, respectively. The mean difference of CCT measurement was 4.21±8.78μm between Lenstar LS900 and ultrasonic pachmetry, 14.01±13.39μm between Lenstar LS900 and Orbscan Ⅱ, 9.8±10.57μm between ultrasonic pachmetry and Orbscan Ⅱ. The difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05: There was positive correlation between CCT with Lenstar LS900 and ultrasonic pachmetry(r=0.977, 0.944; PCONCLUSION: There are excellent correlation among Lenstar LS900, Orbscan Ⅱ and ultrasonic pachmetry. Lenstar LS900 can be used as CCT non-contact measurement tool.

  1. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Michaelsen, Kim F; Forssten, Sofia D; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-12-01

    This study is a part of the clinical trials with probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 conducted in obese adolescents. Previously reported clinical studies showed no effect of Ls-33 consumption on the metabolic syndrome in the subject group. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of L. salivarius Ls-33 on fecal microbiota in obese adolescents. The study was a double-blinded intervention with 50 subjects randomized to intake of L. salivarius Ls-33 or placebo for 12 weeks. The fecal microbiota was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR before and after intervention. Concentrations of fecal short chain fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group to Firmicutes belonging bacteria, including Clostridium cluster XIV, Blautia coccoides_Eubacteria rectale group and Roseburia intestinalis, were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after administration of Ls-33. The cell numbers of fecal bacteria, including the groups above as well as Clostridium cluster I, Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, the Lactobacillus group and Bifidobacterium were not significantly altered by intervention. Similarly, short chain fatty acids remained unaffected. L. salivarius Ls-33 might modify the fecal microbiota in obese adolescents in a way not related to metabolic syndrome. NCT 01020617. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of the strength of concrete radiation shielding based on LS-SVM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juncai, Xu; Qingwen, Ren; Zhenzhong, Shen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LS-SVM was introduced for prediction of the strength of RSC. • A model for prediction of the strength of RSC was implemented. • The grid search algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of the LS-SVM. • The performance of LS-SVM in predicting the strength of RSC was evaluated. - Abstract: Radiation-shielding concrete (RSC) and conventional concrete differ in strength because of their distinct constituents. Predicting the strength of RSC with different constituents plays a vital role in radiation shielding (RS) engineering design. In this study, a model to predict the strength of RSC is established using a least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) through grid search algorithm. The algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the LS-SVM on the basis of traditional prediction methods for conventional concrete. The predicted results of the LS-SVM model are compared with the experimental data. The results of the prediction are stable and consistent with the experimental results. In addition, the studied parameters exhibit significant effects on the simulation results. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied in predicting the strength of RSC, and the predicted results can be adopted as an important reference for RS engineering design

  3. GIS-based Analysis of LS Factor under Coal Mining Subsidence Impacts in Sandy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal deposits in the adjacent regions of Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Inner Mongolia province (SSI account for approximately two-thirds of coal in China; therefore, the SSI region has become the frontier of coal mining and its westward movement. Numerous adverse impacts to land and environment have arisen in these sandy, arid, and ecologically fragile areas. Underground coal mining activities cause land to subside and subsequent soil erosion, with slope length and slope steepness (LS as the key influential factor. In this investigation, an SSI mining site was chosen as a case study area, and 1 the pre-mining LS factor was obtained using a digital elevation model (DEM dataset; 2 a mining subsidence prediction was implemented with revised subsidence prediction factors; and 3 the post-mining LS factor was calculated by integrating the pre-mining DEM dataset and coal mining subsidence prediction data. The results revealed that the LS factor leads to some changes in the bottom of subsidence basin and considerable alterations at the basin’s edges of basin. Moreover, the LS factor became larger in the steeper terrain under subsidence impacts. This integrated method could quantitatively analyse LS changes and spatial distribution under mining impacts, which will benefit and provide references for soil erosion evaluations in this region

  4. MECHANISM OF BIOACTIVITY OF LS2-FA GLASS-CERAMICS IN SBF AND DMEM MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA LUTIŠANOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of in vitro bioactivity of glass-ceramics in the Li2O–SiO2–CaO–P2O5–CaF2 (shorthand LS2-FA system immersed in two media (simulated body fluid (SBF and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM are compared. Microprobe (EPMA and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were used to detect the presence of a new phase on the surface and to characterize its layer. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP was used to monitor ion concentration changes in SBF with immersion time. The results show, that during the assay in vitro behaviour tests, the surface of the sample was partially dissolved and released of Si4+, Ca2+ and Li+ ions were released into the SBF medium. The results of surface characterization after in vitro tests revealed difference in the bioactivity of glass-ceramics with various time of immersion in SBF and DMEM. For the formation of an apatite-layer in an earlier testing period (1, 3 and 7 days, a pronounced difference was not observed between SBF and DMEM immersion. In the longer testing period in SBF (28 days, the apatite-layer was developed by periodic deposition of spherical bullets that covers the whole surface. The use of the acellular culture medium DMEM resulted in a delay at the start of precipitation.

  5. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aranha, Clara; Natraj, Usha; Iyer, K. S.; Shahani, Savitri

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  6. Development program for magnetically assisted chemical separation: Evaluation of cesium removal from Hanford tank supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Ziemer, M.; Dyrkacz, G.; Kaminski, M.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Atkins, K.J.; Bos, F.M.; Elder, G.R.; Swift, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    Magnetic particles (MAG*SEP SM ) coated with various absorbents were evaluated for the separation and recovery of low concentrations of cesium from nuclear waste solutions. The MAG*SEP SM particles were coated with (1) clinoptilolite, (2) transylvanian volcanic tuff, (3) resorcinol formaldehyde, and (4) crystalline silico-titanate, and then were contacted with a Hanford supernatant simulant. Particles coated with the crystalline silico-titanate were identified by Bradtec as having the highest capacity for cesium removal under the conditions tested (variation of pH, ionic strength, cesium concentration, and absorbent/solution ratio). The MAG*SEP SM particles coated with resorcinol formaldehyde had high distribution ratios values and could also be used to remove cesium from Hanford supernant simulant. Gamma irradiation studies were performed on the MAG*SEP SM particles with a gamma dose equivalent to 100 cycles of use. This irradiation decreased the loading capacity and distribution ratios for the particles by greater than 75%. The particles demonstrated high sensitivity to radiolytic damage due to the degradation of the polymeric regions. These results were supported by optical microscopy measurements. Overall, use of magnetic particles for cesium separation under nuclear waste conditions was found to be marginally effective

  7. Characterization of culture supernatant proteins from Brucella abortus and its protection effects against murine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Ju; Lim, Jeong Ju; Kim, Dae Geun; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we characterized the secreted proteins of Brucella abortus into the enriched media under the bacterial laboratory growth condition and investigated the pathogenic importance of culture supernatant (CS) proteins to B. abortus infection. CS proteins from stationary phase were concentrated and analyzed using 2D electrophoresis. In MALDI TOF/TOF analysis, more than 27 proteins including CuZn SOD, Dps, Tat, OMPs, Adh, LivF, Tuf, SucC, GroEL and DnaK were identified. Cytotoxic effects of CS proteins were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. Upon B. abortus challenge into phagocytes, however, CS proteins pre-treated cells exhibited lower bacterial uptake and intracellular replication compared to untreated cells. Immunization with CS proteins induced a strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses and exhibited significant higher degree of protection against virulence of B. abortus infection compared to mice immunized with Brucella broth protein (BBP). Taken together, these results indicate that B. abortus secreted a number of soluble immunogenic proteins under laboratory culture condition, which can promote antibody production resulted in enhancing host defense against to subsequently bacterial infection. Moreover, further analysis of CS proteins may help to understand the pathogenic mechanism of B. abortus infection and host-pathogen interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Cell Free Supernatant of Irradiated Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaleem, M.A.; AL-Hagar, O.E.Aa.

    2015-01-01

    Attempts were made to isolate bio preservatives using food wastes with no value and low cost. Whey is the raw material achieved that value. Whey and many other food wastes are used in our study to isolate Lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Cell free supernatants (CFS) of isolates are used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains. CFS-9 isolate from whey has the highest inhibitory activity compared to all other isolates. The inhibitory activity of CFS-9, Nisin (400 IU / ml) and the standard Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. Lactis ATCC 11454 (Lacto) were determined. Furthermore, isolate-9 and Lacto strains were exposed to irradiation at different doses. The inhibition zones of; control isolate-9 (non-irradiated) showed the highest values against all indicator strains, CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 250 Gy was the highest value against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli compared to other irradiation treatments, CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 100 Gy was the highest value against Staph aureus, while the inhibition zone was in the highest value in CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 500 Gy against Salmonella typhimurium. Nisin (400 IU / ml) was significantly higher than all CFS of irradiated isolate-9 while, the inhibition zones of all CFS-Lacto (irradiated and nonirradiated) are better and higher than nisin-400

  9. Hemolytic activity of Fusobacterium necrophorum culture supernatants due to presence of phospholipase A and lysophospholipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, P M; Kendall, C J; Stauffer, L R; Holland, J W

    1979-01-01

    Culture supernatants of Fusobacterium necrophorum demonstrated hemolytic activity. The hemolysin(s), which was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, was temperature-dependent and heat labile. The spectrum of hemolytic activity against various erythrocytes included rabbit, human, and dog erythrocytes. Goats, sheep, and bovine erythrocytes showed only trace hemolysis. According to results of thin-layer chromatography, the hemolysin hydrolyzed rabbit erythrocyte phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidyl choline, and bovine phosphatidyl choline. Hydrolysis of egg yolk phosphatidyl choline, bovine phosphatidyl ethanolamine, cholesterol, 1,2-dipalmitin, 1,3-dipalmitin, sphingomyelin, or triolein was not detected by thin layer chromatography. A more sensitive procedure utilizing gas-liquid chromatography revealed that, of the substrates tested, the following were bein hydrolyzed: bovine and egg yolk phosphatidyl choline, lysophosphatidyl choline, alpha-palmito-beta-eleoyl-L-alpha lecithin and alpha-oleoyl-betal-palmitoyl-L-alpha lecithin. Substrates which were weakly hydrolyzed were bovine phosphatidyl ethanolamine, DL-alpha-hosphatidyl ethanolamine dipalmitoyl, 1,2-dipalmitin, 1,3-dipalmitin, and triolein.

  10. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  11. [Measurement of soil organic matter and available K based on SPA-LS-SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liu, Xue-Mei; He, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Visible and short wave infrared spectroscopy (Vis/SW-NIRS) was investigated in the present study for measurement of soil organic matter (OM) and available potassium (K). Four types of pretreatments including smoothing, SNV, MSC and SG smoothing+first derivative were adopted to eliminate the system noises and external disturbances. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models were implemented for calibration models. The LS-SVM model was built by using characteristic wavelength based on successive projections algorithm (SPA). Simultaneously, the performance of LSSVM models was compared with PLSR models. The results indicated that LS-SVM models using characteristic wavelength as inputs based on SPA outperformed PLSR models. The optimal SPA-LS-SVM models were achieved, and the correlation coefficient (r), and RMSEP were 0. 860 2 and 2. 98 for OM and 0. 730 5 and 15. 78 for K, respectively. The results indicated that visible and short wave near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/SW-NIRS) (325 approximately 1 075 nm) combined with LS-SVM based on SPA could be utilized as a precision method for the determination of soil properties.

  12. A Modified LS+AR Model to Improve the Accuracy of the Short-term Polar Motion Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. W.; Wang, Q. X.; Ding, Y. Q.; Zhang, J. J.; Liu, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    There are two problems of the LS (Least Squares)+AR (AutoRegressive) model in polar motion forecast: the inner residual value of LS fitting is reasonable, but the residual value of LS extrapolation is poor; and the LS fitting residual sequence is non-linear. It is unsuitable to establish an AR model for the residual sequence to be forecasted, based on the residual sequence before forecast epoch. In this paper, we make solution to those two problems with two steps. First, restrictions are added to the two endpoints of LS fitting data to fix them on the LS fitting curve. Therefore, the fitting values next to the two endpoints are very close to the observation values. Secondly, we select the interpolation residual sequence of an inward LS fitting curve, which has a similar variation trend as the LS extrapolation residual sequence, as the modeling object of AR for the residual forecast. Calculation examples show that this solution can effectively improve the short-term polar motion prediction accuracy by the LS+AR model. In addition, the comparison results of the forecast models of RLS (Robustified Least Squares)+AR, RLS+ARIMA (AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average), and LS+ANN (Artificial Neural Network) confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the solution for the polar motion forecast. The results, especially for the polar motion forecast in the 1-10 days, show that the forecast accuracy of the proposed model can reach the world level.

  13. A threshold-based fixed predictor for JPEG-LS image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lihua; Huang, Zhenghua; Yao, Shoukui

    2018-03-01

    In JPEG-LS, fixed predictor based on median edge detector (MED) only detect horizontal and vertical edges, and thus produces large prediction errors in the locality of diagonal edges. In this paper, we propose a threshold-based edge detection scheme for the fixed predictor. The proposed scheme can detect not only the horizontal and vertical edges, but also diagonal edges. For some certain thresholds, the proposed scheme can be simplified to other existing schemes. So, it can also be regarded as the integration of these existing schemes. For a suitable threshold, the accuracy of horizontal and vertical edges detection is higher than the existing median edge detection in JPEG-LS. Thus, the proposed fixed predictor outperforms the existing JPEG-LS predictors for all images tested, while the complexity of the overall algorithm is maintained at a similar level.

  14. Can the proton injectors meet the HL-LHC requirements after LS2?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, B.; Bartosik, H.; Bracco, C.; Bruening, O.; Carli, C.; Cornelis, K.; Damerau, H.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hancock, S.; Hanke, K.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mikulec, B.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Steerenberg, R.; Vretenar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LIU project has as mandate the upgrade of the LHC injector chain to match the requirements of HL-LHC. The present planning assumes that the upgrade work will be completed in LS2, for commissioning in the following operational year. The known limitations in the different injectors are described, together with the various upgrades planned to improve the performance. The expected performance reach after the upgrade with 25 and 50 ns beams is examined. The project planning is discussed in view of the present LS1 and LS2 planning. The main unresolved questions and associated decision points are presented, and the key issues to be addressed by the end of 2012 are detailed in the context of the machine development programs and hardware construction activities. (authors)

  15. Culture supernatants of oral cancer cells induce impaired IFN-α production of pDCs partly through the down-regulation of TLR-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nannan; Zhang, Zun; Jv, Houyu; Hu, Jingzhou; Ruan, Min; Zhang, Chenping

    2018-06-05

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether tumor-derived supernatants down-regulate the immune function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in oral cancer and the potential molecular mechanisms of this effect. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry were used to detect tumor-infiltrating and peripheral blood pDCs. MTS and flow cytometry were employed to evaluate the immune response of CD4 + T cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA assays were used to identify TLR-7 and TLR-9 expression, IFN-α production and tumor-secreted soluble cytokines. The proportion of pDCs (0.121%±0.043%) was significantly higher in Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) samples than in normal tissue (0.023%±0.016%) (P = 0.021). TLR9 mRNA was significantly lower in tumor-infiltrating pDCs and positively correlated to low IFN-α production (r = 0.956; Poral cancer cells negatively regulated TLR9 mRNA expression and the subsequent IFN-α production of pDCs, which inhibited the immune response of CD4 + T cells. The neutralizing antibodies blocking assay showed that the specific inhibitory effect of pDC functionality was associated with the soluble fraction of the oral cancer environment, which is mainly mediated by IL-10 and TGF-β cooperation. Tumor-derived supernatants may impair the function of tumor-infiltrating pDCs, which subsequently decreases the immune response of CD4 + T cells in human oral cancer through TGF-β- and IL-10- dependent mechanisms. Careful manipulation of these impaired pDCs may help develop an important alternative immunotherapy for the treatment of oral cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III supernatant in human albumin separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III (FI + II + III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp2), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501 g/L, 0.465 g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530 g/L, 0.341 g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI + II + III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  17. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III supernatant in human albumin separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III (FI+II+III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (R p 2 ), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501g/L, 0.465g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530g/L, 0.341g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI+II+III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intermediate coupling collision strengths from LS coupled R-matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Fine structure collision strength for transitions between two groups of states in intermediate coupling and with inclusion of configuration mixing are obtained from LS coupled reactance matrix elements (R-matrix elements) and a set of mixing coefficients. The LS coupled R-matrix elements are transformed to pair coupling using Wigner 6-j coefficients. From these pair coupled R-matrix elements together with a set of mixing coefficients, R-matrix elements are obtained which include the intermediate coupling and configuration mixing effects. Finally, from the latter R-matrix elements, collision strengths for fine structure transitions are computed (with inclusion of both intermediate coupling and configuration mixing). (Auth.)

  19. Safety and pharmacokinetics of the Fc-modified HIV-1 human monoclonal antibody VRC01LS: A Phase 1 open-label clinical trial in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Gaudinski

    2018-01-01

    /kg IV dose range (n = 16, the clearance was 36 ± 8 mL/d with an elimination half-life of 71 ± 18 days. VRC01LS retained its expected neutralizing activity in serum, and anti-VRC01 antibody responses were not detected. Potential limitations of this study include the small sample size typical of Phase I trials and the need to further describe the PK properties of VRC01LS administered on multiple occasions.The human bnMAb VRC01LS was safe and well tolerated when delivered intravenously or subcutaneously. The half-life was more than 4-fold greater when compared to wild-type VRC01 historical data. The reduced clearance and extended half-life may make it possible to achieve therapeutic levels with less frequent and lower-dose administrations. This would potentially lower the costs of manufacturing and improve the practicality of using passively administered monoclonal antibodies (mAbs for the prevention of HIV-1 infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02599896.

  20. Protease signaling through protease activated receptor 1 mediate nerve activation by mucosal supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome but not from ulcerative colitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhner, Sabine; Hahne, Hannes; Hartwig, Kerstin; Li, Qin; Vignali, Sheila; Ostertag, Daniela; Meng, Chen; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Braak, Breg; Pehl, Christian; Frieling, Thomas; Barbara, Giovanni; De Giorgio, Roberto; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Ceyhan, Güralp Onur; Zeller, Florian; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Haller, Dirk; Kuster, Bernhard; Schemann, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). Effects of supernatants from 7 healthy controls (HC), 20 IBS and 12 UC patients on human and guinea pig submucous neurons were studied with neuroimaging techniques. We identify differentially expressed proteins with proteome analysis. Nerve activation by IBS supernatants was prevented by the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonist SCHE79797. UC supernatants also activated enteric neurons through protease dependent mechanisms but without PAR1 involvement. Proteome analysis of the supernatants identified 204 proteins, among them 17 proteases as differentially expressed between IBS, UC and HC. Of those the four proteases elastase 3a, chymotrypsin C, proteasome subunit type beta-2 and an unspecified isoform of complement C3 were significantly more abundant in IBS compared to HC and UC supernatants. Of eight proteases, which were upregulated in IBS, the combination of elastase 3a, cathepsin L and proteasome alpha subunit-4 showed the highest prediction accuracy of 98% to discriminate between IBS and HC groups. Elastase synergistically potentiated the effects of histamine and serotonin-the two other main neuroactive substances in the IBS supernatants. A serine protease inhibitor isolated from the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 (SERPINBL), known to inhibit elastase-like proteases, prevented nerve activation by IBS supernatants. Proteases in IBS and UC supernatants were responsible for nerve activation. Our data demonstrate that proteases, particularly those signalling through neuronal PAR1, are biomarker candidates for IBS, and protease profiling may be used to

  1. Improving temporal resolution in fMRI using a 3D spiral acquisition and low rank plus sparse (L+S) reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrii Y; Herbst, Michael; Andrew Stenger, V

    2017-08-15

    Rapid whole-brain dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is of particular interest in Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Faster acquisitions with higher temporal sampling of the BOLD time-course provide several advantages including increased sensitivity in detecting functional activation, the possibility of filtering out physiological noise for improving temporal SNR, and freezing out head motion. Generally, faster acquisitions require undersampling of the data which results in aliasing artifacts in the object domain. A recently developed low-rank (L) plus sparse (S) matrix decomposition model (L+S) is one of the methods that has been introduced to reconstruct images from undersampled dynamic MRI data. The L+S approach assumes that the dynamic MRI data, represented as a space-time matrix M, is a linear superposition of L and S components, where L represents highly spatially and temporally correlated elements, such as the image background, while S captures dynamic information that is sparse in an appropriate transform domain. This suggests that L+S might be suited for undersampled task or slow event-related fMRI acquisitions because the periodic nature of the BOLD signal is sparse in the temporal Fourier transform domain and slowly varying low-rank brain background signals, such as physiological noise and drift, will be predominantly low-rank. In this work, as a proof of concept, we exploit the L+S method for accelerating block-design fMRI using a 3D stack of spirals (SoS) acquisition where undersampling is performed in the k z -t domain. We examined the feasibility of the L+S method to accurately separate temporally correlated brain background information in the L component while capturing periodic BOLD signals in the S component. We present results acquired in control human volunteers at 3T for both retrospective and prospectively acquired fMRI data for a visual activation block-design task. We show that a SoS fMRI acquisition with an

  2. Application and evaluation of LS-PIV technique for the monitoring of river surface velocities in high flow conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jodeau , M.; Hauet , A.; Paquier , A.; Le Coz , J.; Dramais , G.

    2008-01-01

    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) is used to measure the surface flow velocities in a mountain stream during high flow conditions due to a reservoir release. A complete installation including video acquisition from a mobile elevated viewpoint and artificial flow seeding has been developed and implemented. The LS-PIV method was adapted in order to take into account the specific constraints of these high flow conditions. Using a usual LS-PIV data processing, significant variations...

  3. Influence of Helicobacter pylori culture supernatant on the ecological balance of a dual-species oral biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Wenling Zhang; Xiaohong Deng; Xuedong Zhou; Yuqing Hao; Yuqing Li

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is a chronic progressive disease occurring in the tooth hard tissue due to multiple factors, in which bacteria are the initial cause. Both Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis are main members of oral biofilm. Helicobacter pylori may also be detected in dental plaque, playing an important role in the development of dental caries. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of H. pylori culture supernatant on S. mutans and S. sanguinis dual...

  4. Evaluation of Synergistic Interactions Between Cell-Free Supernatant of Lactobacillus Strains and Amikacin and Genetamicin Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Aminnezhad, Sargol; Kermanshahi, Rouha Kasra; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases can increase the development of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, there is a big demand for new sources of antimicrobial agents and alternative treatments for reduction of antibiotic dosage required to decrease the associated side effects. Objectives: In this study, the synergistic action of aminoglycoside antibiotics and cell-free supernatant (CFS) of probiotic (Lactobacillus rahmnosus and L. casei) aga...

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong He; Qing Zeng; Santhosh Puthiyakunnon; Zhijie Zeng; Weijun Yang; Jiawen Qiu; Lei Du; Swapna Boddu; Tongwei Wu; Danxian Cai; Sheng-He Huang; Hong Cao

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal...

  6. Modelling antagonic effect of lactic acid eacteria supernatants on some pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustus Caeser Franke Portella

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a statistical model of survival analysis for three pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, when treated with neutralized and non-neutralized filtered supernatants broth from cultures of Lactobacillus acidhophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus sake. Survival analysis is a method employed to determine the period of time from an initial stage up to the occurrence of a particular event of interest, as death or a particular culture growth failure. In order to evaluate the potential efficacy of the ahead mentioned lactic acid bacteria when used as bioprotective starters in foods, experimental data were statistically treated and expressed by simple representative curves. Following the methodology of Cox and Kaplan-Meier, it was possible to make the selection of the best bioprotective lactic starter, as a predictive tool for evaluation of shelf life and prevention of eventual risks in fresh sausages and other similar food products.Este trabalho apresenta um modelo estatístico de análise de sobrevivência para três bactérias patogénicas (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes e Staphylococcus aureus, quando tratados com sobrenadantes filtrados neutralizado e não neutralizado provenientes de culturas de Lactobacillus acidhophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus e Lactobacillus sake. A Análise de sobrevivência é um método utilizado para determinar o período de tempo a partir de uma fase inicial até a ocorrência de um determinado evento de interesse, como a morte ou a inibição de uma particular cultura, a fim de avaliar a eficácia potencial das referidas bactérias lácticas quando usadas como bioproteção em alimentos. Os dados experimentais foram tratados estatisticamente, seguindo a metodologia de Cox e Kaplan-Meier e foi possível fazer a seleção dos melhores fermentos láticos bioprotectivos, como uma ferramenta para avaliação preditiva, vida de

  7. Support vector machine regression (LS-SVM)--an alternative to artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the analysis of quantum chemistry data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-06-28

    superior by almost an order of magnitude over the ANN method in terms of the stability, generality, and robustness of the final model. The LS-SVM model needs a much smaller numbers of samples (a much smaller sample set) to make accurate prediction results. Potential energy surface (PES) approximations for molecular dynamics (MD) studies are discussed as a promising application for the LS-SVM calibration approach. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  8. Loft CIS analysis 2''-LS-118-AB outside containment penetration S5-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    A stress analysis was performed on the 2''-LS-118-AB pipe system outside containment penetration S5-D. Deadweight, thermal expansion, and seismic loads were considered. The results indicate that this piping will meet ASME Section III, Class 2 requirements provided a U-bolt (S4) is installed as indicated in this report

  9. Remediation of Learning Disable Children Following L.S. Vygotsky's Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna M. Glozman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines remediating education, its peculiarities against trasitional education, main tasks and principles, based upon the cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky. Base functional systems formed during remediation are discussed. Peculiarities of individual, group and dyadic methods of remediation are described with regard to its potential for mediating child's activity.

  10. Introducing instrumental variables in the LS-SVM based identification framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurain, V.; Zheng, W-X.; Toth, R.

    2011-01-01

    Least-Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) represent a promising approach to identify nonlinear systems via nonparametric estimation of the nonlinearities in a computationally and stochastically attractive way. All the methods dedicated to the solution of this problem rely on the minimization of

  11. Loft CIS analysis 2''-LS-118-AB outside containment penetration S5-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, D.K.

    1978-09-28

    A stress analysis was performed on the 2''-LS-118-AB pipe system outside containment penetration S5-D. Deadweight, thermal expansion, and seismic loads were considered. The results indicate that this piping will meet ASME Section III, Class 2 requirements provided a U-bolt (S4) is installed as indicated in this report.

  12. Regional-scale calculation of the LS factor using parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Guoan; Jiang, Ling; Zhu, A.-Xing; Yang, Jianyi; Song, Xiaodong

    2015-05-01

    With the increase of data resolution and the increasing application of USLE over large areas, the existing serial implementation of algorithms for computing the LS factor is becoming a bottleneck. In this paper, a parallel processing model based on message passing interface (MPI) is presented for the calculation of the LS factor, so that massive datasets at a regional scale can be processed efficiently. The parallel model contains algorithms for calculating flow direction, flow accumulation, drainage network, slope, slope length and the LS factor. According to the existence of data dependence, the algorithms are divided into local algorithms and global algorithms. Parallel strategy are designed according to the algorithm characters including the decomposition method for maintaining the integrity of the results, optimized workflow for reducing the time taken for exporting the unnecessary intermediate data and a buffer-communication-computation strategy for improving the communication efficiency. Experiments on a multi-node system show that the proposed parallel model allows efficient calculation of the LS factor at a regional scale with a massive dataset.

  13. Extension of a GIS procedure for calculating the RUSLE equation LS factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Yang, Q.; Li, R.; Liu, Q.; Moore, D.; He, P.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and revised USLE (RUSLE) are often used to estimate soil erosion at regional landscape scales, however a major limitation is the difficulty in extracting the LS factor. The geographic information system-based (GIS-based) methods which have been developed for

  14. Electromagnetic transitions of heavy quarkonia in the boosted LS-coupling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Shin; Morikawa, Akiyoshi; Oda, Masuho

    1998-01-01

    Radiative transitions among heavy quarkonium systems are investigated in a general framework of the boosted LS-coupling (BLS) scheme, where mesons are treated in a manifestly covariant way and conserved effective currents are explicitly given. As a result it is shown that our theory reproduces the qualitative features of experiments remarkably well, giving evidence for the validity of the BLS scheme. (author)

  15. An effective parameter optimization technique for vibration flow field characterization of PP melts via LS-SVM combined with SALS in an electromagnetism dynamic extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Guangming

    2018-03-01

    A method for predicting the optimal vibration field parameters by least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is presented in this paper. One convenient and commonly used technique for characterizing the the vibration flow field of polymer melts films is small angle light scattering (SALS) in a visualized slit die of the electromagnetism dynamic extruder. The optimal value of vibration vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and the maximum light intensity projection area can be obtained by using LS-SVM for prediction. For illustrating this method and show its validity, the flowing material is used with polypropylene (PP) and fifteen samples are tested at the rotation speed of screw at 36rpm. This paper first describes the apparatus of SALS to perform the experiments, then gives the theoretical basis of this new method, and detail the experimental results for parameter prediction of vibration flow field. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of SALS and obtain detailed information on optimal parameter of vibration flow field of PP melts by LS-SVM.

  16. Lindas Leen paštēls, tēls drukātajos medijos un fanu publikās

    OpenAIRE

    Komarovskis, Jānis

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Lindas Leen paštēls, tēls drukātajos medijos un fanu publikās”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt Lindas Leen paštēlu, tēlu drukātajos medijos un fanu publikās. Darba teorētiskā daļa balstās uz Klausa Mertena (Klaus Merten) tēla veidošanās teoriju, kura apgalvo, ka tēla veidošanās auditorijas uztverē ir cieši saistīta ar medijos publicēto informāciju par noteikto objektu. Pētījuma veikšanai ir izmantotas četras pētniecības metodes: daļēji strukturētā intervija, mediju kon...

  17. Semantic Web applications and tools for the life sciences: SWAT4LS 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott; Splendiani, Andrea

    2012-01-25

    As Semantic Web technologies mature and new releases of key elements, such as SPARQL 1.1 and OWL 2.0, become available, the Life Sciences continue to push the boundaries of these technologies with ever more sophisticated tools and applications. Unsurprisingly, therefore, interest in the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for the Life Sciences) activities have remained high, as was evident during the third international SWAT4LS workshop held in Berlin in December 2010. Contributors to this workshop were invited to submit extended versions of their papers, the best of which are now made available in the special supplement of BMC Bioinformatics. The papers reflect the wide range of work in this area, covering the storage and querying of Life Sciences data in RDF triple stores, tools for the development of biomedical ontologies and the semantics-based integration of Life Sciences as well as clinicial data.

  18. LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”

    CERN Multimedia

    Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

  19. ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) reduces bacterial attachment to human gastrointestinal LS174T epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Andrew; Bebawy, Mary

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this project was to show elevated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression decreasing bacterial association with LS174T human gastrointestinal cells, and that this effect could be reversed upon blocking functional P-gp efflux. Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus acidophilus and numerous strains of Escherichia coli, from commensal to enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic strains (O157:H7) were fluorescently labelled and incubated on LS174T cultures either with or without P-gp amplification using rifampicin. PSC-833 was used as a potent functional P-gp blocking agent. Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas displayed the greatest association with the LS174T cells. Surprisingly, lactobacilli retained more fluorescence than enteropathogenic-E. coli in this system. Irrespective of attachment differences between the bacterial species, the increase in P-gp protein expression decreased bacterial fluorescence by 25-30%. This included the GFP-labelled E. coli, and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (O157:H7). Blocking P-gp function through the co-administration of PSC-833 increased the amount of bacteria associated with P-gp expressing LS174T cells back to control levels. As most bacteria were affected to the same degree, irrespective of pathogenicity, it is unlikely that P-gp has a direct influence on adhesion of bacteria, and instead P-gp may be playing an indirect role by secreting a bank of endogenous factors or changing the local environment to one less suited to bacterial growth in general. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequency domain based LS channel estimation in OFDM based Power line communications

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on low voltage power line communication (PLC) realization with an emphasis on channel estimation techniques. The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) scheme is preferred technology in PLC systems because of its effective combat with frequency selective fading properties of PLC channel. As the channel estimation is one of the crucial problems in OFDM based PLC system because of a problematic area of PLC signal attenuation and interference, the improved LS est...

  1. Quenching of the Gamow-Teller matrix element in closed LS-shell-plus-one nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, I.S.

    1989-06-01

    It is evident that nuclear Gamow-Teller matrix elements determined from β-decay and charge-exchange reactions are significantly quenched compared to simple shell-model estimates based on one-body operators and free-nucleon coupling constants. Here we discuss the theoretical origins of this quenching giving examples from light nuclei near LS-closed shells, such as 16 0 and 40 Ca. (Author) 12 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM and a genetic algorithm (GA. Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification.

  3. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Yang, Jinsong

    2017-06-12

    Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE) for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification.

  4. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Choi, T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Safari, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.1,Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO3 substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180° domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be ~53 pm V-1 for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  5. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazari, M; Safari, A [Glenn Howatt Electroceramics Laboratories, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers-The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Choi, T; Cheong, S-W [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers-The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2010-01-20

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K{sub 0.44},Na{sub 0.52},Li{sub 0.04})(Nb{sub 0.84},Ta{sub 0.1},Sb{sub 0.06})O{sub 3} (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180{sup 0} domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be {approx}53 pm V{sup -1} for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  6. Simple Detection of Large InDeLS by DHPLC: The ACE Gene as a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Guedes Koyama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion-deletion polymorphism (InDeL is the second most frequent type of genetic variation in the human genome. For the detection of large InDeLs, researchers usually resort to either PCR gel analysis or RFLP, but these are time consuming and dependent on human interpretation. Therefore, a more efficient method for genotyping this kind of genetic variation is needed. In this report, we describe a method that can detect large InDeLs by DHPLC (denaturating high-performance liquid chromatography using the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene I/D polymorphism as a model. The InDeL targeted in this study is characterized by a 288 bp Alu element insertion (I. We used DHPLC at nondenaturating conditions to analyze the PCR product with a flow through the chromatographic column under two different gradients based on the differences between D and I sequences. The analysis described is quick and easy, making this technique a suitable and efficient means for DHPLC users to screen InDeLs in genetic epidemiological studies.

  7. Launch of new e-learning course “Safety during LS1”

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    After 3 years of activity, the LHC and the rest of the accelerator chain have been shut down for about 2 years (from February 2013 to December 2014) due to maintenance and upgrade work, on the surface as well as underground.   CERN has developed a new e-learning course related to this Long Shutdown period (LS1) so as to provide all the collaborators working in the LS1 area with accurate security-oriented information. The objectives of this new course are to: Present LS1 and its context, Identify CERN facilities’ major risks, Identify the main risks associated with our co-activities, Explain how safety issues are being handled at CERN, Present all the basic safety measures to be respected, Present all emergency and rescue instructions. The course is available via the e-learning SIR application. It is compulsory for all newcomers at CERN, along with the “CERN Safety Introduction” training. It is also highly recommended that people who were already w...

  8. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of 50 to 100-KDa components from B16 melanoma culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying-Song; Zhang, X U; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2015-07-01

    The development of immunological therapies for melanoma has been of considerable concern in recent years. Whole tumor cell lysates have been used to develop antitumor vaccines, but the effective components of the lysates have not been identified. In the present study, protein elements were purified from the B16 supernatant to analyze the in vitro chemotaxis towards mouse spleen lymphocytes using a Boyden chamber. Prior to establishing a B16 melanoma model, C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with these proteins, and melanoma growth, tumor appearance time and behavioral changes were observed. Next, the cytotoxicity and subsets of the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and the histological characteristics of the melanoma were analyzed. The isolated purified fragments of B16 melanoma culture supernatant had strong antitumor effects. The possible antitumor mechanism was delineated, and was identified to possibly be through the activation of cluster of differentiation 8-positive T cells and the promotion of B16 cell differentiation. These methods will provide a novel insight into understanding antitumor immunological mechanisms and provide a potential avenue for immunotherapy.

  9. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis supernatant from a fermentation process to improve bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Diez, Angel E; Estrada-Castañeda, Kelly J; Castañeda-Sandoval, Laura M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of a nutrient-rich organic waste, namely the cell-free supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis (BtS) gathered from fermentation, as a biostimulating agent to improve and sustain microbial populations and their enzymatic activities, thereby assisting in the bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil at a high dose (70 mg kg(-1)). Experiments were performed for up to 80 d. Chlorpyrifos degradation and its major metabolic product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); total microbial populations were enumerated by direct counts in specific medium; and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was measured as an index of soil microbial activity. Throughout the experiment, there was higher chlorpyrifos degradation in soil supplemented with BtS (83.1%) as compared to non-supplemented soil. TCP formation and degradation occurred in all soils, but the greatest degradation (30.34%) was observed in soil supplemented with BtS. The total microbial populations were significantly improved by supplementation with BtS. The application of chlorpyrifos to soil inhibited the enzymatic activity; however, this negative effect was counteracted by BtS, inducing an increase of approximately 16% in FDA hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the potential of B. thuringiensis supernatant as a suitable biostimulation agent for enhancing chlorpyrifos and TCP biodegradation in chlorpyrifos-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Culture supernatants from V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated from different geographic areas induce cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge E; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether the HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is produced by V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic origins, including Mexico. Supernatant-induced haemolysis, vacuolating activity and cytotoxicity in Vero cells were recorded. PCR, RFLP analysis and molecular cloning were performed. All ElTor strains analyzed induced cellular vacuolation. Ribotype 2 strains isolates from the U.S. gulf coast yielded the highest titer of vacuolating activity. Eight of nine strains were haemolytic, while all strains were PCR positive for the hlyA gene. We cloned the hlyA gene from two ElTor strains, a toxigenic (2514-88, ctxAB+) and a non-toxigenic Mexican strain (CM 91-3, ctxAB-). Supernatant from those recombinant E. coli strains induced haemolysis, cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity. RFLP-PCR analysis revealed similarities in the hlyA gene from all strains tested. The HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is a widespread phenotype of epidemic V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains.

  11. Antifungal performance of extracellular chitinases and culture supernatants of Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Benjamín Moreno; Dunn, Michael F; Navarro, Karina Guillén; Meléndez, Francisco Holguín; Ortiz, Magdalena Hernández; Guevara, Sergio Encarnación; Palacios, Graciela Huerta

    2016-03-01

    The tropical and mycoparasite strain Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 was evaluated as an antagonist of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, causal agent of the Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) of banana. On zymograms of CFFSUR-B12 culture supernatants, we detected four chitinases of approximately 32 kDa (Chi32), 20 kDa (Chi20), and two with masses well over 170 kDa (ChiU) that showed little migration during denaturing electrophoresis at different concentrations of polyacrylamide. The thymol-sulphuric acid assay showed that the ChiU were glycosylated chitinases. Moreover, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS analysis revealed that the ChiU are the same protein and identical to a family 18 chitinase from Streptomyces sp. S4 (gi|498328075). Chi32 was similar to an extracellular protein from Streptomyces albus J1074 (gi|478687481) and Chi20 was non-significantly similar to chitinases from five different strains of Streptomyces (P > 0.05). Subsequently, Chi32 and Chi20 were partially purified by anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and tested against M. fijiensis. Chitinases failed to inhibit ascospore germination, but inhibited up to 35 and 62% of germ tube elongation and mycelial growth, respectively. We found that crude culture supernatant and living cells of S. galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 were the most effective in inhibiting M. fijiensis and are potential biocontrol agents of BSD.

