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Sample records for supermarket foods targeted

  1. Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Saldamando, Luis de; Curutchet, María Rosa; Ares, Gastón

    2017-06-12

    Marketing of unhealthy products has been identified as one of the main characteristics of the food environment that negatively affects children's eating patterns. Restrictions on advertising of unhealthy foods to children have already been imposed in different countries. However, marketing strategies are not limited to broadcast and digital advertising, but also include package design. In this context, the current study aimed to describe the food products targeted at children and sold in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay, in terms of package design and nutrient profile. Two supermarkets in Montevideo were selected for data collection. In each supermarket, all products targeted at children were identified. Products were analyzed in terms of package design and nutritional profile, considering the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. A total of 180 unique products were identified, which included a wide range of product categories. The great majority of the products corresponded to ultra-processed products with excessive amounts of sodium, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and/or trans fat, which are not recommended for frequent consumption. Several marketing strategies were identified in the design of packages to attract children's attention and drive their preferences. The most common strategies were the inclusion of cartoon characters, bright colors, childish lettering, and a wide range of claims related to health and nutrition, as well as the products' sensory and hedonic characteristics. The study's findings provide additional evidence on the need to regulate packaging of products targeted at children.

  2. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

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    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets (p stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  3. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Supermarkets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benya, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this paper is efficient lighting for supermarkets. Such project types not only include supermarkets, but also discount groceries, discount drug and drug/general merchandise, and general merchandise stores. The primary problems of lighting are very common among these types of stores, even if specific differences exist. The focus here will be the more upscale Safeway supermarket chain and its lower-end counterpart supermarkets.

  5. What foods are US supermarkets promoting? A content analysis of supermarket sales circulars.

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    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Yorkin, Meredith; Aljallad, Carena; Ciecierski, Caroline; Akhabue, Ivbaria; McKinley, Jessica; Hernandez, Katherine; Yablonsky, Courtney; Jackson, Rachel; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the types of foods advertised in supermarket newspaper circulars across geographic region (US Census regions: northeast [n=9], midwest [n=15], south [n=14], and west [n=13]), obesity-rate region (i.e., states with CDC adult obesity rates of advertisements on the first page of each circular were measured (±0.12-in.) to determine the proportion of space occupied and categorized according to food group. Overall, ≥ 50% of the front page of supermarket sales circulars was devoted to protein foods and grains; fruits, vegetables, and dairy, combined, were allocated only about 25% of the front page. The southern geographic region and the highest obesity-rate region both devoted significantly more advertising space to sweets, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages. The lowest obesity-rate region and western geographic region allocated the most space to fruits. Vegetables were allocated the least space in the western geographic region. Grains were the only food group represented in ads in proportions approximately equal to amounts depicted in the MyPlate icon. Protein foods exceeded and fruits, dairy, and vegetables fell below comparable MyPlate proportional areas. Findings suggest supermarket ads do not consistently emphasize foods that support healthy weight and MyPlate recommendations. More research is needed to determine how supermarket newspaper circulars can be used to promote healthy dietary patterns.

  6. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets...... and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v......, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe....

  7. The use of sports references in marketing of food and beverage products in supermarkets.

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    Bragg, Marie A; Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Sarda, Vishnu; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-04-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a significant driver of the childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to (i) conduct a content analysis of the types of sports references that appear on supermarket food and beverage products and (ii) assess each product's nutritional and marketing profile. This was a descriptive study. Every product featuring sports references on the packaging was purchased in two major supermarkets during 2010. A content analysis was conducted and nutritional evaluations were made based on the Nutrient Profile Model, a validated nutrition model. Marketing data were obtained from The Nielsen Company. Two major supermarkets in Connecticut, USA. Food and beverage products (n 102) were selected from two supermarkets. The 102 products (fifty-three foods and forty-nine beverages) had sports references as part of their packaging: 72·5 % featured a character exercising, 42·2 % were endorsed by a professional sports entity and 34·0 % were child-targeted. The median nutrition score for food products was 36 (1 = unhealthiest and 100 = healthiest; scores of ≥63 are considered healthy according to this model). More than two-thirds of beverages (69·4 %) were 100 % sugar-sweetened. Children saw significantly more commercials for these products than adults. Companies place sports figures on food and beverage products that are child-targeted and unhealthy.

  8. The case of Montréal's missing food deserts: Evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets

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    Cloutier Marie-Soleil

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to varied, healthy and inexpensive foods is an important public health concern that has been widely documented. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in identifying food deserts, that is, socially deprived areas within cities that have poor access to food retailers. In this paper we propose a methodology based on three measures of accessibility to supermarkets calculated using geographic information systems (GIS, and on exploratory multivariate statistical analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis, which we use to identify food deserts in Montréal. Results First, the use of three measures of accessibility to supermarkets is very helpful in identifying food deserts according to several dimensions: proximity (distance to the nearest supermarket, diversity (number of supermarkets within a distance of less than 1000 metres and variety in terms of food and prices (average distance to the three closest different chain-name supermarkets. Next, the cluster analysis applied to the three measures of accessibility to supermarkets and to a social deprivation index demonstrates that there are very few problematic food deserts in Montréal. In fact, census tracts classified as socially deprived and with low accessibility to supermarkets are, on average, 816 metres away from the nearest supermarket and within 1.34 kilometres of three different chain-name supermarkets. Conclusion We conclude that food deserts do not represent a major problem in Montréal. Since geographic accessibility to healthy food is not a major issue in Montréal, prevention efforts should be directed toward the understanding of other mechanisms leading to an unhealthy diet, rather than attempting to promote an even spatial distribution of supermarkets.

  9. Diet And Perceptions Change With Supermarket Introduction In A Food Desert, But Not Because Of Supermarket Use.

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    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Hunter, Gerald P; Flórez, Karen R; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A; Sloan, Jennifer C; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-11-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts--areas with limited access to healthy food--has been promoted as a way to reduce inequalities in access to healthy food, improve diet, and reduce the risk of obesity. However, previous studies provide scant evidence of such impacts. We surveyed households in two Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods in 2011 and 2014, one of which received a new supermarket in 2013. Comparing trends in the two neighborhoods, we obtained evidence of multiple positive impacts from new supermarket placement. In the new supermarket neighborhood we found net positive changes in overall dietary quality; average daily intakes of kilocalories and added sugars; and percentage of kilocalories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol. However, the only positive outcome in the recipient neighborhood specifically associated with regular use of the new supermarket was improved perceived access to healthy food. We did not observe differential improvement between the neighborhoods in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption, or body mass index. Incentivizing supermarkets to locate in food deserts is appropriate. However, efforts should proceed with caution, until the mechanisms by which the stores affect diet and their ability to influence weight status are better understood.

  10. Trans fatty acid content in Malaysian supermarket foods: a field-to-laboratory approach in assessing food risk.

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    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Tan, Hui Kuen; Ong, Wei Wen; Tan, Choon Heen; Sundram, Kalyana

    2014-01-01

    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.

  11. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

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    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  12. Determinants of Food Label Use among Supermarket Shoppers: A Singaporean Perspective

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    Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lwin, May O.; Chao, Jiang; Au, Cyndy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examining factors influencing food label use among Singapore's supermarket shoppers using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A point-of-purchase survey among general shoppers in 2 supermarkets. Setting: Singapore, a country whose population is exposed to a wide range of food labeling formats because of the import-dependent nature…

  13. How to identify food deserts: measuring physical and economic access to supermarkets in King County, Washington.

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    Jiao, Junfeng; Moudon, Anne V; Ulmer, Jared; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-10-01

    We explored new ways to identify food deserts. We estimated physical and economic access to supermarkets for 5 low-income groups in Seattle-King County, Washington. We used geographic information system data to measure physical access: service areas around each supermarket were delineated by ability to walk, bicycle, ride transit, or drive within 10 minutes. We assessed economic access by stratifying supermarkets into low, medium, and high cost. Combining income and access criteria generated multiple ways to estimate food deserts. The 5 low-income group definitions yielded total vulnerable populations ranging from 4% to 33% of the county's population. Almost all of the vulnerable populations lived within a 10-minute drive or bus ride of a low- or medium-cost supermarket. Yet at most 34% of the vulnerable populations could walk to any supermarket, and as few as 3% could walk to a low-cost supermarket. The criteria used to define low-income status and access to supermarkets greatly affect estimates of populations living in food deserts. Measures of access to food must include travel duration and mode and supermarket food costs.

  14. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.......43;CI: 1.06-1.93) intake, attending schools with low concentration of supermarkets. Children from low social class families attending schools with high fast food outlet and low supermarket concentration had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.79;CI: 0.99-3.21) and fruit (OR = 1.59; CI: 1...

  15. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

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    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  16. Improving demand response potential of a supermarket refrigeration system: A food temperature estimation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    a method for estimating food temperature based on measurements of evaporator expansion valve opening degree. This method requires no additional hardware or system modeling. We demonstrate the estimation method on a real supermarket display case and the applicability of knowing food temperature is shown...... through tests on a full scale supermarket refrigeration system made available by Danfoss A/S. The conducted application test shows that feedback based on food temperature can increase the demand flexibility during a step by approx. 60 % the first 70 minutes and up to 100%over the first 150 minutes...... - thereby strengthening the demand response potential of supermarket refrigeration systems....

  17. The impact of a supermarket nutrition rating system on purchases of nutritious and less nutritious foods.

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    Cawley, John; Sweeney, Matthew J; Sobal, Jeffery; Just, David R; Kaiser, Harry M; Schulze, William D; Wethington, Elaine; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of a nutrition rating system on consumers' food purchases in supermarkets. Aggregate sales data for 102 categories of food (over 60 000 brands) on a weekly basis for 2005-2007 from a supermarket chain of over 150 stores are analysed. Change in weekly sales of nutritious and less nutritious foods, after the introduction of a nutrition rating system on store shelves, is calculated, controlling for seasonality and time trends in sales. One hundred and sixty-eight supermarket stores in the north-east USA, from January 2005 to December 2007. Consumers purchasing goods at the supermarket chain during the study period. After the introduction of the nutrition ratings, overall weekly food sales declined by an average of 3637 units per category (95 % CI -5961, -1313; Psystems, researchers should focus on the entire market basket, not just sales of nutritious foods.

  18. Where do food desert residents buy most of their junk food? Supermarkets.

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    Vaughan, Christine A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald P; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-10-01

    To examine where residents in an area with limited access to healthy foods (an urban food desert) purchased healthier and less healthy foods. Food shopping receipts were collected over a one-week period in 2013. These were analysed to describe where residents shopped for food and what types of food they bought. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy foods in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Two hundred and ninety-three households in which the primary food shoppers were predominantly female (77·8 %) and non-Hispanic black (91·1 %) adults. Full-service supermarkets were by far the most common food retail outlet from which food receipts were returned and accounted for a much larger proportion (57·4 %) of food and beverage expenditures, both healthy and unhealthy, than other food retail outlets. Although patronized less frequently, convenience stores were notable purveyors of unhealthy foods. Findings highlight the need to implement policies that can help to decrease unhealthy food purchases in full-service supermarkets and convenience stores and increase healthy food purchases in convenience stores.

  19. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia

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    Helen Trevena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011–2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1 all products in 2013; (2 products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3 products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%–32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%–23% lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001. For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%–3% mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73. New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02. Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  20. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia.

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    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Haskelberg, Hila; Wu, Jason H Y

    2015-08-21

    Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011-2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) all products in 2013; (2) products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3) products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%-32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%-23%) lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001). For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%-3%) mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73). New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02). Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  1. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

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    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:  1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

  2. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

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    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  3. [Social inequities and food: an ecological study of the food sales of a supermarket chain].

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    Gutiérrez Sigler, D; Márquez Calderón, S; Colomer Revuelta, C

    1994-01-01

    With the aim of finding out the pattern of food consumption in different socioeconomic areas of the city of Valencia and examining if the sales data from the supermarkets make up an information source which is capable of detecting inequalities and revealing trends, the sales figures of a chain of supermarkets, referring to 10 food products during 1989 and 1990 were studied. Foods were considered as "healthier" (fruit, vegetables, skimmed milk, fresh fish and chicken), "less healthy" (pork, butter and cakes) and foods indicative of a "new style of eating" (pre-cooked frozen foods and frozen food products). The ratio of between "healthier" food sales and sales of "less healthy" foods is directly related to the socio-economic level of the population. The higher the socioeconomic level, the higher, the ratio of proportions of "healthier" and less healthy" food. This pattern was similar for 1989 (2.78 in lower level districts and 3.32 in higher level districts, and in 1990 (2.92 and 4.09 respectively) (p < 0.01). From these results, we deduce the need for developing different activities for the promotion of healthy foods according to social groups.

  4. The Nutritional Profile of Baby and Toddler Food Products Sold in Australian Supermarkets.

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    Dunford, E; Louie, J C Y; Byrne, R; Walker, K Z; Flood, V M

    2015-12-01

    To examine the nutritional profile of baby and toddler foods sold in Australia. Nutrient information for baby and toddler foods available at Australian supermarkets was collected between Auguset and December 2013. Levels of declared energy, total fat, saturated fat, total sugar, sodium and estimated added sugar were examined, as well as the presence of additional micronutrients on the label. The Health Star Rating (HSR) system was used to determine nutritional quality. The range of products on offer was also examined by product type and by the age category for which the product was marketed. Of the 309 products included, 29% were fortified. On a per 100 g basis, these 309 products provided a mean (±SD) of 476 ± 486 kJ, 1.6 ± 2.4 g total fat, 10.7 ± 12.2 g total sugar, 2.7 ± 7.4 g added sugar, and 33.5 ± 66.5 mg sodium. Fruit-based products or products with fruit listed as an ingredient (58%) were the predominant product type. On the nutrition label, 42% displayed at least one additional micronutrient while 37% did not display saturated fat. The most common HSR was four stars (45%) and 6+ months was the most commonly identified targeted age group (36%). The majority of baby and toddler foods sold in Australian supermarkets are ready-made fruit-based products aimed at children under 12 months of age. Baby and toddler foods are overlooked in public policy discussions pertaining to population nutrient intake but their relatively high sugar content deriving from fruits requires close attention to ensure these foods do not replace other more nutrient dense foods, given children have an innate preference for sweet tastes.

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Energy Cost, and Nutrient Content of Supermarket Food Purchases

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    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Johnson, Tricia J.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Whited, Matthew C.; Ventrelle, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. Purpose To investigate relationships of SES with the energy cost ($/1000 kcal) and nutrient content of freely chosen supermarket purchases. Methods Supermarket shoppers (n=69) were recruited at a Phoenix AZ supermarket in 2009. The energy cost and nutrient content of participants’ purchases were calculated from photographs of food packaging and nutrition labels using dietary analysis software. Data were analyzed in 2010–2011. Results Two SES indicators, education and household income as a percentage of the federal poverty guideline (FPG), were associated with the energy cost of purchased foods. Adjusting for covariates, the amount spent on 1000 kcal of food was $0.26 greater for every multiple of the FPG, and those with a baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degree spent an additional $1.05 for every 1000 kcal of food compared to those with no college education. Lower energy cost was associated with higher total fat and less protein, dietary fiber, and vegetables per 1000 kcal purchased. Conclusions Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. PMID:22424253

  6. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  7. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    -economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were......Purpose: To investigate whether fast food outlets and supermarkets are socially patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast food outlets, supermarkets, and neighborhood level socio...... regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure...

  8. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  9. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy).

  10. Using a 3D Virtual Supermarket to Measure Food Purchase Behavior: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hendrika Margaretha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized controlled trials on these kinds of interventions are lacking. The Virtual Supermarket is a 3-dimensional computerized research environment designed to enable experimental studies in a supermarket setting without the complexity or costs normally associated with undertaking such research. Objective The primary objective was to validate the Virtual Supermarket by comparing virtual and real-life food purchasing behavior. A secondary objective was to obtain participant feedback on perceived sense of “presence” (the subjective experience of being in one place or environment even if physically located in another) in the Virtual Supermarket. Methods Eligible main household shoppers (New Zealand adults aged ≥18 years) were asked to conduct 3 shopping occasions in the Virtual Supermarket over 3 consecutive weeks, complete the validated Presence Questionnaire Items Stems, and collect their real supermarket grocery till receipts for that same period. Proportional expenditure (NZ$) and the proportion of products purchased over 18 major food groups were compared between the virtual and real supermarkets. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Results A total of 123 participants consented to take part in the study. In total, 69.9% (86/123) completed 1 shop in the Virtual Supermarket, 64.2% (79/123) completed 2 shops, 60.2% (74/123) completed 3 shops, and 48.8% (60/123) returned their real supermarket till receipts. The 4 food groups with the highest relative expenditures were the same for the virtual and real supermarkets: fresh fruit and vegetables (virtual estimate: 14.3%; real: 17.4%), bread and bakery (virtual: 10.0%; real: 8.2%), dairy (virtual: 19.1%; real

  11. Strategies to promote healthier food purchases: a pilot supermarket intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Blakely, Tony; Wall, Joanne; Rodgers, Anthony; Jiang, Yannan; Wilton, Jenny

    2007-06-01

    To pilot the design and methodology for a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two interventions to promote healthier food purchasing: culturally appropriate nutrition education and price discounts. A 12-week, single-blind, pilot RCT. Effects on food purchases were measured using individualised electronic shopping data ('Shop 'N Go' system). Partial data were also collected on food expenditure at other (non-supermarket) retail outlets. A supermarket in Wellington, New Zealand. Eligible customers were those who were the main household shoppers, shopped mainly at the participating store, and were registered to use the Shop 'N Go system. Ninety-seven supermarket customers (72% women; age 40 +/- 9.6 years, mean +/- standard deviation) were randomised to one of four intervention groups: price discounts, nutrition education, a combination of price discounts and nutrition education, or control (no intervention). There was a 98% follow-up rate of participants, with 85% of all reported supermarket purchases being captured via the electronic data collection system. The pilot did, however, demonstrate difficulty recruiting Maori, Pacific and low-income shoppers using the electronic register and mail-out. This pilot study showed that electronic sales data capture is a viable way to measure effects of study interventions on food purchases in supermarkets, and points to the feasibility of conducting a large-scale RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of price discounts and nutrition education. Recruitment strategies will, however, need to be modified for the main trial in order to ensure inclusion of all ethnic and socio-economic groups.

  12. Changes in Diet after Introduction of a Full Service Supermarket in a Food Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A.; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hunter, Gerald P.; Flórez, Karen R.; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A.; Sloan, Jennifer C.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts (areas with limited access to healthy foods) has been proposed as an important policy strategy to confront inequalities in healthy food access. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we enrolled n=1,372 randomly selected households from two comparable neighborhoods, one of which received a full-service supermarket in 2013. We looked at the impact on residents’ diet, perceived access to healthy foods and satisfaction with one’s neighborhood as a place to live. Baseline data was collected in 2011, and follow-up in 2014. Relative to the comparison neighborhood, we found a net positive change in the intervention neighborhood in overall dietary quality, total kilocalories, added sugars, and solid fats, alcohol and added sugars (SoFAAS). However, we did not observe differential improvement in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption or body mass index (BMI). Regular users of the new supermarket had significantly improved perceived access to healthy foods compared to others, but use of the new supermarket was not related to dietary changes or to improvements with neighborhood satisfaction. Our study is the first to our knowledge to have found significant improvements in multiple dietary outcomes and neighborhood satisfaction among residents of a food desert, following the opening of a supermarket. Our study supports the Healthy Food Financing Initiative and other policies that incentivize food retail venues to locate in food deserts, but we recommend further efforts proceed with caution until research has clarified the mechanisms through which diet is improved and associations with weight status/obesity have been observed. PMID:26526243

  13. A point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person supermarket education impacts healthy food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase (POP) intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention to usual care (no treatment). Setting A supermarket in a socioeconomically diverse region of Phoenix, Arizona. Participants One-hundred fifty-three adult shoppers were recruited on-site. Intervention The intervention consisted of brief shopping education by a nutrition educator and an explanation and promotion of a supermarket POP healthy shopping program that included posted shelf signs identifying healthy foods, sample shopping lists, tips, and signage. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included purchases of total, saturated, and trans fat (g/1000 kcals), and fruits, vegetables, and dark green and bright yellow vegetables (servings/1000 kcals) derived through nutritional analysis of participant shopping baskets. Analysis Analysis of covariance compared the intervention and control groups on food purchasing patterns while adjusting for household income. Results The intervention resulted in greater purchasing of fruit and green and yellow vegetables. No other group differences were observed. Conclusions and Implications Long-term evaluations of supermarket interventions should be conducted to improve the evidence base, and to determine the potential for impact on food choices associated with decreased chronic disease. PMID:22104016

  14. Research on Performance Evaluation of Integrates with Agriculture Food Base and Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of integrate with agriculture food base and supermarket is a research hotspot and difficulty in the theory and practice research of agriculture super-docking mode. The study presents an evaluation indicator system and a fuzzy neural network evaluation algorithm for evaluating performance of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket. Firstly, a performance evaluation indicator system is designed through analyzing the similarities of general performance evaluation and the specialties of the evaluation of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket; Secondly, the study integrates the advantages of fuzzy evaluation methods and BP neural network evaluation methods, designs a new algorithm structure, selects different learning methods and analyzes the algorithm performance, then presents a new fuzzy neural network evaluation algorithm; Finally, three integrates are taken for experimental examples and the results illustrate that the improved algorithm can be used for evaluating the performance of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket feasibly and effectively and can provide reference for evaluating other complex systems.

  15. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...

  16. The virtual supermarket: an innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Scarpa, Michael; Lentz, Daisy; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2011-07-25

    Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL

  17. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The

  18. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhuis Ingrid HM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66 revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food

  19. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...... is demonstrated. We also show that by utilizing the relatively slow dynamics of the food temperature, compared with the air temperature, we are able to further lower both the energy consumption and the peak value of power requirement. The Pareto optimal curve is found by off-line optimization....

  20. Modeling and performance analyses of evaporators in frozen-food supermarket display cabinets at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getu, H.M.; Bansal, P.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents modeling and experimental analyses of evaporators in 'in situ' frozen-food display cabinets at low temperatures in the supermarket industry. Extensive experiments were conducted to measure store and display cabinet relative humidities and temperatures, and pressures, temperatures and mass flow rates of the refrigerant. The mathematical model adopts various empirical correlations of heat transfer coefficients and frost properties in a fin-tube heat exchanger in order to investigate the influence of indoor conditions on the performance of the display cabinets. The model is validated with the experimental data of 'in situ' cabinets. The model would be a good guide tool to the design engineers to evaluate the performance of supermarket display cabinet heat exchangers under various store conditions. (author)

  1. Barriers experienced in the supermarket by parents and children during family food buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Brunsø, Karen

    Children today are gaining an increasing level of influence in family decision-making during food buying, and they assist their parents in carrying out various tasks during food buying. However, involving several active participants in decision-making is not always a walk in the park. The purpose...... of this paper is to broaden up the understanding of barriers experienced in the interaction between parents and children during family food buying. Assumptions are explored in a qualitative empirical study of 12 Danish tweens and their parents combining participant observation with semi-structured interviews....... The primary findings are that the families experience various barriers during their food buying in supermarkets complicating healthy food choices and making food shopping time consuming in a busy everyday schedule. Implications are that families should work as a team instead of individuals by helping each...

  2. Traceability in the food animal industry and supermarket chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, R G

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes.

  3. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Jason

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario by using a geographic information system (GIS to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  4. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-04-18

    A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  5. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  6. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Trevena, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Stuart-Smith, Wendy; Faulkner-Hogg, Kim; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2015-08-14

    Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of GF and non-GF foods in core food groups, and a wide range of discretionary products in Australian supermarkets. Nutritional information on the Nutrition Information Panel was systematically obtained from all packaged foods at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia in 2013. Food products were classified as GF if a GF declaration appeared anywhere on the product packaging, or non-GF if they contained gluten, wheat, rye, triticale, barley, oats or spelt. The primary outcome was the 'Health Star Rating' (HSR: lowest score 0.5; optimal score 5), a nutrient profiling scheme endorsed by the Australian Government. Differences in the content of individual nutrients were explored in secondary analyses. A total of 3213 food products across ten food categories were included. On average, GF plain dry pasta scored nearly 0.5 stars less (Pgluten intolerance.

  7. Supermarket Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  8. Overweight and obesity: Can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Schechter, Clyde B.; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Maantay, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction and consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities. PMID:23719294

  9. Developing and Implementing "Waupaca Eating Smart": A Restaurant and Supermarket Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating Through Changes in the Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaron, Anne L; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Riggall, Ann Josie; Meinen, Amy; Hall, Beverly; Nieto, F Javier; Nitzke, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Restaurants and food stores are suitable settings for healthy eating interventions. A community-academic partnership developed and implemented "Waupaca Eating Smart" (WES), a healthy eating program in restaurants and supermarkets of a rural, Midwest community. Previous interventions targeted either restaurants or small food stores nearly all in urban areas. Intervention design and implementation is rarely documented, making replication difficult for interested researchers and communities. In this article, we report the activities we undertook to develop and implement WES. Working with a local nutrition and activity coalition, we used evidence-based strategies guided by the social ecological model and social marketing principles to inform the content of WES. Formative assessment included a review of the literature, statewide key informant interviews and focus groups with restaurant and food store operators and patrons, a local community survey, and interviews with prospective WES businesses. WES was implemented in seven restaurants and two supermarkets and evaluated for feasibility and acceptance using surveys and direct observation of WES implementation. Prior to this intervention, only one of seven restaurants had three or more meals that met WES nutrition criteria. By the end of the program, 38 meals were labeled and promoted to restaurant customers, and the team had staffed four side salad taste tests for supermarket customers. Four and 10 months after intervention launch, the majority of the program's strategies were observed in participating outlets, suggesting that these program's strategies are feasible and can be sustained. Operators reported strong satisfaction overall. A combined restaurant- and supermarket-based healthy eating intervention is feasible and positively valued in rural communities. Further research is needed to better understand how to foster sustainability of these interventions and their impact on customer food choices. © 2015 Society for

  10. Total energy requirements of shopping for food. [Supermarkets, Grocery Stores, Dairies, Butcheries, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.G.; Earle, M.D.

    1982-12-01

    This survey investigated the total energy requirements of shopping for food in New Zealand. It is part of the Food Technology Research Centre's ongoing research into total energy use in the New Zealand food system. A sample survey of over 700 customers of 7 selected shops in Palmerston North was undertaken. An examination of the sample parameters and other factors indicate that the Palmerston North sample is probably representative of the national situation. However, there may be some need to verify this with other surveys particularly of large supermarkets. The primary objective of this survey was to determine representative energy intensities (MJ of energy per kilogram of food purchased) for the shopping step of the food chain. However, in the process much data were generated which may be of use and interest to a wider audience. These data include analysis of round trip distance, trip purpose, energy use per trip, characteristics of the shopping population, total transport cost of shopping, and purchase details. The mean energy intensity was found to be 13.21 MJ/kg (+- 7.7%). This energy intensity varied according to the shop type: Supermarkets (12.79 MJ/kg), Groceries (12.87 MJ/kg), Dairies (16.36 MJ/kg), Butcheries (16.35 MJ/kg) and Green groceries (7.17 MJ/kg). These energy intensities were found to very significantly according to the customer's sex and the shopping day. The total energy requirements of shopping for food in New Zealand were estimated to be 11.58 PJ/yr. Indirect energy requirements (energy embodied in the vehicles and transport infrastructures) were found to account for 63% of this total. The direct energy requirements (fuel) were estimated to be 4.3 PJ/yr ($70 million on 15 November 1981 costings).

  11. Foods advertised in US weekly supermarket sales circulars over one year: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Lisa; Payne, Collin R; Whigham, Leah D; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela J; Hoverson, Bonita S; Kranz, Sibylle

    2014-09-23

    The nutritional content of Americans' shopping carts is suboptimal despite federal dietary guidance, in this case, the MyPlate consumer icon which displays desired proportions of vegetables, fruits, dairy, grains and protein foods for consumption. Consumers mention print advertising-such as weekly sales circulars-frequently as influencing their grocery shopping decisions. To examine and describe the relative proportions of advertised foods aggregated into the MyPlate food grouping system, a content analysis of 9 209 foods advertised in 52 weekly supermarket newspaper sales inserts in 2009 from a local grocery chain was conducted in a Midwestern community. Overall, the protein foods group was most often represented in sales circulars (25% of total items), followed by grains (18%); dairy (10%); vegetables (8%) and fruits (7%). Less than 3% of sales advertisements were for dark green and red & orange vegetables. Over twice as much whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice was advertised (70% vs. 30%, respectively; P < 0.001). Significantly fewer protein foods and more grains than expected were advertised in the fall, and slightly more dark green vegetables were advertised in winter and spring than in summer and fall (P = 0.05). The average American diet, including underconsumption of fruits and vegetables but overconsumption of protein foods, was reflected in the relative frequency of food groups advertised in weekly sales circulars. Modifying sales circulars to represent healthier food groups may preserve retail profits (considering these groups' higher profit margin) while promoting adherence to federal dietary guidance.

  12. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Powell, Lisa M; Due, Pernille

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark. The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model. In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

  13. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jason Y; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1) GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2) the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3) the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2), 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9), 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  14. ASSESSING SUPERMARKET FOOD SHOPPER REACTION TO HORSEMEAT SCANDAL IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Amofa Yamoah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer reaction to food scares has been given considerable research attention but insights into specific shopper segments’ reactions to food scares, especially those that do not pose direct health risk to the public is limited. This paper examines how different life-stage shopper segments reacted to the horsemeat scandal in the UK. This paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million beef burger shoppers to establish the effect of the horsemeat scandal on retail sales value and volume as well as the rate of withdrawal of life-stage shopper segments from the affected products. The results show consistent weekly decline in retail sales value and volume across all life-stage segments over six consecutive weeks after the first horsemeat scandal announcement. Young families, pensioners and young adults segments withdrew from affected products in accordance with their typical perception and attitudes to risk. Contrary to expectation older adults withdrew faster than young families from the affected products. The findings of the study offer useful insights and strategic direction for managers working to ensure that food scares are managed to the benefit of the public and the food industry.

  15. Buying Food on Sale: A Mixed Methods Study With Shoppers at an Urban Supermarket, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Stites, Shana D.; Singletary, S. Brook; Cooblall, Clarissa; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The obesity epidemic has drawn attention to food marketing practices that may increase the likelihood of caloric overconsumption and weight gain. We explored the associations of discounted prices on supermarket purchases of selected high-calorie foods (HCF) and more healthful, low-calorie foods (LCF) by a demographic group at high risk of obesity. Methods Our mixed methods design used electronic supermarket purchase data from 82 low-income (primarily African American female) shoppers for households with children and qualitative data from focus groups with demographically similar shoppers. Results In analyses of 6,493 food purchase transactions over 65 weeks, the odds of buying foods on sale versus at full price were higher for grain-based snacks, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratios: 6.6, 5.9, and 2.6, respectively; all P < .001) but not for savory snacks. The odds of buying foods on sale versus full price were not higher for any of any of the LCF (P ≥ .07). Without controlling for quantities purchased, we found that spending increased as percentage saved from the full price increased for all HCF and for fruits and vegetables (P ≤ .002). Focus group participants emphasized the lure of sale items and took advantage of sales to stock up. Conclusion Strategies that shift supermarket sales promotions from price reductions for HCF to price reductions for LCF might help prevent obesity by decreasing purchases of HCF. PMID:25188276

  16. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High tax on high energy dense foods and its effects on the purchase of calories in a supermarket. An experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Havermans, Remco C; Giesen, Janneke C A H; Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined whether a high tax on high calorie dense foods effectively reduces the purchased calories of high energy dense foods in a web based supermarket, and whether this effect is moderated by budget and weight status. 306 participants purchased groceries in a web based supermarket, with an individualized budget based on what they normally spend. Results showed that relative to the no tax condition, the participants in the tax condition bought less calories. The main reduction was found in high energy dense products and in calories from carbohydrates, but not in calories from fat. BMI and budget did not influence the effectiveness of the tax. The reduction in calories occurred regardless of budget or BMI implying that a food tax may be a beneficial tool, along with other measures, in promoting a diet with fewer calories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Different Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何峣杰

    2012-01-01

    There are three big supermarkets in our city. They are Better Life St, permarket, Wangli Supermarket and Jiahui Supermarket. We can buy all kinds of things in the supermarkets. We can buy skirts. T-shirts, fried chicken, bread, backpack and so on.

  19. A Mixed-Method Assessment of a New Supermarket in a Food Desert: Contributions to Everyday Life and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Initiatives to build supermarkets in low-income areas with relatively poor access to large food retailers ("food deserts") have been implemented at all levels of government, although evaluative studies have not found these projects to improve diet or weight status for shoppers. Though known to be influential, existing evaluations have neglected in-store social dynamics and shopper behaviors. Surveys and walking interviews were used with shoppers (n = 32) at a supermarket developed through the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative in Philadelphia, PA. Key informant interviews with stakeholders in the supermarket's development and operations provided additional context to these shopper experiences. Data were collected in July and September 2014 and qualitatively analyzed in NVivo 10.0. Participants described how the retailer helped them adapt or cope with difficult shopping routines and how it presented a reliable high-quality option (in terms of cleanliness, orderliness, and social atmosphere) in contrast to other neighborhood retailers. Health concerns were also identified, especially among those managing chronic disease for themselves or a family member. These issues underscored multiple points of challenge required to adjust shopping and eating behavior. In-store supports that reflect these challenges are warranted to more fully address food deserts and reduce health disparities.

  20. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Buszkiewicz, James; Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Long, Mark; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-09

    Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results: There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (-$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (-$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions: There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance.

  1. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis identifies an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo infection associated with a supermarket hot food outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, E J; Hampton, M D; Ward, L R; Richardson, I R; Lanser, S; Greener, T

    1999-09-01

    In February 1996 Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo infection in a patient in the North Tyneside area was attributed to consumption of cooked chicken bought from a supermarket hot food outlet. Isolates from the patient, leftover food, and environmental samples were indistinguishable by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE also demonstrated that an outbreak of infection with S. Montevideo associated with the hot food outlet had occurred in late 1995 and early 1996. This study shows the importance of microbial strain discrimination in outbreak investigations and illustrates the value of close liaison between microbiologists, epidemiologists, and environmental health officers in the control of salmonella outbreaks.

  2. Pester power: snackfoods displayed at supermarket checkouts in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Parkinson, Kristiina

    2006-08-01

    To establish the amount and accessibility of snack food displayed at supermarket checkouts located in Melbourne, Australia. Observational survey of 24 randomly selected supermarkets situated within a 20-kilometre radius of Melbourne's General Post Office. Individual checkouts within each store (n=257) were observed to determine the types of items that were displayed, how they were promoted, and whether they were within the reach of children. All supermarkets surveyed displayed food products at their checkouts, with most checkouts displaying chocolate (87%), gum (81%) and sweets (80%). Only 7% of checkouts had their display of foods or drinks out of the reach of children. Foods displayed at supermarket checkouts in Melbourne are predominantly energy-dense confectionery items. They are often promoted in a way that targets children and encourages parents to impulse buy for their children.

