WorldWideScience

Sample records for superluminous sne ia

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE PROGENITOR MODEL FOR SNe Ia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X.; Yang, W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the nature of the progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear, the single-degenerate (SD) channel for the progenitor is currently accepted, in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) accretes hydrogen-rich material from its companion, increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit, and then explodes as an SN Ia. The companion may be a main sequence or a slightly evolved star (WD + MS), or a red giant star (WD + RG). Incorporating the effect of mass stripping and accretion-disk instability on the evolution of the WD binary, we carried out binary stellar evolution calculations for more than 1600 close WD binaries. As a result, the initial parameter spaces for SNe Ia are presented in an orbital period-secondary mass (log P i , M i 2 ) plane. We confirmed that in a WD + MS system, the initial companion leading to SNe Ia may have mass from 1 M sun to 5 M sun . The initial WD mass for SNe Ia from WD + MS channel is as low as 0.565 M sun , while the lowest WD mass from the WD + RG channel is 1.0 M sun . Adopting the above results, we studied the birth rate of SNe Ia via a binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SNe Ia birth rate from SD model is (2.55-2.9) x 10 -3 yr -1 (including WD + He star channel), which is slightly smaller than that from observation. If a single starburst is assumed, the distribution of the delay time of SNe Ia from the SD model may be a weak bimodality, where WD + He channel contributes to SNe Ia with delay time shorter than 10 8 yr and WD + RG channel to those with age longer than 6 Gyr.

  2. Conformal cosmological model and SNe Ia data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Pervushin, V. N.

    2012-01-01

    Now there is a huge scientific activity in astrophysical studies and cosmological ones in particular. Cosmology transforms from a pure theoretical branch of science into an observational one. All the cosmological models have to pass observational tests. The supernovae type Ia (SNe Ia) test is among the most important ones. If one applies the test to determine parameters of the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model one can conclude that observations lead to the discovery of the dominance of the Λ term and as a result to an acceleration of the Universe. However, there are big mysteries connected with an origin and an essence of dark matter (DM) and the Λ term or dark energy (DE). Alternative theories of gravitation are treated as a possible solution of DM and DE puzzles. The conformal cosmological approach is one of possible alternatives to the standard ΛCDM model. As it was noted several years ago, in the framework of the conformal cosmological approach an introduction of a rigid matter can explain observational data without Λ term (or dark energy). We confirm the claim with much larger set of observational data.

  3. Observational properties of SNe Ia progenitors close to the explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambé, A.; Piersanti, L.; Raimondo, G.; Delgrande, R.

    2018-04-01

    We determine the expected signal in various observational bands of supernovae Ia progenitors just before the explosion by assuming the rotating double-degenerate scenario. Our results are valid also for all the evolutionary scenarios invoking rotation as the driving mechanism of the accretion process as well as the evolution up to the explosion. We find that the observational properties depend mainly on the mass of the exploding object, even if the angular momentum evolution after the end of the mass accretion phase and before the onset of C-burning plays a non-negligible role. Just before the explosion, the magnitude MV ranges between 9 and 11 mag, while the colour (F225W - F555W) is about -1.64 mag. The photometric properties remain constant for a few decades before the explosion. During the last few months, the luminosity decreases very rapidly. The corresponding decline in the optical bands varies from a few hundredths up to one magnitude, the exact value depending on both the white dwarf total mass and the braking efficiency at the end of the mass transfer. This feature is related to the exponentially increasing energy production, which drives the formation of a convective core rapidly extending over a large part of the exploding object. Also, a drop in the angular velocity occurs. We find that observations in the soft X band (0.5-2 keV) may be used to check if the evolution of the SNe Ia progenitors up to the explosion is driven by rotation and, hence, to discriminate among different progenitor scenarios.

  4. Tension between SNeIa and BAO: current status and future forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla-Rivera, Celia [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWD, Kebble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lazkoz, Ruth; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene, E-mail: celia_escamilla@ehu.es, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es, E-mail: irene.sendra@ehu.es [Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Using real and synthetic Type Ia SNe (SNeIa) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data representing current observations forecasts, this paper investigates the tension between those probes in the dark energy equation of state (EoS) reconstruction considering the well known CPL model and Wang's low correlation reformulation. In particular, here we present simulations of BAO data from both the the radial and transverse directions. We also explore the influence of priors on Ω{sub m} and Ω{sub b} on the tension issue, by considering 1σ deviations in either one or both of them. Our results indicate that for some priors there is no tension between a single dataset (either SNeIa or BAO) and their combination (SNeIa+BAO). Our criterion to discern the existence of tension (σ-distance) is also useful to establish which is the dataset with most constraining power; in this respect SNeIa and BAO data switch roles when current and future data are considered, as forecasts predict and spectacular quality improvement on BAO data. We also find that the results on the tension are blind to the way the CPL model is addressed: there is a perfect match between the original formulation and that by the correlation optimized proposed in Wang (2008), but the errors on the parameters are much narrower in all cases of our exhaustive exploration, thus serving the purpose of stressing the convenience of this reparametrization.

  5. Tension between SNeIa and BAO: current status and future forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Lazkoz, Ruth; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Using real and synthetic Type Ia SNe (SNeIa) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data representing current observations forecasts, this paper investigates the tension between those probes in the dark energy equation of state (EoS) reconstruction considering the well known CPL model and Wang's low correlation reformulation. In particular, here we present simulations of BAO data from both the the radial and transverse directions. We also explore the influence of priors on Ω m and Ω b on the tension issue, by considering 1σ deviations in either one or both of them. Our results indicate that for some priors there is no tension between a single dataset (either SNeIa or BAO) and their combination (SNeIa+BAO). Our criterion to discern the existence of tension (σ-distance) is also useful to establish which is the dataset with most constraining power; in this respect SNeIa and BAO data switch roles when current and future data are considered, as forecasts predict and spectacular quality improvement on BAO data. We also find that the results on the tension are blind to the way the CPL model is addressed: there is a perfect match between the original formulation and that by the correlation optimized proposed in Wang (2008), but the errors on the parameters are much narrower in all cases of our exhaustive exploration, thus serving the purpose of stressing the convenience of this reparametrization

  6. Spectral Sequences of Type Ia Supernovae. I. Connecting Normal and Subluminous SNe Ia and the Presence of Unburned Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heringer, E.; Kerkwijk, M. H. van [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sim, S. A. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kerzendorf, W. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally agreed to arise from thermonuclear explosions of carbon–oxygen white dwarfs. The actual path to explosion, however, remains elusive, with numerous plausible parent systems and explosion mechanisms suggested. Observationally, SNe Ia have multiple subclasses, distinguished by their light curves and spectra. This raises the question of whether these indicate that multiple mechanisms occur in nature or that explosions have a large but continuous range of physical properties. We revisit the idea that normal and 91bg-like SNe can be understood as part of a spectral sequence in which changes in temperature dominate. Specifically, we find that a single ejecta structure is sufficient to provide reasonable fits of both the normal SN Ia SN 2011fe and the 91bg-like SN 2005bl, provided that the luminosity and thus temperature of the ejecta are adjusted appropriately. This suggests that the outer layers of the ejecta are similar, thus providing some support for a common explosion mechanism. Our spectral sequence also helps to shed light on the conditions under which carbon can be detected in premaximum SN Ia spectra—we find that emission from iron can “fill in” the carbon trough in cool SNe Ia. This may indicate that the outer layers of the ejecta of events in which carbon is detected are relatively metal-poor compared to events in which carbon is not detected.

  7. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF TYPE Ia SNe LUMINOSITIES ON THE METALLICITY OF THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Raya, Manuel E.; Mollá, Mercedes; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Galbany, Lluís; Vílchez, José Manuel; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Domínguez, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity of the progenitor system producing a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) could play a role in its maximum luminosity, as suggested by theoretical predictions. We present an observational study to investigate if such a relationship exists. Using the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) we have obtained intermediate-resolution spectroscopy data of a sample of 28 local galaxies hosting SNe Ia, for which distances have been derived using methods independent of those based on SN Ia parameters. From the emission lines observed in their optical spectra, we derived the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the region where each SN Ia exploded. Our data show a trend, with an 80% of chance not being due to random fluctuation, between SNe Ia absolute magnitudes and the oxygen abundances of the host galaxies, in the sense that luminosities tend to be higher for galaxies with lower metallicities. This result seems likely to be in agreement with both the theoretically expected behavior and with other observational results. This dependence M B –Z might induce systematic errors when it is not considered when deriving SNe Ia luminosities and then using them to derive cosmological distances

  8. TYPE Ia SNe ALONG REDSHIFT: THE R(Si II) RATIO AND THE EXPANSION VELOCITIES IN INTERMEDIATE-z SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altavilla, G.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Balastegui, A.; Mendez, J.; Espana-Bonet, C.; Irwin, M.; Ellis, R. S.; McMahon, R. M.; Walton, N. A.; Folatelli, G.; Goobar, A.; Nobili, S.; Stanishev, V.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of intermediate-z Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using empirical physical diagrams which permit the investigation of those SNe explosions. This information can be very useful to reduce systematic uncertainties of the Hubble diagram of SNe Ia up to high z. The study of the expansion velocities and the measurement of the ratio R(Si II) allow subtyping of SNe Ia as done in nearby samples. The evolution of this ratio as seen in the diagram R(Si II)-(t) together with R(Si II) max versus (B - V) 0 indicates consistency of the properties at intermediate-z compared with the nearby SNe Ia. At intermediate-z, expansion velocities of Ca II and Si II are found similar to those of the nearby sample. This is found in a sample of six SNe Ia in the range 0.033 ≤z≤ 0.329 discovered within the International Time Programme of SNe Ia for Cosmology and Physics in the spring run of 2002. 7 The program run under Omega and Lambda from Supernovae and the Physics of Supernova Explosions within the International Time Programme at the telescopes of the European Northern Observatory (ENO) at La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). Two SNe Ia at intermediate-z were of the cool FAINT type, one being an SN1986G-like object highly reddened. The R(Si II) ratio as well as subclassification of the SNe Ia beyond templates help to place SNe Ia in their sequence of brightness and to distinguish between reddened and intrinsically red supernovae. This test can be done with very high z SNe Ia and it will help to reduce systematic uncertainties due to extinction by dust. It should allow to map the high-z sample into the nearby one.

  9. OPTICAL CROSS-CORRELATION FILTERS: AN ECONOMICAL APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING SNe Ia AND ESTIMATING THEIR REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scolnic, Daniel M.; Riess, Adam G.; Huber, Mark E.; Rest, Armin; Stubbs, Christoper W.; Tonry, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Large photometric surveys of transient phenomena, such as Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, will locate thousands to millions of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) candidates per year, a rate prohibitive for acquiring spectroscopy to determine each candidate's type and redshift. In response, we have developed an economical approach to identifying SNe Ia and their redshifts using an uncommon type of optical filter which has multiple, discontinuous passbands on a single substrate. Observation of a supernova through a specially designed pair of these 'cross-correlation filters' measures the approximate amplitude and phase of the cross-correlation between the spectrum and a SN Ia template, a quantity typically used to determine the redshift and type of a high-redshift SN Ia. Simulating the use of these filters, we obtain a sample of SNe Ia which is ∼98% pure with individual redshifts measured to σ z = 0.01 precision. The advantages of this approach over standard broadband photometric methods are that it is insensitive to reddening, independent of the color data used for subsequent distance determinations which reduce selection or interpretation bias, and because it makes use of the spectral features its reliability is greater. A great advantage over long-slit spectroscopy comes from increased throughput, enhanced multiplexing, and reduced setup time resulting in a net gain in speed of up to ∼30 times. This approach is also insensitive to host galaxy contamination. Prototype filters were built and successfully used on Magellan with LDSS-3 to characterize three SuperNova Legacy Survey candidates. We discuss how these filters can provide critical information for the upcoming photometric supernova surveys.

  10. The Complete Light-curve Sample of Spectroscopically Confirmed SNe Ia from Pan-STARRS1 and Cosmological Constraints from the Combined Pantheon Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolnic, D. M.; Jones, D. O.; Rest, A.; Pan, Y. C.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Huber, M. E.; Kessler, R.; Narayan, G.; Riess, A. G.; Rodney, S.; Berger, E.; Brout, D. J.; Challis, P. J.; Drout, M.; Finkbeiner, D.; Lunnan, R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Sanders, N. E.; Schlafly, E.; Smartt, S.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Foley, M.; Hand, J.; Johnson, E.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Bresolin, F.; Gall, E.; Kotak, R.; McCrum, M.; Smith, K. W.

    2018-06-01

    We present optical light curves, redshifts, and classifications for 365 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey. We detail improvements to the PS1 SN photometry, astrometry, and calibration that reduce the systematic uncertainties in the PS1 SN Ia distances. We combine the subset of 279 PS1 SNe Ia (0.03 Ia from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), SNLS, and various low-z and Hubble Space Telescope samples to form the largest combined sample of SNe Ia, consisting of a total of 1048 SNe Ia in the range of 0.01 Ia to measure dark energy.

  11. Reconstruction of the interaction term between dark matter and dark energy using SNe Ia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Freddy Cueva; Nucamendi, Ulises, E-mail: freddy@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: ulises@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP. 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2012-04-01

    We apply a parametric reconstruction method to a homogeneous, isotropic and spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model filled of a fluid of dark energy (DE) with constant equation of state (EOS) parameter interacting with dark matter (DM)\\@. The reconstruction method is based on expansions of the general interaction term and the relevant cosmological variables in terms of Chebyshev polynomials which form a complete set orthonormal functions. This interaction term describes an exchange of energy flow between the DE and DM within dark sector. To show how the method works we do the reconstruction of the interaction function expanding it in terms of only the first six Chebyshev polynomials and obtain the best estimation for the coefficients of the expansion assuming three models: (a) a DE equation of the state parameter w = −1 (an interacting cosmological Λ), (b) a DE equation of the state parameter w = constant with a dark matter density parameter fixed, (c) a DE equation of the state parameter w = constant with a free constant dark matter density parameter to be estimated, and using the Union2 SNe Ia data set from ''The Supernova Cosmology Project'' (SCP) composed by 557 type Ia supernovae. In both cases, the preliminary reconstruction shows that in the best scenario there exist the possibility of a crossing of the noninteracting line Q = 0 in the recent past within the 1σ and 2σ errors from positive values at early times to negative values at late times. This means that, in this reconstruction, there is an energy transfer from DE to DM at early times and an energy transfer from DM to DE at late times. We conclude that this fact is an indication of the possible existence of a crossing behavior in a general interaction coupling between dark components.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Absorption velocities for 21 super-luminous SNe Ic (Liu+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.-Q.; Modjaz, M.; Bianco, F. B.

    2018-04-01

    We have collected the spectra of all available super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe) Ic that have a date of maximum light published before April of 2016. These SLSNe Ic were mainly discovered and observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey, the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1), the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO), the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) as well as the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). See table 1. (2 data files).

  13. Interacting scalar tensor cosmology in light of SNeIa, CMB, BAO and OHD observational data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiei, Sayed Wrya; Saaidi, Khaled [Faculty of Science University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikhahmadi, Haidar [Faculty of Science University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Advance Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS) Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Ali [Sanandaj Branch Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this work, an interacting chameleon-like scalar field scenario, by considering SNeIa, CMB, BAO, and OHD data sets, is investigated. In fact, the investigation is realized by introducing an ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state, which mimics the behavior of chameleon-like models. Based on this assumption, some cosmological parameters, including the Hubble, deceleration, and coincidence parameters, in such a mechanism are analyzed. It is realized that, to estimate the free parameters of a theoretical model, by regarding the systematic errors it is better that the whole of the above observational data sets would be considered. In fact, if one considers SNeIa, CMB, and BAO, but disregards OHD, it maybe leads to different results. Also, to get a better overlap between the contours with the constraint χ{sub m}{sup 2} ≤ 1, the χ{sub T}{sup 2} function could be re-weighted. The relative probability functions are plotted for marginalized likelihood L(Ω{sub m0}, ω{sub 1}, β) according to the two dimensional confidence levels 68.3, 90, and 95.4%. Meanwhile, the value of the free parameters which maximize the marginalized likelihoods using the above confidence levels are obtained. In addition, based on these calculations the minimum value of χ{sup 2} based on the free parameters of the ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state is achieved. (orig.)

  14. Interacting scalar tensor cosmology in light of SNeIa, CMB, BAO and OHD observational data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiei, Sayed Wrya; Saaidi, Khaled; Sheikhahmadi, Haidar; Aghamohammadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an interacting chameleon-like scalar field scenario, by considering SNeIa, CMB, BAO, and OHD data sets, is investigated. In fact, the investigation is realized by introducing an ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state, which mimics the behavior of chameleon-like models. Based on this assumption, some cosmological parameters, including the Hubble, deceleration, and coincidence parameters, in such a mechanism are analyzed. It is realized that, to estimate the free parameters of a theoretical model, by regarding the systematic errors it is better that the whole of the above observational data sets would be considered. In fact, if one considers SNeIa, CMB, and BAO, but disregards OHD, it maybe leads to different results. Also, to get a better overlap between the contours with the constraint χ m 2 ≤ 1, the χ T 2 function could be re-weighted. The relative probability functions are plotted for marginalized likelihood L(Ω m0 , ω 1 , β) according to the two dimensional confidence levels 68.3, 90, and 95.4%. Meanwhile, the value of the free parameters which maximize the marginalized likelihoods using the above confidence levels are obtained. In addition, based on these calculations the minimum value of χ 2 based on the free parameters of the ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state is achieved. (orig.)

  15. Nebular Phase Spectra of SNe Ia from the CSP2 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Tiara; Carnegie Supernova Project II

    2018-06-01

    We present a comparison of late-time spectra in the near-infrared for some of the Type Ia supernovae from the Carnegie Supernova Project II. Particular attention is paid to the shape and evolution of several emission features, including the [Fe II] line at 1.6440 μm. We put our findings in context of several explosion scenarios and progenitor systems.