  12. SalB inactivation modulates culture supernatant exoproteins and affects autolysis and viability in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Jayendra; Walker, Rachel G; Wilkinson, Mark C; Ward, Deborah; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2012-07-01

    The culture supernatant fraction of an Enterococcus faecalis gelE mutant of strain OG1RF contained elevated levels of the secreted antigen SalB. Using differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis (DIGE) the salB mutant was shown to possess a unique complement of exoproteins. Differentially abundant exoproteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Stress-related proteins including DnaK, Dps family protein, SOD, and NADH peroxidase were present in greater quantity in the OG1RF salB mutant culture supernatant. Moreover, several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division, including d-Ala-d-Lac ligase and EzrA, were present in reduced quantity in OG1RF salB relative to the parent strain. The salB mutant displayed reduced viability and anomalous cell division, and these phenotypes were exacerbated in a gelE salB double mutant. An epistatic relationship between gelE and salB was not identified with respect to increased autolysis and cell morphological changes observed in the salB mutant. SalB was purified as a six-histidine-tagged protein to investigate peptidoglycan hydrolytic activity; however, activity was not evident. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of reduced muropeptides from peptidoglycan digested with mutanolysin revealed that the salB mutant and OG1RF were indistinguishable.

  13. Study on the performance of the Particle Identification Detectors at LHCb after the LHC First Long Shutdown (LS1)

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    During the First Long Shutdown (LS1), the LHCb experiment has introduced major modification in the data-processing procedure and modified part of the detector to deal with the increased energy and the increased heavy-hadron production cross-section. In this contribution we review the performance of the particle identification detectors at LHCb, Rich, Calorimeters, and Muon system, after the LS1

  14. Underestimation of phosphorus fraction change in the supernatant after phosphorus adsorption onto iron oxides and iron oxide-natural organic matter complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinlong; Jiang, Tao; Yao, Ying; Wang, Jun; Cai, Yuanli; Green, Nelson W; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-05-01

    The phosphorus (P) fraction distribution and formation mechanism in the supernatant after P adsorption onto iron oxides and iron oxide-humic acid (HA) complexes were analyzed using the ultrafiltration method in this study. With an initial P concentration of 20mg/L (I=0.01mol/L and pH=7), it was shown that the colloid (1kDa-0.45μm) component of P accounted for 10.6%, 11.6%, 6.5%, and 4.0% of remaining total P concentration in the supernatant after P adsorption onto ferrihydrite (FH), goethite (GE), ferrihydrite-humic acid complex (FH-HA), goethite-humic acid complex (GE-HA), respectively. The oxide aggregates was the main mechanism for the formation of the colloid P in the supernatant. And colloidal adsorbent particles co-existing in the supernatant were another important reason for it. Additionally, dissolve organic matter dissolved from iron oxide-HA complexes could occupy large adsorption sites of colloidal iron causing less colloid P in the supernatant. Ultimately, we believe that the findings can provide a new way to deeply interpret the geochemical cycling of P, even when considering other contaminants such as organic pollutants, heavy metal ions, and arsenate at the sediment/soil-water interface in the real environment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Gastric cancer cell supernatant causes apoptosis and fibrosis in the peritoneal tissues and results in an environment favorable to peritoneal metastases, in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Di

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we examined effects of soluble factors released by gastric cancer cells on peritoneal mesothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods HMrSV5, a human peritoneal mesothelial cell line, was incubated with supernatants from gastric cancer cells. Morphological changes of HMrSV5 cells were observed. Apoptosis of HMrSV5 cells was observed under a transmission electron microscope and quantitatively determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax, bcl-2 were immunochemically evaluated. Results Conspicuous morphological changes indicating apoptosis were observed in HMrSV5 cells 24 h after treatment with the supernatants of gastric cancer cells. In vivo, peritoneal tissues treated with gastric cancer cell supernatant were substantially thickened and contained extensive fibrosis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that supernatants of gastric cancer cells can induce apoptosis and fibrosis in HMrSV5 human peritoneal mesothelial cells through supernatants in the early peritoneal metastasis, in a time-dependent manner, and indicate that soluble factors in the peritoneal cavity affect the morphology and function of mesothelial cells so that the resulting environment can become favorable to peritoneal metastases.

  16. High-energy emissions from the gamma-ray binary LS 5039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Cheng, K. S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hui, C. Y., E-mail: takata@hku.hk, E-mail: gene930@connect.hku.hk, E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-20

    We study mechanisms of multi-wavelength emissions (X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-rays) from the gamma-ray binary LS 5039. This paper is composed of two parts. In the first part, we report on results of observational analysis using 4 yr data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Due to the improvement of instrumental response function and increase of the statistics, the observational uncertainties of the spectrum in the ∼100-300 MeV bands and >10 GeV bands are significantly improved. The present data analysis suggests that the 0.1-100 GeV emissions from LS 5039 contain three different components: (1) the first component contributes to <1 GeV emissions around superior conjunction, (2) the second component dominates in the 1-10 GeV energy bands, and (3) the third component is compatible with the lower-energy tail of the TeV emissions. In the second part, we develop an emission model to explain the properties of the phase-resolved emissions in multi-wavelength observations. Assuming that LS 5039 includes a pulsar, we argue that emissions from both the magnetospheric outer gap and the inverse-Compton scattering process of cold-relativistic pulsar wind contribute to the observed GeV emissions. We assume that the pulsar is wrapped by two kinds of termination shock: Shock-I due to the interaction between the pulsar wind and the stellar wind and Shock-II due to the effect of the orbital motion. We propose that the X-rays are produced by the synchrotron radiation at the Shock-I region and the TeV gamma-rays are produced by the inverse-Compton scattering process at the Shock-II region.

  17. The Bacillus subtilis Conjugative Plasmid pLS20 Encodes Two Ribbon-Helix-Helix Type Auxiliary Relaxosome Proteins That Are Essential for Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Arribas, Andrés; Hao, Jian-An; Luque-Ortega, Juan R; Ramachandran, Gayetri; Val-Calvo, Jorge; Gago-Córdoba, César; González-Álvarez, Daniel; Abia, David; Alfonso, Carlos; Wu, Ling J; Meijer, Wilfried J J

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is the process by which a conjugative element (CE) is transferred horizontally from a donor to a recipient cell via a connecting pore. One of the first steps in the conjugation process is the formation of a nucleoprotein complex at the origin of transfer ( oriT ), where one of the components of the nucleoprotein complex, the relaxase, introduces a site- and strand specific nick to initiate the transfer of a single DNA strand into the recipient cell. In most cases, the nucleoprotein complex involves, besides the relaxase, one or more additional proteins, named auxiliary proteins, which are encoded by the CE and/or the host. The conjugative plasmid pLS20 replicates in the Gram-positive Firmicute bacterium Bacillus subtilis . We have recently identified the relaxase gene and the oriT of pLS20, which are separated by a region of almost 1 kb. Here we show that this region contains two auxiliary genes that we name aux1 LS20 and aux2 LS20 , and which we show are essential for conjugation. Both Aux1 LS20 and Aux2 LS20 are predicted to contain a Ribbon-Helix-Helix DNA binding motif near their N-terminus. Analyses of the purified proteins show that Aux1 LS20 and Aux2 LS20 form tetramers and hexamers in solution, respectively, and that they both bind preferentially to oriT LS20 , although with different characteristics and specificities. In silico analyses revealed that genes encoding homologs of Aux1 LS20 and/or Aux2 LS20 are located upstream of almost 400 relaxase genes of the Rel LS20 family (MOB L ) of relaxases. Thus, Aux1 LS20 and Aux2 LS20 of pLS20 constitute the founding member of the first two families of auxiliary proteins described for CEs of Gram-positive origin.

  18. Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS): A Study on Development, Validity and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Erkoc, Sultan Baliz; Isikli, Burhanettin; Metintas, Selma; Kalyoncu, Cemalettin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a scale to measure knowledge about hypertension among Turkish adults. The Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS) was generated based on content, face, and construct validity, internal consistency, test re-test reliability, and discriminative validity procedures. The final scale had 22 items with six sub-dimensions. The scale was applied to 457 individuals aged ≥18 years, and 414 of them were re-evaluated for test-retest reliability. The six sub-dimensio...

  19. Treatment of atopic dermatitis eczema with a high concentration of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 associated with an innovative gelling complex: a pilot study on adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Toscano, Marco; Vassena, Christian; Altomare, Gianfranco; Pigatto, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a highly concentrated Lactobacillus salivarius preparation containing a gelling complex formed by Streptococcus thermophilus ST10 and tara gum in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated an improvement in AD symptoms after administration of the probiotic strain L. salivarius LS01. S. thermophilus ST10 and tara gum create a gelling complex that adheres to intestinal mucus and improves barrier function. A prospective, controlled pilot trial was carried out to evaluate how the association of S. thermophilus ST10 and tara gum could improve the activity of L. salivarius LS01 administered at high doses to adults with AD. Twenty-five patients were included into the study: 13 were treated for 1 month with the active formulation, whereas 12 represented the placebo group. Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index was determined before and at the end of probiotic administration. Fecal samples were also collected to evaluate changes in bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus and clostridia. A significant improvement in SCORAD index was observed in the probiotic group after 1 month of treatment, whereas no significant changes occurred in placebo patients. A slight decrease in fecal S. aureus count was observed in probiotic-treated patients. Data obtained in this study suggest a potential role for L. salivarius LS01 in the treatment of AD. The addition of tara gum and S. thermophilus ST10 seems to improve the overall efficacy of the probiotic strain, in particular shortening the time required for the onset of the positive effects. Further studies to investigate the activity of this preparation are advisable.

  20. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Narges; Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza; Abdi, Khosro; Sarkar, Saeed; Minaian, Sara; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2009-01-01

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  1. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Narges [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza [Hydrometallurgy Research Unit, Research and Development Center, National Iranian Copper Industries Company, Sarcheshmeh, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Khosro [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarkar, Saeed [Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Minaian, Sara [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Hamid Reza [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza, E-mail: shahverd@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-03

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  2. Finite Element Simulation of Medium-Range Blast Loading Using LS-DYNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the Finite Element simulation of blast loading using LS-DYNA. The objective is to identify approaches to reduce the requirement of computation effort while maintaining reasonable accuracy, focusing on blast loading scheme, element size, and its relationship with scale of explosion. The study made use of the recently developed blast loading scheme in LS-DYNA, which removes the necessity to model the explosive in the numerical models but still maintains the advantages of nonlinear fluid-structure interaction. It was found that the blast loading technique could significantly reduce the computation effort. It was also found that the initial density of air in the numerical model could be purposely increased to partially compensate the error induced by the use of relatively large air elements. Using the numerical approach, free air blast above a scaled distance of 0.4 m/kg1/3 was properly simulated, and the fluid-structure interaction at the same location could be properly duplicated using proper Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE coupling scheme. The study also showed that centrifuge technique, which has been successfully employed in model tests to investigate the blast effects, may be used when simulating the effect of medium- to large-scale explosion at small scaled distance.

  3. LS1 to LHC Report: LHC key handed back to Operations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    This week, after 23 months of hard work involving about 1000 people every day, the key to the LHC was symbolically handed back to the Operations team. The first long shutdown is over and the machine is getting ready for a restart that will bring its beam to full energy in early spring.   Katy Foraz, LS1 activities coordinator, symbolically hands the LHC key to the operations team, represented, left to right, by Jorg Wenninger, Mike Lamont and Mirko Pojer. All the departments, all the machines and all the experimental areas were involved in the first long shutdown of the LHC that began in February 2013. Over the last two years, the Bulletin has closely followed  all the work and achievements that had been carefully included in the complex general schedule drawn up and managed by the team led by Katy Foraz from the Engineering Department. “The work on the schedule began two years before the start of LS1 and one of the first things we realised was that there was no commercial...

  4. Signal Simulation and Experimental Research on Acoustic Emission using LS-DYNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianchao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To calculate sound wave velocity, we performed the Hsu-Nielsen lead break experiment using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA finite element software. First, we identified the key problems in the finite element analysis, such as selecting the exciting force, dividing the grid density, and setting the calculation steps. Second, we established the finite element model of the sound wave transmission in a plate under the lead break simulation. Results revealed not only the transmission characteristics of the sound wave but also the simulation and calculation of the transmission velocity of the longitudinal and transverse waves through the time travel curve of the vibration velocity of the sound wave at various nodes. Finally, the Hsu-Nielsen lead break experiment was implemented. The results of the theoretical calculation and simulation analysis were consistent with the experimental results, thus demonstrating that the research method using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA software to simulate sound wave transmissions in acoustic emission experiments is feasible and effective.

  5. The successful completion of LS1, consolidation and preparations for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    For CERN’s Technology (TE) Department, success in LS1 is more important than finishing. In other words, the aim is to reach the finish line having maintained the highest standards of safety, quality and performance. Other challenges need to be faced too, before, during and after LS1, and the Department always approaches them with optimism. The new Department Head tells us how his 750 colleagues work to keep the Laboratory at the cutting edge of high-energy physics technology.   José Miguel Jiménez. “We can only grow once we’ve stabilised our base.” The message presented by José Miguel Jiménez, who stepped into the role of TE Department Head in January 2014, is clear, as are his priorities going forward: “The Technology Department needs to be consolidated in terms of both its personnel and its assembly and test infrastructures, some of which are unique.” The TE Department is tasked with pr...

  6. Legionella saoudiensis sp. nov., isolated from a sewage water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrai, Leena Hussein; Azhar, Esam Ibraheem; Yasir, Muhammad; Jardot, Priscilla; Barrassi, Lina; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Pagnier, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, bacilli-shaped bacterial strain, LS-1T, was isolated from a sewage water sample collected in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The taxonomic position of strain LS-1T was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and those of four other genes indicated that strain LS-1T belongs to the genus Legionella in the family Legionellaceae. Regarding the 16S rRNA gene, the most closely related species are Legionella rowbothamii LLAP-6T (98.6 %) and Legionella lytica L2T (98.5 %). The mip gene sequence of strain LS-1T showed 94 % sequence similarity with that of L. lytica L2T and 93 % similarity with that of L. rowbothamii LLAP-6T. Strain LS-1T grew optimally at a temperature of 32 °C on a buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE) agar plate in a 5 % CO2 atmosphere and had a flagellum. The combined phylogenetic, phenotypic and genomic sequence data suggest that strain LS-1T represents a novel species of the genus Legionella, for which the name Legionella saoudiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LS-1T (=DSM 101682T=CSUR P2101T).

  7. The Bacillus subtilis Conjugative Plasmid pLS20 Encodes Two Ribbon-Helix-Helix Type Auxiliary Relaxosome Proteins That Are Essential for Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Miguel-Arribas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial conjugation is the process by which a conjugative element (CE is transferred horizontally from a donor to a recipient cell via a connecting pore. One of the first steps in the conjugation process is the formation of a nucleoprotein complex at the origin of transfer (oriT, where one of the components of the nucleoprotein complex, the relaxase, introduces a site- and strand specific nick to initiate the transfer of a single DNA strand into the recipient cell. In most cases, the nucleoprotein complex involves, besides the relaxase, one or more additional proteins, named auxiliary proteins, which are encoded by the CE and/or the host. The conjugative plasmid pLS20 replicates in the Gram-positive Firmicute bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We have recently identified the relaxase gene and the oriT of pLS20, which are separated by a region of almost 1 kb. Here we show that this region contains two auxiliary genes that we name aux1LS20 and aux2LS20, and which we show are essential for conjugation. Both Aux1LS20 and Aux2LS20 are predicted to contain a Ribbon-Helix-Helix DNA binding motif near their N-terminus. Analyses of the purified proteins show that Aux1LS20 and Aux2LS20 form tetramers and hexamers in solution, respectively, and that they both bind preferentially to oriTLS20, although with different characteristics and specificities. In silico analyses revealed that genes encoding homologs of Aux1LS20 and/or Aux2LS20 are located upstream of almost 400 relaxase genes of the RelLS20 family (MOBL of relaxases. Thus, Aux1LS20 and Aux2LS20 of pLS20 constitute the founding member of the first two families of auxiliary proteins described for CEs of Gram-positive origin.

  8. The Ne3LS Network, Quebec's initiative to evaluate the impact and promote a responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Charles-Anica; Emond, Claude; Battista, Renaldo; Parizeau, Marie-Helene; Beaudry, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The spectacular progress made by nanosciences and nanotechnologies elicits as much hope and fear. Consequently, a great number of research and training initiatives on the ethical, environmental, economic, legal and social issues regarding nanotechnology development (Ne 3 LS) are emerging worldwide. In Quebec, Canada, a Task Force was mandated by NanoQuebec to conceive a Ne 3 LS research and training strategy to assess those issues. This Task Force brought together experts from universities, governments or industry working in nanosciences and nanotechnologies or in Ne 3 LS. Their resulting action plan, made public in November 2006, contained several recommendations, including the creation of a knowledge network (Ne 3 LS Network). In the following years, after consulting with numerous key players concerned with the possible impacts of nanosciences and nanotechnologies in Quebec, the Ne 3 LS Network was launched in January 2010 in partnership with the Fonds quebecois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies, the Fonds quebecois de la recherche sur la societe et la culture and the Fonds de la recherche en sante du Quebec, NanoQuebec, the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauve en sante et en securite du travail as well as the University of Montreal. Its objectives are to 1) Foster the development of Ne 3 LS research activities (grants and fellowships); 2) Spearhead the Canadian and international Ne 3 LS network; 3) Take part in the training of researchers and experts; 4) Encourage the creation of interactive tools for the general public; 5) Facilitate collaboration between decision-makers and experts; 6) Involve the scientific community through a host of activities (symposium, conferences, thematic events); 7) Build multidisciplinary research teams to evaluate the impact of nanotechnology.

  9. HIGH-ENERGY OBSERVATIONS OF PSR B1259–63/LS 2883 THROUGH THE 2014 PERIASTRON PASSAGE: CONNECTING X-RAYS TO THE GeV FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P. H. T.; Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Takata, J. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Okazaki, A. T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Hui, C. Y., E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    The binary system PSR B1259–63/LS 2883 is well sampled in radio, X-rays, and TeV γ-rays, and shows orbital-phase-dependent variability in these frequencies. The first detection of GeV γ-rays from the system was made around the 2010 periastron passage. In this Letter, we present an analysis of X-ray and γ-ray data obtained by the Swift/XRT, NuSTAR/FPM, and Fermi/LAT, through the recent periastron passage which occurred on 2014 May 4. While PSR B1259–63/LS 2883 was not detected by the Large Area Telescope before and during this passage, we show that the GeV flares occurred at a similar orbital phase as in early 2011, thus establishing the repetitive nature of the post-periastron GeV flares. Multiple flares each lasting for a few days have been observed and short-term variability is seen as well. We also found X-ray flux variation contemporaneous with the GeV flare for the first time. Strong evidence of the keV-to-GeV connection came from the broadband high-energy spectra, which we interpret as synchrotron radiation from the shocked pulsar wind.

  10. Error-prone PCR mutation of Ls-EPSPS gene from Liriope spicata conferring to its enhanced glyphosate-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chanjuan; Xie, Hongjie; Chen, Shiguo; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour has a unique LsEPSPS structure contributing to the highest-ever-recognized natural glyphosate tolerance. The transformed LsEPSPS confers increased glyphosate resistance to E. coli and A. thaliana. However, the increased glyphosate-resistance level is not high enough to be of commercial value. Therefore, LsEPSPS was subjected to error-prone PCR to screen mutant EPSPS genes capable of endowing higher resistance levels. A mutant designated as ELs-EPSPS having five mutated amino acids (37Val, 67Asn, 277Ser, 351Gly and 422Gly) was selected for its ability to confer improved resistance to glyphosate. Expression of ELs-EPSPS in recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) strains enhanced resistance to glyphosate in comparison to both the LsEPSPS-transformed and -untransformed controls. Furthermore, transgenic ELs-EPSPS A. thaliana was about 5.4 fold and 2-fold resistance to glyphosate compared with the wild-type and the Ls-EPSPS-transgenic plants, respectively. Therefore, the mutated ELs-EPSPS gene has potential value for has potential for the development of glyphosate-resistant crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflorescence Development and the Role of LsFT in Regulating Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Ding, Yunyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Yan, Shuangshuang; Luo, Chen; Jiang, Xiaotang; Ge, Danfeng; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetable that is consumed during its vegetative growth. The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is induced by high temperature, which has significant economic effect on lettuce production. However, the progression of floral transition and the molecular regulation of bolting are largely unknown. Here we morphologically characterized the inflorescence development and functionally analyzed the FLOWERING LOCUS T (LsFT) gene during bolting regulation in lettuce. We described the eight developmental stages during floral transition process. The expression of LsFT was negatively correlated with bolting in different lettuce varieties, and was promoted by heat treatment. Overexpression of LsFT could recover the late-flowering phenotype of ft-2 mutant. Knockdown of LsFT by RNA interference dramatically delayed bolting in lettuce, and failed to respond to high temperature. Therefore, this study dissects the process of inflorescence development and characterizes the role of LsFT in bolting regulation in lettuce. PMID:29403510

  12. Inflorescence Development and the Role of LsFT in Regulating Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Ding, Yunyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Yan, Shuangshuang; Luo, Chen; Jiang, Xiaotang; Ge, Danfeng; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetable that is consumed during its vegetative growth. The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is induced by high temperature, which has significant economic effect on lettuce production. However, the progression of floral transition and the molecular regulation of bolting are largely unknown. Here we morphologically characterized the inflorescence development and functionally analyzed the FLOWERING LOCUS T (LsFT) gene during bolting regulation in lettuce. We described the eight developmental stages during floral transition process. The expression of LsFT was negatively correlated with bolting in different lettuce varieties, and was promoted by heat treatment. Overexpression of LsFT could recover the late-flowering phenotype of ft-2 mutant. Knockdown of LsFT by RNA interference dramatically delayed bolting in lettuce, and failed to respond to high temperature. Therefore, this study dissects the process of inflorescence development and characterizes the role of LsFT in bolting regulation in lettuce.

  13. Performance of hemicellulolytic enzymes in culture supernatants from a wide range of fungi on insoluble wheat straw and corn fiber fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van M.P.; Toth, K.; Schols, H.A.; Szakacs, G.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a good source of hemicellulolytic enzymes for biomass degradation. Enzyme preparations were obtained as culture supernatants from 78 fungal isolates grown on wheat straw as carbon source. These enzyme preparations were utilized in the hydrolysis of insoluble wheat straw and

  14. Increased hydrazine during partial nitritation process in upflow air-lift reactor fed with supernatant of anaerobic digester effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeongdong [University of Alberta, Alberta (Canada); Jung, Sokhee [Samsung SDS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Young-Ho [Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The optimal balance of ammonium and nitrite is essential for successful operation of the subsequent anammox process. We conducted a partial nitritation experiment using an upflow air-lift reactor to provide operational parameters for achieving the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrite, by feeding supernatant of anaerobic digester effluent, high-nitrogen containing rejection water. Semi-continuous operation results show that HRT should be set between 15 and 17 hours to achieve the optimum ration of 1.3 of NO{sub 2}-N/NH{sub 4}-N. In the UAR, nitritation was the dominant reaction due to high concentration of ammonia and low biodegradable organics. The influent contained low concentrations of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. However, hydrazine increased during partial nitritation by ⁓60-130% although there was no potential anammox activity in the reactor. The partial nitritation process successfully provided the ratio of nitrogen species for the anammox reaction, and relived the nitrite restraint on the anammox activity by increasing hydrazine concentration.

  15. Properties of Two Novel Esterases Identified from Culture Supernatant of Penicillium purpurogenum Grown on Sugar Beet Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleas, Gabriela; Callegari, Eduardo; Sepulveda, Romina; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium purpurogenum grows on a variety of natural carbon sources, such as sugar beet pulp, and secretes to the medium a large number of enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate components of lignocellulose. Sugar beet pulp is rich in pectin, and the purpose of this work is to identify novel esterases produced by the fungus, which may participate in pectin degradation. Partially purified culture supernatants of the fungus grown on sugar beet pulp were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Peptides thus identified, which may be part of potential esterases were probed against the proteins deduced from the fungal genome sequence. The cDNAs of two putative esterases identified were expressed in Pichia pastoris and their properties studied. One of these enzymes, named FAET, is a feruloyl esterase, while the other, PE, is classified as a pectin methyl esterase. These findings add to our knowledge of the enzymology of pectin degradation by Penicillium purpurogenum, and define properties of two novel esterases acting on de-esterification of pectin. Their availability may be useful as tools for the study of pectin structure and degradation.

  16. Presep: predicting the propensity of a protein being secreted into the supernatant when expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tian

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris is commonly used for the production of recombinant proteins due to its preferential secretion of recombinant proteins, resulting in lower production costs and increased yields of target proteins. However, not all recombinant proteins can be successfully secreted in P. pastoris. A computational method that predicts the likelihood of a protein being secreted into the supernatant would be of considerable value; however, to the best of our knowledge, no such tool has yet been developed. We present a machine-learning approach called Presep to assess the likelihood of a recombinant protein being secreted by P. pastoris based on its pseudo amino acid composition (PseAA. Using a 20-fold cross validation, Presep demonstrated a high degree of accuracy, with Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC and overall accuracy (Q2 scores of 0.78 and 95%, respectively. Computational results were validated experimentally, with six β-galactosidase genes expressed in P. pastoris strain GS115 to verify Presep model predictions. A strong correlation (R(2 = 0.967 was observed between Presep prediction secretion propensity and the experimental secretion percentage. Together, these results demonstrate the ability of the Presep model for predicting the secretion propensity of P. pastoris for a given protein. This model may serve as a valuable tool for determining the utility of P. pastoris as a host organism prior to initiating biological experiments. The Presep prediction tool can be freely downloaded at http://www.mobioinfor.cn/Presep.

  17. Putative new heat-stable cytotoxic and enterotoxic factors in culture supernatant of Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by the ingestion of contaminated water, especially by Escherichia coli, are important to define the virulence properties of these bacteria. Due to frequent infantile diarrhea in the city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, the phenotypic and genotypic diarrheagenic properties of E. coli isolated from drinking water were studied. The culture supernatants of 39 (40% among a total of 97 E. coli isolates from drinking water were positive by suckling mouse assay and induced cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities were present in the fraction with less than 10 kDa and were not lost when heated up to 60°C and 100°C for 30 minutes. PCR assays showed that among these 39 Vero cytotoxigenic E. coli, four (10.2% were positive for ST II (estB and two (5% positive for αHly (hlyA. Gene amplification of SLT (stx 1, stx 2, ST I (estA, LT (eltI, eltII, EAST1 (astA, EHly (enhly and plasmid-encoded enterotoxin (pet were not observed. This heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin of E. coli is probably a new putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, as a toxin presenting these characteristics has not yet been described.

  18. MicroRNA Expression in Salivary Supernatant of Patients with Pancreatic Cancer and Its Relationship with ZHENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, diagnosis and prescriptions are based on the signs and symptoms which are recognized as ZHENG. The cornerstone of TCM is to differentially treat one ZHENG from others, which is also known as syndrome differentiation, and this relies on the gathering of clinical information through inspection, auscultation and olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. However, the biomolecular basis of the ZHENG remains unclear. In this study, the expressions of 384 cancer-related miRNAs in salivary supernatant of patients with pancreatic cancer were assessed by miRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR array, and the different expression patterns of miRNA in three different groups of ZHENG were studied with use of real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR. Some miRNAs were found to be specifically expressed in some ZHENGs, for instance, miR-17, miR-21, and miR-181b in Shi-Re ZHENG and miR-196a in Pi-Xu ZHENG. This indicates that these miRNAs may play important roles in different ZHENG condition. Therefore, this study to some extent revealed the molecular basis of TCM ZHENG in pancreatic cancer.

  19. Determining antioxidant activities of lactobacilli cell-free supernatants by cellular antioxidant assay: a comparison with traditional methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Xing

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS, reducing power (RP, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP. Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs.

  20. Vacuum Acceptance Tests for the UHV Room Temperature Vacuum System of the LHC during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Cattenoz, G; Bregliozzi, G; Calegari, D; Gallagher, J; Marraffa, A; Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    During the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) first long shut down (LS1), a large number of vacuum tests are carried out on consolidated or newly fabricated devices. In such a way, the vacuum compatibility is assessed before installation in the UHV system of the LHC. According to the equipment’s nature, the vacuum acceptance tests consist in functional checks, leak test, outgassing rate measurements, evaluation of contaminants by Residual Gas Analysis (RGA), pumping speed measurements and qualification of the H2 sticking probability of Non-Evaporable-Getter (NEG) coating. In this paper, the methods used for the tests and the acceptance criteria are described. A summary of the measured vacuum characteristics for the tested components is also given.

  1. MIMO to LS-MIMO: A road to realization of 5G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppati, Naveena; Pavani, K.; Sharma, Dinesh; Sharma, Purnima K.

    2017-07-01

    MIMO means multiple inputs multiple outputs. As it refers MIMO is a RF technology used in many new technologies these days to increase link capacity and spectral efficiency. MIMO is used in Wi-Fi, LTE, 4G, 5G and other wireless technologies. This paper describes the earlier history of MIMO-OFDM and the antenna beam forming development in MIMO and types of MIMO. Also this treatise describes several decoding algorithms. The MIMO combined with OFDM increases the channel capacity. But the main problem is in estimating the transmitted signal from the received signal. So the channel knowledge is to be known in estimating the channel capacity. The advancement in MIMO-OFDM is Massive MIMO which is beneficial in providing additional data capacity in the increased traffic environment is described. In this memoir various application scenarios of LS-MIMO which increases the capacity are discussed.

  2. Radioiodinated VEGF to image tumor angiogenesis in a LS180 tumor xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Nishii, Ryuichi; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kawai, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth or metastasis. A method involving noninvasive detection of angiogenic activity in vivo would provide diagnostic information regarding antiangiogenic therapy targeting vascular endothelial cells as well as important insight into the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (flt-1 and KDR) system in tumor biology. We evaluated radioiodinated VEGF 121 , which displays high binding affinity for KDR, and VEGF 165 , which possesses high binding affinity for flt-1 and low affinity for KDR, as angiogenesis imaging agents using the LS180 tumor xenograft model. Methods: VEGF 121 and VEGF 165 were labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. Biodistribution was observed in an LS180 human colon cancer xenograft model. Additionally, autoradiographic imaging and immunohistochemical staining of tumors were performed with 125 I-VEGF 121 . Results: 125 I-VEGF 121 and 125 I-VEGF 165 exhibited strong, continuous uptake by tumors and the uterus, an organ characterized by angiogenesis. 125 I-VEGF 121 uptake in tumors was twofold higher than that of 125 I-VEGF 165 (9.12±98 and 4.79±1.08 %ID/g at 2 h, respectively). 125 I-VEGF 121 displayed higher tumor to nontumor (T/N) ratios in most normal organs in comparison with 125 I-VEGF 165 . 125 I-VEGF 121 accumulation in tumors decreased with increasing tumor volume. Autoradiographic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that the difference in 125 I-VEGF 121 tumor accumulation correlated with degree of tumor vascularity. Conclusion: Radioiodinated VEGF 121 is a promising tracer for noninvasive delineation of angiogenesis in vivo

  3. Factors associated with falling in early, treated Parkinson's disease: The NET-PD LS1 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kelvin L; Elm, Jordan J; Wielinski, Catherine L; Simon, David K; Aminoff, Michael J; Christine, Chadwick W; Liang, Grace S; Hauser, Robert A; Sudarsky, Lewis; Umeh, Chizoba C; Voss, Tiffini; Juncos, Jorge; Fang, John Y; Boyd, James T; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan; Mari, Zoltan; Morgan, John C; Wills, Anne-Marie; Lee, Stephen L; Parashos, Sotirios A

    2017-06-15

    Recognizing the factors associated with falling in Parkinson's disease (PD) would improve identification of at-risk individuals. To examine frequency of falling and baseline characteristics associated with falling in PD using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1) dataset. The LS-1 database included 1741 early treated PD subjects (median 4year follow-up). Baseline characteristics were tested for a univariate association with post-baseline falling during the trial. Significant variables were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. A separate analysis using a negative binomial model investigated baseline factors on fall rate. 728 subjects (42%) fell during the trial, including at baseline. A baseline history of falls was the factor most associated with post-baseline falling. Men had lower odds of post-baseline falling compared to women, but for men, the probability of a post-baseline fall increased with age such that after age 70, men and women had similar odds of falling. Other baseline factors associated with a post-baseline fall and increased fall rate included the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) Activities of Daily Living (ADL) score, total functional capacity (TFC), baseline ambulatory capacity score and dopamine agonist monotherapy. Falls are common in early treated PD. The biggest risk factor for falls in PD remains a history of falling. Measures of functional ability (UPDRS ADL, TFC) and ambulatory capacity are novel clinical risk factors needing further study. A significant age by sex interaction may help to explain why age has been an inconsistent risk factor for falls in PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. All you need is shape: Predicting shear banding in sand with LS-DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Reid; Andò, Edward; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Andrade, José E.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents discrete element method (DEM) simulations with experimental comparisons at multiple length scales-underscoring the crucial role of particle shape. The simulations build on technological advances in the DEM furnished by level sets (LS-DEM), which enable the mathematical representation of the surface of arbitrarily-shaped particles such as grains of sand. We show that this ability to model shape enables unprecedented capture of the mechanics of granular materials across scales ranging from macroscopic behavior to local behavior to particle behavior. Specifically, the model is able to predict the onset and evolution of shear banding in sands, replicating the most advanced high-fidelity experiments in triaxial compression equipped with sequential X-ray tomography imaging. We present comparisons of the model and experiment at an unprecedented level of quantitative agreement-building a one-to-one model where every particle in the more than 53,000-particle array has its own avatar or numerical twin. Furthermore, the boundary conditions of the experiment are faithfully captured by modeling the membrane effect as well as the platen displacement and tilting. The results show a computational tool that can give insight into the physics and mechanics of granular materials undergoing shear deformation and failure, with computational times comparable to those of the experiment. One quantitative measure that is extracted from the LS-DEM simulations that is currently not available experimentally is the evolution of three dimensional force chains inside and outside of the shear band. We show that the rotations on the force chains are correlated to the rotations in stress principal directions.

  5. A coupling of empirical explosive blast loads to ALE air domains in LS-DYNA (registered)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, Todd P

    2010-01-01

    A coupling method recently implemented in LS-DYNA (registered) allows empirical explosive blast loads to be applied to air domains treated with the multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. Previously, when simulating structures subjected to blast loads, two methods of analysis were available: a purely Lagrangian approach or one involving the ALE and Lagrangian formulations coupled with a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) algorithm. In the former, air blast pressure is computed with empirical equations and directly applied to Lagrangian elements of the structure. In the latter approach, the explosive as well as the air are explicitly modeled and the blast wave propagating through the ALE air domain impinges on the Lagrangian structure through FSI. Since the purely Lagrangian approach avoids modeling the air between the explosive and structure, a significant computational cost savings can be realized - especially so when large standoff distances are considered. The shortcoming of the empirical blast equations is their inability to account for focusing or shadowing of the blast waves due to their interaction with structures which may intervene between the explosive and primary structure of interest. The new method presented here obviates modeling the explosive and air leading up the structure. Instead, only the air immediately surrounding the Lagrangian structures need be modeled with ALE, while effects of the far-field blast are applied to the outer face of that ALE air domain with the empirical blast equations; thus, focusing and shadowing effects can be accommodated yet computational costs are kept to a minimum. Comparison of the efficiency and accuracy of this new method with other approaches shows that the ability of LS-DYNA (registered) to model a variety of new blast scenarios has been greatly extended.

  6. Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-05-10

    Bacillus velezensis LS69 was found to exhibit antagonistic activity against a diverse spectrum of pathogenic bacteria. It has one circular chromosome of 3,917,761bp with 3,643 open reading frames. Genome analysis identified ten gene clusters involved in nonribosomal synthesis of polyketides (macrolactin, bacillaene and difficidin), lipopeptides (surfactin, fengycin, bacilysin and iturin A) and bacteriocins (amylolysin and amylocyclicin). In addition, B. velezensis LS69 was found to contain a series of genes involved in enhancing plant growth and triggering plant immunity. Whole genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69 will provide a basis for elucidation of its biocontrol mechanisms and facilitate its applications in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of an Alternative Fuel Form for the Liquid Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, William A. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the recent studies investigating the use of liquid salts as reactor coolants have utilized a core configuration of graphite prismatic fuel block assemblies with TRISO particles embedded into cylindrical fuel compacts arranged in a triangular pitch lattice. Although many calculations have been performed for this fuel form in gas cooled reactors, it would be instructive to investigate whether an alternative fuel form may yield improved performance for the liquid salt-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This study investigates how variations in the fuel form will impact the performance of the LS-VHTR during normal and accident conditions and compares the results with a similar analysis that was recently completed for a LS-VHTR core made up of prismatic block fuel. (author)

  8. Supernatants from oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter activation induced by periodontopathogens in monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, O A; Ebersole, J L; Huang, C B

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial and host cell products during coinfections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1-positive (HIV-1(+)) patients regulate HIV-1 recrudescence in latently infected cells (e.g. T cells, monocytes/macrophages), impacting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A high frequency of oral opportunistic infections (e.g. periodontitis) in HIV-1(+) patients has been demonstrated; however, their potential to impact HIV-1 exacerbation is unclear. We sought to determine the ability of supernatants derived from oral epithelial cells (OKF4) and human gingival fibroblasts (Gin-4) challenged with periodontal pathogens, to modulate the HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages. BF24 monocytes/macrophages transfected with the HIV-1 promoter driving the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, or Treponema denticola in the presence of supernatants from OKF4 or Gin4 cells either unstimulated or previously pulsed with bacteria. CAT levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine production was evaluated by Luminex beadlyte assays. OKF4 and Gin4 supernatants enhanced HIV-1 promoter activation particularly related to F. nucleatum challenge. An additive effect was observed in HIV-1 promoter activation when monocytes/macrophages were simultaneously stimulated with gingival cell supernatants and bacterial extracts. OKF4 cells produced higher levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukins -6 and -8 in response to F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Preincubation of OKF4 supernatants with anti-GM-CSF reduced the additive effect in periodontopathogen-induced HIV-1 promoter activation. These results suggest that soluble mediators produced by gingival resident cells in response to periodontopathogens could contribute to HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes

  9. Xerostomia Quality of Life Scale (XeQoLS) questionnaire: validation of Italian version in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastrucci, Luciana; Bertocci, Silvia; Bini, Vittorio; Borghesi, Simona; De Majo, Roberta; Rampini, Andrea; Gennari, Pietro Giovanni; Pernici, Paola

    2018-01-01

    To translate the Xerostomia Quality-of-Life Scale (XeQoLS) into Italian language (XeQoLS-IT). Xerostomia is the most relevant acute and late toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT). Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are subjective report on patient perception of health status. The XeQoLS consists of 15 items and measures the impact of salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia on the four major domains of oral health-related QoL. The XeQoLS-IT was created through a linguistic validation multi-step process: forward translation (TF), backward translation (TB) and administration of the questionnaire to 35 Italian patients with head and neck cancer. Translation was independently carried out by two radiation oncologists who were Italian native speakers. The two versions were compared and adapted to obtain a reconciled version, version 1 (V1). V1 was translated back into English by an Italian pro skilled in teaching English. After review of discrepancies and choice of the most appropriate wording for clarity and similarity to the original, version 2 (V2) was reached by consensus. To evaluate version 2, patients completed the XeQoLS-IT questionnaire and also underwent a cognitive debriefing. The questionnaire was considered simple by the patients. The clarity of the instructions and the easiness to answer questions had a mean value of 4.5 (± 0.71) on a scale from 1 to 5. A valid multi-step process led to the creation of the final version of the XeQoLS-IT, a suitable instrument for the perception of xerostomia in patients treated with RT.