  3. Healthy or Unhealthy on Sale? A cross-sectional study on the proportion of healthy and unhealthy foods promoted through flyer advertising by supermarkets in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, Eva A H; Waterlander, Wilma E; Kroeze, Willemieke; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2015-05-06

    It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the proportions of healthy and unhealthy foods on promotion in Dutch supermarket flyers. Supermarket food promotions were assessed using the weekly promotional flyers of four major Dutch supermarkets over a period of eight weeks. All promotions were evaluated for healthiness, price discount, minimum purchase amount, product category and promotion type. The level of healthiness consists of a 'healthy' group; products which have a positive effect on preventing chronic diseases and can be eaten every day. The 'unhealthy' group contain products which have adverse effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. Data were analysed using ANOVA, independent t-tests and chi-square tests. A total of 1,495 promotions were included in this study. There were more promotions in the unhealthy category; 70% of promotions were categorised as unhealthy. The price discount was greater for the healthy promotions (mean 29.5%, SD 12.1) than for the two categories of unhealthy promotions (23.7%, SD 10.8; 25.4%, SD 10.5, respectively), a tendency which was mainly due to discounts in the fruit and vegetables category. To obtain the advertised discount, a significantly higher number of products had to be purchased in the unhealthy category than in the healthier categories. Promotions in the category meat, poultry and fish category occurred frequently. Compared to traditional supermarkets, discounter supermarkets had higher percentages of unhealthy food discounts, lower discount levels and lower minimum purchase amounts. This research confirmed that unhealthy foods are more frequently advertised than healthier foods in Dutch supermarket flyers. Moreover, consumers had to buy more products to

  4. Offering within-category food swaps to reduce energy density of food purchases: a study using an experimental online supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwood, Suzanna E; Ahern, Amy L; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-06-25

    Swaps are often used to encourage healthier food choices, but there is little evidence of their effectiveness. The current study assessed the impact of offering swaps on groceries purchased within a bespoke online supermarket; specifically the objective was to measure the impact on energy density (ED) of food purchases following the offer of lower ED alternatives (a) at point of selection or at checkout, and (b) with or without explicit consent to receive swap prompts. Participants were asked to complete a 12-item shopping task within an online shopping platform, developed for studying food purchasing. 1610 adults were randomly assigned to a no swap control condition or to one of four interventions: consented swaps at selection; consented swaps at checkout; imposed swaps at selection; or imposed swaps at checkout. Each swap presented two lower ED options from the same category as the participant's chosen food. Swap acceptance rate and purchased food ED were the primary outcomes. Of the mean 12.36 (SD 1.26) foods purchased, intervention participants were offered a mean of 4.1 (SD 1.68) swaps, with the potential to reduce the ED of purchased food (effect (95% CI): -83 kJ/100 g (-110 - -56), p = <0.0001). A median of one swap (IQR 0 to 2) was accepted, not significantly reducing the purchased food ED (effect (95% CI): -24 kJ/100 g (4 - -52), p = 0.094). More swaps were accepted when offered at selection than at checkout (OR (95% CI) = 1.224 (1.11 - 1.35), p < 0.0001), but no differences were seen with consent. Purchased food ED was unaffected by point of swap or consent, but reduced with number of swaps accepted (effect per swap (95% CI) = -24 kJ/100 g (-35 - -14), p < 0.0001). Within category swaps did not reduce the ED of food purchases reflecting the observation that the use of swaps within an on-line shopping platform offered small potential gains in ED and a minority was accepted.

  5. Detection of Mycobacteria by Culture and DNA-Based Methods in Animal-Derived Food Products Purchased at Spanish Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Tello, Maitane; Elguezabal, Natalia; Juste, Ramón A; Garrido, Joseba M

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria include obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause significant human and animal disease. The burden of tuberculosis has been largely reduced in developed territories but remains a huge problem worldwide. The significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing considerably, especially in developed regions with higher life expectancy and more therapy-related immunosuppressed individuals. Due to their robustness mycobacteria can contaminate animal products by direct transmission from infected individuals or by environmental contamination during processing. The situation at market level is poorly known. Most studies analyzing commercially available foods are limited to a small or local scale and mainly focused on a particular mycobacterial species. There is a need to investigate if animal products that have passed the established controls to be for sale at main supermarkets could represent a route of contact with any mycobacteria. Thus, our goal was to study the prevalence of mycobacteria in these foods to assess if this could represent a source of human exposure. Five stores from the main supermarket chains in Spain were selected. 138 dairy and 119 meat products were purchased. All were processed using culture and multiplex real-time PCR methods. Additional molecular methods were used to specifically identify any positive result. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (2), M. avium subsp. avium (1), and M. fortuitum (1) were isolated from powdered infant formula and ground beef, chicken sausage, and mortadella cold cut, respectively. Mycobacterial DNA (M. avium, M. tuberculosis complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria) was detected in 15% of dairy products and 2% of meat products. These results show that the prevalence of viable mycobacteria in foods of animal origin obtained at the supermarket was not substantial although a considerable proportion of them contained mycobacterial DNA. Contact with mycobacteria through this route could be

  6. Detection of Mycobacteria by Culture and DNA-Based Methods in Animal-Derived Food Products Purchased at Spanish Supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker A. Sevilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria include obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause significant human and animal disease. The burden of tuberculosis has been largely reduced in developed territories but remains a huge problem worldwide. The significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing considerably, especially in developed regions with higher life expectancy and more therapy-related immunosuppressed individuals. Due to their robustness mycobacteria can contaminate animal products by direct transmission from infected individuals or by environmental contamination during processing. The situation at market level is poorly known. Most studies analyzing commercially available foods are limited to a small or local scale and mainly focused on a particular mycobacterial species. There is a need to investigate if animal products that have passed the established controls to be for sale at main supermarkets could represent a route of contact with any mycobacteria. Thus, our goal was to study the prevalence of mycobacteria in these foods to assess if this could represent a source of human exposure. Five stores from the main supermarket chains in Spain were selected. 138 dairy and 119 meat products were purchased. All were processed using culture and multiplex real-time PCR methods. Additional molecular methods were used to specifically identify any positive result. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (2, M. avium subsp. avium (1, and M. fortuitum (1 were isolated from powdered infant formula and ground beef, chicken sausage, and mortadella cold cut, respectively. Mycobacterial DNA (M. avium, M. tuberculosis complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria was detected in 15% of dairy products and 2% of meat products. These results show that the prevalence of viable mycobacteria in foods of animal origin obtained at the supermarket was not substantial although a considerable proportion of them contained mycobacterial DNA. Contact with mycobacteria through this

  7. Observations of parent-child co-shoppers in supermarkets: children's involvement in food selections, parental yielding, and refusal strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Stang, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and suburban areas. Observations registered adult-child interactions over food selections, including parental yielding or refusal strategies and child engagement in shopping. Means and frequencies were calculated for food items considered. In 67 (50.4%) of the total 133 observations, a child initiated a request. Half (55.2%) of the requests were for sweets or snacks. Nearly half (47.8%) of adults yielded to the child's request. Brands and marketing techniques appeared to be a factor in 28.6% of selections. The most frequent adult refusals either provided an explanation or ignored the request. Adults yield to children's requests for sweets and snacks nearly as often as they refuse them. However, effective refusal strategies are used by many adults. Opportunities exist in the grocery store for adults to reinforce young children's interest in food and nutrition.

  8. Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinen, Amy M.; Nitzke, Susan A.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. Methods We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. Results We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. Conclusion More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed. PMID:23578398

  9. Supermarket and grocery store-based interventions to promote healthful food choices and eating practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaron, Anne L; Meinen, Amy M; Nitzke, Susan A; Martinez-Donate, Ana P

    2013-04-11

    Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed.

  10. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf: protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ha ND

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the

  11. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  12. Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Don

    Activities which can be done with items purchased in supermarkets form the basis of this book. The activities are arranged into sections by type of item; breakfast foods; dried foods; soups; baking ingredients; gelatin; condiments; coffee; salad dressing; dairy products; meats; cleaning supplies; cookware; juices; picnic supplies; paper towels;…

  13. Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Don

    Activities which can be done with items purchased in supermarkets form the basis of this book. The activities are arranged into sections by type of item; breakfast foods; dried foods; soups; baking ingredients; gelatin; condiments; coffee; salad dressing; dairy products; meats; cleaning supplies; cookware; juices; picnic supplies; paper towels;…

  14. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  15. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets.

  16. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  17. Supermarket Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  18. Science in the Supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, John

    2000-01-01

    Outlines how a structured visit to the supermarket can support the scientific study of food and farming. Describes various ways that teachers can use an industry-produced curriculum package in conjunction with a field trip to the grocery store and classroom study. (WRM)

  19. Carbon footprint and energy use of food waste management options for fresh fruit and vegetables from supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Spångberg, Johanna

    2017-02-01

    Food waste is a problem with economic, environmental and social implications, making it both important and complex. Previous studies have addressed food waste management options at the less prioritised end of the waste hierarchy, but information on more prioritised levels is also needed when selecting the best available waste management options. Investigating the global warming potential and primary energy use of different waste management options offers a limited perspective, but is still important for validating impacts from the waste hierarchy in a local context. This study compared the effect on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use of different food waste management scenarios in the city of Växjö, Sweden. A life cycle assessment was performed for four waste management scenarios (incineration, anaerobic digestion, conversion and donation), using five food products (bananas, tomatoes, apples, oranges and sweet peppers) from the fresh fruit and vegetables department in two supermarkets as examples when treated as individual waste streams. For all five waste streams, the established waste hierarchy was a useful tool for prioritising the various options, since the re-use options (conversion and donation) reduced the greenhouse gas emissions and the primary energy use to a significantly higher degree than the energy recovery options (incineration and anaerobic digestion). The substitution of other products and services had a major impact on the results in all scenarios. Re-use scenarios where food was replaced therefore had much higher potential to reduce environmental impact than the energy recovery scenarios where fossil fuel was replaced. This is due to the high level of resources needed to produce food compared with production of fossil fuels, but also to fresh fruit and vegetables having a high water content, making them inefficient as energy carriers. Waste valorisation measures should therefore focus on directing each type of food to the waste

  20. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  1. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Gondim Calvasina; Cíntia Maria Torres Rocha Silva; Gilka de Albuquerque Forte Aguiar; Milena Rebouças Aguiar; Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Question...

  2. Barriers experienced in the supermarket by parents and children during family food buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Brunsø, Karen

    Children today are gaining an increasing level of influence in family decision-making during food buying, and they assist their parents in carrying out various tasks during food buying. However, involving several active participants in decision-making is not always a walk in the park. The purpose...... of this paper is to broaden up the understanding of barriers experienced in the interaction between parents and children during family food buying. Assumptions are explored in a qualitative empirical study of 12 Danish tweens and their parents combining participant observation with semi-structured interviews...... other to make healthy food choices; and that food marketing should further develop points-of-purchase and food packaging initiatives in order to lower the barriers experienced among families with children....

  3. Supermarket Giants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABEL DING

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the 15 months since Chen Yaochang (陈耀昌) became CEO of Wal-Mart China, the supermarket chain has gone into overdrive. Last year Wal-Mart opened 30 new stores on the Chinese mainland, almost double the rate of growth in 2006.

  4. Supermarket Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    As soon as they graduate from arm-length viewing in shopping-cart seats, children take off to adventure in aisles, touching just about everything. Kids will pocket fallen signs and lug unusual, empty shelves and packaging materials in hopes of taking them home. Kids recognize and compliment supermarket artists--stock clerks who create container…

  5. Validation of presence of supermarkets and fast-food outlets in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field.......We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field....

  6. Fresh produce consumption and the association between frequency of food shopping, car access, and distance to supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; O'Malley, Keelia; Luckett, Brian G; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet. Distance to a supermarket has been associated with the ability to access fresh produce. A randomly sampled telephone survey was conducted with the main shopper for 3000 households in New Orleans, Louisiana in 2011. Individuals were asked where and how often they shopped for groceries, frequency of consumption of a variety of foods, and whether they had access to a car. Bivariate models assessed the relationship between four outcomes: car access, distance to the store patronized by the respondent, number of monthly shopping trips, and daily servings of produce. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to distinguish direct and indirect effects. In bivariate models, car access was positively associated with number of shopping trips and produce consumption while distance was inversely associated with shopping trips. In SEM models, produce consumption was not associated with car access or distance, but to the number of monthly shopping trips. The frequency of shopping is associated with car access but a further distance deters it. Access to stores closer to the shopper may promote more frequent shopping and consumption of produce.

  7. Associations of Supermarket Characteristics with Weight Status and Body Fat: A Multilevel Analysis of Individuals within Supermarkets (RECORD Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Daniel, Mark; Zenk, Shannon N.; Kestens, Yan; Charreire, Hélène; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Weber, Christiane; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal; Merlo, Juan; Pannier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. Methods Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007–2008) were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location) where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. Results Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education), and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. Conclusion A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods. PMID:22496738

  8. Local basic food producer facing the challenge of working with multinational supermarket chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt BUCS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to outline the challenges faced by a local basic food producer in his battle to stay on the market. We will reveal the challenges he’s facing in his own production lines and also the way he has to adapt to the changing world of the multinational companies. We will present a short history of the founding and evolution of the company on the Romanian pastry food market pointing out the relevant events which have marked the company life during the years. We will also make a short review of the competition on the market of the pastry food products and we will present the marketing strategy and policies the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  9. Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = 0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

  10. Foods advertised in US weekly supermarket sales circulars over one year: a content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The MyPyramid food guidance system is an educational tool to assist Americans in following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Consumers mention print advertising—such as sales circulars—most frequently as influencing their grocery shopping decisions. The purpose of this study wa...

  11. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - 'silent' reformulation of retailer-brand food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-08-23

    Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks' sales data - enriched with data on products' energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between -3.1 and 7.5%. For all considered product reformulations, the reformulation had either positive, zero or very moderate negative effects on the sales value of the product category to which the reformulated product belonged. Based on these findings, 'silent' reformulation of retailer's private brands towards lower energy density seems to contribute to lowering the calorie intake in the population (although to a moderate extent) with moderate losses in retailer's sales revenues.

  12. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the pr

  13. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the

  14. Sustainability in the supermarket; Nachhaltigkeit im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Robert

    2010-11-15

    The food retailing discovered the sustainable construction. The prototypes of energy-saving supermarkets already are established and partly certified or decorated with prices. However, it will take time until the concepts are recognized.

  15. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-05-07

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.

  16. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gondim Calvasina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Questionnaires structuralized with questions on transgenic foods with consumers of a situated supermarket in noble area of the city of Fortaleza in the period of March of 2003 had been applied. Sixty consumers had participated of the study who at the moment were making purchases in the supermarket. It was presented the end of the interview, to each consumer, a list of products, removed of the guide of the transgenic food consumer and not transgenic, available on the Greenpeace. In each list, people would have to recognize or not products of its habitual consumption. It was verified that 50% of the interviewed people had higher level of school knowledge, with 63,3% answering that they knew what transgenic foods are; 53,3% always look at the label during the purchase, being that the majority (76,7% never saw, in the label, mention if the product is or not transgenic. It was evidenced, when interrogating on the possible risks to the health, that 33.3% find that they cause illnesses, however 51.7% would not be imported in consuming them. The opinion of the people regarding the release of these products is major (73,3% in agreeing that the Federal Government must wait more research. From the list of products presented to the interviewed, 60% had told that they consume enter 5 to 9 products. It was evidenced that still a lack knowledge exists on the presence of transgenic in industrialized products, as well as how much to the risks consuming it. It has necessity of

  17. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    F. R. Freitas-Rego; Pereira, M. G.; S. O. Loureiro; M. T. de Santana; R. G. Garrido; F. de S.R.G Garrido

    2007-01-01

    After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA) startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078). Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative ana...

  18. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  19. Total Energy. Sustainable cooling and heating in supermarkets; Total Energy. Duurzame koeling en verwarming supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    In 8 articles attention is paid to different aspects of cooling and heating in supermarkets: new coolants in the food retail sector, the climate plan of the Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), he Round Table discussion with between CBL and supermarket chains about research results, approach and targets, the use of CO2 refrigeration in supermarkets, leakage of coolants from refrigerators and freezers in Dutch supermarkets, the energy efficient and environment-friendly refrigerator and freezer equipment of the distribution centre of supermarket chain C1000 in Raalte, Netherlands, changes for cooling techniques in the EIA energy list (Energy investment deduction scheme) and finally education options for the refrigeration industry in the Netherlands. [Dutch] In 8 artikelen wordt aandacht geschonken aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. koeling en verwarming in supermarkten: nieuwe koelmiddelen in de 'food retail sector, het klimaatplan van de brancheorganisatie Centraal Bureau Levensmiddelenhandel (CBL), het Rondetafel overleg met de CBL en supermarktketens over onderzoeksresultaten, aanpak en doelen, de toepassing van CO2 koeling in supermarkten, lekkage van koelmiddelen uit koel- en vriesinstallaties in Nederlandse supermarkten, de energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke koel-vriesinstallatie van het distributiecentrum van de supermarktketen C1000 in Raalte, wijzigingen voor koeltechniek in de EIA energielijst (Energie Investeringsaftrek subsidieregeling), en tenslotte opleidingsmogelijkheden voor de koeltechnische sector in Nederland.

  20. The monitoring of mineral elements content in fruit purchased in supermarkets and food markets from Timisoara, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heghedűş-Mîndru Ramona Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating various fruit samples using atomic absorption spectrometry method, the content in mineral elements, macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg and microelements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd , Pb, Zn, Co and Ni. Fruit samples were taken from supermarkets (imported products and agricultural markets (domestic products in the city of Timisoara, Romania. The results obtained by chemical analysis were evaluated statistically based on method of main components analyzed. Major influence in the group had evidence if macroelements potassium and sodium, iron and manganese where microelements. The results were compared with results obtained by other researchers in the world. The results fall within the legal limits set by law.

  1. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. RESULTS: Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. CONCLUSION: A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  2. Real-life setting in data collection. The role of nutrition knowledge whilst selecting food products for weight management purposes in a supermarket environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Anna-Maria; Lapveteläinen, Anja T; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Kantanen, Teuvo T; Rissanen, Riitta L

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to explore the role of consumers' nutrition knowledge while selecting foods for weight management and the predominating food selection factors by combining quantitative and qualitative methodology in a real-life setting during two consecutive shopping tasks given in a supermarket. Thirty-six consumers were given a list of 11 products and asked to think-aloud while selecting (i) a product they usually buy and (ii) a product they use for weight management. After the consecutive shopping tasks, the subjects were interviewed and asked to answer a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were categorized by the difference in the energy contents of their selections and the food selection criteria. The energy contents of the selections for weight management were reduced by 10-46%. Ten subjects with the greatest difference between the energy contents of their selections had higher level in nutrition knowledge and mentioned less nutritional issues during the selections than ten subjects with the smallest such differences. Taste was an important product selection criterion by the former group, while the latter focused primarily on price. Nutrition knowledge is interrelated with personal factors and selection goals. It is not necessarily utilized consistently when selecting food products.

  3. Effects of Information Technology on Reducing Perishable Waste in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipkulei, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Leaders within retail supermarkets struggle to manage perishable waste that has been at least partly attributed to shoppers' desire to buy fresh food; however, supermarket managers do not always exhaust the stock of fresh food as scheduled. Based on disruptive innovation theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore employee use of an…

  4. Academics in the aisles: Establishing a university-supermarket partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy-Joe Milliron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the US is a serious public health problem. Supermarkets in the US are responding to the obesity epidemic by providing the unique asset of food, pharmacy and registered dietitians in one location to help grocery shoppers manage diseases and improve nutrition. Recent studies report that supermarket point-of-purchase interventions focusing on improving healthy food purchasing behaviours are feasible and potentially efficacious. We describe our experiences and lessons learned while developing a university-supermarket partnership and pilot testing a supermarket POP intervention (Healthstyles-Eat Smart© prior to its dissemination throughout the region. Barriers to and facilitators of developing university-supermarket partnerships and strategies to increase the feasibility of supermarket POP research are discussed. We conclude that strong university-supermarket partnerships are essential to conducting supermarket intervention research and are worth the time and effort it takes to build them. Keywords: Fruit and vegetable purchases, point-of-purchase intervention, supermarket partnership, shopping behaviour

  5. Developing GAP Training for Growers: Perspectives from Pennsylvania Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; LaBorde, Luke; Bagdonis, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Major supermarket chains increasingly are requiring their produce suppliers to provide evidence of compliance with on-farm food safety standards, known as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To develop a relevant GAP training curriculum that meets the needs of Pennsylvania growers, supermarkets that operate in the state were surveyed to determine…

  6. Introducing taxes, subsidies or both : The effects of various food pricing strategies in a web-based supermarket randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterlander, Wilma E.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Fiscal policies may form a solution in improving dietary intake. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of varying taxing and subsiding schemes to stimulate healthier food purchases. Methods. A randomized controlled trial with three levels of price reduction on healthy foods (no; 2

  7. Consumer perception and preference for suboptimal food under the emerging practice of expiration date based pricing in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    , individual preferences, and product-related factors. An online survey experiment among 842 Danish consumers realistically mimicked the current market context. Findings reveal that neither communicating budget saving or food waste avoidance nor the product being organic has an influence. However......, there is a gender effect when the practice is communicated as a food waste avoidance action. Consumer’s familiarity with the practice has a significant influence, as has the individual giving importance to the price criterion, age, and education. Food category differences are explored, showing that familiarity...

  8. Could targeted food taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver; Gray, Alastair; Rayner, Mike; Rutter, Harry

    2007-08-01

    To examine the effects on nutrition, health and expenditure of extending value added tax (VAT) to a wider range of foods in the UK. A model based on consumption data and elasticity values was constructed to predict the effects of extending VAT to certain categories of food. The resulting changes in demand, expenditure, nutrition and health were estimated. Three different tax regimens were examined: (1) taxing the principal sources of dietary saturated fat; (2) taxing foods defined as unhealthy by the SSCg3d nutrient scoring system; and (3) taxing foods in order to obtain the best health outcome. Consumption patterns and elasticity data were taken from the National Food Survey of Great Britain. The health effects of changing salt and fat intake were from previous meta-analyses. (1) Taxing only the principal sources of dietary saturated fat is unlikely to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease because the reduction in saturated fat is offset by a rise in salt consumption. (2) Taxing unhealthy foods, defined by SSCg3d score, might avert around 2,300 deaths per annum, primarily by reducing salt intake. (3) Taxing a wider range of foods could avert up to 3,200 cardiovascular deaths in the UK per annum (a 1.7% reduction). Taxing foodstuffs can have unpredictable health effects if cross-elasticities of demand are ignored. A carefully targeted fat tax could produce modest but meaningful changes in food consumption and a reduction in cardiovascular disease.

  9. Supermarket own brand foods: lower in energy cost but similar in nutritional quality to their market brand alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G P; Livingstone, M B E; McCaffrey, T A; Kerr, M A

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to compare the nutritional quality (NQ) and energy costs (EC) (£ MJ(-1) ) of own brand (OB) versus market brand (MB) foods in 2010 and 2012. A list of processed foods (n = 32) was identified based on the most frequently consumed foods in the UK. Total fat, saturated fat, sugars, salt and energy density (ED) (kJ g(-1) ) in 2010 and 2012 were compared for six OB and one MB version of each food using a NQ scoring method based on the Food Standards Agency's Traffic Light System (TLS). Additional information (fruit, vegetable and nut content; protein; fibre and sodium) was recorded in 2012, and NQ was assessed using the Food Standards Agency's nutrient profiling model (NPM). The EC of the food baskets (FB) was compared in 2010 and 2012. There were no differences in overall NQ between OB and MB FB in 2010 (TLS, P = 0.978) or 2012 (TLS, P = 0.840; NPM, P = 0.696). However, the MB FB was highest in EC in 2010 and 2012 (both P < 0.001). There was an inverse relationship between the ED and EC of the MB foods in 2010 (r = -0.484; P = 0.005) and 2012 (r = -0.452; P = 0.009). The MB FB was higher in EC than the OB FB in 2010 and 2012 but not superior in overall NQ based on both the TLS and NPM. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Exploring on Optimizing Direct Procurement of Fresh Food in Yonghui Chain Supermarket%优化永辉连锁超市生鲜食品直接采购模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菡卿

    2015-01-01

    Direct procurement of fresh food reforms traditional supply chain of fresh food, and it shortens the time of circulation, reduces procurement costs and ensures food safety. Therefore, research on direct procurement of fresh food is important to supermarkets and else. In this paper, the author analyzes the composition of Yonghui Supermarket's direct procurement of fresh food, expounds the key factors of its success are direct procurement mode, professional buyer team, procurement facilities, background supply chain and logistics center. On this basis, the author puts forward suggestions on optimizing direct procurement of fresh food of supermarket from the aspects of standardization, branding and processing chain of origin.%生鲜食品直接采购模式改革了传统生鲜食品的供应链,缩短了流通时间,降低了采购成本,保证了食品安全,研究生鲜食品直接采购模式对超市业等有着重要的意义。该文通过分析永辉超市生鲜食品采购模式的构成,阐明其成功因素为直接采购模式组合、专业采购团队、采购设备、后台供应链以及物流中心,并以此为基础,从标准化、品牌化、原产地加工链等方面对优化超市业生鲜食品采购模式提出了建议。

  11. An active defrost scheme with a balanced energy consumption and food quality loss in supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Bjarne Dindler

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces food quality as a new parameter, together with energy, to determine an optimal cooling time between defrost cycles. A new defrost-on-demand scheme is proposed. It uses a feedback loop consisting of on-line model updating and estimation as well as a model based optimization. ...

  12. An evaluation of the effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue targets on the sodium content of bread, breakfast cereals and processed meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Wu, Jason H Y

    2014-09-19

    The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats) to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar's tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) process.

  13. 福建省网上生鲜超市物流配送信息系统构建的研究%Construction of logistics delivery information system of Fujian online fresh food supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林贤福

    2012-01-01

    网络技术的不断进步,形成了一个庞大的虚拟性网络社会,深刻改变着消费的购买习惯,社会大部分人群开始使用并逐渐依赖网络购物.本文通过构建福建省网上生鲜超市物流配送信息系统,探索网上生鲜超市经营模式,有利于进一步提升我省传统生鲜超市的竞争力,推动福建电子商务产业链延伸和扩展.%With the development of network technology, a huge fictional network society has been formed. It has profoundly changed the consumers" purchasing habits. Most people begin to use and gradually rely on online shopping. By constructing a fresh supermarket logistics delivery information sys- tem in Fujian Province, this research explores the online supermarket business model. It is not only conducive to further enhance the competitiveness of the traditional fresh food supermarket in the province, but also promotes the Fujian industrial chain extension and expansion of e-commerce.

  14. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single

  15. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2010-10-08

    Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single measure of supermarket accessibility

  16. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  17. Circulation Loss Control of Fresh Foods in the Supermarkets%超市生鲜食品流通过程中的损耗控制与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢黎; 童光森; 罗文; 孟甜

    2015-01-01

    随着超市行业在国内的飞速发展,生鲜食品陆续进入各大连锁超市,而生鲜商品货架期非常短暂,这对超市的经营管理水准有更高要求。另外,生鲜商品从超市的采购、运输、加工、陈列等环节中损耗随时发生,损耗率的大小直接关系到超市经营利润的高低。因此,合理地降低生鲜食品损耗就显得尤为重要。文章在实践、调查研究的基础上,重点探讨生鲜食品在流通过程中产生损耗的原因,提出了控制连锁超市生鲜食品流通环节损耗的基本途径。%Fresh foods in supermarkets feature limited time on the shelf ,which poses a higher demand for their management.Besides,losses that might occur in the process of their purchasing ,transportation,processing and displaying exert an important influence on the profits of the supermarkets .This paper explores the reasons for the losses and suggests approaches to control fresh foods loss in circulation for chain supermarkets .

  18. Spatial Supermarket Redlining and Neighborhood Vulnerability: A Case Study of Hartford, Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengyao; Debarchana, Ghosh

    2016-02-01

    The disinclination of chain supermarkets to locate or pull out existing stores from impoverished neighborhoods is termed as "supermarket redlining". This paper attempts to map and understand the spatial effects of potential supermarket redlining on food vulnerability in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods of Hartford, Connecticut. Using a combination of statistical and spatial analysis functions, we first, built a Supermarket Redlining Index (SuRI) from five indicators such as sales volume, employee count, accepts food coupons from federally assisted programs, and size and population density of the service area to rank supermarkets in the order of their importance. Second, to understand the effect of redlining, a Supermarket Redlining Impact Model (SuRIM) was built with eleven indicators describing both the socioeconomic and food access vulnerabilities. The interaction of these vulnerabilities would identify the final outcome: neighborhoods where the impact of supermarket redlining would be critical. Results mapped critical areas in the inner-city of Hartford where if a nearby supermarket closes or relocates to a suburb with limited mitigation efforts to gill the grocery gap, a large number of minority, poor, and disadvantaged residents will experience difficulties to access healthy food leading to food insecurity or perhaps a food desert. We also suggest mitigation efforts to reduce the impact of large supermarket closures.

  19. Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout - a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores? a study on consumer attitudes and sales effects of a healthy supermarket intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Lise L; Christensen, Ulla; Glümer, Charlotte; Bloch, Paul; Mikkelsen, Bent E; Wansink, Brian; Toft, Ulla

    2016-11-22

    The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy checkout supermarket intervention. The study was part of Project Sundhed & Lokalsamfund (Project SoL); a Danish participatory community-based health promotion intervention. Consumer attitudes towards unhealthy snack exposure in supermarkets were examined in a qualitative pre-intervention study (29 short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews). Findings were presented to food retailers and informed the decision to test a healthy checkout intervention. Sugar confectionery at one checkout counter was substituted with fruit and healthy snacking items in four stores for 4 weeks. The intervention was evaluated by 48 short exit interviews on consumer perceptions of the intervention and by linear mixed model analyses of supermarket sales data from the intervention area and a matched control area. The qualitative pre-intervention study identified consumer concern and annoyance with placement and promotion of unhealthy snacks in local stores. Store managers were willing to respond to local consumer concern and a healthy checkout intervention was therefore implemented. Exit interviews found positive attitudes towards the intervention, while intervention awareness was modest. Most participants believed that the intervention could help other consumers make healthier choices, while fewer expected to be influenced by the intervention themselves. Statistical analyses suggested an intervention effect on sales of carrot snack packs when compared with sales before the intervention in Bornholm control stores (P sales of other intervention items or sugar confectionery was found. The present study finds that the healthy checkout intervention was positively

  20. The Intellectual Supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, Ada

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how separating undergraduate education into its two primary components--general education and the major--and then applying the perspective of a supermarket analogy leads to startling conclusions about possible transformations of the production and distribution system for higher education at the undergraduate level and for implementing…

  1. The relationship between diet and perceived and objective access to supermarkets among low-income housing residents

    OpenAIRE

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S.V.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Sorensen, Glorian

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S., supermarkets serve as an important source of year-round produce (Chung & Myers, 1999), and yet access to supermarkets may be scarce in “food deserts,” or poor, urban areas that lack sources of healthy, affordable food (Cummins & Macintyre, 2002). This study examined objective distance to the nearest supermarket and participant-report of supermarket access in relation to fruit and vegetable intake. Street-network distance to the closest supermarket was calculated using GIS mapping...

  2. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity an...

  3. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food f...

  4. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wimberly Michael C; Michimi Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity an...

  5. The rise of supermarkets in developing countries: Implications for credit markets

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, Veyssiere

    2007-01-01

    The rise of supermarket in developing countries has important implications for the agricultural system in these countries. To lessen the intense price competition in retail markets, supermarkets have introduced private food standards. While the literature has pointed out the additional financial burden for producers, associated with the introduction of supermarket standards, it has ignored its positive demand effect. This paper examines the relationship between downstream product competition ...

  6. The supermarket game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A supermarket game is considered with N FCFS queues with unit exponential service rate and global Poisson arrival rate N λ. Upon arrival each customer chooses a number of queues to be sampled uniformly at random and joins the least loaded sampled queue. Customers are assumed to have cost for both waiting and sampling, and they want to minimize their own expected total cost. We study the supermarket game in a mean field model that corresponds to the limit as N converges to infinity in the sense that (i for a fixed symmetric customer strategy, the joint equilibrium distribution of any fixed number of queues converges as N → ∞ to a product distribution determined by the mean field model and (ii a Nash equilibrium for the mean field model is an ε-Nash equilibrium for the finite N model with N sufficiently large. It is shown that there always exists a Nash equilibrium for λ N.

  7. Loyalty in the Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Damacena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty has been a hot topic in marketing management, not only for academics, but also for managers. In that sense, the main goal of this paper is to identify the variables that discriminate loyalty groups. Therefore, seven hypotheses have been proposed which might have an impact on loyalty groups. Based on discriminant analysis, the paper analyzes and discusses the data, and presents a conclusion that the more important variables on loyalty in the supermarket are affective commitment, satisfaction with its environment and value provided by supermarket experiences. Moreover, the results also indicated that the theoretical model achieved a variance in the loyalty construct of canonical R-squared = 0.78. It could be considered a good value to the final model. Final considerations and study limitations conclude the paper.

  8. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    Supermarkets represent one of the largest energy-intensive building groups in the commercial sector, consuming 2 to 3 million kWh/yr per store (ES-1). Over half of this energy use is for the refrigeration of food display cases and storage coolers. Display cases are used throughout a supermarket for the merchandising of perishable food products. The cases are maintained at air temperatures ranging from -10 to 35 F, depending upon the type of product stored. The operating characteristics and energy requirements of the refrigeration system are directly related to the refrigeration load. The sources of the display case refrigeration load consist of: (1) Moist and warm air infiltration through the open front of the case--air curtains are employed to inhibit this infiltration, but some ambient air is entrained, which adds a substantial portion to the refrigeration load. (2) Heat conduction through case panels and walls. (3) Thermal radiation from the ambient to the product and display case interior. (4) Internal thermal loads--the use of lights, evaporator fans, periodic defrosts, and antisweat heaters adds to the refrigeration load of the display case as well as directly consuming electric energy. The impact of each of these elements on the refrigeration load is very dependent upon case type (Figure ES-1). For example, air infiltration is the most significant portion of the refrigeration load for open, multi-deck cases, while radiation is the largest part of the load for tub-type cases. The door anti-sweat heaters represent a major share of the refrigeration load for frozen food door reach-in cases. Figure ES-2 shows the distribution of display cases in a typical supermarket (ES-2). Open, multi-deck, medium temperature display cases typically comprise about half of the refrigerated fixtures in a store (ES-3). In addition, medium temperature fixtures and storage coolers account for roughly 70 to 75 percent of the total store refrigeration load with open, multi-deck cases

  9. An Evaluation of the Effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Targets on the Sodium Content of Bread, Breakfast Cereals and Processed Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar’s tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p < 0.001, and the proportion reaching target rose from 42% to 67% (p < 0.005. The mean sodium content of breakfast cereals also fell substantially from 316 to 237 mg/100 g (25% lower, p < 0.001 over the study period. The decline in mean sodium content of bacon/ham/cured meats from 1215 to 1114 mg/100 g (8% lower, p = 0.001 was smaller, but associated with a rise in the proportion meeting the target from 28% to 47%. Declines in mean sodium content did not appreciably differ between companies that did and did not make public commitments to the targets. These data show that the Australian food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD process.

  10. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Freitas-Rego

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078. Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative analysiswere carried on. Domestic use reagents as pharmaceutical iodine solutions, commercialNaOH and vegetable pigments were used. The substances identified were reductant glycid,starch, fatty acid, triacylglycerol and protein. Reactions allowed to identify fungi andvegetable tissues. Moreover, invertase and alfa-amilase activities were determined. Afterdiscussions in class, students could improve biochemical knowledge as well as distinguishbetween milk or lactic drink, animal fat or vegetable hydrogenated fat, honey or glucose.After that, students produced kits and wrote laboratorial notes for use in classes with therest of the group.