  16. SNe Ia AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO SN 2014J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragulin, Paul; Hoeflich, Peter, E-mail: pd09@my.fsu.edu, E-mail: phoeflich77@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE, assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Π-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For M{sub Ch} explosions, the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across, surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM lines Doppler shifted by 10–100 km s{sup −1}, and equivalent widths of ≈100 mÅ and ≈1 mÅ in cases of ambient environments with constant density and produced by prior mass loss, respectively. For SN2014J, both mergers and M{sub Ch} mass explosions have been suggested based on radio and narrow lines. As a consistent and most likely solution, we find an AD wind running into an environment produced by the red giant wind of the progenitor during the pre-WD stage, and a short delay, 0.013–1.4 Myr, between the WD formation and the explosion. Our framework may be applied more generally to stellar winds and star formation feedback in large scale galactic evolution simulations.

  17. SNe Ia AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS TO SN 2014J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragulin, Paul; Hoeflich, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE, assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Π-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For M Ch explosions, the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across, surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM lines Doppler shifted by 10–100 km s −1 , and equivalent widths of ≈100 mÅ and ≈1 mÅ in cases of ambient environments with constant density and produced by prior mass loss, respectively. For SN2014J, both mergers and M Ch mass explosions have been suggested based on radio and narrow lines. As a consistent and most likely solution, we find an AD wind running into an environment produced by the red giant wind of the progenitor during the pre-WD stage, and a short delay, 0.013–1.4 Myr, between the WD formation and the explosion. Our framework may be applied more generally to stellar winds and star formation feedback in large scale galactic evolution simulations

  18. Nonparametric study of the evolution of the cosmological equation of state with SNeIa, BAO, and high-redshift GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postnikov, S. [Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Dainotti, M. G. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA (United States); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Capozziello, S., E-mail: spostnik@indiana.edu, E-mail: mdainott@stanford.edu, E-mail: dainotti@oa.uj.edu.pl, E-mail: xavier@astros.unam.mx, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli " Federico II," Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-03-10

    We study the dark energy equation of state as a function of redshift in a nonparametric way, without imposing any a priori w(z) (ratio of pressure over energy density) functional form. As a check of the method, we test our scheme through the use of synthetic data sets produced from different input cosmological models that have the same relative errors and redshift distribution as the real data. Using the luminosity-time L{sub X} -T{sub a} correlation for gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows (the Dainotti et al. correlation), we are able to utilize GRB samples from the Swift satellite as probes of the expansion history of the universe out to z ≈ 10. Within the assumption of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe and combining supernovae type Ia (SNeIa) data with baryonic acoustic oscillation constraints, the resulting maximum likelihood solutions are close to a constant w = –1. If one imposes the restriction of a constant w, we obtain w = –0.99 ± 0.06 (consistent with a cosmological constant) with the present-day Hubble constant as H {sub 0} = 70.0 ± 0.6km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} and density parameter as Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.723 ± 0.025, while nonparametric w(z) solutions give us a probability map that is centered at H {sub 0} = 70.04 ± 1km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} and Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.724 ± 0.03. Our chosen GRB data sample with a full correlation matrix allows us to estimate the amount, as well as quality (errors), of data needed to constrain w(z) in the redshift range extending an order of magnitude beyond the farthest SNeIa measured.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Swift-UVOT obs. analysis of 29 SNe Ia (Brown+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. J.; Landez, N. J.; Milne, P. A.; Stritzinger, M. D.

    2017-10-01

    Swift/UVOT has observed over 500 SNe of all types in its 12 years of operation (see Brown+ 2015JHEAp...7..111B for a review of the first 10yrs). Most of the observations use six UV and optical filters. All photometry comes from the Swift Optical/Ultraviolet Supernova Archive (SOUSA; Brown+ 2014Ap&SS.354...89B) and is available at the Swift SN website and the Open Supernova Archive (Guillochon+ 2017ApJ...835...64G). (1 data file).

  20. RAPIDLY RISING TRANSIENTS IN THE SUPERNOVA—SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA GAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Wolf, William M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Hardin, Delphine; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe [LPNHE, CNRS-IN2P3 and University of Paris VI and VII, F-75005 Paris (France); Prajs, Szymon; Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel A. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Svirski, Gilad [Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Carlberg, Ray G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Conley, Alex, E-mail: iarcavi@lcogt.net [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-389 (United States); and others

    2016-03-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t{sub rise} ≈ 10 days) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M{sub peak} ≈ −20)—one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey. The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as an SN II due to broad Hα emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Hα (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si ii (as seen in SNe Ia), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM), and magnetar spin down cannot readily explain the observations. We consider the possibility that a “Type 1.5 SN” scenario could be the origin of our events. More detailed models for these kinds of transients and more constraining observations of future such events should help to better determine their nature.

  1. The Evolution of the Type Ia Supernova Luminosity Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, K.J.; Toonen, S.; Graur, O.

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) exhibit a wide diversity of peak luminosities and light curve shapes: the faintest SNe Ia are 10 times less luminous and evolve more rapidly than the brightest SNe Ia. Their differing characteristics also extend to their stellar age distributions, with fainter SNe Ia

  2. Pulsar-driven Jets In Sne, Grbs, Lmxbs, Ss 433, And The Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, John

    2011-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents, (SLIP), predicts that pulsations produced by such currents at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, the possible Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, GRBs, ms pulsars, and SS 433, such highly collimated (>1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities 0.95 c, were responsible for its very early light curve (days 3-20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (0.5 to 0.3 c, at days 30-50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even SNe Ia unsuitable as standard candles. The numbers for Sco X-1's jet are identical, while those for SS 433 are lower (0.26 c), because of the absence of velocity "boosting" via collisions of heavy elements with lighter ones, due to the nearly pure hydrogen content of the supercritical accretion. SLIP also drives positrons from SNe to high energies, possibly accounting for the excess seen by PAMELA at scores of GeV, and predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also predicts that GRB afterglows will be 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. Finally, SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without the need for dark matter. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  3. Superluminal antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John; Earley, Lawrence M.; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Potter, James M.; Romero, William P.; Wang, Zhi-Fu

    2018-04-17

    A superluminal antenna element integrates a balun element to better impedance match an input cable or waveguide to a dielectric radiator element, thus preventing stray reflections and consequent undesirable radiation. For example, a dielectric housing material can be used that has a cutout area. A cable can extend into the cutout area. A triangular conductor can function as an impedance transition. An additional cylindrical element functions as a sleeve balun to better impedance match the radiator element to the cable.

  4. Superluminal censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Matt; Bassett, B.A.; Liberati, S

    2000-06-01

    We argue that 'effective' superluminal travel, potentially caused by the tipping over of light cones in Einstein gravity, is always associated with violations of the null energy condition (NEC). This is most easily seen by working perturbatively around Minkowski spacetime, where we use linearized Einstein gravity to show that the NEC forces the light cones to contract (narrow). Given the NEC, the Shapiro time delay in any weak gravitational field is always a delay relative to the Minkowski background, and never an advance. Furthermore, any object travelling within the lightcones of the weak gravitational field is similarly delayed with respect to the minimum traversal time possible in the background Minkowski geometry.

  5. Defining photometric peculiar type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Pignata, G.; Förster, F.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bufano, F.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; De Jaeger, T. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Folatelli, G. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Kavli IPMU, WPI) (Japan); Anderson, J. P., E-mail: sgonzale@das.uchile.cl [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-11-10

    We present a new photometric identification technique for SN 1991bg-like type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), i.e., objects with light curve characteristics such as later primary maxima and the absence of a secondary peak in redder filters. This method is capable of selecting this sub-group from the normal type Ia population. Furthermore, we find that recently identified peculiar sub-types such as SNe Iax and super-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia have photometric characteristics similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia, namely, the absence of secondary maxima and shoulders at longer wavelengths, and can also be classified with our technique. The similarity of these different SN Ia sub-groups perhaps suggests common physical conditions. This typing methodology permits the photometric identification of peculiar SNe Ia in large upcoming wide-field surveys either to study them further or to obtain a pure sample of normal SNe Ia for cosmological studies.

  6. Progenitor's Signatures in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiotellis, A.; Kosenko, D.; Schure, K.M.; Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The remnants of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can provide important clues about their progenitor histories. We discuss two well-observed supernova remnants (SNRs) that are believed to have resulted from SNe Ia, and use various tools to shed light on the possible progenitor histories. We find that

  7. Pre-nebular Light Curves of SNe I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, W. David [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fryer, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Matheson, Thomas [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We compare analytic predictions of supernova light curves with recent high-quality data from SN2011fe (Ia), KSN2011b (Ia), and the Palomar Transient Factory and the La Silla-QUEST variability survey (LSQ) (Ia). Because of the steady, fast cadence of observations, KSN2011b provides unique new information on SNe Ia: the smoothness of the light curve, which is consistent with significant large-scale mixing during the explosion, possibly due to 3D effects (e.g., Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities), and provides support for a slowly varying leakage (mean opacity). For a more complex light curve (SN2008D, SN Ib), we separate the luminosity due to multiple causes and indicate the possibility of a radioactive plume. The early rise in luminosity is shown to be affected by the opacity (leakage rate) for thermal and non-thermal radiation. A general derivation of Arnett’s rule again shows that it depends upon all processes heating the plasma, not just radioactive ones, so that SNe Ia will differ from SNe Ibc if the latter have multiple heating processes.

  8. Superluminous supernovae as standardizable candles and high-redshift distance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J., E-mail: c.inserra@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSN Ic) as standardizable candles and distance indicators. Their appeal as cosmological probes stems from their remarkable peak luminosities, hot blackbody temperatures, and bright rest-frame ultraviolet emission. We present a sample of 16 published SLSN, from redshifts 0.1 to 1.2, and calculate accurate K corrections to determine uniform magnitudes in 2 synthetic rest-frame filter bandpasses with central wavelengths at 400 nm and 520 nm. At 400 nm, we find an encouragingly low scatter in their uncorrected, raw mean magnitudes with M(400) = –21.86 ± 0.35 mag for the full sample of 16 objects. We investigate the correlation between their decline rates and peak magnitude and find that the brighter events appear to decline more slowly. In a manner similar to the Phillips relation for type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), we define a ΔM {sub 20} decline relation. This correlates peak magnitude and decline over 20 days and can reduce the scatter in standardized peak magnitudes to ±0.22 mag. We further show that M(400) appears to have a strong color dependence. Redder objects are fainter and also become redder faster. Using this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation, a surprisingly low scatter of between ±0.08 mag and ±0.13 mag can be found in peak magnitudes, depending on sample selection. However, we caution that only 8 to 10 objects currently have enough data to test this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation. We conclude that SLSN Ic are promising distance indicators in the high-redshift universe in regimes beyond those possible with SNe Ia. Although the empirical relationships are encouraging, the unknown progenitor systems, how they may evolve with redshift, and the uncertain explosion physics are of some concern. The two major measurement uncertainties are the limited numbers of low-redshift, well-studied objects available to test these relationships and internal dust extinction in the host galaxies.

  9. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the largest thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Their light output can be seen across great distances and has led to the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating. Despite the significance of SNe Ia, there are still a large number of uncertainties in current theoretical models. Computational modeling offers the promise to help answer the outstanding questions. However, even with today's supercomputers, such calculations are extremely challenging because of the wide range of length and timescales. In this paper, we discuss several new algorithms for simulations of SNe Ia and demonstrate some of their successes

  10. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  11. Nonlinearity without superluminality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signaling. As Czachor, Gisin, and Polchinski pointed out, this is not generally true of general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signaling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no-superluminal-signaling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by nonrelativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which display the values of localized pure states need not allow superluminal signaling, provided that the devices display the values of the states of entangled subsystems as defined in a nonstandard, although natural, way. It follows that any locally defined nonlinear evolution of pure states can be made consistent with Minkowski causality

  12. Analyzing the Largest Spectroscopic Data Set of Hydrogen-poor Super-luminous Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Qian; Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B., E-mail: YL1260@nyu.edu, E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe) are tremendously luminous explosions whose power sources and progenitors are highly debated. Broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) are the only type of SNe that are connected with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Studying the spectral similarity and difference between the populations of hydrogen-poor SLSNe (SLSNe Ic) and of hydrogen-poor stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe, in particular SNe Ic and SNe Ic-bl, can provide crucial observations to test predictions of theories based on various power source models and progenitor models. In this paper, we collected all of the published optical spectra of 32 SLSNe Ic, 21 SNe Ic-bl, as well as 17 SNe Ic, quantified their spectral features, constructed average spectra, and compared them in a systematic way using new tools we have developed. We find that SLSNe Ic and SNe Ic-bl, including those connected with GRBs, have comparable widths for their spectral features and average absorption velocities at all phases. Thus, our findings strengthen the connection between SLSNe Ic and GRBs. In particular, SLSNe Ic have average Fe ii λ 5169 absorption velocities of −15,000 ± 2600 km s{sup −1} at 10 days after peak, which are higher than those of SNe Ic by ∼7000 km s{sup −1} on average. SLSNe Ic also have significantly broader Fe ii λ 5169 lines than SNe Ic. Moreover, we find that such high absorption and width velocities of SLSNe Ic may be hard to explain with the interaction model, and none of the 13 SLSNe Ic with measured absorption velocities spanning over 10 days has a convincing flat velocity evolution, which is inconsistent with the magnetar model in one dimension. Lastly, we compare SN 2011kl, the first SN connected with an ultra-long GRB, with the mean spectrum of SLSNe Ic and of SNe Ic-bl.

  13. Radio emission from embryonic superluminous supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omand, Conor M. B.; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely argued that Type-I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) are driven by powerful central engines with a long-lasting energy injection after the core-collapse of massive progenitors. One of the popular hypotheses is that the hidden engines are fast-rotating pulsars with a magnetic field of B ˜ 1013-1015 G. Murase, Kashiyama & Mészáros proposed that quasi-steady radio/submm emission from non-thermal electron-positron pairs in nascent pulsar wind nebulae can be used as a relevant counterpart of such pulsar-driven supernovae (SNe). In this work, focusing on the nascent SLSN-I remnants, we examine constraints that can be placed by radio emission. We show that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimetre Array can detect the radio nebula from SNe at DL ˜ 1 Gpc in a few years after the explosion, while the Jansky Very Large Array can also detect the counterpart in a few decades. The proposed radio follow-up observation could solve the parameter degeneracy in the pulsar-driven SN model for optical/UV light curves, and could also give us clues to young neutron star scenarios for SLSNe-I and fast radio bursts.

  14. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Paech, K.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s –1 ) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22 +10 –6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as –5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  15. Mass-accreting white dwarfs and type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2018-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a prominent role in understanding the evolution of the Universe. They are thought to be thermonuclear explosions of mass-accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) in binaries, although the mass donors of the accreting WDs are still not well determined. In this article, I review recent studies on mass-accreting WDs, including H- and He-accreting WDs. I also review currently most studied progenitor models of SNe Ia, i.e., the single-degenerate model (including the WD+MS channel, the WD+RG channel and the WD+He star channel), the double-degenerate model (including the violent merger scenario) and the sub-Chandrasekhar mass model. Recent progress on these progenitor models is discussed, including the initial parameter space for producing SNe Ia, the binary evolutionary paths to SNe Ia, the progenitor candidates for SNe Ia, the possible surviving companion stars of SNe Ia, some observational constraints, etc. Some other potential progenitor models of SNe Ia are also summarized, including the hybrid CONe WD model, the core-degenerate model, the double WD collision model, the spin-up/spin-down model and the model of WDs near black holes. To date, it seems that two or more progenitor models are needed to explain the observed diversity among SNe Ia.

  16. THE AGES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Aubourg, Eric; Strauss, Michael A.; Tojeiro, Rita; Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Using light curves and host galaxy spectra of 101 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with redshift z ∼ 2.4 Gyr. We find that each channel contributes roughly half of the Type Ia rate in our reference sample. We also construct the average spectra of high-stretch and low-stretch SN Ia host galaxies, and find that the difference of these spectra looks like a main-sequence B star with nebular emission lines indicative of star formation. This supports our finding that there are two populations of SNe Ia, and indicates that the progenitors of high-stretch supernovae are at the least associated with very recent star formation in the last few tens of Myr. Our results provide valuable constraints for models of Type Ia progenitors and may help improve the calibration of SNe Ia as standard candles.

  17. Physics of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosive growth of high-quality data for thermonuclear explosions of a white dwarf star, the type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Advances in computational methods provide new insights into the physics of the phenomenon and a direct, quantitative link between observables and explosion physics. Both trends combined provided spectacular results, allowed to address, to identify specific problems and to narrow down the range of scenarios. Current topics include the relation between SNe Ia and their progenitors, the influence of the metallicities and accretion on the explosion, and details of the burning front. How can we understand the apparent homogeneity and probe for the diversity of SNe Ia? Here, we want give an overview of the current status of our understanding of supernovae physics in light of recent results

  18. Constraining cosmological parameter with SN Ia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putri, A N Indra; Wulandari, H R Tri

    2016-01-01

    A type I supemovae (SN Ia) is an exploding white dwarf, whose mass exceeds Chandrasekar limit (1.44 solar mass). If a white dwarf is in a binary system, it may accrete matter from the companion, resulting in an excess mass that cannot be balanced by the pressure of degenerated electrons in the core. SNe Ia are highly luminous objects, that they are visible from very high distances. After some corrections (stretch (s), colour (c), K-corrections, etc.), the variations in the light curves of SNe Ia can be suppressed to be no more than 10%. Their high luminosity and almost uniform intrinsic brightness at the peak light, i.e. M B ∼ -19, make SNe Ia ideal standard candle. Because of their visibility from large distances, SNe Ia can be employed as a cosmological measuring tool. It was analysis of SNe Ia data that indicated for the first time, that the universe is not only expanding, but also accelerating. This work analyzed a compilation of SNe Ia data to determine several cosmological parameters (H 0 , Ω m , Ω a , and w ). It can be concluded from the analysis, that our universe is a flat, dark energy dominated universe, and that the cosmological constant A is a suitable candidate for dark energy. (paper)

  19. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  20. Rotation of the accreting white dwarfs and diversity of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenishi, Tatsuhiro; Nomoto, Kenichi; Hachisu, Izumi

    2003-01-01

    We consider rotation of progenitor white dwarfs for a possible source of the diversity of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Hydrostatic structure of rotating white dwarfs with different masses are calculated. Evolutionary sequences of white dwarfs are explored and the effect of 'supercritical' rotation in binary system is examined. Possible effects of rotation to cause diversity of SNe Ia are discussed

  1. ON THE RATES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN DWARF AND GIANT HOSTS WITH ROTSE-IIIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quimby, Robert M.; Yuan Fang; Akerlof, Carl; Wheeler, J. Craig; Warren, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a sample of 23 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that were discovered in the background of galaxy clusters targeted by ROTSE-IIIb and use up to 18 of these to determine the local (z-bar 0.05) volumetric rate. Since our survey is flux limited and thus biased against fainter objects, the pseudo-absolute magnitude distribution (pAMD) of SNe Ia in a given volume is an important concern, especially the relative frequency of high- to low-luminosity SNe Ia. We find that the pAMD derived from the volume-limited Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) sample is incompatible with the distribution of SNe Ia in a volume-limited (z B > –16) galaxies, whereas only 1 out of 79 nearby SDSS-II SNe Ia have such faint hosts. It is possible that previous works have undercounted either low-luminosity SNe Ia, SNe Ia in low-luminosity hosts, or peculiar SNe Ia (sometimes explicitly), and the total SNe Ia rate may be higher than the canonical value.