  10. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60 Reforms the Rhizosphere Bacterial Community and Improves Growth Conditions in Cucumber Plug Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable plug seedling has become the most important way to produce vegetable seedlings in China. This seedling method can significantly improve the quality and yield of vegetables compared to conventional methods. In the process of plug seedling, chemical fertilizers or pesticides are often used to improve the yield of the seedlings albeit with increasing concerns. Meanwhile, little is known about the impact of beneficial bacteria on the rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of vegetables during plug seedling. In this study, we applied a culture-independent next-generation sequencing-based approach and investigated the impact of a plant beneficial bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60, on the composition and dynamics of rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of cucumbers during plug seedling. Our results showed that application of L-S60 significantly altered the structure of the bacterial community associated with the cucumber seedling; presence of beneficial rhizosphere species such as Bacillus, Rhodanobacter, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Nonomuraea, and Agrobacterium was higher upon L-S60 treatment than in the control group. We also measured the impact of L-S60 application on the physiological properties of the cucumber seedlings as well as the availability of main mineral elements in the seedling at different time points during the plug seedling. Results from those measurements indicated that L-S60 application promoted growth conditions of cucumber seedlings and that more available mineral elements were detected in the cucumber seedlings from the L-S60 treated group than from the control group. The findings in this study provided evidence for the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizosphere bacteria on the bacterial community composition and growth conditions of the vegetables during plug seedling.

  11. DISEÑO Y EVALUACIÓN DE UN CLASIFICADOR DE TEXTURAS BASADO EN LS-SVM

    OpenAIRE

    Beitmantt Cárdenas Quintero; Nelson Enrique Vera Parra; Pablo Emilio Rozo García

    2013-01-01

    Evaluar el desempeño y el costo computacional de diferentes arquitecturas y metodologías Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) ante la segmentación de imágenes por textura y a partir de dichos resultados postular un modelo de un clasificador de texturas LS-SVM.  Metodología: Ante un problema de clasificación binaria representado por la segmentación  de 32 imágenes, organizadas en 4 grupos y formadas por pares de texturas típicas (granito/corteza, ladrillo/tapicería, madera/mármol, teji...

  12. Compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum culture supernatants with potential pro-healing and anti-pathogenic properties in skin chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto N; Sesto Cabral, Maria E; Arena, Mario E; Arrighi, Carlos F; Arroyo Aguilar, Abel A; Valdéz, Juan C

    2015-03-01

    It is necessary to advance the field of alternative treatments for chronic wounds that are financially accessible to the least economically developed countries. Previously we demonstrated that topical applications of Lactobacillus plantarum culture supernatants (LAPS) on human-infected chronic wounds reduce the pathogenic bioburden, the amount of necrotic tissue, and the wound area, as well as promote debridement, granulation tissue, and wound healing. To study LAPS chemically and biologically and to find potential molecules responsible for its pro-healing and anti-pathogenic properties in chronic wounds. (1) Chemical analysis: extracts were subjected to a column chromatography and the fractions obtained were studied by GCMS. (2) Quantification: dl-lactic acid (commercial kit), phenolic compounds (Folin-Ciocalteu), H2O2 (micro-titration), and cations (flame photometry). (3) Biological analysis: autoinducers type 2 (AI-2) (Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay), DNAase activity (Agar DNAase), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm inhibition (crystal violet technique). According to its biological activity, the most significant molecules found by GCMS were the following: antimicrobials (mevalonolactone, 5-methyl-hydantoine, benzoic acid, etc.); surfactants (di-palmitin, distearin, and 1,5-monolinolein); anesthetics (barbituric acid derivatives), and AI-2 precursors (4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione and 2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofurane). Concentrations measured (µg/mL): DL-lactic acid (11.71 ± 1.53) and H2O2 (36 ± 2.0); phenolic compounds (485.2 ± 15.20); sodium (370 ± 17); potassium 920 ± 24); calcium (20 ± 4); and magnesium (15 ± 3). DNAase from LAPS had activity on genomic DNA from PMNs and P. aeruginosa. The molecules and biological activities found in LAPS could explain the observed effects in human chronic wounds.

  13. IL WORKSHOP DI FONETICA IN ITALIANO L2/LS: ACCENTO DI PAROLA E DURATA SILLABICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Calabrò

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lavorare sugli aspetti fonetico-fonologici di una lingua straniera risulta quanto mai importante e fondamentale, soprattutto se la L1 degli apprendenti la L2/LS è molto distante. Attraverso un’esperienza iniziata con studenti sinofoni del progetto Marco Polo / Turandot, le attività inserite nel workshop di fonetica nell’italiano L2 si presentano come proposta di didattica integrativa al fine di sensibilizzare gli studenti ai tratti soprasegmentali della L2 a contrasto con quelli della loro L1. Nel presente contributo verranno presentate alcune attività riguardanti la percezione e la realizzazione della durata vocalica e della sillaba accentata attraverso attività collaborative e il movimento del corpo. Tutte le attività prevedono un coinvolgimento personale e totale del singolo apprendente e di tutta la classe in quanto il workshop si avvale di multimodalità, multimedialità e apprendimento collaborativo al fine di scoprire i suoni della L2 e riflettere sulla loro percezione e produzione. Italian L2/LS phonetic workshops: word accent and syllable duration Working on phonetics and the phonolgical aspects language is considered important and fundamental, above all if a learner’s L1 is distant from the SL. The activities described in the paper took place during a phonetic workshop in Italian as a second language with Chinese students enrolled in the Marco Polo/Turandot project. They can be considered a teaching technique aimed at raising student awareness about the SL supra-segmental aspects in contrast to their L1. Some activities related to vowel length and stress will be presented: perception and production, cooperative learning and body movement aimed at discovering and practicing vowel length in stressed syllables (phonic stress. The activities involved the students in a more personal, total and physical collaboration together with their classmates. The multimedia workshop was designed to be multimodal and cooperative, in order to

  14. Mobility of the native Bacillus subtilis conjugative plasmid pLS20 is regulated by intercellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Praveen K; Ramachandran, Gayetri; Ramos-Ruiz, Ricardo; Peiró-Pastor, Ramón; Abia, David; Wu, Ling J; Meijer, Wilfried J J

    2013-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer mediated by plasmid conjugation plays a significant role in the evolution of bacterial species, as well as in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants. Characterization of their regulation is important for gaining insights into these features. Relatively little is known about how conjugation of Gram-positive plasmids is regulated. We have characterized conjugation of the native Bacillus subtilis plasmid pLS20. Contrary to the enterococcal plasmids, conjugation of pLS20 is not activated by recipient-produced pheromones but by pLS20-encoded proteins that regulate expression of the conjugation genes. We show that conjugation is kept in the default "OFF" state and identified the master repressor responsible for this. Activation of the conjugation genes requires relief of repression, which is mediated by an anti-repressor that belongs to the Rap family of proteins. Using both RNA sequencing methodology and genetic approaches, we have determined the regulatory effects of the repressor and anti-repressor on expression of the pLS20 genes. We also show that the activity of the anti-repressor is in turn regulated by an intercellular signaling peptide. Ultimately, this peptide dictates the timing of conjugation. The implications of this regulatory mechanism and comparison with other mobile systems are discussed.

  15. The LS-STAG immersed boundary/cut-cell method for non-Newtonian flows in 3D extruded geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfarjam, F.; Cheny, Y.; Botella, O.

    2018-05-01

    The LS-STAG method is an immersed boundary/cut-cell method for viscous incompressible flows based on the staggered MAC arrangement for Cartesian grids, where the irregular boundary is sharply represented by its level-set function, results in a significant gain in computer resources (wall time, memory usage) compared to commercial body-fitted CFD codes. The 2D version of LS-STAG method is now well-established (Cheny and Botella, 2010), and this paper presents its extension to 3D geometries with translational symmetry in the z direction (hereinafter called 3D extruded configurations). This intermediate step towards the fully 3D implementation can be applied to a wide variety of canonical flows and will be regarded as the keystone for the full 3D solver, since both discretization and implementation issues on distributed memory machines are tackled at this stage of development. The LS-STAG method is then applied to various Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows in 3D extruded geometries (axisymmetric pipe, circular cylinder, duct with an abrupt expansion) for which benchmark results and experimental data are available. The purpose of these investigations are (a) to investigate the formal order of accuracy of the LS-STAG method, (b) to assess the versatility of method for flow applications at various regimes (Newtonian and shear-thinning fluids, steady and unsteady laminar to turbulent flows) (c) to compare its performance with well-established numerical methods (body-fitted and immersed boundary methods).

  16. A New European Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS-Factor for Modeling Soil Erosion by Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model is the most frequently used model for soil erosion risk estimation. Among the six input layers, the combined slope length and slope angle (LS-factor has the greatest influence on soil loss at the European scale. The S-factor measures the effect of slope steepness, and the L-factor defines the impact of slope length. The combined LS-factor describes the effect of topography on soil erosion. The European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC developed a new pan-European high-resolution soil erosion assessment to achieve a better understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in Europe. The LS-calculation was performed using the original equation proposed by Desmet and Govers (1996 and implemented using the System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA, which incorporates a multiple flow algorithm and contributes to a precise estimation of flow accumulation. The LS-factor dataset was calculated using a high-resolution (25 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM for the whole European Union, resulting in an improved delineation of areas at risk of soil erosion as compared to lower-resolution datasets. This combined approach of using GIS software tools with high-resolution DEMs has been successfully applied in regional assessments in the past, and is now being applied for first time at the European scale.

  17. [Rapid determination of COD in aquaculture water based on LS-SVM with ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Hai-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy was studied for the rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), which was an indicator to measure the concentration of organic matter in aquaculture water. In order to reduce the influence of the absolute noises of the spectra, the extracted 135 absorbance spectra were preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), EMD, and wavelet transform (WT) methods. The preprocessed spectra were then used to select latent variables (LVs) by partial least squares (PLS) methods. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to build models with the full spectra, and back- propagation neural network (BPNN) and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) were applied to build models with the selected LVs. The overall results showed that BPNN and LS-SVM models performed better than PLS models, and the LS-SVM models with LVs based on WT preprocessed spectra obtained the best results with the determination coefficient (r2) and RMSE being 0. 83 and 14. 78 mg · L(-1) for calibration set, and 0.82 and 14.82 mg · L(-1) for the prediction set respectively. The method showed the best performance in LS-SVM model. The results indicated that it was feasible to use UV/Vis with LVs which were obtained by PLS method, combined with LS-SVM calibration could be applied to the rapid and accurate determination of COD in aquaculture water. Moreover, this study laid the foundation for further implementation of online analysis of aquaculture water and rapid determination of other water quality parameters.

  18. Purification and genetic characterisation of the novel bacteriocin LS2 produced by the human oral strain Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarcevic, Milos; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1, a human oral strain with probiotic characteristics and a broad inhibitory spectrum both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Here we present the bacteriocin LS2, an extremely pH- and heat-stable peptide with antilisterial activity. LS2 is a novel member of the class IId bacteriocins, unique among all currently characterised bacteriocins. It is somewhat similar to putative bacteriocins from several oral streptococci, including the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. LS2 is a 41-amino-acid, highly hydrophobic cationic peptide of 4115.1Da that is sensitive to proteolytic enzymes. LS2 was purified from cells of strain BGHO1 by solvent extraction and reverse-phase chromatography. Mass spectrometry was used to determine the molecular mass of the purified peptide. N-terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of the LS2 structural gene bacls2 by a reverse genetics approach. Downstream of the bacls2 gene, two bacteriocin-like genes were found, named blp1a and blp1b, and one putative bacteriocin immunity gene named bimlp. We also present the identification of the 242-kb megaplasmid pMPHO1 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, which harbours the genes bacls2, blp1a, blp1b and bimlp. Two peptides with antimicrobial activity, whose approximate sizes corresponded to those of blp1a and blp1b, were identified only after culturing strain BGHO1 in a chemically defined medium. This study demonstrated the capacity of Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1 to produce multiple bacteriocins and further established this strain as a promising probiotic candidate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus sp. isolates supernatant on Escherichia coli O157:H7 enhances the role of organic acids production as a factor for pathogen control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Poppi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to establish the control of foodborne pathogens through Lactobacillus isolates and their metabolism products with success being obtained in several situations. The aim of this study was to investigate the antagonistic effect of eight Lactobacillus isolates, including L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, L. plantarum, L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, on the pathogenic Escherichia colistrain O157:H7. The inhibitory effect of pure cultures and two pooled cultures supernatants of Lactobacillus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by the spot agar method and by monitoring turbidity. Antimicrobial activity was confirmed for L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii and for a pool of lactic acid bacteria. The neutralized supernatant of the pool exerted a higher antimicrobial activity than that of the individual strains. Furthermore, D-lactic acid and acetic acid were produced during growth of the Lactobacillus isolates studied.

  20. LS-DYNA Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26 ft/sec and 40 ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated LS-DYNA finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test and continuing through post test validation.

  1. The Control System of CERN Accelerators Vacuum (LS1 Activities and New Developments)

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, P; Bellorini, F; Blanchard, S; Boivin, J P; Gama, J; Girardot, G; Pigny, G; Rio, B; Vestergard, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M

    2014-01-01

    After 3 years of operation, the LHC entered its first Long Shutdown period (LS1), in February 2013 [1]. Major consolidation and maintenance works are being performed across the whole CERN’s Accelerator chain, in order to prepare the LHC to restart at higher energy, in 2015. The injector chain shall resume earlier, in mid-14. We report about the on-going vacuum-controls projects. Some of them concern the renovation of the controls of certain machines; others are associated with the consolidations of the vacuum systems of LHC and its injectors; and a few are completely new installations. ue to the wide age-span of the existing vacuum installations, there is a mix of design philosophies and of control-equipment generations. The renovations and the novel projects offer an opportunity to improve the uniformity and efficiency of vacuum controls by: reducing the number of equipment versions with similar functionality; identifying, naming, labelling, and documenting all pieces of equipment; homogenizing the contr...

  2. LS1 Report: A brand new set-up for ASACUSA-CUSP

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    ASACUSA is running for the first time with a totally new set-up. Three new vital instruments have been designed, produced and installed during LS1 in addition to several other major modifications. The collaboration is now ready to perform the first high-precision measurement of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen – a study that aims at comparing the inner properties of matter and antimatter.   The ASACUSA set-up. The ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration comprises about 30 scientists from various institutes in Europe and Japan. Because of the Japanese contribution, the experiment is often known by its Japanese pronunciation, the experiment’s logo is in Japanese, and the logbook uses Japanese time! This year, for the first time, the experiment is running with a completely new set-up, which now includes a new superconducting double cusp magnet, a new tracking detector and a new final antihydrogen detector. “The magnet is the heart of the ASACUSA experiment,” expl...

  3. An Architecture Of Plc Ls Xbc-Dr30e Based Clean Water Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Jusuf Jamanawar Purba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial field the good controlling system is definitely required to improve the working efficiency of a system. The type of controller PLC Programmable Logic Controller used in Clean Water Controlling System in Electrical Workshop with PLC LS XBC-DR30E. Furthermore such system consistently uses two types of component they are Relay and Timer. The clean water pump control aims to pump the water in well A to storage tank B. The pump will work when water-contained well A is marked by sensor level well A on and the water inside storage tank B is under level 3. When the water inside storage tank B is under level 2 both pumps M1 and M2 will work to fill storage tank B. on the contrary when storage tank B is above level 2 only one pump M1 works until the tank reach level 3. In addition when storage tank B is above level 3 both pumps will stop working. However along with the advancement of recent technology the above system can be controlled by using PLC Programmable Logic Controller. Therefore it is possible to apply the controlling method of PLC as the semester Vs practical module. Based on the trial performed the PLC-based clean water system is well-functioned as the working description compiled before the operation of the tool.

  4. More surprises from the violent gamma-ray binary LS 2883 /B1259-63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G.

    2018-01-01

    We report the results of a Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) monitoring campaign of the high-mass gamma-ray binary LS 2883, which hosts the young pulsar B1259-63. The monitoring now covers two binary cycles (6.8 years) and allows us to conclude that ejections of high-velocity X-ray emitting material are common for this binary. In the first cycle we observed an extended feature which detached and moved away from the binary. The observed changes in position were consistent with a steady motion with v=(0.07+/-0.01)c and a slight hint of acceleration. Tracing the motion back in time suggested that the X-ray emitting matter was ejected close to periastron passage. In the last orbital cycle, accelerated motion (reaching (0.13+/-0.02)c) is strongly preferred over a steady motion (the latter would imply that the ejected material was launched ~400 days after the periastron passage). The moving feature is also more luminous, compared to the previous binary cycle, larger in its apparent extent, and exhibits a puzzling morphology. We will show the CXO movies from both binary cycles and discuss physical interpretation of the resolved outflow dynamics in this remarkable system, which provides unique insight into the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds and their interaction.

  5. Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS: A Study on Development, Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin Kalyoncu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop a scale to measure knowledge about hypertension among Turkish adults. The Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS was generated based on content, face, and construct validity, internal consistency, test re-test reliability, and discriminative validity procedures. The final scale had 22 items with six sub-dimensions. The scale was applied to 457 individuals aged ≥18 years, and 414 of them were re-evaluated for test-retest reliability. The six sub-dimensions encompassed 60.3% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients were 0.82 for the entire scale and 0.92, 0.59, 0.67, 0.77, 0.72, and 0.76 for the sub-dimensions of definition, medical treatment, drug compliance, lifestyle, diet, and complications, respectively. The scale ensured internal consistency in reliability and construct validity, as well as stability over time. Significant relationships were found between knowledge score and age, gender, educational level, and history of hypertension of the participants. No correlation was found between knowledge score and working at an income-generating job. The present scale, developed to measure the knowledge level of hypertension among Turkish adults, was found to be valid and reliable.

  6. Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS): a study on development, validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkoc, Sultan Baliz; Isikli, Burhanettin; Metintas, Selma; Kalyoncu, Cemalettin

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to develop a scale to measure knowledge about hypertension among Turkish adults. The Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS) was generated based on content, face, and construct validity, internal consistency, test re-test reliability, and discriminative validity procedures. The final scale had 22 items with six sub-dimensions. The scale was applied to 457 individuals aged ≥ 18 years, and 414 of them were re-evaluated for test-retest reliability. The six sub-dimensions encompassed 60.3% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients were 0.82 for the entire scale and 0.92, 0.59, 0.67, 0.77, 0.72, and 0.76 for the sub-dimensions of definition, medical treatment, drug compliance, lifestyle, diet, and complications, respectively. The scale ensured internal consistency in reliability and construct validity, as well as stability over time. Significant relationships were found between knowledge score and age, gender, educational level, and history of hypertension of the participants. No correlation was found between knowledge score and working at an income-generating job. The present scale, developed to measure the knowledge level of hypertension among Turkish adults, was found to be valid and reliable.

  7. Studi Eksperimen dan Numerik Pengaruh Penambahan Vortex Generator pada Airfoil NASA LS-0417

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulul Azmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Separasi boundary layer merupakan fenomena penting yang mempengaruhi performansi airfoil. Salah satu upaya untuk menunda atau menghilangkan separasi aliran adalah meningkatkan momentum fluida untuk melawan adverse pressure dan tegangan geser permukaan. Hal ini mengakibatkan separasi aliran akan tertunda lebih ke belakang. Upaya tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan penambahan turbulent generator pada upper surface airfoil. Vortex generator (VG merupakan salah satu jenis turbulent generator yang dapat mempercepat transisi dari laminar boundary layer menjadi turbulent boundary layer. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jarak penempatan dan ketinggian VG terhadap perkembangan turbulent boundary layer sehingga dapat meningkatkan performansi airfoil. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan eksperimen dan numerik pada Re = 1.41x105 dengan angle of attack 16°. Benda uji yang digunakan adalah airfoil NASA LS-0417 dengan dan tanpa VG. Variasi jarak penempatan dan ketinggian VG yaitu x/c = 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4 (h = 1 mm; 3 mm; 5 mm. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah variasi vortex generator paling optimal adalah vortex generator dengan x/c = 0.3 dan h = 1 mm dimana Nilai CL/CD mengalami kenaikan sebesar 14.337%.

  8. Fast and simple online sample preparation coupled with capillary LC-MS/MS for determination of prostaglandins in cell culture supernatants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinne, Sandra; Ramstad Kleiveland, Charlotte; Kassem, Moustapha

    2007-01-01

    An online 2-D strong cation exchange (SCX)-RP capillary liquid chromatographic (cLC) method with IT mass spectrometric (IT-MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous determination of prostaglandin (PG) A(1), PGD(2), PGE(1), PGE(2), PGF(2a), 6-keto-(6k)PGF(1a), and 15-Delta(12,14)-deoxy-PGJ(2) (15dPGJ(2...

  9. Proteomic analysis of post-nuclear supernatant fraction and percoll-purified membranes prepared from brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ujčíková, Hana; Eckhardt, Adam; Kagan, Dmytro; Roubalová, Lenka; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, Feb 14 (2014), s. 11 ISSN 1477-5956 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : morphine * long-term exposure * rat brain cortex * isolated plasma membranes * post-nuclear supernatant * 2D electrophoresis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2014

  10. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, Maria J; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs) and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro

  11. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bermudez-Brito

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down

  12. Inhibition of the early stage of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis biofilm development on stainless steel by cell-free supernatant of a Hafnia alvei culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorianopoulos, Nikos G; Giaouris, Efstathios D; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Nychas, George-John E

    2010-03-01

    Compounds present in Hafnia alvei cell-free culture supernatant cumulatively negatively influence the early stage of biofilm development by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on stainless steel while they also reduce the overall metabolic activity of S. Enteritidis planktonic cells. Although acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) were detected among these compounds, the use of several synthetic AHLs was not able to affect the initial stage of biofilm formation by this pathogen.

  13. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  14. Evaluation of Synergistic Interactions Between Cell-Free Supernatant of Lactobacillus Strains and Amikacin and Genetamicin Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminnezhad, Sargol; Kermanshahi, Rouha Kasra; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-04-01

    The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases can increase the development of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, there is a big demand for new sources of antimicrobial agents and alternative treatments for reduction of antibiotic dosage required to decrease the associated side effects. In this study, the synergistic action of aminoglycoside antibiotics and cell-free supernatant (CFS) of probiotic (Lactobacillus rahmnosus and L. casei) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1430 was evaluated. A growth medium for culturing of probiotic bacteria was separated by centrifugation. The antimicrobial effects of CFS of probiotic bacteria were evaluated using the agar well diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Finally, an interaction between CFS and amikacin or gentamicin against P. aeruginosa PTCC 1430 was examined through the checkerboard method and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Furthermore, CFSs from Lactobacillus strains were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) for antimicrobial compounds. The results showed a significant effect of CFS on the growth of P. aeruginosa. The MIC and MBC of CFS from L. casei were 62.5 µL⁄mL while the MIC and MBC of CFS from L. rhamnosus were 62.5 μL⁄mL and 125 μL⁄mL, respectively. Using the FIC indices, synergistic interactions were observed in combination of CFS and antibiotics. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration indices of CFS from L. casei and aminoglycoside antibiotics were 0.124 and 0.312 while FIC indices of CFS from L. rhamnosus and aminoglycoside antibiotics were 0.124 and 0.56, respectively showing a synergism effect. The results of RP-HPLC showed that CFS of Lactobacillus strains contained acetic acid, lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our findings indicate that probiotic bacterial strains of Lactobacillus have a significant inhibitory effect on the

  15. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant on serotonin transporter expression in rats with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Nan; Feng, Li-Juan; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Kui; Zhang, Mao-Jun; Gu, Yi-Xin; Wang, Bang-Mao; Gao, Jia; Wang, Ze-Lan; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2018-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) on the expression of serotonin transporter (SERT) in rats with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). METHODS Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 (1010 CFU/mL) was used to induce intestinal infection to develop a PI-IBS model. After evaluation of the post-infectious phase by biochemical tests, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) test, and the intestinal motility test, four PI-IBS groups received different concentrations of LGG-s for 4 wk. The treatments were maintained for 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 wk during the experiment, and the colons and brains were removed for later use each week. SERT mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS The levels of SERT mRNA and protein in intestinal tissue were higher in rats treated with LGG-s than in control rats and PI-IBS rats gavaged with PBS during the whole study. Undiluted LGG-s up-regulated SERT mRNA level by 2.67 times compared with the control group by week 2, and SERT mRNA expression kept increasing later. Double-diluted LGG-s was similar to undiluted-LGG-s, resulting in high levels of SERT mRNA. Triple-diluted LGG-s up-regulated SERT mRNA expression level by 6.9-times compared with the control group, but SERT mRNA expression decreased rapidly at the end of the second week. At the first week, SERT protein levels were basically comparable in rats treated with undiluted LGG-s, double-diluted LGG-s, and triple-diluted LGG-s, which were higher than those in the control group and PBS-treated PI-IBS group. SERT protein levels in the intestine were also comparable in rats treated with undiluted LGG-s, double-diluted LGG-s, and triple-diluted LGG-s by the second and third weeks. SERT mRNA and protein levels in the brain had no statistical difference in the groups during the experiment. CONCLUSION LGG-s can up-regulate SERT mRNA and protein levels in intestinal tissue but

  16. Cellular prion protein and γ-synuclein overexpression in LS 174T colorectal cancer cell drives endothelial proliferation-to-differentiation switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing-Hui Ong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tumor-induced angiogenesis is an imperative event in pledging new vasculature for tumor metastasis. Since overexpression of neuronal proteins gamma-synuclein (γ-Syn and cellular prion protein (PrPC is always detected in advanced stages of cancer diseases which involve metastasis, this study aimed to investigate whether γ-Syn or PrPC overexpression in colorectal adenocarcinoma, LS 174T cells affects angiogenesis of endothelial cells, EA.hy 926 (EA. Methods EA cells were treated with conditioned media (CM of LS 174T-γ-Syn or LS 174T-PrP, and their proliferation, invasion, migration, adhesion and ability to form angiogenic tubes were assessed using a range of biological assays. To investigate plausible background mechanisms in conferring the properties of EA cells above, nitrite oxide (NO levels were measured and the expression of angiogenesis-related factors was assessed using a human angiogenesis antibody array. Results EA proliferation was significantly inhibited by LS 174T-PrP CM whereas its telomerase activity was reduced by CM of LS 174T-γ-Syn or LS 174T-PrP, as compared to EA incubated with LS 174T CM. Besides, LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM inhibited EA invasion and migration in Boyden chamber assay. Furthermore, LS 174T-γ-Syn CM significantly inhibited EA migration in scratch wound assay. Gelatin zymography revealed reduced secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by EA treated with LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM. In addition, cell adhesion assay showed lesser LS 174T-γ-Syn or LS 174T-PrP cells adhered onto EA, as compared to LS 174T. In tube formation assay, LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM induced EA tube formation. Increased NO secretion by EA treated with LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM was also detected. Lastly, decreased expression of pro-angiogenic factors like CXCL16, IGFBP-2 and amphiregulin in LS 174T-γ-Syn CM or LS 174T-PrP CM was detected using the angiogenesis antibody array. Discussion These results

  17. [Effects of combined application of culture supernatant of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and ciprofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B; Tu, H L; Ba, T; Wang, L F; Wang, S J; Nie, S Y

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To explore the effects of combined application of culture supernatant of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and ciprofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus (SA) in vitro. Methods: hUCMSCs were isolated from umbilical cord tissue of full-term healthy fetus after cesarean section and cultured. Cells in the third passage were used in the experiments after identification. SA strains isolated from wounds of burn patients in our burn wards were used in the experiments. Cells were divided into 0, 10, 100, and 1 000 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups according to the random number table (the same dividing method below). Cells were cultured with culture medium of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after being treated with medium containing the corresponding mass concentrations of LPS for 12 h. At post culture hour (PCH) 6, 12, and 24, 6 wells of culture supernatant of cells in each group were obtained to measure the content of LL-37 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ninety blood agar plates were divided into ciprofloxacin control group (CC), ciprofloxacin+ supernatant group (CS), and ciprofloxacin+ supernatant+ LL-37 antibody group (CSL), with 30 blood agar plates in each group. Blood agar plates in group CC were coated with 1.5×10(8) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL bacteria solution prepared with normal saline. Blood agar plates in group CS were coated with 1.5×10(8) CFU/mL bacteria solution prepared with normal saline and culture supernatant of hUCMSCs (cultured by culture medium of MSCs, the same below) in double volume of normal saline. Blood agar plates in group CSL were coated with 1.5×10(8) CFU/mL bacteria solution prepared with normal saline, culture supernatant of hUCMSCs in double volume of normal saline, and 2.6 μL LL-37 antibody in the concentration of 2 μg/mL. At PCH 12, 24, and 48, 10 blood agar plates of each group were harvested to observe the distribution of SA colony on blood agar plate and to measure the diameter of

  18. LCM-seq reveals the crucial role of LsSOC1 in heat-promoted bolting of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Zhao, Wensheng; Ge, Danfeng; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Luo, Chen; Wang, Shenglin; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wang, Qian

    2018-05-17

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most economically important vegetables. The floral transition in lettuce is accelerated under high temperatures, which can significantly decrease yields. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the floral tranition in lettuce is poorly known. Using laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing, we isolated shoot apical meristem cells from the bolting-sensitive lettuce line S39 at four critical stages of development. Subsequently, we screened specifically for the flowering-related gene LsSOC1 during the floral transition through comparative transcriptomic analysis. Molecular biology, developmental biology, and biochemical tools were combined to investigate the biological function of LsSOC1 in lettuce. LsSOC1 knockdown by RNA interference resulted in a significant delay in the timing of bolting and insensitivity to high temperature, which indicated that LsSOC1 functions as an activator during heat-promoted bolting in lettuce. We determined that two heat-shock transcription factors, HsfA1e and HsfA4c, bound to the promoter of LsSOC1 to confirm that LsSOC1 played an important role in heat-promoted bolting. This study indicates that LsSOC1 plays a crucial role in the heat-promoted bolting process in lettuce. Further investigation of LsSOC1 may be useful for clarification of the bolting mechanism in lettuce. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Support vector machine regression (SVR/LS-SVM)--an alternative to neural networks (ANN) for analytical chemistry? Comparison of nonlinear methods on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-04-21

    In this study, we make a general comparison of the accuracy and robustness of five multivariate calibration models: partial least squares (PLS) regression or projection to latent structures, polynomial partial least squares (Poly-PLS) regression, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and two novel techniques based on support vector machines (SVMs) for multivariate data analysis: support vector regression (SVR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). The comparison is based on fourteen (14) different datasets: seven sets of gasoline data (density, benzene content, and fractional composition/boiling points), two sets of ethanol gasoline fuel data (density and ethanol content), one set of diesel fuel data (total sulfur content), three sets of petroleum (crude oil) macromolecules data (weight percentages of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins), and one set of petroleum resins data (resins content). Vibrational (near-infrared, NIR) spectroscopic data are used to predict the properties and quality coefficients of gasoline, biofuel/biodiesel, diesel fuel, and other samples of interest. The four systems presented here range greatly in composition, properties, strength of intermolecular interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces, H-bonds), colloid structure, and phase behavior. Due to the high diversity of chemical systems studied, general conclusions about SVM regression methods can be made. We try to answer the following question: to what extent can SVM-based techniques replace ANN-based approaches in real-world (industrial/scientific) applications? The results show that both SVR and LS-SVM methods are comparable to ANNs in accuracy. Due to the much higher robustness of the former, the SVM-based approaches are recommended for practical (industrial) application. This has been shown to be especially true for complicated, highly nonlinear objects.

  20. Inverse European Latitudinal Cline at the timeless Locus of Drosophila melanogaster Reveals Selection on a Clock Gene: Population Genetics of ls-tim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonato, Valeria; Vanin, Stefano; Costa, Rodolfo; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2018-02-01

    The spread of adaptive genetic variants in populations is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory but with relatively few biologically well-understood examples. Previous work on the ls-tim variant of timeless, which encodes the light-sensitive circadian regulator in Drosophila melanogaster, suggests that it may have originated in southeastern Italy. Flies characterized by the new allele show photoperiod-related phenotypes likely to be adaptive in seasonal environments. ls-tim may be spreading from its point of origin in Italy by directional selection, but there are alternative explanations for its observed clinal geographical distribution, including balancing selection and demography. From population analyses of ls-tim frequencies collected on the eastern side of the Iberian Peninsula, we show that ls-tim frequencies are inverted compared with those in Italy. This pattern is consistent with a scenario of directional selection rather than latitude-associated balancing selection. Neutrality tests further reveal the signature of directional selection at the ls-tim site, which is reduced a few kb pairs either side of ls-tim. A reanalysis of allele frequencies from a large number of microsatellite loci do not demonstrate any frequent ls-tim-like spatial patterns, so a general demographic effect or population expansion from southeastern Italy cannot readily explain current ls-tim frequencies. Finally, a revised estimate of the age of ls-tim allele using linkage disequilibrium and coalescent-based approaches reveals that it may be only 300 to 3000 years old, perhaps explaining why it has not yet gone to fixation. ls-tim thus provides a rare temporal snapshot of a new allele that has come under selection before it reaches equilibrium.

  1. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculations of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation caused by surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. An LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5%{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions foil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

  2. Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An 18-inch constant-chord model of the LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions ate University 7{times}10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The objective was to document section lift and moment characteristics model and air flow conditions. Surface pressure data was acquired at {minus}60{degrees} through + 230{degrees} geometric angles of attack, at a nominal 1 million Reynolds number. Cases with and without leading edge grit roughness were investigated. The leading edge mulated blade conditions in the field. Additionally, surface pressure data were acquired for Reynolds numbers of 1.5 and 2.0 million, with and without leading edge grit roughness; the angle of attack was limited to a {minus}20{degrees} to 40{degrees} range. In general, results showed lift curve slope sensitivities to Reynolds number and roughness. The maximum lift coefficient was reduced as much as 29% by leading edge roughness. Moment coefficient showed little sensitivity to roughness beyond 50{degrees} angle of attack, but the expected decambering effect of a thicker boundary layer with roughness did show at lower angles. Tests were also conducted with vortex generators located at the 30% chord location on the upper surface only, at 1 and 1.5 million Reynolds numbers, with and without leading edge grit roughness. In general, with leading edge grit roughness applied, the vortex generators restored 85 percent of the baseline level of maximum lift coefficient but with a more sudden stall break and at a higher angle of attack than the baseline.

  3. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0421MOD airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, R.L.; HOffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An LS(1)-0421 MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. In order to study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) pattern was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, and 1.25 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}10{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data was acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For this report, unsteady conditions refer to the model in pitch oscillation. In general, the maximum unsteady lift coefficient was from 10% to 50% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient. Variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient was nearly two times greater than steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation for accurate load estimates.

  4. COMPETENZA DIGITALE E GLOTTOTECNOLOGIE PER L’INSEGNANTE DI ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santalucia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo, prendendo spunto da recenti progetti che spingono per un utilizzo sempre più esteso di tablet e strumenti digitali in classe, fa riferimento alla Raccomandazione del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio dell’Unione Europea (2006 per discutere alcuni degli elementi rappresentativi della “competenza digitale” che la Raccomandazione delinea. Alla luce di questi elementi si sviluppano alcune indicazioni sull’uso ragionato dei motori di ricerca e di alcune risorse offerte dalla rete, come Google Docs e Google Drive.Seguono una breve illustrazione di Edmodo, una piattaforma didattica social, e alcune indicazioni sull’utilizzo degli smartphone per l’accesso a risorse utili e semplici da condividere in classe. Sono tracciate alcune linee guida sulla gestione di risorse già accessibili in rete e che sono, quindi, a disposizione di quegli insegnanti di Italiano L2/LS che vogliano utilizzare sistemi di condivisione online a sostegno della didattica in presenza.Digital competence and digital language teaching for Italian L2/FL teachersThe article, inspired by recent projects that push for an ever-wider use of tablets and digital tools in the classroom, refers to the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union (2006 discusses some of the representative elements of “digital competence” that the Recommendation outlines. In light of these elements, some guidelines on the use of search engines and some resources offered by the network, such as Google Docs and Google Drive, are offered.This is followed by a brief description of Edmodo, a social learning platform, and information on the use of smartphones to access helpful resources that are easy to share in class. Finally, some guidelines on the management of resources already available on the Internet for Italian L2/FL teachers who want to use online sharing systems to support of frontal lessons are given.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Wind Turbine Rotors Autorotation by Using the Modified LS-STAG Immersed Boundary Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia K. Marchevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A software package is developed for numerical simulation of wind turbine rotors autorotation by using the modified LS-STAG level-set/cut-cell immersed boundary method. The level-set function is used for immersed boundaries description. Algorithm of level-set function construction for complex-shaped airfoils, based on Bézier curves usage, is proposed. Also, algorithm for the level-set function recalculation at any time without reconstructing the Bézier curve for each new rotor position is described. The designed second-order Butterworth low-pass filter for aerodynamic torque filtration for simulations using coarse grids is presented. To verify the modified LS-STAG method, the flow past autorotating Savonius rotor with two blades was simulated at Re=1.96·105.

  6. SO(2 ell + 1) contains ? contains SO/sub L/(3) in group chains for L-S coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.Y.; Sun, C.P.; Zhang, L.; Li, B.F.