  11. The correlation between supermarket size and national obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Waterlander, Wilma E; Svastisalee, Chalida M

    2014-01-01

    Supermarkets provide healthy and affordable food options while simultaneously heavily promoting energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and drinks. Store size may impact body weight via multiple mechanisms. Large stores encourage purchasing of more food in a single visit, and in larger packages. In addition they provide greater product choice (usually at lower prices) and allow greater exposure to foods of all types. These characteristics may promote purchasing and consumption. Our objective was to assess the relationship between supermarket size and obesity, which has rarely been assessed. Data on supermarket size (measured as total aisle length in metres) was from 170 stores in eight developed countries with Western-style diets. Data for national obesity prevalence was obtained from the UK National Obesity Observatory. We found a strong correlation between average store size and national obesity prevalence (r = 0.96). Explanations for the association between store size and national obesity prevalence may include larger and less frequent shopping trips and greater choice and exposure to foods in countries with larger stores. Large supermarkets may represent a food system that focuses on quantity ahead of quality and therefore may be an important and novel environmental indicator of a pattern of behaviour that encourages obesity.

  12. The Supermarket Game

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiaming

    2012-01-01

    A supermarket game is considered with $N$ FCFS queues with unit exponential service rate and global Poisson arrival rate $N \\lambda$. Upon arrival each customer chooses a number of queues to be sampled uniformly at random and joins the least loaded sampled queue. Customers are assumed to have cost for both waiting and sampling, and they want to minimize their own expected total cost. We study the supermarket game in a mean field model that corresponds to the limit as $N$ converges to infinity in the sense that (i) for a fixed symmetric customer strategy, the joint equilibrium distribution of any fixed number of queues converges as $N \\to \\infty$ to a product distribution determined by the mean field model and (ii) a Nash equilibrium for the mean field model is an $\\epsilon$-Nash equilibrium for the finite $N$ model with $N$ sufficiently large. It is shown that there always exists a Nash equilibrium for $\\lambda <1$ and the Nash equilibrium is unique with homogeneous waiting cost for $\\lambda^2 \\le 1/2$. Fu...

  13. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  14. A study of the relationship between degree of ethnocentrism and typologies of food purchase in supermarkets in central-southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to distinguish different types of consumers according to their level of ethnocentrism in relation to the consumption of foodstuffs in central-southern Chile. To do this a modification of the CETSCALE (Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Scale) was applied through direct survey of 800 habitual supermarket shoppers in two cities in central-southern Chile. The modified CETSCALE presented a sufficient level of internal consistency and there were three factors which included the 17 items of the scale. Five typologies of consumer with different degrees of ethnocentrism were distinguished by cluster analysis, based on the values of the factors and items in the CETSCALE. The composition of the typologies of consumers were related to the city and zone of residence, age, socioeconomic level, self-declared life-style, ethnic origin, knowledge of the origin of the foodstuffs purchased, frequency of purchase of imported foodstuffs and reasons for rejection in the case of a low purchase frequency. It may therefore be concluded that different levels of ethnocentrism exist in the consumption of foodstuffs, related with some socio-demographic characteristics of consumers and their attitudes to imported foodstuffs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Cronobacter spp. isolated from food of plant origin and environmental samples collected from farms and from supermarkets in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojkovska, Hana; Karpiskova, Renata; Orieskova, Maria; Drahovska, Hana

    2016-01-18

    The Cronobacter genus (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii) comprises seven species (Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, Cronobacter muytjensii, Cronobacter turicensis, Cronobacter dublinensis, Cronobacter universalis and Cronobacter condimenti)which cause serious infections in neonates and immunocompromised people.Most of the documented outbreaks of these bacteria have been associated with consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. The plant environment is considered to be the natural habitat of these bacteria. Therefore, a total number of 563 samples of vegetables, fruit, water and environmental swabs were collected from local farms and supermarkets in the Czech Republic and investigated for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The obtained 45 isolates (8.0%) were further characterized by phenotyping (antimicrobial resistance, capsule and pigment production) and genotyping (fusA sequencing,MLST, PCR-serotyping) methods. Most of the Cronobacter isolates (42.2%) were identified as C. sakazakii, followed by C. turicensis (31.1%), C. dublinensis (22.2%), C. malonaticus (2.2%) and C. universalis (2.2%). The 25 identified sequence types, out of which 17 were unique for only one strain, indicated a high diversity of strains. C. sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST 4), which has been associated with many cases of meningitis, was isolated only in one case. A strong association of C. turicensis and C. dublinensis with the plant environment can be deduced from our results.

  16. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimberly Michael C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan versus rural (nonmetropolitan areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical

  17. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...... the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  18. Accessibility and Affordability of Supermarkets: Associations With the DASH Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Burgoine, Thomas; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    It is unknown whether there is an interplay of affordability (economic accessibility) and proximity (geographic accessibility) of supermarkets in relation to having a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-accordant diet. Data (collected: 2005-2015, analyzed: 2016) were from the cross-sectional, population-based Fenland Study cohort: 9,274 adults aged 29-64 years, living in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Dietary quality was evaluated using an index of DASH dietary accordance, based on recorded consumption of foods and beverages in a validated 130-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DASH accordance was defined as a DASH score in the top quintile. Dietary costs (£/day) were estimated by attributing a food price variable to the foods consumed according to the questionnaire. Individuals were classified as having low-, medium-, or high-cost diets. Supermarket affordability was determined based on the cost of a 101-item market basket. Distances between home address to the nearest supermarket (geographic accessibility) and nearest economically-appropriate supermarket (economic accessibility) were divided into tertiles. Higher-cost diets were more likely to be DASH-accordant. After adjustment for key demographics and exposure to other food outlets, individuals with lowest economic accessibility to supermarkets had lower odds of being DASH-accordant (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.52, 0.68) than individuals with greatest economic accessibility. This association was stronger than with geographic accessibility alone (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.74, 0.98). Results suggest that geographic and economic access to food should be taken into account when considering approaches to promote adherence to healthy diets for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and other chronic disease. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant-wide dynamic and static optimisation of supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh;

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the operation of a supermarket refrigeration system under dynamic as well as steadystate conditions is addressedin thispaper. For thispurpose anappropriateperformance function that encompasses food quality, system efficiency, and also component reliability is established. The choice...

  20. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  1. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify

  2. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntosh Alex

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41% of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2% were convenience stores and 12 (5.8% supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health

  3. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  4. Foodservice employees benefit from interventions targeting barriers to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Roberts, Kevin R; Howells, Amber D; Barrett, Elizabeth B

    2009-09-01

    The number of foodborne illnesses traced to improper food handling in restaurants indicates a need for research to improve food safety in these establishments. Therefore, this 2-year longitudinal study investigated the effectiveness of traditional ServSafe (National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL) food-safety training and a Theory of Planned Behavior intervention program targeting employees' perceived barriers and attitudes toward important food-safety behaviors. The effectiveness of the training and intervention was measured by knowledge scores and observed behavioral compliance rates related to food-safety practices. Employees were observed for handwashing, thermometer usage, and proper handling of work surfaces at baseline, after receiving ServSafe training, and again after exposure to the intervention targeting barriers and negative attitudes about food-safety practices. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated training improved handwashing knowledge, but the intervention was necessary to improve overall behavioral compliance and handwashing compliance. Results suggest that registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers should implement a combination of training and intervention to improve knowledge and compliance with food-safety behaviors, rather than relying on training alone. Challenges encountered while conducting this research are discussed, and recommendations are provided for researchers interested in conducting this type of research in the future.

  5. The rise of supermarkets and changing expenditure patterns of poor rural households case study in the Transkei area, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, D' M.F.C.; Huylenbroeck, Van G.

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the number of supermarkets in South Africa has been steadily growing. Due to a more effective and efficient management and procurement system, the supermarkets can benefit from economics of scale and sell food at a relative low price. In this paper, we present a case study of

  6. Cooling sausage and cheese with solar power. A concept for the future. Rewe commissioned its first green supermarket; Solarstrom kuehlt Wurst und Kaese. Konzept mit Zukunft. Rewe eroeffnete seinen ersten gruenen Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, Antje

    2010-02-15

    In only five months, the Rewe Markt GmbH constructed its first ''Green Building'', a supermarket building which may serve as a model for the whole food production industry. The supermarket consumes 50 percent less energy than a conventional supermarket building, and most of the energy consumed is also produced on site. (orig.)

  7. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  8. A Quarter Century of TV Food Advertising Targeted at Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Margaret; Cotugna, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed current trends in television advertising targeting children, comparing results to the historical perspective of the last quarter century. Researchers evaluated 16 hours of Saturday morning children's programming on four network channels for commercial content based on Food Guide Pyramid and USDA Child Nutrition criteria. Overall,…

  9. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  10. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  11. [Food assistance programs in Mexico, coverage and targeting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Villalpando, Salvador; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel

    2013-01-01

    To describe the distribution of social food assistance programs in Mexico. Information about 36 150 households from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) was included. The distribution of the social assistance food programs by characteristics as rural/urban locality, country region, ethnicity, socioeconomic level and nutritional status was observed. At the national level, food assistance programs with the greater coverage are Oportunidades (reaching 18.8% of the population), Liconsa (milk distribution, 9.7%) and School Breakfasts (12.2%). The program that assists in the best way the target population is Oportunidades, where 75% of its beneficiaries belong to the "low" and "lower" socioeconomic levels, in contrast to Liconsa and School Breakfasts programs, where only 42% and 55% of the beneficiaries are in such levels, respectively. Current focus and application of the food assistance programs must be adjusted under the perspective of wellness, health and nutrition of the children population.

  12. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  13. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  14. Life-span distributions of supermarket products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Misako

    2010-04-01

    We have analyzed the lifetime distributions of more than 0.7 million products sold across approximately 400 Japanese supermarkets. The distributions are well approximated by an exponential function for products with lifetimes longer than 1000 days, implying that the manufacturers' decisions about whether to continue production are purely random. However, the distributions tend to deviate from an exponential distribution for products with lifetimes shorter than 1000 days. Specifically, the distributions for food products exhibit a quicker decay in a short time scale, suggesting the existence of competing products during the initial stages of the product lifecycle. On the other hand, the distributions for toiletry products exhibit a slower decay in a short time scale.

  15. Analysis of Supermarket Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Beverly J.; Ferris, E. Linda

    1996-01-01

    Volunteers priced grocery items twice per month for three months in eight rural Ohio stores, examined advertising flyers, and surveyed stores weekly for a month to track pricing trends. Advice for consumers on choice of stores and items as well as food budgeting was developed based on the results. (SK)

  16. Analysis of Supermarket Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Beverly J.; Ferris, E. Linda

    1996-01-01

    Volunteers priced grocery items twice per month for three months in eight rural Ohio stores, examined advertising flyers, and surveyed stores weekly for a month to track pricing trends. Advice for consumers on choice of stores and items as well as food budgeting was developed based on the results. (SK)

  17. Pengaruh Citra Supermarket Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Di Metro Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna, Soneta

    2010-01-01

    Consumer Loyalty as a measure of consumers' attachment to particular supermarket, has become an important notion in consumer behavior. The producers understand that better retain existing customers than new customers. Therefore, in order to build consumer affinity with the product, then developed the concept of brand community. A community based on shared commitment to a particular product, brand and consumer activities. Store image expected to be able to contribute in building consumer attit...

  18. Buying behavior in Chinese supermarkets: A comparison across four major cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    of imported food products in four major Chinese cities (i.e., Bejing, Shanghai, Gaungzhou, and Chengdu). Knowledge about potential differences in supermarket structure and buying behaviour between regions will be a prerequisite to foreign food suppliers trying to capitalise on increased consumer demands......The purpose of this paper is to report a study of buying behaviour of imported food products in Chinese supermarkets. Imports of food products to China have increased substantially in the past decade. The present study offers the results from an investigation of retailers' buying behaviour...... for their products. In this study we examined retailers' structure and seafood buying behaviour, using data collected from personal interviews in 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu. The comparison across the four cities revealed significant differences with regard to the importance...

  19. Dynamics of the supermarket model

    CERN Document Server

    MacPhee, I M; Vachkovskaia, M

    2010-01-01

    We consider the long term behaviour of a Markov chain \\xi(t) on \\Z^N based on the N station supermarket model. Different routing policies for the supermarket model give different Markov chains. We show that for a general class of local routing policies, "join the least weighted queue" (JLW), the N one-dimensional components \\xi_i(t) can be partitioned into disjoint clusters C_k. Within each cluster C_k the "speed" of each component \\xi_j converges to a constant V_k and under certain conditions \\xi is recurrent in shape on each cluster. To establish these results we have assembled methods from two distinct areas of mathematics, semi-martingale techniques used for showing stability of Markov chains together with the theory of optimal flows in networks. As corollaries to our main result we obtain the stability classification of the supermarket model under any JLW policy and can explicitly compute the C_k and V_k for any instance of the model and specific JLW policy.

  20. Bioactive food components, inflammatory targets, and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young S; Young, Matthew R; Bobe, Gerd; Colburn, Nancy H; Milner, John A

    2009-03-01

    Various dietary components may modify chronic inflammatory processes at the stage of cytokine production, amplification of nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated inflammatory gene expression, and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta. This review provides a synopsis of the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence that specific bioactive food components influence inflammation-related targets linked to cancer. A target repeatedly surfacing as a site of action for several dietary components is transforming growth factor beta. Whereas the use of dietary intervention strategies offers intriguing possibilities for maintaining normal cell function by modifying a process that is essential for cancer development and progression, more information is needed to characterize the minimum quantity of the bioactive food components required to bring about a change in inflammation-mediated cancer, the ideal time for intervention, and the importance of genetics in determining the response. Unquestionably, the societal benefits of using foods and their components to prevent chronic inflammation and associated complications, including cancer, are enormous.

  1. Diet quality of supermarket sales circulars measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how closely the contents of weekly supermarket sales circulars conform to current dietary guidance and how closely the diet quality of those foods compare to that of the U.S. population’s intakes. Food and beverage items (n = 9,151) in 52 weekly circulars ...

  2. Proximity to supermarkets associated with higher body mass index among overweight and obese preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechtner, Lauren; Block, Jason; Duncan, Dustin T; Gillman, Matthew W; Gortmaker, Steven L; Melly, Steven J; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine associations of proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI) among preschool-age children. We used baseline data from 438 children ages 2-6.9 years with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile participating in a RCT in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2009. We used a geographic information system to determine proximity to six types of food establishments: 1) convenience stores, 2) bakeries, coffee shops, candy stores, 3) full service restaurants, 4) large supermarkets, 5) small supermarkets, and 6) fast-food restaurants. The main outcome was child's BMI. Children's mean (SD) BMI was 19.2 (2.4)kg/m(2); 35% lived ≤ 1 mile from a large supermarket, 42% lived >1 to 2 miles, and 22% lived >2 miles. Compared to children living >2 miles from a large supermarket, those who lived within 1 mile had a BMI 1.06 kg/m(2) higher. Adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics and distance to fast-food restaurants attenuated this estimate to 0.77 kg/m(2). Living in any other distance category from a large supermarket and proximity to other food establishments were not associated with child BMI. Living closer to a large supermarket was associated with higher BMI among preschool-age children who were overweight or obese. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Process Evaluation of a Comprehensive Supermarket Intervention in a Low-Income Baltimore Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan M; Rothstein, Jessica D; Gergen, Jessica; Zachary, Drew A; Smith, Joyce C; Palmer, Anne M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Supermarket-based interventions are one approach to improving the local food environment and reducing obesity and chronic disease in low-income populations. We implemented a multicomponent intervention that aimed to reduce environmental barriers to healthy food purchasing in a supermarket in Southwest Baltimore. The intervention, Eat Right-Live Well! used: shelf labels and in-store displays promoting healthy foods, sales and promotions on healthy foods, in-store taste tests, increasing healthy food products, community outreach events to promote the intervention, and employee training. We evaluated program implementation through store environment, taste test session, and community event evaluation forms as well as an Employee Impact Questionnaire. The stocking, labeling, and advertising of promoted foods were implemented with high and moderate fidelity. Taste test sessions were implemented with moderate reach and low dose. Community outreach events were implemented with high reach and dose. Supermarket employee training had no significant impact on employees' knowledge, self-efficacy, or behavioral intention for helping customers with healthy purchasing or related topics of nutrition and food safety. In summary, components of this intervention to promote healthy eating were implemented with varying success within a large supermarket. Greater participation from management and employees could improve implementation.

  4. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  5. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...

  6. The analysis of Hengkelong Supermarket Management Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓霜

    2010-01-01

    With the development of local retail industry,Hengkelong Supermarket win fat profit.Yet how can it maintain its business advantage in the fierce competition with foreign business giants? This paper analyzes the management behavior of Hengkelong Supermarket,intending to give relevant policy recommendations.

  7. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  8. Frugal chemoprevention: targeting Nrf2 with foods rich in sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Palliyaguru, Dushani L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2016-02-01

    With the properties of efficacy, safety, tolerability, practicability and low cost, foods containing bioactive phytochemicals are gaining significant attention as elements of chemoprevention strategies against cancer. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane], a naturally occurring isothiocyanate produced by cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is found to be a highly promising chemoprevention agent against not only a variety of cancers such as breast, prostate, colon, skin, lung, stomach or bladder, but also cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. For reasons of experimental exigency, preclinical studies have focused principally on sulforaphane itself, while clinical studies have relied on broccoli sprout preparations rich in either sulforaphane or its biogenic precursor, glucoraphanin. Substantive subsequent evaluation of sulforaphane pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been undertaken using either pure compound or food matrices. Sulforaphane affects multiple targets in cells. One key molecular mechanism of action for sulforaphane entails activation of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway although other actions contribute to the broad spectrum of efficacy in different animal models. This review summarizes the current status of pre-clinical chemoprevention studies with sulforaphane and highlights the progress and challenges for the application of foods rich in sulforaphane and/or glucoraphanin in the arena of clinical chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lighting designs for supermarket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, C.S.

    1996-05-01

    Designers of lighting systems for supermarket applications face a number of challenges when the goals are to present merchandise in an attractive environment, but to do so in an energy-efficient manner. The Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) operates several hundred stores worldwide, and more than 150 within the United States. DeCA is a federal agency that was organized in 1991 to operate commissaries that had previously been operated by the various armed services. As a federal agency, DeCA is also under a federal executive order to reduce its total energy consumption per square foot of floor space by 20 percent by the year 2005, compared to energy use in the year 1990. On the average, lighting consumes more than 20 percent of a store`s total energy use. Lighting retrofit projects offer opportunities to save significant energy costs with reasonable cost payback. The variety of ages and architectural styles of the commissaries offer opportunities for analysis and design of a wide diversity of projects. These projects range from simple replacements of lamps and ballasts to luminaire replacements and complete redesign of systems, including circuits. The requirements of merchandising products (illumination) also affect system designs. Several types of lighting retrofit projects are discussed. Problems that were encountered and solutions that were developed are shown. Because commissaries are supermarkets, lighting system designs are applicable to commercial establishments.

  10. Eat for health: a nutrition and cancer control supermarket intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, L; Tenney, J; Portnoy, B; Kessler, L; Rodgers, A B; Patterson, B; Mathews, O; Katz, E; Blair, J E; Evans, S K

    1989-01-01

    The growing evidence linking dietary patterns to the incidence and prevention of chronic disease has prompted a number of prominent health and scientific agencies to publish dietary guidelines for the public. Some dietary guidelines address specific diseases, such as cancer or heart disease; others focus on overall health promotion. This situation has created a demand for nutrition education and information programs for the public. Increasingly, supermarkets are seen as potential sites for effective consumer education. Eat for Health is a joint research study by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Giant Food Inc., a regional supermarket chain in the Washington-Baltimore area. The study's goal was to test the feasibility of supermarkets as a site for consumer nutrition education. Eat for Health's educational focus was diet and cancer control issues in the context of dietary patterns that promote health. Particular attention was paid to reduction of fat intake and increases in consumption of dietary fiber from grains, vegetables, and fruits. Analysis of program results is currently underway; data should be available in early 1990.

  11. Child-directed and nutrition-focused marketing cues on food packaging: links to nutritional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Matthew A; Brown, Autumn M; Houtzer, Hunter V; Thomas, Tyler J

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether the presence of both child-targeted and nutrition-focused (i.e. parent-targeted) marketing cues on food packaging was associated with the nutritional content of these products. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 403 food packages chosen randomly from the supermarket's online portal along with all products (n 312) from the cereal aisle in a supermarket from the Southeastern USA. We examined main and interaction effects for cues on nutritional content (e.g. energy density, sugar, sodium, fibre). A regional supermarket chain in the Southeastern USA. Tests of main effects indicated that increased presence of nutritional cues was linked to more nutritious content (e.g. less sugar, less saturated fat, more fibre) while the increased presence of child-targeted cues was uniformly associated with less nutritious content (e.g. more sugar, less protein, less fibre). Among the interaction effects, results revealed that products with increased nutrition-focused and child-targeted cues were likely to contain significantly more sugar and less protein than other products. Products that seek to engage children with their packaging in the supermarket are significantly less nutritious than foods that do not, while product packages that suggest nutritional benefits have more nutritious content. More importantly, the study provides evidence that those products which try to engage both child and parent consumers are significantly less healthy in crucial ways (e.g. more sugar, less fibre) than products that do not.

  12. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  13. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (prestaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities.

  14. The Introduction of a Supermarket via Tax-Credits in a Low-Income Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dixon, L Beth

    2017-01-01

    Interest and funding continue to grow for bringing supermarkets to underserved areas, yet little is known about their impact. A quasi-experimental study was used to determine the impact of a new supermarket opening as a result of tax and zoning incentives. The study took place in the South Bronx, New York City, New York. Studied were residents of two South Bronx neighborhoods deemed high need. Food purchasing and consumption were examined via surveys and 24-hour dietary recalls before and at two points after the supermarket opened (1-5, 13-17 months). Data were analyzed using difference-in-difference models controlling for gender, race and ethnicity, age, education, marital status, and self-reported income. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression models were estimated for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. At baseline, 94% to 97% of consumers shopped at a supermarket. There was a 2% increase in this behavior in the intervention community ( p < .05) not seen in the comparison community. One year later there was a 7% net increase in eating at home ( p < .1) and a 20% decrease in drinking sugary beverages ( p < .05), but no appreciable change in fruit/vegetable consumption or overall dietary quality. The new supermarket did not result in substantial or broad changes in purchasing patterns or nutritional quality of food consumed, though smaller, positive changes were observed over a 1-year period. Future work should examine different contexts and a broader set of outcomes, including economic development.

  15. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...

  16. Targeting the Epigenome with Bioactive Food Components for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Ross, Sharon Ann

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic processes participate in cancer development and likely influence cancer prevention. Global DNA hypomethylation, gene promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone post-translational modifications are hallmarks of neoplastic cells which have been associated with genomic instability and altered gene expression. Because epigenetic deregulation occurs early in carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible, intervention strategies targeting the epigenome have been proposed for cancer prevention. Bioactive food components (BFCs) with anticancer potential, including folate, polyphenols, selenium, retinoids, fatty acids, isothiocyanates and allyl compounds, influence DNA methylation and histone modification processes. Such activities have been shown to affect the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, death and differentiation that are frequently altered in cancer. Although the epigenome represents a promising target for cancer prevention with BFCs, few studies have addressed the influence of dietary components on these mechanisms in vivo, particularly on the phenotype of humans, and thus the exact mechanisms whereby diet mediates an effect on cancer prevention remains unclear. Primary factors that should be elucidated include the effective doses and dose timing of BFCs to attain epigenetic effects. Because diet-epigenome interactions are likely to occur in utero, the impact of early-life nutrition on cancer risk programming should be further investigated. PMID:22353664

  17. Targeting the epigenome with bioactive food components for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Ross, Sharon Ann

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic processes participate in cancer development and likely influence cancer prevention. Global DNA hypomethylation, gene promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone post-translational modifications are hallmarks of neoplastic cells which have been associated with genomic instability and altered gene expression. Because epigenetic deregulation occurs early in carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible, intervention strategies targeting the epigenome have been proposed for cancer prevention. Bioactive food components (BFCs) with anticancer potential, including folate, polyphenols, selenium, retinoids, fatty acids, isothiocyanates and allyl compounds, influence DNA methylation and histone modification processes. Such activities have been shown to affect the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, death and differentiation that are frequently altered in cancer. Although the epigenome represents a promising target for cancer prevention with BFCs, few studies have addressed the influence of dietary components on these mechanisms in vivo, particularly on the phenotype of humans, and thus the exact mechanisms whereby diet mediates an effect on cancer prevention remains unclear. Primary factors that should be elucidated include the effective doses and dose timing of BFCs to attain epigenetic effects. Because diet-epigenome interactions are likely to occur in utero, the impact of early-life nutrition on cancer risk programming should be further investigated.

  18. Target Fast-Food Combo Meals to Cut Sugary Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Target Fast-Food Combo Meals to Cut Sugary Drinks for Kids: Study Researchers want chains to stop ... Children and teens are more likely to have sugary drinks if they get fast-food combo meals that ...

  19. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  20. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  1. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  2. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  3. Nutritional Informatics: Mining Supermarket Sales Data as a Nutritional Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Many nutritional assessment techniques, including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls have innate limitations such as expensive protocols, high respondent burden, and self-reporting biases. Supermarket sales data have shown promise as a new, indirect, inexpensive nutritional assessment method in recent studies. The…

  4. Association between distance to nearest supermarket and provision of fruits and vegetables in English nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Gallis, John A; L Penney, Tarra; Monsivais, Pablo; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-07-01

    With 796,500 places available for children in England, pre-school nurseries could serve as an important setting for population-wide dietary intervention. It is critical to understand the determinants of healthy food provision in this setting, which may include access to food stores. This study examined the association between objective, GIS-derived supermarket proximity and fruit and vegetable serving frequency, using data from 623 English nurseries. Overall, 116 (18%) nurseries served fruits and vegetables infrequently (<2-3 times/week), but provision differed by supermarket proximity. In adjusted multivariable regression models, nurseries farthest from their nearest supermarket (Q5, 1.7-19.8km) had 2.38 (95% CI 1.01-5.63) greater odds of infrequent provision. Our results suggest that supermarket access may be important for nurseries in meeting fruit and vegetable provision guidelines. We advance a growing body of international literature, for the first time linking the food practices of institutions to their neighbourhood food retail context. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. F. Nilson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person is over twice the international recommendations, and 70–90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011–2017 and there was a significant 8–34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.

  6. Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Eduardo A F; Spaniol, Ana M; Gonçalves, Vivian S S; Moura, Iracema; Silva, Sara A; L'Abbé, Mary; Jaime, Patricia C

    2017-07-12

    Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70-90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011-2017) and there was a significant 8-34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.

  7. Accounting for Product Substitution in the Analysis of Food Taxes Targeting Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Miao; Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Helen H.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. This ...

  8. Evaluating the 1996 EU food aid reform: Did it really lead to better targeting?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the 1996 EU food aid reform and addresses the question of its impact on improving EU food aid allocation in terms of reaching those countries which are most vulnerable to food insecurity. Using a two-stage regression model the analysis finds that EU food aid in kind is increasingly targeted towards developing countries affected by food insecurity. Most importantly, characteristics such as low calorie supply and balance-of-payments difficulties gained in importance in EU foo...

  9. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems Vol 1 - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-15

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food under further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. This volume of the IEA Annex 26 final report contains a detailed summary of the Annex activities including principal conclusions from each participant.

  10. Target molecules of food phytochemicals: food science bound for the next dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira; Ohnishi, Kohta

    2012-05-01

    Phytochemicals are generally defined as secondary metabolites in plants that play crucial roles in their adaptation to a variety of environmental stressors. There is a great body of compelling evidence showing that these metabolites have pronounced potentials for regulating and modulating human health and disease onset, as shown by both experimental and epidemiological approaches. Concurrently, enormous efforts have been made to elucidate the mechanism of actions underlying their biological and physiological functions. For example, the pioneering work of Tachibana et al. uncovered the receptor for (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) as the 67 kDa laminin receptor, which was shown to partially mediate the functions of EGCg, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-proliferative activities. Thereafter, several protein kinases were identified as binding proteins of flavonoids, including myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. Isothiocyanates, sulfur-containing phytochemicals present in cruciferous plants, are well known to target Keap1 for activating the transcription factor Nrf2 for inducing self-defensive and anti-oxidative gene expression. In addition, we recently identified CD36 as a cell surface receptor for ursolic acid, a triterpenoid ubiquitously occurring in plants. Importantly, the above mentioned target proteins are indispensable for phytochemicals to exhibit, at least in part, their bioactivities. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to assume that some of the activities and potential toxicities of metabolites are exerted via their interactions with unidentified, off-target proteins. This notion may be supported by the fact that even rationally designed drugs occasionally display off-target effects and induce unexpected outcomes, including toxicity. Here we update the current status and future directions of research related to target molecules of food phytochemicals.

  11. Analysis of Problems of the Fresh Food Cold Chain Logistics in Chain Supermarket%连锁超市生鲜食品冷链物流问题探析——基于食品质量安全的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫丽

    2012-01-01

    基于食品质量安全视角,对惠州市14家连锁超市和112名消费者进行问卷调查和访谈,发现惠州连锁超市生鲜食品冷链物流中存在着行业标准缺失、冷链物流设施设备不足、信息化水平低、管理混乱等问题。对此,提出加强行业标准制定及执行力度、加大投入低温设施设备、加强政府对冷链物流的支持力度、重视冷链物流人才建设以及加强冷链物流技术的研发与应用等发展连锁超市生鲜食品冷链物流的建议和措施。%From the perspective of food quality and safety,this article,based on the questionnaire and interviews of 14 chain supermarkets and 112 consumers,finds a series of problems in the fresh food cold chain logistics in chain supermarket,such as the lack of industry standard,the insufficiency of infrastructure of cold chain logistics,the low informationization and chaotic management.Some suggestions and countermeasures are put forwards,including strengthening the degree of making and executing industry standard,raising the investment in facilities and device of low temperature,enhancing government's support for cold chain logistics,emphasizing talents construction and the research and application of cold chain logistics technology.

  12. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqui Webster; Kathy Trieu; Elizabeth Dunford; Corinna Hawkes

    2014-01-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce sa...

  13. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 2. Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, Volume 1, Executive Summary, as report (HPP-AN26-2); and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports (described in this record). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  14. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. (ed.) [Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, described in this record; and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-3). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  15. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  16. Influence of price discounts and skill-building strategies on purchase and consumption of healthy food and beverages: outcomes of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Gold, Lisa; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Abbott, Gavin; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David

    2015-05-01

    Fiscal strategies are increasingly considered upstream nutrition promotion measures. However, few trials have investigated the effectiveness or cost effectiveness of pricing manipulations on diet in real-world settings. We assessed the effects on fruit, vegetable, and beverage purchasing and consumption of a 20% price-reduction intervention, a tailored skills-based behavior-change intervention, and a combined intervention compared with a control condition. The Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life trial was a randomized controlled trial conducted over 3 mo [baseline (time 1) to postintervention (time 2) with a 6-mo follow-up (time 3)]. Female primary household shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, were randomly assigned to a 1) skill-building (n = 160), 2) price-reduction (n = 161), 3) combined skill-building and price-reduction (n = 160), or 4) control (n = 161) group. Supermarket transaction data and surveys were used to measure the following study outcomes: fruit, vegetable, and beverage purchases and self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption at each time point. At 3 mo (time 2), price reduction-alone participants purchased more total vegetables and frozen vegetables than did controls. Price reduction-alone and price reduction-plus-skill-building participants purchased more fruit than did controls. Relative to controls, in the price-reduction group, total vegetable consumption increased by 233 g/wk (3.1 servings or 15% more than at baseline), and fruit purchases increased by 364 g/wk (2.4 servings; 35% more than at baseline). Increases were not maintained 6 mo postintervention (time 3). Price reduction-alone participants showed a tendency for a slight increase in fruit consumption at time 2 (P = 0.09) that was maintained at time 3 (P = 0.014). No intervention improved purchases of bottled water or low-calorie beverages. A 20% price reduction in fruit and vegetables resulted in increased purchasing per household of 35% for fruit and 15% for vegetables over the

  17. Strengthening environmental and educational nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, I H; Van Assema, P; Glanz, K

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess conditions for the adoption and continued implementation of different healthy nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, i.e. an educational programme and two environmental programmes (a food labelling programme and a food supply programme). Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of worksite cafeterias and supermarkets. Concepts of theories of diffusion were used as a framework for the study. Questions were formulated about the attributes of the innovation, and organizational and personal characteristics that might influence programme adoption and implementation. Results indicated that educational and environmental programmes in both worksite cafeterias and supermarkets should meet specific requirements regarding programme design, methods and materials in order to be adopted and implemented. Besides, some important implementation strategies of the educational and environmental programmes were identified. It is concluded that it seems feasible to conduct educational and environmental intervention programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, but that certain conditions for adoption and continued implementation have to be met. Based on the implications of this study, the development of an educational programme, a labelling programme and a food supply programme was completed.

  18. Targets to increase food production: One Health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J. McMahon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population means that there is a requirement to expand global food production. Looking at the Republic of Ireland as an example, the risks and opportunities associated with the expansion of food production are outlined, particularly in relation to zoonoses transmission. A One Health approach to sustainable food production is required to avert a potential public health problem associated with increased agricultural expansion.

  19. Stocking the genetic supermarket: reproductive genetic technologies and collective action problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view.

  20. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing: The Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  1. The supermarket of the future saves energy. Shop links food refrigeration to room temperature control, and supplements artificial lighting with daylight; Supermarkt der Zukunft spart Energie. Laden koppelt Lebensmittelkuehlung mit Raumtemperierung und ergaenzt die Beleuchtung durch Tageslicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintars, Dorothee

    2013-07-01

    The energy savings division at the discount store Aldi Sued in Rastatt should in the future only need two-thirds of the primary energy usually required for refrigeration, heating, ventilation, air conditioning and lighting. A compressor pack with carbon dioxide as a coolant which has been developed in-house, and which is coupled to borehole heat exchangers, not only cools food, but also provides temperature control for indoor areas. The energy concept, which has been developed at the ISE Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, is rounded off by a well insulated building envelope, the use of daylight and efficient ventilation. In the third year of operation, the amount of energy consumed is coming close to the ambitious target levels. (orig.)

  2. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  3. Tracking genes from seed to supermarket: techniques and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Carol A

    2003-12-01

    Analytical techniques to track plant genes in the environment and the food chain are essential for environmental risk assessment, government regulation and production and trade of genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, I review laboratory techniques to track plant genes during pre-commercialization research on gene flow and post-commercialization detection, identification and quantification of GM crops from seed to supermarket. At present, DNA- and protein-based assays support both activities but the demand for fast, inexpensive, sensitive methods is increasing. Part of the demand has been generated by stringent food labeling and traceability regulations for GM crops. The increase in GM crops, changes in GM crop design, evolution of government regulations and adoption of risk-assessment frameworks will continue to drive development of analytical techniques.

  4. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...... in the supermarket. The first approach to solve this problem is to design an overall control system which coordinates the compressor capacity and the current refrigeration load. The drawback of this approach is the complexity of the single controller. The solution is investigated in the first part of the report....... A second solution is investigated where only the compressor control is considered. This controller try to feed-forward the measured disturbances, i.e. opening and closing of the cooling site AKV’s. Last a performance analysis of the refrigeration system is performed....