  2. LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Shields, Gregory A.; Sternberg, Assaf

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

  3. REVEALING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PHYSICS WITH COSMIC RATES AND NUCLEAR GAMMA RAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Beacom, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain mysterious despite their central importance in cosmology and their rapidly increasing discovery rate. The progenitors of SNe Ia can be probed by the delay time between progenitor birth and explosion as SNe Ia. The explosions and progenitors of SNe Ia can be probed by MeV nuclear gamma rays emitted in the decays of radioactive nickel and cobalt into iron. We compare the cosmic star formation and SN Ia rates, finding that their different redshift evolution requires a large fraction of SNe Ia to have large delay times. A delay-time distribution of the form t -α with α = 1.0 ± 0.3 provides a good fit, implying that 50% of SNe Ia explode more than ∼1 Gyr after progenitor birth. The extrapolation of the cosmic SN Ia rate to z = 0 agrees with the rate we deduce from catalogs of local SNe Ia. We investigate prospects for gamma-ray telescopes to exploit the facts that escaping gamma rays directly reveal the power source of SNe Ia and uniquely provide tomography of the expanding ejecta. We find large improvements relative to earlier studies by Gehrels et al. in 1987 and Timmes and Woosley in 1997 due to larger and more certain SN Ia rates and advances in gamma-ray detectors. The proposed Advanced Compton Telescope, with a narrow-line sensitivity ∼60 times better than that of current satellites, would, on an annual basis, detect up to ∼100 SNe Ia (3σ) and provide revolutionary model discrimination for SNe Ia within 20 Mpc, with gamma-ray light curves measured with ∼10σ significance daily for ∼100 days. Even more modest improvements in detector sensitivity would open a new and invaluable astronomy with frequent SN Ia gamma-ray detections.

  4. Super-luminous Type II supernovae powered by magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; Audit, Edouard

    2018-05-01

    Magnetar power is believed to be at the origin of numerous super-luminous supernovae (SNe) of Type Ic, arising from compact, hydrogen-deficient, Wolf-Rayet type stars. Here, we investigate the properties that magnetar power would have on standard-energy SNe associated with 15-20 M⊙ supergiant stars, either red (RSG; extended) or blue (BSG; more compact). We have used a combination of Eulerian gray radiation-hydrodynamics and non-LTE steady-state radiative transfer to study their dynamical, photometric, and spectroscopic properties. Adopting magnetar fields of 1, 3.5, 7 × 1014 G and rotational energies of 0.4, 1, and 3 × 1051 erg, we produce bolometric light curves with a broad maximum covering 50-150 d and a magnitude of 1043-1044 erg s-1. The spectra at maximum light are analogous to those of standard SNe II-P but bluer. Although the magnetar energy is channelled in equal proportion between SN kinetic energy and SN luminosity, the latter may be boosted by a factor of 10-100 compared to a standard SN II. This influence breaks the observed relation between brightness and ejecta expansion rate of standard Type II SNe. Magnetar energy injection also delays recombination and may even cause re-ionization, with a reversal in photospheric temperature and velocity. Depositing the magnetar energy in a narrow mass shell at the ejecta base leads to the formation of a dense shell at a few 1000 km s-1, which causes a light-curve bump at the end of the photospheric phase. Depositing this energy over a broad range of mass in the inner ejecta, to mimic the effect of multi-dimensional fluid instabilities, prevents the formation of a dense shell and produces an earlier-rising and smoother light curve. The magnetar influence on the SN radiation is generally not visible prior to 20-30 d, during which one may discern a BSG from a RSG progenitor. We propose a magnetar model for the super-luminous Type II SN OGLE-SN14-073.

  5. EVOLVING TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH SHORT DELAY TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Chen Xuefei; Han Zhanwen; Meng Xiangcun

    2009-01-01

    The single-degenerate model is currently a favorable progenitor model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent investigations on the white dwarf (WD) + He star channel of the single-degenerate model imply that this channel is noteworthy for producing SNe Ia. In this paper, we studied SN Ia birthrates and delay times of this channel via a detailed binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SN Ia birthrate from the WD + He star channel is ∼0.3 x 10 -3 yr -1 according to our standard model, and that this channel can explain SNe Ia with short delay times (∼4.5 x 10 7 -1.4 x 10 8 yr). Meanwhile, these WD + He star systems may be related to the young supersoft X-ray sources prior to SN Ia explosions.

  6. Quantum noise and superluminal propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, Bilha; Milonni, Peter W.; Babb, James F.; Chiao, Raymond Y.

    2000-01-01

    Causal ''superluminal'' effects have recently been observed and discussed in various contexts. The question arises whether such effects could be observed with extremely weak pulses, and what would prevent the observation of an ''optical tachyon.'' Aharonov, Reznik, and Stern (ARS) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998)] have argued that quantum noise will preclude the observation of a superluminal group velocity when the pulse consists of one or a few photons. In this paper we reconsider this question both in a general framework and in the specific example, suggested by Chiao, Kozhekin, and Kurizki (CKK) [Phys. Rev. 77, 1254 (1996)], of off-resonant, short-pulse propagation in an optical amplifier. We derive in the case of the amplifier a signal-to-noise ratio that is consistent with the general ARS conclusions when we impose their criteria for distinguishing between superluminal propagation and propagation at the speed c. However, results consistent with the semiclassical arguments of CKK are obtained if weaker criteria are imposed, in which case the signal can exceed the noise without being ''exponentially large.'' We show that the quantum fluctuations of the field considered by ARS are closely related to superfluorescence noise. More generally, we consider the implications of unitarity for superluminal propagation and quantum noise and study, in addition to the complete and truncated wave packets considered by ARS, the residual wave packet formed by their difference. This leads to the conclusion that the noise is mostly luminal and delayed with respect to the superluminal signal. In the limit of a very weak incident signal pulse, the superluminal signal will be dominated by the noise part, and the signal-to-noise ratio will therefore be very small. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. THE SPECTROSCOPIC DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, S.; Matheson, T.; Kirshner, R. P.; Mandel, K. S.; Challis, P.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Garnavich, P. M.; Jha, S. W.; Modjaz, M.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), including 2065 previously unpublished spectra, obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. There are on average eight spectra for each of the 313 SNe Ia with at least two spectra. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5 m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making this data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. Using additional data from the literature, we study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SNe Ia with broader lines, although the result is not statistically significant with the present sample. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II λ6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from ∼0 to ∼400 km s −1 day −1 considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B – V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties and host galaxy dust. We study the extent of nuclear burning and the presence of unburnt carbon in the outermost layers of the ejecta and report new detections of C II λ6580 in 23 early-time SN Ia spectra. The frequency of C II detections is not higher in SNe Ia with bluer colors or narrower light curves, in conflict with the recent results of Thomas et al. Based on nebular spectra of 27 SNe Ia, we find no relation between the FWHM of the iron emission feature at ∼4700 Å and Δm 15 (B) after removing the two low-luminosity SN 1986G and SN 1991bg, suggesting that the peak luminosity is not strongly dependent

  8. Host galaxies of type ia supernovae from the nearby supernova factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Michael Joseph

    Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) are excellent distance indicators, yet the full details of the underlying physical mechanism giving rise to these dramatic stellar deaths remain unclear. As large samples of cosmological SNe Ia continue to be collected, the scatter in brightnesses of these events is equally affected by systematic errors as statistical. Thus we need to understand the physics of SNe Ia better, and in particular we must know more about the progenitors of these SNe so that we can derive better estimates for their true intrinsic brightnesses. The host galaxies of SNe Ia provide important indirect clues as to the nature of SN Ia progenitors. In this Thesis we utilize the host galaxies of SNe Ia discovered by the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) to pursue several key investigations into the nature of SN Ia progenitors and their effects on SN Ia brightnesses. We first examine the host galaxy of SN 2007if, an important member of the subclass of SNe Ia whose extreme brightnesses indicate a progenitor that exceeded the canonical Chandrasekhar-mass value presumed for normal SNe Ia, and show that the host galaxy of this SN is composed of very young stars and has extremely low metallicity, providing important constraints on progenitor scenarios for this SN. We then utilize the full sample of SNfactory host galaxy masses (measured from photometry) and metallicities (derived from optical spectroscopy) to examine several global properties of SN Ia progenitors: (i) we show that SN Ia hosts show tight agreement with the normal galaxy mass-metallicity relation; (ii) comparing the observed distribution of SN Ia host galaxy masses to a theoretical model that couples galaxy physics to the SN Ia delay time distribution (DTD), we show the power of the SN Ia host mass distribution in constraining the SN Ia DTD; and (iii) we show that the lack of ultra-low metallicities in the SNfactory SN Ia host sample gives provisional support for the theorized low-metallicity inhibition of

  9. Invisibility cloaking without superluminal propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perczel, Janos; Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Tyc, Tomas, E-mail: jp394@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz, E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Kotlarska 2 and Faculty of Informatics, Botanicka 68a, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Conventional cloaking based on Euclidean transformation optics requires that the speed of light should tend to infinity on the inner surface of the cloak. Non-Euclidean cloaking still needs media with superluminal propagation. Here we show by giving an example that this is no longer necessary.

  10. Superluminal velocities. Illusion or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra, P.; Simanjuntak, H.P.

    2005-10-01

    We study the time-evolution of electromagnetic wave packets through optical superlattices. We follow the time evolution (described by Maxwell equations) of Gaussian packets with centroid in different energy regions. The time spent by the wave packet inside an optical structure agrees extremely well with the superluminal experimental results and the phase time predictions. (author)

  11. Superluminality, black holes and EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goon, Garrett [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Cambridge University, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Hinterbichler, Kurt [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University,10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Under the assumption that a UV theory does not display superluminal behavior, we ask what constraints on superluminality are satisfied in the effective field theory (EFT). We study two examples of effective theories: quantum electrodynamics (QED) coupled to gravity after the electron is integrated out, and the flat-space galileon. The first is realized in nature, the second is more speculative, but they both exhibit apparent superluminality around non-trivial backgrounds. In the QED case, we attempt, and fail, to find backgrounds for which the superluminal signal advance can be made larger than the putative resolving power of the EFT. In contrast, in the galileon case it is easy to find such backgrounds, indicating that if the UV completion of the galileon is (sub)luminal, quantum corrections must become important at distance scales of order the Vainshtein radius of the background configuration, much larger than the naive EFT strong coupling distance scale. Such corrections would be reminiscent of the non-perturbative Schwarzschild scale quantum effects that are expected to resolve the black hole information problem. Finally, a byproduct of our analysis is a calculation of how perturbative quantum effects alter charged Reissner-Nordstrom black holes.

  12. THE LOCAL HOSTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, James D.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Wyder, Ted K.; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D. Andrew; Conley, Alex; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lee, Young-Wook; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We use multi-wavelength, matched aperture, integrated photometry from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the RC3 to estimate the physical properties of 166 nearby galaxies hosting 168 well-observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The ultraviolet (UV) imaging of local SN Ia hosts from GALEX allows a direct comparison with higher-redshift hosts measured at optical wavelengths that correspond to the rest-frame UV. Our data corroborate well-known features that have been seen in other SN Ia samples. Specifically, hosts with active star formation produce brighter and slower SNe Ia on average, and hosts with luminosity-weighted ages older than 1 Gyr produce on average more faint, fast, and fewer bright, slow SNe Ia than younger hosts. New results include that in our sample, the faintest and fastest SNe Ia occur only in galaxies exceeding a stellar mass threshold of ∼10 10 M sun , leading us to conclude that their progenitors must arise in populations that are older and/or more metal rich than the general SN Ia population. A low host extinction subsample hints at a residual trend in peak luminosity with host age, after correcting for light-curve shape, giving the appearance that older hosts produce less-extincted SNe Ia on average. This has implications for cosmological fitting of SNe Ia, and suggests that host age could be useful as a parameter in the fitting. Converting host mass to metallicity and computing 56 Ni mass from the supernova light curves, we find that our local sample is consistent with a model that predicts a shallow trend between stellar metallicity and the 56 Ni mass that powers the explosion, but we cannot rule out the absence of a trend. We measure a correlation between 56 Ni mass and host age in the local universe that is shallower and not as significant as that seen at higher redshifts. The details of the age- 56 Ni mass correlations at low and higher redshift imply a luminosity-weighted age threshold of ∼3 Gyr

  13. CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELLS IN ABSORPTION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have been predicted to modify their ambient circumstellar (CSM) and interstellar environments through the action of their powerful winds. While there is X-ray and optical evidence for circumstellar interaction in several remnants of Type Ia SNe, widespread evidence for such interaction in Type Ia SNe themselves has been lacking. We consider prospects for the detection of CSM shells that have been predicted to be common around Type Ia SNe. Such shells are most easily detected in Na I absorption lines. Variable (declining) absorption is expected to occur soon after the explosion, primarily during the SN rise time, for shells located within ∼1-10 pc of a SN. The distance of the shell from the SN can be determined by measuring the timescale for line variability.

  14. SINGLE-DEGENERATE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE PREFERENTIALLY OVERLUMINOUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Robert; Jumper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical progress has favored merging and helium-accreting sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs (WDs) in the double-degenerate and the double-detonation channels, respectively, as the most promising progenitors of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Thus the fate of rapidly accreting Chandrasekhar mass WDs in the single-degenerate channel remains more mysterious then ever. In this paper, we clarify the nature of ignition in Chandrasekhar-mass single-degenerate SNe Ia by analytically deriving the existence of a characteristic length scale which establishes a transition from central ignitions to buoyancy-driven ignitions. Using this criterion, combined with data from three-dimensional simulations of convection and ignition, we demonstrate that the overwhelming majority of ignition events within Chandrasekhar-mass WDs in the single-degenerate channel are buoyancy-driven, and consequently lack a vigorous deflagration phase. We thus infer that single-degenerate SNe Ia are generally expected to lead to overluminous 1991T-like SNe Ia events. We establish that the rates predicted from both the population of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) and binary population synthesis models of the single-degenerate channel are broadly consistent with the observed rates of overluminous SNe Ia, and suggest that the population of SSSs are the dominant stellar progenitors of SNe 1991T-like events. We further demonstrate that the single-degenerate channel contribution to the normal and failed 2002cx-like rates is not likely to exceed 1% of the total SNe Ia rate. We conclude with a range of observational tests of overluminous SNe Ia which will either support or strongly constrain the single-degenerate scenario

  15. THE ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHTEST TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2011de

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss the ultraviolet (UV)/optical photometric light curves and absolute magnitudes of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011de from the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. We find it to be the UV brightest SN Ia yet observed—more than a factor of 10 brighter than normal SNe Ia in the mid-ultraviolet. We find that the UV/optical brightness and broad light curve evolution can be modeled with additional flux from the shock of the ejecta hitting a relatively large red giant companion separated by 6 × 10 13 cm. However, the post-maximum behavior of other UV-bright SNe Ia can also be modeled in a similar manner, including objects with UV spectroscopy or pre-maximum photometry which is inconsistent with this model. This suggests that similar UV luminosities can be intrinsic or caused by other forms of shock interaction. The high velocities reported for SN 2011de make it distinct from the UV-bright ''super-Chandrasekhar'' SNe Ia and the NUV-blue group of normal SNe Ia. SN 2011de is an extreme example of the UV variations in SNe Ia

  16. Type Ia supernovae, standardizable candles, and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bill S.; Li, Baojiu

    2018-04-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally accepted to act as standardizable candles, and their use in cosmology led to the first confirmation of the as yet unexplained accelerated cosmic expansion. Many of the theoretical models to explain the cosmic acceleration assume modifications to Einsteinian general relativity which accelerate the expansion, but the question of whether such modifications also affect the ability of SNe Ia to be standardizable candles has rarely been addressed. This paper is an attempt to answer this question. For this we adopt a semianalytical model to calculate SNe Ia light curves in non-standard gravity. We use this model to show that the average rescaled intrinsic peak luminosity—a quantity that is assumed to be constant with redshift in standard analyses of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology data—depends on the strength of gravity in the supernova's local environment because the latter determines the Chandrasekhar mass—the mass of the SN Ia's white dwarf progenitor right before the explosion. This means that SNe Ia are no longer standardizable candles in scenarios where the strength of gravity evolves over time, and therefore the cosmology implied by the existing SN Ia data will be different when analysed in the context of such models. As an example, we show that the observational SN Ia cosmology data can be fitted with both a model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.62 ,0.38 ) and Newton's constant G varies as G (z )=G0(1 +z )-1/4 and the standard model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.3 ,0.7 ) and G is constant, when the Universe is assumed to be flat.