    1986-01-01

    Racah pointed out in his 1949 article that there exists a proper subgroup of SO(7) which properly contains SO/sub L/(3) in group chains for L-S coupling. This paper investigates whether such a proper subgroup exists for SO(2l + 1) which contains SO/sub L/(3) for an arbitrary l and concludes that this subgroup exists only for the case in which l is equal to 3. 4 references

  7. Ballistic Simulation Method for Lithium Ion Batteries (BASIMLIB) Using Thick Shell Composites (TSC) in LS-DYNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    BAllistic SImulation Method for Lithium Ion Batteries (BASIMLIB) using Thick Shell Composites (TSC) in LS-DYNA Venkatesh Babu, Dr. Matt Castanier, Dr...and behavior of the cells through experimental and modeling at their crash worthiness laboratory • Most of the simulation work on the batteries are...at a single cell level and gap exists to simulate the batteries at their full pack capacity - Firstly, requires an enormous amount of computational

  8. Fast-Solving Quasi-Optimal LS-S3VM Based on an Extended Candidate Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuefeng; Liang, Xun; Kwok, James T; Li, Jianping; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Haiyan

    2018-04-01

    The semisupervised least squares support vector machine (LS-S 3 VM) is an important enhancement of least squares support vector machines in semisupervised learning. Given that most data collected from the real world are without labels, semisupervised approaches are more applicable than standard supervised approaches. Although a few training methods for LS-S 3 VM exist, the problem of deriving the optimal decision hyperplane efficiently and effectually has not been solved. In this paper, a fully weighted model of LS-S 3 VM is proposed, and a simple integer programming (IP) model is introduced through an equivalent transformation to solve the model. Based on the distances between the unlabeled data and the decision hyperplane, a new indicator is designed to represent the possibility that the label of an unlabeled datum should be reversed in each iteration during training. Using the indicator, we construct an extended candidate set consisting of the indices of unlabeled data with high possibilities, which integrates more information from unlabeled data. Our algorithm is degenerated into a special scenario of the previous algorithm when the extended candidate set is reduced into a set with only one element. Two strategies are utilized to determine the descent directions based on the extended candidate set. Furthermore, we developed a novel method for locating a good starting point based on the properties of the equivalent IP model. Combined with the extended candidate set and the carefully computed starting point, a fast algorithm to solve LS-S 3 VM quasi-optimally is proposed. The choice of quasi-optimal solutions results in low computational cost and avoidance of overfitting. Experiments show that our algorithm equipped with the two designed strategies is more effective than other algorithms in at least one of the following three aspects: 1) computational complexity; 2) generalization ability; and 3) flexibility. However, our algorithm and other algorithms have

  9. DISEÑO Y EVALUACIÓN DE UN CLASIFICADOR DE TEXTURAS BASADO EN LS-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitmantt Cárdenas Quintero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluar el desempeño y el costo computacional de diferentes arquitecturas y metodologías Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM ante la segmentación de imágenes por textura y a partir de dichos resultados postular un modelo de un clasificador de texturas LS-SVM.  Metodología: Ante un problema de clasificación binaria representado por la segmentación  de 32 imágenes, organizadas en 4 grupos y formadas por pares de texturas típicas (granito/corteza, ladrillo/tapicería, madera/mármol, tejido/pelaje, se mide y compara el desempeño y el costo computacional de dos tipos de núcleo (Radial / Polinomial, dos funciones de optimización (mínimo local / búsqueda exhaustiva y dos funciones de costo (validación cruzada aleatoria / Validación cruzada dejando al menos uno en una LS-SVM que toma como entrada los pixeles que conforman la vecindad cruz del pixel a evaluar (no se hace extracción de características. Resultados: LS-SVM como clasificador de texturas, presenta mejor desempeño y exige menor costo computacional cuando utiliza un kernel de base radial y una función de optimización basada en un algoritmo de búsqueda de mínimos locales acompañado de una función de costo que use validación cruzada aleatoria.

  10. Effect of Co-overexpression of Nisin Key Genes on Nisin Production Improvement in Lactococcus lactis LS01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Miao; Hao, Rong-Hua; Ling, Pei-Xue; Zhu, Xi-Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Nisin is a small antimicrobial peptide produced by several subset strains of Lactococcus lactis. To improve nisin yield in the producer L. lactis LS01, we proposed a successive fusion of nisA with nisRK and nisFEG into a single shuttle expression vector pMG36e under the control of the native strong constitutive promoter p32. Subsequently, the recombinant vectors were transplanted into the producer cell through electroporation. Nisin productivity was determined through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and bioactivity assays. Expression of nisin peptide was detected by agar diffusion bioassay, and the transcriptional levels of the target genes involved in nisin biosynthesis were investigated via semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR expression analysis using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) as an internal control. Results suggested that the introduction of empty plasmid did not affect nisin production of L. lactis LS01, whereas by our rational construction and screening, the engineered strain co-overexpressing nisA, nisRK, and nisFEG achieved a maximum increment in bioactive nisin production with a yield of 2470 IU/ml in shake flasks and 4857 IU/ml in 1.0-l fermenters, which increased by approximately 66.3 and 52.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with that of the original strain under the given fermentation conditions. Meanwhile, the transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of most of these multicopy genes except nisE at transcriptional level were upregulated in the two recombinant strains (LS01/pAR and LS01/pARF), possibly contributing to the improved nisin production. Therefore, this study would provide a potential strategy to improve the economic benefits of nisin manufacture for large-scale industrial production.

  11. Preliminary results on clinical effects of probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 in children affected by atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Antonio A; Artesi, Anna L; Candio, Francesco; Ceccarelli, Sara; Cozzali, Rita; Ferraro, Luigi; Fiumana, Donatella; Mencacci, Manuela; Morlupo, Maurizio; Pazzelli, Paola; Rossi, Laura; Toscano, Marco; Drago, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an intake of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 (DSM 22775) for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children. AD is an inflammatory and pruritic chronic relapsing skin disorder with multifactorial etiopathology. Some evidence suggests that probiotics may improve AD by modulating the immune system and the composition of intestinal microbiota. A total of 43 patients aged from 0 to 11 years were enrolled in the study (M/F ratio=1:1) and treated with the probiotic strain L. salivarius LS01. Clinical efficacy of probiotic treatment was assessed from baseline by changes in itch index and in the objective SCORAD/SCORAD index. Patients being given probiotic treatment showed a significant improvement in clinical parameters (SCORAD and itch values) from baseline. The reduction in SCORAD and itch index observed after 4 weeks of treatment also persisted after the cessation of probiotic supplementation. L. salivarius LS01 seems to be able to improve the quality of life of children affected by AD and, as a consequence, it may have promising clinical and research implications.

  12. Evaluation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Umesh; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2014-07-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 was analyzed in shake-flask-based batch reactions, using pure chemical-grade glycerol (PG), biodiesel-derived "waste" glycerol (WG), and biodiesel-derived "waste" free fatty acids (WFA). Cell growth, substrate consumption, mcl-PHA accumulation within the cells, and the monomer composition of the synthesized biopolymers were monitored. The patterns of mcl-PHA synthesis in P. putida LS46 cells grown on PG and WG were similar but differed from that of cells grown with WFA. Polymer accumulation in glycerol-based cultures was stimulated by nitrogen limitation and plateaued after 48 h in both PG and WG cultures, with a total accumulation of 17.9% cell dry mass and 16.3% cell dry mass, respectively. In contrast, mcl-PHA synthesis was independent of nitrogen concentration in P. putida LS46 cells cultured with WFA, which accumulated to 29% cell dry mass. In all cases, the mcl-PHAs synthesized consisted primarily of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)). WG and WFA supported similar or greater cell growth and mcl-PHA accumulation than PG under the experimental conditions used. These results suggest that biodiesel by-product streams could be used as low-cost carbon sources for sustainable mcl-PHA production.

  13. Dielectronic recombination of P5+ and Cl7+ in configuration-average, LS-coupling, and intermediate-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badnell, N.R.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have calculated dielectronic recombination cross sections and rate coefficients for the Ne-like ions P 5+ and Cl 7+ in configuration-average, LS-coupling, and intermediate-coupling approximations. Autoionization into excited states reduces the cross sections and rate coefficients by substantial amounts in all three methods. There is only rough agreement between the configuration-average cross-section results and the corresponding intermediate-coupling results. There is good agreement, however, between the LS-coupling cross-section results and the corresponding intermediate-coupling results. The LS-coupling and intermediate-coupling rate coefficients agree to better than 5%, while the configuration-average rate coefficients are about 30% higher than the other two coupling methods. External electric field effects, as calculated in the configuration-average approximation, are found to be relatively small for the cross sections and completely negligible for the rate coefficients. Finally, the general formula of Burgess was found to overestimate the rate coefficients by roughly a factor of 5, mainly due to the neglect of autoionization into excited states

  14. ASTROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF LS 2883 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PSR B1259-63 GAMMA-RAY BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Javier; Ribo, Marc; Herrero, Artemio; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Aharonian, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few binary systems with compact objects display TeV emission. The physical properties of the companion stars represent basic input for understanding the physical mechanisms behind the particle acceleration, emission, and absorption processes in these so-called gamma-ray binaries. Here we present high-resolution and high signal-to-noise optical spectra of LS 2883, the Be star forming a gamma-ray binary with the young non-accreting pulsar PSR B1259-63, showing it to rotate faster and be significantly earlier and more luminous than previously thought. Analysis of the interstellar lines suggests that the system is located at the same distance as (and thus is likely a member of) Cen OB1. Taking the distance to the association, d = 2.3 kpc, and a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.85 for LS 2883 results in M V ∼ -4.4. Because of fast rotation, LS 2883 is oblate (R eq ≅ 9.7 R sun and R pole ≅ 8.1 R sun ) and presents a temperature gradient (T eq ∼ 27,500 K, log g eq = 3.7; T pole ∼ 34,000 K, log g pole = 4.1). If the star did not rotate, it would have parameters corresponding to a late O-type star. We estimate its luminosity at log(L * /L sun ) ≅ 4.79 and its mass at M * ∼ 30 M sun . The mass function then implies an inclination of the binary system i orb ∼ 23 0 , slightly smaller than previous estimates. We discuss the implications of these new astrophysical parameters of LS 2883 for the production of high-energy and very high-energy gamma rays in the PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 gamma-ray binary system. In particular, the stellar properties are very important for prediction of the line-like bulk Comptonization component from the unshocked ultrarelativistic pulsar wind.

  15. Comparison of excretory-secretory antigen and positive faecal supernatant antigen in the detection of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by CIEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Prathiush

    Full Text Available Coproantigen detection of Echinococcosis in dogs by counter immunoelectrophoresis was standardized. Adult Echinococcus granulosus worms were obtained from intestine of a necropsied positive dog. Excretory-secretory antigen was prepared by culturing adult worms in Medium 199 (pH 7.4. Faeces of positive dog were collected and fecal supernatant was prepared and used for coproantigen detection. CIEP was carried out using tris-borate buffer (pH 8.0 at a constant current of 8mA/slide for 60 minutes. CIEP detected infection with both the antigens. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 421-422

  16. On the Toyota LS400 Car Electronic Air Suspension System (TEMS)%浅谈丰田LS400轿车电子空气悬架系统(TEMS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池杜旺

    2014-01-01

    随着汽车电子技术的不断发展以及人们对汽车舒适性的要求越来越高,一般的悬架系统已经很难满足高要求的现代车主们,而在如奥迪A8,奔驰S600,LS400等一些高档的轿车上面就采用了更为舒适,控制功能更强的电子悬架系统.

  17. L’AUTOBIOGRAFIA LINGUISTICA NELL’INSEGNAMENTO-APPRENDIMENTO DELL’ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Groppaldi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the

  18. Batch test equilibration studies examining the removal of Cs, Sr, and Tc from supernatants from ORNL underground storage tanks by selected ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.; Bell, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    Bench-scale batch equilibration tests have been conducted with supernatants from two underground tanks at the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the effectiveness of selected ion exchangers in removing cesium, strontium, and technetium. Seven sorbents were evaluated for cesium removal, nine for strontium removal, and four for technetium removal. The results indicate that granular potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate was the most effective of the exchangers evaluated for removing cesium from the supernatants. The powdered forms of sodium titanate (NaTiO) and cystalline silicotitanate (CST) were superior in removing the strontium; however, for the sorbents of suitable particle size for column use, titanium monohydrogen phosphate (TiHP φ), sodium titanate/polyacrylonitrile (NaTiO-PAN), and titanium monohydrogen phosphate/polyacrylonitrile (TiP-PAN) gave the best results and were about equally effective. Reillex trademark 402 was the most effective exchanger in removing the technetium; however, it was only slightly more satisfactory than Reillex trademark HPQ

  19. Effect of bacterial components of mixed culture supernatants of planktonic and biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa with commensal Escherichia coli on the neutrophil response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Irina L; Kuznetsova, Marina V; Nekrasova, Irina V; Shirshev, Sergei V

    2017-11-30

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) responsible for acute and chronic infections often forms a well-organized bacterial population with different microbial species including commensal strains of Escherichia coli. Bacterial extracellular components of mixed culture can modulate the influence of bacteria on the neutrophil functions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of pyocyanin, pyoverdine, LPS, exopolysaccharide of single species and mixed culture supernatants of PA strains and E. coli K12 on microbicidal, secretory activity of human neutrophils in vitro. Bacterial components of E. coli K12 in mixed supernatants with 'biofilm' PA strains (PA ATCC, PA BALG) enhanced short-term microbicidal mechanisms and inhibited neutrophil secretion delayed in time. The influence of 'planktonic' PA (PA 9-3) exometabolites in mixed culture is almost mimicked by E. coli K12 effect on functional neutrophil changes. This investigation may help to understand some of the mechanisms of neutrophil response to mixed infections of different PA with other bacteria species. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Optimization of high-rate TN removal in a novel constructed wetland integrated with microelectrolysis system treating high-strength digestate supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Luchen; He, Keli; Wu, Shubiao; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yanfei; Huang, Xu; Dong, Renjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential of high-rate TN removal in three aerated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands to treat high-strength anaerobic digestate supernatant was evaluated. Different strategies of intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation were applied to compare their effect on nitrogen depuration performance. Additional glucose supply and iron-activated carbon based post-treatment systems were established and examined, respectively, to further remove nitrate that accumulated in the effluents from aerated wetlands. The results showed that intermittent aeration (1 h on:1 h off) significantly improved nitrification with ammonium removal efficiency of 90% (18.1 g/(m(2)·d)), but limited TN removal efficiency (53%). Even though effluent recirculation (a ratio of 1:1) increased TN removal from 53% to 71%, the effluent nitrate concentration was still high. Additional glucose was used as a post-treatment option and further increased the TN removal to 82%; however, this implementation caused additional organic pollution. Furthermore, the iron-activated carbon system stimulated with a microelectrolysis process achieved greater than 85% effluent nitrate removal and resulted in 86% TN removal. Considering the high TN removal rate, aerated constructed wetlands integrated with a microelectrolysis-driven system show great potential for treating high-strength digestate supernatant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on benzene biotransformation in the rat. Pt. 2. 9. 000 g supernatant and isolated perfused liver versus living rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, I.; Hatle, K.; Zizkova, L.

    1981-03-01

    Factors responsible for different quantitative effect of phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment on benzene metabolism to phenol in vivo and in vitro were studied in male Wistar rats. A more than 4-fold increase of benzene metabolism was observed with 9,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, 2.8- to 4-fold increase with isolated perfused liver; phenol formation in vivo after oral benzene was increased by PB 2-fold, but only shortly following benzene administration and the enhancement rapidly diminished to 1.15-fold increase in the total excreted phenol. Benzene concentrations in 9,000 g supernatant incubations were 2 mM, those with isolated perfused livers were up to 4 mM, but those in blood in vivo were below 0.3 mM; the effect of PB induction in vivo disappeared along with decreasing benzene and increasing phenol blood concentrations which surpassed benzene 2-3 h after oral benzene administration. The effect of benzene concentration on the manifestation of PB induction is also supported by almost a 2-fold increased phenol formation in PB rats over controls in vivo after repeated administration of benzene. The elimination of radioactive metabolites of orally administered benzene-/sup 14/C, in urine was markedly inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of phenol, but not by pyrocatechol, resorcinol or hydroquinol suggesting that phenol might inhibit benzene metabolism in vivo especially when its concentration exceeds that of benzene.

  2. Injection of embryo culture supernatant to the endometrial cavity does not affect outcomes in IVF/ICSI or oocyte donation cycles: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapas, Yannis; Petousis, Stamatios; Panagiotidis, Yannis; Gullo, Giuseppe; Kasapi, Lia; Papadeothodorou, Achilleas; Prapas, Nikos

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate whether intrauterine injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer has any impact on pregnancy and implantation rates. A total of 400 cycles, of which 200 IVF/ICSI and 200 oocyte donor (OD), were randomly assigned to have their uterine cavity injected (group I) or not (group II). Primary endpoints to be studied were pregnancy and implantation rates. Clinical pregnancy rate per transfer (47.87%, 90/188 versus 48.45%, 94/194) based on transvaginal scan findings at 7 weeks of gestation and implantation rate (25.6% versus 26.5%) were similar in the two groups. The day of embryo transfer, day 3 or day 5, did not affect the final outcome. Injection of embryo culture supernatant into the uterine cavity, 30 min before the embryo transfer on either day 3 or 5, neither improves nor adversely affects the pregnancy rate in IVF/ICSI or oocyte donation cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst prevents apoptotic cell death in a human astrocytoma cell line incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perno Carlo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has shown to contribute in the mechanisms underlying apoptotic cell death occuring in AIDS-dementia complex. Here we investigated the role of peroxynitrite in apoptosis occurring in astroglial cells incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected human primary macrophages (M/M. Results Flow cytometric analysis (FACS of human cultured astrocytes shortly incubated with HIV-1-infected M/M supernatants showed apoptotic cell death, an effect accompanied by pronounced staining for nitrotyrosine (footprint of peroxynitrite and by abnormal formation of malondialdehyde (MDA. Pretreatment of astrocytes with the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTMPS antagonized HIV-related astrocytic apoptosis, MDA formation and nitrotyrosine staining. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that inibition of peroxynitrite leads to protection against peroxidative stress accompanying HIV-related apoptosis of astrocytes. Overall results support the role of peroxynitrite in HIV-related programmed death of astrocytes and suggest the use of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst to counteract HIV-1-related neurological disorders.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonate polystyrene-lignosulfonate-alumina (SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) polyblends as electrolyte membranes for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonggo, Siang Tandi, E-mail: standigonggo@yahoo.com [Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences, Tadulako University (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    The new type of electrolyte membrane materials has been prepared by blend sulfonated polystyrene (SPS), lignosulfonate (LS), and alumina (SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by casting polymer solution. The resulting polymer electrolyte membranes were then characterized by functional groups analysis, mechanical properties, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and proton conductivity. SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes with alumina composition various have been proven qualitatively by analysis of functional groups. Increasing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio resulted in higher ion exchange capacity (IEC), mechanical strength and proton conductivity, but water uptake decreased. The SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blend showed higher proton conductivity than Nafion 117.

  5. A new Em-like protein from Lactuca sativa, LsEm1, enhances drought and salt stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dian-Jun; Man, Li-Li; Zhang, Chun-Lan; Peng-Liu; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Gen-Chang

    2018-02-07

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are closely related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In the present study, we identified a novel Em-like gene from lettuce, termed LsEm1, which could be classified into group 1 LEA proteins, and shared high homology with Cynara cardunculus Em protein. The LsEm1 protein contained three different 20-mer conserved elements (C-element, N-element, and M-element) in the C-termini, N-termini, and middle-region, respectively. The LsEm1 mRNAs were accumulated in all examined tissues during the flowering and mature stages, with a little accumulation in the roots and leaves during the seedling stage. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene was also expressed in response to salt, dehydration, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold stresses in young seedlings. The LsEm1 protein could effectively reduce damage to the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protect LDH activity under desiccation and salt treatments. The Escherichia coli cells overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed a growth advantage over the control under drought and salt stresses. Moreover, LsEm1-overexpressing rice seeds were relatively sensitive to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that the LsEm1 gene might depend on an ABA signaling pathway in response to environmental stresses. The transgenic rice plants overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses than did wild-type (WT) plants on the basis of the germination performances, higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll content, more accumulation of soluble sugar, lower relative electrolyte leakage, and higher superoxide dismutase activity under stress conditions. The LsEm1-overexpressing rice lines also showed less yield loss compared with WT rice under stress conditions. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene had a positive effect on the expression of the OsCDPK9, OsCDPK13, OsCDPK15, OsCDPK25, and rab21 (rab16a) genes in transgenic rice under drought and salt stress conditions, implying that overexpression of these

  6. Prospective study of toric IOL outcomes based on the Lenstar LS 900® dual zone automated keratometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundersen Kjell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To establish clinical expectations when using the Lenstar LS 900® dual-zone automated keratometer for surgery planning of toric intraocular lenses. Methods Fifty eyes were measured with the Lenstar LS 900® dual-zone automated keratometer . Surgical planning was performed with the data from this device and the known surgically induced astigmatism of the surgeon. Post-operative refractions and visual acuity were measured at 1 month and 3 months. Results Clinical outcomes from 43 uncomplicated surgeries showed an average post-operative refractive astigmatism of 0.44D ±0.25D. Over 70% of eyes had 0.50D or less of refractive astigmatism and no eye had more than 1.0D of refractive astigmatism. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 or better in all eyes at 3 months, with 70% of eyes 20/20 or better. A significantly higher number of eyes had 0.75D or more of post-operative refractive astigmatism when the standard deviation of the pre-operative calculated corneal astigmatism angle, reported by the keratometer, was > 5 degrees. Conclusions In this single-site study investigating the use of the keratometry from the Lenstar LS 900® for toric IOL surgical planning, clinical outcomes appear equivalent to those reported in the literature for manual keratometry and somewhat better than has been reported for some previous automated instruments. A high standard deviation in the pre-operative calculated astigmatism angle, as reported by the keratometer, appears to increase the likelihood of higher post-operative refractive astigmatism.

  7. Monoclonal antibody against recombinant Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H could detect juvenile and adult cathepsin Ls of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwairot, Sirima; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Jaikua, Wipaphorn; Sansri, Veerawat; Meemon, Krai; Songkoomkrong, Sineenart; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin Ls (CatLs), the major cysteine protease secreted by Fasciola spp., are important for parasite digestion and tissue invasion. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H (FgCatL1H) is the isotype expressed in the early stages for migration and invasion. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant F. gigantica cathepsin L1H (rFgCatL1H) was produced by hybridoma technique using spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant proFgCatL1H (rproFgCatL1H). This MoAb is an immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 with κ light chain isotype. The MoAb reacted specifically with rproFgCatL1H, the native FgCatL1H at a molecular weight (MW) 38 to 48 kDa in the extract of whole body (WB) of metacercariae and newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) and cross-reacted with rFgCatL1 and native FgCatLs at MW 25 to 28 kDa in WB of 2- and 4-week-old juveniles, adult, and adult excretory-secretory (ES) fractions by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA. It did not cross-react with antigens in WB fractions from other parasites, including Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Setaria labiato-papillosa, and Fischoederius cobboldi. By immunolocalization, MoAb against rFgCatL1H reacted with the native protein in the gut of metacercariae and NEJ and also cross-reacted with CatL1 in 2- and 4-week-old juveniles and adult F. gigantica. Therefore, FgCatL1H and its MoAb may be used for immunodiagnosis of both early and late fasciolosis in ruminants and humans.

  8. QuBiLS-MIDAS: a parallel free-software for molecular descriptors computation based on multilinear algebraic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jacas, César R; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Acevedo-Martínez, Liesner; Barigye, Stephen J; Valdés-Martiní, José R; Contreras-Torres, Ernesto

    2014-07-05

    The present report introduces the QuBiLS-MIDAS software belonging to the ToMoCoMD-CARDD suite for the calculation of three-dimensional molecular descriptors (MDs) based on the two-linear (bilinear), three-linear, and four-linear (multilinear or N-linear) algebraic forms. Thus, it is unique software that computes these tensor-based indices. These descriptors, establish relations for two, three, and four atoms by using several (dis-)similarity metrics or multimetrics, matrix transformations, cutoffs, local calculations and aggregation operators. The theoretical background of these N-linear indices is also presented. The QuBiLS-MIDAS software was developed in the Java programming language and employs the Chemical Development Kit library for the manipulation of the chemical structures and the calculation of the atomic properties. This software is composed by a desktop user-friendly interface and an Abstract Programming Interface library. The former was created to simplify the configuration of the different options of the MDs, whereas the library was designed to allow its easy integration to other software for chemoinformatics applications. This program provides functionalities for data cleaning tasks and for batch processing of the molecular indices. In addition, it offers parallel calculation of the MDs through the use of all available processors in current computers. The studies of complexity of the main algorithms demonstrate that these were efficiently implemented with respect to their trivial implementation. Lastly, the performance tests reveal that this software has a suitable behavior when the amount of processors is increased. Therefore, the QuBiLS-MIDAS software constitutes a useful application for the computation of the molecular indices based on N-linear algebraic maps and it can be used freely to perform chemoinformatics studies. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Material Models within LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) for a Kevlar/Epoxy Composite Honeycomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Michael A.; Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The performance of material models to simulate a novel composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) was evaluated using the nonlinear explicit dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark). Prototypes of the DEA concept were manufactured using a Kevlar/Epoxy composite material in which the fibers are oriented at +/-45 degrees with respect to the loading axis. The development of the DEA has included laboratory tests at subcomponent and component levels such as three-point bend testing of single hexagonal cells, dynamic crush testing of single multi-cell components, and impact testing of a full-scale fuselage section fitted with a system of DEA components onto multi-terrain environments. Due to the thin nature of the cell walls, the DEA was modeled using shell elements. In an attempt to simulate the dynamic response of the DEA, it was first represented using *MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC, or *MAT_58, in LS-DYNA. Values for each parameter within the material model were generated such that an in-plane isotropic configuration for the DEA material was assumed. Analytical predictions showed that the load-deflection behavior of a single-cell during three-point bending was within the range of test data, but predicted the DEA crush response to be very stiff. In addition, a *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY, or *MAT_24, material model in LS-DYNA was developed, which represented the Kevlar/Epoxy composite as an isotropic elastic-plastic material with input from +/-45 degrees tensile coupon data. The predicted crush response matched that of the test and localized folding patterns of the DEA were captured under compression, but the model failed to predict the single-cell three-point bending response.

  10. Gene expression profiling upon 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Kwon J; Milenic, Diane E; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Kim, Young-Seung; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that therapy with 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab resulted in (1) induction of apoptosis, (2) G2/M arrest, and (3) blockage of double-strand DNA damage repair in LS-174T i.p. (intraperitoneal) xenografts. To further understand the molecular basis of the cell killing efficacy of 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab, gene expression profiling was performed with LS-174T xenografts 24 h after exposure to 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. DNA damage response genes (84) were screened using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array (qRT-PCR array). Differentially regulated genes were identified following exposure to 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. These included genes involved in apoptosis (ABL, GADD45α, GADD45γ, PCBP4, and p73), cell cycle (ATM, DDIT3, GADD45α, GTSE1, MKK6, PCBP4, and SESN1), and damaged DNA binding (DDB) and repair (ATM and BTG2). The stressful growth arrest conditions provoked by 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab were found to induce genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of genes involved in DDB and single-strand DNA breaks was also enhanced by 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab while no modulation of genes involved in double-strand break repair was apparent. Furthermore, the p73/GADD45 signaling pathway mediated by p38 kinase signaling may be involved in the cellular response, as evidenced by the enhanced expression of genes and proteins of this pathway. These results further support the previously described cell killing mechanism by 212 Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab in the same LS-174T i.p. xenograft. Insight into these mechanisms could lead to improved strategies for rational application of radioimmunotherapy using α-particle emitters. The apoptotic response and associated gene modulations have not been clearly defined following exposure of cells to α-particle radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Gene expression profiling was performed with LS-174T i.p. (intraperitoneal) xenografts after exposure to 212 Pb

  11. Controller with an ispLS1016 circuit for the utilization of a TV fifo in spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.; Toledo Acosta, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    It is described the design of a controller based in the integrated circuit ispLS1016 for the utilization of a 256K x 8 FIFO originally for digital video applications in spectroscopy., Co, Zn, Sn, U and Th (deposited in filter paper) are The design was based upon an integrated circuit of the ispLSI family, which allowed drastically to diminish the quantity of utilized components, to obtain a flexible design in less time and to fulfill other specific requirements for spectroscopy applications

  12. Characterizing the Energetics of the Youngest Protostars: FIFI-LS Spectroscopy of Herschel-Identified Extreme Class 0 objects in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megeath, S.

    2014-10-01

    We propose FIFI-LS spectroscopy observations toward 3 of the youngest known Herschel- detected Class 0 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds. Characterization of the far-IR spectrum toward these PACS Bright Red Sources (PBRS) is imperative: this is the only observational means to characterize the complete energetics of the outflow in the earliest stages of the star formation process. We have already obtained Herschel-PACS spectroscopy for 8/14 PBRS; for these, the CO rotation temperatures are systematically lower than the larger samples of 'more typical' protostars observed. Furthermore, all of the Herschel-detected PBRS also have CARMA CO (J=1-0) outflow maps, enabling us to identify tentative trends between the detection and morphology (compact or extended) of the CO outflow and the presence or lack of far-infrared emission lines. Moreover, we only convincingly detect [OI] emission toward the source with the brightest outflow emission; thus, [OI] may not be universally present in protostellar outflows. However, due to the small-numbers with PACS spectroscopy, it is unclear if these trends are real and the three proposed PBRS have outflow maps of varying morphologies, but no far-infrared spectra. The results from this program will provide a firm observational footing for the presence or lack of such trends and will strengthen the connection of the far-IR emission lines to the outflow.

  13. ASSOCIATING LONG-TERM {gamma}-RAY VARIABILITY WITH THE SUPERORBITAL PERIOD OF LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J. M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caliandro, G. A. [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chekhtman, A., E-mail: andrea.caliandro@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: hadasch@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: dtorres@ieec.uab.es [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems for which the spectral energy distribution (discounting the thermal stellar emission) peaks at high energies. Detected from radio to TeV gamma rays, the {gamma}-ray binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 is highly variable across all frequencies. One aspect of this system's variability is the modulation of its emission with the timescale set by the {approx}26.4960 day orbital period. Here we show that, during the time of our observations, the {gamma}-ray emission of LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 also presents a sinusoidal variability consistent with the previously known superorbital period of 1667 days. This modulation is more prominently seen at orbital phases around apastron, whereas it does not introduce a visible change close to periastron. It is also found in the appearance and disappearance of variability at the orbital period in the power spectrum of the data. This behavior could be explained by a quasi-cyclical evolution of the equatorial outflow of the Be companion star, whose features influence the conditions for generating gamma rays. These findings open the possibility to use {gamma}-ray observations to study the outflows of massive stars in eccentric binary systems.

  14. Impact of Convection and Long Range Transport on Short-Lived Trace Gases in the UT/LS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Navarro, M. A.; Lueb, R.; Hendershot, R.; Ueyama, R.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical composition of the air in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere is controlled by a balance of transport, photochemistry, and physical processes, such as interactions with clouds, ice, and aerosol. The chemistry of the air masses that reach the upper troposphere can potentially have profound impacts on the chemistry in the near tropopause region. For example, the transport of reactive organic halogens and their transformation to inorganic halogen species, e.g., Br, BrO, etc., can have a significant impact on ozone budgets in this region and even deeper the stratosphere. Trace gas measurements in the region near the tropopause can also indicate potential sources of surface emissions that are transported to high altitudes. Measurement of trace gases, including such compounds as non-methane hydrocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, halogenated solvents, methyl halides, etc., can be used to characterize source emissions from industrial, urban, biomass burning, or marine origins. Recent airborne research campaigns have been conducted to better characterize the chemical composition and variations in the UT/LS region. This presentation will discuss these measurements, with a special emphasis on the role of convection and transport in modifying the chemical composition of the UT/LS.

  15. Hour time-scale QPOs in the X-ray and radio emission of LS I +61°303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nösel, S.; Sharma, R.; Massi, M.; Cimò, G.; Chernyakova, M.

    2018-05-01

    LS I +61°303 is an X-ray binary with a radio outburst every ˜27 d. Previous studies of the stellar system revealed radio microflares superimposed on the large radio outburst. We present here new radio observations of LS I +61°303 at 2.2 GHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Using various timing analysis methods, we find significant quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of 55 min stable over the duration of 4 d. We also use archival data obtained from the Suzaku satellite at X-ray wavelengths. We report here for the first time significant X-ray QPOs of about 2 h present over the time span of 21 h. We compare our results with the previously reported QPO observations and we conclude that the QPOs seem to be associated with the radio outburst, independent of the amplitude of the outburst. Finally, the different QPO time-scales are discussed in the context of magnetic reconnection.

  16. Estimasi Kanal Akustik Bawah Air Untuk Perairan Dangkal Menggunakan Metode Least Square (LS dan Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardawia M Panrereng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, sistem komunikasi akustik bawah air banyak dikembangkan oleh beberapa peneliti. Besarnya tantangan yang dihadapi membuat para peneliti semakin tertarik untuk mengembangkan penelitian dibidang ini. Kanal bawah air merupakan media komunikasi yang sulit karena adanya attenuasi, absorption, dan multipath yang disebabkan oleh gerakan gelombang air setiap saat. Untuk perairan dangkal, multipath disebabkan adanya pantulan dari permukaan dan dasar laut. Kebutuhan pengiriman data cepat dengan bandwidth terbatas menjadikan Ortogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM sebagai solusi untuk komunikasi transmisi tinggi dengan modulasi menggunakan Binary Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK. Estimasi kanal bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik respon impuls kanal propagasi dengan mengirimkan pilot simbol. Pada estimasi kanal menggunakan metode Least Square (LS nilai Mean Square Error (MSE yang diperoleh cenderung lebih besar dari metode estimasi kanal menggunakan metode Minimum Mean Square (MMSE. Hasil kinerja estimasi kanal berdasarkan perhitungan Bit Error Rate (BER untuk estimasi kanal menggunakan metode LS dan metode MMSE tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan yaitu berselisih satu SNR untuk setiap metode estimasi kanal yang digunakan.

  17. ASSOCIATING LONG-TERM γ-RAY VARIABILITY WITH THE SUPERORBITAL PERIOD OF LS I +61°303

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J. M.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Chekhtman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems for which the spectral energy distribution (discounting the thermal stellar emission) peaks at high energies. Detected from radio to TeV gamma rays, the γ-ray binary LS I +61°303 is highly variable across all frequencies. One aspect of this system's variability is the modulation of its emission with the timescale set by the ∼26.4960 day orbital period. Here we show that, during the time of our observations, the γ-ray emission of LS I +61°303 also presents a sinusoidal variability consistent with the previously known superorbital period of 1667 days. This modulation is more prominently seen at orbital phases around apastron, whereas it does not introduce a visible change close to periastron. It is also found in the appearance and disappearance of variability at the orbital period in the power spectrum of the data. This behavior could be explained by a quasi-cyclical evolution of the equatorial outflow of the Be companion star, whose features influence the conditions for generating gamma rays. These findings open the possibility to use γ-ray observations to study the outflows of massive stars in eccentric binary systems

  18. Gamma–Gamma Absorption in the γ-ray Binary System PSR B1259-63/LS 2883

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushch, Iurii [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potcheftroom (South Africa); Van Soelen, Brian, E-mail: iurii.sushch@desy.de, E-mail: vansoelenb@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2017-03-10

    The observed TeV light curve from the γ -ray binary PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 shows a decrease in the flux at periastron that has not been fully explained by emission mechanisms alone. This observed decrease can, however, be explained by γγ absorption due to the stellar and disk photons. We calculate the γγ absorption in PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 taking into account photons from both the circumstellar disk and star, assuming that the γ -rays originate at the position of the pulsar. The γγ absorption due to the circumstellar disk photons produces a ≈14% decrease in the flux, and there is a total decrease of ≈52% (>1 TeV) within a few days before periastron, accompanied by a hardening of the γ -ray photon index. While the γγ absorption alone is not sufficient to explain the full complexity of the H.E.S.S. γ -ray light curve, it results in a significant decrease in the predicted flux, which is coincident with the observed decrease. In addition, we have calculated an upper limit on the γγ absorption, assuming that the emission is produced at the apex of the bow shock. Future observations with CTA during the 2021 periastron passage may be able to confine the location of the emission based on the degree of γγ absorption, as well as measure the hardening of the spectrum around periastron.

  19. L.S. Vygotsky's Principle "One Step in Learning — A Hundred Steps in Development": In Search of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Zaretsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of L.S. Vygotsky's published works the paper attempts to trace the dynamics of his concepts of child development and to provide evidence supporting Vygotsky's statement that one step in learning equals a hundred in development, which is one of the key principles of culturalhistorical theory in its application to child development. This statement is put in a row with two other major principles: one arguing that learning precedes development and the other referring to the zone of proximal development. The paper outlines a multivector model of the zone of proximal development as one of the conceptual tools of the reflective and activity approach to helping children overcome learning difficulties and promoting their development. The paper also describes a case study in which an orphan child with a disability received psychological and educational support that obviously contributed to the child's development. It is argued that L.S. Vygotsky's idea of the specific relationship between learning and development has fundamental theoretical and practical implications, in particular, for working with children with special needs

  20. Aerosols in the tropical and subtropical UT/LS: in-situ measurements of submicron particle abundance and volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Processes occurring in the tropical upper troposphere (UT, the Tropical Transition Layer (TTL, and the lower stratosphere (LS are of importance for the global climate, for stratospheric dynamics and air chemistry, and for their influence on the global distribution of water vapour, trace gases and aerosols. In this contribution we present aerosol and trace gas (in-situ measurements from the tropical UT/LS over Southern Brazil, Northern Australia, and West Africa. The instruments were operated on board of the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 "Geophysica" and the DLR Falcon-20 during the campaigns TROCCINOX (Araçatuba, Brazil, February 2005, SCOUT-O3 (Darwin, Australia, December 2005, and SCOUT-AMMA (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, August 2006. The data cover submicron particle number densities and volatility from the COndensation PArticle counting System (COPAS, as well as relevant trace gases like N2O, ozone, and CO. We use these trace gas measurements to place the aerosol data into a broader atmospheric context. Also a juxtaposition of the submicron particle data with previous measurements over Costa Rica and other tropical locations between 1999 and 2007 (NASA DC-8 and NASA WB-57F is provided. The submicron particle number densities, as a function of altitude, were found to be remarkably constant in the tropical UT/LS altitude band for the two decades after 1987. Thus, a parameterisation suitable for models can be extracted from these measurements. Compared to the average levels in the period between 1987 and 2007 a slight increase of particle abundances was found for 2005/2006 at altitudes with potential temperatures, Θ, above 430 K. The origins of this increase are unknown except for increases measured during SCOUT-AMMA. Here the eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano in the Caribbean caused elevated particle mixing ratios. The vertical profiles from Northern hemispheric mid-latitudes between 1999 and 2006 also are

  1. A novel approach to enhance biological nutrient removal using a culture supernatant from Micrococcus luteus containing resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) in SBR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yindong; Su, Xiaomei; Lu, Lian; Ding, Linxian; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-03-01

    A culture supernatant from Micrococcus luteus containing resuscitation-promoting factor (SRpf) was used to enhance the biological nutrient removal of potentially functional bacteria. The obtained results suggest that SRpf accelerated the start-up process and significantly enhanced the biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). PO4 (3-)-P removal efficiency increased by over 12 % and total nitrogen removal efficiency increased by over 8 % in treatment reactor acclimated by SRpf compared with those without SRpf addition. The Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that SRpf played an essential role in shifts in the composition and diversity of bacterial community. The phyla of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which were closely related to biological nutrient removal, were greatly abundant after SRpf addition. This study demonstrates that SRpf acclimation or addition might hold great potential as an efficient and cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to meet more stringent operation conditions and legislations.