  5. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  6. Bisphenol A in supermarket receipts and its exposure to human in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Chang, Wen-Jing; Sojinu, Samuel O; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2013-08-01

    Paper receipt has been documented as one major source of bisphenol A (BPA) for human exposure but little has been done by researchers to elaborate the potential health risk caused by handling paper receipt up to date. In the present study, BPA was analyzed in 42 supermarket receipts collected from Shenzhen, China. BPA was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from 2.58 to 14.7mgg(-1). In most cases, the total amount of BPA on the receipt was at least one thousand times the amount found in the epoxy lining of a food can, another controversial use of the chemical. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of BPA via handling of supermarket receipt ranged from 2 to 347μgday(-1) (mean, 40.4μgday(-1)) for a supermarket cashier and from 0.24 to 3.98μgday(-1) (mean, 0.69μgday(-1)) for general population. Based on the cumulative probability distribution of the calculated daily exposure to BPA via handling supermarket receipt, the EDI at the 0.1th and 1th percentile for supermarket cashier and general population, were already larger than 100ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1), while at the 0.2th and 71th percentile, the EDI for both populations reached 1000ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1). Considering the adverse endocrine disruptive effects of BPA and the dosage exposure level (from tens to hundreds ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1)), human exposure to BPA in Shenzhen deserves more attention. Sensitivity analysis result showed that the handling time and frequency of supermarket receipts are the most important variables that contributed to most of the total variance of exposure.

  7. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are time adaptive linear time-series models. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions. The system operates in two regimes: one...

  9. Buying behavior in Chinese supermarkets: A comparison across four major cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    The purpose of this paper is to report a study of buying behaviour of imported food products in Chinese supermarkets. Imports of food products to China have increased substantially in the past decade. The present study offers the results from an investigation of retailers' buying behaviour...... for their products. In this study we examined retailers' structure and seafood buying behaviour, using data collected from personal interviews in 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu. The comparison across the four cities revealed significant differences with regard to the importance...... of supplier selection criteria and buying behaviour as well as structural characteristics of the retailers. The findings have important implications for exporters of food products to the Chinese retail market....

  10. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Webster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  11. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  12. Accounting for product substitution in the analysis of food taxes targeting obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhen; Beghin, John C; Jensen, Helen H

    2013-11-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. We calibrate this demand system approach using recent food intake data and existing estimates of price and income elasticities of demand. The demand system accounts for both the within-food group substitution and the substitution across these groups. Simulations of taxes on added sugars and solid fat show that the tax impact on consumption patterns is understated and the induced welfare loss is overstated when not allowing for the substitution possibilities within food groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Portraying Physical Activity in Food Advertising Targeting Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood obesity is a serious health concern (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) and advertising exposure is known to be a contributing factor (Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2006). In recent years consumers have expressed an increased interest in products appearing healthy and food companies have committed to changing their…

  14. Portraying Physical Activity in Food Advertising Targeting Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood obesity is a serious health concern (World Health Organization (WHO), 2013) and advertising exposure is known to be a contributing factor (Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2006). In recent years consumers have expressed an increased interest in products appearing healthy and food companies have committed to changing their…

  15. Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; West, Delia Smith; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Elaine Prewitt, T

    2010-06-01

    Availability and price of healthy foods in food stores has the potential to influence purchasing patterns, dietary intake, and weight status of individuals. This study examined whether demographic factors of the store neighborhood or store size have an impact on the availability and price of healthy foods in sample of grocery stores and supermarkets. The Nutrition Environment Measures Study-Store (NEMS-S) instrument, a standardized observational survey, was utilized to evaluate food stores (N = 42) in a multi-site (Vermont and Arkansas) study in 2008. Census data associated with store census tract (median household income and proportion African-American) were used to characterize store neighborhood and number of cash registers was used to quantify store size. Median household income was significantly associated with the NEMS healthy food availability score (r = 0.36, P store size (r = 0.27, P = 0.09) were significantly related to the Availability score. Larger store size (r = 0.40, P Price scores, indicating more favorable prices for healthier items; neither racial composition nor median household income were significantly related to the Price score (P's > 0.05). Even among supermarkets, healthier foods are less available in certain neighborhoods, although, when available, the quality of healthier options did not differ, suggesting that targeting availability may offer promise for policy initiatives. Furthermore, increasing access to larger stores that can offer lower prices for healthier foods may provide another avenue for enhancing food environments to lower disease risk.

  16. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  17. A ground water source heat pump for the air-conditioning of a supermarket; Une PAC sur nappe phreatique pour climatiser un hypermarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    A thermodynamical solution involving a ground water source heat pump and 19 roof top air-conditioners has been retained for the air-conditioning of a 41000 m{sup 2} supermarket of Colmar (Alsace, France). The supermarket is also equipped with a computer-monitored refrigeration system for the food products and a centralized technical management for the optimization of the installation operation. (J.S.)

  18. A multi-jurisdiction outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 associated with purchasing chicken meat from a supermarket chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michelle E; Fielding, James E; Telfer, Barbara; Stephens, Nicola; Combs, Barry G; Rice, Belinda A; Fitzsimmons, Gerard J; Gregory, Joy E

    2006-01-01

    A multi-jurisdiction case control study was conducted after an increase of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 notifications (a local designated subgroup) was observed throughout Australia. Hypothesis generating interviews conducted in three jurisdictions identified consumption of chicken, eggs, beef and bagged carrots as common among cases and that a high proportion of cases (> 80%) reported purchasing their groceries from a particular supermarket chain (Supermarket A). We conducted a case control study to test whether S. Typhimurium 135 infections were associated with these food items and the purchasing of these products from Supermarket A. The study comprised 61 cases and 173 controls. Cases were younger than controls (p = 0.003) and their distribution by jurisdiction was also significantly different (p Supermarket A (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.2,9.0) or having eaten chicken from a fast food outlet (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.0,7.7) compared to controls. Two positive S. Typhimurium 135 results were obtained through a chicken sampling survey conducted at four Supermarket A stores in Victoria. The results of this study were presented to industry and retail representatives, which facilitated better communication between these groups.

  19. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  20. Comparative study on the microorganisms present in ground meat in supermarkets and local markets in Ecatepec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rosales-Garnica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat is one of the most perishable foods due to that are high in the water and nutrients that promotes the growth of microorganisms. Ground meat tends to have more contamination than fresh meat because of the milling process where the microorganisms that were polluting the inside surface. Five stores were sampled from a supermarket chain and five markets in the municipality of Ecatepec. Ground beef was used for analysis of aerobic plate counts, total coliforms, Staphylococcos, fungi and yeasts. The results show that aerobic mesophilic count is within the limits of the Standard (NOM-092-SSA1-1994, the amount of Staphylococcos exceeds the Standard in the markets but within the limits of the Standard in supermarkets, coliforms and molds and yeasts are present in markets and supermarkets but are not considered in the Standard. We conclude that ground beef is sold in markets and supermarkets in the municipality of Ecatepec has lots of coliforms and Staphylococcos, which are responsible for many toxic infections. It is necessary to update the regulations in force, to be given greater monitoring.

  1. Trade, food, diet and health: perspectives and policy options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2010-01-01

    ... and Food Consumption: A Global Value Chain Approach Gary Gereffi and Michelle Christian 91 7 Links Between Supermarkets and Food Prices, Diet Diversity and Food Safety in Developing Countries Th...

  2. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  3. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-09-07

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  4. Profile of establishments in the supermarket sector with respect to good practices in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Bauermann Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the compliance of the supermarket sector with respect to the Good Practice Program standards of the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Sixty nine establishments were verified using a checklist of good practices for the supermarket sector in Santa Maria, RS (Brazil, from April to July 2011. The data were collected by a food safety and quality professional using this checklist. The results showed that the overall adequacy of the establishments surveyed was 29.07%. The highest percentage of compliance was found for storage at ambient temperature (64.13%. The lowest compliance percentage was also found in different sections and areas in the supermarkets such as bakery and confectionery (14.93%, water supply (18.30%, food handling (21.01%, sausage and cold meat (or deli meat (36.38%, and documentation-related items (4.97%. None of the supermarkets evaluated had the necessary documentation for the implementation of good practices. The results of this study show the importance of effectively implementing a good practice program and quality systems by raising awareness among technicians and professionals of the importance of quality programs used in food companies and the need for more thorough inspection delivered by competent authorities to ensure food safety for consumers.

  5. Targets and timelines for reducing salt in processed food in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm; Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka; Ferrante, Daniel; Nilson, Eduardo; Campbell, Christine; L'Abbé, Mary

    2014-09-01

    Reducing dietary salt is one of the most effective interventions to lessen the burden of premature death and disability. In high-income countries and those in nutrition transition, processed foods are a significant if not the main source of dietary salt. Reformulating these products to reduce their salt content is recommended as a best buy to prevent chronic diseases across populations. In the Americas, there are targets and timelines for reduced salt content of processed foods in 8 countries--Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and the National Salt Reduction Initiative in the United States and Paraguay. While there are common elements across the countries, there are notable differences in their approaches: 4 countries have exclusively voluntary targets, 2 countries have combined voluntary and regulated components, and 1 country has only regulations. The countries have set different types of targets and in some cases combined them: averages, sales-weighted averages, upper limits, and percentage reductions. The foods to which the targets apply vary from single categories to comprehensive categories accounting for all processed products. The most accessible and transparent targets are upper limits per food category. Most likely to have a substantive and sustained impact on salt intake across whole populations is the combination of sales-weighted averages and upper limits. To assist all countries with policies to improve the overall nutritional value of processed foods, the authors call for food companies to supply food composition data and product sales volume data to transparent and open-access platforms and for global companies to supply the products that meet the strictest targets to all markets. Countries participating in common markets at the subregional level can consider harmonizing targets, nutrition labels, and warning labels.

  6. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    and excise duty reforms. The VAT reforms include subsidies of healthy products (products labelled with the Swedish National Food Administration’s healthy symbol) funded by increased VAT on ‘less healthy’ products. The excise duty reforms contain a subsidy of fibre content, funded by excise duties on either...... of the VAT reforms is therefore difficult to evaluate. With the exception of the lowest income group, the excise duty reforms seem to have a positive health effect across all other income groups, with increases in the intake of fibre and reductions in the intake of saturated fat, sugar and added sugar....... For the lowest income group we find the highest increase in the intake of fibre, but generally an increase in the intake of the other nutrients, too. The excise duty reforms also result in a more energy-dense grain diet, with increases in the intake of calories for all income groups. Both the VAT reforms...

  7. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    and excise duty reforms. The VAT reforms include subsidies of healthy products (products labelled with the Swedish National Food Administration’s healthy symbol) funded by increased VAT on ‘less healthy’ products. The excise duty reforms contain a subsidy of fibre content, funded by excise duties on either...... added sugar or saturated fat. Our results suggest that the VAT reforms have a similar impact on dietary quality across all income groups, with increases in fibre intake, but also unwanted increases in the intake of nutrients frequently overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. The impact on dietary quality....... For the lowest income group we find the highest increase in the intake of fibre, but generally an increase in the intake of the other nutrients, too. The excise duty reforms also result in a more energy-dense grain diet, with increases in the intake of calories for all income groups. Both the VAT reforms...

  8. Guiding stars: the effect of a nutrition navigation program on consumer purchases at the supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lisa A; Kaley, Lori A; Fischer, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    To improve diet quality and overall population health, the need to develop nutritional rating systems that are comprehensive in scope and easy for the consumer to understand and use at the point-of-purchase has emerged. Our aim was to examine the effect of a comprehensive storewide supermarket point-of-purchase nutrition navigation intervention by using a shelf-label 3-tiered star icon on consumer food and beverage choices and their associated nutritional quality. By using a natural experiment design, purchasing data from 2006 to 2008 were obtained from a Northeast supermarket chain with 168 stores located in northern New England and New York and examined at preimplementation and at 1- and 2-y follow-up periods. The nutrition navigation system studied showed significant changes in food purchasing immediately after implementation, and these changes continued to be significant 1 and 2 y later. When the same 8-mo period (January-August) each year was compared, in 2006, 24.50% of items purchased earned a star rating; this proportion increased to 24.98% (P supermarket point-of-purchase programs, such as the Guiding Stars nutrition navigation program, that provide clear, concise, and simplified nutrition information to guide consumer food and beverage choices.

  9. The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097

  10. The context for choice: health implications of targeted food and beverage marketing to African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-09-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive.

  11. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C. Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-01-01

    A “supermarket revolution” has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the “newcomers”—India and Vietnam—have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been “precocious” penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a “hub” or “platform” or “park” the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including “bringing modern markets to farmers” by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets. PMID:21135250

  12. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges ('healthier', luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of 'healthier' meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available - particularly amongst meals specifically marked as 'healthier'. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as 'healthier'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... systems and therefore the experience with its application is limited. In the future, the energy test method may be used for evaluation of the efficiency of a new system or the improvement in efficiency when optimising an existing system....... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  14. OPTIMARKT. Reduction of the global warming potential (GWP) and saving of non renewable energy sources (PE{sub ne}) of food retail supermarkets within Austria; Optimarkt. Energieverbrauch und Treibhauspotenzial von Supermaerkten. Reduktion des Treibhauspotenzials (GWP) und Einsparung von nicht erneuerbarer Primaerenergie (PE{sub ne}) in Supermaerkten des Lebensmitteleinzelhandels in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Gerald [Hauser GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    This article shows how integrated building engineering on a supermarket works. With analysing of two reference supermarkets as a definition of the standard in Austria, will be made an identification of parameters for energy and ecology. After that a benchmarking with an optimised building called OPTIMARKT will take place. Due optimising of the building shell, illumination, refrigerated cabinets and system, ventilation, heating and cooling system of the building the consumption of non renewable energy and global warming. (orig.)

  15. Content analysis of targeted food and beverage advertisements in a Chinese-American neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Pageot, Yrvane K; Hernández-Villarreal, Olivia; Kaplan, Sue A; Kwon, Simona C

    2017-08-01

    The current descriptive study aimed to: (i) quantify the number and type of advertisements (ads) located in a Chinese-American neighbourhood in a large, urban city; and (ii) catalogue the targeted marketing themes used in the food/beverage ads. Ten pairs of trained research assistants photographed all outdoor ads in a 0·6 mile2 (1·6 km2) area where more than 60·0 % of residents identify as Chinese American. We used content analysis to assess the marketing themes of ads, including references to: Asian cultures; health; various languages; children; food or beverage type (e.g. sugar-sweetened soda). Lower East Side, a neighbourhood located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA. Ads (n 1366) in the designated neighbourhood. Food/beverage ads were the largest ad category (29·7 %, n 407), followed by services (e.g. mobile phone services; 21·0 %, n 288). Sixty-seven per cent (66·9 %) of beverages featured were sugar-sweetened, and 50·8 % of food ads promoted fast food. Fifty-five per cent (54·9 %) of food/beverage ads targeted Asian Americans through language, ethnicity of person(s) in the ad or inclusion of culturally relevant images. Fifty per cent (50·2 %) of ads were associated with local/small brands. Food/beverage marketing practices are known to promote unhealthy food and beverage products. Research shows that increased exposure leads to excessive short-term consumption among consumers and influences children's food preferences and purchase requests. Given the frequency of racially targeted ads for unhealthy products in the current study and increasing rates of obesity-related diseases among Asian Americans, research and policies should address the implications of food and beverage ads on health.

  16. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet, and body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among U.S. urban food desert residents and their association with diet and body mass. Design Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height, and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n=1372) was collected. Audits of all neighborhood food stores (n=24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighborhood (n=16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Setting Two low-income predominantly African-American neighborhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Household food shoppers. Results Only one neighborhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighborhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2.6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6.0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately two hours roundtrip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often, and spent less money per person. Those who traveled further when they shopped had higher BMIs, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full service groceries was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Conclusions Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective. PMID:25475559

  17. What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.

  18. PEMETAAN PREFERENSI KONSUMEN SUPERMARKET DENGAN METODE KANO BERDASARKAN DIMENSI SERVQUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto Widiawan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of supermarket usually has some assumptions about the customers' expectation. Sometimes these assumtions do not reflect the nature of customers' expectations. Because of this miss perception, the supermarket looses its profit and becomes inefficient. This research was carried out in order to find out the customers' expectation on facilities and services of the supermarkets according to the servqual dimensions. The outcomes will be mapped into Kano categorizations. The researcher asked the customer dan manager of four supermarkets to fill the prepared questionnaires. Based on the result of customers' questionnaires, tangible, reliability and assurance dimensions were categorized as one dimensional. While responsiveness and emphaty dimensions were categorized as indifferent. Based on the result of managers' questionnaires, all servqual dimensions were categorized as one dimensional. After comparing the results of customers' and managers' questionnaires, there are three of four supermarkets which are match each other. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Manajemen supermarket pada umumnya memiliki asumsi-asumsi mengenai harapan konsumen yang belum tentu sama dengan harapan konsumen sesungguhnya. Akibat ketidaktahuan informasi penting tersebut, tidak sedikit supermarket yang mengalami kerugian atau kinerjanya tidak efisien. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui harapan konsumen tentang fasilitas dan layanan supermarket menurut dimensi servqual yang dipetakan ke dalam kategori Kano. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap konsumen dan manajer dengan cara memberikan kuesioner. Menurut responden konsumen supermarket, dimensi servqual yang tergolong kategori one dimensional adalah tangible, reliability dan assurance. Sedangkan dimensi responsiveness dan emphaty termasuk kategori indifferent. Sementara itu, responden manajer supermarket berpendapat semua dimensi servqual termasuk kategori one dimensional. Dari empat supermarket yang diteliti, diketahui

  19. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration / Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings (16 papers) of a workshop (held in Stockholm, Sweden, 2-3 October 2000) on Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems. Sessions at the workshop discussed: The supermarket as a system, Analysis and modelling, Field experiences and Energy-efficient equipment. The 16 papers presented at the workshop provide a useful information source for all involved in supermarket refrigeration.

  20. New End Markets, Supermarket Expansion, and Shifting Social Standards

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Northern supermarket chains have internationalized rapidly and Southern supermarket chains have expanded their footprint in emerging markets. As they have done so, questions have arisen about the impact of such supermarkets and the extent of consumer demand for social standards (labour standards and fair trade). While standards have been more (or less) codified in their Northern counterparts over recent decades, it remains an empirical question whether –and if so how—they...

  1. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems - Workshop Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, P.

    2001-06-15

    This CD ROM brings together proceedings of the Annex 26 Workshop 'Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems' held in Sweden, 2-3 October 2000. Sessions at the workshop were: Session 1: The supermarket as a system, Session 2: Analysis and modeling, Session 3: Field experiences, Session 4: Energy-efficient equipment. Annex 26 investigates candidate advanced system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption for both refrigeration and heating/ air conditioning in supermarkets. Advanced supermarket refrigeration system concepts to be considered include, but are not limited to secondary loop systems, distributed compressors systems, and self-contained display cases.

  2. Review of validation and reporting of non-targeted fingerprinting approaches for food authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Janet; Esslinger, Susanne; Fauhl-Hassek, Carsten

    2015-07-23

    Food fingerprinting approaches are expected to become a very potent tool in authentication processes aiming at a comprehensive characterization of complex food matrices. By non-targeted spectrometric or spectroscopic chemical analysis with a subsequent (multivariate) statistical evaluation of acquired data, food matrices can be investigated in terms of their geographical origin, species variety or possible adulterations. Although many successful research projects have already demonstrated the feasibility of non-targeted fingerprinting approaches, their uptake and implementation into routine analysis and food surveillance is still limited. In many proof-of-principle studies, the prediction ability of only one data set was explored, measured within a limited period of time using one instrument within one laboratory. Thorough validation strategies that guarantee reliability of the respective data basis and that allow conclusion on the applicability of the respective approaches for its fit-for-purpose have not yet been proposed. Within this review, critical steps of the fingerprinting workflow were explored to develop a generic scheme for multivariate model validation. As a result, a proposed scheme for "good practice" shall guide users through validation and reporting of non-targeted fingerprinting results. Furthermore, food fingerprinting studies were selected by a systematic search approach and reviewed with regard to (a) transparency of data processing and (b) validity of study results. Subsequently, the studies were inspected for measures of statistical model validation, analytical method validation and quality assurance measures. In this context, issues and recommendations were found that might be considered as an actual starting point for developing validation standards of non-targeted metabolomics approaches for food authentication in the future. Hence, this review intends to contribute to the harmonization and standardization of food fingerprinting, both

  3. Targeting International Food Aid Programmes: The Case of Productive Safety Net Programme in Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Azadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has experienced more than five major droughts in the past three decades, leading to high dependency on international food aids. Nevertheless, studies indicate that asset depletion has not been prevented; neither did food insecurity diminish. Since 2004/5, the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP has been implemented to improve food security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Critics point out that the implementation of food aid programmes can have negative impacts as well as positive outcomes for local communities. Accordingly, this survey study aimed to analyse the distribution and allocation of food aids in the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP in Tigray. Results of 479 interviews revealed that targeting different households in the PSNP has been considerably linked to socio-demographic attributes among which age and size of family were decisive factors to receive food aids. Furthermore, older households with smaller family size received more direct support. Inequality between genders was another major finding of this study. When combined with the marital status, there was also a big difference in the percentage of married or unmarried women receiving food aids. These findings could provide fundamental information for policy intervention to correct food security programmes at household level and reduce hunger. Given that, socio-demographic factors can help to identify particular and usually different requirements, vulnerabilities and coping strategies of the members of the food aid programme, so that they can be much more addressed when an emergency happens.

  4. Diet quality of items advertised in supermarket sales circulars compared to diets of the US population, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Supermarkets use sales circulars to highlight specific foods, usually at reduced prices. Resulting purchases help form the set of available foods within households from which individuals and families make choices about what to eat. Objective: The purposes of this study were to determin...

  5. Business Concept as a Relational Message: Supermarket vs Independent Grocery as Competitors for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Mikkola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with competition for sustainability between two business concepts, the supermarket and the independent grocery, both selling local and organic food. The paper is based on Finnish case evidence with very oligopolistic retail structure and its empirical and the theoretical interest focuses on the nature of economic exchange relations of these business concepts. The study shows how the supermarket is driven by market and hierarchic as well as power relations, regarding both suppliers and consumers. The business concept includes weak choice editing and indicates ‘consumer versus producer via retailer’ set-up. The independent grocery is at its core a social and partnership based endeavour, entailing strong choice editing for sustainability through the ‘consumer cum producer via retailer’ set-up. However, the supermarket may include more local and organic food in its product range on market conditions, in need of customer management, while the grocery can expand by decentralized multiplication of its business concept. The grocery also adds a new market channel for family farmers enabling better use of local resources, thereby renewing the market. This study shows the importance of the business concept as a condition and limitation for further growth, and explains the business concept as a relational message for sustainability.

  6. Carbon Dioxide cares for cooling and heating of a supermarket. Energetic optimization of a Tegut food mart; Kohlendioxid sorgt fuer Kaelte und Waerme im Supermarkt. Energetische Optimierung eines Tegut Lebensmittelfachmarkts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, Felix [Pressebuero Schwitzgebel, Oppenheim (Germany); Heinbokel, Bernd [PE Energy Consulting, Natural Refrigerants Carrier Kaeltetechnik Deutschland GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Uhlemann, Frank [Eckelmann AG, Wiesbaden (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Kaelte- und Gebaeudeleittechnik

    2009-03-15

    Owing to high temperatures at the compressor outlet, waste heat can be used for freshwater heating both in transcritical and subcritical refrigeration processes involving CO2. A system of this kind was installed in a Tegut food market at Lorsch, south of Frankfurt. The process has several expansion stages, thus avoiding high-pressure installations in the building. (orig.)

  7. Effects of sales promotions, weight status, and impulsivity on purchases in a supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Several environmental factors contribute to increased food consumption and play a role in the prevalence of obesity, like portion size, accessibility and relative price of high caloric foods, food commercials, and sales promotions. However, not everyone seems equally sensitive to these environmental cues and both obesity and impulsivity appears to play a role. In this study, food purchases in an internet supermarket are tested in 118 participants, with or without sales promotions for snack foods. Both weight status and response inhibition, an index of impulsivity, are measured. Participants with less inhibitory control purchased in total more calories from the internet supermarket then participants with more inhibitory control. In addition, sales promotion, weight status, and inhibitory control appeared to interact in their effect on snack food purchases: participants with less inhibitory control and overweight bought more calories of snacks in the sales promotions condition, but not in the control condition. For the other participants, with normal weight and/or high inhibitory control, sales promotions had no effect on their purchases of calories of snacks. It seems that especially the combination of low inhibitory control and overweight makes participants vulnerable for environmental cues. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Recruitment and selection for the packer position in a supermarket network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Moraes Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of personnel recruitment and selection is a common practice to hire people in organizations. The goal of this study is to report and to reflect about this process in a supermarket chain, which operates in food and non-food retail in the state of Sao Paulo. The purpose of the present intervention was to facilitate the recruitment and selection process for the packer position. After the intervention, we noticed an improvement on the hiring process, on the working conditions and a turnover reduction in this position.

  9. Modelling income group differences in the health and economic impacts of targeted food taxes and subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoaham, Kelechi E; Sacks, Gary; Rayner, Mike; Mytton, Oliver; Gray, Alastair

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects, by income group, of targeted food taxes and subsidies on nutrition, health and expenditure in the UK. A model based on consumption data and demand elasticity was constructed to predict the effects of four food taxation-subsidy regimens. Resulting changes in demand, expenditure, nutrition, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality were estimated. Data Expenditure data were taken from the Expenditure and Food Survey; estimates of price elasticities of demand for food were taken from a report based on the National Food Survey 1988-2000. Estimates of effect on CVD and cancer mortality of changing fat, salt, fruit and vegetable intake were taken from previous meta-analyses. (i) Taxing principal sources of dietary saturated fat is unlikely to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer mortality. (ii) Taxing 'less healthy' foods (defined by the WXYfm nutrient profiling model) could increase CVD and cancer deaths by 35-1300 yearly. (iii) Taxing 'less healthy' foods and subsidising fruits and vegetables by 17.5% could avert up to 2900 CVD and cancer deaths yearly. (iv) Taxing 'less healthy' foods and using all tax revenue to subsidize fruits and vegetables could avert up to 6400 CVD and cancer deaths yearly. Few obesity-related CVD deaths are averted by any of the regimens. All four regimens would be economically regressive and positive health effects will not necessarily be greater in lower-income groups where the need for dietary improvement is higher. A targeted food tax combined with the appropriate subsidy on fruits and vegetables could reduce deaths from CVD and cancer.

  10. Urban food environments and residents' shopping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Tappe, Karyn; Hillier, Amy; Buttenheim, Alison; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen

    2013-11-01

    Food environments may promote or undermine healthy behaviors, but questions remain regarding how individuals interact with their local food environments. This study incorporated an urban food environment audit as well as an examination of residents' food shopping behaviors within that context. In 2010, the research team audited the variety and healthfulness of foods available in 373 Philadelphia stores, using the validated Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S); higher scores indicate more diverse and healthful food inventories. The team also surveyed urban residents (n=514) regarding their food shopping. Descriptive and multivariate analyses (conducted in 2012) assessed variation in retail food environments and in shoppers' store choices. Corner and convenience stores were common (78.6% of food retail outlets) and had the lowest mean NEMS-S scores of any store type. Most participants (94.5%) did their primary food shopping at higher-scoring chain supermarkets, and the majority of participants did not shop at the supermarket closest to home. Supermarket offerings varied, with significantly fewer healthful foods at supermarkets closest to the homes of disadvantaged residents. In multivariate analyses, participants were significantly more likely to shop at supermarkets closest to home if those supermarkets had higher NEMS-S scores. These data suggest that, when possible, shoppers chose supermarkets that offered more variety and more healthful foods. Findings from this study also reinforce concern regarding unhealthy immediate food environments for disadvantaged residents, who disproportionately relied on nearby stores with more limited food items. Interventions to improve nutrition and health should address not only food store proximity but also diversity of healthful foods available. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  11. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention.

  12. Targeted Food Marketing to Youth: Engaging Professionals in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katras, Mary Jo; Kunkel, Kelly; Croymans, Sara R.; Routh, Brianna; Schroeder, Mary; Olson, Carrie Ann

    2014-01-01

    The use of technology provides unique ways to create an engaged online community of learning for professionals that can be integrated into existing and future Extension programming. The Targeted Food Marketing to Youth online professional development course uses strategies and tools to create and support an engaged online community.

  13. Measuring Micro-Level Effects of a New Supermarket: Do Residents Within 0.5 Mile Have Improved Dietary Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus, Stephanie; Athens, Jessica; Cantor, Jonathan; Elbel, Brian

    2017-08-08

    Local and national policies to encourage supermarket opening or expansion are popular strategies for improving access to healthy food for residents in neighborhoods lacking these types of stores, yet few evaluations of such initiatives exist. Our aim was to test whether a newly opened supermarket in the Bronx, NY, changed household availability of healthy and unhealthy food items and reported daily consumption of these items among respondents residing in close proximity (≤0.5 mile) to the new supermarket. This quasi-experimental study evaluated changes in purchasing and consumption habits of residents within 0.5 mile of the new supermarket as compared to residents living more than 0.5 mile from the supermarket. Data were collected through street intercept surveys at three different times: once before the store opened (March to August 2011) and in two follow-up periods (1 to 5 months and 13 to 17 months after the store opened). This study analyzed a subset of successfully geocoded resident intersections from the larger study. We surveyed 3,998 residents older than the age of 18 years in two Bronx neighborhoods about their food-purchasing behaviors before the store opened and in two follow-up periods. Responses from residents whose intersections were successfully geocoded (N=3,378) were analyzed to examine the consumption and purchasing behaviors of those in close proximity to the new store. A new supermarket opened in a low-access neighborhood in the Bronx with the help of financial incentives through New York City's Food Retail Expansion to Support Health (FRESH) program. The primary outcome evaluated was the change in percent of respondents reporting that the following food items were "always available" in the home: milk, fruit juice, soda, pastries, packaged snacks, fruits, and vegetables. As a secondary outcome, we explored changes in self-reported daily servings of these items. A difference-in-difference analysis was performed, controlling for age, education

  14. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    fat. Participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP was associated with lower household levels of total energy, calcium, vitamin C, sodium, vitamin D, and saturated fat. Spatial access and utilization of supermarkets and dollar stores were not associated with nutrient availability. Conclusions Although household members frequently purchased food items from supermarkets or dollar stores, it was spatial access to and frequent utilization of convenience food stores that influenced the amount of nutrients present in Texas border colonia households. These findings also suggest that households which participate in NSLP have reduced AE-adjusted nutrients available in the home. The next step will target changes within convenience stores to improve in-store marketing of foods and beverages to children and adults.

  15. 建设江阴进口食品超市可行性调研报告%The construction of the Jiangyin imported food supermarket feasibility research report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏颖; 吴陈君

    2014-01-01

    随着人们的消费观念和消费档次逐渐提高和升级,越来越追求高品质的生活质量。江阴经济雄居全国百强县之首,成为城镇经济的领航者,快速从过去的温饱型向营养型、健康型、品牌型转变。进口食品以其上乘品质、营养健康、新奇时尚受到了越来越多不同年龄层次、不同消费层次的人群的青睐。专家分析,未来十年是中国进口食品高速发展期,值此契机进入进口食品行业,开创江阴进口食品消费市场,未来时期将是“井喷式”增长,前景非常广阔。%People's consumption concept and consumption level gradually improve, more and more pursuit of high quality of life. Jiangyin economic rank among the country, become a leading urban economy, fast, subsistence from the past to nutritional, healthy model, brand type. Imported food has excellent quality, nutrition, health, are popular in different age groups. Expert analysis, in the next decade, China imported foods’ high speed development, on the occasion of the opportunity to enter import food industry, create Jiangyin’s imported food consumption market, future will be a"blowout"growth, prospects are very broad.

  16. Food masquerade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself.

  17. Cooperative relationships and competitiveness in supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Centenaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to investigate the influence of cooperative relations in the performance of companies in the supermarket sector, comparing the companies associated networks with companies not associated. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was a survey research with 31 companies. Findings – The results indicate that the cooperative relationships with suppliers have a positive impact on companies of performance, while the cooperative relationships with competitors and local institutions do not influence the performance. Moreover, it appears that there is no relationship between participation in a network of cooperation and achieving superior performance. However, companies linked to the network present better cooperative relationships with suppliers, which positively impacts the performance and therefore have competitive advantages over companies not associated to networks. Originality/value – The cooperative relationships with suppliers can provide benefits such as reducing logistics costs, improved product portfolio, better negotiating prices and terms, partnership for conducting marketing strategies among others, thus increasing the competitiveness of companies in the supermarket sector.

  18. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS.... Areas of the food and agricultural sciences, including multidisciplinary studies, appropriate...

  19. Study on knowledge,attitudes and use of the pre-packaged food nutrition labeling in Hangzhou supermarket consumers in 2010%杭州市超市消费者预包装食品营养标签行为流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪志恒; 王胜锋; 刘淼; 杨雅平; 陈勇; 刘庆敏; 任艳军; 吕筠; 李立明

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解杭州市超市消费者对预包装食品营养标签的认知、态度、行为的现状及其影响因素.方法 采用自行拟定的调查量表,选取杭州市某大型超市,随机抽取顾客进行面对面访谈.结果 在访谈的586(男202、女384)人中,平均年龄(41.6±17.23)岁.消费者对6种营养素的模拟购物题应答正确率依次为膳食纤维(71.84%)、脂肪(70.99%)、钙(60.75%)、盐(58.36%)、能量(50.85%)和糖(39.42%);对标识营养成分表、营养声称和希望了解相关知识的3个态度指标中,认同率分别为90.44%、87.03%和77.13%;对首次购买某食品阅读营养成分表和营养标签的2个行为指标中,阅读率分别为58.36%和80.03%.经logistic建模分析,男性、青少年、低教育人群是营养标签阅读行为的危险因素.结论 消费者营养标签阅读、理解和正确应用营养标签的能力不高,亟待改进营养标签与声称的可读性和权威性,应制定全国营养知识健康教育规划.%Objective To study the prevalence rates of knowledge,attitudes and use of the nutrition labeling and related influential factors in Hangzhou supermarket consumers.Methods Using a self-developed survey questionnaire,randomly selected customers were conducted a face-toface interview program in a large supermarket of Hangzhou city.Results 586 people were interviewed,including 202 males and 384 females,with the mean age as 41.6±17.23 years.The Facts Labels'were as follows:dietary fiber(71.84%),fat(70.99%),calcium(60.75%),salt (58.36%),energy(50.85%)and sugar(39.42%).The support rates of the three attitudes indicators were"support marking the Nutrition Facts Label"(90.44%)."support marking the nutrition claims"(87.03%)and"want to know more relative knowledge"(77.13%).There were 58.36% and 80.03%first-time buyers who would read the Nutrition Facts Food Labels and the Nutrition Claims.Through logistic model analysis,male,youth,low-educated people were found to be the risk

  20. The effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables: results of a randomized trial in a three-dimensional web-based supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables on food purchases in a supermarket environment. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two research conditions was conducted: a control condition with regular prices (n = 52) and an experimental condition with a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables (n = 63). The experiment was carried out using a three-dimensional web-based supermarket, which is a software application in the image of a real supermarket. Data were collected in 2010 in the Netherlands. Participants received a fixed budget and were asked to buy weekly household groceries at the web-based supermarket. Differences in fruit and vegetable purchases, differences in expenditures in other food categories and differences in total calories were analyzed using independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regression models accounting for potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results The purchased amount of fruit plus vegetables was significantly higher in the experimental condition compared to the control condition (Δ984 g per household per week, p = .03) after appropriate adjustments. This corresponds to a 25% difference compared to the control group. Both groups had similar expenditures in unhealthier food categories, including desserts, soda, crisps, candy and chocolate. Furthermore, both groups purchased an equal number of food items and an equal amount of calories, indicating that participants in the discount condition did not spend the money they saved from the discounts on other foods than fruits and vegetables. Conclusion A 25% discount on fruits and vegetables was effective in stimulating purchases of those products and did neither lead to higher expenditures in

  1. The effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables: results of a randomized trial in a three-dimensional web-based supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; de Boer, Michiel R; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C

    2012-02-08

    Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables on food purchases in a supermarket environment. A randomized controlled trial with two research conditions was conducted: a control condition with regular prices (n = 52) and an experimental condition with a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables (n = 63). The experiment was carried out using a three-dimensional web-based supermarket, which is a software application in the image of a real supermarket. Data were collected in 2010 in the Netherlands. Participants received a fixed budget and were asked to buy weekly household groceries at the web-based supermarket. Differences in fruit and vegetable purchases, differences in expenditures in other food categories and differences in total calories were analyzed using independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regression models accounting for potential effect modifiers and confounders. The purchased amount of fruit plus vegetables was significantly higher in the experimental condition compared to the control condition (Δ984 g per household per week, p = .03) after appropriate adjustments. This corresponds to a 25% difference compared to the control group. Both groups had similar expenditures in unhealthier food categories, including desserts, soda, crisps, candy and chocolate. Furthermore, both groups purchased an equal number of food items and an equal amount of calories, indicating that participants in the discount condition did not spend the money they saved from the discounts on other foods than fruits and vegetables. A 25% discount on fruits and vegetables was effective in stimulating purchases of those products and did neither lead to higher expenditures in unhealthier food categories nor to higher

  2. From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howick, Ken; Griffin, Brendan T.; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a) internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrally-mediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. PMID:28134808

  3. From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Howick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrallymediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry.