  17. SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Smith, K.; Chen, T.-W.; Kotak, R.; Nicholl, M.; Valenti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Botticella, M. T.; Ergon, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2013-01-01

    We report extensive observational data for five of the lowest redshift Super-Luminous Type Ic Supernovae (SL-SNe Ic) discovered to date, namely, PTF10hgi, SN2011ke, PTF11rks, SN2011kf, and SN2012il. Photometric imaging of the transients at +50 to +230 days after peak combined with host galaxy subtraction reveals a luminous tail phase for four of these SL-SNe. A high-resolution, optical, and near-infrared spectrum from xshooter provides detection of a broad He I λ10830 emission line in the spectrum (+50 days) of SN2012il, revealing that at least some SL-SNe Ic are not completely helium-free. At first sight, the tail luminosity decline rates that we measure are consistent with the radioactive decay of 56 Co, and would require 1-4 M ☉ of 56 Ni to produce the luminosity. These 56 Ni masses cannot be made consistent with the short diffusion times at peak, and indeed are insufficient to power the peak luminosity. We instead favor energy deposition by newborn magnetars as the power source for these objects. A semi-analytical diffusion model with energy input from the spin-down of a magnetar reproduces the extensive light curve data well. The model predictions of ejecta velocities and temperatures which are required are in reasonable agreement with those determined from our observations. We derive magnetar energies of 0.4 ∼ 51 erg) ∼ ej (M ☉ ) ∼< 8.6. The sample of five SL-SNe Ic presented here, combined with SN 2010gx—the best sampled SL-SNe Ic so far—points toward an explosion driven by a magnetar as a viable explanation for all SL-SNe Ic.

  18. The Influence of Host Galaxies in Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Syed A. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangshu (China); Mould, Jeremy [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lidman, Chris; Zhang, Bonnie R. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina, E-mail: saushuvo@gmail.com [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris (France)

    2017-10-10

    We use a sample of 1338 spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sourced from Carnegie Supernova Project, Center for Astrophysics Supernova Survey, Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II, and SuperNova Legacy Survey SN samples to examine the relationships between SNe Ia and the galaxies that host them. Our results provide confirmation with improved statistical significance that SNe Ia, after standardization, are on average more luminous in massive hosts (significance >5 σ ), and decline more rapidly in massive hosts (significance >9 σ ) and in hosts with low specific star formation rates (significance >8 σ ). We study the variation of these relationships with redshift and detect no evolution. We split SNe Ia into pairs of subsets that are based on the properties of the hosts and fit cosmological models to each subset. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, we do not find any significant shift in the best-fit cosmological parameters between the subsets. Among different SN Ia subsets, we find that SNe Ia in hosts with high specific star formation rates have the least intrinsic scatter ( σ {sub int} = 0.08 ± 0.01) in luminosity after standardization.

  19. Impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on SNe observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Marra, Valerio

    2010-06-01

    We study the impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on the interpretation of SNe observations. We build an inhomogeneous universe model that can confront supernova data and yet is reasonably well compatible with the Copernican Principle. Our model combines a relatively small local void, that gives apparent acceleration at low redshifts, with a meatball model that gives sizeable lensing (dimming) at high redshifts. Together these two elements, which focus on different effects of voids on the data, allow the model to mimic the concordance model.

  20. Clues on Type Ia Supernovae Progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piersanti, Luciano; Tornambe, Amedeo

    2005-01-01

    We show that in the framework of canonical stellar evolution it is hard, if not impossible, to determine the growth in mass of a CO White Dwarf, up to the Chandrasekhar limit by means of mass transfer from its companion in a binary system. This is the case either if matter is accreted from a normal companion with an H-rich envelope or if direct CO accretion occurs from a CO WD companion. At variance, we show that if the effects of rotation are taken into account in modeling the accretion process, a CO WD can increase its mass at the expenses of the degenerate CO companion up and beyond 1.4 M· , so that an explosive event of the type Ia class is naturally produced. This theoretical finding revives the Double Degenerate scenario for type Ia SNe progenitors. In such a case the internal spread in the observational properties of type Ia SNe may be interpreted as a consequence of different total masses; hence differences between SNe Ia in nearby elliptical galaxies and the majority of those in spirals should be expected and the current use of type Ia SNe as cosmological distance indicators should be justified

  1. Cloning and superluminal signaling£

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning; cloning fidelity; superluminal signaling; state discrimination. PACS No. 03.65.Bz. 1. .... The possibility of superluminal signaling in quantum mechanics stems from the concept .... quantum mechanics and relativity [13]. .... [13] A Shimony, in Foundations of quantum mechanics in the light of new technology edited by.

  2. VELOCITY EVOLUTION AND THE INTRINSIC COLOR OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    To understand how best to use observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to obtain precise and accurate distances, we investigate the relations between spectra of SNe Ia and their intrinsic colors. Using a sample of 1630 optical spectra of 255 SNe, based primarily on data from the CfA Supernova Program, we examine how the velocity evolution and line strengths of Si II λ6355 and Ca II H and K are related to the B – V color at peak brightness. We find that the maximum-light velocity of Si II λ6355 and Ca II H and K and the maximum-light pseudo-equivalent width of Si II λ6355 are correlated with intrinsic color, with intrinsic color having a linear relation with the Si II λ6355 measurements. Ca II H and K does not have a linear relation with intrinsic color, but lower-velocity SNe tend to be intrinsically bluer. Combining the spectroscopic measurements does not improve intrinsic color inference. The intrinsic color scatter is larger for higher-velocity SNe Ia—even after removing a linear trend with velocity—indicating that lower-velocity SNe Ia are more 'standard crayons'. Employing information derived from SN Ia spectra has the potential to improve the measurements of extragalactic distances and the cosmological properties inferred from them.

  3. CONSTRAINING DUST AND COLOR VARIATIONS OF HIGH-z SNe USING NICMOS ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, S.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present data from the Supernova Cosmology Project for five high redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that were obtained using the NICMOS infrared camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. We add two SNe from this sample to a rest-frame I-band Hubble diagram, doubling the number of high redshift supernovae on this diagram. This I-band Hubble diagram is consistent with a flat universe (Ω M , Ω Λ ) = (0.29, 0.71). A homogeneous distribution of large grain dust in the intergalactic medium (replenishing dust) is incompatible with the data and is excluded at the 5σ confidence level, if the SN host galaxy reddening is corrected assuming R V = 1.75. We use both optical and infrared observations to compare photometric properties of distant SNe Ia with those of nearby objects. We find generally good agreement with the expected color evolution for all SNe except the highest redshift SN in our sample (SN 1997ek at z = 0.863) which shows a peculiar color behavior. We also present spectra obtained from ground-based telescopes for type identification and determination of redshift.

  4. Type Ia Supernovae: Energetics, Neutronization and Nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truran, James W.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Peng, Fang; Vladimirova, Natalia; Lamb, Donald Q.; Brown, Edward F.

    2007-01-01

    The utility of Type Ia supernovae, not simply as probes of the distance scale but also as a means of constraining the properties of dark energy, demands a significant improvement in theoretical predictions of their properties in outburst. To this end, we have given substantial effort to quantifying the energetics and nucleosynthesis properties of deflagration fronts in the interiors of the putative carbon-oxygen white dwarf progenitors of Type Ia thermonuclear supernovae. We briefly review some essential features of our flame model and its properties in this paper and discuss its implications both for our multidimensional numerical simulations of SNe Ia and for nucleosynthesis (specifically 56Ni production) in SNe Ia and Galactic chemical evolution

  5. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  6. Testing cosmic transparency with the latest baryon acoustic oscillations and type Ia supernovae data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yu Hong-Wei; Li Zheng-Xiang; Wu Pu-Xun

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are dimmer than expected from a matter dominated Universe. It has been suggested that this observed phenomenon can also be explained using light absorption instead of dark energy. However, there is a serious degeneracy between the cosmic absorption parameter and the present matter density parameter Ω m when one tries to place constraints on the cosmic opacity using SNe Ia data. We combine the latest baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and Union2 SNe Ia data in order to break this degeneracy. Assuming a flat ΛCDM model, we find that, although an opaque Universe is favored by SNe Ia+BAO since the best fit value of the cosmic absorption parameter is larger than zero, Ω m = 1 is ruled out at the 99.7% confidence level. Thus, cosmic opacity is not sufficient to account for the present observations and dark energy or modified gravity is still required.

  7. TIDALLY ENHANCED STELLAR WIND: A WAY TO MAKE THE SYMBIOTIC CHANNEL TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA VIABLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; Han, Z.; Tout, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    In the symbiotic (or WD+RG) channel of the single-degenerate scenario for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the explosions occur a relatively long time after star formation. The birthrate from this channel would be too low to account for all observed SNe Ia were it not for some mechanism to enhance the rate of accretion on to the white dwarf. A tidally enhanced stellar wind, of the type which has been postulated to explain many phenomena related to giant star evolution in binary systems, can do this. Compared to mass stripping, this model extends the space of SNe Ia progenitors to longer orbital periods and hence increases the birthrate to about 0.0069 yr -1 for the symbiotic channel. Two symbiotic stars, T CrB and RS Oph, considered to be the most likely progenitors of SNe Ia through the symbiotic channel, are well inside the period-companion mass space predicted by our models.

  8. A Hubble Diagram of Distant Type IA Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuy, M.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Aviles, R.; Maza, J.

    1993-12-01

    Due to their extreme luminosities at maximum light, type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have long been considered among the most attractive cosmological standard candles. Although nearly all work to date has been devoted to attempts to use these objects to determine the local rate of expansion of the universe (Ho), SNe Ia also provide one of the few direct techniques for measuring the deceleration parameter qo. However, in a recent study of nine well-observed events based largely on data obtained at CTIO, Phillips (1993, ApJ, 413, L105) found clear evidence for a significant intrinsic dispersion in SNe Ia absolute magnitudes amounting to ~ 0.8 mag in B, ~ 0.7 mag in V, and ~ 0.5 mag in I. Such a range in peak luminosity could introduce a subtantial Malmquist bias into searches for distant (z rate of the B light curve. Interestingly, the most luminous SNe in our sample all occurred in spiral galaxies, which is true for Phillips' sample of nearby SNe Ia as well. This is opposite to what one would expect if dust extinction were important. These findings are consistent with recent speculations that the progenitors of SNe Ia are white dwarfs covering a range of masses, and also suggest that the brightest events may be found in galaxies which are still actively forming stars. The implications for the use of SNe Ia to measure qo are briefly discussed. This research has been supported by Grant 92/0312 from Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología (FONDECYT-Chile).

  9. Theoretical uncertainties of the Type Ia supernova rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claeys, J.S.W.; Pols, O.R.; Izzard, R.G.; Vink, J.; Verbunt, F.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is thought that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs). Two main evolutionary channels are proposed for the WD to reach the critical density required for a thermonuclear explosion: the single degenerate (SD) scenario, in which a CO WD accretes from a

  10. Manganese in Dwarf Galaxies as a Probe of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Mithi; Kirby, Evan N.

    2018-06-01

    Despite the importance of thermonuclear or Type Ia supernovae (SNe) as standard candles in astrophysics, the physical mechanisms behind Type Ia SNe are still poorly constrained. Theoretically, the nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ia SNe can distinguish among different models of Type Ia explosions. For example, neutron-rich elements such as manganese (Mn) are sensitive probes of the physics of Type Ia SNe because their abundances are correlated to the density of the progenitor white dwarf. Since dwarf galaxies' chemical evolution is dominated by Type Ia SNe at late times, Type Ia nucleosynthetic yields can be indirectly inferred from stellar abundances in dwarf galaxies. However, previous measurements of Mn in dwarf galaxies are too incomplete to draw definitive conclusions on the Type Ia explosion mechanism. In this work, we therefore use medium-resolution stellar spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS to measure Mn abundances in red giants in several Milky Way satellite galaxies. We report average Type Ia Mn yields computed from these abundances, and we discuss the implications for Type Ia supernova physics.

  11. A spectroscopic look at the gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernova 2016geu at z = 0.409

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Z.; Selsing, J.; Hjorth, J.

    2018-01-01

    The spectacular success of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in SN-cosmology is based on the assumption that their photometric and spectroscopic properties are invariant with redshift. However, this fundamental assumption needs to be tested with observations of high-z SNe Ia. To date, the majority of SNe...... Ia observed at moderate to large redshifts (0.4 le z le 1.0) are faint, and the resultant analyses are based on observations with modest signal-to-noise ratios that impart a degree of ambiguity in their determined properties. In rare cases, however, the Universe offers a helping hand: To date a few...... SNe Ia have been observed that have had their luminosities magnified by intervening galaxies and galaxy clusters acting as gravitational lenses. In this paper, we present long-slit spectroscopy of the lensed SN Ia 2016geu, which occurred at a redshift of z = 0.409, and was magnified by a factor of ap...

  12. Two populations of progenitors for Type Ia supernovae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, F.; Della Valle, M.; Panagia, N.

    2006-08-01

    We use recent observations of the evolution of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate with redshift, the dependence of the SN Ia rate on the colours of the parent galaxies, and the enhancement of the SN Ia rate in radio-loud early-type galaxies to derive on robust empirical grounds, the delay time distribution (DTD) between the formation of the progenitor star and its explosion as an SN. Our analysis finds: (i) delay times as long as 3-4 Gyr, derived from observations of SNe Ia at high redshift, cannot reproduce the dependence of the SN Ia rate on the colours and on the radio-luminosity of the parent galaxies, as observed in the local Universe; (ii) the comparison between observed SN rates and a grid of theoretical `single-population' DTDs shows that only a few of them are possibly consistent with observations. The most successful models are all predicting a peak of SN explosions soon after star formation and an extended tail in the DTD, and can reproduce the data but only at a modest statistical confidence level; (iii) present data are best matched by a bimodal DTD, in which about 50 per cent of SNe Ia (dubbed `prompt' SNe Ia) explode soon after their stellar birth, in a time of the order of 108 yr, while the remaining 50 per cent (`tardy' SNe Ia) have a much wider distribution, well described by an exponential function with a decay time of about 3 Gyr. The presence in the DTD of both a strong peak at early times and a prolonged exponential tail, coupled with the well-established bimodal distribution of the decay rate (Δm15) and the systematic difference observed in the expansion velocities of the ejecta of SNe Ia in ellipticals and spirals, suggests the existence of two classes of progenitors. We discuss the cosmological implications of this result and make simple predictions, which are testable with future instrumentation.

  13. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij)

    1983-07-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex structure of Seyfert galaxies, quasars and lacertae objects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronouys radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation.

  14. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex strUcture of Seyfert galaxies quasars and lacertae ob ects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronoUs radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation

  15. Against dogma: On superluminal propagation in classical electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2014-11-01

    It is deeply entrenched dogma that relativity theory prohibits superluminal propagation. It is also experimentally well-established that under some circumstances, classical electromagnetic fields propagate through a dielectric medium with superluminal group velocities and superluminal phase velocities. But it is usually claimed that these superluminal velocities do not violate the relativistic prohibition. Here I analyze electromagnetic fields in a dielectric medium within a framework for understanding superluminal propagation recently developed by Geroch (1996, 2011) and elaborated by Earman (2014). I will argue that for some parameter values, electromagnetic fields do propagate superluminally in the Geroch-Earman sense.

  16. Testing the magnetar scenario for superluminous supernovae with circular polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Leloudas, Giorgos; Bulla, Mattia; Inserra, Cosimo; Chen, Ting-Wan; Spyromilio, Jason; Patat, Ferdinando; Cano, Zach; Cikota, Stefan; Coughlin, Michael W.; Kankare, Erkki; Lowe, Thomas B.; Maund, Justyn R.; Rest, Armin; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken W.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Young, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are at least ˜5 times more luminous than common supernovae (SNe). Especially hydrogen-poor SLSN-I are difficult to explain with conventional powering mechanisms. One possible scenario that might explain such luminosities is that SLSNe-I are powered by an internal engine, such as a magnetar or an accreting black hole. Strong magnetic fields or collimated jets can circularly polarize light. In this work, we measured circular polarization of two SLSNe-I with the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted at the ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). PS17bek, a fast evolving SLSN-I, was observed around peak, while OGLE16dmu, a slowly evolving SLSN-I, was observed 100 days after maximum. Neither SLSN shows evidence of circularly polarized light, however, these non-detections do not rule out the magnetar scenario as the powering engine for SLSNe-I. We calculate the strength of the magnetic field and the expected circular polarization as a function of distance from the magnetar, which decreases very fast. Additionally, we observed no significant linear polarization for PS17bek at four epochs, suggesting that the photosphere near peak is close to spherical symmetry.

  17. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE: INSIGHT INTO THEIR GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inserra, C.; Bulla, M.; Sim, S. A.; Smartt, S. J., E-mail: c.inserra@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    We present the first spectropolarimetric observations of a hydrogen-free superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.1136, namely SN 2015bn. The transient shows significant polarization at both of the observed epochs: one 24 days before maximum light in the rest-frame, and the other at 27 days after peak luminosity. Analysis of the Q – U plane suggests the presence of a dominant axis and no physical departure from the main axis at either epoch. The polarization spectrum along the dominant axis is characterized by a strong wavelength dependence and an increase in the signal from the first to the second epoch. We use a Monte Carlo code to demonstrate that these properties are consistent with a simple toy model that adopts an axisymmetric ellipsoidal configuration for the ejecta. We find that the wavelength dependence of the polarization is possibly due to a strong wavelength dependence in the line opacity, while the higher level of polarization at the second epoch is a consequence of the increase in the asphericity of the inner layers of the ejecta or the fact that the photosphere recedes into less spherical layers. The geometry of the SLSN is similar to that of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe connected to GRB, while the overall evolution of the ejecta shape could be consistent with a central engine.

  18. WD+RG systems as the progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Han Zhanwen

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play an important role in the study of cosmic evolution, especially in cosmology. There are several progenitor models for SNe Ia proposed in the past years. By considering the effect of accretion disk instability on the evolution of white dwarf (WD) binaries, we performed detailed binary evolution calculations for the WD + red-giant (RG) channel of SNe Ia, in which a carbon-oxygen WD accretes material from a RG star to increase its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit. According to these calculations, we mapped out the initial and final parameters for SNe Ia in the orbital period-secondary mass (log P i - M i 2 ) plane for various WD masses for this channel. We discussed the influence of the variation of the duty cycle value on the regions for producing SNe Ia. Similar to previous studies, this work also indicates that the long-period dwarf novae offer possible ways for producing SNe Ia. Meanwhile, we find that the surviving companion stars from this channel have a low mass after the SN explosion, which may provide a means for the formation of the population of single low-mass WDs ( o-dot ).