  2. Screening for epitope specificity directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production by an ELISA with biotin-labeled antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Gregersen, Annemette; Brandt, Jette; Kliem, Anette; Skjødt, Karsten; Koch, Claus; Teisner, Børge

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an assay for comparison of epitope specificity in groups of monoclonal antibodies against a given antigen. The only prerequisite is the biotin-labeled antigen. One of the monoclonal antibodies is captured onto a plastic surface via a rabbit anti-mouse Ig, and the other preincubated with biotinylated antigen. When the two antibodies react with the same epitope subsequent binding of the biotin-labeled antigen is abolished (inhibition). In the cases where no inhibition was observed, the two antibodies were considered to react with distinct, independent epitopes. The obvious advantages using this assay, are that it can be performed directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production, and also works for antigens with repetitive epitopes. Moreover, the bonus effect, i.e., a signal in excess of the reference signal when sets of monoclonal antibodies with different epitope specificity are compared, gives a relative measure of affinity.

  3. Fermentation supernatants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii inhibit growth of human colon cancer cells and induce apoptosis through a caspase 3-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ying; Xin, Yi; Zhang, Cuili; Wu, Dachang; Ding, Dapeng; Tang, Li; Owusu, Lawrence; Bai, Jing; Li, Weiling

    2014-05-01

    Probiotic bacteria are known to exert a wide range of beneficial effects on their animal hosts. Therefore, the present study explored the effect of the supernatants obtained from Lactobacillus delbrueckii fermentation (LBF) on colon cancer. The results indicated that the proliferation of LBF solution-treated colon cancer SW620 cells was arrested and accumulated in the G1 phase in a concentration-dependent manner. The LBF solution efficiently induced apoptosis through the intrinsic caspase 3-depedent pathway, with a corresponding decreased expression of Bcl-2. The activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9, which is associated with the invasion of colon cancer cells, was also decreased in the LBF-treated cells. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the antitumor effect of LBF in vitro and may contribute to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of colon cancer.

  4. Diagnosis of leg osseous infection in diabetics: place of scintigraphy of the polynuclear hydrocarbons labelled by HMPAO-99mTc (HMPAO-LS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Hennion, F.; Poirier, J.Y.; Bourguet, P.

    1997-01-01

    In case of leg infection in diabetics it is difficult to differentiate between a chronic osteopathy, an infection of the soft tissues and an osteomyelitis (OM). We considered of interest to evaluate by a HMPAO-LS prospective study the diagnosis of osteitis in diabetic legs. Twenty seven diabetic (DID type 1 = 11, DNID type 2 = 16) patients (19 M and 8 F, average age 64 years), clinically suspected with a leg osteo-articular infection (malum perforans or cellulitis, uni- or bi-lateral, unique or multiple lesions) were included in the study. For all of them a standard radiographic examination centered on the legs, a (3 phases) osseous scintigraphy and a HMPAO-LS were achieved over 3 days. The HMPAO-LS was considered as in favour of a OM when there was an abnormal accumulation of granulocytes concordant with a hyper-fixation by osseous scintigraphy. In case of 37 retained lesions 20 OM were proved: - 8 sites, on radiological arguments and histological and/or microbiological criteria after osseous biopsy; - 8, by the radiological examination only; - 4, on biopsy arguments, only. Seventeen lesions were not OM, of which 7 were cellulitis. The sensitivity of the HMPAO-LS was 90% with a specificity of 94%. 8/20 OM had initial normal radiographs confirming the precocity of OM diagnosis by HMPAO-LS. Twelve HMPAO-LS were effected in OM evolutive surveillance. All of them became negative on the control initial site of the healing of OM. In conclusion, the HMPAO-LS appears to be an alternative to choose in the diagnosis and in the evolution surveillance of leg OM in diabetics, particularly when the healing of the perforans softs is incomplete and the question of the osteitis healing or sequel of an anti-biotherapy is posed

  5. The Ne3LS Network, Québec's initiative to evaluate the impact and promote a responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Charles-Anica; Emond, Claude; Battista, Renaldo; Parizeau, Marie-Hélène; Beaudry, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    The spectacular progress made by nanosciences and nanotechnologies elicits as much hope and fear. Consequently, a great number of research and training initiatives on the ethical, environmental, economic, legal and social issues regarding nanotechnology development (Ne3LS) are emerging worldwide. In Québec, Canada, a Task Force was mandated by NanoQuébec to conceive a Ne3LS research and training strategy to assess those issues. This Task Force brought together experts from universities, governments or industry working in nanosciences and nanotechnologies or in Ne3LS. Their resulting action plan, made public in November 2006, contained several recommendations, including the creation of a knowledge network (Ne3LS Network). In the following years, after consulting with numerous key players concerned with the possible impacts of nanosciences and nanotechnologies in Québec, the Ne3LS Network was launched in January 2010 in partnership with the Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies, the Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la société et la culture and the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec, NanoQuébec, the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail as well as the University of Montreal. Its objectives are to 1) Foster the development of Ne3LS research activities (grants and fellowships); 2) Spearhead the Canadian and international Ne3LS network; 3) Take part in the training of researchers and experts; 4) Encourage the creation of interactive tools for the general public; 5) Facilitate collaboration between decision-makers and experts; 6) Involve the scientific community through a host of activities (symposium, conferences, thematic events); 7) Build multidisciplinary research teams to evaluate the impact of nanotechnology.

  6. Evaluation of PLS, LS-SVM, and LWR for quantitative spectroscopic analysis of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil testing requires the analysis of large numbers of samples in laboratory that are often time consuming and expensive. Mid-infrared spectroscopy (mid-IR) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are fast, non-destructive, and inexpensive analytical methods that have been used for soil analysis, in l...

  7. CÁLCULO AUTOMÁTICO DO FATOR TOPOGRÁFICO (LS DA EUPS, NA BACIA DO RIO PARACATU AUTOMATIC CALCULATION OF THE TOPOGRAPHIC FACTOR (LS OF THE USLE, IN THE PARACATU RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtercides Cavalcante da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Embora a equação universal de perda de solo (EUPS seja amplamente utilizada na predição de perda de solo, é difícil obter certos fatores dessa equação em bacias hidrográficas, como é o caso do fator de comprimento de vertente (fator L. Diante disso, este trabalho objetivou determinar de maneira informatizada (automática, o fator topográfico (LS da EUPS, utilizando para o cálculo do fator L o algoritmo de Desmet & Govers (1996, com o suporte de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG. Verificou-se a viabilidade do cálculo do fator de comprimento de vertente, na escala de 1:100.000, por meio da metodologia desses autores, que considera o fluxo acumulado.

    Although the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE is widely used all over the world in the prediction of soil loss, a few factors of the equation are difficult to obtain, such as the slope length factor (L factor, particularly in watersheds. For this reason, the purpose of the present research was to apply the methodology for automatic calculation of the topographic factor (LS factor using the algorithm developed by Desmet and Govers (1996 which defines the slope length factor (L factor through the Geographic Information System (GIS. It was verified that the slope length factor (L, as developed by Desmet and Govers (1996, which accounts for accumulated flow, showed feasible results.

    KEY-WORDS: USLE; L factor; topographic factor; GIS.

  8. Long-term test of the 22.9kV HTS power cable system in LS Cable Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Man; Lee, Chang Young; Kim, Choon Dong; Kim, Do Hyung; Park, In Son; Ji, Bong Ki; Kim, Dong Wook; Cho, Jeonwook

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, LS cable Ltd. has been developing the design, manufacturing and evaluation technologies for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system as a member of DAPAS (Dream for Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technology) program in Korea. The 30 m HTS cable system that is rated at 22.9 kV and 1.2 kA giving a rated capacity of 50 MVA had been developed and tested. The cable was designed as a cold dielectric type employing Bi-2223 HTS tapes and polypropylene (PP) laminated paper as the conductor and electrical insulation, respectively. The cable is cooled with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at temperature from 75 to 77 K. The manufacturing and the installation of the cable system were completed in 2004. Long-term performance test of the cable system has been conducted for six months to verify its electric and mechanical properties in 2005

  9. A New Approach to the GeV Flare of PSR B1259-63/LS2883

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Shu-Xu; Cheng, K. S., E-mail: yishuxu@hku.hk, E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-08-01

    PSR B1259-63/LS2883 is a binary system composed of a pulsar and a Be star. The Be star has an equatorial circumstellar disk (CD). The Fermi satellite discovered unexpected gamma-ray flares around 30 days after the last two periastron passages. The origin of the flares remains puzzling. In this work, we explore the possibility that the GeV flares are consequences of inverse Compton scattering of soft photons by the pulsar wind. The soft photons are from an accretion disk around the pulsar, which is composed of the matter from the CD captured by the pulsar’s gravity at disk-crossing before the periastron. At the other disk-crossing after the periastron, the density of the CD is not high enough, so accretion is prevented by the pulsar wind shock. This model can reproduce the observed spectrum energy distributions and light curves satisfactorily.

  10. Tetrocarcin Q, a New Spirotetronate with a Unique Glycosyl Group from a Marine-Derived Actinomycete Micromonospora carbonacea LS276

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new spirotetronate glycoside tetrocarcin Q (1 and six known analogues tetrocarcin A (2, AC6H (3, tetrocarcin N (4, tetrocarcin H (5, arisostatin A (6, and tetrocarcin F1 (7 were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived actinomycete Micromonospora carbonacea LS276. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. The absolute configurations of their stereogenic carbons were determined by circular dichroism (CD analysis. Compound 1 possesses 2-deoxy-allose, which is a unique sugar type at the C-9 position. This type has not been found in the previously reported spirotetronate glycosides. Compound 1 displayed moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subitlis ATCC 63501 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 12.5 μM.

  11. A new 4π(LS)-γ coincidence counter at NCBJ RC POLATOM with TDCR detector in the beta channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemek, T; Jęczmieniowski, A; Cacko, D; Broda, R; Lech, E

    2016-03-01

    A new 4π(LS)-γ coincidence system (TDCRG) was built at the NCBJ RC POLATOM. The counter consists of a TDCR detector in the beta channel and scintillation detector with NaI(Tl) crystal in the gamma channel. The system is equipped with a digital board with FPGA, which records and analyses coincidences in the TDCR detector and coincidences between the beta and gamma channels. The characteristics of the system and a scheme of the FPGA implementation with behavioral simulation are given. The TDCRG counter was validated by activity measurements on (14)C and (60)Co solutions standardized in RC POLATOM using previously validated methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Data transfer from Beckman LS 5800 liquid scintillation counters to IBM personal computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, A C

    1985-09-01

    This communication describes a short routine in BASICA for the IBM-PC, written to collect data from a Beckman liquid scintillation counter. In the form presented here the routine converts incoming bytes into separate lines and saves these lines in a file. There are many possible applications for further use of the data in these files. A few suggestions are given as to the format in which data can be stored and how to process these data automatically after all samples have been counted. The only hardware needed is an asynchronous communications adapter for the IBM-PC and an RS232 cable.

  13. Conditioned medium from LS 174T goblet cells treated with oxyresveratrol strengthens tight junctions in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dahyun; Jo, HyunA; Hwang, Seonwook; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Kim, In-Ho; Lim, Young-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Strengthening of intestinal tight junctions provides an effective barrier from the external environment. Goblet cell-derived trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) increases transepithelial resistance by upregulating the expression of tight junction proteins. Oxyresveratrol (OXY) is a hydroxyl-substituted stilbene found in the roots, leaves, stems, and fruit of many plants and known to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the strengthening effect of OXY on intestinal tight junctions through stimulation of TFF production in goblet cells. We prepared conditioned medium from LS 174T goblet cells treated with OXY (GCO-CM) and investigated the effect of GCO-CM on strengthening tight junctions of Caco-2 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of major tight junction components (claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1) were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) was measured using an ohm/V meter. Monolayer permeability was evaluated by paracellular transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. OXY showed a strong antioxidant activity. It significantly increased the expression level of TFF3 in LS 174T goblet cells. GCO-CM prepared by treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10μg/ml OXY did not show cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. GCO-CM increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1. It also significantly increased tight junction integrity and reduced permeability in a dose-dependent manner. OXY stimulates the expression of TFF3 in goblet cells, which might increase the integrity of the intestinal tight junction barrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrodialytic extraction of heavy metals from Greenlandic MSWI fly ash as a function of remediation time and L/S ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2013-01-01

    , where the fly ash was suspended in distilled water in different liquid to solid (L/S) ratios. Remediation times of 7 and 14 days were tested and the current strength was 50 mA in all experiments. The highest removal was seen when an acidic pH in the fly ash suspension was obtained. In an experiment...... lasting 14 days with L/S 10, up to 60 % Cd, 45 % Zn, 20 % Ni and Ba was removed. Regardless of the remediation time and L/S ratio, the fraction of soluble Ba, Cr and Pb decreased due to the electrodialytic remediation. The electrodialytic remediation method showed potential as a treatment method...

  15. The little-studied cluster Berkeley 90. I. LS III +46 11: a very massive O3.5 If* + O3.5 If* binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Negueruela, I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Pellerin, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sota, A.; Marco, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; Sanchez Bermudez, J.; Gamen, R. C.; Lorenzo, J.

    2015-07-01

    Context. It appears that most (if not all) massive stars are born in multiple systems. At the same time, the most massive binaries are hard to find owing to their low numbers throughout the Galaxy and the implied large distances and extinctions. Aims: We want to study LS III +46 11, identified in this paper as a very massive binary; another nearby massive system, LS III +46 12; and the surrounding stellar cluster, Berkeley 90. Methods: Most of the data used in this paper are multi-epoch high S/N optical spectra, although we also use Lucky Imaging and archival photometry. The spectra are reduced with dedicated pipelines and processed with our own software, such as a spectroscopic-orbit code, CHORIZOS, and MGB. Results: LS III +46 11 is identified as a new very early O-type spectroscopic binary [O3.5 If* + O3.5 If*] and LS III +46 12 as another early O-type system [O4.5 V((f))]. We measure a 97.2-day period for LS III +46 11 and derive minimum masses of 38.80 ± 0.83 M⊙ and 35.60 ± 0.77 M⊙ for its two stars. We measure the extinction to both stars, estimate the distance, search for optical companions, and study the surrounding cluster. In doing so, a variable extinction is found as well as discrepant results for the distance. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that LS III +46 12 may be a hidden binary system where the companion is currently undetected.

  16. Safety and pharmacokinetics of the Fc-modified HIV-1 human monoclonal antibody VRC01LS: A Phase 1 open-label clinical trial in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudinski, Martin R.; Coates, Emily E.; Houser, Katherine V.; Chen, Grace L.; Yamshchikov, Galina; Saunders, Jamie G.; Holman, LaSonji A.; Gordon, Ingelise; Plummer, Sarah; Hendel, Cynthia S.; Conan-Cibotti, Michelle; Lorenzo, Margarita Gomez; Sitar, Sandra; Carlton, Kevin; Laurencot, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    Background VRC01 is a human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (bnMAb) against the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) that is currently being evaluated in a Phase IIb adult HIV-1 prevention efficacy trial. VRC01LS is a modified version of VRC01, designed for extended serum half-life by increased binding affinity to the neonatal Fc receptor. Methods and findings This Phase I dose-escalation study of VRC01LS in HIV-negative healthy adults was conducted by the Vaccin...

  17. The assessment of cytokines in Quantiferon supernatants for the diagnosis of latent TB infection in a tribal population of Melghat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, Prachi R; Husain, Aliabbas A; Daginawala, Hatim F; Agrawal, Neha P; Panchbhai, Milind S; Satav, Ashish R; Taori, Girdhar M; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2015-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), namely, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT), remain the standard immunological diagnostic tools for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). However, the sub-optimal detection rates of both of these tests are major impediments in recognizing the population at risk. This study was aimed at evaluating additional cytokines besides interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as biomarkers for improving LTBI diagnosis in the tribal population of Melghat, India. Seventy-four close TB contacts were stratified by QFT and TST results into: (i) QFT+/TST+ (n = 26), (ii) QFT+/TST- (n = 12), (iii) QFT-/TST- (n = 35) and (iv) QFT-/TST+ (n = 1) groups. A panel of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-2R) was then evaluated in antigen-stimulated QFT cell-free culture supernatants using IMMULITE-1000, an automated immunoassay analyzer. Cytokine estimation showed significantly higher levels of IL-6 in the QFT+/TST+ group, while significantly higher levels of IL-10 were found in the QFT-/TST- group. Correlation analysis identified a positive correlation between IL-6 and the QFT response (r = 0.6723, P < 0.0001), while a negative correlation was seen between QFT and IL-10 expression (r = -0.3271, P = 0.0044). Similarly, IL-6 was positively correlated with TST levels (r = 0.6631, P <0 .0001), and conversely, a negative correlation was found between TST and IL-10 expression (r = -0.5698, P < 0.0001). The positive and negative predictive values of IL-6 were found to be 92.59 and 93.33%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values of IL-10 were 96.55 and 91.18%, respectively. No significant impact of the demographic characteristics on cytokine positivity was observed. Our preliminary results suggest that the evaluation of additional cytokines in QFT cell-free culture supernatants may be valuable for the identification of LTBI. Combining IL-6 and IL-10 with QFT and/or TST could markedly improve the detection

  18. The assessment of cytokines in Quantiferon supernatants for the diagnosis of latent TB infection in a tribal population of Melghat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi R. Bapat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The tuberculin skin test (TST and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA, namely, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT, remain the standard immunological diagnostic tools for latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI. However, the sub-optimal detection rates of both of these tests are major impediments in recognizing the population at risk. This study was aimed at evaluating additional cytokines besides interferon-gamma (IFN-γ as biomarkers for improving LTBI diagnosis in the tribal population of Melghat, India. Seventy-four close TB contacts were stratified by QFT and TST results into: (i QFT+/TST+ (n = 26, (ii QFT+/TST− (n = 12, (iii QFT−/TST− (n = 35 and (iv QFT−/TST+ (n = 1 groups. A panel of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-2R was then evaluated in antigen-stimulated QFT cell-free culture supernatants using IMMULITE-1000, an automated immunoassay analyzer. Cytokine estimation showed significantly higher levels of IL-6 in the QFT+/TST+ group, while significantly higher levels of IL-10 were found in the QFT−/TST− group. Correlation analysis identified a positive correlation between IL-6 and the QFT response (r = 0.6723, P < 0.0001, while a negative correlation was seen between QFT and IL-10 expression (r = −0.3271, P = 0.0044. Similarly, IL-6 was positively correlated with TST levels (r = 0.6631, P < 0.0001, and conversely, a negative correlation was found between TST and IL-10 expression (r = −0.5698, P < 0.0001. The positive and negative predictive values of IL-6 were found to be 92.59 and 93.33%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values of IL-10 were 96.55 and 91.18%, respectively. No significant impact of the demographic characteristics on cytokine positivity was observed. Our preliminary results suggest that the evaluation of additional cytokines in QFT cell-free culture supernatants may be valuable for the identification of LTBI. Combining IL-6 and IL-10 with QFT and

  19. Study of the following decays: K{sub l,s} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -}; Etude des desintegrations K{sub l,s} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, J

    2001-12-01

    The study of the K{sub L,S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -} decay modes in the NA48 experiment at CERN is presented in this thesis. Using the full data samples collected in 1998 and 1999, 1285 {+-} 37 events K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -} have been extracted over a background of 41 events. The measured branching ratio is: BR(K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -})=[3,16{+-}0,09(stat.){+-}0,16(syst.)] x 10{sup -7}. Concerning the K{sub S} mode, a signal of 768 {+-} 28 candidates has been observed over a negligible background. The obtained branching ratio is: BR(K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -})=[4,28{+-}0,18(stat.){+-}0,26(syst.)] x 10{sup -5}. Both results are in very good agreement with the values predicted by phenomenological models where the processes K{sub L,S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -} are described in terms of inner Bremsstrahlung and direct emission contributions. In the K{sub L} mode, the presence of two components with opposed CP states leads to a large asymmetry A in the distribution of the angle {phi} between the decay planes of the two pions and the two electrons. The detailed analysis of the K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -} mode ends up to a non-zero value of the asymmetry with more than 4 standard deviations: A(K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -})=[13,8{+-}2,8(stat.){+-}2,3(syst.)]%. This result is a clear manifestation of CP violation in this channel. The large value of this asymmetry, in excellent agreement with theoretical prediction, accounts for CP violation in the K{sup 0}-K-bar{sup 0} mixing. Furthermore, it was verified that in the K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -} mode which is dominated by the inner Bremsstrahlung component, the asymmetry is compatible with zero: A(K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -})=[-0,8{+-}3,6(stat.){+-}1,2(syst.)]%. (author)

  20. Analysis of glutathione in supernatants and lysates of a human proximal tubular cell line from perfusion culture upon intoxication with cadmium chloride by HPLC and LC-ESI-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Hans; Huck, Christian W; Rainer, Matthias; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Bakry, Rania; Abberger, Thomas; Jennings, Paul; Pfaller, Walter; Bonn, Günther K

    A simple and highly effective reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described for analysing glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in out-flowing supernatants and lysates of perfusion cell cultures of human kidney cells (HK-2 cells) continuously

  1. Analysis of metal Bioleaching from thermal power plant fly ash by Aspergillus niger 34770 culture supernatant and reduction of phytotoxicity during the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Hocheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus niger culture supernatant is used for bioleaching process. Before starting bioleaching process, fly ash was washed with distilled water. This removed 100 % sodium, 47 % (±0.45) boron, 38.07 % (±0.12) calcium, 29.89 % (±0.78) magnesium, and 11.8 % (±0.05) potassium. The pH was reduced from 10.5 to 8.5 after water washing. During bioleaching process, around 100 % metal removal was achieved in 4 h for all metals except chromium 93 % (±1.18), nickel 83 % (±0.32), arsenic 78 % (±0.52), and lead 70 % (±0.20). The process parameters including temperature, shaking speed, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized for bioleaching process. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effect of fly ash on growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). At 20 g/100 ml fly ash concentration no germination of V. radiata seeds was observed. With an increasing concentration of untreated fly ash, a gradual decrease in root/shoot length was observed. After bioleaching process 78 % (±0.19) germination of V. radiata was observed with 20 g/100 ml fly ash. This study will help to develop an efficient process to remove the toxic metals from fly ash.

  2. Structure of nitrogen-converting communities induced by hydraulic retention time and COD/N ratio in constantly aerated granular sludge reactors treating digester supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Rusanowska, Paulina; Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated how hydraulic retention time (HRT) and COD/N ratio affect nitrogen-converting consortia in constantly aerated granules treating high-ammonium digester supernatant. Three HRTs (10, 13, 19 h) were tested at COD/N ratios of 4.5 and 2.3. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and relative real-time PCR were used to characterize the microbial communities. When changes in HRT and COD/N increased nitrogen loading, the ratio of the relative abundance of aerobic to anaerobic ammonium-oxidizers decreased. The COD/N ratio determined the species composition of the denitrifiers; however, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Pseudomonas denitrificans and Azoarcus sp. showed a high tolerance to the environmental conditions and occurred in the granules from all reactors. Denitrifier genera that support granule formation were identified, such as Pseudomonas, Shinella, and Flavobacterium. In aerated granules, nirK-possessing bacteria were more diverse than nirS-possessing bacteria. At a low COD/N ratio, N2O-reducer diversity increased because of the presence of bacteria known as aerobic denitrifiers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transient changes of enzyme activity of five acid hydrolases in the supernatants of homogenates of hearts of mice due to ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droba, B.; Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow

    1977-01-01

    Enzymatic activity of five lysosomal hydrolases: acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2), acid β-glycerophosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2), arylsulphatase (EC 3.1.6.1), β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) and β-N-acetylhexoaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) was studied in the supernatants of homogenates of hearts of unirradiated mice, serving as controls, and a group of UV-irradiated mice. In the control group, determinations made at 6-hr intervals showed rhythmic diurnal changes in activities of three acid hydrolases. These changes were statistically significant in the case of acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase, acid β-glycerophosphatase, and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. The effect of UV-irradiation was manifested mainly by depression of enzyme activities of the acid hydrolases during the first few hours after exposure. Depression of activities of arylsulphatase and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase by UV light was statistically significant. Presumably, the fall in enzyme activities of the acid hydrolases was due to chemical mediators formed in the skin under the influence of UV-radiation and adrenal corticoids secreted into the blood

  4. Soluble suppressor supernatants elaborated by concanavalin A-activated human mononuclear cells. Characterization of a soluble suppressor of B cell immunoglobulin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleisher, T.A.; Greene, W.C.; Blaese, R.M.; Waldmann, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) activated with the mitogenic lectin concanavalin A (Con A) elaborate a soluble immune suppressor supernatant (SISS) that contains at least 2 distinct suppressor factors. One of these, SISS-B, inhibits polyclonal B cell immunoglobulin production, whereas the other, SISS-T, suppresses T cell proliferation to both mitogens and antigens. The latter mediator is discussed in the companion paper. Characteristics of the human soluble suppressor of B cell immunoglobulin production (SISS-B) include: 1) inhibition by a noncytotoxic mechanism, 2) loss of activity in the presence of the monosaccharide L-rhamnose, 3) appearance within 8 to 16 hr after the addition of Con A, 4) elaboration by cells irradiated with 500 or 2000 rads, 5) production by highly purified T cells, 6) stability at pH 2.5 but instability at 56/sup o/C, and 7) m.w. of 60 to 80,000. These data indicate that after Con A activation, selected T cells not only become potent suppressor cells, but also generate a soluble saccharide-specific factor(s) that inhibits polyclonal immunoglobulin production by human B cells

  5. Anti-adherence potential of Enterococcus durans cells and its cell-free supernatant on plastic and stainless steel against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Ait Meddour; Farida, Bendali; Djamila, Sadoun

    2015-07-01

    It is demonstrated that numerous bacteria are able to attach to surfaces of equipment used for food handling or processing. In this study, a strain of Enterococcus durans, originally isolated from a milking machine surface, was firstly studied for its biofilm formation potential on plastic and stainless steel supports. The strain was found to be a biofilm producer either at 25, 30 or 37 °C on polystyrene microtitre plates, with a best adherence level observed at 25 °C. En. durans showed a strong adhesion to stainless steel AISI-304. Antibacterial and anti-adherence activities of En. durans were tested against four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Listeria innocua CLIP 74915) which were shown as biofilm producers on both plastic and stainless steel. En. durans cells and cell-free culture supernatant showed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition potential of the pathogens either on solid media or in broth co-cultures. Characterization of the antibacterial substances indicated their proteinaceous nature which assigned them most probably to bacteriocins group.

  6. Changes in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in response to operational parameters during the treatment of anaerobic sludge digester supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Kulikowska, Dorota; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2012-07-01

    The understanding of the relationship between ammoniaoxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in activated sludge and the operational treatment parameters supports the control of the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater. The modifications of treatment parameters by alteration of the number and length of aerobic and anaerobic stages in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) working cycle may influence the efficiency of ammonium oxidation and induce changes in the AOB community. Therefore, in the research, the impact of an SBR cycle mode with alternating aeration/ mixing conditions (7 h/1 h vs. 4 h/5.5 h) and volumetric exchange rate (n) on AOB abundance and diversity in activated sludge during the treatment of anaerobic sludge digester supernatant at limited oxygen concentration in the aeration stage (0.7 mg O2/l) was assessed. AOB diversity expressed by the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was determined by the cycle mode. At aeration/mixing stage lengths of 7 h/1 h, H' averaged 2.48 +/- 0.17, while at 4 h/ 5.5 h it was 2.35 +/- 0.16. At the given mode, AOB diversity decreased with increasing n. The cycle mode did not affect AOB abundance; however, a higher AOB abundance in activated sludge was promoted by decreasing the volumetric exchange rate. The sequences clustering with Nitrosospira sp. NpAV revealed the uniqueness of the AOB community and the simultaneously lower ability of adaptation of Nitrosospira sp. to the operational parameters applied in comparison with Nitrosomonas sp.

  7. An optimized Line Sampling method for the estimation of the failure probability of nuclear passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.; Pedroni, N.

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative reliability assessment of a thermal-hydraulic (T-H) passive safety system of a nuclear power plant can be obtained by (i) Monte Carlo (MC) sampling the uncertainties of the system model and parameters, (ii) computing, for each sample, the system response by a mechanistic T-H code and (iii) comparing the system response with pre-established safety thresholds, which define the success or failure of the safety function. The computational effort involved can be prohibitive because of the large number of (typically long) T-H code simulations that must be performed (one for each sample) for the statistical estimation of the probability of success or failure. In this work, Line Sampling (LS) is adopted for efficient MC sampling. In the LS method, an 'important direction' pointing towards the failure domain of interest is determined and a number of conditional one-dimensional problems are solved along such direction; this allows for a significant reduction of the variance of the failure probability estimator, with respect, for example, to standard random sampling. Two issues are still open with respect to LS: first, the method relies on the determination of the 'important direction', which requires additional runs of the T-H code; second, although the method has been shown to improve the computational efficiency by reducing the variance of the failure probability estimator, no evidence has been given yet that accurate and precise failure probability estimates can be obtained with a number of samples reduced to below a few hundreds, which may be required in case of long-running models. The work presented in this paper addresses the first issue by (i) quantitatively comparing the efficiency of the methods proposed in the literature to determine the LS important direction; (ii) employing artificial neural network (ANN) regression models as fast-running surrogates of the original, long-running T-H code to reduce the computational cost associated to the

  8. Identification and characterization of a novel type of replication terminator with bidirectional activity on the Bacillus subtilis theta plasmid pLS20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, WJJ; Smith, M; Wake, RG; deBoer, AL; Venema, G; Bron, S

    We have sequenced and analysed a 3.1 kb fragment of the 55 kb endogenous Bacillus subtilis plasmid pLS20 containing its replication functions, Just outside the region required for autonomous replication, a segment of 18 bp was identified as being almost identical to part of the major B. subtilis

  9. Effects of doping on ferroelectric properties and leakage current behavior of KNN-LT-LS thin films on SrTiO3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.

    2009-05-01

    We report the effects of Ba, Ti, and Mn dopants on ferroelectric polarization and leakage current of (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)(Nb0.84Ta0.1Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition. It is shown that donor dopants such as Ba2+, which increased the resistivity in bulk KNN-LT-LS, had an opposite effect in the thin film. Ti4+ as an acceptor B-site dopant reduces the leakage current by an order of magnitude, while the polarization values showed a slight degradation. Mn4+, however, was found to effectively suppress the leakage current by over two orders of magnitude while enhancing the polarization, with 15 and 23 μC/cm2 remanent and saturated polarization, whose values are ˜70% and 82% of the reported values for bulk composition. This phenomenon has been associated with the dual effect of Mn4+ in KNN-LT-LS thin film, by substituting both A- and B-site cations. A detailed description on how each dopant affects the concentrations of vacancies in the lattice is presented. Mn-doped KNN-LT-LS thin films are shown to be a promising candidate for lead-free thin films and applications.

  10. Measuring Trace Gas Emission from Multi-Distributed Sources Using Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM and Backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Flesch

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two micrometeorological techniques for measuring trace gas emission rates from distributed area sources were evaluated using a variety of synthetic area sources. The vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM and the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS techniques with an open-path optical spectroscopic sensor were evaluated for relative accuracy for multiple emission-source and sensor configurations. The relative accuracy was calculated by dividing the measured emission rate by the actual emission rate; thus, a relative accuracy of 1.0 represents a perfect measure. For a single area emission source, the VRPM technique yielded a somewhat high relative accuracy of 1.38 ± 0.28. The bLS technique resulted in a relative accuracy close to unity, 0.98 ± 0.24. Relative accuracies for dual source emissions for the VRPM and bLS techniques were somewhat similar to single source emissions, 1.23 ± 0.17 and 0.94 ± 0.24, respectively. When the bLS technique was used with vertical point concentrations, the relative accuracy was unacceptably low,

  11. An improved method for calculating slope length (λ) and the LS parameters of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation for large watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hongming; Wei, Jicheng; Yang, Qinke; Baartman, Jantiene E.M.; Gai, Lingtong; Yang, Xiaomei; Li, Shu Qin; Yu, Jiantao; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE) are often used to estimate soil erosion at regional landscape scales. USLE/RUSLE contain parameters for slope length factor (L) and slope steepness factor (S), usually combined as LS. However a major limitation is the difficulty

  12. Measuring trace gas emission from multi-distributed sources using vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) and backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two micrometeorological techniques for measuring trace gas emission rates from distributed area sources were evaluated using a variety of synthetic area sources. The accuracy of the vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) and the backward Lagrangian (bLS) techniques with an open-path optical spectrosco...

  13. Diagnosis of leg osseous infection in diabetics: place of scintigraphy of the polynuclear hydrocarbons labelled by HMPAO-{sup 99m}Tc (HMPAO-LS); Diagnostic de l`infection osseuse du pied chez le diabetique: place de la scintigraphie aux polynucleaires marques a l`HMPAO-Tc 99m (HMPAO-LS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Hennion, F.; Poirier, J.Y.; Bourguet, P. [CRLCC Eugene Marquis, Medecine Nucleaire, CHRU Endocrinologie, Rennes (France)

    1997-12-31

    In case of leg infection in diabetics it is difficult to differentiate between a chronic osteopathy, an infection of the soft tissues and an osteomyelitis (OM). We considered of interest to evaluate by a HMPAO-LS prospective study the diagnosis of osteitis in diabetic legs. Twenty seven diabetic (DID type 1 = 11, DNID type 2 = 16) patients (19 M and 8 F, average age 64 years), clinically suspected with a leg osteo-articular infection (malum perforans or cellulitis, uni- or bi-lateral, unique or multiple lesions) were included in the study. For all of them a standard radiographic examination centered on the legs, a (3 phases) osseous scintigraphy and a HMPAO-LS were achieved over 3 days. The HMPAO-LS was considered as in favour of a OM when there was an abnormal accumulation of granulocytes concordant with a hyper-fixation by osseous scintigraphy. In case of 37 retained lesions 20 OM were proved: - 8 sites, on radiological arguments and histological and/or microbiological criteria after osseous biopsy; - 8, by the radiological examination only; - 4, on biopsy arguments, only. Seventeen lesions were not OM, of which 7 were cellulitis. The sensitivity of the HMPAO-LS was 90% with a specificity of 94%. 8/20 OM had initial normal radiographs confirming the precocity of OM diagnosis by HMPAO-LS. Twelve HMPAO-LS were effected in OM evolutive surveillance. All of them became negative on the control initial site of the healing of OM. In conclusion, the HMPAO-LS appears to be an alternative to choose in the diagnosis and in the evolution surveillance of leg OM in diabetics, particularly when the healing of the perforans softs is incomplete and the question of the osteitis healing or sequel of an anti-biotherapy is posed

  14. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and imaging studies with 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 whole antibody in LS174T colonic tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldrosen, M.H.; Biddle, W.C.; Pancook, J.; Bakshi, S.; Vanderheyden, J.L.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Morgan, A.C. Jr.; Foon, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and radioimaging studies were performed with 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 whole antibody in athymic nude mice bearing the LS174T tumor growing either s.c. or in an experimental hepatic metastasis model. NR-LU-10 is an IgG2b murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) that reacts with virtually all human tumors of epithelial origin. NR-BC-1, a IgG2b murine MAb that reacts with normal human B-cell and B malignancies, was used as an isotype-matched control. These MAbs were radiolabeled with 186Re by a preformed chelate approach by using the triamide thiolate ligand system. 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 (50 microCi) was injected into nude mice bearing LS174T tumors growing s.c. Biodistribution studies revealed that the LS174T tumor retained the highest concentration of 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 at day 6. The tumor:blood ratio ranged from 0.1:1 to 10.8:1 by day 6, the last day of analysis. In contrast the tumor:blood ratio of 186Re-labeled NR-BC-1, the isotype-matched MAb control, was 1:1 on day 6. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the t1/2 beta of NR-LU-10 for blood and other tissues ranged from 21 to 25 h, while the t1/2 beta for the LS174T tumor averaged 52 h. The area under the curve for tumor compared to blood was 2.8- to 5.7-fold higher than the area under the curve for all other tissues and organs. The mean residence time for NR-LU-10 in blood and all other organs ranged from 23 to 26 h, while the mean residence time for NR-LU-10 in the LS174T tumor was 72 h. Scintigraphic images revealed selective uptake of the 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10, but not of the 186Re-labeled NR-BC-1, at the LS174T tumor site. Studies in an experimental model of hepatic metastasis revealed a similar selective pattern of 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 accumulation. Scintigraphic images of the LS174T tumor growing within the athymic nude mouse liver were obtained

  15. A gene encoding an abscisic acid biosynthetic enzyme (LsNCED4) collocates with the high temperature germination locus Htg6.1 in lettuce (Lactuca sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; McHale, Leah; Dahal, Peetambar; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2011-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate when imbibed at warm temperatures, can be a significant problem in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The reliability of stand establishment would be improved by increasing the ability of lettuce seeds to germinate at high temperatures. Genes encoding germination- or dormancy-related proteins were mapped in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola accession UC96US23. This revealed several candidate genes that are located in the genomic regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature and light requirements for germination. In particular, LsNCED4, a temperature-regulated gene in the biosynthetic pathway for abscisic acid (ABA), a germination inhibitor, mapped to the center of a previously detected QTL for high temperature germination (Htg6.1) from UC96US23. Three sets of sister BC(3)S(2) near-isogenic lines (NILs) that were homozygous for the UC96US23 allele of LsNCED4 at Htg6.1 were developed by backcrossing to cv. Salinas and marker-assisted selection followed by selfing. The maximum temperature for germination of NIL seed lots with the UC96US23 allele at LsNCED4 was increased by 2-3°C when compared with sister NIL seed lots lacking the introgression. In addition, the expression of LsNCED4 was two- to threefold lower in the former NIL lines as compared to expression in the latter. Together, these data strongly implicate LsNCED4 as the candidate gene responsible for the Htg6.1 phenotype and indicate that decreased ABA biosynthesis at high imbibition temperatures is a major factor responsible for the increased germination thermotolerance of UC96US23 seeds.