  4. From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howick, Ken; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F; Schellekens, Harriët

    2017-01-27

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a) internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrallymediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin's central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry.

  5. Eco-efficiency evaluations of supermarket refrigeration plants; Oekoeffizienzbetrachtungen von Supermarktkaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehlmann, A. [Solvay Management Support GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Jakobs, R. [Informationszentrum Waermepumpen und Kaeltetechnik, Hannover (Germany); Meurer, C. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In order to evaluate technical systems information must be summarised and prepared in the best possible way. The used methods are very often rather complex and the results are not very transparent. The concept of eco-efficiency that describes the relation between value creation and generated environmental loads is a useful alternative in order to alleviate the joint evaluation of economic and ecological aspects. In order to describe the present state of technology and to find rewarding targets of future developments the eco-efficiency method was applied for various concepts of cold generation in supermarkets. The data needed for evaluation was provided by an experienced experts' group. The results of the investigation confirm that the major environmental loads of supermarket refrigeration plants are caused by their operation. In terms of life-cycle costs the main load occurs in the fields of acquisition and energy costs. It could be shown that systems using the refrigerant R134a in the range of standard cold are superior in terms of eco-efficiency to alternative plant concepts (R404A and HKW-free alternatives) in all investigated environmental efficiency categories. The increase of eco-efficiency by investments in optimised plant technology and thus minimised operating costs for supermarket refrigeration plants could be proved as well. (orig.)

  6. Synchronization Analysis of the Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Chen, Liang; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    2009-01-01

    consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewiseaffine switched system. Stability analysis is performed bygluing the subsystems and polyhedra together to form a single dynamical system defined on a coherent state space. Then, system behavior......The supermarket refrigeration system typically has a distributed control structure, which neglects interactions between its subsystems. These interactions from time to time lead to a synchronization operation of the display-cases which causes an inferior control performance and increased energy...... is analyzed using the bifurcation and chaos theory. It is demonstrated that the system can have a complex chaotic behavior, which is far from the synchronization. This shows that making the system chaotic is a good choice for a de-synchronization strategy. The positive maximum Lyapunov exponent is usually...

  7. Training motor responses to food: A novel treatment for obesity targeting implicit processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Lawrence, Natalia S; Kemps, Eva; Veling, Harm

    2016-11-01

    The present review first summarizes results from prospective brain imaging studies focused on identifying neural vulnerability factors that predict excessive weight gain. Next, findings from cognitive psychology experiments evaluating various interventions involving food response inhibition training or food response facilitation training are reviewed that appear to target these neural vulnerability factors and that have produced encouraging weight loss effects. Findings from both of these reviewed research fields suggest that interventions that reduce reward and attention region responses to high calorie food cues and increase inhibitory region responses to high calorie food cues could prove useful in the treatment of obesity. Based on this review, a new conceptual model is presented to describe how different cognitive training procedures may contribute to modifying eating behavior and important directions for future research are offered. It is concluded that there is a need for evaluating the effectiveness of more intensive food response training interventions and testing whether adding such training to extant weight loss interventions increases their efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  9. Super-Exponential Solution for a Retrial Supermarket Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan-Lin; Wang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a new and effective approach for studying super-exponential solution of a retrial supermarket model with Poisson arrivals, exponential service times and exponential retrial times and with two different probing-server numbers. We describe the retrial supermarket model as a system of differential equations by means of density-dependent jump Markov processes, and obtain an iterative algorithm for computing the fixed point of the system of differential equations. Based on the fixed point, we analyze the expected sojourn time that a tagged arriving customer spends in this system, and use numerical examples to indicate different influence of the two probing-server numbers on system performance including the fixed point and the expected sojourn time. Furthermore, we analyze exponential convergence of the current location of the retrial supermarket model to the fixed point, and apply the Kurtz Theorem to study density-dependent jump Markov process given in the retrial supermarket model, whic...

  10. Supermarket refrigeration modeling and field demonstration: Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.; Deming, G.I.

    1989-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to investigate supermarket refrigeration. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop an energy use and demand model of supermarket refrigeration systems and (2) to carry out an extensive field test of such systems in an operating supermarket. To accomplish these goals, a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., and located in Menlo Park, CA, with an existing conventional refrigeration system utilizing single compressor units, was equipped with a state-of-the-art system with multiplexed parallel compressors. The store and both refrigeration systems were thoroughly instrumented and a test schedule was prepared and executed. Presented in this report are the preliminary results of this field test along with the initial validation of the energy use and demand model. 62 figs., 47 tabs.

  11. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  12. Sustainable food consumption in urban Thailand: an emerging market?

    OpenAIRE

    Kantamaturapoj, K.

    2012-01-01

    The food market in Bangkok has developed from a purely traditional one to a combination between traditional and modern sectors. In 1970s and earlier, fresh markets accounted for a hundred percent of food shopping in Bangkok. From that time on, the modern food retails in Bangkok has rapidly spread since the late 1990s. Many chain stores of the transnational supermarkets such as Carrefour, Tesco Lotus, and Casino are discovered everywhere in Bangkok. These multinational supermarkets have global...

  13. Food marketing targeting youth and families: what do we know about stores where moms actually shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Rooney, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  14. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC, and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  15. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Rooney, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop. PMID:24163701

  16. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  17. Specifics of marketing targeted to the segments of elderly consumers and children of the food companies on the Czech market.

    OpenAIRE

    Olšanová, Květa

    2011-01-01

    Activities of international food companies targeted to selected groups of consumers (children and seniors) are specific in several respects. Communication policy targeted on children is strongly regulated at both national and international level, thus new product development targeted to children needs special attention of marketers. Targeting seniors above fifty years is considered by marketers to be less perspective despite significant growth of the segment. The thesis analyses specifics of ...

  18. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    effective in promoting purchase of healthy foods. Conclusion Given the diverse study settings and despite the challenges of methodological quality for some papers, we find efficacy of in-store healthy food interventions in terms of increased purchase of healthy foods. Researchers need to take risk of bias...... interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies...

  19. Predictive microbiology combined with metagenomic analysis targeted on the 16S rDNA : A new approach for food quality

    OpenAIRE

    Delhalle, Laurent; Ellouze, Mariem; Taminiau, Bernard; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas; Nezer, Carine; Daube,Georges

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The food spoilage process is mainly caused by alteration micro-organisms and classical culture-based methods have therefore been used to assess the microbiological quality of food. These techniques are simple to implement but may not be relevant to understand the modifications of the microbial ecology which occur in the food product in response to different changes in the environmental conditions. Metagenomic analysis targeted on 16S ribosomal DNA can bring about a solution to t...

  20. A Real-Time PCR Method Targeting Camel Ingredient for Food Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yajun; Yang, Yange; Wang, Bin; Liu, Mingchang; Han, Jianxun; Chen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The special nutritious value of camel showed high potential for market exploitation. In this paper, a real-time PCR method targeting camel ingredient in camel meat and milk is reported as an approach to fight against adulteration. To understand the impact of processing procedures on the amplifiability of cytb gene, four kinds of processed camel meat were investigated, and the rate of DNA breakage was explored. The method was able to detect 5 fg/μL camel DNA and highly processed food containing 0.01% camel meat with a high confidence level.

  1. Altering shoppers' supermarket purchases to fit nutritional guidelines: an interactive information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, R A; Moore, J F; Wagner, J L; Hite, L A; Leahy, M; Neubauer, T E; Walberg, J L; Walker, W B; Lombard, D; Geller, E S

    1991-01-01

    This study reports the results of one effort to help supermarket shoppers alter food purchases to make purchases (and meals) that are lower in fat and higher in fiber. A prototype interactive information system using instructional video programs, feedback on purchases with specific goals for change, weekly programs, and the ability to track user interactions and intended purchases was evaluated. The major dependent measure was users' actual food purchases as derived from participants' highly detailed supermarket receipts. After a 5- to 7-week baseline phase, participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition for the 7- to 8-week intervention phase. A follow-up phase began 5 to 8 weeks after participants completed the intervention and discontinued use of the system. The results indicated that experimental participants, when compared to control participants, decreased high fat purchases and increased high fiber purchases during intervention, with evidence for some maintenance of effect in follow-up. Plans for increasing the use and impact of the system are discussed.

  2. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? -a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen D

    2016-12-28

    The Prevalence of obesity and overweight has been increasing in many countries. Many factors have been identified as contributing to obesity including the food environment, especially the access, availability and affordability of healthy foods in grocery stores and supermarkets. Several interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review's key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality of all included articles has been determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD). The literature search identified 1580 publications, of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions used a combination of information (e.g. awareness raising through food labeling, promotions, campaigns, etc.) and increasing availability of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Few used price interventions. The average quality score for all papers is 65.0%, or an overall medium methodological quality. Apart from few studies, most studies reported that store interventions were effective in promoting purchase of healthy foods. Given the diverse study settings and despite the challenges of methodological quality for some papers, we find efficacy of in-store healthy food

  3. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Polet, Ilse A.; Holthuysen, Nancy T. E.; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers’ purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices. PMID:27010704

  4. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Simon; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-12-14

    To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Cross sectional study. Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA's "traffic light" system for labelling food. No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% Psupermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals.

  5. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A; Maaskant, Anna J; Polet, Ilse A; Holthuysen, Nancy T E; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers' purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices.

  6. Impact of HVAC control improvements on supermarket humidity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattar, M.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents field-monitored data from two supermarkets where the impact of implementing minor HVAC control improvements was evaluated. The control improvements were intended to increase the dehumidification capacity of the HVAC system and lower space humidity levels. Direct digital control (DDC) was installed at each store to monitor system performance and implement the control improvements. At the first test store, a 33,400 ft{sup 2} (3,104 m{sup 2}) supermarket near Minneapolis, a conventional 50 ton (176 kW) split system conditioned the sales area. At the second store, a 50,000 ft{sup 2} (4,647 m{sup 2}{minus}) supermarket near Indianapolis, three rooftop units (RTUs) with a total capacity of 98 tons (344 kW) conditioned the store. The results from both supermarkets confirm the impact that supply airflow and part-load control of evaporator coil temperatures can have on dehumidification performance. Seemingly minor control adjustments can often have a big impact on the performance of supermarket HVAC systems. Even enhanced dehumidification technologies, such as heat pipe-assisted evaporator coils, can benefit from minor system tuning.

  7. INTELLIGENT APRIORI ALGORITHM FOR COMPLEX ACTIVITY MINING IN SUPERMARKET APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ganesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As shopping becomes a shared experience and joint process with friends or family members nowadays, the most important problems arise with variety of products and the product information available in the supermarkets. This study proposes a system that uses Intelligent Apriori algorithm to support consumers in getting the required items from various supermarkets. Also this work intelligently suggests the best movement and reducing unwanted movement of the customer and quickly finds out the next operation which includes the next supermarket which is visited by the customer for the next item he/she purchases. This approach can further be extended to the world of mobile communication where the next movement of the mobile user can be predicted and used intelligently to arrange necessary requirements at the destination before he actually reaches. The feasibility of this approach is tested under simple conditions and the results are presented in this study.

  8. Evaluasi Customer Relationship Management pada Supermarket Hero di Jakarta Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liawatimena

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing of many big retailer make Hero Supermarket must obtaining it’s existance in retail business. Therefore, Hero Supermarket must form CRM (Customer Relationship Management in order to increase a new customer, increase profit and maintaining customer, and pay attention to valuable customer. Data analysis done by searching procentage from many questions and cartesius diagram. The conclusion, the highest suitable level there are 98,27%  of quality product and the lowest is the price of merchandise, which is 45,35%. Some atribute are over the customers hope, that is good shopping place image, completeness, the comfortable and easyness in shopping, and safetyness. There are five most important atribut, that is the price, quality, completeness, the comfortable and easyness in shopping, and parking space. Those atribute will determine wether the customer of Hero Supermarket will be loyal or not.

  9. Target and non-target screening strategies for organic contaminants, residues and illicit substances in food , environmental and human biological samples by UHPLC-QTOF-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Félix; Díaz San Pedro, Ramón; Sancho Llopis, Juan Vicente; Ibáñez Martínez, María

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the potential of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) for large scale screening of organic contaminants in different types of samples. Thanks to the full-spectrum acquisition at satisfactory sensitivity, it is feasible to apply both (post)-target and non-target approaches for the rapid qualitative screening of organic pollutants in food, biological and environmental samples. ...

  10. MEPR versus EEPR valves in open supermarket refrigerated display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, A.; Bansal, P.K. [Auckland Univ, (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the comparative experimental field performance of mechanical evaporator pressure regulating valves (MEPR) and electronic evaporator pressure regulating valves (EEPR) under the identical operating conditions of supermarket open multi-deck refrigerated display cabinets. The main goal of the supermarket refrigeration system design is to keep the displayed product at the required constant temperature, while minimising the cooling load to increase the overall energy efficiency of the system. Field tests have shown that the electronic evaporator pressure valve has a significant effect on improving the cabinet temperature and reducing the rate of frost formation on the evaporator coils with subsequent improvements in the air curtain strength. (author)

  11. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  12. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because the great...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  13. Application of combined heat-and-power and absorption cooling in a supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, G.G. [South Bank Univ., School of Engineering Systems and Design, London (United Kingdom); Zhao, X. [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Shanxi (China); Riffat, S.B. [Nottingham Univ., School of the Built Environment, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Prosser, G. [Stal Refrigeration Ltd., Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    In recent years, it has become standard practice to consider Combined Heat-and-Power (CHP) systems for commercial buildings. CHPs schemes are used, because they are an efficient means of power generation. Unlike conventional power stations, they produce electricity locally and thus minimise the distribution losses, however, they also utilise the waste heat from the generation processes. In applications where there is a combined heating and electricity requirement, a very efficient means of energy production is achieved compared to the conventional methods of providing heating and electricity. With new initiatives from the UK government on reduced energy-use, energy-efficient systems such as CHP have been considered for new applications. This paper summarises the results of an investigation into the viability of CHP systems in supermarkets. The viability of conventional CHP has been theoretically investigated using a mathematical model of a typical supermarket. This has demonstrated that a conventional CHP system may be practically applied. It has also been shown that compared to the traditional supermarket design, the proposed CHP systems will use slightly less primary energy and the running costs will be significantly reduced. An attractive payback period of approximately 4 years has been calculated. Despite these advantages considerable quantity of heat is rejected to atmosphere with this system and this is because the configuration utilises the heat mainly for space heating which is only required for part of the year. To increase the utilisation time, a novel CHP/absorption system has been investigated. This configuration provides a continuous demand of the waste heat, which is used to drive an absorption chiller that refrigerates propylene glycol to -10degC for cooling the chilled-food cabinets. The results show this concept to be theoretically practical. the systems has also been shown to be extremely efficient, with primary energy savings of approximately 20

  14. Food marketing targeting children: unveiling the ethical perspectives in the discourse on self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Dillian Adelaine Cesar da; Cunha, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues da; Cunha, Thiago Rocha da; Rosaneli, Caroline Filla

    2017-07-01

    When it comes to food marketing, children are one of the major targets. Regulatory actions can play a strategic role in health protection. The objective of this research was to characterize the ethical perspective in the discourse against state regulatory actions on food marketing directed at children, aiming to understand the context of the discourse's production and how it creates meaning. The methodology adopted was qualitative, with documentary analysis and use of concepts and procedures from Discourse Analysis. The work of Hans Jonas, specifically his Responsibility Principle, and Garrafa and Port's Intervention Bioethics oriented the analysis. The self-regulation discourse analysis showed an ethical perspective in which relations of consumption predominate over the children´s vulnerability. The rhetorical excess is constant, as well as the use of resources like naturalization, untruthfulness, ideological dissimulation and euphemism. An erasure of social conflicts takes place, and an ahistorical perspective is present. The discourse does not align with Jonas´ Responsibility Principle, nor those of Intervention Bioethics. Lastly, the ethical perspective of the discourse represents a double paradox, because it is a business discourse that hides its competitive roots and metamorphoses into an ethical one.

  15. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? —a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...... of all included articles has been determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD). Results The literature search identified 1580 publications, of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions used a combination of information (e.g. awareness raising through food labeling...

  16. Microbiological quality of fresh produce from open air markets and supermarkets in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Widmer, Kenneth W; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥ 2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥ 3.00 log 10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  17. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G.; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Widmer, Kenneth W.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α = 0.05). TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention. PMID:24963502

  18. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangeli G. Vital

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α=0.05. TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  19. Food Shopping Perceptions, Behaviors, and Ability to Purchase Healthful Food Items in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Johnson, Glenda S.; Yadrick, M. Kathleen; Richardson, Valerie; Simpson, Pippa M.; Gossett, Jeffrey M.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Bogle, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the agreement between perceptions, behaviors, and ability to purchase healthful food in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Design: A regional food store survey of healthful food options in supermarkets, small/medium stores, and convenience stores. Focus group discussions were conducted on shopping perceptions and behaviors.…

  20. Cooperation and competence in global food chains : perspectives on food quality and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Boselie, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Supermarket chains, retailers and wholesalers have made food safety and food quality an integral element of their business strategies. What does this mean for producers in the South, who have to comply with international standards for good agricultural practices as well as with strict food safety re

  1. Food Shopping Perceptions, Behaviors, and Ability to Purchase Healthful Food Items in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Johnson, Glenda S.; Yadrick, M. Kathleen; Richardson, Valerie; Simpson, Pippa M.; Gossett, Jeffrey M.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Bogle, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the agreement between perceptions, behaviors, and ability to purchase healthful food in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Design: A regional food store survey of healthful food options in supermarkets, small/medium stores, and convenience stores. Focus group discussions were conducted on shopping perceptions and behaviors.…

  2. A Menagerie of Promotional Characters: Promoting Food to Children through Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which (1) promotional characters are used on food packaging for healthful and less-healthful food and (2) different companies use this persuasive marketing strategy. Design: Cross-sectional supermarket audit of all food and beverages featuring promotional characters on the packaging. Setting: Three Australian…

  3. A Menagerie of Promotional Characters: Promoting Food to Children through Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which (1) promotional characters are used on food packaging for healthful and less-healthful food and (2) different companies use this persuasive marketing strategy. Design: Cross-sectional supermarket audit of all food and beverages featuring promotional characters on the packaging. Setting: Three Australian…

  4. Functional food addressing heart health: do we have to target the gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Paul M; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Caplice, Noel M; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Health promoting functional food ingredients for cardiovascular health are generally aimed at modulating lipid metabolism in consumers. However, significant advances have furthered our understanding of the mechanisms involved in development, progression, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. In parallel, a central role of the gut microbiota, both in accelerating and attenuating cardiovascular disease, has emerged. Modulation of the gut microbiota, by use of prebiotics and probiotics, has recently shown promise in cardiovascular disease prevention. Certain prebiotics can promote a short chain fatty acid profile that alters hormone secretion and attenuates cholesterol synthesis, whereas bile salt hydrolase and exopolysaccharide-producing probiotics have been shown to actively correct hypercholesterolemia. Furthermore, specific microbial genera have been identified as potential cardiovascular disease risk factors. This effect is attributed to the ability of certain members of the gut microbiota to convert dietary quaternary amines to trimethylamine, the primary substrate of the putatively atherosclerosis-promoting compound trimethylamine-N-oxide. In this respect, current research is indicating trimethylamine-depleting Achaea - termed Archeabiotics as a potential novel dietary strategy for promoting heart health. The microbiota offers a modifiable target, which has the potential to progress or prevent cardiovascular disease development. Whereas host-targeted interventions remain the standard, current research implicates microbiota-mediated therapies as an effective means of modulating cardiovascular health.

  5. Aggregation and Control of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, control strategies for aggregation of a portfolio of supermarkets towards the electricity balancing market, is investigated. The supermarkets are able to shift the power consumption in time by pre-cooling the contained foodstuff. It is shown how the flexibility of an individual...... supermarket can be modeled and how this model can be used by an aggregator to manage the portfolio to deliver upward and downward regulation. Two control strategies for managing the portfolio to follow a power reference are presented and compared. The first strategy is a non-convex predictive control strategy...... of supermarkets. Two simulations are conducted based on high-fidelity supermarket models: a small-scale simulation with 20 supermarkets where the performance of the two strategies are compared and a large-scale simulation with 400 supermarkets which only the PI/dispatch controller is able to handle. The large...

  6. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Bateman, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  7. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Batemane, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  8. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a supermarket mist machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabeig, I; Rovira, A; Garcia, M; Oliva, J M; Vilamala, A; Ferrer, M D; Sabrià, M; Domínguez, A

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected 12 customers of a supermarket in a town in Catalonia, Spain, between August and November 2006. An epidemiological and environmental investigation was undertaken. Preliminary investigation showed that all patients had visited the same supermarket in this town where a mist machine was found in the fish section. Water samples were collected from the machine and from the supermarket's water distribution system when high-risk samples were excluded. Environmental samples from the mist machine and clinical samples from two patients tested positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and had the same molecular pattern. The PFGE pattern detected in the clinical and mist-machine isolates had never previously been identified in Catalonia prior to the outbreak and has not been identified since. Four days after turning off the machine, new cases ceased appearing. Molecular study supports the hypothesis that the mist machine from the fish section of the supermarket was the source of infection. We believe it is essential to include exposure to mist machines in any legionellosis epidemiological survey.

  9. Anti-synchronizing control for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers...

  10. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  11. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while...

  12. Synchronization and Desynchronizing Control Schemes for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus Thybo; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2007-01-01

    A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers to operate...

  13. Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting adolescents in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff

    2009-09-01

    Because of their avid use of new media and their increased spending power, adolescents have become primary targets of a new "Media and Marketing Ecosystem." Digital media resonate particularly well with many of the fundamental developmental tasks of adolescence by enabling instantaneous and constant contact with peers, providing opportunities for self-expression, identity exploration, and social interaction, and facilitating mobility and independence. Six key features of interactive media--ubiquitous connectivity, personalization, peer-to-peer networking, engagement, immersion, and content creation--are emblematic of the ways in which young people are both shaping and being shaped by this new digital culture. The advertising industry, in many instances led by food and beverage marketers, is purposefully exploiting the special relationship that teenagers have with new media, with online marketing campaigns that create unprecedented intimacies between adolescents and the brands and products that now literally surround them. Major food and beverage companies, including Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), have incorporated these elements into their interactive marketing strategies, posing particular risks to adolescents, who are not being addressed in the current U.S. policy and self-regulatory regimens. However, recent and emerging neuroscience and psychological research on adolescents suggests a need to revisit the traditional approach to regulation of advertising. Despite the growth of interactive marketing, academic research on the impact of digital advertising on children and youth remains underdeveloped. Additional research and policy initiatives are needed to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace.

  14. Risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of vegetables collected from different supermarkets in La Rochelle, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherfi, Abdelhamid; Cherfi, Malika; Maache-Rezzoug, Zoulikha; Rezzoug, Sid-Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a food survey was carried out with two purposes: (1) to investigate the levels of nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in various vegetables randomly collected in supermarkets of La Rochelle and (2) to assess the potential health risk for consumers by estimating the daily intake (EDI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) for each heavy metal. The concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Zn in selected foodstuffs were detected within the following ranges: (3.2-9.6), (25.2-104.7), and (10.8-75.6) mg/kg (DW), respectively. Results showed that metals are more likely to accumulate in fruit vegetables (8.8, 63.8 and 47.8 mg/kg DW for Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively), followed by leafy vegetables (6.5, 60.9 and 42.6 mg/kg DW for Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively) and finally root vegetables (5.4, 40.0 and 27.3 mg/kg DW for Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively). The levels of the metals match with those reported for similar vegetables from some other parts of the world. For all foodstuffs, EDI and THQ were below the threshold values for Cu (EDI 11.30; THQ 0.283) and Zn (EDI 6.86; THQ 0.023), while they exceeded the thresholds for Ni (EDI 20.71; THQ 1.035), indicating an obvious health risk over a life time of exposure.

  15. Placement and promotion strategies to increase sales of healthier products in supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gary D; Karpyn, Allison; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Davis, Erica; Weiss, Stephanie; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Guo, Wensheng; Brown, Jeffery; Spross, Carly; Leuchten, Donna; Burns, Patrick J; Glanz, Karen

    2014-06-01

    The greater presence of supermarkets in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods has the potential to positively affect diet quality among those at greatest risk of obesity. In-store marketing strategies that draw attention to healthier products may be effective, sustainable, and scalable for improving diet quality and health. Few controlled studies of in-store marketing strategies to promote sales of healthier items in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods have been conducted. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in-store marketing strategies to promote the purchase of specific healthier items in 5 product categories: milk, ready-to-eat cereal, frozen meals, in-aisle beverages, and checkout cooler beverages. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted from 2011 to 2012. Eight urban supermarkets in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods were the unit of randomization, intervention, and analysis. Stores were matched on the percentage of sales from government food-assistance programs and store size and randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 4 intervention stores received a 6-mo, in-store marketing intervention that promoted the sales of healthier products through placement, signage, and product availability strategies. The 4 control stores received no intervention and were assessment-only controls. The main outcome measure was weekly sales of the targeted products, which was assessed on the basis of the stores' sales data. Intervention stores showed significantly greater sales of skim and 1% milk, water (in aisle and at checkout), and 2 of 3 types of frozen meals compared with control store sales during the same time period. No differences were found between the stores in sales of cereal, whole or 2% milk, beverages, or diet beverages. These data indicate that straightforward placement strategies can significantly enhance the sales of healthier items in several food and beverage categories. Such

  16. Does distance decay modelling of supermarket accessibility predict fruit and vegetable intake by individuals in a large metropolitan area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Dominguez, Fred.; Teklehaimanot, Senait.; Lee, Martin; Brown, Arleen; Goodchild, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, a major risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic diseases is influenced by a person’s local environmental setting. Accessibility to supermarkets has been shown to influence nutritional behaviors and obesity rates; however the specific local environmental conditions and behavioral mechanisms at work in this process remain unclear. Purpose To determine how individual fruit and vegetable consumption behavior was influenced by a distance decay based gravity model of neighborhood geographic accessibility to supermarkets, across neighborhoods in Los Angeles County, independent of other factors that are known to influence nutritional behaviors. Methods A distance decay based accessibility model (gravity model) was specified for a large sample (n=7,514) of urban residents. The associations between their fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and their local accessibility to supermarkets were explored, while controlling for covariates known to influence eating behaviors. Results Significant variation in geographic accessibility and nutritional behavior existed by age, gender, race and ethnicity, education, marital status, poverty status, neighborhood safety and knowledge of nutritional guidelines. Logistic regression showed an independent effect of geographic accessibility to supermarkets, even after the inclusion of known controlling factors. Conclusion A basic gravity model was an effective predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption in an urban population, setting the stage for inclusion of supply and demand parameters, and the ability to estimate local directions and magnitudes of the factors that contribute to the differential obesity rates found in United States urban areas. This knowledge will facilitate more targeted interventions that can help eliminate health disparities. PMID:23395954

  17. Functional Food Targeting the Regulation of Obesity-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuka Hirai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a low-grade systemic chronic inflammatory state, characterized by the abnormal production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines. It has been found that immune cells such as macrophages can infiltrate adipose tissue and are responsible for the majority of inflammatory cytokine production. Obesity-induced inflammation is considered a potential mechanism linking obesity to its related pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, and some immune disorders. Therefore, targeting obesity-related inflammatory components may be a useful strategy to prevent or ameliorate the development of such obesity-related diseases. It has been shown that several food components can modulate inflammatory responses in adipose tissue via various mechanisms, some of which are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, whereas others are independent on PPARγ, by attenuating signals of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and/or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK. In this review, we introduce the beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals that can help prevent obesity-induced inflammatory responses and pathologies.

  18. Targeting implicit approach reactions to snack food in children; Effects on intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, Frans; Veling, Harm; Hoeken, J.A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Implicit approach reactions to energy-dense snack food can facilitate unhealthy eating in children. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test whether modifying implicit reactions to snack food by means of a go/no-go task can reduce consumption of this food. The effectiveness of this

  19. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  20. Convini-Pack saves up to 35 percent energy. Daikin enters the supermarket refrigeration market; Conveni-Pack spart bis zu 35 Prozent Energie ein. Daikin steigt in die Supermarktkaelte ein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-04-15

    High energy efficiency, low cost and compact size are three requirements that food supermarkets must meet in today's competitive climate. Daikin Airconditioning Germany GmbH of Unterhaching now offers a system solution with high potential savings at all levels. (orig.)

  1. The effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables: results of a randomized trial in a three-dimensional web-based supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waterlander Wilma E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables on food purchases in a supermarket environment. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two research conditions was conducted: a control condition with regular prices (n = 52 and an experimental condition with a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables (n = 63. The experiment was carried out using a three-dimensional web-based supermarket, which is a software application in the image of a real supermarket. Data were collected in 2010 in the Netherlands. Participants received a fixed budget and were asked to buy weekly household groceries at the web-based supermarket. Differences in fruit and vegetable purchases, differences in expenditures in other food categories and differences in total calories were analyzed using independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regression models accounting for potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results The purchased amount of fruit plus vegetables was significantly higher in the experimental condition compared to the control condition (Δ984 g per household per week, p = .03 after appropriate adjustments. This corresponds to a 25% difference compared to the control group. Both groups had similar expenditures in unhealthier food categories, including desserts, soda, crisps, candy and chocolate. Furthermore, both groups purchased an equal number of food items and an equal amount of calories, indicating that participants in the discount condition did not spend the money they saved from the discounts on other foods than fruits and vegetables. Conclusion A 25% discount on fruits and vegetables was effective in stimulating purchases of those products and did neither lead to

  2. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens in Chickens Sandwiches Distributed in Different Supermarkets of Tehran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mashak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing urbanization, immigration and tourism has changed the human lifestyle. This modern lifestyle has demanded safety, quality, and fast availability of ready to eat (RTE foods like chicken sandwiches. Objectives: For presentation of proper solutions regarding food safety, identification of pathogens in different foods is necessary. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of chicken sandwiches distributed in Tehran province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 chicken sandwich samples (chicken sausage, chicken fillet, minced chicken fillet were purchased from different supermarkets in Tehran city randomly during 2013 and transported to the laboratory of food hygiene of Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch under temperature-controlled conditions for bacteriological examination by American Public Health Association (APHA method. Results: The average count ± standard error (and percent of unacceptable samples of S. aureus, B. cereus and Coliform were 1.6 ± 0.56 (28%, 2.0 ± 0.62 (10%, 4.2 ± 1.12 (50% CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were identified in 21% of chicken sandwich samples. Conclusions: The large number of foodborne pathogens detected in this study, represented a potential health hazard to consumers. Thus, it is necessary to employ Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in order to minimize the risk caused by secondary contamination.

  3. Spatial competition in the French supermarket industry

    OpenAIRE

    Turolla, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    This papers develops a structural model of spatial competition to analyze the competition intensity among large grocery stores at geographical market level. The model is estimated for a metropolitan area of South of France and uses a cross-sectional household survey containing detailed information on stores visited for the main food product categories. Using estimates of demand parameters and assuming a particular pricing rule, we recover both stores’ marginal cost and margin. The results poi...

  4. The supermarket model with arrival rate tending to one

    CERN Document Server

    Brightwell, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the supermarket model, there are $n$ queues, each with a single server. Customers arrive in a Poisson process with arrival rate $\\lambda n$, where $\\lambda = \\lambda (n) \\in (0,1)$. Upon arrival, a customer selects $d=d(n)$ servers uniformly at random, and joins the queue of a least-loaded server amongst those chosen. Service times are independent exponentially distributed random variables with mean~1. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of the supermarket model in a regime where $\\lambda(n)$ tends to~1, and $d(n)$ tends to infinity, as $n \\to \\infty$. For suitable triples $(n,d,\\lambda)$, we identify a subset ${\\cal N}$ of the state space where the process remains for a long time in equilibrium. We further show that the process is rapidly mixing when started in ${\\cal N}$, and give bounds on the speed of mixing for more general initial conditions.

  5. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stoustrup

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  6. A new heat pump desiccant dehumidifier for supermarket application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R. M.; Castellotti, F. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Vicenza (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Recently a new equipment for dehumidification was put onto the market. It is a self-regenerating liquid desiccant cooling system able to dehumidify, heating or cooling the ambient air by an electric heat pump that is a part of the equipment. Its operation is here studied in a supermarket application where air temperature and relative humidity play a very important role and the air-conditioning becomes necessary not only to assure a suitable thermal comfort, but also to make the refrigerated display cabinets operate properly. In this paper possible energy savings, compared to a traditional mechanical dehumidification, are evaluated by means of a numerical model that simulates a typical Italian supermarket. (author)

  7. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2014-01-01

    In a supermarket refrigeration, the temperature in a display case, surprisingly, influences the temperature in other display cases. This leads to a synchronous operation of all display cases, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. This behavior...... increases both the energy consumption and the wear of components. Besides this practical importance, from the theoretical point of view, synchronization, likewise stability, Zeno phenomenon, and chaos, is an interesting dynamical phenomenon. The study of synchronization in the supermarket refrigeration...... systems is the subject matter of this work. For this purpose, we model it as a hybrid system, for which synchronization corresponds to a periodic trajectory. To examine whether it is stable, we transform the hybrid system to a single dynamical system defined on a torus. Consequently, we apply a Poincaré...

  8. Stochastic Analysis of Synchronization in a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Display cases in supermarket systems often exhibit synchronization, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. The study of the influence of switching noise on synchronization in supermarket refrigeration systems is the subject matter of this work. For this purpose, we model it as a hybrid system, for which synchronization corresponds to a periodic trajectory. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of switching noise. We develop a statistical method for computing an intensity function, which measures how often the refrigeration system stays synchronized. By analyzing the intensity, we conclude that the increase in measurement uncertainty yields the decrease at the prevalence of synchronization.