  19. Double-detonation model of type Ia supernovae with a variable helium layer ignition mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei-Hong; Zhao Gang; Wang Bo

    2014-01-01

    Although Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play an important role in the study of cosmology, their progenitors are still poorly understood. Thermonuclear explosions from the helium double-detonation sub-Chandrasekhar mass model have been considered as an alternative method for producing SNe Ia. By adopting the assumption that a double detonation occurs when a He layer with a critical ignition mass accumulates on the surface of a carbon—oxygen white dwarf (CO WD), we perform detailed binary evolution calculations for the He double-detonation model, in which a He layer from a He star accumulates on a CO WD. According to these calculations, we obtain the initial parameter spaces for SNe Ia in the orbital period and secondary mass plane for various initial WD masses. We implement these results into a detailed binary population synthesis approach to calculate SN Ia birthrates and delay times. From this model, the SN Ia birthrate in our Galaxy is ∼0.4 − 1.6 × 10 −3 yr −1 . This indicates that the double-detonation model only produces part of the SNe Ia. The delay times from this model are ∼ 70 – 710 Myr, which contribute to the young population of SNe Ia in the observations. We found that the CO WD + sdB star system CD–30 11223 could produce an SN Ia via the double-detonation model in its future evolution. (research papers)

  20. THE IMPACT OF METALLICITY ON THE RATE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Prieto, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The metallicity of a star strongly affects both its evolution and the properties of the stellar remnant that results from its demise. It is generally accepted that stars with initial masses below ∼8 M ☉ leave behind white dwarfs and that some sub-population of these lead to Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, it is often tacitly assumed that metallicity has no effect on the rate of SNe Ia. We propose that a consequence of the effects of metallicity is to significantly increase the SN Ia rate in lower-metallicity galaxies, in contrast to previous expectations. This is because lower-metallicity stars leave behind higher-mass white dwarfs, which should be easier to bring to explosion. We first model SN Ia rates in relation to galaxy masses and ages alone, finding that the elevation in the rate of SNe Ia in lower-mass galaxies measured by Lick Observatory SN Search is readily explained. However, we then see that models incorporating this effect of metallicity agree just as well. Using the same parameters to estimate the cosmic SN Ia rate, we again find good agreement with data up to z ≈ 2. We suggest that this degeneracy warrants more detailed examination of host galaxy metallicities. We discuss additional implications, including for hosts of high-z SNe Ia, the SN Ia delay time distribution, super-Chandrasekhar SNe, and cosmology.

  1. THE IMPACT OF METALLICITY ON THE RATE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, Matthew D. [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Thompson, Todd A. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    The metallicity of a star strongly affects both its evolution and the properties of the stellar remnant that results from its demise. It is generally accepted that stars with initial masses below {approx}8 M{sub Sun} leave behind white dwarfs and that some sub-population of these lead to Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, it is often tacitly assumed that metallicity has no effect on the rate of SNe Ia. We propose that a consequence of the effects of metallicity is to significantly increase the SN Ia rate in lower-metallicity galaxies, in contrast to previous expectations. This is because lower-metallicity stars leave behind higher-mass white dwarfs, which should be easier to bring to explosion. We first model SN Ia rates in relation to galaxy masses and ages alone, finding that the elevation in the rate of SNe Ia in lower-mass galaxies measured by Lick Observatory SN Search is readily explained. However, we then see that models incorporating this effect of metallicity agree just as well. Using the same parameters to estimate the cosmic SN Ia rate, we again find good agreement with data up to z Almost-Equal-To 2. We suggest that this degeneracy warrants more detailed examination of host galaxy metallicities. We discuss additional implications, including for hosts of high-z SNe Ia, the SN Ia delay time distribution, super-Chandrasekhar SNe, and cosmology.

  2. HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H _0, w , and Ω_m via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  3. MEASURING EJECTA VELOCITY IMPROVES TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA DISTANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kasen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We use a sample of 121 spectroscopically normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to show that their intrinsic color is correlated with their ejecta velocity, as measured from the blueshift of the Si II λ6355 feature near maximum brightness, v SiII . The SN Ia sample was originally used by Wang et al. to show that the relationship between color excess and peak magnitude, which in the absence of intrinsic color differences describes a reddening law, was different for two subsamples split by v SiII (defined as 'Normal' and 'High Velocity'). We verify this result, but find that the two subsamples have the same reddening law when extremely reddened events (E(B - V)>0.35 mag) are excluded. We also show that (1) the High-Velocity subsample is offset by ∼0.06 mag to the red from the Normal subsample in the (B max - V max )-M V plane, (2) the B max - V max cumulative distribution functions of the two subsamples have nearly identical shapes, but the High-Velocity subsample is offset by ∼0.07 mag to the red in B max - V max , and (3) the bluest High-Velocity SNe Ia are ∼0.10 mag redder than the bluest Normal SNe Ia. Together, this evidence indicates a difference in intrinsic color for the subsamples. Accounting for this intrinsic color difference reduces the scatter in Hubble residuals from 0.190 mag to 0.130 mag for SNe Ia with A V ∼ V found in large SN Ia samples. We explain the correlation between ejecta velocity and color as increased line blanketing in the High-Velocity SNe Ia, causing them to become redder. We discuss some implications of this result, and stress the importance of spectroscopy for future SN Ia cosmology surveys, with particular focus on the design of WFIRST.

  4. HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H {sub 0}, w , and Ω{sub m} via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  5. SNE's methodological basis - web-based software in entrepreneurial surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning

    This overhead based paper gives an introduction to the research methodology applied in the surveys carried out in the SNE-project.......This overhead based paper gives an introduction to the research methodology applied in the surveys carried out in the SNE-project....

  6. SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BY THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan); Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hsiao, Eric; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Castellon, Sergio; Roth, Miguel [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Hamuy, Mario; Anderson, Joseph P. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Krzeminski, Wojtek [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Persson, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Ln., Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin, E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); and others

    2013-08-10

    This is the first release of optical spectroscopic data of low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by the Carnegie Supernova Project including 604 previously unpublished spectra of 93 SNe Ia. The observations cover a range of phases from 12 days before to over 150 days after the time of B-band maximum light. With the addition of 228 near-maximum spectra from the literature, we study the diversity among SNe Ia in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, spectroscopic parameters are employed such as expansion velocities from spectral line blueshifts and pseudo-equivalent widths (pW). The values of those parameters at maximum light are obtained for 78 objects, thus providing a characterization of SNe Ia that may help to improve our understanding of the properties of the exploding systems and the thermonuclear flame propagation. Two objects, namely, SNe 2005M and 2006is, stand out from the sample by showing peculiar Si II and S II velocities but otherwise standard velocities for the rest of the ions. We further study the correlations between spectroscopic and photometric parameters such as light-curve decline rate and color. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the pW of Si II absorption features are very good indicators of light-curve decline rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that parameters such as pW2 (Si II 4130) and pW6 (Si II 5972) provide precise calibrations of the peak B-band luminosity with dispersions of Almost-Equal-To 0.15 mag. In the search for a secondary parameter in the calibration of peak luminosity for SNe Ia, we find a Almost-Equal-To 2{sigma}-3{sigma} correlation between B-band Hubble residuals and the velocity at maximum light of S II and Si II lines.

  7. SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BY THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hsiao, Eric; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Roth, Miguel; Hamuy, Mario; Anderson, Joseph P.; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Persson, S. E.; Prieto, José L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This is the first release of optical spectroscopic data of low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by the Carnegie Supernova Project including 604 previously unpublished spectra of 93 SNe Ia. The observations cover a range of phases from 12 days before to over 150 days after the time of B-band maximum light. With the addition of 228 near-maximum spectra from the literature, we study the diversity among SNe Ia in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, spectroscopic parameters are employed such as expansion velocities from spectral line blueshifts and pseudo-equivalent widths (pW). The values of those parameters at maximum light are obtained for 78 objects, thus providing a characterization of SNe Ia that may help to improve our understanding of the properties of the exploding systems and the thermonuclear flame propagation. Two objects, namely, SNe 2005M and 2006is, stand out from the sample by showing peculiar Si II and S II velocities but otherwise standard velocities for the rest of the ions. We further study the correlations between spectroscopic and photometric parameters such as light-curve decline rate and color. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the pW of Si II absorption features are very good indicators of light-curve decline rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that parameters such as pW2 (Si II 4130) and pW6 (Si II 5972) provide precise calibrations of the peak B-band luminosity with dispersions of ≈0.15 mag. In the search for a secondary parameter in the calibration of peak luminosity for SNe Ia, we find a ≈2σ-3σ correlation between B-band Hubble residuals and the velocity at maximum light of S II and Si II lines

  8. Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Spectrum Synthesis of Type IA Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Peter Edward

    1997-09-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are valuable distance indicators for cosmology and the elements they eject are are important for nucleosynthesis. They appear to be thermonuclear disruptions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs that accrete from companion stars until they approach the Chandrasekbar mass, and there is a suspicion that the propagation of the nuclear burning front involves a transition from a deflagration to a detonation. Detailed modeling of the atmospheres and spectra of SNe Ia is needed to advance our understanding of SNe Ia. Comparison of synthetic and observed spectra provides information on the temperature, density, velocity, and composition of the ejected matter and thus constrain hydrodynamical models. In addition, the expanding photosphere method yields distances to individual events that are independent of distances based on the decay of 56Ni in SNe Ia and of Cepheid variable stars in the parent galaxies. This thesis is broken down into 4 major sections, each highlighting a different way with which to use spectrum synthesis to analyze SNe Ia. Chapters 2 and 3 look at normal SNe Ia and their potential use as distance indicators using SEAM. Chapter 4 examines spectral correlations with luminosity in SNe Ia and provides a plausible explanation for these correlations via spectrum synthesis. In Chapter 5 the spectra of various hydrodynamical models are calculated in an effort to answer the question of which current progenitor/explosion model is the most plausible for a SN Ia. Finally, we look at the importance of NLTE calculations and line identifications in Chapter 6. Also included are two appendices which contain more technical information concerning γ-ray deposition and the thermalization parameter.

  9. Interpreting OPERA results on superluminal neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F; Strumia, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    OPERA has claimed the discovery of superluminal propagation of neutrinos. We analyze the consistency of this claim with previous tests of special relativity. We find that reconciling the OPERA measurement with information from SN1987a and from neutrino oscillations requires stringent conditions. The superluminal limit velocity of neutrinos must be nearly flavor independent, must decrease steeply in the low-energy domain, and its energy dependence must depart from a simple power law. We construct illustrative models that satisfy these conditions, by introducing Lorentz violation in a sector with light sterile neutrinos. We point out that, quite generically, electroweak quantum corrections transfer the information of superluminal neutrino properties into Lorentz violations in the electron and muon sector, in apparent conflict with experimental data.

  10. Cataclysmic Variables as Supernova Ia Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Kafka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the identification of the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa remains controversial, it is generally accepted that they originate from binary star systems in which at least one component is a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD; those systems are grouped under the wide umbrella of cataclysmic variables. Current theories for SNeIa progenitors hold that, either via Roche lobe overflow of the companion or via a wind, the WD accumulates hydrogen or helium rich material which is then burned to C and O onto the WD’s surface. However, the specifics of this scenario are far from being understood or defined, allowing for a wealth of theories fighting for attention and a dearth of observations to support them. I discuss the latest attempts to identify and study those controversial SNeIa progenitors. I also introduce the most promising progenitor in hand and I present observational diagnostics that can reveal more members of the category.

  11. SN 2012au: A GOLDEN LINK BETWEEN SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR LOWER-LUMINOSITY COUNTERPARTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Drout, Maria R.; Marion, G. Howie; Sanders, Nathan E.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Pete; Kirshner, Robert P.; Dittmann, Jason; Bieryla, Allyson; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2012au, a slow-evolving supernova (SN) with properties that suggest a link between subsets of energetic and H-poor SNe and superluminous SNe. SN 2012au exhibited conspicuous Type-Ib-like He I lines and other absorption features at velocities reaching ≈2 × 10 4 km s –1 in its early spectra, and a broad light curve that peaked at M B = –18.1 mag. Models of these data indicate a large explosion kinetic energy of ∼10 52 erg and 56 Ni mass ejection of M Ni ≈ 0.3 M ☉ on par with SN 1998bw. SN 2012au's spectra almost one year after explosion show a blend of persistent Fe II P-Cyg absorptions and nebular emissions originating from two distinct velocity regions. These late-time emissions include strong [Fe II], [Ca II], [O I], Mg I], and Na I lines at velocities ∼> 4500 km s –1 , as well as O I and Mg I lines at noticeably smaller velocities ∼ –1 . Many of the late-time properties of SN 2012au are similar to the slow-evolving hypernovae SN 1997dq and SN 1997ef, and the superluminous SN 2007bi. Our observations suggest that a single explosion mechanism may unify all of these events that span –21 ∼ B ∼< –17 mag. The aspherical and possibly jetted explosion was most likely initiated by the core collapse of a massive progenitor star and created substantial high-density, low-velocity Ni-rich material.

  12. A plausible (overlooked) super-luminous supernova in the Sloan digital sky survey stripe 82 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Glikman, Eilat; Koposov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova (SN) peaked at m g < 19.4 mag in the second half of 2005 September, but was missed by the real-time SN hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN 2007bi type. The spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z = 0.281 and the distance modulus of μ = 40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with an absolute magnitude of M B = –18.2 ± 0.2 mag and an oxygen abundance of 12+log [O/H]=8.3±0.2; hence, the SN peaked at M g < –21.3 mag. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity (dwarf) galaxies only. The available information on the PSN 000123+000504 light curve suggests the magnetar-powered model as a likely scenario of this event. This SLSN is a new addition to a quickly growing family of super-luminous SNe.

  13. SN 2012au: A GOLDEN LINK BETWEEN SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR LOWER-LUMINOSITY COUNTERPARTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Drout, Maria R.; Marion, G. Howie; Sanders, Nathan E.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Pete; Kirshner, Robert P.; Dittmann, Jason; Bieryla, Allyson; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T. [6127 Wilder Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Levesque, Emily M., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); and others

    2013-06-20

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2012au, a slow-evolving supernova (SN) with properties that suggest a link between subsets of energetic and H-poor SNe and superluminous SNe. SN 2012au exhibited conspicuous Type-Ib-like He I lines and other absorption features at velocities reaching Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} km s{sup -1} in its early spectra, and a broad light curve that peaked at M{sub B} = -18.1 mag. Models of these data indicate a large explosion kinetic energy of {approx}10{sup 52} erg and {sup 56}Ni mass ejection of M{sub Ni} Almost-Equal-To 0.3 M{sub Sun} on par with SN 1998bw. SN 2012au's spectra almost one year after explosion show a blend of persistent Fe II P-Cyg absorptions and nebular emissions originating from two distinct velocity regions. These late-time emissions include strong [Fe II], [Ca II], [O I], Mg I], and Na I lines at velocities {approx}> 4500 km s{sup -1}, as well as O I and Mg I lines at noticeably smaller velocities {approx}< 2000 km s{sup -1}. Many of the late-time properties of SN 2012au are similar to the slow-evolving hypernovae SN 1997dq and SN 1997ef, and the superluminous SN 2007bi. Our observations suggest that a single explosion mechanism may unify all of these events that span -21 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -17 mag. The aspherical and possibly jetted explosion was most likely initiated by the core collapse of a massive progenitor star and created substantial high-density, low-velocity Ni-rich material.

  14. Elemental gas-phase abundances of intermediate redshift type Ia supernova star-forming host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Galbany, L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mollá, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Vílchez, J. M.; Carnero, A.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depends on the oxygen abundance of the regions of the host galaxies, where they explode. This metallicity dependence reduces the dispersion in the Hubble diagram (HD) when included with the traditional two-parameter calibration of SN Ia light-curve parameters and absolute magnitude. In this work, we use empirical calibrations to carefully estimate the oxygen abundance of galaxies hosting SNe Ia from the SDSS-II/SN (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova) survey at intermediate redshift by measuring their emission-line intensities. We also derive electronic temperature with the direct method for a small fraction of objects for consistency. We find a trend of decreasing oxygen abundance with increasing redshift for the most massive galaxies. Moreover, we study the dependence of the HD residuals (HR) with galaxy oxygen abundance obtaining a correlation in line with those found in other works. In particular, the HR versus oxygen abundance shows a slope of -0.186 ± 0.123 mag dex-1 (1.52σ) in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This implies smaller distance modulii after corrections for SNe Ia in metal-rich galaxies. Based on our previous results on local SNe Ia, we propose this dependence to be due to the lower luminosity of the SNe Ia produced in more metal-rich environments.

  15. Constraining Magnetic Field Amplification in SN Shocks Using Radio Observations of SNe 2011fe and 2014J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, E.; Lundqvist, P.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Alberdi, A.

    2017-06-01

    We modeled the radio non-detection of two Type Ia supernovae (SNe), SN 2011fe and SN 2014J, considering synchrotron emission from the interaction between SN ejecta and the circumstellar medium. For ejecta whose outer parts have a power-law density structure, we compare synchrotron emission with radio observations. Assuming that 20% of the bulk shock energy is being shared equally between electrons and magnetic fields, we found a very low-density medium around both the SNe. A less tenuous medium with particle density ˜1 cm-3, which could be expected around both SNe, can be estimated when the magnetic field amplification is less than that presumed for energy equipartition. This conclusion also holds if the progenitor of SN 2014J was a rigidly rotating white dwarf (WD) with a main-sequence (MS) or red giant companion. For a He star companion, or a MS for SN 2014J, with 10% and 1% of bulk kinetic energy in magnetic fields, we obtain mass-loss rates of 99% onto the WD, but is less restricted for the latter case. However, if the tenuous medium is due to a recurrent nova, it is difficult from our model to predict synchrotron luminosities. Although the formation channels of SNe 2011fe and 2014J are not clear, the null detection in radio wavelengths could point toward a low amplification efficiency for magnetic fields in SN shocks.