  16. The impact on UT/LS cirrus clouds in the CAM/CARMA model using a new interactive aerosol parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C.; Toon, B.; Bardeen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that heterogeneous nucleation may play a large role in cirrus cloud formation in the UT/LS, a region previously thought to be primarily dominated by homogeneous nucleation. As a result, it is beneficial to ensure that general circulation models properly represent heterogeneous nucleation in ice cloud simulations. Our work strives towards addressing this issue in the NSF/DOE Community Earth System Model's atmospheric model, CAM. More specifically we are addressing the role of heterogeneous nucleation in the coupled sectional microphysics cloud model, CARMA. Currently, our CAM/CARMA cirrus model only performs homogenous ice nucleation while ignoring heterogeneous nucleation. In our work, we couple the CAM/CARMA cirrus model with the Modal Aerosol Model (MAM). By combining the aerosol model with CAM/CARMA we can both account for heterogeneous nucleation, as well as directly link the sulfates used for homogeneous nucleation to computed fields instead of the current static field being utilized. Here we present our initial results and compare our findings to observations from the long running CALIPSO and MODIS satellite missions.

  17. The Haunting of L.S. Lowry: Class, Mass Spectatorship and the Image at The Lowry, Salford, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a series of momentary encounters with the surface details of The Lowry Centre, a cultural venue located in Salford, Greater Manchester, UK, this article considers the fate of the image evoked by the centre’s production and staging of cultural experience. Benjamin’s notion of ‘aura’ as inimical to transformations of art and cultural spectatorship is explored, alongside its fatal incarnation in Baudrillard’s concept of ‘simulation’. L.S. Lowry, I argue, occupies the space as a medium: both as a central figure of transmission of the centre’s narrative of inclusivity through cultural regeneration, and as one who communes with phantoms: remainders of the working-class life and culture that once occupied this locale. Through an exploration of various installations there in his name, Lowry is configured as a ‘destructive character’, who, by making possible an alternative route through its spaces, refuses to allow The Lowry Centre to insulate itself from its locale and the debt it owes to its past.

  18. GAMMA-RAY SIGNAL FROM THE PULSAR WIND IN THE BINARY PULSAR SYSTEM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangulyan, Dmitry [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Aharonian, Felix A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Bogovalov, Sergey V. [National Research Nuclear University-MEPHI, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Ribo, Marc, E-mail: khangul@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: felix.aharonian@dias.ie, E-mail: svbogovalov@mephi.ru, E-mail: mribo@am.ub.es [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciences del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    Binary pulsar systems emit potentially detectable components of gamma-ray emission due to Comptonization of the optical radiation of the companion star by relativistic electrons of the pulsar wind, both before and after termination of the wind. The recent optical observations of binary pulsar system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 revealed radiation properties of the companion star which differ significantly from previous measurements. In this paper, we study the implications of these observations for the interaction rate of the unshocked pulsar wind with the stellar photons and the related consequences for fluxes of high energy and very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. We show that the signal should be strong enough to be detected with Fermi close to the periastron passage, unless the pulsar wind is strongly anisotropic or the Lorentz factor of the wind is smaller than 10{sup 3} or larger than 10{sup 5}. The higher luminosity of the optical star also has two important implications: (1) attenuation of gamma rays due to photon-photon pair production and (2) Compton drag of the unshocked wind. While the first effect has an impact on the light curve of VHE gamma rays, the second effect may significantly decrease the energy available for particle acceleration after termination of the wind.

  19. “Lines of Mourning”: On the Issue of National and Cultural Self-Determination of L.S. Vygotsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V.S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the full text of a work by L.S. Vygotsky “Lines of Mourning” (1916 along with detailed commentaries. This article was the first of the three published in the Jewish periodical Noviy Put’ that can be considered a triptych dedicated to the issues of national, cultural and religious traditions and their relation with modern times. The text and commentaries provide an insight into personal meanings and attitudes of young Vygotsky in the situation of political and value/normative uncertainty. This enables us to reconstruct the features of social, political, national and ethic self-definition of the scientist and to reveal the grounds and values underlying the cultural-historical approach. Special attention is brought to the dialogic nature of the Jewish and Russian culture. In the commentaries we also focus on the specifics of artistic and reflective position of Vygotsky in relation to pre-revolutionary events that took place at that time: understanding this allows us to comprehend a whole set of social, political, moral, ethic and truly psychological problems that would later on be reflected in his scientific works. Another section of our commentaries is centered on the analysis of the article’s style and composition and its multi-layered structure.

  20. FERMI LAT OBSERVATIONS OF LS I +610303: FIRST DETECTION OF AN ORBITAL MODULATION IN GeV GAMMA RAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    This Letter presents the first results from the observations of LS I +61 0 303 using Large Area Telescope data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope between 2008 August and 2009 March. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated at 26.6 ± 0.5 days. This constitutes the first detection of orbital periodicity in high-energy gamma rays (20 MeV-100 GeV, HE). The light curve is characterized by a broad peak after periastron, as well as a smaller peak just before apastron. The spectrum is best represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux above 100 MeV of 0.82 ± 0.03(stat) ± 0.07(syst) 10 -6 ph cm -2 s -1 , with a cutoff at 6.3 ± 1.1(stat) ± 0.4(syst) GeV and photon index Γ = 2.21 ± 0.04(stat) ± 0.06(syst). There is no significant spectral change with orbital phase. The phase of maximum emission, close to periastron, hints at inverse Compton scattering as the main radiation mechanism. However, previous very high-energy gamma ray (>100 GeV, VHE) observations by MAGIC and VERITAS show peak emission close to apastron. This and the energy cutoff seen with Fermi suggest that the link between HE and VHE gamma rays is nontrivial.

  1. Fermi LAT Observations of LS I +61 303: First Detection of an Orbital Modulation in GeV Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Federal City Coll. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Blandford, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Grenoble, CEN; /more authors..

    2012-04-02

    This Letter presents the first results from the observations of LS I +61{sup o}303 using Large Area Telescope data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope between 2008 August and 2009 March. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated at 26.6 {+-} 0.5 days. This constitutes the first detection of orbital periodicity in high-energy gamma rays (20 MeV-100 GeV, HE). The light curve is characterized by a broad peak after periastron, as well as a smaller peak just before apastron. The spectrum is best represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux above 100 MeV of 0.82 {+-} 0.03(stat) {+-} 0.07(syst) 10{sup -6} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, with a cutoff at 6.3 {+-} 1.1(stat) {+-} 0.4(syst) GeV and photon index {Gamma} = 2.21 {+-} 0.04(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst). There is no significant spectral change with orbital phase. The phase of maximum emission, close to periastron, hints at inverse Compton scattering as the main radiation mechanism. However, previous very high-energy gamma ray (>100 GeV, VHE) observations by MAGIC and VERITAS show peak emission close to apastron. This and the energy cutoff seen with Fermi suggest that the link between HE and VHE gamma rays is nontrivial.

  2. Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford's 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of 137 Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve 137 Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m 3 and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m 3 i.e., 0.1/m 3 . The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified

  3. Tryptase potentiates enteric nerve activation by histamine and serotonin: Relevance for the effects of mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, D; Annahazi, A; Krueger, D; Michel, K; Demir, I E; Ceyhan, G O; Zeller, F; Schemann, M

    2017-09-01

    We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients activated neurons despite low concentrations of tryptase, histamine, and serotonin which individually would not cause spike discharge. We studied the potentiating responses between these mediators on excitability of enteric neurons. Calcium-imaging was performed using the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4 AM in human submucous plexus preparations from 45 individuals. Histamine, serotonin, and tryptase were applied alone and in combinations to evaluate nerve activation which was assessed by analyzing increase in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ), the proportion of responding neurons and the product of both defined as Ca-neuroindex (NI). Protease activated receptor (PAR) 2 activating peptide, PAR2 antagonist and the serine protease-inhibitor FUT-175 were used to particularly investigate the role of proteases. Histamine or serotonin (1 μmol/L each) evoked only few small responses (median NI [25%/75%]: 0 [0/148]; 85 [0/705] respectively). Their combined application evoked statistically similar responses (216 [21/651]). Addition of the PAR2 activator tryptase induced a significantly higher Ca-NI (1401 [867/4075]) compared to individual application of tryptase or to coapplied histamine and serotonin. This synergistic potentiation was neither mimicked by PAR2 activating peptide nor reversed by the PAR2 antagonist GB83, but abolished by FUT-175. We observed synergistic potentiation between histamine, serotonin, and tryptase in enteric neurons, which is mediated by proteolytic activity rather than PAR2 activation. This explained neuronal activation by a cocktail of these mediators despite their low concentrations and despite a relatively small PAR2-mediated response in human submucous neurons. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Microbial Carbonate Precipitation by Synechococcus PCC8806, LS0519 and Synechocystis PCC6803 on Concrete Surfaces and in Low Saturation Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Lin, Y.; Dittrich, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) by cyanobacteria has been recognized in a variety of environment such as freshwater, marine, cave, and even desert. Recently, their calcification potential has been tested in an emerging technology-- bioconcrete. This study is to explore the calcification by three cyanobacteria strains under different environmental conditions. Experiment A was carried out in 2mM NaHCO3 and 5mM CaCl2, with a cell concentration of 107 cells L-1. In experiment B, one side of the concrete surface was treated with bacteria and then immersed in the solution containing 0.4 mM NaHCO3 and 300 mM CaCl2. In experiment A, the pH of the abiotic condition remained constant around 8.55, while that of biotic conditions increased by 0.15 units in the presence of LS0519, and by 0.3 units in the presence of PCC8806 or PCC6803 within 8 hours. Over a period of 30 hours, PCC8806, LS0519 and PCC6803 removed 0.1, 0.12 and 0.2 mM calcium from the solution respectively. After 30 hours, the alkalinity of the solution decreased by 30 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 5 mg/L respectively in the presence of PCC6803, LS0519 and PCC8806. Under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), no precipitate was found in the abiotic condition, while calcium carbonate was associated by all the three strains. Among them, PCC6803 precipitated more carbonates. In experiment B, LS0519 and PCC8806 increased the pH with a value of 0.25, while PCC6803 increased the pH by 0.33 units. SEM shows LS0519 was less likely attached to the concrete surface. Neither did the precipitates on concrete surface differ from that in the abiotic condition. In comparison, PCC8806 and PCC6803 were closely associated with 8-μm porous precipitates. Cells were either found enclosed in precipitates or connecting two precipitates. In conclusion, all the three strains triggered the calcium carbonate precipitation. LS0519 has a little impact on the carbonate precipitation in the solution, but negligent influence on the concrete surface

  5. The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Sahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR.Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27–57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors.Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated

  6. Repeatability of Ophtha Top topography and comparison with IOL-Master and LenstarLS900 in cataract patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the repeatability of Ophtha Top topography and assess the consistency with intraocular lens (IOL-Master and LenstarLS900 (Lenstar in measuring corneal parameters among cataract patients. METHODS: Totally 125 eyes were enrolled. Corneas were successively measured with Ophtha Top, IOL-Master and Lenstar at least three times. The flattest meridian power (Kf, the steepest meridian power (Ks, mean power (Km, J0 and J45 were recorded. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs, the coefficient of variance (COV, within subject standard deviation (Sw, and test-retest repeatability (2.77Sw were adopted to determine the repeatability. The 95% limit of agreement (95%LOA and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess comparability. RESULTS: Repeatability of Ophtha Top topography for measuring corneal parameters showed the ICCs were all above 0.93, 2.77Sw was lower than 0.31, and the COV of the Kf and Ks was lower than 0.25. The keratometric readings with Ophtha Top topography were flatter than with the IOL-Master and Lenstar devices, while the Pearson correlation coefficients were over 0.97. The J0 and J45 with Ophtha Top topography were smaller compared with Lenstar and IOL-Master, while was comparable between Lenstar and IOL-Master. CONCLUSION: Ophtha Top topography shows excellent repeatability for measuring corneal parameters. However, differences between the Ophtha TOP topography and Lenstar, IOL-Master both in cornea curvature and the astigmatism should be noted clinically.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a native strain of Aspergillus niger ZRS14 with capability of high resistance to zinc and its supernatant application towards extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahem Ashengroph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc oxide nanoparticles have quite a few applications in the fields of biology, optics, mechanics, magnetism, energy, hygiene and medicine. Due to serious problems associated with physiochemical synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, including environmental pollution, complicated and costly processes, there is a growing need to develop a simple biological procedure for synthesis of nanoparticles to achieve the monodisperse-sized particles with a higher purity, low energy consumption and a cleaner environment. We conducted this investigation to screen and isolate native fungi strains capable of high zinc metal tolerance ability and a potential for extracellular synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using fungal secretions as biological catalysts.Materials and methods: 15 different strains of fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from lead and zinc mines of Angoran-Zanjan using conventional enrichment process and characterized initially based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and colony morphology. The intrinsic tolerance of the isolated strains to zinc toxic metal was measured in the synthetic and complex media using the agar dilution method. The supernatants of isolated fungi were incubated with zinc acetate solution in a shaker incubator for 72h; then, the strain that was able to synthesis ZnO nanoparticle was identified. The ZnO nanoparticles formation was investigated by using spectroscopic techniques and microscopic observations.Results: Among the 15 isolated strains, the strain ZRS14 had highest zinc metal tolerance ability and was selected and identified as Aspergillus niger strain ZRS14 (GenBank accession number KF414527 based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis. For synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by isolated A. niger ZRS14, fungal cell-free filtrate of the strain was collected and incubated in the presence of zinc acetate solution at a final concentration of 250 mg/l zinc metal ion at 28º C for

  8. Means of introducing an analyte into liquid sampling atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. Kenneth; Quarles, Jr., Charles Derrick; Russo, Richard E.; Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Carado, Anthony J.

    2017-01-03

    A liquid sampling, atmospheric pressure, glow discharge (LS-APGD) device as well as systems that incorporate the device and methods for using the device and systems are described. The LS-APGD includes a hollow capillary for delivering an electrolyte solution to a glow discharge space. The device also includes a counter electrode in the form of a second hollow capillary that can deliver the analyte into the glow discharge space. A voltage across the electrolyte solution and the counter electrode creates the microplasma within the glow discharge space that interacts with the analyte to move it to a higher energy state (vaporization, excitation, and/or ionization of the analyte).

  9. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sánchez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated and M2 (alternatively activated. Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages.

  10. Effects of PKM2 Gene Silencing on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Colorectal Cancer LS-147T and SW620 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This paper aims to explore the effects of pyruvate kinase (PK M2 gene silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer (CRC LS-147T and SW620 cells. Methods: CRC LS-147T and SW620 cells highly expressing PKM2 were randomly selected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and then assigned into the blank (no transfection, PKM2-shRNA (transfection with shRNA and empty plasmid (transfection with empty plasmid groups. Immunofluorescence was applied to detect PKM2 protein expression. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were conducted to assess mRNA and protein expression of PKM2, p53 and p21. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cell cycle and apoptosis rate, and a senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining kit was used to assess cell senescence. Results: PKM2 exhibited high mRNA expression among CRC LS-147T and SW620 cells with remarkable protein expression noted in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PKM2-shRNA group exhibited reduced PKM2 mRNA and protein expression, whereas p53 and p21 expression was increased compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. Cell proliferation in PKM2-shRNA cells decreased significantly compared with the blank group and empty plasmid groups. The PKM2-shRNA group exhibited more cells in the G1 phase and fewer cells in the G2/M phase compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. In addition, the PKM2-shRNA group exhibited significantly increased apoptosis rates and β-galactosidase activity compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that PKM2 gene silencing suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in LS-147T and SW620 cells.

  11. Stable isotope ratio measurements on highly enriched water samples by means of laser spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Visser, GH; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using laser spectrometry (LS) to analyze isotopically highly enriched water samples (i.e., delta H-2 less than or equal to 15000 parts per thousand, delta O-18 less than or equal to 1200 parts per thousand), as often used in the biomedical doubly labeled water (DLW)

  12. International Symposium: “Scientific School of L.S. Vygotsky: Traditions and Innovations” and International ISCAR Summer University for PhD Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baykovskaya N.A.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a brief report on the work of the International Symposium: «Scientific School of L.S. Vygotsky: Traditions and Innovations» and VI th International ISCAR Summer University for PhD Students and young scholars, that were held in Moscow State University of Psychology & Education on June, 28 — July, 3 in 2016 in commemoration of the 120th anniversary of the great Russian psychologist L.S. Vygotsky. The main goals of the events organised by MSUPE include: analysis of the basic principles and the system of concepts of L.S. Vygotsky’s scientific school, discussion of the current state and the prospect for the development of the cultural-historical theory in Russia and abroad, integration of the ideas of the cultural-historical psychology and activity approach in various kinds of social and educational practices, as well as conducting research in the international scientific space. Symposium gathered the world’s leading experts and young scholars in the field of cultural-historical theory and activity approach from 19 countries, including United Kingdom, Australia, Switzerland, Greece, Brasil and USA.

  13. Elevated maternal placental protein 13 serum levels at term of pregnancy in postpartum major hemorrhage (>1000 mLs). A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Antonio; Bernabini, Dalila; Zucchini, Cinzia; De Sanctis, Paola; Quezada, Maria Soledad; Mattioli, Mara; Rizzo, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    To compare placental protein 13 (PP13) levels in the serum of women with primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with a control population. A prospective cohort study was conducted between May 2014 and May 2016 and included 435 pregnant women at term (38 weeks gestation) without any known risk factor and with normal labor. Multiples of median (MoM) were used to evaluate differences of the PP13 values between cases and controls. PP13 concentrations were adjusted for maternal and neonatal weight. Multivariable analysis was used to detect independent contribution of predictors of PPH. Fifteen had a major PPH >1000 mLs and represented the cases of the study. They were matched with 399 controls. Twenty-one patients who had a minor PPH (500-1000 mLs) were excluded. The mean observed rank in the PPH group was higher than that of controls (28.5 vs 13.5, P-value=.01). PP13 MoM values adjusted for maternal weight were higher than expected being 1.44±0.45 in PPH cases and 1.00±0.59 in controls (P-value .008). This difference was still significant even after adjustment for neonatal weight that represented a confounding variable. Higher PP13 levels are independently associated with major PPH >1000 mLs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The intellectual capacity of patients with Laron syndrome (LS) differs with various molecular defects of the growth hormone receptor gene. Correlation with CNS abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevah, O; Kornreich, L; Galatzer, A; Laron, Z

    2005-12-01

    The correlation between the molecular defects of the GH receptor (R), psychosocial development and brain abnormalities were evaluated in 10 patients with Laron syndrome (LS), in whom all data were available. The findings revealed that the intelligence quotient (IQ) and abnormalities in the brain of the patients with LS differ with various molecular defects of the GH-receptor. The most severe mental deficits and brain pathology occurred in patients with 3, 5, 6 exon deletion. Patients with point mutations in exons 2, 4 and 7 presented various degrees of medium to mild CNS abnormalities that correlated with the IQ. Notably, the patient with the E180 splice mutation in exon 6 had a normal IQ, which fits the report on normal IQ in a large Ecuadorian cohort with the same mutation. This is the first report to support a correlation between IQ, brain abnormalities and localization of the molecular defects in the GH-R gene. As all patients with LS are IGF-I-deficient, it must be assumed that other as yet unknown factors related to the molecular defects in the GH-R are the major cause of the differences in intellect and brain abnormalities.

  15. Validation of Transtek LS808-B for self/home measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong Hua; Liu, Xian Yue; Wu, Wen Jun

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of Transtek LS808-B according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 (ESH-IP2010). A total of 33 adult individuals (19 men and 14 women, mean age 46.8±15.8 years) were recruited; their systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using the mercury sphygmomanometer and Transtek LS808-B. A total of 99 pairs of measurements were obtained from these 33 participants for comparison in two parts with three grading phases. All the validation requirements were fulfilled. The number of absolute difference between the tested device and the observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 73, 94, and 98 for SBP and 78, 94, and 99 for DBP, respectively. The mean±SD of the device-observer difference was 0.5±4.4 mmHg for SBP and 0.2±4.1 mmHg for DBP. The number of participants with two or three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg was 24 for SBP and 27 for DBP. In addition, two of the participants had no device-observer difference within 5 mmHg for SBP and one of the participants had the same for DBP. Transtek LS808-B has passed all phases of ESH-IP 2010, and hence can be recommended for self/home measurement in adult populations.

  16. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure the Impact of Genetic Testing on Self-Concept in Lynch Syndrome (LS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplen, Mary Jane; Stuckless, Noreen; Wong, Jiahui; Gallinger, Steve; Aronson, Melyssa; Rothenmund, Heidi; Semotiuk, Kara; Stokes, Jackie; Way, Chris; Green, Jane; Butler, Kate; Petersen, Helle Vendel

    2011-01-01

    Background A positive genetic test result may impact on a person’s self-concept and affect quality of life. Purpose The purpose of the study was to develop a self concept scale to measure such impact for individuals carrying mutations for a heritable colorectal cancer- Lynch Syndrome (LS). Methods Two distinct phases were involved: Phase 1 generated specific colorectal self-concept candidate scale items from interviews with eight LS carriers and five genetic counselors which were added to a previously developed self-concept scale for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Phase II had 115 LS carriers complete the candidate scale and a battery of validating measures. Results A 20 item scale was developed with two dimensions identified through factor analysis: stigma/vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. The scale demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach’s α = .93), good convergent validity by a high correlation with impact of event scale (r(102) = .55, pRosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (r(108) = −.59, pscale’s performance was stable across participant characteristics. Conclusions This new scale for measuring self-concept has potential to be used as a clinical tool and as a measure for future studies. PMID:21883167

  17. Effects of impurities in biodiesel-derived glycerol on growth and expression of heavy metal ion homeostasis genes and gene products in Pseudomonas putida LS46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Wilkins, John A; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-07-01

    Biodiesel production-derived waste glycerol (WG) was previously investigated as potential carbon source for medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46. In this study, we evaluated the effect of impurities in the WG on P. putida LS46 physiology during exponential growth and corresponding changes in transcription and protein expression profiles compared with cells grown on pure, reagent grade glycerol. High concentration of metal ions, such as Na(+), and numbers of heavy metals ion, such as copper, ion, zinc, were detected in biodiesel-derived WG. Omics analysis from the corresponding cultures suggested altered expression of genes involved in transport and metabolism of ammonia and heavy metal ions. Expression of three groups of heavy metal homeostasis genes was significantly changed (mostly upregulated) in WG cultures and included the following: copper-responded cluster 1 and 2 genes, primarily containing cusABC; two copies of copAB and heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase; Fur-regulated, TonB-dependent siderophore receptor; and several cobalt/zinc/cadmium transporters. Expression of these genes suggests regulation of intracellular concentrations of heavy metals during growth on biodiesel-derived glycerol. Finally, a number of genes involved in adapting to, or metabolizing free fatty acids and other nonheavy metal contaminants, such as Na(+), were also upregulated in P. putida LS46 grown on biodiesel-derived glycerol.

  18. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  19. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  20. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  1. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  2. Preparation and validation of gross alpha/beta samples used in EML's quality assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    A set of water and filter samples have been incorporated into the existing Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) for gross alpha/beta determinations by participating DOE laboratories. The participating laboratories are evaluated by comparing their results with the EML value. The preferred EML method for measuring water and filter samples, described in this report, uses gas flow proportional counters with 2 in. detectors. Procedures for sample preparation, quality control and instrument calibration are presented. Liquid scintillation (LS) counting is an alternative technique that is suitable for quantifying both the alpha ( 241 Am, 230 Th and 238 Pu) and beta ( 90 Sr/ 90 Y) activity concentrations in the solutions used to prepare the QAP water and air filter samples. Three LS counting techniques (Cerenkov, dual dpm and full spectrum analysis) are compared. These techniques may be used to validate the activity concentrations of each component in the alpha/beta solution before the QAP samples are actually prepared

  3. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  4. Physical structure and genetic expression of the sulfonamide-resistance plasmid pLS80 and its derivatives in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P.; Espinosa, M.; Lacks, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The 10-kb chromosomal fragment of Streptococcus pneumoniae cloned in pLS80 contains the sul-d allele of the pneumococcal gene for dihydropteroate synthase. As a single copy in the chromosome this allele confers resistance to sulfanilamide at 0.2 mg/ml; in the multicopy plasmid it confers resistance to 2.0 mg/ml. The sul-d mutation was mapped by restriction analysis to a 0.4-kb region. A spontaneous deletion beginning approx. 1.5 kb to the right of the sul-d mutation prevented gene function, possibly by removing a promoter. This region could be restored by chromosomal facilitation and be demonstrated in the plasmid by selection for sulfonamide resistance. Under selection for a vector marker, tetracycline resistance, only the deleted plasmid was detectable, apparently as a result of plasmid segregation and the advantageous growth rates of cells with smaller plasmids. When such cells were selected for sulfonamide resistance, the deleted region returned to the plasmid, presumably by equilibration between the chromosome and the plasmid pool, to give a low frequency (approx. 10/sup -3/) of cells resistant to sulfanilamide at 2.0 mg/ml. Models for the mechanisms of chromosomal facilitation and equilibration are proposed. Several derivatives of pLS80 could be transferred to Bacillus subtilis, where they conferred resistance to sulfanilamide at 2 mg/ml, thereby demonstrating cross-species expression of the pneumococcal gene. Transfer of the plasmids to B. subtilis gave rise to large deletions to the left of the sul-d marker, but these deletions did not interfere with the sul-d gene function. Restriction maps of pLS80 and its variously deleted derivatives are presented.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Juices Prepared from Individual Vegetables on CYP3A4 Activity in Recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Agawa, Chie; Ueda, Shinya; Yamane, Takayoshi; Kitayama, Haruna; Terao, Aya; Fukuda, Tomoya; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2017-01-01

    Human intestinal absorption and drug metabolism vary to a large extent among individuals. For example, CYP3A4 activity has large individual variation that cannot be attributed to only genetic differences. Various flavonoids in vegetables, such as kaempferol and quercetin, possess inhibitory effects, and some vegetable and fruit juices have also been found to inhibit CYP3A4 activity. Therefore, differences in daily intake of flavonoid-containing vegetables may induce individual variation in intestinal bioavailability. To identify a vegetable that strongly inhibits CYP3A4, we investigated the effects of juices, prepared from individual vegetables, on CYP3A4 activity using recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 cells in this study. Nine vegetable juices (cabbage, Japanese radish, onion, tomato, eggplant, carrot, Chinese cabbage, green pepper, and lettuce), were prepared and recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 cells were used for evaluation of CYP3A4 activity. Metabolism to 6β-hydroxytestosterone by recombinant CYP3A4 was strongly inhibited by cabbage, onion, and green pepper juices, and cabbage and green pepper juices significantly inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a preincubation time-dependent manner. In addition, CYP3A4 activity in LS180 cells was significantly inhibited by cabbage and onion juices. In conclusion, this study showed that juices prepared from some individual vegetables could significantly inhibit CYP3A4 activity. Therefore, variation in the daily intake of vegetables such as cabbage and onion may be one of the factors responsible for individual differences in intestinal bioavailability.

  6. Spread of CTX-M-type ESßLs in isolates of E. coli from long-term care and rehabilitation facilities in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Nucleo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period March 2003 – May 2004 at the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology “Redaelli” LTCRF in Milan, Italy, a total of 529 E. coli, obtained from inpatients of 3 different Long Term Care Rehabilitation Facilities (LTCRFs in Northern Italy, were processed and 77 ESßLs producers (14.5% were identified by Vitek System. The results were confirmed by double-disk synergy test with tazobactam (TZP. 61/77 isolates were characterized by higher levels of resistance to cefotaxime (CTX than to ceftazidime (CAZ. (ß-lactamase production was investigated by analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF coupled with a bioassay and showed multiple (ß-lactamase bands including one enzyme with pI 8.4 that, in a bioassay, was more active on CTX,ATM than on CAZ. The presence of (ß-lactamase genes was investigated by colony blot hybridization and by PCR amplification of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M alleles. 43/61 isolates produced both TEM-1 and CTX-M-type enzymes, 14/61 expressed only CTX-M-type while in 4 cases were found blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes.The remainders (16/77, characterized by high levels of resistance to both CTX and CAZ, produced TEM-1 and SHV-5 enzymes (1/16 and TEM type ESßLs (15/16. Conjugation experiments, performed in liquid medium, confermed that the ESßLs determinants were transferable. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of genomic DNA, digested with NotI, were analysed and revealed clonal heterogeneity. Our work confirms the emergence of CTX-M-type enzymes and their spread in Northern Italy also in longterm care and rehabilitation facilities that may be an important reservoir of ES?L producing E. coli.

  7. The interaction between endogenous 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 and Cucumber mosaic virus LS2b protein affects viral replication, infection and gene silencing suppressor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilin Wang

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a model virus for plant-virus protein interaction and mechanism research because of its wide distribution, high-level of replication and simple genome structure. The 2b protein is a multifunctional protein encoded by CMV that suppresses RNA silencing-based antiviral defense and contributes to CMV virulence in host plants. In this report, 12 host proteins were identified as CMV LS2b binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid screen system from the Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library. Among the host proteins, 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 (RPS11 was selected for further studies. The interaction between LS2b and full-length RPS11 was confirmed using the yeast two-hybrid system. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BIFC assays observed by confocal laser microscopy and Glutathione S-transferase (GST pull-down assays were used to verify the interaction between endogenous NbRPS11 and viral CMVLS2b both in vivo and in vitro. TRV-based gene silencing vector was used to knockdown NbRPS11 transcription, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decline in infectious viral RNA replication and a decrease in CMV infection in RPS11 down-regulated Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Thus, the knockdown of RPS11 likely inhibited CMV replication and accumulation. The gene silencing suppressor activity of CMV2b protein was reduced by the RPS11 knockdown. This study demonstrated that the function of viral LS2b protein was remarkably affected by the interaction with host RPS11 protein.

  8. Comments on the note by L.S. Nelson: ''unusually high (oxidizer/Pu) ratios in the macro-residues from plutonium droplet combustion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Morgan, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative explanation for unusually high ratios of oxidizers/plutonium in the residues from plutonium droplet combustion is offered in response to a note by L.S. Nelson. Two additional experiments are suggested that would be helpful in clarifying the high oxidizer/Pu ratios. The first would be to measure the true surface area for a spherule after its explosion. The second is an experiment analogous to a gas analysis experiment. The conclusion is put forth that adsorbed gases are the most likely cause of the high O/M ratios described by Nelson

  9. Calculating the LS factor of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for the watershed of River Silver, Castelo-ES = Cálculo do fator LS da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solos (EUPS para a bacia do Rio da Prata, Castelo-ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Melo Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erosion is considered the main cause of depletion of agricultural land, which generates approximate annual losses of billions of dollars in Brazil. Water erosion is the most common, caused by effective precipitation basin, since its potential is the main agent of reshaping the land. Universal Equation Soil Loss (USLE show great applicability to estimate erosion in watersheds from their physical and geographical elements (PS = R*K*L*S*C*P. The intensity of erosion can be influenced by the profile of the slope, measured by the length (L and grade of slope (S. The topographic factor (LS of the USLE is the most difficult to obtain for large and/or diverse relief areas. We calculated the spatial map of the LS factor Silver watershed (Castelo-ES from the processing of cartographic data in environment Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The relief of the study area was represented by interpolation from contour lines supported mapped hydrography, give the digital elevation model hydrologically consistent (MDEHC and declivity map. For generation of the LS factor was used to equation developed by Bertoni and Lombardi Neto (2005, suitable for slopes of different length and declivity. The Silver watershed has diversified relief, marked by flat and steep declivity areas, which indicates erosive vulnerability. The main values of LS were identified minimum (0, medium (8.2 and maximum (80.5. = A erosão é apontada como a principal causa do depauperamento de terras agrícolas, o que gera prejuízos anuais aproximados da ordem de bilhões de dólares no Brasil. A erosão hídrica é a mais comum, ocasionada pela precipitação efetiva em bacias, que devido ao seu potencial erosivo é o principal agente de remodelagem do terreno. A Equação Universal de Perdas de Solos (EUPS mostra-se de grande aplicabilidade para estimar a erosão de bacias hidrográficas a partir de seus elementos físicos e geográficos (PS = R*K*L*S*C*P. A intensidade da erosão pode sofrer

  10. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  11. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  12. Comparison Between Wind Power Prediction Models Based on Wavelet Decomposition with Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A high penetration of wind energy into the electricity market requires a parallel development of efficient wind power forecasting models. Different hybrid forecasting methods were applied to wind power prediction, using historical data and numerical weather predictions (NWP. A comparative study was carried out for the prediction of the power production of a wind farm located in complex terrain. The performances of Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM with Wavelet Decomposition (WD were evaluated at different time horizons and compared to hybrid Artificial Neural Network (ANN-based methods. It is acknowledged that hybrid methods based on LS-SVM with WD mostly outperform other methods. A decomposition of the commonly known root mean square error was beneficial for a better understanding of the origin of the differences between prediction and measurement and to compare the accuracy of the different models. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out in order to underline the impact that each input had in the network training process for ANN. In the case of ANN with the WD technique, the sensitivity analysis was repeated on each component obtained by the decomposition.

  13. The effect and contribution of wind generated rotation on outlet temperature and heat gain of LS-2 parabolic trough solar collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaghiyani Omid Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monte Carlo ray tracing method is applied and coupled with finite volume numerical methods to study effect of rotation on outlet temperature and heat gain of LS-2 parabolic trough concentrator (PTC. Based on effect of sunshape, curve of mirror and use of MCRT, heat flux distribution around of inner wall of evacuated tube is calculated. After calculation of heat flux, the geometry of LS-2 Luz collector is created and finite volume method is applied to simulate. The obtained results are compared with Dudley et al test results for irrotational cases to validate these numerical solving models. Consider that, for rotational models ,the solving method separately with K.S. Ball's results. In this work, according to the structure of mentioned collector, we use plug as a flow restriction. In the rotational case studies, the inner wall rotates with different angular speeds. We compare results of rotational collector with irrotational. Also for these two main states, the location of plug changed then outlet temperature and heat gain of collector are studied. The results show that rotation have positive role on heat transfer processing and the rotational plug in bottom half of tube have better effectual than upper half of tube. Also the contribution of rotation is calculated in the all of case studies. Working fluid of these study is one of the oil derivatives namely Syltherm-800. The power of wind can be used to rotate tube of collector.

  14. Robust LS-SVM-based adaptive constrained control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with time-varying predefined performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Wei, Caisheng; Dai, Honghua; Yuan, Jianping

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on robust adaptive control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems subject to input saturation and external disturbance with guaranteed predefined tracking performance. To reduce the limitations of classical predefined performance control method in the presence of unknown initial tracking errors, a novel predefined performance function with time-varying design parameters is first proposed. Then, aiming at reducing the complexity of nonlinear approximations, only two least-square-support-vector-machine-based (LS-SVM-based) approximators with two design parameters are required through norm form transformation of the original system. Further, a novel LS-SVM-based adaptive constrained control scheme is developed under the time-vary predefined performance using backstepping technique. Wherein, to avoid the tedious analysis and repeated differentiations of virtual control laws in the backstepping technique, a simple and robust finite-time-convergent differentiator is devised to only extract its first-order derivative at each step in the presence of external disturbance. In this sense, the inherent demerit of backstepping technique-;explosion of terms; brought by the recursive virtual controller design is conquered. Moreover, an auxiliary system is designed to compensate the control saturation. Finally, three groups of numerical simulations are employed to validate the effectiveness of the newly developed differentiator and the proposed adaptive constrained control scheme.

  15. Significance of Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development of L.S. Vygotsky for the Development of Modern Models of Social Cognition and Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article acknowledges the situation of methodical crisis in modern research of social cognition related to the domination of reductive approaches that ignore the uniqueness of human psyche. Heuristicity of concepts of cultural-historical theory of psychological development of L.S. Vygotsky, which serves to overcome the apparent inconsistencies is substantiated. Models of social cognition based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology are described, those being the model of social cognition within phylogenesis of M. Tomasello, and the model of social cognition within ontogenesis of C. Fernyhough. Current situation in the area of mental health is reviewed from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology, its specifics reflected in the increased burden on reflexive functions, that is, skills lying within the sphere of social cognition is substantiated. Modern psychotherapeutic apparatus directed to compensate social cognition deficits due to various psychiatric disorders is reviewed. The assumption that adolescense is sensitive period for the development of higher forms of social cognition is made, and a summary of researches supporting this assertion is presented. Main contradictions of modern-day maturing are enunciated. To conclude the presented theoretical analysis, a comprehensive multiple-factor model of social cognition is presented based on concepts of cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky.

  16. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes and the supernatants of the in vitro culture medium of their mutualistic bacteria for the control of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekci, Ilker; Hazir, Selcuk; Lewis, Edwin E

    2016-02-01

    The suppressive effects of various formulations of four entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species and the supernatants of their mutualistic bacteria on the root-knot nematodes (RKNs) Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in tomato roots were evaluated. The EPNs Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were applied as either live infective juveniles (IJs) or infected insect cadavers. Spent medium from culturing the bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus bovienii and Photorhabdus luminescens kayaii with the cells removed was also applied without their nematode partners. The aqueous suspensions of IJs, infected cadaver applications of EPNs and especially treatments of X. bovienii supernatant suppressed the negative impact of RKNs on tomatoes. Specific responses to treatment were reduced RKN egg masses, increased plant height and increased fresh and dry weights compared with the control where only RKNs were applied. Among the treatments tested, the plant-dipping method of X. bovienii into bacterial culture fluid may be the most practical and effective method for M. incognita and M. arenaria control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  18. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  19. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line sample processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, R; Richter, K; Gramatté, T; Kirch, W

    1998-02-27

    An automated two column HPLC system with the new packing material LiChrospher RP-18 ADS (alkyl-diol-silica) was tested for the determination of several drugs and metabolites (talinolol, celiprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, triamterene, trimethoprim, tiracizine, articaine, detajmium, ajmaline, lamotrigine) in various biological fluids (serum, urine, intestinal aspirates, supernatants of cell cultures and supernatants after protein denaturation). The method allows the direct injection of biological fluids into a reversed-phase HPLC system and on-line clean-up and sample enrichment by a column-switching technique. Precision, accuracy and sensitivity were similar to conventional assays as described in the literature. With this new method it was possible to measure drug concentrations in various biological fluids without changing the sample preparation procedure. In some cases an additional sample preparation like protein denaturation or solid-phase extraction was advantageous to enhance the sensitivity of the method and the life-time of the ADS column.