  9. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Supervisory Control in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A modular modeling approach of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) which is appropriate for smart grid control purposes is presented in this paper. Modeling and identification are performed by just knowing the system configuration and measured data disregarding the physical details. So......, this approach is extendable to different configurations with different modules. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the display case temperatures as well. This model can however be employed as a simulation benchmark to develop control methods for SRS...... regarding their power/energy consumptions in the future smart grids. Moreover, the developed model is validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The utilization of the produced model is also illustrated by a simple simulation example....

  10. A fault tolerant superheat control strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a fault tolerant control (FTC) strategy is proposed for evaporator superheat control in supermarket refrigeration systems. Conventional control uses a pressure and temperature sensor for this purpose, however, the pressure sensor can fail to function. A contingency control strategy......, based on a maximum slope-seeking control method and only a single temperature sensor, is developed to drive the evaporator outlet temperature to a level that gives a suitable superheat of the refrigerant. The FTC strategy requires no a priori system knowledge or additional hardware and functions...... in a plug & play fashion. The strategy is outlined by means of procedural steps as well as a flow chart that also illustrates the process of automatic tuning of the maximum slope-seeking controller. Test results are furthermore presented for a display case in a full scale CO2 supermarket refrigeration...

  11. Food Shopping Venues, Neighborhood Food Environment, and Body Mass Index Among Guyanese, Black, and White Adults in an Urban Community in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. Samples 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Main outcome measures Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA’s “traffic light” system for labelling food. Results No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% P<0.01). The recipes were more likely to comply with the recommended sodium density (36% v 4%, P<0.01), although salt used for seasoning was not assessed. The distributions of traffic light colours under the FSA’s food labelling recommendations differed: the modal traffic light was red for the recipes (47%) and green for ready meals (42%). Overall, the recipes contained significantly more energy (2530 kJ v 2067 kJ), protein (37.5 g v 27.9 g), fat (27.1 g v 17.2 g), and saturated fat (9.2 g v 6.8 g; P<0.01 for all) and significantly less fibre (3.3 g v 6.5 g, P<0.01) per portion than the ready meals. Conclusions Neither recipes created by television chefs nor ready meals sold by three of the leading UK supermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals. PMID:23247976

  13. Musculoskeletal disorders self-reported by supermarket employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Almeida M. da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported pains in employees of a supermarket chain. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study conducted in a supermarket chain in the city of São Paulo from January 2011 to February 2012, with a sample of 300 employees. Information on sociodemographics, physical activity and characterization of the labor process were collected. It was assumed as the outcome the reports of symptoms of musculoskeletal pain obtained through The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. For statistical analysis, frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: The population was mostly composed of young, single women who attended up to the 2nd year of high school. Only 25 % of employees performed physical activities. All employees had presented sometype of musculoskeletal symptoms in the last 12 months, and half of them (50% had three or more symptoms. The pain predominantly occurred in the lower limbs, followed by the thoracic and lumbar spine. Age may be associated with the onset of neck pain. In addition, the job is associated with pain in elbows, lumbar spine and legs. Finally, the lumbar spine is the region with the highest association among the independent variables. Conclusion: It was verified that the employees investigated in the supermarket chain presented a prevalence of pains or some type of musculoskeletal symptom in the past 12 months in the lower limb, regions that make up the spine, wrists, fingers and hands. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p13

  14. Design and Implementation of Smart Supermarket System for Vision Impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kavitha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The visually impaired people face a lot of challenges in their routine life. One such challenge is that they have to depend completely on others for purchasing. In this paper a solution hasbeen given to identify and purchase products in the supermarket. This system uses PIC microcontroller and RFID technology. The blind people are provided with low power RFID reader when they step into the supermarket. In the supermarket, products are segregated and placed in the shelves. Each shelf is integrated with a passive RFID tag along with unique ID which describes the category of the product andits specification. The passive tag information is read by the RFID reader and sent to microcontroller. The read tag ID is matched with recorded audio file in the APR9600 IC and played through the speaker which is embedded with the RFID reader. As the recorded audio file is unique to each product and clearly specifies about the product, they can decide about acquiring the item by listening to the audio. Onimplementing this method, blind people can satisfy their purchasing needs without others support.

  15. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  16. Field testing of high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a field test to quantify the performance of high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration. The initial work on this project was presented in EPRI report CU-6268 Supermarket Refrigeration Modeling and Field Demonstration.'' The information given here was generated through continued testing at the field test site. The field test was conducted at a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., that was located in Menlo Park, CA. Testing was performed with the existing conventional refrigeration system and a high-efficiency multiplex refrigeration system that was installed for these tests. The results of the testing showed that the high-efficiency multiplex system reduced refrigeration energy consumption by 23.9% and peak electric demand for refrigeration by 30.0%. Analyses of these savings showed that the largest portion was due to the use of high-efficiency compressors (29.5% of total saving). Floating head pressure control, ambient and mechanical subcooling, compressor multiplexing and hot gas defrost accounted for 50% of total savings. The remainder of the savings (20.5%) were attributed to the use of an evaporative condenser. Tests were also conducted with several retrofit technologies. The most promising results were obtained with external liquid-suction heat exchangers installed at the outlets of the display cases. Favorable paybacks were calculated for these exchangers when they were used with very low and low temperature refrigeration.

  17. Healthy Checkout Lines: A Study in Urban Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Willingham, Craig; Brathwaite, Chantelle; Franklin, Sharraine

    2017-09-01

    To understand the impact of healthy checkouts in Bronx, New York City supermarkets. Consumer purchasing behavior was observed for 2 weeks in 2015. Three supermarkets in the South Bronx. A total of 2,131 adult shoppers (aged ≥18 years) who paid for their groceries at 1 of the selected study checkout lines. Two checkout lines were selected per store; 1 was converted to a healthy checkout and the other remained as it was (standard checkout). Data collectors observed consumer behavior at each line and recorded items purchased from checkout areas. Percentage of customers who purchase items from the checkout area; quantity and price of healthy and unhealthy items purchased from the healthy and standard checkout lines. Measures were analyzed by study condition using chi-square and t tests; significance was determined at α = .05. Only 4.0% of customers bought anything from the checkout area. A higher proportion of customers using the healthy vs standard checkout line bought healthy items (56.5% vs 20.5%; P purchases increased. Findings contribute to limited research on effectiveness of healthy checkouts in supermarkets. Similar interventions should expect an increase in healthy purchases from the checkout area, but limited overall impact. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  19. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  20. Food Wholesalers and Distributors, US and Territories, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent food wholesalers, distributors, and supermarket and grocery stores represented by twenty-two unique NAICS...

  1. Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Inês Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

  2. Healthful Nutrition of Foods in Navajo Nation Stores: Availability and Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Jim-Martin, Sonlatsa; Piltch, Emily; Onufrak, Stephen; McNeil, Carrie; Adams, Laura; Williams, Nancy; Blanck, Heidi M; Curley, Larry

    2016-09-01

    Low availability and affordability of healthier foods in food stores on the Navajo Nation (NN) may be a community-level risk factor for the high prevalence of obesity among the Navajo people. This study assessed the availability and pricing of foods and beverages in supermarkets and convenience stores throughout the NN. Descriptive study design using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey in Stores audit tool. Supermarkets (n = 13) and convenience stores (n = 50) on NN and border-town supermarkets (n = 9). Not applicable. Availability and pricing of healthy and less-healthy foods. Descriptive and χ(2) analyses. Navajo convenience stores offered fewer healthier food options compared to Navajo supermarkets. In Navajo convenience stores, 100% whole grain products, reduced-fat cheese, lean meats, reduced-fat chips, and fat-free or light hot dogs were available in fewer stores than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). In both Navajo supermarkets and convenience stores, 100% whole wheat bread, lean cold cuts, and reduced-fat cheese were all more expensive per unit than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). According to this study, healthier foods are not as readily available in Navajo convenience stores as they are in Navajo supermarkets. Improving access to and affordability of healthier foods in reservation stores of all sizes may support healthy eating among Navajo residents. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  3. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  4. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    2010-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  5. Climate-friendly refrigerators for supermarkets. Comparative assessment of supermarket refrigeration systems; Klimafreundlich Kuehlen im Supermarkt. Vergleichende Bewertung von Supermarktkaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-10-15

    On 5 September 2008, a meeting was held at the Federal Environmental Office (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) at Dessau where the results of the research project ''Comparative evaluation of the climate relevance of refrigeration plants and systems for supermarkets'' were presented and discussed among more than 50 experts. Towards the end of the meeting, the discussions became more heated as the underlying data base became the subject of attention. (orig.)

  6. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Method Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Results Among all food and beverages–related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P < .05). None of the advertisements contained disclaimers. Conclusion and recommendations The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages–focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26658325

  7. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Among all food and beverages-related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P advertisements contained disclaimers. The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages-focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. © 2015 APJPH.

  8. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Molaodi, O.R.; Leyland, A.H.; Ellaway, A.; Kearns, A; Harding, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In England, obesity is more common in some ethnic minority groups than in Whites. This study examines the relationship between ethnic concentration and access to fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities.\\ud \\ud Methods: Data on ethnic concentration, fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities were obtained at the lower super output area (LSOA) (population average of 1500). Poisson multilevel modelling was used to examine the association...

  9. Issues to consider when setting intervention targets with limited data for low-moisture food commodities: a peanut case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Buchanan, Robert L; Calhoun, Stephen; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Djordjevic, Darinka; Whiting, Richard C; Kottapalli, Bala; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Peanuts and peanut-containing products have been linked to at least seven salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide in the past two decades. In response, the Technical Committee on Food Microbiology of the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute collaborated with the American Peanut Council to convene a workshop to develop a framework for managing risk in low-moisture food commodities where large data sets are unavailable (using peanuts as the example). Workshop attendees were charged with answering questions regarding the appropriate statistical and scientific methods for setting log reduction targets with limited pathogen prevalence and concentration data, suitable quantities of data needed for determining appropriate log reduction targets, whether the requirement of a 5-log reduction in the absence of data to establish a target log reduction is appropriate, and what targeted log reduction would protect public health. This report concludes that the judgment about sufficient data is not solely scientific, but is instead a science-informed policy decision that must weigh additional societal issues. The participants noted that modeling efforts should proceed with sampling efforts, allowing one to compare various assumptions about prevalence and concentration and how they are combined. The discussions made clear that data and risk models developed for other low-moisture foods like almonds and pistachios may be applicable to peanuts. Workshop participants were comfortable with the use of a 5-log reduction for controlling risk in products like peanuts when the level of contamination of the raw ingredients is low (food safety community may eventually conclude that as additional data, assumptions, and models are developed, alternatives to a 5-log reduction might also result in the desired level of protection for peanuts and peanut products.

  10. Food shopping behaviors of residents in two Bronx neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dannefer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous researchers have documented associations between neighborhood food environments and residents’ diets. However, few quantitative studies have examined the food shopping behaviors of residents in low-income neighborhoods, including the types of stores patronized and frequency of visits. This study presents findings on the food shopping behaviors of residents in the Bronx neighborhoods of West Farms and Fordham. Methods: Street-intercept surveys were conducted in spring 2012 with residents of West Farms and Fordham as part of a broader program evaluation. The survey included questions on general food shopping behaviors including visits to neighborhood bodegas (corner stores and supermarkets, mode of transportation to the supermarket most commonly frequented, and the primary source for purchases of fruits and vegetables. Results: The survey was conducted with 505 respondents. The sample was 59% Hispanic and 34% black, with a median age of 45 years. Thirty-four percent of respondents had less than a high school education, 30% were high school graduates or had their GED, and 36% had attended some college. Almost all respondents (97% shopped at supermarkets in their neighborhood; 84% usually shopped at a supermarket within their neighborhood, and 16% usually shopped at a supermarket outside of their neighborhood. Most respondents (95% shopped at bodegas in their neighborhood, and 65% did so once per day or more. Conclusions: Residents of these neighborhoods have high exposure to local food stores, with the vast majority of respondents shopping at neighborhood supermarkets and bodegas and almost 2 in 3 respondents going to bodegas every day. These findings demonstrate the important role of supermarkets and bodegas in local residents’ shopping patterns and support the inclusion of these stores in efforts to create food environments that support and promote healthy eating.

  11. Health marketing in the supermarket: using prompting, product sampling, and price reduction to increase customer purchases of lower-fat items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine-Andrews, A; Francisco, V T; Fawcett, S B; Johnston, J; Coen, S

    1996-01-01

    Reducing purchase and consumption of higher-fat foods is an important health objective for the nation since these behaviors are associated with cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Public health agents attempt to promote health-related behaviors, such as purchases of lower-fat foods, by changing key features of relevant environments. This study examined the effects of a marketing intervention in a supermarket on customer purchases of lower-fat products. Customers of one store of a major supermarket chain participated in this study. Direct observations of customer purchases of lower-fat milk, salad dressings, and frozen desserts were conducted. The supermarket intervention consisted of prompting, product sampling, and price reduction (store coupons). Using an interrupted time series design with switching replications, we found low to moderate increases for the lower-fat counterparts of milk, frozen desserts, and salad dressing. The greatest increase in purchases was found with frozen desserts. Findings from this study suggest that prompting, product sampling, and price reduction can increase customer purchases of some lower-fat products. Implications of these findings for the development and evaluation of health marketing interventions are discussed.

  12. Nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to determine the growing regimen of some organic and nonorganic supermarket produce from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2008-06-11

    An isotopic study was performed on nine varieties of organically and conventionally grown vegetables from an organic food market and a chain supermarket in New Zealand. The main aim of the study was to assess the applicability of stable nitrogen isotopes as a screening tool to differentiate between organic and conventional growing conditions of various vegetable types sampled directly off supermarket shelves. This could be further used as the basis of a simple authentication tool to detect noncompliant organic farming practices and false labeling of organic produce. In this study, nitrogen isotopes are found to be an excellent way of identifying faster growing organic vegetables (maturity time to harvest of 80 days), more information would be required to understand isotopic variations and fractionation effects between vegetables and soil over time as the technique does not discriminate organic from conventional regimens for these vegetables with as much certainty.

  13. Mengintip Komunikasi Pemasaran di Matahari Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung MSG

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Persaingan yang kian tajam di dunia pemasaran menuntut mental yang kreatif dan inovatif agar dapat mengetahui kebutuhan masyarakat yang kian cerdas daLam menentukan pilihan terhadap suatu produk. Akan tetapi sebelum menyiasati strategi pemasaran, harus lebih dahulu meninjau uLang paradigma marketing dan pemasarnya itu sendiri agar selalu terbarukan seiring dengan perkembangan target pasar. Strategi pemasaran dalam membidik pasar tersebut dilakukan dengan lintas divisi, pemanfaatan database, serra memahami marketing plan yang meliputi marketing objective, communication objective, dan communication strategy.

  14. Child as change agent. The potential of children to increase healthy food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, Katherine; Zachary, Drew A; Fox, Monica; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2014-10-01

    Shoppers make many food choices while buying groceries. Children frequently accompany caregivers, giving them the potential to influence these choices. We aimed to understand low-income shoppers' perceptions of how children influence caregivers' purchasing decisions and how the supermarket environment could be manipulated to allow children to serve as change agents for healthy food purchasing in a primarily African-American community. We conducted thirty in-depth interviews, five follow-up interviews, one supermarket walk-through interview, and four focus groups with adult supermarket shoppers who were regular caregivers for children under age 16. We conducted one focus group with supermarket employees and one in-depth interview with a supermarket manager. Qualitative data were analyzed using iterative thematic coding and memo writing. Caregivers approached grocery shopping with efforts to save money, prevent waste and purchase healthy food for their families, but described children as promoting unplanned, unhealthy food purchases. This influence was exacerbated by the supermarket environment, which participants found to promote unhealthy options and provide limited opportunities for children to interact with healthier foods. Caregivers' suggestions for promoting healthy purchasing for shoppers with children included manipulating the placement of healthy and unhealthy foods and offering opportunities for children to taste and interact with healthy options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    OpenAIRE

    Horel Scott A; Dean Wesley R; Johnson Cassandra M; Sharkey Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environmen...

  16. Porous Silicon-Based Biosensors: Towards Real-Time Optical Detection of Target Bacteria in the Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad-Ivanir, Naama; Shtenberg, Giorgi; Raz, Nitzan; Gazenbeek, Christel; Budding, Dries; Bos, Martine P.; Segal, Ester

    2016-11-01

    Rapid detection of target bacteria is crucial to provide a safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. Herein, we present an optical biosensor for identification and quantification of Escherichia coli (E. coli, used as a model indicator bacteria species) in complex food industry process water. The biosensor is based on a nanostructured, oxidized porous silicon (PSi) thin film which is functionalized with specific antibodies against E. coli. The biosensors were exposed to water samples collected directly from process lines of fresh-cut produce and their reflectivity spectra were collected in real time. Process water were characterized by complex natural micro-flora (microbial load of >107 cell/mL), in addition to soil particles and plant cell debris. We show that process water spiked with culture-grown E. coli, induces robust and predictable changes in the thin-film optical interference spectrum of the biosensor. The latter is ascribed to highly specific capture of the target cells onto the biosensor surface, as confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The biosensors were capable of selectively identifying and quantifying the target cells, while the target cell concentration is orders of magnitude lower than that of other bacterial species, without any pre-enrichment or prior processing steps.

  17. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A; Thomas, V; Klein, U; Marion, H; Moyaert, H; Simjee, S; Vallé, M

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation is identified as a weakness and an essential need in order to compare data across countries. Comparisons of resistance monitoring data among national programmes are hampered by differences between programmes, such as sampling and testing methodology, and different epidemiological cut-off values or clinical breakpoints. Moreover, only very few valid data are available regarding target pathogens both of farm and companion animals. The European Animal Health Study Centre (CEESA) attempts to fill these gaps. The resistance monitoring programmes of CEESA have been a collaboration of veterinary pharmaceutical companies for over a decade and include two different projects: the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme, which collects food-borne bacteria at slaughter from healthy animals, and the pathogen programmes that collect first-intention target pathogens from acutely diseased animals. The latter comprises three subprogrammes: VetPath; MycoPath; and ComPath. All CEESA projects include uniform sample collection and bacterial identification to species level in various European Union (EU) member states. A central laboratory conducts quantitative susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents either important in human medicine or commonly used in veterinary medicine. This 'methodology harmonisation' allows easy comparisons among EU member states and makes the CEESA programmes invaluable to address food safety and antibiotic efficacy.

  18. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  19. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-08-01

    How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Vegetable Supply Chains of Supermarkets in Sichuan, China and the Implications for Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Fu, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of supermarkets in the inland province of Sichuan in China over the past decade, with special attention to vegetable products. Both foreign and domestic supermarkets are expanding in the region with different store formats. Five types of vegetable p

  1. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  2. "But Pasta Is Pasta, It Is All the Same": The Language, Literacy and Numeracy Challenges of Supermarket Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastwell, Kim; Strauss, Pat; Kell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographically based study of entry level supermarket work. The study, carried out in a large suburban supermarket in Auckland, New Zealand, focused on the literacy and numeracy practices of supermarket assistants, all who had English as an additional language. It found that skills such as oral communication, personal…

  3. When Supermarket Consumers get Stocked in the Middle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Møller Jensen, Jan; Stubbe Solgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    /or preferences are met. Design/methodology/approach – Survey data were collected from 130 consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to test the authors' proposed hypotheses. Findings – According to consumers, not many supermarkets offer high quality at low prices...... be determined by matching preferences with retail offerings, but may also be based on considerations of possibilities for mental justification within a certain preference structure. It is therefore important that managers seek to understand the process of mental justification that may be associated...

  4. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...... is shown to predominantly be influenced by the suction pressure. Employing appropriate performance function leads to conclusions on the choice of set-point for the suction pressure that are contrary to the existing practice. Analysis of the resulting data leads to a simple method for finding optimal...

  5. Clinical spectrum of food allergy in children in Australia and South-East Asia: identification and targets for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D J; Hosking, C S; Heine, R G

    1999-08-01

    modification, particularly that of breastfeeding mothers whose infants present with colic before the age of 6 weeks, alleviated symptoms. Colic associated with vomiting has been attributed to gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). This has been considered primarily a motility disorder, but a secondary form resulting from food protein intolerance has been described recently. We have also recently identified a group of infants with distressed behaviour attributed to GOR who have failed to respond to H2-receptor antagonists, prokinetic agents and multiple formula changes. Symptoms resolved on commencement of an elemental amino acid-based formula. In two-thirds of the patients, symptoms relapsed when challenged with low-allergen soy formula or extensively hydrolysed formula. We propose that a period of food protein intolerance is a part of the normal development of the immune system as it encounters common dietary proteins in infancy and early childhood. Future targets for research are development of appropriate dietary and management strategies for these entities and identification of genetic markers for these disorders.

  6. Linking supermarket sales data to nutritional information: an informatics feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina M; Brewster, Philip J; Clark, Edward B; Jordan, Kristine C; Cummins, Mollie R; Hurdle, John F

    2011-01-01

    Grocery sales are a data source of potential value to dietary assessment programs in public health informatics. However, the lack of a computable method for mapping between nutrient and food item information represents a major obstacle. We studied the feasibility of linking point-of-sale data to USDA-SR nutrient database information in a sustainable way. We analyzed 2,009,533 de-identified sales items purchased by 32,785 customers over a two-week period. We developed a method using the item category hierarchy in the supermarket's database to link purchased items to records from the USDA-SR. We describe our methodology and its rationale and limitations. Approximately 70% of all items were mapped and linked to the SR; approximately 90% of all items could be mapped with an equivalent expenditure of additional effort. 100% of all items were mapped to USDA standard food groups. We conclude that mapping grocery sales data to nutritional information is feasible.

  7. [Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2010-12-01

    In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P sweetener.

  8. State Policies Targeting Junk Food in Schools: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Policy Change on Soda Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Murray, David M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000–2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Results. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.17, −0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = −0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. Conclusions. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile. PMID:21778484

  9. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.

  10. Not so great: ten important myths about food advertising targeted to children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene; Cook, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Rising rates of childhood obesity have led to a greater concern over the impact of food advertising on children's health. Although public policy interventions seek to mitigate the impact of advertising on children, several pervasive myths often sidetrack effective discussions. This Perspective outlines and responds to ten common myths.

  11. Extracellular polysaccharides as target compounds for the immunological detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the immunological detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in food products. More specifically, the immunogenicity, antigenicity, production and structure of the water-soluble extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of these moulds have been studied, and a latex-agglutination a

  12. Open refrigerating display case 'MAX series' for supermarkets; Supermarket muke denki reizo open showcase (MAX series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, E.; Sudo, H.; Aoyama, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    Fuji Electric has developed the open refrigerating display case 'MAX Series' for supermarkets which has further pursued 'articles easy to see, select, and take out' on the concept of 'friendliness' as well as friendliness to customers and installation workers. Its main advantages are (1) The dimensions were determined based on human engineering and improved the display effect of articles. This enables the exhibits to strongly appeal to customers. (2) The air curtain optimized through simulation realizes uniform temperature in the case, reduction in energy consumption, and high freshness control. (author)

  13. Effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarkets%超市蜚蠊综合防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚宏亮; 张育富; 刘大鹏; 杨维芳; 刘慧; 陈志龙; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarket. Methods Three supermarkets, two as experimental sites and one as control, were selected for test. Integrated control measures, which comprised environmental improvement assisted by chemical control, were taken in the experimental sites. The control effects were evaluated with relative density decrease rate as the indicator. Results All the cockroaches captured in the supermarkets were Blattella germanica. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in the fresh food section, cooked food section, storehouse, bakery, food section, vegetable and fruit section, etc., while the cockroach density in the grocery section was relatively low. The cockroach densities in the two experimental sites decreased by 89.96% and 81.38% three days after integrated control measures, by 93.89% and 90.21% three weeks after the measures, and by 95.05% and 89.27% two months after the measures. Conclusion Cockroaches invade the supermarkets seriously, with B. Germanica as the dominant species. Integrated control measures can be used to quickly and effectively decrease the cockroach density in supermarket, and the control effects were durable.%目的 评价综合防治措施对超市蜚蠊的防治效果.方法 选择3家超市,其中2家作为试验场所,1家作为对照.试验场所采取环境治理为主,化学防治为辅的综合防治措施;以相对密度下降率为指标评价防治效果.结果 超市蜚蠊种类均为德国小蠊;主要侵害生鲜区、熟食区、库房、面包房、食品区和蔬果区等,百货区密度较低;采取综合防治措施3d后蜚蠊密度明显下降,超市A及超市B密度下降率分别为89.96%和81.38%;3周后密度下降率分别为93.89%和90.21%;2个月后密度下降率分别为95.05%和89.27%.结论 超市蜚蠊侵害严重,优势种为德国小蠊;综合防治措施可快速有效地降低蜚蠊密度,并且具有较长的持效期.

  14. Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products - implications for long-term climate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, C; Hedenus, F; Wirsenius, S; Sonesson, U

    2013-02-01

    -increase target of 2° might imply a severe constraint on the long-term global consumption of animal food. Due to the relatively limited potential for reducing food-related emissions by higher productivity and technological means, structural changes in food consumption towards less emission-intensive food might be required for meeting the 2° target.

  15. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael WISNIEWSKI; John LETH; Jakob G. RASMUSSEN

    2014-01-01

    In a supermarket refrigeration, the temperature in a display case, surprisingly, influences the temperature in other display cases. This leads to a synchronous operation of all display cases, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. This behavior increases both the energy consumption and the wear of components. Besides this practical importance, from the theoretical point of view, synchronization, likewise stability, Zeno phenomenon, and chaos, is an interesting dynamical phenomenon. The study of synchronization in the supermarket refrigeration systems is the subject matter of this work. For this purpose, we model it as a hybrid system, for which synchronization corresponds to a periodic trajectory. To examine whether it is stable, we transform the hybrid system to a single dynamical system defined on a torus. Consequently, we apply a Poincar ´e map to determine whether this periodic trajectory is asymptotically stable. To illustrate, this procedure is applied for a refrigeration system with two display-cases.

  16. Closed supermarket refrigerator and freezer cabinets. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligthart, F.A.T.M. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The City of Amsterdam's Environmental and Building Department commissioned the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to calculate the time needed to recoup the cost of closing the existing refrigerator and freezer display cabinets used in supermarkets. We were asked to give particular consideration to the following aspects: (1) The cabinet's energy consumption; (2) The energy price; and (3) The cost of closing the cabinet. The payback period has been calculated by dividing the investment required to close the cabinet by the amount saved on energy each year, less any additional costs incurred as a result of the scheme. For existing upright refrigerator cabinets, that period works out at 2.9 years with a margin error of {+-}0.9 years. In the case of chest freezers, it is approximately 2.4 years, with a maximum of 2.5 and a minimum of 1.3 years. For chest refrigerators, the payback period is 9.4 years. If units are closed overnight only, the time needed to payback the cost of that measure ranges between 1.8 and 4.1 years. Moreover, research shows that closing refrigerator and freezer display units will not reduce turnover. In addition, it will significantly improve the ambient climate in supermarkets.

  17. Hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification for supermarket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzoli, Alfonso; Mazzei, Pietro; Minichiello, Francesco; Palma, Daniele [DETEC, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    HVAC systems in supermarkets must assure both thermal comfort for occupants and suitable climatic conditions for refrigerated cases, which operate better with low ambient relative humidity (40-45%). Since open display cases substantially reduce sensible load and moderately reduce latent load, ambient sensible/total heat load ratio is less than usual. Thus, if dehumidification is carried out with a traditional cooling coil, over-sizing of the coil and re-heating of the treated air are necessary, with energy and economic waste. To offset these disadvantages, hybrid HVAC systems with chemical dehumidification may be employed. In this paper a case study is presented in which a traditional HVAC system is compared to hybrid systems with chemical dehumidification. Dynamic simulation codes (DOE and DesiCalc{sup (}TM)) and test reference year data (TRY), opportunely elaborated, have been used. Annual operating costs have been estimated and large savings have been obtained with hybrid systems. Considerable reduction of electric energy demand as well as better control of thermal-hygrometric conditions were noted. A simple payback of about 1 year has been obtained. Finally, a virtual retrofitting operation on 30% of the existing HVAC systems in Italian supermarkets has shown significant operating cost savings. [Author].

  18. Energy-efficient lighting applications in a supermarket environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of energy-efficient lighting in a retail environment, specifically a supermarket. It will reveal the general theory behind Big V`s chosen lighting design, and then discuss two examples of the application: one, a retrofit to an existing supermarket; the other, the adaption of the design to a new store. The factors that influence Big V`s lighting design are: (1) the best presentation of product for merchandising purposes, and (2) the lowest operating cost. These two factors can often be mutually exclusive. For merchandising purposes, the best design would make the product `jump off the shelf` at a customer, preferably into his/her shopping cart. Such an arrangement would include high footcandle levels along with a very high color rendering index (CRI). To design only to these requirements would result in very high original and operating costs for the lighting system. However, to base the design on cost considerations alone would result in low light levels at a very low CRI. Since neither option is acceptable, Big V`s design is a compromise, combining the best light quality at a reasonable cost.

  19. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  20. The early origins of food preferences: targeting the critical windows of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, Jessica Rose; Ong, Zhi Yi; Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara

    2015-02-01

    The nutritional environment to which an individual is exposed during the perinatal period plays a crucial role in determining his or her future metabolic health outcomes. Studies in rodent models have demonstrated that excess maternal intake of high-fat and/or high-sugar "junk foods" during pregnancy and lactation can alter the development of the central reward pathway, particularly the opioid and dopamine systems, and program an increased preference for junk foods in the offspring. More recently, there have been attempts to define the critical windows of development during which the opioid and dopamine systems within the reward pathway are most susceptible to alteration and to determine whether it is possible to reverse these effects through nutritional interventions applied later in development. This review discusses the progress made to date in these areas, highlights the apparent importance of sex in determining these effects, and considers the potential implications of the findings from rodent models in the human context.

  1. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardet, Clémence; Bonnet, Marion S; Jdir, Rajae; Sadoud, Medhi; Thirion, Sylvie; Tardivel, Catherine; Roux, Julien; Lebrun, Bruno; Wanaverbecq, Nicolas; Mounien, Lourdes; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Dallaporta, Michel; Troadec, Jean-Denis

    2011-01-01

    Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.

  2. Extracellular polysaccharides as target compounds for the immunological detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in food.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the immunological detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium in food products. More specifically, the immunogenicity, antigenicity, production and structure of the water-soluble extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of these moulds have been studied, and a latex-agglutination assay, based on the detection of EPS has been developed.For the detection of moulds many methods are available, each of them with specific advantages and disadvantages, mostly related to reliability...

  3. Foraging for carotenoids: do colorful male hihi target carotenoid-rich foods in the wild?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Leila K; Thorogood, Rose; Karadas, Filiz; Raubenheimer, David; Kilner, Rebecca M; Ewen, John G

    2014-09-01

    Dietary access to carotenoids is expected to determine the strength of carotenoid-based signal expression and potentially to maintain signal honesty. Species that display carotenoid-based yellow, orange, or red plumage are therefore expected to forage selectively for carotenoid-rich foods when they are depositing these pigments during molt, but whether they actually do so is unknown. We set out to address this in the hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a New Zealand passerine where males, but not females, display yellow carotenoid-based plumage. We measured circulating carotenoid concentrations in male and female hihi during breeding and molt, determined the nutritional content of common foods in the hihi diet, and conducted feeding observations of male and female hihi during molt. We found that although male and female hihi do not differ significantly in plasma carotenoid concentration, male hihi have a greater proportion of carotenoid-rich foods in their diet than do females. This is a consequence of a greater fruit and lower invertebrate intake than females and an avoidance of low-carotenoid content fruit. By combining behavioral observations with quantification of circulating carotenoids, we present evidence that colorful birds forage to maximize carotenoid intake, a conclusion we would not have drawn had we examined plasma carotenoids alone.

  4. Socioeconomic differences in the cost, availability and quality of healthy food in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Belinda; Byun, Roy; Mitchell, Emily; Thompson, Susan; Jalaludin, Bin; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2017-07-16

    To compare the cost of a basket of staple foods, together with the availability and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables, by supermarket store type in high and low socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. A food basket survey was undertaken in 100 supermarkets in the 20 highest and 20 lowest socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. We assessed the cost of 46 foods, the range of 30 fresh fruit and vegetables and the quality of ten fresh fruit and vegetables. Two major supermarket retailers, a discount supermarket chain and independent grocery stores were surveyed. The food basket was significantly cheaper in low compared to high socioeconomic suburbs ($177 vs $189, psupermarkets were at least 30% cheaper than other supermarket stores. There were fewer varieties and poorer quality fruit and vegetables in stores in low socioeconomic suburbs. Food basket prices and the availability and quality of fruit and vegetables varied significantly by store type and socioeconomic status of suburb. Implications for public health: A nationwide food and nutrition surveillance system is required to inform public health policy and practice initiatives. In addition to the food retail environment, these initiatives must address the underlying contributors to inequity and food insecurity for disadvantaged groups. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. [Parents support for the ban on television food advertising to children is particularly high in France, especially compared to the USA. This result should influence political decision-making to restrict food marketing targeting young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalon, Hélène; Cogordan, Chloé; Arwidson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Massive exposure of children to low-nutrient food advertising combined with the increasing prevalence of obesity have led to growing support for statutory regulations concerning food marketing targeting children. Food and advertising industries lobbies have nevertheless managed to stop such measures in many countries. In this context, civil society support for statutory regulation, especially by parents, is essential. The objective of this study was to describe and analyse factors associated with parents' opinion on the impact and possible banning of food TV advertisements targeting children. An online survey of 2,387 parents of children aged 3 to 17 was conducted in 2013. Associations between parents'opinion on food advertising and their socio-demographic characteristics were analysed by multivariate logistic regressions. The influence of food advertising on children' preferences was perceived by 64.7% of parents, 68.8% of parents were at least occasionally asked by their children to purchase food or beverages seen on television, 43.5% reported that their children influenced their food purchases and 73.7% supported a statutory regulation that would ban advertisements for excessively fatty, salty and sugary beverages and foods during television programmes for children or teenagers. This view was positively associated with high socio-economic status and a high perceived impact of advertising on children's food preferences. Parents support for the ban on television food advertising to children is particularly high in France, especially compared to the USA. This result should influence political decision-making to restrict food marketing targeting young people.