  16. THE RISE TIME OF NORMAL AND SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Perrett, K.; Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. george Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Graham, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Fourmanoit, N.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Balam, D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Basa, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 38, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Palanque-Delabrouille, N., E-mail: gonzalez@astro.utoronto.ca [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2012-01-20

    We calculate the average stretch-corrected rise time of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Supernova Legacy Survey. We use the aggregate light curves of spectroscopic and photometrically identified SNe Ia to fit the rising part of the light curve with a simple quadratic model. We obtain a light curve shape corrected, i.e., stretch-corrected, fiducial rise time of 17.02{sup +0.18}{sub -0.28} (stat) days. The measured rise time differs from an earlier finding by the SNLS (Conley et al.) due to the use of different SN Ia templates. We compare it to nearby samples using the same methods and find no evolution in the early part of the light curve of SNe Ia up to z = 1. We search for variations among different populations, particularly subluminous objects, by dividing the sample in stretch. Bright and slow decliners (s > 1.0) have consistent stretch-corrected rise times compared to fainter and faster decliners (0.8 < s {<=} 1.0); they are shorter by 0.57{sup +0.47}{sub -0.50} (stat) days. Subluminous SNe Ia (here defined as objects with s {<=} 0.8), although less constrained, are also consistent, with a rise time of 18.03{sup +0.81}{sub -1.37} (stat) days. We study several systematic biases and find that the use of different fiducial templates may affect the average rise time but not the intrinsic differences between populations. Based on our results, we estimate that subluminous SNe Ia are powered by 0.05-0.35 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the explosion. Our conclusions are the same for the single-stretch and two-stretch parameterizations of the light curve.

  17. THEORETICAL CLUES TO THE ULTRAVIOLET DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Peter J.; Wang, Lifan [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Baron, E. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks, Rm 100, Norman, OK 73019-2061 (United States); Milne, Peter [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Roming, Peter W. A., E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The effect of metallicity on the observed light of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) could lead to systematic errors as the absolute magnitudes of local and distant SNe Ia are compared to measure luminosity distances and determine cosmological parameters. The UV light may be especially sensitive to metallicity, though different modeling methods disagree as to the magnitude, wavelength dependence, and even the sign of the effect. The outer density structure, {sup 56}Ni, and to a lesser degree asphericity, also impact the UV. We compute synthetic photometry of various metallicity-dependent models and compare to UV/optical photometry from the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope. We find that the scatter in the mid-UV to near-UV colors is larger than predicted by changes in metallicity alone and is not consistent with reddening. We demonstrate that a recently employed method to determine relative abundances using UV spectra can be done using UVOT photometry, but we warn that accurate results require an accurate model of the cause of the variations. The abundance of UV photometry now available should provide constraints on models that typically rely on UV spectroscopy for constraining metallicity, density, and other parameters. Nevertheless, UV spectroscopy for a variety of supernova explosions is still needed to guide the creation of accurate models. A better understanding of the influences affecting the UV is important for using SNe Ia as cosmological probes, as the UV light may test whether SNe Ia are significantly affected by evolutionary effects.

  18. Theoretical Clues to the Ultraviolet Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Baron, E.; Milne, Peter; Roming, Peter W. A.; Wang, Lifan

    2015-08-01

    The effect of metallicity on the observed light of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) could lead to systematic errors as the absolute magnitudes of local and distant SNe Ia are compared to measure luminosity distances and determine cosmological parameters. The UV light may be especially sensitive to metallicity, though different modeling methods disagree as to the magnitude, wavelength dependence, and even the sign of the effect. The outer density structure, 56Ni, and to a lesser degree asphericity, also impact the UV. We compute synthetic photometry of various metallicity-dependent models and compare to UV/optical photometry from the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope. We find that the scatter in the mid-UV to near-UV colors is larger than predicted by changes in metallicity alone and is not consistent with reddening. We demonstrate that a recently employed method to determine relative abundances using UV spectra can be done using UVOT photometry, but we warn that accurate results require an accurate model of the cause of the variations. The abundance of UV photometry now available should provide constraints on models that typically rely on UV spectroscopy for constraining metallicity, density, and other parameters. Nevertheless, UV spectroscopy for a variety of supernova explosions is still needed to guide the creation of accurate models. A better understanding of the influences affecting the UV is important for using SNe Ia as cosmological probes, as the UV light may test whether SNe Ia are significantly affected by evolutionary effects.

  19. THEORETICAL CLUES TO THE ULTRAVIOLET DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Wang, Lifan; Baron, E.; Milne, Peter; Roming, Peter W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of metallicity on the observed light of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) could lead to systematic errors as the absolute magnitudes of local and distant SNe Ia are compared to measure luminosity distances and determine cosmological parameters. The UV light may be especially sensitive to metallicity, though different modeling methods disagree as to the magnitude, wavelength dependence, and even the sign of the effect. The outer density structure, 56 Ni, and to a lesser degree asphericity, also impact the UV. We compute synthetic photometry of various metallicity-dependent models and compare to UV/optical photometry from the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope. We find that the scatter in the mid-UV to near-UV colors is larger than predicted by changes in metallicity alone and is not consistent with reddening. We demonstrate that a recently employed method to determine relative abundances using UV spectra can be done using UVOT photometry, but we warn that accurate results require an accurate model of the cause of the variations. The abundance of UV photometry now available should provide constraints on models that typically rely on UV spectroscopy for constraining metallicity, density, and other parameters. Nevertheless, UV spectroscopy for a variety of supernova explosions is still needed to guide the creation of accurate models. A better understanding of the influences affecting the UV is important for using SNe Ia as cosmological probes, as the UV light may test whether SNe Ia are significantly affected by evolutionary effects

  20. Binary Paths to Type Ia Supernovae Explosions: the Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    This symposium was focused on the hunt for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Is there a main channel for the production of SNe Ia? If so, are these elusive progenitors single degenerate or double degenerate systems? Although most participants seemed to favor the single degenerate channel, there was no general agreement on the type of binary system at play. An observational puzzle that was highlighted was the apparent paucity of supersoft sources in our Galaxy and also in external galaxies. The single degenerate channel (and as it was pointed out, quite possibly also the double degenerate channel) requires the binary system to pass through a phase of steady nuclear burning. However, the observed number of supersoft sources falls short by a factor of up to 100 in explaining the estimated birth rates of SNe Ia. Thus, are these supersoft sources somehow hidden away and radiating at different wavelengths, or are we missing some important pieces of this puzzle that may lead to the elimination of a certain class of progenitor? Another unanswered question concerns the dependence of SNe Ia luminosities on the age of their host galaxy. Several hypotheses were put forward, but none was singled out as the most likely explanation. It is fair to say that at the end of the symposium the definitive answer to the vexed progenitor question remained well and truly wide open.

  1. IMPROVED DISTANCES TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH TWO SPECTROSCOPIC SUBCLASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Li, W.; Silverman, J. M.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Macomber, B.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Steele, T. N.; Wong, D. S.; Wang, L.; Gates, E. L.

    2009-01-01

    We study the observables of 158 relatively normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by dividing them into two groups in terms of the expansion velocity inferred from the absorption minimum of the Si II λ6355 line in their spectra near B-band maximum brightness. One group ('Normal') consists of normal SNe Ia populating a narrow strip in the Si II velocity distribution, with an average expansion velocity (v) = 10, 600 ± 400 km s -1 near B maximum; the other group ('HV') consists of objects with higher velocities, v ∼> 11, 800 km s -1 . Compared with the Normal group, the HV one shows a narrower distribution in both the peak luminosity and the luminosity decline rate Δm 15 . In particular, their B-V colors at maximum brightness are found to be on average redder by ∼ 0.1 mag, suggesting that they either are associated with dusty environments or have intrinsically red B-V colors. The HV SNe Ia are also found to prefer a lower extinction ratio R V ∼ 1.6 (versus ∼ 2.4 for the Normal ones). Applying such an absorption-correction dichotomy to SNe Ia of these two groups remarkably reduces the dispersion in their peak luminosity from 0.178 mag to only 0.125 mag.

  2. A Second Ladder: Testing for Bias in the Type Ia Distance Scale with SBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Peter

    2016-10-01

    We propose obtaining Surface Brightness Fluctuation (SBF) distances to the hosts galaxies of 20 nearby type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), resulting in a sample of 29 SNe Ia in 27 galaxies when combined with HST-SBF distances from the literature. This sample can then be compared with the existing 18 SN Ia distances from Cepheids. Through these comparisons, we will determine if there are any discrepancies between the SBF distance scale, which is extended into the Hubble flow using early-type galaxies, and the SNIa distance scale, for which local calibrators are scarce and host galaxy types and SN environments are heterogenous. Since recent measurements of UV-optical colors suggest that SN Ia properties do depend on galaxy type and environment, it is essential that SNe Ia in all galaxy types are included when extending SN Ia distances to the distant Hubble flow. Since the conclusion that universal expansion is accelerating was originally based on SNe Ia distances, and because recent measurements of UV-optical colors suggest that SN Ia properties do depend on galaxy type and environment, it is essential to measure the same types of SNe in the same types of galaxies. To meet this goal, we propose to measure high-precision SBF distances to all early-type galaxies that have hosted SNIa within 80 Mpc. We will therefore be able to distinguish between systematic offsets in the derived Hubble constant between galaxies and/or SNe of different types and correct for them. SBF is the only distance measurement technique with statistical uncertainties comparable to SN Ia that can be applied to the early-type of galaxies in which the majority of the high-redshift SNIa occur.

  3. Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippenko, Alexei Vladimir [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia; exploding white-dwarf stars) were the key to the Nobel-worthy 1998 discovery and subsequent verification that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, driven by the effects of dark energy. Understanding the nature of this mysterious, yet dominant, component of the Universe is at the forefront of research in cosmology and fundamental physics. SNe Ia will continue to play a leading role in this enterprise, providing precise cosmological distances that improve constraints on the nature of dark energy. However, for this effort to succeed, we need to more thoroughly understand relatively nearby SNe Ia, because our conclusions come only from comparisons between them and distant (high-redshift) SNe Ia. Thus, detailed studies of relatively nearby SNe Ia are the focus of this research program. Many interesting results were obtained during the course of this project; these were published in 32 refereed research papers that acknowledged the grant. A major accomplishment was the publication of supernova (SN) rates derived from about a decade of operation of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) with the 0.76-meter Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT). We have determined the most accurate rates for SNe of different types in large, nearby galaxies in the present-day Universe, and these can be compared with SN rates far away (and hence long ago in the past) to set constraints on the types of stars that explode. Another major accomplishment was the publication of the light curves (brightness vs. time) of 165 SNe Ia, along with optical spectroscopy of many of these SNe as well as other SNe Ia, providing an extensive, homogeneous database for detailed studies. We have conducted intensive investigations of a number of individual SNe Ia, including quite unusual examples that allow us to probe the entire range of SN explosions and provide unique insights into these objects and the stars before they explode. My team's studies have also

  4. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p 2 can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.

  5. Type-Ia Supernova Rates and the Progenitor Problem: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, D.; Mannucci, F.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the progenitor systems of type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a major unsolved problem in astrophysics. SN Ia rates are providing some striking clues. We review the basics of SN rate measurement, preach about some sins of SN rate measurement and analysis, and illustrate one of these sins with an analogy about Martian scientists. We review the recent progress in measuring SN Ia rates in various environments and redshifts, and their use to reconstruct the SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) - the SN rate versus time that would follow a hypothetical brief burst of star formation. A good number of DTD measurements, using a variety of methods, appear to be converging. At delays 1measurements show a similar, ~t-1, power-law shape. The DTD peaks at the shortest delays probed. This result supports the idea of a double-degenerate progenitor origin for SNe Ia. Single-degenerate progenitors may still play a role in producing short-delay SNe Ia, or perhaps all SNe Ia, if the red-giant donor channel is more efficient than is found by most theoretical models. The DTD normalization enjoys fairly good agreement (though perhaps some tension), among the various measurements, with a Hubble time-integrated DTD value of about 2+/-1 SNe Ia per 1000Msolar (stellar mass formed with a low-mass turnover initial mass function). The local WD binary population suggests that the WD merger rate can explain the Galactic SN Ia rate, but only if sub-Chandra mergers lead to SN Ia events. We point to some future directions that should lead to progress in the field, including measurement of the bivariate (delay and stretch) SN Ia response function.

  6. Jets in Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae: Constraints from a Comprehensive Analysis of Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, D. L.; Margutti, R.; Guidorzi, C.; Chomiuk, L.; Alexander, K. D.; Berger, E.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Blanchard, P. K.; Challis, P.; Chornock, R.; Drout, M.; Fong, W.; MacFadyen, A.; Migliori, G.; Milisavljevic, D.; Nicholl, M.; Parrent, J. T.; Terreran, G.; Zauderer, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    The energy source powering the extreme optical luminosity of hydrogen-stripped superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) is not known, but recent studies have highlighted the case for a central engine. Radio and/or X-ray observations are best placed to track the fastest ejecta and probe the presence of outflows from a central engine. We compile all the published radio observations of SLSNe-I to date and present three new observations of two new SLSNe-I. None were detected. Through modeling the radio emission, we constrain the subparsec environments and possible outflows in SLSNe-I. In this sample, we rule out on-axis collimated relativistic jets of the kind detected in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We constrain off-axis jets with opening angles of 5° (30°) to energies of {E}{{k}}values {ε }e=0.1 and {ε }B=0.01. The deepest limits rule out emission of the kind seen in faint uncollimated GRBs (with the exception of GRB 060218) and from relativistic SNe. Finally, for the closest SLSN-I, SN 2017egm, we constrain the energy of an uncollimated nonrelativistic outflow like those observed in normal SNe to {E}{{k}}≲ {10}48 erg.

  7. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR HOST GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Naoki; Fukugita, Masataka

    2010-01-01

    The sample of 137 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-II supernova survey for the southern equatorial stripe of 300 deg 2 is used to derive the luminosity functions (LFs) of SNe Ia and of their host galaxies in the g, r, i passbands. We show that the LF of SNe Ia host galaxies matches well with that of galaxies in the general field, suggesting that the occurrence of SNe Ia does not favor a particular type of galaxy but is predominantly proportional to the luminosity of galaxies. The evidence is weak that the SNe rate varies with the color of host galaxies. The only evidence that points to possible correlation between the SN rate and star formation activity is that the SN rate in late-type galaxies is higher than that in early-type galaxies by 31% ± 35%. In our low-redshift sample, the component of type Ia SN rate that is proportional to star formation activity is not evident in the integrated SN rate, while our observation is compatible with the current two-component models. The sample contains eight SNe Ia whose host galaxies were not identified, but it is shown that their occurrence is consistent with them occurring in low-luminous galaxies beyond the survey. The LF of SNe Ia is approximately Gaussian with the full width at half-maximum being a factor of σ = 0.24 mag or 1.67 in luminosity. The Gaussian distribution becomes tighter if the ratio of extinction to reddening, R V , is lower than the characteristic value for the Milky Way and if luminosity is corrected for the light-curve shape. The average color excess is ∼0.07 mag, which is significantly smaller than reddening expected for field galaxies. This color excess does not vary with the distance of the SNe from the center of the host galaxy to 15 kpc. This suggests that the major part of the color excess appears to be either intrinsic or reddening that arises in the immediate environment of SNe, rather than interstellar

  8. The Physics of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. I. Analytic Results and Time Dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Philip A.; Eastman, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    We develop an analytic solution of the radiation transport problem for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and show that it reproduces bolometric light curves produced by more detailed calculations under the assumption of a constant-extinction coefficient. This model is used to derive the thermal conditions in the interior of SNe Ia and to study the sensitivity of light curves to various properties of the underlying supernova explosions. Although the model is limited by simplifying assumptions, it is adequate for demonstrating that the relationship between SNe Ia maximum-light luminosity and rate of decline is most easily explained if SNe Ia span a range in mass. The analytic model is also used to examine the size of various terms in the transport equation under conditions appropriate to maximum light. For instance, the Eulerian and advective time derivatives are each shown to be of the same order of magnitude as other order v/c terms in the transport equation. We conclude that a fully time-dependent solution to the transport problem is needed in order to compute SNe Ia light curves and spectra accurate enough to distinguish subtle differences of various explosion models. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  9. Swift UVOT Grism Observations of Nearby Type Ia Supernovae - I. Observations and Data Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kuin, N. P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are useful tools for understanding progenitor systems and explosion physics. In particular, UV spectra of SNe Ia, which probe the outermost layers, are strongly affected by the progenitor metallicity. In this work, we present 120 Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory UV spectra of 39 nearby SNe Ia. This sample is the largest UV (λ Ia to date, doubling the number of UV spectra and tripling the number of SNe with UV spectra. The sample spans nearly the full range of SN Ia light-curve shapes (Δm15(B) ≈ 0.6-1.8 mag). The fast turnaround of Swift allows us to obtain UV spectra at very early times, with 13 out of 39 SNe having their first spectra observed ≳ 1 week before peak brightness and the earliest epoch being 16.5 days before peak brightness. The slitless design of the Swift UV grism complicates the data reduction, which requires separating SN light from underlying host-galaxy light and occasional overlapping stellar light. We present a new data-reduction procedure to mitigate these issues, producing spectra that are significantly improved over those of standard methods. For a subset of the spectra we have nearly simultaneous Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra; the Swift spectra are consistent with these comparison data.

  10. Two transitional type Ia supernovae located in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1404

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gall, C.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Ashall, C.

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis of ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared observations of the fast-declining Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) 2007on and 2011iv, hosted by the Fornax cluster member NGC 1404. The B-band light curves of SN 2007on and SN 2011iv are characterised by Delta m(15)(B) decline-rate values of...

  11. EVIDENCE FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE Si II λ4000 WIDTH AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA COLOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, J.; Oestman, L.; Goobar, A.; Balland, C.; Lampeitl, H.; Nichol, R. C.; Sako, M.; Schneider, D. P.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We study the pseudo-equivalent width of the Si II λ4000 feature of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.0024 ≤ z ≤ 0.634. We find that this spectral indicator correlates with the light curve color excess (SALT2c) as well as previously defined spectroscopic subclasses (Branch types) and the evolution of the Si II λ6150 velocity, i.e., the so-called velocity gradient. Based on our study of 55 objects from different surveys, we find indications that the Si II λ4000 spectral indicator could provide important information to improve cosmological distance measurements with SNe Ia.