  20. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  1. Treatment of serum with supernatants from cultures of Candida albicans reduces its serum-dependent phagocytosis Tratamento de soro com sobrenadante de cultura de Candida albicans reduz a fagocitose soro-dependente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Antonio dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a potent activator of the complement system, and heat labile opsonins produced by activation of C3 (C3b and iC3b enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans mediated by complement receptors. In this study we treated mouse serum with supernatants from cultures of a protease producer strain of C. albicans and evaluated the ability of this serum to enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans. Cell-free supernatants from cultures of C. albicans were concentrated 5 fold and added to mouse serum for 30 min at 37ºC, before using this serum for opsonization of glutaraldehyde-fixed yeast cells. We observed that normal mouse serum increased about 3 fold the phagocytosis of C. albicans by mice peritoneal macrophages, whereas supernatant-treated serum did not increase phagocytosis. This effect of supernatants on serum was prevented by addition of pepstatin (5 µg/ ml; an inhibitor of C. albicans acid proteases to the medium. Serum treated with supernatants from cultures of a protease-deficient mutant of C. albicans also increased about 3 fold phagocytosis of the yeast. These results suggest that a protease produced by C. albicans causes proteolysis of serum opsonins, thereby reducing the phagocytosis of the yeast.Candida albicans é um potente ativador do sistema complemento, e opsoninas lábeis ao calor produzidas por ativação de C3 (C3b e iC3b aumentam a fagocitose de C. albicans mediada por receptores de complemento. Neste estudo, tratamos o soro de camundongo com sobrenadante de culturas de uma cepa de C. albicans produtora de proteases e avaliamos a capacidade deste soro reduzir a fagocitose de C. albicans. Sobrenadantes livres de células obtidos de cultura de C. albicans foram concentrados 5 vezes e adicionados ao soro de camundongo por 30 minutos a 37ºC, antes deste soro ser usado para opsonização de C. albicans na forma de levedura e fixadas em glutaraldeido. Nós observamos que soro normal aumentou 3 vezes a fagocitose de C. albicans por

  2. Sample preparation strategies for food and biological samples prior to nanoparticle detection and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Löschner, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) proved to be necessary for trouble shooting of results obtained from AFFF-LS-ICP-MS. Aqueous and enzymatic extraction strategies were tested for thorough sample preparation aiming at degrading the sample matrix and to liberate the AgNPs from chicken meat into liquid suspension. The resulting...... AFFF-ICP-MS fractograms, which corresponded to the enzymatic digests, showed a major nano-peak (about 80 % recovery of AgNPs spiked to the meat) plus new smaller peaks that eluted close to the void volume of the fractograms. Small, but significant shifts in retention time of AFFF peaks were observed...... for the meat sample extracts and the corresponding neat AgNP suspension, and rendered sizing by way of calibration with AgNPs as sizing standards inaccurate. In order to gain further insight into the sizes of the separated AgNPs, or their possible dissolved state, fractions of the AFFF eluate were collected...

  3. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy detection of laser ablation produced particles: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, C. Derrick; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Choi, Inhee; Ruiz, Javier; Mao, Xianglei; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Russo, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) microplasma source as an alternative to conventional inductively coupled plasma (ICP) detection of laser ablation (LA) produced particles using a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm is demonstrated. This configuration utilizes a 180° geometry, which is different from the 40° geometry that was used to ionize ablated particles followed by mass spectrometric detection. The use of a hollow counter electrode (nickel, 0.3 cm o.d., 0.1 cm i.d.) was implemented to introduce ablated particles directly into the APGD plasma with helium as a carrier gas. The LS-APGD source was optimized using ablated copper as the test sample (helium carrier gas flow rate (0.30 L min −1 He), discharge current (60 mA), laser power (44 mJ), and solution electrode sheath gas (0.2 L min −1 He) and solution flow rates (10 μL min −1 5% HNO 3 )). Standard brass samples having known Zn/Cu percentages were ablated and analyzed using the LS-APGD source. As a comparison, the established technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze the same set of brass standards under similar ablation conditions to the LS-AGPD measurements, yielding comparable results. The Zn/Cu ratio results for the LS-APGD and LIBS measurements showed good similarity to previous measurements using ICP-MS detection. The performance of the LS-APGD–OES microplasma, comparable to well established methods, with lower capital and operational overhead expenses, suggests a great deal of promise as an analytical excitation source. - Highlights: ► Particles formed by laser ablation are readily introduced to the LS-APGD microplasma. ► The low power microplasma has sufficient energy to vaporize laser produced particles. ► Qualitative analysis of brass alloys is performed using a simple OES ratio method. ► The qualitative performance of the LS-APGD microplasma is on-par with LIBS analysis.

  4. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  5. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate

  6. Study of Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS: Early Post-LS2 Measurements and Future Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Aduszkiewicz, A

    2018-01-01

    NA61/SHINE proposes to continue measurements of hadron and nuclear fragment production properties in reactions induced by hadron and ion beams. The new measurements requested will provide unique data on (i) charm hadron production in Pb+Pb collisions for heavy ion physics, (ii) nuclear fragmentation cross sections for cosmic ray physics and (iii) hadron production in hadron-induced reactions for neutrino physics. The measurements require upgrades of the NA61/SHINE detector that shall increase the data taking rate to about 1 kHz. NA61/SHINE is the only experiment which can conduct the measurements in the near future. In this document the beam request for the early post-LS2 measurements in 2022 is presented. Plans for a continuation of measurements are also discussed.

  7. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-11-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  8. Use of LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) to Assess the Energy Absorption Performance of a Shell-Based Kevlar(TradeMark)/Epoxy Composite Honeycomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The forward and vertical impact stability of a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) was evaluated during a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley?s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The lower skin of the helicopter was retrofitted with DEA components to protect the airframe subfloor upon impact and to mitigate loads transmitted to Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) occupants. To facilitate the design of the DEA for this test, an analytical study was conducted using LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) to evaluate the performance of a shell-based DEA incorporating different angular cell orientations as well as simultaneous vertical and forward impact conditions. By conducting this study, guidance was provided in obtaining an optimum design for the DEA that would dissipate the kinetic energy of the airframe while maintaining forward and vertical impact stability.

  9. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  10. Functional homology of gHs and gLs from EBV-related γ-herpesviruses for EBV-induced membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omerovic, Jasmina; Longnecker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus that primarily infects B lymphocytes and epithelial cells. Entry of EBV into B cells requires the viral glycoproteins gp42, gH/gL and gB, while gp42 is not necessary for infection of epithelial cells. In EBV, gH and gL form two distinct complexes, a bipartite complex that contains only gH and gL, used for infection of epithelial cells, and a tripartite complex that additionally includes gp42, used for infection of B cells. The gH/gL complex is conserved within the herpesvirus family, but its exact role in entry and mechanism of fusion is not yet known. To understand more about the functionality of EBVgH/gL, we investigated the functional homology of gHs and gLs from human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) and two primate (rhesus and marmoset) γ-herpesviruses in EBV-mediated virus-free cell fusion assay. Overall, gHs and gLs from the more homologous primate herpesviruses were better at complementing EBV gH and gL in fusion than HHV8 gH and gL. Interestingly, marmoset gH was able to complement fusion with epithelial cells, but not B cells. Further investigation of this led to the discovery that EBVgH is the binding partner of gp42 in the tripartite complex and the absence of fusion with B cells in the presence of marmoset gH/gL is due to its inability to bind gp42

  11. Development of an indirect ELISA to detect Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep employing T1 strain culture supernatant as antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Rebouças

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, a chronic disease that affects goats and sheep, characterized by granuloma formation in subcutaneous and internal lymph nodes. CLA causes significant economic losses to commercial goat herds. In this study, we aimed to test secreted antigens secreted from T1 strain bacteria grown in brain heart infusion (BHI broth in an indirect ELISA system to determine the presence of specific immunoglobulins against C. pseudotuberculosis. We analyzed the BHI antigen electrophoretic profile and the recognition pattern by infected sheep sera samples. The ELISA results were compared with multiplex PCR assay and IFN-gamma production. The ELISA was able to discriminate between negative and positive animals, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 99%, using microbiological isolation as gold standard. When this assay was compared with multiplex PCR and specific IFN-gamma quantification, six discrepant results were found among thirty-two samples. We concluded that the ELISA using antigens secreted from C. pseudotuberculosis T1 strain growth in BHI broth culture can be used for the serodiagnosis of CLA in sheep.

  12. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  13. Large sample neutron activation analysis: establishment at CDTN/CNEN, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences. Group for Radiochemistry and Radioecology

    2011-07-01

    In order to improve the application of the neutron activation technique at CDTN/CNEN, the large sample instrumental neutron activation analysis is being established, IAEA BRA 14798 and FAPEMIG APQ-01259-09 projects. This procedure, LS-INAA, usually requires special facilities for the activation as well as for the detection. However, the TRIGA Mark I IPR R1, CDTN/CNEN has not been adapted for the irradiation and the usual gamma spectrometry has being carried out. To start the establishment of the LS-INAA, a 5g sample - IAEA/Soil 7 reference material was analyzed by k{sub 0}-standardized method. This paper is about the detector efficiency over the volume source using KayWin v2.23 and ANGLE V3.0 software. (author)

  14. Sub-chronic oral toxicity of Cuminum cyminum L.'s essential oil in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Ostad, Seyed Naser; Asemi, Zatollah; Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Hejazi, Sara; Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Reza; Rashidi, Aliakbar; Akbari, Hosein; Sharifi, Nasrin

    2017-08-01

    The current study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of Cuminum cyminum L. (C. cyminum)'s essential oil after 23 days and 45 days of repeated oral administration in female Wistar rats. A total of 80 healthy female Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups. The rats were gavaged with C. cyminum's essential oil at dose levels of 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Clinical signs, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and organ histopathology were assessed once after 23 days and again after 45 days passed from the start of the intervention. Oral administration of C. cyminum's essential oil had no observed adverse effects on clinical signs, mortality, body weight, hematology, biochemistry and organ histology (liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs) in a sample of healthy female Wistar rats after 23 days and 45 days from the start of the study. However, an increase in serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) was found only at dose level of 1000 mg/kg/d C. cyminum's essential oil, after the 23-days interval. We conservatively defined the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for C. cyminum's essential oil as 500 mg/kg/d in female Wistar rats. The present study results should be treated with cautious in terms of the other organs' toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A meta-analysis of xeroderma pigmentosum gene D Ls751Gln polymorphism and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Yingren; Zhang, Aiyun; Ma, Juan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of most common malignant tumors worldwide, but with unclear mechanisms. Xeroderma pigmentosum gene D (XPD) is one important DNA damage repair gene and can be involved in protein mutation. Currently little has been known about XPD polymorphism and HCC susceptibility in Chinese people. This study used a meta-analysis approach to comprehensively investigate the correlation between XPD polymorphism and HCC susceptibility in Chinese population, based on previously published literatures. A computer retrieval system was used to collect all case-control studies about XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and HCC susceptibility. Data in literatures were extracted for meta-analysis. After the primary screening, four independent studies, which were published in 3 English articles and one Chinese article, were recruited in this study. There were 1,717 samples included in all studies. Using Gln/Gln + Lys/Gln, Lys/Lys + Lys/Gln and Lys allels as the reference, HCC disease alleles including Lys/Lys, Gln/Gln and Gln had OR values (95% CI, I(2)) of 1.007 (0.657~4.672, 91%), 3.516 (0.220~20.661, 48%) and 3.225 (0.278~12.326, 84%), respectively. The polymorphism of XPD751 loci is closely correlated with primary HCC. Lys751Gln polymorphism of XPD gene can be used as one susceptibility factor for HCC.

  16. META-ANALISI E APPLICAZIONE DI UNA PROPOSTA DIDATTICA ORIENTATA ALL’AZIONE PER L’APPRENDIMENTO DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI IN ITALIANO LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferroni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente contributo si riportano i risultati di uno studio i cui obiettivi sono: a verificare come vengono trattati i segnali discorsivi (SD in un manuale di italiano LS il cui approccio è orientato all’azione; b analizzare come questi SD vengono percepiti e ritualizzati nel parlato dialogico di studenti di italiano LS di livello B1 del Quadro comune europeo di riferimento per le lingue. La ricerca è stata svolta fra studenti universitari del corso di Laurea di Lingua e Letteratura Italiana della Facoltà di Filosofia, Lettere e Scienze Umane dell’Università di San Paolo del Brasile. Dall’analisi delle proposte didattiche, tratte dall’unità 6 del corso d’italiano per stranieri Bravissimo! 3-B1(Birello e Vilagrasa, 2014, si evince che le attività incentrate sui SD presuppongono un costante reimpiego in un contesto di lavoro significativo, attraverso degli «spazi interattivi» in cui gli apprendenti prendono consapevolezza e mettono alla prova le regole che gestiscono la co-costruzione conversazionale in LS. L’esposizione e la riflessione sui SD, abbinate a proposte di attività interattive significative, in cui lo studente ha un preciso scopo da raggiungere, offrono delle opportunità di riutilizzo dei SD simile a quello che può prodursi in una situazione al di fuori dell’aula. Meta-analysis and application for action-learning italian fl discourse signals In this paper we report the results of a study whose objectives were: a to determine how discourse markers (DMs are addressed in an action-oriented Italian FL textbooks; b to analyze how these DMs are perceived and ritualized in the spoken conversation of students studying Italian as a FL at the B1 level as defined by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The study was carried out among university students majoring in Italian Language and Literature at the School of Philosophy, Letters and Humanities of the University of São Paulo, Brazil

  17. A preliminary neutronic evaluation and depletion study of VHTR and LS-VHTR reactors using the codes: WIMSD5 and MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabiano C.; Pereira, Claubia; Costa, Antonella Lombardi; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora Fortini

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that, in the future, besides electricity generation, reactors should also develop secondary activities, such as hydrogen generation and seawater desalinization. Generation IV reactors are expected to possess special characteristics, like high safety, minimization of radioactive rejects amount and ability to use reprocessed fuel with non-proliferating projects in their cycles. Among the projects of IV generation reactors available nowadays, the (High Temperature Reactors) HTR, are highlighted due to these desirable characteristics. Under such circumstances, such reactor may be able to have significant higher thermal power ratings to be used for hydrogen production, without loose of safety, even in an emergency. For this work, we have chosen two HTR concepts of a prismatic reactor: (Very High Temperature Reactor) VHTR and the (Liquid Salted -Very High Temperature Reactor) LS-VHTR. The principal difference between them is the coolant. The VHTR uses helium gas as a coolant and have a burnup of 101,661 MWd/THM while the LS-VHTR uses low-pressure liquid coolant molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1500 de C working at 155,946 MWd/THM. The ultimate power output is limited by the capacity of the passive decay system; this capacity is limited by the reactor vessel temperature. The goal was to evaluate the neutronic behavior and fuel composition during the burnup using the codes (Winfrith Improved Multi-Group Scheme) WIMSD5 and the MCNPX2.6. The first, deterministic and the second, stochastic. For both reactors, burned fuel type 'C' coming from Angra-I nuclear plant, in Brazil, was used with 3.1% of initial enrichment, burnup to 33,000 MWd/THM using the ORIGEN2.1 code, divided in three steps of 11,000 MWd/THM, with an average density power of 37.75 MWd/THM and 5 years of cooling in pool. Finally, the fuel was reprocessed by Purex technique extracting 99.9% of Pu, and the desired amount of fissile material (15%) to achieve the final mixed oxide was

  18. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Afaf Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan Mohamed; El-Hariri, Mahmoud Darderi; Seida, Ahmed Adel; Moussa, Ihab Mohamed; Mubarak, Ayman Salem; Kabli, Saleh A; Hemeg, Hassan A; El Jakee, Jakeen Kamal

    2018-01-01

    Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms ( S. aureus , Bacillus cereus , E. coli , K. pneumoniae , P. aeruginosa , S. Typhi, C. albicans , A. niger and A. flavus ). By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae , Kocuria rosea , Streptomyces griseus , Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria . Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture's supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  19. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmed Elbendary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms (S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. Typhi, C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus. By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria rosea, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria. Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture’s supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  20. Malachite Green and Crystal Violet Decolorization by Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus Supernatant and by rGlLCC1 and rPOXA 1B Concentrates: Molecular Docking Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Álvarez, Edwin D; Rivera-Hoyos, Claudia M; Poveda-Cuevas, Sergio A; Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin A; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura M; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar A; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A

    2018-03-01

    Laccases catalyze the oxidation of various aromatic organic compounds concomitantly with molecular oxygen reduction to water. Triphenylmethane dyes are synthetic compounds widely used in diverse industries. Their removal from effluents is difficult, due to their high degree of structural complexity; hence, their high concentration in effluents cause a negative impact on the environment. In the present work, molecular docking was used to evaluate interactions between rGlLCC1 or rPOXA 1B enzymes with Crystal Violet (CV) or Malachite Green (MG) dyes. In addition, removal tests of the two dyes were performed. Van der Waals interactions were obtained for only the CV dye for both GlLCC1 and POXA 1B enzymes. Nevertheless, in the GlLCC1 model, two π-π interactions were observed. For the MG dye only, Van der Waals interactions were obtained. Moreover, amino acid composition interacting in each model with each dye was similar. It is important to highlight that by molecular docking, none of the estimated ligand configurations generated hydrogen bonds. Thus, explaining the difficulty to degrade CV and MG. Regarding CV, maximum decolorization percentage was 23.6 ± 1.0% using Ganoderma lucidum supernatant and 5.0 ± 0.5% with Pleurotus ostreatus supernatant. When using recombinant laccase enzyme concentrates, decolorization percentages were 9.9 ± 0.1 and 7.5 ± 1.0% for rGlLCC1 and rPOXA 1B, respectively. On the other hand, for the MG dye, maximum decolorization percentages were 52.1 ± 5.1 and 2.3 ± 0.2% using G. lucidum and P. ostreatus concentrates, respectively. Whereas with recombinant laccase enzymatic concentrates, values of 9.4 ± 0.8% were obtained, with rGlLCC1, and 2.1 ± 0.1% when using rPOXA 1B. These findings represent an important step in bioremediation processes improvement and efficiency of industry-generated products, using environmentally friendly alternatives.

  1. Developing the Ideas of the Scientific School of L.S. Vygotsky: Scientific Publications of the Journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology” (2005—2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the development of the ideas of L.S. Vygotsky’s school using the example of the publications in the international scientific journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology” (for the period 2005 through 2016. Over the period from 2005 to the end of 2016, 595 articles of 524 authors from 32 countries have been published in the journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology.” The study of the subjects of the articles published in the journal was held within the framework of the following criteria: scientometric publication indicators; group of authors; themes of the publications; relevance of the articles for their readers. The research uses the following sources: Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI; repository data of the psychological editions of PsyJournals.ru; report data on the activities of the journal “Cultural-Historical Psychology.” The citation frequency of the journal’s publications peaks in 2007, 2009 and 2006. Empirical findings comprise major part of the publications. The most developed areas are the studies of speech and thinking, personality, and communication.

  2. The Role of L.S. Vygotsky's Ideas in the Development of Social Cognition Paradigm in Modern Psychology: A Review of Foreign Research and Discussion on Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kholmogorova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author reflects on the reasons for the increased interest of modern foreign social cognition researchers in L.S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory in the light of the existing methodological contradictions and recent empirical data. The paper analyzes the main ideas and concepts of cultural-historical theory that were incorporated in research by Vygotsky's foreign followers, including such prominent experts in the field of social cognition as M. Tomasello and Ch. Fernyhough. It describes the conceptual apparatus and models of development of social cognition in phylo-, anthropo- and ontogenesis proposed by these researchers basing on the ideas of cultural-historical approach. The author especially stresses the importance of the idea of the dialogical nature of human thinking as the foundation for social cognition development in ontogenesis. Also reviewed are the mechanisms underlying the emergence of dialogical thinking from egocentric speech that are described in Ch. Fernyhough's model of social cognition development in ontogenesis. The paper concludes with an analysis of the concepts of cultural-historical theory and its current developments by Russian researchers that are of high heuristic potential for the future development of the paradigm of social cognition

  3. Study of C/N Ratio Effect on Biogas Production of Carica Solid Waste by SS-AD Method And LS-AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Bakti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as an alternative source to replace fossil fuels. Recently, the use of energy has become an important issue because the oil sources and natural gas are depleting. Utilization of carica waste to produce biogas can reduce the consumption of commercial energy sources such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood. Biogas is produced by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobic bacterial activity in anaerobic digester. In this study we studied the influence of LS-AD and SS-AD methods, the effect of C / N ratio on biogas yield obtained and kinetics of biogas production reaction. The study was conducted by making a total solid variation of 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 19%, 21%, 23% and C/N ratio 25 and 30. The study started with carica waste collection process and examination of the total composition of solids and water content. Thereafter, calculation and determination of variation of C / N ratio by mixing the substrate with inoculum and urea into the reactor. Observe the volume of biogas produced every two-day intervals. The highest biogas production rate of 1.7825 ml/g TS day was obtained from carica solid waste variable by liquid state anaerobic disgestion and C/N 25.

  4. POST-PERIASTRON GAMMA-RAY FLARE FROM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 AS A RESULT OF COMPTONIZATION OF THE COLD PULSAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangulyan, Dmitry [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Aharonian, Felix A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Bogovalov, Sergey V. [Department of Molecular Physics, National Research Nuclear University (MEPHI), Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Ribo, Marc, E-mail: khangul@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: felix.aharonian@dias.ie, E-mail: svbogovalov@mephi.ru, E-mail: mribo@am.ub.es [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciences del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-06-10

    We argue that the bright flare of the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63/LS2883 detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is due to the inverse Compton scattering of the unshocked electron-positron pulsar wind with a Lorentz factor {Gamma}{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}. The combination of two effects both linked to the circumstellar disk (CD) is a key element in the proposed model. The first effect is related to the impact of the surrounding medium on the termination of the pulsar wind. Inside the disk, the 'early' termination of the wind results in suppression of its gamma-ray luminosity. When the pulsar escapes the disk, the conditions for termination of the wind undergo significant changes. This would lead to a dramatic increase of the pulsar wind zone, and thus to the proportional increase of the gamma-ray flux. On the other hand, if the parts of the CD disturbed by the pulsar can supply infrared photons of density high enough for efficient Comptonization of the wind, almost the entire kinetic energy of the pulsar wind would be converted to radiation, thus the gamma-ray luminosity of the wind could approach the level of the pulsar's spin-down luminosity as reported by the Fermi Collaboration.

  5. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of strain-relieved epitaxial lead-free KNN-LT-LS ferroelectric thin films on SrTiO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2008-05-01

    We report the growth of single-phase (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.10,Sb0.06)O3 thin films on SrRuO3 coated ⟨001⟩ oriented SrTiO3 substrates by using pulsed laser deposition. Films grown at 600°C under low laser fluence exhibit a ⟨001⟩ textured columnar grained nanostructure, which coalesce with increasing deposition temperature, leading to a uniform fully epitaxial highly stoichiometric film at 750°C. However, films deposited at lower temperatures exhibit compositional fluctuations as verified by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial films of 400-600nm thickness have a room temperature relative permittivity of ˜750 and a loss tangent of ˜6% at 1kHz. The room temperature remnant polarization of the films is 4μC /cm2, while the saturation polarization is 7.1μC/cm2 at 24kV/cm and the coercive field is ˜7.3kV/cm. The results indicate that approximately 50% of the bulk permittivity and 20% of bulk spontaneous polarization can be retained in submicron epitaxial KNN-LT-LS thin film, respectively. The conductivity of the films remains to be a challenge as evidenced by the high loss tangent, leakage currents, and broad hysteresis loops.

  6. Development of the ion-acoustic turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma following induced ls-scattering near the lower hybrid resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batanov, G.M.; Kolik, L.V.; Sapozhnikov, A.V.; Sarksyan, K.A.; Skvortsova, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    The development and nonlinear saturation of ion-acoustic turbulent oscillat tions excited in a plasma by high frequency pumping wave have been experimentall investigated. As a result of investigations into the interaction between obliqu ue Langmuir waves and a magnetoactive plasma near the lower hybrid resonance performed under the regime of HF-pumping wave pulse generation the following c conclusions are drawn: 1) dynamic characteristics of the development of ion-acou tic turbulent oscillations point to the induced ls-scattering process and the de ependence of the rate of this process on the level of initial superthermal ion-acoustic noises, 2) a nonlinear process limiting the of ion-acoustic turbule ence intensity growth is probably the process of induced sound wave scattering on ions followed by the unstable wave energy transfer over the spectrum into the e lower frequency region. Various mechanisms are responsible for excitation of on acoustic waves and HF-waves near the pumping wave frequency (red satellite)

  7. Effects of Coolant Temperature Changes on Reactivity for Various Coolants in a Liquid Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, William A. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform an investigation into the relative merit of various salts and salt compounds being considered for use as coolants in the liquid salt cooled very high temperature reactor platform (LS-VHTR). Most of the non-nuclear properties necessary to evaluate these salts are known, but the neutronic characteristics important to reactor core design are still in need of a more extensive examination. This report provides a two-fold approach to further this investigation. First, a list of qualifying salts is assembled based upon acceptable non-nuclear properties. Second, the effect on system reactivity for a secondary system transient or an off-normal or accident condition is examined for each of these salt choices. The specific incident to be investigated is an increase in primary coolant temperature beyond normal operating parameters. In order to perform the relative merit comparison of each candidate salt, the System Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity is calculated for each candidate salt at various state points throughout the core burn history. (author)

  8. Design and implementation of improved LsCpLp resonant circuit for power supply for high-power electromagnetic acoustic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zao, Yongming; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Xinglan; Hou, Shuaicheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the design and implementation of an improved series-parallel inductor-capacitor-inductor (LsCpLp) resonant circuit power supply for excitation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). The main advantage of the proposed resonant circuit is the absence of a high-permeability dynamic transformer. A high-frequency pulsating voltage gain can be achieved through a double resonance phenomenon. Both resonant tailing behavior and higher harmonics are suppressed by the improved resonant circuit, which also contributes to the generation of ultrasonic waves. Additionally, the proposed circuit can realize impedance matching and can also optimize the transduction efficiency. The complete design and implementation procedure for the power supply is described and has been validated by implementation of the proposed power supply to drive a portable EMAT. The circuit simulation results show close agreement with the experimental results and thus confirm the validity of the proposed topology. The proposed circuit is suitable for use as a portable EMAT excitation power supply that is fed by a low-voltage source.

  9. Gallic Acid Content and an Antioxidant Mechanism Are Responsible for the Antiproliferative Activity of ‘Ataulfo’ Mango Peel on LS180 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo. R. Velderrain-Rodríguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango “Ataulfo” peel is a rich source of polyphenols (PP, with antioxidant and anti-cancer properties; however, it is unknown whether such antiproliferative activity is related to PP’s antioxidant activity. The content (HPLC-DAD, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC, and antiproliferative activities (MTT of free (FP and chemically-released PP from mango ‘Ataulfo’ peel after alkaline (AKP and acid (AP hydrolysis, were evaluated. AKP fraction was higher (µg/g DW in gallic acid (GA; 23,816 ± 284 than AP (5610 ± 8 of FR (not detected fractions. AKP fraction and GA showed the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH/FRAP/ORAC and GA’s antioxidant activity follows a single electron transfer (SET mechanism. AKP and GA also showed the best antiproliferative activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180; IC50 (µg/mL 138.2 ± 2.5 and 45.7 ± 5.2 and mouse connective cells (L929; 93.5 ± 7.7 and 65.3 ± 1.2; Cheminformatics confirmed the hydrophilic nature (LogP, 0.6 and a good absorption capacity (75% for GA. Data suggests that GA’s antiproliferative activity appears to be related to its antioxidant mechanism, although other mechanisms after its absorption could also be involved.

  10. Comparing Non-Medical Sex Selection and Saviour Sibling Selection in the Case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel: Beyond the Welfare of the Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm K; Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    The national ethical guidelines relevant to assisted reproductive technology (ART) have recently been reviewed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The review process paid particular attention to the issue of non-medical sex selection, although ultimately, the updated ethical guidelines maintain the pre-consultation position of a prohibition on non-medical sex selection. Whilst this recent review process provided a public forum for debate and discussion of this ethically contentious issue, the Victorian case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel (Health and Privacy) [2011] VCAT 856 provides a rare instance where the prohibition on non-medical sex selection has been explored by a court or tribunal in Australia. This paper analyses the reasoning in that decision, focusing specifically on how the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal applied the statutory framework relevant to ART and its comparison to other uses of embryo selection technologies. The Tribunal relied heavily upon the welfare-of-the-child principle under the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008 (Vic). The Tribunal also compared non-medical sex selection with saviour sibling selection (that is, where a child is purposely conceived as a matched tissue donor for an existing child of the family). Our analysis leads us to conclude that the Tribunal's reasoning fails to adequately justify the denial of the applicants' request to utilize ART services to select the sex of their prospective child.

  11. DISCOVERY OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BINARY SYSTEM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 AROUND PERIASTRON WITH FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery of ≥100 MeV γ-rays from the binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. The system comprises a radio pulsar in orbit around a Be star. We report on LAT observations from near apastron to ∼128 days after the time of periastron, t p , on 2010 December 15. No γ-ray emission was detected from this source when it was far from periastron. Faint γ-ray emission appeared as the pulsar approached periastron. At ∼t p + 30 days, the ≥100 MeV γ-ray flux increased over a period of a few days to a peak flux 20-30 times that seen during the pre-periastron period, but with a softer spectrum. For the following month, it was seen to be variable on daily timescales, but remained at ∼(1-4) x 10 -6 cm -2 s -1 before starting to fade at ∼t p + 57 days. The total γ-ray luminosity observed during this period is comparable to the spin-down power of the pulsar. Simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the source showed no corresponding dramatic changes in radio and X-ray flux between the pre-periastron and post-periastron flares. We discuss possible explanations for the observed γ-ray-only flaring of the source.

  12. DNA fragmentation: manifestation of target cell destruction mediated by cytotoxic T-cell lines, lymphotoxin-secreting helper T-cell clones, and cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, D.S.; Tite, J.P.; Ruddle, N.H.

    1986-01-01

    A Lyt-2 + , trinitrophenyl-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting, cytotoxic T-cell line, PCl 55, mediates the digestion of target cell DNA into discretely sized fragments. This phenomenon manifests itself within 30 min after effector cell encounter as measured by the release of 3 H counts from target cells prelabeled with [ 3 H]deoxythymidine and occurs even at very low effector to target cell ratios (0.25:1). A Lyt-1 + , ovalbumin-specific, lymphotoxin-secreting T-helper cell clone, 5.9.24, is also able to mediate fragmentation of target cell DNA over a time course essentially indistinguishable from the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated hit. Cell-free lymphotoxin-containing supernatants also cause release of DNA from targets, although they require a longer time course, on the order of 24 hr. In contrast, lysis of cells by antibody plus complement or Triton X-100 does not result in DNA release even after extended periods of incubation (24 hr). All three treatments that result in the release of DNA from cells cause fragmentation of that DNA into discretely sized pieces that are multiples of 200 base pairs. The results thus suggest that cytotoxic T cells, lymphotoxin-secreting helper clones with cytolytic activity, and lymphotoxin all effect target cell destruction by means of a similar mechanism and that observed differences in time course and the absence of target cell specificity in killing mediated by lymphotoxin may simply reflect differences in the mode of toxin delivery

  13. LS1 Report: Successful tests

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    At the PS Booster, the new beam dump and the associated shielding blocks surrounding it have been successfully installed and the installation of the beam transfer lines are now under way. The BI.SMH septum magnet has been successfully repaired following a confirmed vacuum leak.   At the PS, the consolidation of the seven main PS magnets has started, and the replacement of the old cooling and ventilation system continues to progress well. At the SPS, the replacement of the irradiated cables in Long Straight Section 1 (LSS1) of the SPS is now well under way and proceeding well. At the LHC, the Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation (SMACC) project remains ongoing. The closure of internal sleeves has begun in sector 7-8, and the shunt installations, a major consolidation activity, are progressing well in sector 8-1. The equivalent of more than one sector's outer sleeves (W) have been closed, and leak tests are in progress in several sub-sector...

  14. LS1 Report: Shielding operations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    At the LHC, the SMACC project’s consolidation train has just entered Sector 7-8, the third sector to be consolidated. It has moved on from Sector 6-7, which is now in the closure phase.   This week saw the start of the replacement campaign for the compensators on the LHC’s cryogenic distribution lines (QRL), involving all sectors of the machine. Nine compensators in total will be replaced between now and the end of the year (see the article in this week's Bulletin). Operations are advancing very quickly on the R2E (radiation to electronics) project. At Point 1, for example, the teams have successfully managed to get several weeks ahead of the activity schedule. Tests on the back-up electrical supply have also been completed. The diesel generators, designed to take over in the event of a failure of the main electrical supply, were put through their paces during a simulated power cut and passed with flying colours.   At the PS, 29 pillars have been ...

  15. Cell culture supernatants for detection perforin ELISA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Najwa

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... Leukemia is a cancer originating in any of hematopoietic cell that tends to ... treatment of children (Borek and Jaskolski, 2001). The current study was .... which led to the best results at 48 h of exposure than after 72 h of cells ...

  16. Cell culture supernatants for detection perforin ELISA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Najwa

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-150, and the study utilized an in vitro ... 1.73 U/mg in crude extract to 2.29 U/mg after ion-exchange and 10.5 U/mg ..... survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays .J.

  17. GERAÇÃO DO FATOR TOPOGRÁFICO (LS EM BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA: ANÁLISE DA EXTENSÃO DE VERTENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Souza Pinheiro, Thiago Torres Costa Pereira, Rafael de Ávila Rodrigues, Gabriela Alves Jonas, Angela Silva Miazaki, Venâncio Campos Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A erosão laminar, devido a sua característica peculiar, é dificilmente detectada por grande parte da população, principalmente nos estágios iniciais, havendo assim a necessidade do estabelecimento de práticas corretas de conservação do solo. A Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (EUPS busca estimar a perda de solo pela erosão laminar, considerando os fatores condicionantes da erosão. Contudo, existem fatores limitantes, inerentes da busca pela aproximação com a realidade, pois, a EUPS não considera a geometria das vertentes e aborda parcialmente a questão da extensão das vertentes, de grande influência no processo erosivo hídrico de superfície. Desta forma, o objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi aplicar sistemática de obtenção dos dados de comprimento de vertentes (Fator L, considerando como a dinâmica do escoamento superficial interfere nos resultados obtidos com a Equação Universal de Perda de Solo. Como área de estudo, foi selecionada uma bacia hidrográfica de um canal de segunda ordem, que banha a Floresta Escola do Instituto Hidroex em Frutal (MG. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o Fator L influenciou sensivelmente nos dados, a técnica de obtenção dos dados de extensão de vertentes mostrou-se adequada, apresentando valores diferenciados do Fator LS (Fator Topográfico ao longo da vertente, bem como a menor generalização dos dados.

  18. Sample handling for kinetics and molecular assembly in flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklar, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). National Flow Cytometry Resource]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). School of Medicine; Seamer, L.C.; Kuckuck, F.; Prossnitz, E.; Edwards, B. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). School of Medicine; Posner, G. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    Flow cytometry discriminates particle associated fluorescence from the fluorescence of the surrounding medium. It permits assemblies of macromolecular complexes on beads or cells to be detected in real-time with precision and specificity. The authors have investigated two types of robust sample handling systems which provide sub-second resolution and high throughput: (1) mixers which use stepper-motor driven syringes to initiate chemical reactions in msec time frames; and (2) flow injection controllers with valves and automated syringes used in chemical process control. In the former system, the authors used fast valves to overcome the disparity between mixing 100 {micro}ls of sample in 100 msecs and delivering sample to a flow cytometer at 1 {micro}l/sec. Particles were detected within 100 msec after mixing, but turbulence was created which lasted for 1 sec after injection of the sample into the flow cytometer. They used optical criteria to discriminate particles which were out of alignment due to the turbulent flow. Complex sample handling protocols involving multiple mixing steps and sample dilution have also been achieved. With the latter system they were able to automate sample handling and delivery with intervals of a few seconds. The authors used a fluidic approach to defeat turbulence caused by sample introduction. By controlling both sheath and sample with individual syringes, the period of turbulence was reduced to {approximately} 200 msecs. Automated sample handling and sub-second resolution should permit broad analytical and diagnostic applications of flow cytometry.

  19. Influenza A H3N2 subtype virus NS1 protein targets into the nucleus and binds primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS to nucleolin and fibrillarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor, which is targeted into the cell cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus. NS1 is a multi-functional protein that inhibits host cell pre-mRNA processing and counteracts host cell antiviral responses. Previously, we have shown that the NS1 protein of the H3N2 subtype influenza viruses possesses a C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) that also functions as a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) and targets the protein into the nucleolus. Results Here, we show that the NS1 protein of the human H3N2 virus subtype interacts in vitro primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS and to a minor extent via its N-terminal NLS1 with the nucleolar proteins, nucleolin and fibrillarin. Using chimeric green fluorescence protein (GFP)-NS1 fusion constructs, we show that the nucleolar retention of the NS1 protein is determined by its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS in vivo. Confocal laser microscopy analysis shows that the NS1 protein colocalizes with nucleolin in nucleoplasm and nucleolus and with B23 and fibrillarin in the nucleolus of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus-infected A549 cells. Since some viral proteins contain NoLSs, it is likely that viruses have evolved specific nucleolar functions. Conclusion NS1 protein of the human H3N2 virus interacts primarily via the C-terminal NLS2/NoLS and to a minor extent via the N-terminal NLS1 with the main nucleolar proteins, nucleolin, B23 and fibrillarin. PMID:22909121

  20. Tank waste processing analysis: Database development, tank-by-tank processing requirements, and examples of pretreatment sequences and schedules as applied to Hanford Double-Shell Tank Supernatant Waste - FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.; Orth, R.J.; Aitken, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report gives the results of work conducted in FY 1993 by the Tank Waste Processing Analysis Task for the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration. The main purpose of this task, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to demonstrate a methodology to identify processing sequences, i.e., the order in which a tank should be processed. In turn, these sequences may be used to assist in the development of time-phased deployment schedules. Time-phased deployment is implementation of pretreatment technologies over a period of time as technologies are required and/or developed. The work discussed here illustrates how tank-by-tank databases and processing requirements have been used to generate processing sequences and time-phased deployment schedules. The processing sequences take into account requirements such as the amount and types of data available for the tanks, tank waste form and composition, required decontamination factors, and types of compact processing units (CPUS) required and technology availability. These sequences were developed from processing requirements for the tanks, which were determined from spreadsheet analyses. The spreadsheet analysis program was generated by this task in FY 1993. Efforts conducted for this task have focused on the processing requirements for Hanford double-shell tank (DST) supernatant wastes (pumpable liquid) because this waste type is easier to retrieve than the other types (saltcake and sludge), and more tank space would become available for future processing needs. The processing requirements were based on Class A criteria set by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Clean Option goals provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  1. Vīrieša tēls patērētāju priekšstatos: žurnāla "Klubs" 2014. gada reklāmu analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Blumberga, Lelde

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba ”Vīriešu tēls patērētāju priekšstatos: žurnāla „Klubs” 2014. gada reklāmu analīze” mērķis ir noskaidrot, kāds vīrieša tēls tiek veidots vīriešu žurnālu reklāmas un tā patērētāja priekšstatos. Darba pētnieciskā problēma paredz, ka vīriešu tēls vīriešu žurnālos tiek pasniegts kā spilgts, veiksmīgs un ietekmīgs, kas var atstāt iespaidu uz patērētāja apziņu. Darbs sastāv no trīs daļām – teorētiskās, metodoloģiskās un empīriskās. Darba teorētiskajā daļā tiks apskatīta teorij...