  6. Is a reduction in distance to nearest supermarket associated with BMI change among type 2 diabetes patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Laraia, Barbara A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Blanchard, Samuel D; Warton, E Margaret; Moffet, Howard H; Karter, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether residing within 2 miles of a new supermarket opening was longitudinally associated with a change in body mass index (BMI). We identified 12 new supermarkets that opened between 2009 and 2010 in 8 neighborhoods. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry, we identified members with type 2 diabetes residing continuously in any of these neighborhoods 12 months prior to the first supermarket opening until 10 months following the opening of the last supermarket. Exposure was defined as a reduction (yes/no) in travel distance to the nearest supermarket as a result of a new supermarket opening. First difference regression models were used to estimate the impact of reduced supermarket distance on BMI, adjusting for longitudinal changes in patient and neighborhood characteristics. Among patients in the exposed group, new supermarket openings reduced travel distance to the nearest supermarket by 0.7 miles on average. However, reduced distance to nearest supermarket was not associated with BMI changes. Overall, we found no evidence that reduced supermarket distance was associated with reduced levels of obesity for residents with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Do 'food deserts' influence fruit and vegetable consumption?--A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tim; Russell, Jean; Campbell, Michael J; Barker, Margo E

    2005-10-01

    Lack of access to affordable healthy foods has been suggested to be a contributory factor to poor diet. This study investigated associations between diet and access to supermarkets, transport, fruit and vegetable price and deprivation, in a region divergent in geography and socio-economic indices. A postal survey of 1000 addresses (response rate 42%) gathered information on family demographics, supermarket and shop use, car ownership, mobility and previous day's fruit and vegetable intake. Postcode information was used to derive road travel distance to nearest supermarket and deprivation index. Fruit and vegetable prices were assessed using a shopping basket survey. Generalised linear regression models were used to ascertain predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Male grocery shoppers ate less fruit than female grocery shoppers. Consumption of vegetables increased slightly with age. Deprivation, supermarket fruit and vegetable price, distance to nearest supermarket and potential difficulties with grocery shopping were not significantly associated with either fruit or vegetable consumption. These data suggest that the three key elements of a food desert, fruit and vegetable price, socio-economic deprivation and a lack of locally available supermarkets, were not factors influencing fruit or vegetable intake. We suggest that food policies aimed at improving diet should be orientated towards changing socio-cultural attitudes towards food.

  8. AGENT AND RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR SUPERMARKET INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al-Sakran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the acceptance of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology in business environments has been increasing rapidly due to its competitive business value. Adopting a suitable RFID-based information system has become increasingly important for supermarkets. However, most supermarkets still use conventional barcode-based systems to manage their information processes, which are consistently reported as one of the most unenthusiastic aspects of supermarket shopping for both customers and management. We propose an RFID agent-based architecture that adopts intelligent agent technology with an RFID based applications. RFID provides capability to uniquely identify an object within a supermarket area, while agents are able to establish a channel of communication which can be used to facilitate communications between a RFID device and supermarket back-end system. The proposed framework includes a design of intelligent mobile shopping cart equipped with both RFID and agent technologies. As a result of using the proposed RFID agent based architecture, the customer shopping experience will be improved due to ease of retrieving of the detailed information on items and quick checkout by scanning all items at once, thus eliminating queues. From supermarket management point of view the proposed architecture will reduce the cost of operation e.g., decreasing cost of goods sold which comes in the form of labor efficiency in areas of checkout operation, inventory management and alerting the supermarket management when a certain product is running out of stock and needs to be restocked.

  9. Does the choice of neighbourhood supermarket access measure influence associations with individual-level fruit and vegetable consumption? A case study from Glasgow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have provided mixed evidence with regards to associations between food store access and dietary outcomes. This study examines the most commonly applied measures of locational access to assess whether associations between supermarket access and fruit and vegetable consumption are affected by the choice of access measure and scale. Method Supermarket location data from Glasgow, UK (n = 119), and fruit and vegetable intake data from the ‘Health and Well-Being’ Survey (n = 1041) were used to compare various measures of locational access. These exposure variables included proximity estimates (with different points-of-origin used to vary levels of aggregation) and density measures using three approaches (Euclidean and road network buffers and Kernel density estimation) at distances ranging from 0.4 km to 5 km. Further analysis was conducted to assess the impact of using smaller buffer sizes for individuals who did not own a car. Associations between these multiple access measures and fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using linear regression models. Results Levels of spatial aggregation did not impact on the proximity estimates. Counts of supermarkets within Euclidean buffers were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption at 1 km, 2 km and 3 km, and for our road network buffers at 2 km, 3 km, and 4 km. Kernel density estimates provided the strongest associations and were significant at a distance of 2 km, 3 km, 4 km and 5 km. Presence of a supermarket within 0.4 km of road network distance from where people lived was positively associated with fruit consumption amongst those without a car (coef. 0.657; s.e. 0.247; p0.008). Conclusions The associations between locational access to supermarkets and individual-level dietary behaviour are sensitive to the method by which the food environment variable is captured. Care needs to be taken to ensure robust and conceptually appropriate measures of

  10. Does the choice of neighbourhood supermarket access measure influence associations with individual-level fruit and vegetable consumption? A case study from Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Pearce, Jamie R; Macdonald, Laura; Lamb, Karen E; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-07-27

    Previous studies have provided mixed evidence with regards to associations between food store access and dietary outcomes. This study examines the most commonly applied measures of locational access to assess whether associations between supermarket access and fruit and vegetable consumption are affected by the choice of access measure and scale. Supermarket location data from Glasgow, UK (n = 119), and fruit and vegetable intake data from the 'Health and Well-Being' Survey (n = 1041) were used to compare various measures of locational access. These exposure variables included proximity estimates (with different points-of-origin used to vary levels of aggregation) and density measures using three approaches (Euclidean and road network buffers and Kernel density estimation) at distances ranging from 0.4 km to 5 km. Further analysis was conducted to assess the impact of using smaller buffer sizes for individuals who did not own a car. Associations between these multiple access measures and fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using linear regression models. Levels of spatial aggregation did not impact on the proximity estimates. Counts of supermarkets within Euclidean buffers were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption at 1 km, 2 km and 3 km, and for our road network buffers at 2 km, 3 km, and 4 km. Kernel density estimates provided the strongest associations and were significant at a distance of 2 km, 3 km, 4 km and 5 km. Presence of a supermarket within 0.4 km of road network distance from where people lived was positively associated with fruit consumption amongst those without a car (coef. 0.657; s.e. 0.247; p0.008). The associations between locational access to supermarkets and individual-level dietary behaviour are sensitive to the method by which the food environment variable is captured. Care needs to be taken to ensure robust and conceptually appropriate measures of access are used and these should be

  11. Does the choice of neighbourhood supermarket access measure influence associations with individual-level fruit and vegetable consumption? A case study from Glasgow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have provided mixed evidence with regards to associations between food store access and dietary outcomes. This study examines the most commonly applied measures of locational access to assess whether associations between supermarket access and fruit and vegetable consumption are affected by the choice of access measure and scale. Method Supermarket location data from Glasgow, UK (n = 119, and fruit and vegetable intake data from the ‘Health and Well-Being’ Survey (n = 1041 were used to compare various measures of locational access. These exposure variables included proximity estimates (with different points-of-origin used to vary levels of aggregation and density measures using three approaches (Euclidean and road network buffers and Kernel density estimation at distances ranging from 0.4 km to 5 km. Further analysis was conducted to assess the impact of using smaller buffer sizes for individuals who did not own a car. Associations between these multiple access measures and fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using linear regression models. Results Levels of spatial aggregation did not impact on the proximity estimates. Counts of supermarkets within Euclidean buffers were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption at 1 km, 2 km and 3 km, and for our road network buffers at 2 km, 3 km, and 4 km. Kernel density estimates provided the strongest associations and were significant at a distance of 2 km, 3 km, 4 km and 5 km. Presence of a supermarket within 0.4 km of road network distance from where people lived was positively associated with fruit consumption amongst those without a car (coef. 0.657; s.e. 0.247; p0.008. Conclusions The associations between locational access to supermarkets and individual-level dietary behaviour are sensitive to the method by which the food environment variable is captured. Care needs to be taken to ensure robust and conceptually

  12. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E; Bloch, P; Glümer, C

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. A space management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data from the two intervention supermarkets and three control supermarkets from the same supermarket chain but in Odsherred, Denmark (control area). Both the effect on sales of fresh F&V and potential unhealthy substitution effects were evaluated using multi-level regression analyses. During the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0.04) and the sale of the total amount of fruit and vegetables (fresh, frozen, dried and canned) increased by 15.3% (P=0.01) compared with the control supermarkets. In the 'space only' intervention supermarket no significant increase in the sale of fruit and vegetables was found. No unhealthy substitution effects were found. In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.

  13. TARGET:?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James M Acton

    2014-01-01

      By 2003. as military planners had become worried that the country's long-range conventional weapons, such as cruise missiles, might be too slow to reach hypothetical distant targets that needed to be struck urgently...

  14. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-03-07

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of food choices: Exploring the contributions of food expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of the contribution of food costs to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality may have been limited by the use of estimated (vs. actual) food expenditures, not accounting for where individuals shop, and possible reverse mediation between food expenditures and healthiness of food choices. This study aimed to explore the extent to which food expenditure mediates socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of household food choices. Observational panel data on take-home food and beverage purchases, including expenditure, throughout 2010 were obtained for 24,879 UK households stratified by occupational social class. Purchases of (1) fruit and vegetables and (2) less-healthy foods/beverages indicated healthiness of choices. Supermarket choice was determined by whether households ever visited market-defined high-price and/or low-price supermarkets. Results showed that higher occupational social class was significantly associated with greater food expenditure, which was in turn associated with healthier purchasing. In mediation analyses, 63% of the socioeconomic differences in choices of less-healthy foods/beverages were mediated by expenditure, and 36% for fruit and vegetables, but these figures were reduced to 53% and 31% respectively when controlling for supermarket choice. However, reverse mediation analyses were also significant, suggesting that 10% of socioeconomic inequalities in expenditure were mediated by healthiness of choices. Findings suggest that lower food expenditure is likely to be a key contributor to less-healthy food choices among lower socioeconomic groups. However, the potential influence of cost may have been overestimated previously if studies did not account for supermarket choice or explore possible reverse mediation between expenditure and healthiness of choices.

  16. The mixed health messages of Millsberry: a critical study of online child-targeted food advergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Deborah M

    2011-06-01

    This paper offers a critical study of the contradictions of Millsberry.com, a General Mills (GM) advergaming website used to market GM's breakfast cereal brands to children. The paper takes a critical semiotic approach to argue that Millsberry.com sends players contradictory messages about health by simultaneously promoting nutritional wellness and consumption of high-sugar cereals, essentially conflating the two. Players on Millsberry.com create a virtual self (a Buddy) who lives in the fictional town of Millsberry, and a Buddy's health is tracked over time as players make nutritional choices for the Buddy. Health on Millsberry equates to eating from multiple food groups (nutritional balance) and eating only until full (caloric moderation). Yet both of these health messages are essentially undermined by play on the site. Nutritional balance is undermined by both the excessive promotion of high-sugar cereals and the differences between depictions of branded and unbranded foods. Caloric moderation is contradicted by digital advergames that operate on a logic of maximal consumption, by narratives of branded spokescharacters' endless appetites for cereal, and by giveaways of "free" boxes of virtual cereal that can be eaten by the Buddy in a single bite. The study concludes that such mixed messages about nutritional health are highly problematic, particularly given the alarming increase in diet and weight-related diseases among children.

  17. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Girardet

    Full Text Available Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON, a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.

  18. Introduction to the RFID Technology in the Application of the Smart Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID technology is no stranger to more or less have contacted various of industries in nowadays. Premier wen Jiabao put forward the “experience China” in 2009, after the application of IOT (Internet of things is rocketed development and RFID technology is absolutely necessary as the core of IOT. On the experiment background of campus supermarket, this paper briefly introduces the application of RFID technology in the intelligent supermarket that mainly included four parts. Through analysis of system, it detailed interpretation that IOT bring changes to campus supermarket.

  19. Simplified prediction of energy consumption on supermarket freezers displays; Previsao simplificada do consumo de energia de um freezer comercial para refrigeracao de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimundo Junior, Fernando Newton; Pimenta, Joao Manoel Dias [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: raimundo@mecanica.ufu.br; pimenta@mecanica.ufu.br

    2000-07-01

    Open-type freezer displays are refrigeration equipment largely used for food conservation in commercial applications such as in supermarket stores. The energy consumption due to such equipment' may represent an important amount of the overall energy consumption of a supermarket, so that, store managers are generally interested in the application of procedures allowing to reduce their electricity costs due to refrigeration. A research was carried out, showing that in some supermarkets, both freezers displays and air conditioning systems are being shutdown during the night period, when the store is closed to consumers, in order to reduce energy consumption. However, while the expected reduction in electricity costs was not validated, an increase in the number of complaints from consumers with respect to products quality has been observed. This leads to conclude that, as expected, the absence of products refrigeration during the night is causing the degradation in food products quality. In order to analyze the potential of energy consumption reduction, a theoretical study was started based on the development of a mathematical model of a typical open-type freezer display. The model presented in the paper, is developed to predict the hourly energy demand of the equipment in response to design characteristics, conditioned space and seasonal conditions, cycling product charge-discharge operations, and food items thermal behavior. Preliminary results are presented allowing to study the influence of different operating conditions. The overall power consumption is first considered for standard operating conditions (reference) when both the freezer and the air conditioning system are running continuously. Simulation results for other conditions are then obtained and compared to the reference case. (author)

  20. Copenhagen Food Community – Values in contrast to market dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Campion, Nathan; Christiansen, Asta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this bachelor project is to give concrete suggestions for the future of the Copenhagen Food Community, having in mind, the growing attention on organic food in the supermarkets. We have collected both quantitative and qualitative data, in order to give a proper response to our problem. This has been done through a survey between the members of the Copenhagen Food Community and through interviews with the person in charge of purchasing for Copenhagen Food Community, ...

  1. Supermarket refrigerators with natural refrigerants; Supermarktkaelteanlagen mit natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln. Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaf, S.; Heinbokel, B. [Linde AG, Koeln (Germany). Gechaeftsbereich Linde Kaeltetechnik

    2002-09-01

    In view of the high contribution to global warming of H-CFC refrigerants, substitution has been a key concern for several years now. Leakage protection measures were enhanced, and Linde also installed many supermarket refrigerators with natural refrigerants, i.e. ammonia, propene and carbon dioxide. The environmental and economic aspects are assessed on the basis of the experience gained, and the systems are compared with H-CFC refrigeration systems. [German] Wegen des betraechtlichen Treibhauspotentials von HFKW-Kaeltemitteln werden seit Jahren Anstrengungen unternommen, um den von diesen Stoffen ausgehenden Treibhauseffekt zu reduzieren. Neben Massnahmen zur Verminderung von Leckagen sowie zur Verringerung von Kaeltemittel-Fuellmengen wurden im Laufe der letzten 10 Jahre von Linde auch zahlreiche Kaelteanlagen mit den natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln Ammoniak, Propen und Kohlendioxid in Supermaerkten installiert. Auf Basis der gesammelten Erfahrungen wird eine Einschaetzung der umweltspezifischen und wirtschaftlichen Aspekte im Vergleich zu Anlagen mit HFKW-Kaeltemitteln vorgenommen. (orig.)

  2. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems with EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration capabilities were first added to EnergyPlus in 2004. At that time, it was possible to model a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles all the building energy uses, typically on a 5 to 10 minute time step throughout the period of interest. The original refrigeration module included the ability to model the sensible and latent interactions between the refrigerated cases and the building HVAC system, along with some basic heat recovery capabilities. Over the last few years, the refrigeration module has been expanded to handle more complex systems, such as secondary loops, shared condensers, cascade condensers, subcoolers, and walk-in coolers exchanging energy with multiple conditioned zones.

  3. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gyawu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%, restaurants (19.7%, fast food restaurants (16.4%, small supermarkets (8.2%, and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %, respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001 higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  4. DESIGNING TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR SUPERMARKET FREEZERS%超市冷柜温度监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲敏; 李强

    2014-01-01

    针对大中型超市冷柜中的食品温度需要进行实时监测,进而保证食品质量的问题,提出基于 Lab VIEW 的超市冷柜温度监测系统。采用 ZigBee 无线通信技术,通过星形网络实现主从节点之间数据采集与传输。子节点温度传感器将所采集到的信息传送给协调器,协调器负责接收子节点传来的温度信息。在监控机房,协调器与 PC 机利用串口连接,通过监测界面实时监测各冷柜的温度,同时完成对采集数据的保存。既实现了采集监测和超值报警的功能,又可以实现本机历史查询和远程登录数据库查询,节省人力和资源的同时,方便上级对各连锁超市的考核工作。%We propose a Lab VIEW-based supermarket freezer temperature monitoring system in light of the problem that the food temperatures in freezers at the large and medium-sized supermarkets need to be monitored and thus to ensure the qualities of the foods.ZigBee wireless communication technology is used,and the data collection and transmission between the master and slave nodes are realised through the star networks.The temperature sensor of the child node transmits the collected information to coordinator,and the coordinator is responsible for receiving the temperature information from the child node.In monitor room,the coordinator and the PC monitor the temperatures of each freezer timely using the serial port connection and through the monitoring interface,and complete the preservation of the collected data at the same time.This system realises the functions of collection and monitoring as well as over-temperature alarming,besides,it also realises the local machine history query and the telnet logon database query.While saving the manpower and resources,the system is also convenient for the higher-ups to examine the works of every chained supermarket.

  5. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E

    2017-01-01

    management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data...... the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0...... were found. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10...

  6. Trends and perspectives for supermarket refrigeration systems; Trends und Perspektiven fuer Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Hochschule Karlsruhe - Technik und Wirtschaft (Germany). Inst. fuer Kaelte-, Klima- und Umwelttechnik

    2008-04-15

    This paper describes the latest trends and perspectives in supermarket refrigeration. Focus is on improving energy efficiency, reducing refrigerant charge and using natural refrigerants. Several alternative systems such as indirect, distributed, cascade and two-stage are described. (orig.)

  7. Link-up between Farmers and Supermarket based on China’s Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ying; TANG Bu-long

    2012-01-01

    Link-up between farmers and supermarket is a new move adopted actively by the current government, conducive to consumers, farmers and circulation enterprises. At present, link-up between farmers and supermarket is launched in China’s 15 provinces and cities, which will set off the revolution in the field of agricultural circulation. Based on the current situation of link-up between farmers and supermarket and the existing problems, we put forth the following recommendations: promoting the quality of farmers’ cooperative organizations; establishing the logistics center of fresh agricultural products; using economies of scale to reduce the fresh logistics costs; improving the operation and management level of fresh agricultural products in supermarket.

  8. Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolated Sub-Dehumidification Strategies in Large Supermarkets and Grocery Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with reducing the relative humidity in the vicinity of refrigerated display cases in supermarkets, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of maintaining a relatively higher and uniform humidity level throughout the entire supermarket. Existing and new strategies for maintaining lower relative humidity levels near the vicinity of refrigerated display cases were analyzed to determine their effectiveness and limits of application.

  10. Antitrust analysis of supermarkets: global concerns playing out in local markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic components of antitrust analysis for the supermarket industry, including definition of product and geographic markets and the measurement of market power. The analysis of prices and profits in a market structure context remains important, especially in countries such as Australia with very high supermarket concentration. Firm and brand level New Empirical Industrial Organisation models of demand and oligopoly pricing also provide insights for evaluating antitrust ...

  11. Association Between Neighborhood Supermarket Presence and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Laraia, Barbara A; Warton, E Margaret; Blanchard, Samuel D; Moffet, Howard H; Downing, Janelle; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-05-16

    We estimated associations between neighborhood supermarket gain or loss and glycemic control (assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values) in patients from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n = 434,806 person-years; 2007-2010). Annual clinical measures were linked to metrics from a geographic information system for each patient's address of longest residence. We estimated the association between change in supermarket presence (gain, loss, or no change) and change in HbA1c value, adjusting for individual- and area-level attributes and according to baseline glycemic control (near normal, Supermarket loss was associated with worse HbA1c trajectories for those with good, moderate, and poor glycemic control at baseline, while supermarket gain was associated with marginally better HbA1c outcomes only among patients with near normal HbA1c values at baseline. Patients with the poorest baseline HbA1c values (≥9.0%) had the worst associated changes in glycemic control following either supermarket loss or gain. Differences were not clinically meaningful relative to no change in supermarket presence. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gaining neighborhood supermarket presence did not benefit glycemic control in a substantive way. The significance of supermarket changes on health depends on a complex interaction of resident, neighborhood, and store characteristics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shu-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-hong

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail , the political, economical, social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed. The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out, including single products and uneven level of quality, the products, which can not satisfy farmers’ needs; low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system, thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged. I...

  13. Marketing Strategies: own brands as a competitive differential in the supermarket market

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Tereza de; Queiroz, Tatiana Silva de; Campos,Domingos Fernandes; Vieira, Ricardo Sergio Gomes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study marketing strategies and customer’s perception in relation to the own-brand offered by the supermarket sector. The research had an exploratory and descriptive feature. In the exploratory phase the managers of three great networks of supermarkets were interviewed; in the descriptive phase 240 customers were interviewed by using a structured gathering tool, originally compounded by closed questions, directed to the apprehension of data about their behavior...

  14. Market Basket Analysis for a Supermarket based on Frequent Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Charlet Annie M.C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Market basket analysis is an important component of analytical system in retail organizations to determine the placement of goods, designing sales promotions for different segments of customers to improve customer satisfaction and hence the profit of the supermarket. These issues for a leading supermarket are addressed here using frequent itemset mining. The frequent itemsets are mined from the market basket database using the efficient K-Apriori algorithm and then the association rules are generated.

  15. An Infraspec VFA-IR spectrometer analysis of Trans-fat content in glazed donuts purchased from supermarkets, convenience stores and bakeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Jenkins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most packaged food products must contain trans-fat labelling; however unpackaged snacks such as cookies, donuts, and muffins at supermarkets, gas station convenience stores, and bakeries often do not have or require nutrition fact labels. Hence, consumers are not aware of the trans-fat content in unpackaged food products. It is well-known within the health and scientific community that diets high in trans-fat can lead to a host of health problems, namely coronary heart disease (CHD. The purpose of this study is to conduct a preliminary study of the trans-fat content in unpackaged baked goods, particularly unpackaged glazed donuts. To accomplish our objective, we determined the % trans-fat in oil extracted from glazed donuts obtained from several supermarkets, gas stations and bakeries across Northwest, Indiana. Variable Filter Array (VFA IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. In this paper, we present our preliminary findings.

  16. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods. This paper describes recent changes in Asian food systems driven by TFBCs in the retail, manufacturing and food service sectors and considers the implications for population nutrition. Market data for each sector was sourced from Euromonitor International for four lower-middle income, three upper-middle income and five high-income Asian countries. Descriptive statistics were used to describe trends in ultra-processed food consumption (2000-2013), packaged food retail distribution channels (1999-2013), 'market transnationalization' defined as the market share held by TFBCs relative to domestic firms (2004-2013), and 'market concentration' defined as the market share and thus market power held by the four leading firms (2004-2013) in each market. Ultra-processed food sales has increased rapidly in most middle-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks was the leading product category, in which Coca-Cola and PepsiCo had a regional oligopoly. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores were becoming increasingly dominant as distribution channels for packaged foods throughout the region. Market concentration was increasing in the grocery retail sector in all countries. Food service sales are increasing in all countries led by McDonalds and Yum! Brands. However, in all three sectors TFBCs face strong competition from Asian firms. Overall, the findings suggest that market forces are likely to be significant but variable drivers of Asia

  17. Cost of eating: whole foods versus convenience foods in a low-income model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Andrew J; Stephens, Mark B

    2010-04-01

    Financial limitations in low-income populations, those at highest risk for poor health outcomes, may preclude adherence to recommended dietary guidelines. We examine the financial burden of shopping for foods to meet national dietary recommendations in a supermarket compared to eating primarily in a fast-food restaurant. Using a single-parent, low-income model, we obtained whole food costs (healthy) from local supermarkets and from fast-food outlets (convenient). Using cost per calorie as a metric for comparison, we used estimated single-parent, low-income living expenses to determine the relative costs of meeting national dietary guidelines. Average food costs for healthy and convenience diets accounted for 18% and 37% of income, respectively. Dairy products and vegetables accounted for the largest cost percentages of diet costs (36% and 28%, respectively). The cost per calorie of a convenience diet was 24% higher than the healthy diet. Both models resulted in net financial loss over the course of a year for a single-parent, low-income family. Food costs represent a significant proportion of annual income. Diets based heavily on foods from convenient sources are less healthy and more expensive than a well-planned menu from budget foods available from large supermarket chains.

  18. β-Boswellic acid, a bioactive substance used in food supplements, inhibits protein synthesis by targeting the ribosomal machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapullo, A; Cassiano, C; Capolupo, A; Del Gaudio, F; Esposito, R; Tosco, A; Riccio, R; Monti, M C

    2016-09-01

    The Boswellia gum resin extracts have been used in traditional medicines because of their remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. Nowadays, these extracts are on the market as food supplements. β-Boswellic acid (βBA) is one of the main pentacyclic triterpene components, among the family of BAs, of the Boswellia gum resins. BAs have been broadly studied and are well known for their wide anti-inflammatory and potential anticancer properties. In this paper, a mass spectrometry-based chemoproteomic approach has been applied to characterize the whole βBA interacting profile. Among the large numbers of proteins fished out, proteasome, 14-3-3 and some ribosomal proteins were considered the most interesting targets strictly connected to the modulation of the cancer progression. In particular, because of their recent assessment as innovative chemotherapeutic targets, the ribosomal proteins were considered the most attractive βBA partners, and the biological role of their interaction with the natural compound has been evaluated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  20. Investigation on supermarket infestation of cockroaches and the control measures%大型超市蜚蠊侵害调查与防治措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育富; 褚宏亮; 杨维芳; 刘大鹏; 陈志龙; 刘慧; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in supermarkets in Nanjing city, providing scientific basis for the control of cockroaches in supermarkets. Methods Four large supermarkets located in different positions in Nanjing city were selected and sticky trap method was applied to determine the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches. The cockroach species were identified with the number counted and the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches calculated. Results A total of 8894 cockroaches, all of which were Blattella germanica, were captured. It was found that the infestation of cockroaches in the supermarkets was serious with the encroachment rate amounting to 72.64% and the density being 16.78 per piece. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in storehouse, fresh section, deli section, produce section, food section and bakery of the supermarkets, where there were food and water. But relatively light infestation was seen in the department sections. Conclusion B. germanica has become the dominant species in the supermarkets, where infestation of cockroaches is serious, especially in the areas that are rich in food and water. Comprehensive control measures should be taken to effectively reduce the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches.%目的 了解南京市大型超市蜚蠊侵害及种群分布等情况,探讨其防治措施,为超市蜚蠊防治提供科学依据.方法 选择南京市不同方位4家大型超市,采用粘捕法调查侵害率和密度,现场鉴定蜚蠊种类并计数,了解超市不同区域的蜚蠊分布情况,并分析其原因.结果 共捕获蜚蠊8894只,均为德国小蠊;超市蜚蠊侵害严重,侵害率达72.64%,密度为16.78只/张,主要分布在食源和水源丰富的库房、生鲜区、熟食区、蔬果区、食品区和面包房,百货区蜚蠊侵害程度相对较轻.结论 德国小蠊已成为超市侵害的优势种,以食源和水源丰富的区域

  1. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamichhane Archana P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Methods Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth’s residence. Results Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10 years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8–3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5–3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures

  2. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda: high-risk groups not targeted by food aid programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Smedemark, Siri Aas; Ovuga, Emilio; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance System aged 15 years and older were considered eligible. Trained field assistants collected anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and administered questionnaires with information on sociodemographic characteristics, food security, smoking and alcohol. Nutritional status was classified by body mass index. In total, 2062 men and 2924 women participated and were included in the analyses. The prevalence of underweight was 22.3% for men and 16.0% for women, whereas the prevalence of overweight was 1.5% for men and 7.6% for women. In men, underweight was associated with younger (15-19 years) and older age (>55 years) (P < 0.001), being divorced/separated [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.99] and smoking (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.67-2.73). For women, underweight was associated with older age (P < 0.001) and hungry-gap rainy season (May-July) (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04-1.69). Widowed or divorced/separated women were not more likely to be underweight. No association was found between education, alcohol consumption or food security score and underweight. Our findings are not in line with the conventional target groups in nutritional programmes and highlight the importance of continuous health and nutritional assessments of all population groups that reflect local social determinants and family structures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Activation of the GLP-1 receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract reduces food reward behavior and targets the mesolimbic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Richard

    Full Text Available The gut/brain peptide, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1, suppresses food intake by acting on receptors located in key energy balance regulating CNS areas, the hypothalamus or the hindbrain. Moreover, GLP-1 can reduce reward derived from food and motivation to obtain food by acting on its mesolimbic receptors. Together these data suggest a neuroanatomical segregation between homeostatic and reward effects of GLP-1. Here we aim to challenge this view and hypothesize that GLP-1 can regulate food reward behavior by acting directly on the hindbrain, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R. Using two models of food reward, sucrose progressive ratio operant conditioning and conditioned place preference for food in rats, we show that intra-NTS microinjections of GLP-1 or Exendin-4, a stable analogue of GLP-1, inhibit food reward behavior. When the rats were given a choice between palatable food and chow, intra-NTS Exendin-4 treatment preferentially reduced intake of palatable food but not chow. However, chow intake and body weight were reduced by the NTS GLP-1R activation if chow was offered alone. The NTS GLP-1 activation did not alter general locomotor activity and did not induce nausea, measured by PICA. We further show that GLP-1 fibers are in close apposition to the NTS noradrenergic neurons, which were previously shown to provide a monosynaptic connection between the NTS and the mesolimbic system. Central GLP-1R activation also increased NTS expression of dopamine-β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in noradrenaline synthesis, indicating a biological link between these two systems. Moreover, NTS GLP-1R activation altered the expression of dopamine-related genes in the ventral tegmental area. These data reveal a food reward-suppressing role of the NTS GLP-1R and indicate that the neurobiological targets underlying food reward control are not limited to the mesolimbic system, instead they are distributed throughout the CNS.

  4. Epiphanies at the Supermarket: An Interview with Brigitte Kronauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ittner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brigitte Kronauer has been called "the greatest German [female] fiction writer of our time" (Marcel Reich-Ranicki. Her stories, novels, and criticism have established her as a uniquely sophisticated literary voice and won her many literary prizes. Kronauer's trademarks are her laser-sharp vision, her luminous prose, and the intricate structures of her uncannily realistic literary universes. Finding the mystical in the mundane and exposing human foibles with subtle irony, Kronauer creates, in the words of one critic, epiphanies at the supermarket. Beneath its everyday surface her fiction deals with the eternal human questions of life, death, and love. At a still deeper level it circles around philosophical issues such as our futile attempts to find truth in our own constructs of reality. In her interview with Jutta Ittner the author reflects on her individual path to writing. She describes the role of literature in creating a semblance of order in a multifaceted reality, and she discusses the structure of her literary universes, her characters and their aspirations, and the importance of animals for man's quest for a meaningful life. Finally, Kronauer explains how she sees herself in terms of women's literature and indicates where her writing is headed.

  5. A national outbreak of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 associated with consumption of lemon-and-coriander chicken wraps from a supermarket chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, P J; Sopwith, W; Quigley, C; Gillespie, I; Willshaw, G A; Lycett, C; Surman-Lee, S; Baxter, D; Adak, G K; Syed, Q

    2009-03-01

    A national outbreak of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection affected five English regions and Wales. Twelve cases were associated with lemon-and-coriander chicken wrap from a single supermarket chain consumed over a 5-day period. An outbreak investigation aimed to identify the source of infection. Descriptive epidemiology and phenotypic and genotypic tests on human isolates indicated a point-source outbreak; a case-control study showed a very strong association between consumption of lemon-and-coriander chicken wrap from the single supermarket chain and being a case (OR 46.40, 95% CI 5.39-infinity, P=0.0002). Testing of raw ingredients, products and faecal samples from staff in the food production unit did not yield any positive results. The outbreak was probably caused by one contaminated batch of an ingredient in the chicken wrap. Even when current best practice is in place, ready-to-eat foods can still be a risk for widespread infection.

  6. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Michimi; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis...

  7. Examining associations among obesity and per capita farmers' markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters in US counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas; Crawford, Thomas; McGuirt, Jared T; Ammerman, Alice S

    2011-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is an important component of a healthful diet, yet fruits and vegetables are underconsumed, especially among low-income groups with high prevalence rates of obesity. This study used data from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Food Environment Atlas to examine county-level associations among obesity prevalence and per capita farmers' markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters, adjusted for natural amenities, percent black, percent Hispanic, median age, and median household income, stratified by county metropolitan status. In models that included all three of the food venues, supercenters and grocery stores per capita were inversely associated with obesity in the combined (metro and nonmetro) and metro counties. Farmers' markets were not significant in the model for combined (metro and nonmetro) or for metro counties alone, but were significantly inversely related to obesity rates in the model for nonmetro counties. In this ecologic study, density of food venues was inversely associated with county-level obesity prevalence. Thus, future research should examine similar associations at the individual-level.

  8. Improving retrospective characterization of the food environment for a large region in the United States during a historic time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Moore, Kari A B; Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2012-11-01

    Access to healthy foods has received increasing attention due to growing prevalence of obesity and diet-related health conditions yet there are major obstacles in characterizing the local food environment. This study developed a method to retrospectively characterize supermarkets for a single historic year, 2005, in 19 counties in 6 states in the USA using a supermarket chain-name list and two business databases. Data preparation, merging, overlaps, added-value amongst various approaches and differences by census tract area-level socio-demographic characteristics are described. Agreement between two food store databases was modest: 63%. Only 55% of the final list of supermarkets were identified by a single business database and selection criteria that included industry classification codes and sales revenue ≥$2 million. The added-value of using a supermarket chain-name list and second business database was identification of an additional 14% and 30% of supermarkets, respectively. These methods are particularly useful to retrospectively characterize access to supermarkets during a historic period and when field observations are not feasible and business databases are used.

  9. Geographic measures of retail food outlets and perceived availability of healthy foods in neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D

    2016-06-01

    To examine associations between geographic measures of retail food outlets and perceived availability of healthy foods. Cross-sectional. A predominantly rural, eight-county region of South Carolina, USA. Data from 705 household shoppers were analysed using ordinary least-squares regression to examine relationships between geographic measures (presence and distance) of food outlets obtained via a geographic information system and perceived availability of healthy foods (fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat foods). The presence of a supermarket within an 8·05 km (5-mile) buffer area was significantly associated with perceived availability of healthy foods (β=1·09, P=0·025) when controlling for all other food outlet types. However, no other derived geographic presence measures were significant predictors of perceived availability of healthy foods. Distances to the nearest supermarket (β=-0·16, P=0·003), dollar and variety store (β=-0·15, P=0·005) and fast-food restaurant (β=0·11, P=0·015) were all significantly associated with perceptions of healthy food availability. Our results suggest that distance to food outlets is a significant predictor of healthy food perceptions, although presence is sensitive to boundary size. Our study contributes to the understanding and improvement of techniques that characterize individuals' food options in their community.

  10. Food as a Source and Target of Metaphors: Inclusion and Exclusion of Foodstuffs and Persons through Metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Food is an engine and source of metaphorical meanings that permeates our life. Apples can incorporate references of sin or toxin or simple land life, and tomatoes, blood and love. Fast food symbolically represents for many items of the American Dream. Olives are seen as signs of peace. However, food

  11. A NEW PARADIGM FOR INDIAN SUPERMARKET RETAILERS BASED ON CUSTOMER-CENTRIC STRATEGIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema S. Shenoy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket retailers in India admist fierce competition and the only way out is through the attainment of competitive advantage. Strategy is the route to attain competitive advantage that could facilitate firms attain superior performance. The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework on customer-centric retail strategy, to facilitate supermarket retailers in India attain competitive advantage. The paper draws heavily from existing literature on retail strategies and competitive advantage in order to ascertain the most effective customer-centric strategies. Adding strength to the research is the result derived from interviews of supermarket managers and customers; and also the results of pilot study .The work involves identification of constructs and research hypothesis for the proposed framework. The framework contributes to literature by emphasizing on not just effective customer-centric strategies but also, on specific performance outcomes that supermarket retailers could be enjoying riding on these strategies. A new dimension to attainment of competitive advantage and superior performance has definitely been recognized by this research effort. Supermarket retailers in India can be certain of attaining competitive advantage by riding on the proposed strategies.