  12. A CATALOG OF NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, G. H.; Wheeler, J. C.; Robinson, E. L.; Hoeflich, P.; Gerardy, C. L.; Vacca, W. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present 41 near-infrared (NIR, 0.7-2.5 μm) spectra from normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained at epochs ranging from 14 days before to 75 days with respect to the maximum light date in the V band. All data were obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility using the SpeX instrument. We identify many spectral features, measure the Doppler velocities, and discuss the chemical distribution of explosion products in SNe Ia. We describe procedures for smoothing data, fitting continua, and measuring absorption features to ensure consistency for measurement and analysis. This sample provides the first opportunity to examine and compare a large number of SNe Ia in this wavelength region. NIR data are a rich source of information about explosion products whose signatures are blended or obscured in other spectral regions and NIR observations probe a greater radial depth than optical wavelengths. We analyze similarities and differences in the spectra and we show that the progressive development of spectral features for normal SNe Ia in the NIR is consistent with time. We confirm the presence of O I, Mg II, Ca II, Si II, Fe II, and Co II in these SNe. Possible identifications are made for S I, Si III, Mn II, and Fe III. There is no evidence in these data for H I, He I, C I, or C II. As the explosion products expand and cool, progressively deeper layers are revealed. Thus, a time sequence of spectra examines the chemical structure and provides direct evidence of the physical properties of SNe Ia from the outer layers to deep inside the SN. Measured Doppler velocities indicate that burning products in SNe Ia are distributed in distinct layers with no large-scale mixing. Carbon is not detected in these data, in agreement with previous results with NIR data establishing very low limits on carbon abundance in SNe Ia. Carbon burning products, O and Mg, are plentiful in the outer layers suggesting that the entire progenitor is burned in the explosion. The data provide a

  13. Stochastic gravitational wave background from the single-degenerate channel of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falta, David; Fisher, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the integrated gravitational wave signal of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the single-degenerate channel out to cosmological distances gives rise to a continuous background to spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, including the Big Bang Observer and Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory planned missions. This gravitational wave background from SNe Ia acts as a noise background in the frequency range 0.1-10 Hz, which heretofore was thought to be relatively free from astrophysical sources apart from neutron-star and white-dwarf binaries, and therefore a key window in which to study primordial gravitational waves generated by inflation. While inflationary energy scales of > or approx. 10 16 GeV yield inflationary gravitational wave backgrounds in excess of our range of predicted backgrounds, for lower energy scales of ∼10 15 GeV, the inflationary gravitational wave background becomes comparable to the noise background from SNe Ia.

  14. Type Ia Supernova Rate Measurements to Redshift 2.5 from Candles: Searching for Prompt Explosions in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Strogler, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Graur, Or; Casertano, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Garnavich, Peter; Cenko, Stephen Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope(HST) that surveyed a total area of approx. 0.25 deg(sup 2) with approx.900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z approx. 2.5. We classify approx. 24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only approx. 3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction isfP0.530.09stat0.100.10sys0.26, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simplet1power law for all timest40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20 of all SN Ia explosions though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  15. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for

  16. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for

  17. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /Portsmouth U.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; /UC, Berkeley; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

  18. The double-degenerate model for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Wang, B.; Han, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The double-degenerate (DD) model, involving the merging of massive double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) driven by gravitational wave radiation, is one of the classical pathways for the formation of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recently, it has been proposed that the WD+He subgiant channel has a significant contribution to the production of massive double WDs, in which the primary WD accumulates mass by accreting He-rich matter from an He subgiant. We evolved about 1800 CO WD+He star systems and obtained a large and dense grid for producing SNe Ia through the DD model. We then performed a series of binary population synthesis simulations for the DD model, in which the WD+He subgiant channel is calculated by interpolations in the SN Ia production grid. According to our standard model, the Galactic birth rate of SNe Ia is about 2.4 × 10- 3 yr- 1 for the WD+He subgiant channel of the DD model; the total birth rate is about 3.7 × 10- 3 yr- 1 for all channels, reproducing that of observations. Previous theoretical models still have deficit with the observed SNe Ia with delay times 8 Gyr. After considering the WD+He subgiant channel, we found that the delay time distributions are comparable with the observed results. Additionally, some recent studies proposed that the violent WD mergers are more likely to produce SNe Ia based on the DD model. We estimated that the violent mergers through the DD model may contribute to at most 16 per cent of all SNe Ia.

  19. On a proposal of superluminal communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Romano, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Recently, various new proposals of superluminal transmission of information have been suggested in the literature. Since the proposals make systematic use of recent formal and practical improvements in quantum mechanics, the old theorems proving the impossibility of such a performance must be adapted to the new scenario. In this communication, we consider some of the most challenging proposals of this kind and we show why they cannot work. (fast track communication)

  20. THE EFFECT OF HOST GALAXIES ON TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Goobar, Ariel; Nordin, Jakob; Im, Myungshin; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Oestman, Linda; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependences of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2σ and 3σ) that SNe Ia are ≅0.1 ± 0.04 mag brighter in passive host galaxies than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light-curve shape and color variations. This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light-curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R V = 1.0 ± 0.2, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R V = 1.8 +0.2 -0.4 . The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of >4σ) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  1. Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miceli, A.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Chile U., Catolica /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Fermilab /Chile U., Santiago /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Stockholm U. /Hawaii U. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.

    2008-02-13

    We present the first large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe through a multiple-decade effort at Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 ultraviolet spectra obtained by HST/IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows a nearly perfect match of the overall spectral-energy distribution with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host-galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar slit widths, which corresponds to different projected distances. After correcting for the galaxy-light contamination, subtle differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be {approx}0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra give an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum-light SN spectra of {approx}3% in the optical and growing toward the ultraviolet. The difference between the maximum-light low and high-redshift spectra constrain SN evolution between our samples to be < 10% in the rest-frame optical.

  2. Fitting and Phenomenology in Type IA Supernova Cosmology: Generalized Likelihood Analyses for Multiple Evolving Populations and Observations of Near-Infrared Lightcurves Including Host Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Kara A.

    In the late 1990s, Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) led to the discovery that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate due to dark energy. Since then, many different tracers of acceleration have been used to characterize dark energy, but the source of cosmic acceleration has remained a mystery. To better understand dark energy, future surveys such as the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the space-based Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will collect thousands of SNeIa to use as a primary dark energy probe. These large surveys will be systematics limited, which makes it imperative for our insight regarding systematics to dramatically increase over the next decade for SNeIa to continue to contribute to precision cosmology. I approach this problem by improving statistical methods in the likelihood analysis and collecting near infrared (NIR) SNeIa with their host galaxies to improve the nearby data set and search for additional systematics. Using more statistically robust methods to account for systematics within the likelihood function can increase accuracy in cosmological parameters with a minimal precision loss. Though a sample of at least 10,000 SNeIa is necessary to confirm multiple populations of SNeIa, the bias in cosmology is ˜ 2 sigma with only 2,500 SNeIa. This work focused on an example systematic (host galaxy correlations), but it can be generalized for any systematic that can be represented by a distribution of multiple Gaussians. The SweetSpot survey gathered 114 low-redshift, NIR SNeIa that will act as a crucial anchor sample for the future high redshift surveys. NIR observations are not as affected by dust contamination, which may lead to increased understanding of systematics seen in optical wavelengths. We obtained spatially resolved spectra for 32 SweetSpot host galaxies to test for local host galaxy correlations. For the first time, we probe global host galaxy correlations with NIR brightnesses from the current literature

  3. THE OXYGEN FEATURES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF THERMONUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xulin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Sai, Hanna; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Wang, Lifan [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zhang, Jujia [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650216 (China); Zhang, Tianmeng, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zhaoxl11@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: keiichi.maeda@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-08-01

    The absorption feature O i λ 7773 is an important spectral indicator for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that can be used to trace the unburned material in outer layers of the exploding white dwarf (WD). In this work, we use a large sample of SNe Ia to examine this absorption at early phases (i.e., 13 day ≲ t ≲ 7 day) and make comparisons with the absorption features of Si ii λ 6355 and the Ca ii near-infrared triplet. We show that for a subgroup of spectroscopically normal SNe with normal photospheric velocities (i.e., v {sub si} ≲ 12,500 km s{sup 1} at optical maximum), the line strength of the high velocity feature (HVF) of O i is inversely correlated with that of Si ii (or Ca ii), and this feature also shows a negative correlation with the luminosity of SNe Ia. This finding, together with other features we find for the O i HVF, reveal that for this subgroup of SNe Ia, explosive oxygen burning occurs in the outermost layer of the SN. Differences in the oxygen burning could lead to the observed diversity, which is in remarkable agreement with the popular delayed-detonation model of Chandrasekhar mass WDs.

  4. THE OXYGEN FEATURES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF THERMONUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xulin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Sai, Hanna; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming; Maeda, Keiichi; Wang, Lifan; Zhang, Jujia; Zhang, Tianmeng

    2016-01-01

    The absorption feature O i λ 7773 is an important spectral indicator for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that can be used to trace the unburned material in outer layers of the exploding white dwarf (WD). In this work, we use a large sample of SNe Ia to examine this absorption at early phases (i.e., 13 day ≲ t ≲ 7 day) and make comparisons with the absorption features of Si ii λ 6355 and the Ca ii near-infrared triplet. We show that for a subgroup of spectroscopically normal SNe with normal photospheric velocities (i.e., v si ≲ 12,500 km s 1 at optical maximum), the line strength of the high velocity feature (HVF) of O i is inversely correlated with that of Si ii (or Ca ii), and this feature also shows a negative correlation with the luminosity of SNe Ia. This finding, together with other features we find for the O i HVF, reveal that for this subgroup of SNe Ia, explosive oxygen burning occurs in the outermost layer of the SN. Differences in the oxygen burning could lead to the observed diversity, which is in remarkable agreement with the popular delayed-detonation model of Chandrasekhar mass WDs.

  5. Type Ia supernovae in elliptical and spiral galaxies - Possible differences in photometric homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippenko, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that beta, the initial postmaximum rate of SN brightness decline (in the B band) defined by Pskovskii (1977), may have a smaller dispersion among SNe Ia in elliptical galaxies than in all other types of galaxies. Contamination of the sample by SNe Ib is unlikely to be the primary cause of this difference. Although the number of objects is very small, it is also possible that the velocity of SN Ia ejecta in elliptical galaxies is lower than in spiral galaxies. If correct, these observations provide the first direct evidence for physical differences among SNe Ia in different environments; reddening variations due to gas and dust are unlikely to produce most of the observed dispersion in beta among spirals. One obvious possibility is that the SNe Ia in spiral galaxies come from intermediate-mass stars, and that differences in the metallicities, accretion rates, or other properties account for the observations. A more extreme, improbable explanation is that not all SNe Ia in spiral galaxies result from carbon deflagrations of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. 43 refs

  6. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: FIRST PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, Gaston; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Boldt, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Morrell, Nidia; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Hamuy, Mario; Maureira, MarIa Jose; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Persson, S. E.; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Wyatt, Pamela; Li Weidong

    2010-01-01

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) is a five-year survey being carried out at the Las Campanas Observatory to obtain high-quality light curves of ∼100 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in a well-defined photometric system. Here we present the first release of photometric data that contains the optical light curves of 35 SNe Ia, and near-infrared light curves for a subset of 25 events. The data comprise 5559 optical (ugriBV) and 1043 near-infrared (Y JHK s ) data points in the natural system of the Swope telescope. Twenty-eight SNe have pre-maximum data, and for 15 of these, the observations begin at least 5 days before B maximum. This is one of the most accurate data sets of low-redshift SNe Ia published to date. When completed, the CSP data set will constitute a fundamental reference for precise determinations of cosmological parameters, and serve as a rich resource for comparison with models of SNe Ia.

  7. The Carnegie Supernova Project. I. Third Photometry Data Release of Low-redshift Type Ia Supernovae and Other White Dwarf Explosions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Contreras, Carlos; Burns, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    We present final natural-system optical (ugriBV) and near-infrared (YJH) photometry of 134 supernovae (SNe) with probable white dwarf progenitors that were observed in 2004-2009 as part of the first stage of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). The sample consists of 123 Type. Ia SNe, 5 Type...

  8. Search for surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Ricker, Paul M.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the progenitor systems of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear. One way to distinguish between the single-degenerate scenario and double-degenerate scenario for their progenitors is to search for the surviving companions (SCs). Using a technique that couples the results from multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with calculations of the structure and evolution of main-sequence- (MS-) and helium-rich SCs, the color and magnitude of MS- and helium-rich SCs are predicted as functions of time. The SC candidates in Galactic type Ia supernova remnants (Ia SNR) and nearby extragalactic Ia SNRs are discussed. We find that the maximum detectable distance of MS SCs (helium-rich SCs) is 0.6-4 Mpc (0.4-16 Mpc), if the apparent magnitude limit is 27 in the absence of extinction, suggesting that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy are excellent environments in which to search for SCs. However, only five Ia SNRs have been searched for SCs, showing little support for the standard channels in the singe-degenerate scenario. To better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia, we encourage the search for SCs in other nearby Ia SNRs.

  9. k-Essence, superluminal propagation, causality and emergent geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Vikman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The k-essence theories admit in general the superluminal propagation of the perturbations on classical backgrounds. We show that in spite of the superluminal propagation the causal paradoxes do not arise in these theories and in this respect they are not less safe than General Relativity

  10. Reddened, Redshifted, or Intrinsically Red? Understanding Near-ultraviolet Colors of Type Ia Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Peter J.; Landez, Nancy J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Milne, Peter A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian D., E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-02-20

    The intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are important to understanding their use as cosmological standard candles. Understanding the effects of reddening and redshift on the observed colors are complicated and dependent on the intrinsic spectrum, the filter curves, and the wavelength dependence of reddening. We present ultraviolet and optical data of a growing sample of SNe Ia observed with the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope on the Swift spacecraft and use this sample to re-examine the near-UV (NUV) colors of SNe Ia. We find that a small amount of reddening ( E ( B − V ) = 0.2 mag) could account for the difference between groups designated as NUV-blue and NUV-red, and a moderate amount of reddening ( E ( B − V ) = 0.5 mag) could account for the whole NUV-optical differences. The reddening scenario, however, is inconsistent with the mid-UV colors and color evolution. The effect of redshift alone only accounts for part of the variation. Using a spectral template of SN2011fe, we can forward model the effects of redshift and reddening and directly compare those with the observed colors. We find that some SNe are consistent with reddened versions of SN2011fe, but most SNe Ia are much redder in the uvw 1 − v color than SN2011fe reddened to the same b − v color. The absolute magnitudes show that two out of five NUV-blue SNe Ia are blue because their near-UV luminosity is high, and the other three are optically fainter. We also show that SN 2011fe is not a “normal” SN Ia in the UV, but has colors placing it at the blue extreme of our sample.

  11. ON THE PROGENITORS OF SUPER-CHANDRASEKHAR MASS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wencong; Li Xiangdong

    2009-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be used as the standard candle to determine the cosmological distances because they are thought to have a uniform fuel amount. Recent observations of several overluminous SNe Ia suggest that the white dwarf masses at supernova explosion may significantly exceed the canonical Chandrasekhar mass limit. These massive white dwarfs may be supported by rapid differential rotation. Based on a single-degenerate model and the assumption that the white dwarf would differentially rotate when the accretion rate M-dot>3 x 10 -7 M-odot yr -1 , we have calculated the evolutions of close binaries consisting of a white dwarf and a normal companion. To include the effect of rotation, we introduce an effective mass M eff for white dwarfs. For the donor stars with two different metallicities Z = 0.02 and 0.001, we present the distribution of the initial donor star masses and the orbital periods of the progenitors of super-Chandrasekhar mass SNe Ia. The calculation results indicate that, for an initial massive white dwarf of 1.2 M sun , a considerable fraction of SNe Ia may result from super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, but very massive (> 1.7 M sun ) white dwarfs are difficult to form, and none of them could be found in old populations. However, super-Chandrasekhar mass SNe Ia are very rare when the initial mass of white dwarfs is 1.0 M sun . Additionally, SNe Ia in low metallicity environment are more likely to be homogeneous.

  12. The curious case of SN 2011dn: A very peculiar type Ia supernova?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachubo, Alisa

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are excellent cosmological distance indicators due to the uniformity in their light curves, which led to the major discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe. However, SNe Ia are not so uniform as one may expect, as there are many peculiar SNe Ia that exhibit differences in their photometric and spectroscopic behavior from normal SNe Ia. One of the goals of supernova cosmology today is to produce a cleaner sample of SNe Ia without these peculiar SNe Ia. Here we consider SN 2011dn, a peculiar SN Ia candidate. In 2011, Salvo, et al. carried out a preliminary analysis of a subset of the data prescribed here, and identified spectral and photometric peculiarities in this object's evolution that warranted further analysis. Here, we present a complete re-reduction and reanalysis of B, V,R, and I photometry of SN 2011dn obtained at Mount Laguna Observatory, spanning from 7 days before maximum light in B to 88 days past maximum light. In addition, we also consider total flux spectra from 9 days before maximum light to 4 days after maximum light, along with ultraviolet (UV) photometry obtained with the Swift telescope. From SN 2011dn's optical spectra, we find that SN 2011dn most closely resembles a SN 1991T-like type Ia supernova ('91T-like SN Ia). Such SNe Ia are typically more luminous than normal SNe Ia, and possess broader (i.e., they decline less rapidly than normal from maximum light) light curves. Their Deltam15(B) (drop in B magnitude 15 days after maximum light) are typically significantly less than the canonical value of 1.1, and can be as low as 0.8. In the earlier preliminary analysis, Salvo et al. measured a surprisingly high Deltam15(B) value for SN 2011dn, of ˜ 1.1. Since SN 2011dn was embedded in UGC 11501 (its host galaxy), however, it is possible that some of the light from the host galaxy was included in the photometric aperture, resulting in inaccurate photometric measurements. Here, in order to better isolate the

  13. Constraining Dark Energy with X-ray Clusters, SNe Ia and the CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapetti, D

    2005-01-01

    In [1] we present new constraints on the evolution of dark energy from an analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background, supernova and X-ray galaxy cluster data. From a combined analysis of all three data sets and assuming that the Universe is at, we examine a series of dark energy models with up to three free parameters: the current dark energy equation of state w 0 , the early time equation of state w et and the scale factor at transition, a t . Allowing the transition scale factor to vary over the range 0.5 t 0 = -1.27 -0.39 +0.33 and w et = -0.66 -0.62 +0.44 . They find no significant evidence for evolution in the dark energy equation of state parameter with redshift. The complementary nature of the data sets leads to a tight constraint on the mean matter density, (Omega) m , alleviates a number of other parameter degeneracies, including that between the scalar spectral index n s , the physical baryon density (Omega) b h 2 and the optical depth τ and also allows us to examine models dropping the flatness prior. As required for the energy-momentum conservation our analysis includes spatial perturbations in the dark energy component. We show that not including them leads to spuriously tighter constraints on w 0 and especially on wet