  2. The effectiveness of Concept Mapping Content Representation Lesson Study (ComCoReLS) model to improve skills of Creating Physics Lesson Plan (CPLP) for pre-service physics teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, E.; Suyatno; Wasis; Prahani, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to analyse the effectiveness of ComCoReLS (Concept Mapping Content Representation Lesson Study) model towards the improvement skills of Creating Physics Lesson Plan (CPLP) for pre-service physics teacher. This research used one group pre-test and post-test design on 12 pre-service physics teacher at University of Malang State (Indonesia) in academic year 2016/2017. Data collection was conducted through test and interview. Skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher measurement were conducted through Physics Lesson Plan Evaluation Sheet (PLPES). The data analysis technique was done by using paired t-test and n-gain. The CoMCoReLS model consists of 5 phases, including (1) Preparation, (2) Coaching, (3) Guided Practice, (4) Independent Practice, and (5) Evaluation. In the first, second, third and fifth phases are done at University of Malang State, while the fourth phase (Independent Practice) is done in SMAN 1 Singosari, SMAN 2 Malang, SMA Lab UM, MAN 3 Malang. The results showed that there was a significant increase in skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher at α = 5% and n-gain average of high category. Thus, the ComCoReLS model is effective for improving skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher.

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of "1"4C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and "1"4C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the "1"4C concentration in "1"4C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of "1"4C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a "1"4C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. "1"4C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean "1"4C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of "1"4C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, "1"4C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. "1"4C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; "1"4C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and {sup 14}C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko, E-mail: tteiko@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the {sup 14}C concentration in {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of {sup 14}C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a {sup 14}C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. {sup 14}C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean {sup 14}C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of {sup 14}C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, {sup 14}C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. {sup 14}C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; {sup 14}C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  6. A comparative study on the performance of photogalvanic cells with different photosensitizers for solar energy conversion and storage: D-Xylose-NaLS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhimwal, Mahesh Kumar; Gangotri, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative performance of photogalvanic cells has been studied for solar energy conversion and storage by using Methyl Orange, Rose Bengal, Toluidine Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue as different photosensitizers with D-Xylose as reductant and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (NaLS) as surfactant in the different systems. The photogeneration of photopotential are 890.0, 885.0, 945.0 and 940.0 mV whereas the maximum photocurrent is 625.0, 575.0, 510.0 and 480.0 μA, respectively. The short circuit current or photocurrent at equilibrium is 480.0, 460.0, 430.0 and 440.0 μA, respectively. The observed conversion efficiencies for Methyl Orange, Rose Bengal, Toluidine Blue and Brilliant Cresyl Blue with D-Xylose and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate systems are 1.6245, 1.5261, 1.4323 and 1.1057%, respectively. The fill factors 0.3244, 0.3151, 0.3120, and 0.2408 are experimentally determined at the power point of the cell where the absolute value is 1.0. The photogalvanic cells so developed can work for 160.0, 145.0, 130.0 and 140.0 min in dark if it is irradiated for 180.0, 165.0, 135.0 and 150.0 min, respectively where the percentage of storage capacity of photogalvanic cells are found 87.87%-96.29%. All observed results are the higher among the reported results so far in the literature. -- Research highlights: → The discussed photogalvanic cells have higher storage capacity and conversion efficiency of sunlight, in comparison to the present solar cells. → A comparative performance of photogalvanic cells was studied by applying different photosensitizers (dyes) systems. → A more reliable estimate of the maximum conversion efficiency and storage capacity are achieved 1.1057%-1.6245% and 96.29%, respectively. → On the basis of sunlight conversion data, the observed maximum photocurrent and photopotential are 1200.0 μA and 2360.0 mV, respectively. → The literature survey reveals that the reported results in the present research work are the highest so far.

  7. Methyl chloride in the UT/LS observed by CARIBIC: global distribution, Asian summer monsoon outflow, and use as a tracer for tropical air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Umezawa, T.; Oram, D.; Sauvage, C.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Montzka, S. A.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present spatiotemporal variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in the UT/LS observed mainly by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft for the years 2005-2011. The CH3Cl mixing ratio in the UT over Europe was higher than that observed at a European surface baseline station year-round, indicative of a persistent positive vertical gradient at NH mid latitudes. A series of flights over Africa and South Asia show that CH3Cl mixing ratios increase toward tropical latitudes, and the observed UT CH3Cl level over these two regions and the Atlantic was higher than that measured at remote surface sites. Strong emissions of CH3Cl in the tropics combined with meridional transport through the UT may explain such vertical and latitudinal gradients. Comparisons with CO data indicate that non-combustion sources in the tropics dominantly contribute to forming the latitudinal gradient of CH3Cl in the UT. We also observed elevated CH3Cl and CO in air influenced by biomass burning in South America and Africa, and the enhancement ratios derived for CH3Cl to CO in those regions agree with previous observations. In contrast, correlations indicate a high CH3Cl to CO ratio of 2.9±0.5 ppt ppb-1 in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone and domestic biofuel emissions in South Asia are inferred to be responsible. We estimated CH3Cl emissions from South Asia to be 134±23 Gg Cl yr-1, which is higher than a previous estimate due to the higher CH3Cl to CO ratio observed in this study. We also examine the use of CH3Cl as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air in the LMS, where we identified air masses with elevated CH3Cl that were however stratospheric in terms of N2O. Back trajectories suggest recent low-latitude origins of such air masses in early summer. In this season, high CH3Cl LMS air shows a clear branch connecting stratospheric and tropical tropospheric air on N2O-CH3Cl scatterplots. This distinct feature vanishes in late summer when the LMS is ventilated by tropospheric air.

  8. Measurements of HCl and HNO3 with the new research aircraft HALO - Quantification of the stratospheric contribution to the O3 and HNO3 budget in the UT/LS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Zahn, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Engel, Andreas; Bönisch, Harald; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic and chemical processes modify the ozone (O3) budget of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, leading to locally variable O3 trends. In this region, O3 acts as a strong greenhouse gas with a net positive radiative forcing. It has been suggested, that the correlation of the stratospheric tracer hydrochloric acid (HCl) with O3 can be used to quantify stratospheric O3 in the UT/LS region (Marcy et al., 2004). The question is, whether the stratospheric contribution to the nitric acid (HNO3) budget in the UT/LS can be determined by a similar approach in order to differentiate between tropospheric and stratospheric sources of HNO3. To this end, we performed in situ measurements of HCl and HNO3 with a newly developed Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (AIMS) during the TACTS (Transport and Composition in the UTLS) / ESMVal (Earth System Model Validation) mission in August/September 2012. The linear quadrupole mass spectrometer deployed aboard the new German research aircraft HALO was equipped with a new discharge source generating SF5- reagent ions and an in-flight calibration allowing for accurate, spatially highly resolved trace gas measurements. In addition, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous acid (HONO) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) have been simultaneously detected with the AIMS instrument. Here, we show trace gas distributions of HCl and HNO3 measured during a North-South transect from Northern Europe to Antarctica (68° N to 65° S) at 8 to 15 km altitude and discuss their latitude dependence. In particular, we investigate the stratospheric ozone contribution to the ozone budget in the mid-latitude UT/LS using correlations of HCl with O3. Differences in these correlations in the subtropical and Polar regions are discussed. A similar approach is used to quantify the HNO3 budget of the UT/LS. We identify unpolluted atmospheric background distributions and various tropospheric HNO3 sources in specific regions. Our observations can be compared to

  9. QuBiLS-MAS, open source multi-platform software for atom- and bond-based topological (2D) and chiral (2.5D) algebraic molecular descriptors computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Martiní, José R; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; García-Jacas, César R; Martinez-Mayorga, Karina; Barigye, Stephen J; Vaz d'Almeida, Yasser Silveira; Pham-The, Hai; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo; Morell, Carlos A

    2017-06-07

    In previous reports, Marrero-Ponce et al. proposed algebraic formalisms for characterizing topological (2D) and chiral (2.5D) molecular features through atom- and bond-based ToMoCoMD-CARDD (acronym for Topological Molecular Computational Design-Computer Aided Rational Drug Design) molecular descriptors. These MDs codify molecular information based on the bilinear, quadratic and linear algebraic forms and the graph-theoretical electronic-density and edge-adjacency matrices in order to consider atom- and bond-based relations, respectively. These MDs have been successfully applied in the screening of chemical compounds of different therapeutic applications ranging from antimalarials, antibacterials, tyrosinase inhibitors and so on. To compute these MDs, a computational program with the same name was initially developed. However, this in house software barely offered the functionalities required in contemporary molecular modeling tasks, in addition to the inherent limitations that made its usability impractical. Therefore, the present manuscript introduces the QuBiLS-MAS (acronym for Quadratic, Bilinear and N-Linear mapS based on graph-theoretic electronic-density Matrices and Atomic weightingS) software designed to compute topological (0-2.5D) molecular descriptors based on bilinear, quadratic and linear algebraic forms for atom- and bond-based relations. The QuBiLS-MAS module was designed as standalone software, in which extensions and generalizations of the former ToMoCoMD-CARDD 2D-algebraic indices are implemented, considering the following aspects: (a) two new matrix normalization approaches based on double-stochastic and mutual probability formalisms; (b) topological constraints (cut-offs) to take into account particular inter-atomic relations; (c) six additional atomic properties to be used as weighting schemes in the calculation of the molecular vectors; (d) four new local-fragments to consider molecular regions of interest; (e) number of lone-pair electrons in

  10. Paper-based archiving of biological samples from fish for detecting betanodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneeth Krishnan, A; Bhuvaneswari, T; Ezhil Praveena, P; Jithendran, K P

    2016-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the Flinders Technology Associates (FTA(®)) card (Whatman(®)) as a sampling device and storage platform for RNA from betanodavirus-infected biological samples (viz., larvae, broodstock, cell culture supernatants and rearing seawater spiked with infected materials). The study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect betanodaviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The diagnostic efficiency of RT-PCR from all sample types on FTA cards decreased after 21 days of storage at 4 °C, although the virus could be detected up to 28 days by nested RT-PCR. The FTA card protocol thus provides a supplementary method for quick and easy collection of samples, preservation of RNA on a dry storage basis, and detection of betanodavirus-infected fish.

  11. Aneuploidy assessed by DNA index influences the effect of iron status on plasma and/or supernatant cytokine levels and progression of cells through the cell cycle in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvibidila, Solo; Porretta, Connie; Baliga, Surendra

    2014-02-01

    Aneuploidy, a condition associated with altered chromosome number, hence DNA index, is frequently seen in many diseases including cancers and affects immunity. Iron, an essential nutrient for humans, modulates the immune function and the proliferation of normal and cancer cells. To determine whether impaired immunity seen in iron-deficient subjects may be related to aneuploidy, we measured spleen cell DNA index, percent of cells in different phases of the cell cycle, plasma and/or supernatant IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, and interferon-gamma in control, pair-fed, iron-deficient, and iron-replete mice (N=20-22/group). The test and control diets differed only in iron content (0.09mmol/kg versus 0.9mmol/kg) and were fed for 68days. Mean levels of hemoglobin and liver iron stores of iron-deficient and iron-replete mice were 40-60% lower than those of control and pair-fed mice (P<0.05). Mean plasma levels of IL-10, interferon-gamma and percent of cells in S+G2/M phases were lower in mice with than in those without aneuploidy (P<0.05). Lowest plasma IL-12 and interferon-gamma concentrations were observed in iron-deficient mice with aneuploidy. Mean percents of cultures with aneuploidy and DNA indexes were higher in iron-deficient and iron-replete than in control and pair-fed mice likely due to delayed cell division (P<0.05). Aneuploidy decreased the concentration of IL-2 and interferon-gamma in baseline cultures while it increased that of interferon-gamma in anti-CD3 treated cultures. Aneuploidic indexes negatively correlated with cytokine levels, percents of cells in S+G2/M phases and indicators of iron status (P<0.05). Although chromosome cytogenetics was not performed, for the first time, we report that increased aneuploidy rate may modulate the immune function during iron-deficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge as a secondary excitation source: Assessment of plasma characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manard, Benjamin T. [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sarkar, Arnab [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dong, Meirong; Chirinos, Jose; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marcus, R. Kenneth [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as a secondary excitation source with a parametric evaluation regarding carrier gas flow rate, applied current, and electrode distance. With this parametric evaluation, plasma optical emission was monitored in order to obtain a fundamental understanding with regards to rotational temperature (T{sub rot}), excitation temperature (T{sub exc}), electron number density (n{sub e}), and plasma robustness. Incentive for these studies is not only for a greater overall fundamental knowledge of the APGD, but also in instrumenting a secondary excitation/ionization source following laser ablation (LA). Rotational temperatures were determined through experimentally fitting of the N{sub 2} and OH molecular emission bands while atomic excitation temperatures were calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of He and Mg atomic lines. The rotational and excitation temperatures were determined to be ∼ 1000 K and ∼ 2700 K respectively. Electron number density was calculated to be on the order of ∼ 3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} utilizing Stark broadening effects of the Hα line of the Balmer series and a He I transition. In addition, those diagnostics were performed introducing magnesium (by solution feed and laser ablation) into the plasma in order to determine any perturbation under heavy matrix sampling. The so-called plasma robustness factor, derived by monitoring Mg II/Mg I emission ratios, is also employed as a reflection of potential perturbations in microplasma energetics across the various operation conditions and sample loadings. While truly a miniaturized source (< 1 mm{sup 3} volume), the LS-APGD is shown to be quite robust with plasma characteristics and temperatures being unaffected upon introduction of metal species, whether by liquid or laser ablation sample introduction. - Highlights: • Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) • LS-APGD as a secondary

  13. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge as a secondary excitation source: Assessment of plasma characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manard, Benjamin T.; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Sarkar, Arnab; Dong, Meirong; Chirinos, Jose; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) has been assessed as a secondary excitation source with a parametric evaluation regarding carrier gas flow rate, applied current, and electrode distance. With this parametric evaluation, plasma optical emission was monitored in order to obtain a fundamental understanding with regards to rotational temperature (T rot ), excitation temperature (T exc ), electron number density (n e ), and plasma robustness. Incentive for these studies is not only for a greater overall fundamental knowledge of the APGD, but also in instrumenting a secondary excitation/ionization source following laser ablation (LA). Rotational temperatures were determined through experimentally fitting of the N 2 and OH molecular emission bands while atomic excitation temperatures were calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of He and Mg atomic lines. The rotational and excitation temperatures were determined to be ∼ 1000 K and ∼ 2700 K respectively. Electron number density was calculated to be on the order of ∼ 3 × 10 15 cm −3 utilizing Stark broadening effects of the Hα line of the Balmer series and a He I transition. In addition, those diagnostics were performed introducing magnesium (by solution feed and laser ablation) into the plasma in order to determine any perturbation under heavy matrix sampling. The so-called plasma robustness factor, derived by monitoring Mg II/Mg I emission ratios, is also employed as a reflection of potential perturbations in microplasma energetics across the various operation conditions and sample loadings. While truly a miniaturized source ( 3 volume), the LS-APGD is shown to be quite robust with plasma characteristics and temperatures being unaffected upon introduction of metal species, whether by liquid or laser ablation sample introduction. - Highlights: • Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) • LS-APGD as a secondary excitation source for laser-ablated (LA

  14. Radioimmunoassay screening and GC/MS confirmation of whole blood samples for drugs of abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiehler, V.R.; Sedgwick, P.

    From 1981 to 1984, an average of 300 radioimmunoassay screens on whole blood were performed each week in the authors laboratory. Most samples were screened for opiates phencyclidine and its analogs, barbiturates, and cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine. A commercially available radioimmunoassay was used with modifications to facilitate screening of whole blood. Increasing sample size increased the sensitivity of the assay. Changing reagent concentration (1:1 dilution), incubation time, sample matrix (water, urine, or blood), or fraction counted (precipitate or supernatant) did not affect the utility of the standard curve or the sensitivity of the assay. All positive results for phencyclidine, opiates, cocaine, and related compounds were confirmed by GC/MA. Barbiturate positives were confirmed by UV spectrophotometry.

  15. Elemental composition of platelets. Part I. Sampling and sample preparation of platelets for trace-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Borberg, H.; Kasperek, K.; Kiem, J.; Siegers, M.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Gross, R.

    1979-01-01

    Sampling of platelets for trace-element analysis poses special problems: obtaining adequate sample materials, achieving a sufficient cell purity, preserving viability (integrity), correcting for trapped plasma, and controlling contamination. We used a blood-cell separator for the primary isolation of platelets from blood, and differential centrifugation in natural plasma to further isolate them. The pyrimidopyrimidine RA233 was used as a stabilizer to maintain viability. 131 I-labeled human serum albumin was used to estimate trapped plasma. Contamination was controlled by using five-times-distilled water to simulate donor's blood in the system and by comparing three fractions: the serum, the first portion of the platelet-rich plasma, and the supernatant plasma after the final centrifugation. Neutron activation analysis was used for the elemental analysis. A single differential centrifugation of the platelet-rich plasma from the blood-cell separator at 400 x g for 8 min was optimum (mean mass fractions: erythrocytes/platelets < 5 mg/g and leukocytes/platelets < 20 mg/g). The trapped plasma in the wet platelet samples amounted to about 0.40 g/g. No appreciable contamination from the sampling system was found for the elements Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn. 2 figures, 3 tables

  16. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  17. PAGÃOS E CRISTÃOS NA ESCANDINÁVIA DA ERA VIKING: UMA ANÁLISE DO EPISÓDIO DE CONVERSÃO DA NJÁLS SAGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnni Langer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o episódio de conversão da Islândia ao cristianismo, presente na Brennu-Njáls saga, c. 1275-1290. Por meio de análise literária, procuramos entender o período de transição de religiosidade e as ideologias sociais presentes na fonte no momento em que ela foi composta. Como principal referencial, adotamos a metodologia da Nova Escandinavística convergindo com os trabalhos de Carlo Ginzburg

  18. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton

    2010-01-01

    analysis using point process methods. We then analyze three different models for the error process, calculate exact expressions for the variances, and derive asymptotic variances. Errors in the placement of sample points can lead to substantial inflation of the variance, dampening of zitterbewegung......Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...

  19. Test plan for evaluating the performance of the in-tank fluidic sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by a privatization contractor from double-shell feed tanks, 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104, Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a conceptual sampling system that would be deployed in a feed tank riser, This sampling system will provide large volume, representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This test plan identifies ''proof-of-principle'' cold tests for the conceptual sampling system using simulant materials. The need for additional testing was identified as a result of completing tests described in the revision test plan document, Revision 1 outlines tests that will evaluate the performance and ability to provide samples that are representative of a tanks' content within a 95 percent confidence interval, to recovery from plugging, to sample supernatant wastes with over 25 wt% solids content, and to evaluate the impact of sampling at different heights within the feed tank. The test plan also identifies operating parameters that will optimize the performance of the sampling system

  20. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  1. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  2. On the Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Güleda Doğan

    2017-01-01

    This editorial is on statistical sampling, which is one of the most two important reasons for editorial rejection from our journal Turkish Librarianship. The stages of quantitative research, the stage in which we are sampling, the importance of sampling for a research, deciding on sample size and sampling methods are summarised briefly.

  3. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  4. How Sample Size Affects a Sampling Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Siegel, Murray H.

    2009-01-01

    If students are to understand inferential statistics successfully, they must have a profound understanding of the nature of the sampling distribution. Specifically, they must comprehend the determination of the expected value and standard error of a sampling distribution as well as the meaning of the central limit theorem. Many students in a high…

  5. Radioactivity in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaro, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this practical work is to familiarize the student with radioactivity measures in environmental samples. For that were chosen samples a salt of natural potassium, a salt of uranium or torio and a sample of drinkable water

  6. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  7. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous determination of five amide herbicides in fish samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhipeng; Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2017-03-01

    An efficient sample extraction and clean-up method was developed for simultaneous determination of five amide herbicides (alachlor, acetochlor, propisochlor, metazachlor, and butachlor) in fish samples. The protocol consisted of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up. In detail, aliquots of homogenized fish flesh were thoroughly mixed with 20 mL of n-hexane and then extracted with ultrasonication for 40 min. Each sample was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected for the subsequent clean-up. For the sample preparation, the above supernatant was processed with a C 18 column with 3 mL of dichloromethane/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) as the eluant. Then the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The correlation coefficients of the five calibration curves were 0.9976-0.9998 (n = 3). The limits of detection (S/N = 3, n = 11) and limits of quantification (S/N = 10, n = 11) were 0.19-0.42 and 0.63-1.39 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of this method were 71.2-92.6% with good precision (<4.7% relative standard deviations, n = 6). The developed method was successfully applied to monitor the five amide herbicides in fish samples collected from different cities. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Network and adaptive sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Combining the two statistical techniques of network sampling and adaptive sampling, this book illustrates the advantages of using them in tandem to effectively capture sparsely located elements in unknown pockets. It shows how network sampling is a reliable guide in capturing inaccessible entities through linked auxiliaries. The text also explores how adaptive sampling is strengthened in information content through subsidiary sampling with devices to mitigate unmanageable expanding sample sizes. Empirical data illustrates the applicability of both methods.

  10. Sampling procedures and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzkowski, R.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics, defects, defectives - Sampling by attributes and by variables - Sample versus population - Frequency distributions for the number of defectives or the number of defects in the sample - Operating characteristic curve, producer's risk, consumer's risk - Acceptable quality level AQL - Average outgoing quality AOQ - Standard ISQ 2859 - Fundamentals of sampling by variables for fraction defective. (RW)

  11. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  12. Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-14

    To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.

  13. Fēliksa Arvida Ulfa Šelberga tēls un atspoguļojums izvelētos ārzemju medijos 2016.gadā

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaļonoka, Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darba "Fēliksa Arvida Ulfa Šelberga tēls un atspoguļojums izvelētos ārzemju medijos 2016. gadā" pētnieciskie jautājumi ir par tēla veidošanās aspektiem mediju vidē, kā arī konkrēto cilvēku atspoguļojums tajos. Pētījums ir balstīts uz tēla teorijas pamatiem, kā arī Garija Vennela modificētas triangularās shēmas, kas bija pielāgota konkrētajam pētnieciskajam laukam. Pētījumā materiāli tika analizēti, izmantojot rāmējuma teoriju un kvalitat...

  14. Sampling in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim Harry; Petersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    A basic knowledge of the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and a set of only eight sampling unit operations is all the practical sampler needs to ensure representativeness of samples extracted from all kinds of lots: production batches, - truckloads, - barrels, sub-division in the laboratory, sampling...... in nature and in the field (environmental sampling, forestry, geology, biology), from raw materials or manufactory processes etc. We here can only give a brief introduction to the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) and these eight Sampling Unit Operations (SUO’s). Always respecting FSP and invoking only...... the necessary SUO’s (dependent on the practical situation) is the only prerequisite needed for eliminating all sampling bias and simultaneously minimizing sampling variance, and this is in addition a sure guarantee for making the final analytical results trustworthy. No reliable conclusions can be made unless...

  15. Sampling of ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.C.; Nicholas, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of an apparatus for ore sampling. The method includes the steps of periodically removing a sample of the output material of a sorting machine, weighing each sample so that each is of the same weight, measuring a characteristic such as the radioactivity, magnetivity or the like of each sample, subjecting at least an equal portion of each sample to chemical analysis to determine the mineral content of the sample and comparing the characteristic measurement with desired mineral content of the chemically analysed portion of the sample to determine the characteristic/mineral ratio of the sample. The apparatus includes an ore sample collector, a deflector for deflecting a sample of ore particles from the output of an ore sorter into the collector and means for moving the deflector from a first position in which it is clear of the particle path from the sorter to a second position in which it is in the particle path at predetermined time intervals and for predetermined time periods to deflect the sample particles into the collector. The apparatus conveniently includes an ore crusher for comminuting the sample particle, a sample hopper means for weighing the hopper, a detector in the hopper for measuring a characteristic such as radioactivity, magnetivity or the like of particles in the hopper, a discharge outlet from the hopper and means for feeding the particles from the collector to the crusher and then to the hopper

  16. Petrological, geochemical, isotopic, and geochronological constraints for the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism in SW Gondwana (27-32°LS): an example of geodynamic switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Juan A.; Alasino, Pablo H.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Morales Cámera, Matías M.; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2018-04-01

    We report a study integrating 13 new U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon ages and Hf-isotope data from dated magmatic zircons together with complete petrological and whole-rock geochemistry data for the dated granitic rocks. Sample selection was strongly based on knowledge reported in previous investigations. Latest Devonian-Early Carboniferous granite samples were collected along a transect of 900 km, from the inner continental region (present-day Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) to the magmatic arc (now Western Sierras Pampeanas and Frontal Cordillera). Based on these data together with ca. 100 published whole-rock geochemical analyses we conclude that Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism at this latitude represents continuous activity (ranging from 322 to 379 Ma) on the pre-Andean margin of SW Gondwana, although important whole-rock and isotopic compositional variations occurred through time and space. Combined whole-rock chemistry and isotope data reveal that peraluminous A-type magmatism started in the intracontinental region during the Late Devonian, with subsequent development of synchronous Carboniferous peraluminous and metaluminous A-type magmatism in the retro-arc region and calc-alkaline magmatism in the western paleomargin. We envisage that magmatic evolution was mainly controlled by episodic fluctuations in the angle of subduction of the oceanic plate (between flat-slab and normal subduction), supporting a geodynamic switching model. Subduction fluctuations were relatively fast (ca. 7 Ma) during the Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous, and the complete magmatic switch-off and switch-on process lasted for 57 Ma. Hf T DM values of zircon (igneous and inherited) from some Carboniferous peraluminous A-type granites in the retro-arc suggest that Gondwana continental lithosphere formed during previous orogenies was partly the source of the Devonian-Carboniferous granitic magmas, thus precluding the generation of the parental magmas from exotic terranes.

  17. Studies on methods of measurement of radioactivities of 36Cl and 3H in dual labelled samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Shusuke; Asou, Hiroaki; Oishi, Katsuhiko; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Sato, Isamu

    1985-01-01

    In order to clarify how chloride molecules are transported into nervous tissue cells, we simultaneously used [ 36 Cl] -NaCl and [ 3 H] -inulin, and added AgNO 3 to the extract from the nervous tissue, obtaining 36 Cl-samples from the AgCl-precipitate and 3 H-samples from the supernatant. As for radioactivity of 36 Cl or 3 H in the dual-labelled samples, the recovery rates by our separation method were about 100%. Using cultured astrocytoma cells, 36 Cl-uptake into the cells, which was calculated by inulin assumption, was investigated. Intracellular 36 Cl-radioactivity changed vis-a-vis with that in the extracellular space. The volume of intracellular water, which was calculated by 3 H-inulin assumption, remained unchanged, even though a few variations in 36 Cl-radioactivity in cells were determined by both our separation method and spill-over method. (author)

  18. ACVP-05: Virus Genetic Analysis from Cell-Free Plasma, Virally Infected Cells or Tissues and Cultured Supernatant Via Single Genome Amplification and Direct Sequencing | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Viral Evolution Core within the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program will extract viral RNA/DNA from cell-free or cell-associated samples. Complementary (cDNA) will be generated as needed, and cDNA or DNA will be diluted to a single copy prior to nested

  19. Genetic Sample Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  20. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  1. Chorionic villus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003406.htm Chorionic villus sampling To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have ...

  2. Sampling on Quasicrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Grepstad, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    We prove that quasicrystals are universal sets of stable sampling in any dimension. Necessary and sufficient density conditions for stable sampling and interpolation sets in one dimension are studied in detail.

  3. Genetic Sample Inventory - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico from 2010-2015. The collection includes samples from...

  4. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  5. Laboratory Sampling Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    environment, and by ingestion of foodstuffs that have incorporated C-14 by photosynthesis . Like tritium, C-14 is a very low energy beta emitter and is... bacterial growth and to minimize development of solids in the sample. • Properly identify each sample container with name, SSN, and collection start and...sampling in the same cardboard carton. The sample may be kept cool or frozen during collection to control odor and bacterial growth. • Once

  6. High speed network sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Rindalsholt, Ole Arild

    2005-01-01

    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon Classical Sampling methods play an important role in the current practice of Internet measurement. With today’s high speed networks, routers cannot manage to generate complete Netflow data for every packet. They have to perform restricted sampling. This thesis summarizes some of the most important sampling schemes and their applications before diving into an analysis on the effect of sampling Netflow records.

  7. Mars Sample Handling Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Mattingly, R. L.

    2018-04-01

    The final leg of a Mars Sample Return campaign would be an entity that we have referred to as Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH.) This talk will address our current view of the functional requirements on MRSH, focused on the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

  8. IAEA Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives for this presentation are to describe the method that the IAEA uses to determine a sampling plan for nuclear material measurements; describe the terms detection probability and significant quantity; list the three nuclear materials measurement types; describe the sampling method applied to an item facility; and describe multiple method sampling.

  9. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  10. Generalized sampling in Julia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Robert Dahl; Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Morten Grud

    2017-01-01

    Generalized sampling is a numerically stable framework for obtaining reconstructions of signals in different bases and frames from their samples. For example, one can use wavelet bases for reconstruction given frequency measurements. In this paper, we will introduce a carefully documented toolbox...... for performing generalized sampling in Julia. Julia is a new language for technical computing with focus on performance, which is ideally suited to handle the large size problems often encountered in generalized sampling. The toolbox provides specialized solutions for the setup of Fourier bases and wavelets....... The performance of the toolbox is compared to existing implementations of generalized sampling in MATLAB....

  11. Determination of technetium-99 in environmental and radioactive waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencova, M.; Peter Tkac, P.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium is known for its high mobility in a soil-water system in non-reducing aerobic condition and also high bio-availability for plants, because the most stable form of technetium in natural surface environment is pertechnetate which is highly soluble. The chemical form of technetium changes with environmental conditions. Concentration of technetium in the environment is very low, therefore many separation steps are needed for technetium determination. It has been developed a method for the routine determination of technetium-99 from environmental matrices and radioactive wastes using technetium-99m as an internal yield monitor. Technetium-99 is extracted from the soil samples with nitric acid. Many contaminants are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and technetium in the supernatant is pre-concentrated and further purified using anion exchange chromatography. Final separation of technetium was achieved by extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from sulphuric acid or pure water. The chemical yield is determined through the measurement of technetium-99m by scintillation counting system and the technetium-99 activity is measured using proportional counter after decay of the technetium-99m activity. Typical recoveries for this method are in the order 50-60 % (authors)

  12. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  13. Image Sampling with Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grundland

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of quasicrystals in image sampling. Quasicrystals produce space-filling, non-periodic point sets that are uniformly discrete and relatively dense, thereby ensuring the sample sites are evenly spread out throughout the sampled image. Their self-similar structure can be attractive for creating sampling patterns endowed with a decorative symmetry. We present a brief general overview of the algebraic theory of cut-and-project quasicrystals based on the geometry of the golden ratio. To assess the practical utility of quasicrystal sampling, we evaluate the visual effects of a variety of non-adaptive image sampling strategies on photorealistic image reconstruction and non-photorealistic image rendering used in multiresolution image representations. For computer visualization of point sets used in image sampling, we introduce a mosaic rendering technique.

  14. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  15. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  16. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  17. Statistical sampling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    Systems assessment codes use mathematical models to simulate natural and engineered systems. Probabilistic systems assessment codes carry out multiple simulations to reveal the uncertainty in values of output variables due to uncertainty in the values of the model parameters. In this paper, methods are described for sampling sets of parameter values to be used in a probabilistic systems assessment code. Three Monte Carlo parameter selection methods are discussed: simple random sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, and sampling using two-level orthogonal arrays. Three post-selection transformations are also described: truncation, importance transformation, and discretization. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are summarized

  18. Statistical distribution sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

  19. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  20. Sampling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  1. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  2. Sampling or gambling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gy, P.M.

    1981-12-01

    Sampling can be compared to no other technique. A mechanical sampler must above all be selected according to its aptitude for supressing or reducing all components of the sampling error. Sampling is said to be correct when it gives all elements making up the batch of matter submitted to sampling an uniform probability of being selected. A sampler must be correctly designed, built, installed, operated and maintained. When the conditions of sampling correctness are not strictly respected, the sampling error can no longer be controlled and can, unknown to the user, be unacceptably large: the sample is no longer representative. The implementation of an incorrect sampler is a form of gambling and this paper intends to show that at this game the user is nearly always the loser in the long run. The users' and the manufacturers' interests may diverge and the standards which should safeguard the users' interests very often fail to do so by tolerating or even recommending incorrect techniques such as the implementation of too narrow cutters traveling too fast through the stream to be sampled.

  3. Sample pretretment in microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.

    2003-01-01

    : Sample preparation → DNA amplification → DNA analysis. The overall goal of the project is integration of as many as possible of these steps. This thesis covers mainly pretreatment in a microchip. Some methods for sample pretreatment have been tested. Most conventional is fluorescence activated cell sort......When a sample, e.g. from a patient, is processed using conventional methods, the sample must be transported to the laboratory where it is analyzed, after which the results is sent back. By integrating the separate steps of the analysis in a micro total analysis system (μTAS), results can...... be obtained fast and better. Preferably with all the processes from sample to signal moved to the bedside of the patient. Of course there is still much to learn and study in the process of miniaturization. DNA analysis is one process subject to integration. There are roughly three steps in a DNA analysis...

  4. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  5. PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP's liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use

  6. Contributions to sampling statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Pier; Ranalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the ITACOSM 2013 Conference, held in Milan in June 2013. ITACOSM is the bi-annual meeting of the Survey Sampling Group S2G of the Italian Statistical Society, intended as an international  forum of scientific discussion on the developments of theory and application of survey sampling methodologies and applications in human and natural sciences. The book gathers research papers carefully selected from both invited and contributed sessions of the conference. The whole book appears to be a relevant contribution to various key aspects of sampling methodology and techniques; it deals with some hot topics in sampling theory, such as calibration, quantile-regression and multiple frame surveys, and with innovative methodologies in important topics of both sampling theory and applications. Contributions cut across current sampling methodologies such as interval estimation for complex samples, randomized responses, bootstrap, weighting, modeling, imputati...

  7. Waste classification sampling plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998

  8. Cilvēka attēlojums nacionālsociālisma laikā: vācu cilvēka tēls plakātos

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemele, Agnese

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „Cilvēka attēlojums nacionālsociālisma laikā: vācu cilvēka tēls plakātos” tiek noskaidrota sievietes, vīrieša un jaunieša loma sabiedrībā. No 1933. līdz 1945. gadam Vācijā pastāvošā nacionālsociālistiskās ideoloăija ietekmēja propagandas saturu, kā arī noteica sabiedrības locekĜu domāšanas veidu un uzskatus. Darba gaitā tiek aplūkotas tā laika Vācijā valdošās politiskās idejas, mediju un propagandas, kā arī Trešā reiha valodas īpatnības. Darba galvenais pētījumu...

  9. „Neue Leitbilder für den Fortschritt“ (LS 194. Ein Plädoyer für die Wiederentdeckung praktischer Weisheit als neues Leitbild in der Marktwirtschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Bachmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the far-reaching leadership failures and business scandals of the last decades, the question has often been raised of whether we are reaping the results of the practical application of abstract management theory which is actually counteracting a socially, environmentally, and economically sustainable market economy. In this sense, Pope Francis recently called for ‘new models of progress’ to reflect on ‘the meaning of the economy and its goals’ (LS 194. To answer these calls, I first provide an overview of the recent discourse in leadership and organizational studies that have critically scrutinized the established theories and models of mainstream business. Second, I draw on the Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium and the Encyclical Laudato Si’ to derive the cornerstones of an ‘evangelizing approach’ to the guiding principles of management theory and practice suggested by Pope Francis. Third, to facilitate this renewal, I introduce the ancient idea of practical wisdom (prudence which has recently enjoyed a remarkable renaissance in the literature and is considered as a new transformative paradigm for management theory and practice.

  10. Sociālais medijs "Instagram" kā mārketinga komunikācijas kanāls: "ArtJam", "Paviljons" un "Yayoi" piemēri

    OpenAIRE

    Ezergaile, Elizabete

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba "Sociālais medijs "Instagram” kā mārketinga komunikācijas kanāls: “ArtJam”, “Paviljons” un “Yayoi” piemēri" mērķis ir noskaidrot, kādā veidā un kādiem mērķiem iepriekš minētie zīmoli izmanto sociālo mediju “Instagram” kā mārketinga komunikācijas kanālu un kādus rezultātus komunikācija šajā kanālā ir sniegusi konkrētajiem zīmoliem. Teorijas daļā aplūkotas teorētiskās nostādnes par mārketingu, mārketinga komunikāciju, sociālajiem medijiem, sociālo mediju mārketingu, sociāli medi...

  11. Sample Return Robot

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Challenge requires demonstration of an autonomous robotic system to locate and collect a set of specific sample types from a large planetary analog area and...

  12. Ecotoxicology statistical sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saona, G.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation introduces to general concepts in toxicology sample designs such as the distribution of organic or inorganic contaminants, a microbiological contamination, and the determination of the position in an eco toxicological bioassays ecosystem.

  13. Mini MAX - Medicaid Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To facilitate wider use of MAX, CMS contracted with Mathematica to convene a technical expert panel (TEP) and determine the feasibility of creating a sample file for...

  14. Operational air sampling report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 118 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, only one showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 206 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products

  15. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D ... that used for CSF in that they require aspiration of a sample of the fluid through a ...

  16. Roadway sampling evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has traditionally required that all sampling : and testing of asphalt mixtures be at the Contractors production facility. With recent staffing cuts, as : well as budget reductions, FDOT has been cons...

  17. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  18. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  19. Statistical sampling plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In auditing and in inspection, one selects a number of items by some set of procedures and performs measurements which are compared with the operator's values. This session considers the problem of how to select the samples to be measured, and what kinds of measurements to make. In the inspection situation, the ultimate aim is to independently verify the operator's material balance. The effectiveness of the sample plan in achieving this objective is briefly considered. The discussion focuses on the model plant

  20. Two phase sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Zahoor; Hanif, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The development of estimators of population parameters based on two-phase sampling schemes has seen a dramatic increase in the past decade. Various authors have developed estimators of population using either one or two auxiliary variables. The present volume is a comprehensive collection of estimators available in single and two phase sampling. The book covers estimators which utilize information on single, two and multiple auxiliary variables of both quantitative and qualitative nature. Th...