  12. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  13. FOOD-PURCHASING PATTERNS FOR HOME: A GROCERY STORE-INTERCEPT SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To identify the most common frequency of food-purchasing patterns and relate this pattern to characteristics of individuals and families. Design: A customer-intercept survey was conducted in the greater Houston area, Texas, USA, in 2002. The frequency of food shopping at supermarkets, co...

  14. Supermarket baker's asthma: how accurate is routine health surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, A; Nightingale, S; Berriman, J; Sharp, C; Welch, J; Newman, T; Cullinan, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Regular health surveillance is commonly recommended for workers exposed to occupational antigens but little is known about how effective it is in identifying cases. Aims: To report one large company's surveillance and compare its findings with those of a standard cross-sectional survey in the same workforce. Methods: A supermarket company with 324 in-store bakeries producing bread from raw ingredients conducted a three-stage health surveillance programme in around 3000 bakery employees. The first stage involved the administration of a simple respiratory questionnaire. If chest symptoms were present a second questionnaire focusing on their work relationship was administered. If positive a blood sample was requested for the measurement of specific IgE to flour and fungal α-amylase. The results were compared to an independent cross-sectional survey of employees in 20 of the company's stores. Results: Two hundred and ninety nine (92%) of the company's bakeries took part in surveillance. The overall employee response for the first stage was 77%; a quarter of those with respiratory symptoms reported that they were work related. Seventy four (61%) of those with work related chest symptoms had a measurement of specific IgE to either flour or fungal α-amylase, of whom 30 (41%) had a positive result. Surveillance estimated that 1% of bakery employees (1% bakers, 2% managers, 0.6% confectioners) had work related symptoms with specific IgE. This compared with 4% (7.5% bakers, 3.3% managers, 0% confectioners) in the cross-sectional survey (n = 166, 93% response). Conclusion: Comparison with a standard cross-sectional survey suggests that routine surveillance can underestimate the workplace burden of disease. The reasons may include technical or resource issues and uncertainties over confidentiality or the perceived consequences of participation. More research needs to be done looking into the design and efficacy of surveillance in occupational asthma. PMID

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY OF A FINANCIAL SUPERMARKET, AS A MODEL OF INNOVATIVE FINANCIAL BEHAVIOR OF BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latynin D. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation of an innovative financial behavior of banks by applying the strategy of financial supermarket. The author developed a corresponding algorithm of assessing the effectiveness of the credit and financial institutions financial supermarket strategy in practice, and an assessment of the effectiveness of its implementation in banks

  16. Energy efficient refrigeration. CO{sub 2} in Supermarket Refrigeration. Project 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawalha, Samer; Suleymani, Arash [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology; Rogstam, Joergen [IUC, Sveriges energi- och kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop, test, and evaluate an energy efficient supermarket system working with CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant. Based on the experience in designing the system, running and evaluating it, modifications should be applied in order to conclude an efficient optimized CO{sub 2} system for a medium size supermarket in Sweden. Emphasize is on using environmentally friendly refrigerants and the choice was to use natural fluids. A refrigeration system solution for a medium size Swedish supermarket has been built in IUC laboratory in Katrineholm. The system is equipped with extensive instrumentations to collect data and perform online diagnosis. Several variations of the system solution are applied for validation and possible modifications. In this report we present the system under investigation and some of the experimental results that have been obtained under the project period. Overall system validation and evaluations of the main components are described.

  17. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail,the political,economical,social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed.The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out,including single products and uneven level of quality,the products,which can not satisfy farmers’ needs;low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system,thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged.In the end,from the perspective of products,position,price,and personnel,the marketing strategies for the development of Ningxia rural supermarket chain based on the Long Tail Theory are put forward.

  18. Store Image Attributes and Customer Satisfaction in Supermarkets in Campo Grande-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluiza Alberto de Morais Watanabe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between image attributes and consumer satisfaction in supermarkets. Specifically, we sought to: a identify the variables which make up the image attributes of supermarkets and group them into factors, and b assess the impact of image attributes on consumer satisfaction. We conducted a quantitative study, which met quotas by region and city income class, among 400 individuals from Campo Grande, MS, southwest Brazil, who were responsible for purchasing supermarket products for their families. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that the attributes are grouped into five factors. The constructs “environment” and “promotions” were not considered significant in determining satisfaction, while the attributes “ personell”, “product” and “price” had a positive effect on satisfaction, with the latter having the greatest impact.  

  19. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  20. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished......This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... and with food-related life and also had the highest acceptance of packaging and foods produced with nanotechnology. The results suggest that the degree of food neophobia is associated with satisfaction with life and with food-related life, as well as with the acceptance of products with nanotechnological...

  1. The application of computer color matching techniques to the matching of target colors in a food substrate: a first step in the development of foods with customized appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sandra; Golding, Matt; Archer, Richard H

    2012-06-01

    A predictive color matching model based on the colorimetric technique was developed and used to calculate the concentrations of primary food dyes needed in a model food substrate to match a set of standard tile colors. This research is the first stage in the development of novel three-dimensional (3D) foods in which color images or designs can be rapidly reproduced in 3D form. Absorption coefficients were derived for each dye, from a concentration series in the model substrate, a microwave-baked cake. When used in a linear, additive blending model these coefficients were able to predict cake color from selected dye blends to within 3 ΔE*(ab,10) color difference units, or within the limit of a visually acceptable match. Absorption coefficients were converted to pseudo X₁₀, Y₁₀, and Z₁₀ tri-stimulus values (X₁₀(P), Y₁₀(P), Z₁₀(P)) for colorimetric matching. The Allen algorithm was used to calculate dye concentrations to match the X₁₀(P), Y₁₀(P), and Z₁₀(P) values of each tile color. Several recipes for each color were computed with the tile specular component included or excluded, and tested in the cake. Some tile colors proved out-of-gamut, limited by legal dye concentrations; these were scaled to within legal range. Actual differences suggest reasonable visual matches could be achieved for within-gamut tile colors. The Allen algorithm, with appropriate adjustments of concentration outputs, could provide a sufficiently rapid and accurate calculation tool for 3D color food printing. The predictive color matching approach shows potential for use in a novel embodiment of 3D food printing in which a color image or design could be rendered within a food matrix through the selective blending of primary dyes to reproduce each color element. The on-demand nature of this food application requires rapid color outputs which could be provided by the color matching technique, currently used in nonfood industries, rather than by empirical food

  2. Field Testing and Modeling of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems as a Demand Response Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael; Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Anthony, Jamie

    2016-08-26

    Supermarkets offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns; however, refrigeration as the largest load has been challenging to access. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; lighting; and anti-sweat heaters. This project evaluated and quantified the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory. DR events were carried out and results measured in an operational 45,590-ft2 supermarket located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Key results from the project include the rate of temperature increase in freezer reach-in cases and walk-ins when refrigeration is suspended, the load shed amount for DR tests, and the development of calibrated models to quantify available DR resources. Simulations showed that demand savings of 15 to 20 kilowatts (kW) are available for 1.5 hours for a typical store without precooling and for about 2.5 hours with precooling using only the low-temperature, non-ice cream cases. This represents an aggregated potential of 20 megawatts within BPA's service territory. Inability to shed loads for medium-temperature (MT) products because of the tighter temperature requirements is a significant barrier to realizing larger DR for supermarkets. Store owners are reluctant to allow MT case set point changes, and laboratory tests of MT case DR strategies are needed so that owners become comfortable testing, and implementing, MT case DR. The next-largest barrier is the lack of proper controls in most supermarket displays over ancillary equipment, such as anti-sweat heaters, lights, and fans.

  3. Relationship between mode choice and the location of supermarkets – empirical analysis in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of the study work is to gain data about shopping and mobility behaviour at small local supermarkets with sales floor space less than 1.000 m2. Four location types have been defined and discussed; rural  peripheral location, rural  central location, urban – central location and urban – peripheral location. 200 shoppers each location were interviewed at the exit of the supermarket, which means a total of 800 interviews were carried out during all day times and working days of the supermarket. As expected, the mode choice is strongly dependent on the location of the supermarket. In car oriented settlements, which can be found at rural peripheral locations, nearly all shoppers accessed the supermarket with their cars. If weighting the expenditure per visit with the frequency of visits, the average expenditure per month and mode can be derived. The average purchase per month between the modes is more or less balanced. A difference in behaviour lies in the fact that cyclists and pedestrians go shopping more frequently but are spending less per visit. Additionally, the results of this study are indicating the existence of a potential mode shift, especially if there is better land use planning for supermarket locations. Furthermore, considering the given situation and a given threshold of less than 5 kilograms of weight of the goods purchased, more than fifty percent of all shoppers could use non motorised modes with insignificant loss of travel quality. Combined with short travel distances to the next shop (the average distance is 4.9 km, a change to alternative means of transport would be relatively easy for a significant number of shoppers.

  4. Retail private label’s strategies: A case study in a large brazilian Supermarket chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bulamah Spineli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study approaches the advantages and risks related to private labels under a retailers’ perspective, as well as the private label strategies and its growth in the Brazilian market. The paper analyses the strategies used by a large Brazilian supermarket chain with regards to its private labels’ management, using the case study method. The results showed the existence of two private label lines of products, with different strategies: one line of light products (proprietary brand and another line of products that carry the name of the supermarket under study (retail brand endorsement, both classified as using the fantasy positioning strategy.

  5. On subcooler design for integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, No. 4800, Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The energy saving opportunity of supermarket refrigeration systems using subcooler between the medium-temperature (MT) refrigeration system and the low-temperature (LT) refrigeration system has been identified in the previous work. This paper presents a model-based comprehensive analysis on the subcooler design. The optimal subcooling control is discussed as well. With optimal subcooler size and subcooling control, the maximum energy savings of integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system using R404A or R134a as working fluid can achieve 27% or 20%, respectively. The load ratio of MT to LT system and the operating conditions have considerable impact on the energy savings. (author)

  6. Development of supermarket refrigerators with reduced energy consumption; Entwicklung von Supermarkt - Kaelteanlagen mit reduziertem Energiebedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, C.; Wobst, E. [Inst. fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Supermarket refrigeration is a considerable energy consumption factor. In this research project, dynamic simulations and experimental verifications were carried out of supermarket refrigeration systems. Experiments on systems in operation are difficult, so that appropriate computer models are required. The project was carried out as a cooperative project of two research institutes and two industrial organisations. The findings of the project were to be used for system optimisation. The findings suggest that savings of more than 10 percent are possible with comparatively little effort. The paper outlines the goals of the project, the procedure, and preliminary results. (orig.)

  7. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; HUO; Xin; SHEN; Zhipeng; Huang

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics,this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products,and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results,it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products has smaller fluctuation than that of wholesaler-oriented agricultural products. Besides,both the inventory level and bullwhip effect of above chain are lowered.

  8. Supermarket chains heading for one-stop shopping; Supermarktketens onderweg naar one-stopshopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorborg, L. [ed.

    1997-04-01

    Super market chains are large-scale energy consumers, but their connections are scattered. Nevertheless, they would like to have one single energy supplier as soon as possible. Not so much because of the advantages expected from the central purchase of natural gas, but mainly to have one single contact for energy saving projects. Meanwhile, energy contractors have also focused their attention on the supermarket chains. According to supermarket owners, liberalization should result in better services and lower energy prices. And that would be more than welcome in a branch which faces fierce competition and spends 110 million Dutch guilders on energy a year

  9. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument. Us...... as a means of business stealing. Finally, a counterfactual experiment of online shopping, in which transportation costs are removed, is found welfare-improving........ Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  10. Evaluating the Impact of Communication Network Performance on Supervisory Supermarket Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Minko, Tomasz; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the impact of non-ideal communication networks on system performance of hierarchical control systems. It develops a stepwise evaluation approach that is applied to the example scenario of a supervisory controller for supermarket temperature control, addressing...... of communication network performance on the supermarket refrigeration control and resulting energy costs using simulation models. The results show that the controller is resilient to downstream information delays, however upstream delays or up- and downstream information loss can cause significant performance...

  11. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument. Us...... as a means of business stealing. Finally, a counterfactual experiment of online shopping, in which transportation costs are removed, is found welfare-improving........ Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION IN RETAIL BRAZILIAN SUPERMARKET BETWEEN 1998 AND 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to measure and to analyze the evolution of the Brazilian supermarket sector market concentration in the period between 1998 and 2013. This was made possible by the analysis of the main indicators of concentration calculated namely: concentration ratio (CR, Herfindahl-Hirschman index (H and the Theil entropy index (ET. It was found that there was increased concentration in the supermarket sector, driven by the entry of foreign networks and the expressive movement of mergers and acquisitions recorded from the 1990s.

  13. Consumers behaviour of students when shopping for organic food in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Zámková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming and organic food are terms that attract the attention of not only farmers, but also economists. It is paper, which could address many consumers in the future. A healthier way of life is becoming more and more popular. This paper primarily aims to collect basic knowledge of organic farming, organic food and its labelling. Furthermore, according to conducted marketing research (1.289 respondents were addressed in questionnaire survey, it is aim to characterize the factors that influence respondents when buying organic food. Based on the results of research another goal is to identify the main factors that could make the younger generation of Czechs buy organic food more frequently. Then according to the statistical data processing this paper aims to formulate recommendations to producers and traders of organic products to entice young people to become customers of this article for many years. Next goal is to compare the results with some other European countries. Interesting relationship between frequency of organic food purchases and other indicators will be assessed by using analysis of contingency tables. An intention is also to identify the target group for marketing strategies. What the respondents most often link with various organic labelling will be identified by using correspondence analysis of monitored data and better flows of information will be proposed.It is clear from the research that organic food is most often bought by women and respondents with higher level of household life. It is purchased mainly fruit and vegetables, as well as dairy products. Respondents mostly make their purchases of organic food in hypermarkets and supermarkets. In addition to the primary reason of disinterest in buying organic food, which is the price, respondents also don’t believe that organic food is better than conventional food and it is not attractive for them.

  14. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  15. Food as a Source and Target of Metaphors: Inclusion and Exclusion of Foodstuffs and Persons through Metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Food is an engine and source of metaphorical meanings that permeates our life. Apples can incorporate references of sin or toxin or simple land life, and tomatoes, blood and love. Fast food symbolically represents for many items of the American Dream. Olives are seen as signs of peace. However,

  16. Family decision-making during food buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    in difficulties in distinguishing among healthy and unhealthy food. Both parents and children being active in the decision process may lead to conflicts due to gaps in preference such as between healthy and unhealthy food. Families solve these conflicts via open communication patterns and a use of various......Decision-making during food buying is a joint family activity involving both parents and children. Children manage to achieve a high degree of influence on many decisions, among other things, because they participate actively and help out doing various tasks. These decisions may turn out...... to be a choice of unhealthy food. Many decisions are made at the supermarket or other food shops, and food packaging is often used in the comparison of food products. Only rarely do families use nutritional information on food labels due to several problems in the understanding of these labels; this may result...

  17. The use of Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography for the development of herbal fingerprints to detect targeted plants in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements is increasing steadily and more and more, these products are bought through internet. Often the products sold through internet are not registered or declared with a national authority, meaning that no or minimal quality control is performed and that they could contain herbs or plants that are regulated. Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOS-LC) was evaluated for the development of specific fingerprints, to be used for the detection of targeted plants in plant food supplements. Three commonly used plants in plant food supplements and two regulated plants were used to develop fingerprints with SOS-LC. It was shown that for all plants specific fingerprints could be obtained, allowing the detection of these targeted plants in triturations with different herbal matrices as well as in real samples of suspicious supplements seized by the authorities. For three of the five plants a more specific fingerprint was obtained, compared to the ones developed on traditional columns described in literature. It could therefore be concluded that the combination of segments of different types of stationary phases, as used in SOS-LC, has the potential of becoming a valuable tool in the quality control and the identification of crude herbal or plant material and in the detection of regulated plants in plant food supplements or other herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The battle for health and beauty : What drives supermarket and drugstore category-promotion lifts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, A.I.J.G.; Gijsbrechts, Els

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies promotion-induced competition between supermarkets and drugstores, resulting from increased channel blurring and category overlap. It documents the relative impact of price cuts and feature ads at the two channels, and establishes substantive factors underlying their differences i

  19. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  20. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  1. Combined cooling and heating using a gas engine in a supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, G.G. [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). School of Engineering Systems and Design; Zhao, X.; Riffat, S.B. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of the Built Environment

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation into the practical and economic viability of an integrated combined heating and cooling system in a supermarket. This system consists of a direct-drive screw compressor, which is powered by a throttle controlled gas engine. The waste heat from the engine is used to provide hot water for space heating and for general usage within the catering and toilet facilities in the supermarket. In this paper, the working principle of the novel system is first described. This details how the gas engine system may be integrated into the typical supermarket. The paper then describes a model, which is used to simulate the energy consumption of the supermarket. This is used to calculate the energy consumed by the conventional system and that used by a number of alternative combined heating and cooling system configurations, which are also described. The additional capital cost of each configuration is estimated and this is used to calculate the payback period. The results show that a payback period of 4.2 years may be achieved with a system that uses approximately 500,000 kWh per annum less primary energy than a conventional system. Finally, comparison between this system and a traditional Combined Heat and Power (CHP) installation is given. (author)

  2. Supermarket refrigeration on the way to sustainability; Supermarktkaelte auf dem Weg zur Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, H. [FKW-Forschungszentrum fuer Kaeltetechnik und Waermepumpen GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Technical developments so far in supermarket refrigeration are presented in view of the current environmental challenges. Systems, refrigerants, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are presented. System assessment on the basis of eco-efficiency is gone into, and the current situation on the way to sustainable power supply is described. (orig.)

  3. The Effectiveness of Supermarket Posters in Helping to Find Missing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Arnal, Jack; Hicks, Jason L.

    2009-01-01

    One approach used to help find missing children is to place posters of them at the exits of supermarkets. The present research addresses the question of how effective that approach is likely to be. Posters of 8 missing children were displayed on a bulletin board at a cooperating grocery store. Customers leaving the store completed a survey and…

  4. Super-Exponential Solution in Markovian Supermarket Models: Framework and Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Marcel F. Neuts opened a key door in numerical computation of stochastic models by means of phase-type (PH) distributions and Markovian arrival processes (MAPs). To celebrate his 75th birthday, this paper reports a more general framework of Markovian supermarket models, including a system of differential equations for the fraction measure and a system of nonlinear equations for the fixed point. To understand this framework heuristically, this paper gives a detailed analysis for three important supermarket examples: M/G/1 type, GI/M/1 type and multiple choices, explains how to derive the system of differential equations by means of density-dependent jump Markov processes, and shows that the fixed point may be simply super-exponential through solving the system of nonlinear equations. Note that supermarket models are a class of complicated queueing systems and their analysis can not apply popular queueing theory, it is necessary in the study of supermarket models to summarize such a more general framework which...

  5. Making Economics Relevant: A Project for Measuring Price Discrimination in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, William F.

    1974-01-01

    This note describes a supermarket discrimination study which involves students in a controversial question of concern to them and their community, requiring the application of economic principles to achieve a basic understanding of the meaning and implications of the problem and thus providing students with "relevant" economics education. (JH)

  6. Shop 'til you hear it drop - Influence of Interactive Auditory Feedback in a Virtual Reality Supermarket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Mangano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment aiming to investigate the impact of auditory feedback in a virtual reality supermarket scenario. The participants were asked to read a shopping list and collect items one by one and place them into a shopping cart. Three conditions were presented randomly, ...

  7. Preventing refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets from being discarded on hot days by mpc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems. It deals with one special condition when the extremely high outdoor temperature causes the compressor to saturate, and work at its maximum capacity. In a traditional control, refrigerated foodstuffs inside display...

  8. Spatial monopoly of multi-establishment firms : An empirical study for supermarkets in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelder, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-establishment firms can create local spatial monopolies in the form of clusters of own establishments without competition. This paper examines the existence of spatial monopolies for Dutch supermarkets in 2009. It is found that 23 percent of consumers can be qualified as being locked-in in a s

  9. Model Identification for Control of Display Units in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff;

    in a supermarket refrigeration system. The grey-box modelling approach is adopted, using stochastic differential equations to define the dynamics of the model, combining prior knowledge of the physical system with data-driven modelling. Model identification is performed using the forward selection method...

  10. Career Information System Project: "Supermarket" Guidance System Conceptual Model for Suburban Community Colleges. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foothill Coll., Los Altos Hills, CA.

    This publication documents one community college's experience in setting up a "supermarket" guidance system model. Its goals were to maximize the number and kinds of available services, and make them maximally accessible to all students. A commercial design firm was hired to analyze the school's present and future requirements. A computer…

  11. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.

    2011-01-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Kalman Filter (KF) technique for a supermarket refrigeration system is explored. Four types of sensor fault scenarios, namely drift, offset, freeze and hard-over, are considered for two temperature sensors, and one type of parametric fault scenario...

  12. FAKTOR-FAKTOR SEBAGAI PERTIMBANGAN KONSUMEN DALAM MELAKUKAN PEMBELIAN DI SUPERMARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2009-06-01

    the economies of scale. Supermarkets adopt a number of pricing and non-pricing strategies to attract customers such as price limits, predatory pricing, and intertemporal price discrimination, for example, discounts at the end of the week and at certain other times. Their non-pricing strategies include advertising, longer opening hours (especially on weekends, bundling or tying (combined purchases, and free parking.

  13. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce flour dust exposures in supermarket bakeries in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, Roslynn; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick; Sander, Ingrid; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A recent study of supermarket bakery workers in South Africa demonstrated that 25% of workers were sensitised to flour allergens and 13% had baker's asthma. Evidence on exposure reduction strategies using specifically designed interventions aimed at reducing the risk of baker's asthma is

  14. Nanotechnology in the context of organic food processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzon, N.; Kahl, J.; Ploeger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the science of the ultra small, is up-and-coming as the technological platform for the next wave of development and transformation of agri-food systems. It is quickly moving from the laboratory onto supermarket shelves and our kitchen tables (Scrinis and Lyons, 2007). Therefore we investigated in a literature review and a comparison of the findings with the EU regulation of organic farming to what degree nanotechnology can be applied in organic food production. ...

  15. OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

  16. Modifying the food environment for childhood obesity prevention: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Tarra L; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Shearer, Cindy; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Kirk, Sara F L

    2014-05-01

    The prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. However, a range of complex social and environmental influences is implicated in the development of obesity and chronic disease that goes beyond the notion of individual choice. A population-level approach recognises the importance of access to and availability of healthy foods outside the home. These external food environments, in restaurants, supermarkets, and in school, or recreation and sports settings, are often characterised by energy dense, nutrient-poor food items that do not reflect the current nutritional guidelines for health. In addition, our understanding of these broader influences on nutritional intake is still limited. Particularly, lacking is a clear understanding of what constitutes the food environment, as well as robust measures of components of the food environment across different contexts. Therefore, this review summarises the literature on food environments of relevance to childhood obesity prevention, with a focus on places where children live, learn and play. Specifically, the paper highlights the approaches and challenges related to defining and measuring the food environment, discusses the aspects of the food environment unique to children and reports on environmental characteristics that are being modified within community, school and recreational settings. Results of the review show the need for a continued focus on understanding the intersection between individual behaviour and external factors; improved instrument development, especially regarding validity and reliability; clearer reported methodology including protocols for instrument use and data management; and considering novel study design approaches that are targeted at measuring the relationship between the individual and their food environment.

  17. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-01-01

    ...) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health...

  18. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  19. Availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores in two rural Texas counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Brenda; Sharkey, Joseph R; Anding, Jenna; McIntosh, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Limited research has focused on the availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional food stores (supermarkets and grocery stores) in rural areas. Current market trends suggest that food items may be available for purchase in stores other than traditional food stores. An observational survey was developed and used on-site to document the availability and variety of fruit and vegetables (fresh, canned, and frozen), meats (meat, poultry, fish, and eggs), dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese), and grains (whole grains and refined grains) in all traditional food stores, convenience stores, and nontraditional food stores (dollar stores and mass merchandisers) in two rural Texas counties. Descriptive statistics and t tests identified that although the widest selection of more healthful food items was available in supermarkets, not all supermarkets carried all items. Grocery stores carried less variety of fresh fruits (8+/-0.7 vs 4.7+/-0.3; Pfood stores. Among convenience and nontraditional food stores, "dollar" stores offered the best variety of more healthful canned fruits and vegetables, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain cereal. Mass merchandisers and dollar stores offered a greater variety of more healthful types of canned tuna and poultry, reduced-fat and skim milk, and low-fat tortillas. In these rural counties, traditional food stores offered greater availability of more healthful food choices across food groups. More healthful food choices in canned fruits and vegetables, canned meat and fish, milk, and grains were also available in dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and convenience stores. Results suggest that a complete understanding of the food environment, especially in rural areas, requires knowledge of the availability and variety of healthful food in all types of stores that are accessible to families.

  20. Food neophobia, nanotechnology and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Crisóstomo, Gloria; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    knowledge of nanotechnology and willingness to purchase food products involving nanotechnology, and included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Foodrelated Life) and FNS (Food Neophobia Scale) scales. Using cluster analysis, four consumer types were distinguished......This study investigates the relationship between food neophobia, satisfaction with life and food-related life, and acceptance of the use of nanotechnology in food production. Questionnaire data was collected from a sample of 400 supermarket shoppers in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured...... with significant differences in their scores on the SWLS, SWFL and FNS. The types differed in their knowledge of nanotechnology, willingness to purchase foods involving nanotechnology, age, socioeconomic level and lifestyle. The least food-neophobic type had the highest levels of satisfaction with life...

  1. The Evolving Food Chain: Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart's Entry Into The Supermarket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael; Basker, Emek

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effect of Wal-Mart's entry into the grocery market using a unique stor-level price panel data set. We use OLS and two IV specifications to estimate the effect of Wal-Mart's entry on competitors' prices of 24 grocery items across several categories. Wal-Mart's price advantage over competitors for these products averages approximately 10%. On average, competitors' response to Wal-Mart's entry is a price reduction of 1-1.2%, mostly due to smaller-scale competitors: the response...

  2. Impact of a targeted direct marketing price promotion intervention (Buywell) on food-purchasing behaviour by low income consumers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; Findlay, A; Sparks, L; Anderson, A S; Barton, K; Eadie, D

    2017-08-01

    Price promotions are a promising intervention for encouraging healthier food purchasing. We aimed to assess the impact of a targeted direct marketing price promotion combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions on the purchase of selected healthier foods by low income consumers. We conducted a randomised controlled trial (n = 53 367) of a direct marketing price promotion (Buywell) combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions for low income consumers identified as 'less healthy' shoppers. Impact was assessed using electronic point of sale data for UK low income shoppers before, during and after the promotion. The proportion of customers buying promoted products in the intervention month increased by between 1.4% and 2.8% for four of the five products. There was significantly higher uptake in the promotion month (P increase (1%) was found in the intervention month of customers switching from full-fat to low-fat milk. This represented 8% of customers who previously bought only full-fat milk. The effects were generally not sustained after the promotion period. Short-term direct marketing price promotions combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions targeted at low income consumers are feasible and can have a modest impact on short-term food-purchasing behaviour, although further approaches are needed to help sustain these changes. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Research on Supermarket's Participation in Agriculture-supermarket Jointing under the Bounded Rationality Perspective%有限理性视角下超市参与“农超对接”行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹华

    2014-01-01

    通过对超市管理人理性认知模式和决议选择的分析,探讨在有限理性视角下的超市管理人的行为机理,得出,有限理性视角下的超市管理人的博弈行为对我国能否有效顺利实施“农超对接”起着关键作用,本文从有限理性经济人的角度出发,通过博弈模型剖析超市参与“农超对接”行为,发现“农超对接”实施中存在的根本问题,为促进我国“农超对接”快速发展提供理论依据。%This article analyzes the rational cognitive mode and the resolution selection of the supermarket manager, and explores the behavior mechanism of supermarket manager under bounded rationality perspective. It is concluded that, under the bounded rationality perspective, the gambling behavior of supermarket manager is key factor that affect China's effective implementation of agriculture-supermarket jointing. From the perspective of limited rational economic man, this paper analyzes supermarket's participation in agriculture-supermarket jointing through game model, and finds out the fundamental problems in agriculture-supermarket jointing, in order to provide theoretical basis for the rapid development of China's agriculture-supermarket jointing.

  4. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Missbach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as “healthy” foods and 84.2% as “less healthy”; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as “healthy” and 34.3% as “less healthy”. In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  5. School food environment: Quality and advertisement frequency of child-oriented packaged products within walking distance of public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Pachschwöll, Caterina; Kuchling, Daniel; König, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM) on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as "healthy" foods and 84.2% as "less healthy"; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as "healthy" and 34.3% as "less healthy". In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.

  6. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method: A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results: In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions: Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  7. Concentrations of Selected Metals In Some Ready-To-Eat-Foods Consumed in Southern Nigeria: Estimation of Dietary Intakes and Target Hazard Quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwujindu Maxwell Iwegbue

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of selected metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr and Co in some ready-to-eat-foods consumed in Nigeria were investigated with a view providing information on the risk associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 in these ready-to-eat-foods are in the ranges of 2.4 – 5.2 for Cu; 0.1– 0.8 for Cd; 0.7 – 4.0 for Ni; 8.1 – 53.7 for Fe; 8.9 – 20.0 for Zn; 0.1 – 3.8 for Pb; 5.1 – 14.4 for Mn; 0.83 – 21.4 for Cr and 0.20 – 1.32 for Co. The concentrations and estimated intakes of Cd, Ni and Pb in some of these food types exceeded the permissible limits and tolerable daily intake respectively. The target hazard quotients (THQ for the individual metals indicate levels of concern for Ni, Cd, and Co in some of the ready-to-eat-foods. The combined THQ values for the metals in the examined samples ranged from 1.7 to 10 with significant contributions from Cd, Ni and Co.

  8. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Wesley R; Joseph R. Sharkey; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose...

  9. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Euna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B and InfoUSA commercial business lists. Methods We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. Results D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only. The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Conclusion Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition.

  10. The happy hen on your supermarket shelf: what choice does industrial strength free-range represent for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Christine; Brunswick, Carly; Kotey, Jane

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates what "free-range" eggs are available for sale in supermarkets in Australia, what "free-range" means on product labelling, and what alternative "free-range" offers to cage production. The paper concludes that most of the "free-range" eggs currently available in supermarkets do not address animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health concerns but, rather, seek to drive down consumer expectations of what these issues mean by balancing them against commercial interests. This suits both supermarkets and egg producers because it does not challenge dominant industrial-scale egg production and the profits associated with it. A serious approach to free-range would confront these arrangements, and this means it may be impossible to truthfully label many of the "free-range" eggs currently available in the dominant supermarkets as free-range.

  11. Validation of an Interdisciplinary Food Safety Curriculum Targeted at Middle School Students and Correlated to State Educational Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer; Skolits, Gary; Burney, Janie; Pedigo, Ashley; Draughon, F. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Providing effective food safety education to young consumers is a national health priority to combat the nearly 76 million cases of foodborne illness in the United States annually. With the tremendous pressures on teachers for accountability in core subject areas, the focus of classrooms is on covering concepts that are tested on state performance…

  12. Validation of an Interdisciplinary Food Safety Curriculum Targeted at Middle School Students and Correlated to State Educational Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer; Skolits, Gary; Burney, Janie; Pedigo, Ashley; Draughon, F. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Providing effective food safety education to young consumers is a national health priority to combat the nearly 76 million cases of foodborne illness in the United States annually. With the tremendous pressures on teachers for accountability in core subject areas, the focus of classrooms is on covering concepts that are tested on state performance…

  13. Disparities in neighborhood food environments: implications of measurement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Michael D M; Purciel, Marnie; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Neckerman, Kathryn M

    2010-01-01

    Public health researchers have begun to map the neighborhood “food environment” and examine its association with the risk of overweight and obesity. Some argue that “food deserts”—areas with little or no provision of fresh produce and other healthy food—may contribute to disparities in obesity, diabetes, and related health problems. While research on neighborhood food environments has taken advantage of more technically sophisticated ways to assess distance and density, in general, it has not considered how individual or neighborhood conditions might modify physical distance and thereby affect patterns of spatial accessibility. This study carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to illustrate the effects on the measurement of disparities in food environments of adjusting for cross-neighborhood variation in vehicle ownership rates, public transit access, and impediments to pedestrian travel, such as crime and poor traffic safety. The analysis used geographic information systems data for New York City supermarkets, fruit and vegetable markets, and farmers' markets and employed both kernel density and distance measures. We found that adjusting for vehicle ownership and crime tended to increase measured disparities in access to supermarkets by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income, while adjusting for public transit and traffic safety tended to narrow these disparities. Further, considering fruit and vegetable markets and farmers' markets, as well as supermarkets, increased the density of healthy food outlets, especially in neighborhoods with high concentrations of Hispanics, Asians, and foreign-born residents and in high-poverty neighborhoods.

  14. A road to food? : efficacy of nutrient management options targeted to heterogeneous soilscapes in the Teso farming system, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebanyat, P.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Land use change; Heterogeneity in soil fertility; Targeting; Integrated soil fertility management; Nutrient use efficiencies; Rehabilitation of degraded fields; Fertiliser requirements, Finger millet; QUEFTS model; Smallholder systems; sub-Saharan Africa. Poor soil fertility in smallhol

  15. Global Changes in Food Supply and the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobel, Emilie H.; Hansen, Tine W; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries. The shift in food supply is considered a major driver of the obesity...... epidemic and the increasing prevalence of accompanying complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the global shift might also have direct effects on the increase in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, independently of overweight and obesity. Summary...

  16. Food purchasing sites. Repercussions for healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Janaína Calu; Claro, Rafael M; Martins, Ana Paula B; Levy, Renata B

    2013-11-01

    Changes in the food system are associated with the increase in consumption of foods with low nutritional value in recent decades. Data on food purchasing for household consumption, collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE--Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) Household Budget Survey (HBS) in 2002-3, were used to describe the contribution of food purchasing sites (FPS) to the diet of Brazilian families. All the 241 distinct FPS mentioned in the HBS were grouped into ten categories, according to the nature of the products available. Food acquisitions were organized into seven groups. Supermarkets and hypermarkets accounted for 49% of the acquisitions and were the main source of six out of the seven food groups. Street markets and greengroceries stood out in the acquisitions of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 39% of this market. The large contribution of supermarkets and hypermarkets to the diet shows the need for healthy eating promotion policies aiming at these locations. Street markets and greengroceries represent important allies for healthy eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

  18. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  19. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience.......Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...

  20. First supermarket with heat and cold storage; Eerste supermarkt met warmte/koudeopslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuiper, N.

    2008-04-15

    A short overview is provided of the energy saving measures that were taken by a supermarket in Almere, the Netherlands. This supermarket is the first in the Netherlands to make use of heat and cold storage. Heat from the soil is feeding the underfloor heating. Moreover, extra insulation measures, energy efficient tubular lighting and sliding doors and sliding windows are covering cooling and freezing equipment. [mk]. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van de maatregelen die zijn genomen voor een supermarkt in Almere, Nederland, om energie te besparen. De supermarkt is de eerste in Nederland die gebruik maakt van de opslag van warmte en koude. Warmte uit de bodem voedt de vloerverwarming. Daarnaast wordt gebruik gemaakt van extra isolatie, energiezuinige TL-buizen en schuifdeuren en schuiframen die de koel- en diepvriesmeubelen afsluiten.