  14. RATES AND DELAY TIMES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, Ashley J.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of binary stars to calculate synthetic rates and delay times of the most promising Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) progenitors. We present and discuss evolutionary scenarios in which a white dwarf (WD) reaches the Chandrasekhar mass and potentially explodes in a SNe Ia. We consider Double Degenerate (DDS; merger of two WDs), Single Degenerate (SDS; WD accreting from H-rich companion), and AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn; WD accreting from He-rich companion) scenarios. The results are presented for two different star formation histories: burst (elliptical-like galaxies) and continuous (spiral-like galaxies). It is found that delay times for the DDS in our standard model (with common envelope efficiency α CE = 1) follow a power-law distribution. For the SDS we note a wide range of delay times, while AM CVn progenitors produce a short burst of SNe Ia at early times. The DDS median delay time falls between ∼0.5 and 1 Gyr; the SDS between ∼2 and 3 Gyr; and the AM CVn between ∼0.8 and 0.6 Gyr depending on the assumed α CE . For a Milky-Way-like (MW-like) galaxy, we estimate the rates of SNe Ia arising from different progenitors as: ∼10 -4 yr -1 for the SDS and AM CVn, and ∼10 -3 yr -1 for the DDS. We point out that only the rates for two merging carbon-oxygen WDs, the only systems found in the DDS, are consistent with the observed rates for typical MW-like spirals. We also note that DDS progenitors are the dominant population in elliptical galaxies. The fact that the delay time distribution for the DDS follows a power law implies more SNe Ia (per unit mass) in young rather than in aged populations. Our results do not exclude other scenarios, but strongly indicate that the DDS is the dominant channel generating SNe Ia in spiral galaxies, at least in the framework of our adopted evolutionary models. Since it is believed that WD mergers cannot produce a thermonuclear explosion given the current understanding of accreting WDs, either the

  15. Superluminous Transients at AGN Centers from Interaction between Black Hole Disk Winds and Broad-line Region Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Ohsuga, Ken [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki, E-mail: takashi.moriya@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-07-10

    We propose that superluminous transients that appear at central regions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) such as CSS100217:102913+404220 (CSS100217) and PS16dtm, which reach near- or super-Eddington luminosities of the central black holes, are powered by the interaction between accretion-disk winds and clouds in broad-line regions (BLRs) surrounding them. If the disk luminosity temporarily increases by, e.g., limit–cycle oscillations, leading to a powerful radiatively driven wind, strong shock waves propagate in the BLR. Because the dense clouds in the AGN BLRs typically have similar densities to those found in SNe IIn, strong radiative shocks emerge and efficiently convert the ejecta kinetic energy to radiation. As a result, transients similar to SNe IIn can be observed at AGN central regions. Since a typical black hole disk-wind velocity is ≃0.1 c , where c is the speed of light, the ejecta kinetic energy is expected to be ≃10{sup 52} erg when ≃1 M {sub ⊙} is ejected. This kinetic energy is transformed to radiation energy in a timescale for the wind to sweep up a similar mass to itself in the BLR, which is a few hundred days. Therefore, both luminosities (∼10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}) and timescales (∼100 days) of the superluminous transients from AGN central regions match those expected in our interaction model. If CSS100217 and PS16dtm are related to the AGN activities triggered by limit–cycle oscillations, they become bright again in coming years or decades.

  16. HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE CORRELATED WITH HOST GALAXY MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, David L.; Hicken, Malcolm; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    From Sloan Digital Sky Survey u'g'r'i'z' imaging, we estimate the stellar masses of the host galaxies of 70 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia, 0.015 10.8 M sun in a cosmology fit yields 1 + w = 0.22 +0.152 -0.108 , while a combination where the 30 nearby SNe instead have host masses greater than 10 10.8 M sun yields 1 + w = -0.03 +0.217 -0.143 . Progenitor metallicity, stellar population age, and dust extinction correlate with galaxy mass and may be responsible for these systematic effects. Host galaxy measurements will yield improved distances to SNe Ia.

  17. THE ABSENCE OF EX-COMPANIONS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: rd@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play important roles in our study of the expansion and acceleration of the universe, but because we do not know the exact nature or natures of the progenitors, there is a systematic uncertainty that must be resolved if SNe Ia are to become more precise cosmic probes. No progenitor system has ever been identified either in the pre- or post-explosion images of a Ia event. There have been recent claims for and against the detection of ex-companion stars in several SNe Ia remnants. These studies, however, usually ignore the angular momentum gain of the progenitor white dwarf (WD), which leads to a spin-up phase and a subsequent spin-down phase before explosion. For spin-down timescales greater than 10{sup 5} years, the donor star could be too dim to detect by the time of explosion. Here we revisit the current limits on ex-companion stars to SNR 0509-67.5, a 400-year-old remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the effects of possible angular momentum gain on the WD are included, a wide range of single-degenerate progenitor models are allowed for this remnant. We demonstrate that the current absence of evidence for ex-companion stars in this remnant, as well as other SNe Ia remnants, does not necessarily provide the evidence of absence for ex-companions. We discuss potential ways to identify such ex-companion stars through deep imaging observations.

  18. THE ABSENCE OF EX-COMPANIONS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play important roles in our study of the expansion and acceleration of the universe, but because we do not know the exact nature or natures of the progenitors, there is a systematic uncertainty that must be resolved if SNe Ia are to become more precise cosmic probes. No progenitor system has ever been identified either in the pre- or post-explosion images of a Ia event. There have been recent claims for and against the detection of ex-companion stars in several SNe Ia remnants. These studies, however, usually ignore the angular momentum gain of the progenitor white dwarf (WD), which leads to a spin-up phase and a subsequent spin-down phase before explosion. For spin-down timescales greater than 10 5 years, the donor star could be too dim to detect by the time of explosion. Here we revisit the current limits on ex-companion stars to SNR 0509-67.5, a 400-year-old remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the effects of possible angular momentum gain on the WD are included, a wide range of single-degenerate progenitor models are allowed for this remnant. We demonstrate that the current absence of evidence for ex-companion stars in this remnant, as well as other SNe Ia remnants, does not necessarily provide the evidence of absence for ex-companions. We discuss potential ways to identify such ex-companion stars through deep imaging observations.

  19. A Significantly off-center 56Ni Distribution for the Low-Luminosity Type Ia Supernova SN 2016brx from the 100IAS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Subo; Katz, Boaz; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Kushnir, Doron; Elias-Rosa, N.; Bose, Subhash; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, J. L.; Chen, Ping; Kochanek, C. S.; Brandt, G. M.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Morales-Garoffolo, Antonia; Parker, Stuart; Phillips, M. M.; Piro, Anthony L.; Shappee, B. J.; Simon, Joshua D.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2018-06-01

    We present nebular-phase spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2016brx, a member of the 1991bg-like subclass that lies at the faint end of the SN Ia luminosity function. Nebular spectra are available for only three other 1991bg-like SNe, and their Co line centers are all within ≲ 500 km/s of each other. In contrast, the nebular Co line center of SN 2016brx is blue-shifted by >1500 km/s compared to them and by ≈1200 km/s compared to the rest frame. This is a significant shift relative to the narrow nebular line velocity dispersion of ≲ 2000 km/s of these SNe. The large range of nebular line shifts implies that the 56Ni in the ejecta of SN 1991bg-like events is off-center by ˜1000 km/s rather than universally centrally confined as previously suggested. With the addition of SN 2016brx, the Co nebular line shapes of 1991bg-like objects appear to connect with the brighter SNe Ia that show double-peaked profiles, hinting at a continuous distribution of line profiles among SNe Ia. One class of models to produce both off-center and bi-modal 56Ni distributions is collisions of white dwarfs with unequal and equal masses.

  20. On the Time Variation of Dust Extinction and Gas Absorption for Type Ia Supernovae Observed through a Nonuniform Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Aldering, G.; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.

    2017-11-01

    For Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed through a nonuniform interstellar medium (ISM) in its host galaxy, we investigate whether the nonuniformity can cause observable time variations in dust extinction and in gas absorption due to the expansion of the SN photosphere with time. We show that, owing to the steep spectral index of the ISM density power spectrum, sizable density fluctuation amplitudes at the length scale of typical ISM structures (≳ 10 {pc}) will translate to much smaller fluctuations on the scales of an SN photosphere. Therefore, the typical amplitude of time variation due to a nonuniform ISM, of absorption equivalent widths, and of extinction, would be small. As a result, we conclude that nonuniform ISM density should not impact cosmology measurements based on SNe Ia. We apply our predictions based on the ISM density power-law power spectrum to the observations of two highly reddened SNe Ia, SN 2012cu and SN 2014J.

  1. Superluminal warp drives are semiclassically unstable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finazzi, S; Liberati, S [SISSA, via Beirut 2-4, Trieste 34151, Italy and INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Barcelo, C, E-mail: finazzi@sissa.i, E-mail: liberati@sissa.i, E-mail: carlos@iaa.e [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2010-04-01

    Warp drives are very interesting configurations of General Relativity: they provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds, albeit at the cost of requiring exotic matter to build them. Even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. Semiclassical corrections to warp-drive geometries created out of an initially flat spacetime have been analyzed in a previous work by the present authors in special locations, close to the wall of the bubble and in its center. Here, we present an exact numerical analysis of the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) in the whole bubble. We find that the the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to the front wall of the superluminal bubble, after some transient terms have disappeared, hence strongly supporting our previous conclusion that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical back-reaction. This result seems to implement the chronology protection conjecture, forbiddig the set up of a structure potentially dangerous for causality.

  2. Are superluminous supernovae and long GRBs the products of dynamical processes in young dense star clusters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E. P. J. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Portegies Zwart, S. F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-20

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) occur almost exclusively in small galaxies (Small/Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC/LMC)-like or smaller), and the few SLSNe observed in larger star-forming galaxies always occur close to the nuclei of their hosts. Another type of peculiar and highly energetic supernovae are the broad-line Type Ic SNe (SN Ic-BL) that are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs). Also these have a strong preference for occurring in small (SMC/LMC-like or smaller) star-forming galaxies, and in these galaxies LGRBs always occur in the brightest spots. Studies of nearby star-forming galaxies that are similar to the hosts of LGRBs show that these brightest spots are giant H II regions produced by massive dense young star clusters with many hundreds of O- and Wolf-Rayet-type stars. Such dense young clusters are also found in abundance within a few hundred parsecs from the nucleus of larger galaxies like our own. We argue that the SLSNe and the SNe Ic-BL/LGRBs are exclusive products of two types of dynamical interactions in dense young star clusters. In our model the high angular momentum of the collapsing stellar cores required for the engines of an SN Ic-BL results from the post-main-sequence mergers of dynamically produced cluster binaries with almost equal-mass components. The merger produces a critically rotating single helium star with sufficient angular momentum to produce an LGRB; the observed 'metal aversion' of LGRBs is a natural consequence of the model. We argue that, on the other hand, SLSNe could be the products of runaway multiple collisions in dense clusters, and we present (and quantize) plausible scenarios of how the different types of SLSNe can be produced.

  3. Could there be a hole in type Ia supernovae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, Lifan

    2004-01-01

    In the favored progenitor scenario, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) arise from a white dwarf accreting material from a non-degenerate companion star. Soon after the white dwarf explodes, the ejected supernova material engulfs the companion star; two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations by Marietta et al. (2001) show that, in the interaction, the companion star carves out a conical hole of opening angle 30-40 degrees in the supernova ejecta. In this paper we use multi-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to explore the observable consequences of an ejecta-hole asymmetry. We calculate the variation of the spectrum, luminosity, and polarization with viewing angle for the aspherical supernova near maximum light. We find that the supernova looks normal from almost all viewing angles except when one looks almost directly down the hole. In the latter case, one sees into the deeper, hotter layers of ejecta. The supernova is relatively brighter and has a peculiar spectrum characterized by more highly ionized species, weaker absorption features, and lower absorption velocities. The spectrum viewed down the hole is comparable to the class of SN 1991T-like supernovae. We consider how the ejecta-hole asymmetry may explain the current spectropolarimetric observations of SNe Ia, and suggest a few observational signatures of the geometry. Finally, we discuss the variety currently seen in observed SNe Ia and how an ejecta-hole asymmetry may fit in as one of several possible sources of diversity

  4. Asymmetric Explosion of Type Ia Supernovae and Their Observational Signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions has not yet been clarified, despite their importance in astrophysics and cosmology. Recent theoretical investigations suggest that asymmetric distribution of initial thermonuclear sparks may be a key in the SN Ia explosion mechanism. In this paper, the first observational evidence of the asymmetry in SN Ia explosions is presented: We have found that late-time nebular spectra of various SNe Ia show a diversity in wavelengths of emission lines. This feature is inconsistent with any spherically symmetric explosion models, and indicates that the innermost region, a likely product of the deflagration wave propagation, shows an off-set with respect to the explosion center. The diversity in the emission-line wavelengths could naturally be explained by a combination of different viewing angles.

  5. Understanding type Ia supernovae through their U-band spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, J.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barbary, K.; Bongard, S.; Boone, K.; Brinnel, V.; Buton, C.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Dixon, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Feindt, U.; Fouchez, D.; Gangler, E.; Hayden, B.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kim, A.; Kowalski, M.; Kuesters, D.; Leget, P.-F.; Lombardo, S.; Lin, Q.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Rubin, D.; Saunders, C.; Smadja, G.; Sofiatti, C.; Suzuki, N.; Taubenberger, S.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2018-06-01

    Context. Observations of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be used to derive accurate cosmological distances through empirical standardization techniques. Despite this success neither the progenitors of SNe Ia nor the explosion process are fully understood. The U-band region has been less well observed for nearby SNe, due to technical challenges, but is the most readily accessible band for high-redshift SNe. Aims: Using spectrophotometry from the Nearby Supernova Factory, we study the origin and extent of U-band spectroscopic variations in SNe Ia and explore consequences for their standardization and the potential for providing new insights into the explosion process. Methods: We divide the U-band spectrum into four wavelength regions λ(uNi), λ(uTi), λ(uSi) and λ(uCa). Two of these span the Ca H&K λλ 3934, 3969 complex. We employ spectral synthesis using SYNAPPS to associate the two bluer regions with Ni/Co and Ti. Results: The flux of the uTi feature is an extremely sensitive temperature/luminosity indicator, standardizing the SN peak luminosity to 0.116 ± 0.011 mag root mean square (RMS). A traditional SALT2.4 fit on the same sample yields a 0.135 mag RMS. Standardization using uTi also reduces the difference in corrected magnitude between SNe originating from different host galaxy environments. Early U-band spectra can be used to probe the Ni+Co distribution in the ejecta, thus offering a rare window into the source of light curve power. The uCa flux further improves standardization, yielding a 0.086 ± 0.010 mag RMS without the need to include an additional intrinsic dispersion to reach χ2/dof 1. This reduction in RMS is partially driven by an improved standardization of Shallow Silicon and 91T-like SNe. All tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/614/A71. Individual SN spectra shown are available at http://snfactory.lbl.gov/snf/data

  6. The type Ia supernova SNLS-03D3bb from a super-Chandrasekhar-masswhite dwarf star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.Andrew; Sullivan, Mark; Nugent, Peter E.; Ellis,Richard S.; Conley, Alexander J.; Le Borgne, Damien; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Guy, Julien; Balam, David; Basa, Stephane; Fouchez, Dominique; Hook,Isobel M.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett,Kathryn M.; Pritchet, Christopher J.

    2006-02-01

    The acceleration of the expansion of the universe, and theneed for Dark Energy, were inferred from the observations of Type Iasupernovae (SNe Ia) 1;2. There is consensus that SNeIa are thermonuclearexplosions that destroy carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars that accretematter from a companion star3, although the nature of this companionremains uncertain. SNe Ia are thought to be reliable distance indicatorsbecause they have a standard amount of fuel and a uniform trigger theyare predicted to explode when the mass of the white dwarf nears theChandrasekhar mass 4 - 1.4 solar masses. Here we show that the highredshift supernova SNLS-03D3bb has an exceptionally high luminosity andlow kinetic energy that both imply a super-Chandrasekhar mass progenitor.Super-Chandrasekhar mass SNeIa shouldpreferentially occur in a youngstellar population, so this may provide an explanation for the observedtrend that overluminous SNe Ia only occur in young environments5;6. Sincethis supernova does not obey the relations that allow them to becalibrated as standard candles, and since no counterparts have been foundat low redshift, future cosmology studies will have to considercontamination from such events.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR ASYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Santiago; Anderson, Joseph; Marchi, Sebastian; Gutierrez, Claudia; Hamuy, Mario; Cartier, Regis [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-01

    We study the properties of low-velocity material in the line of sight toward nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that have measured late phase nebular velocity shifts (v{sub neb}), thought to be an environment-independent observable. We have found that the distribution of equivalent widths of narrow blended Na I D1 and D2 and Ca II H and K absorption lines differs significantly between those SNe Ia with negative and positive v{sub neb}, with generally stronger absorption for SNe Ia with v{sub neb} {>=} 0. A similar result had been found previously for the distribution of colors of SNe Ia, which was interpreted as a dependence of the temperature of the ejecta with viewing angle. Our work suggests that (1) a significant part of these differences in color should be attributed to extinction, (2) this extinction is caused by an asymmetric distribution of circumstellar material (CSM), and (3) the CSM absorption is generally stronger on the side of the ejecta opposite to where the ignition occurs. Since it is difficult to explain (3) via any known physical processes that occur before explosion, we argue that the asymmetry of the CSM is originated after explosion by a stronger ionizing flux on the side of the ejecta where ignition occurs, probably due to a stronger shock breakout and/or more exposed radioactive material on one side of the ejecta. This result has important implications for both progenitor and explosion models.

  8. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL MODELS IN THE OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Narayan, Gautham; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves spanning optical through near-infrared (NIR) data. A hierarchical framework coherently models multiple random and uncertain effects, including intrinsic supernova (SN) light curve covariances, dust extinction and reddening, and distances. An improved BAYESN Markov Chain Monte Carlo code computes probabilistic inferences for the hierarchical model by sampling the global probability density of parameters describing individual SNe and the population. We have applied this hierarchical model to optical and NIR data of 127 SNe Ia from PAIRITEL, CfA3, Carnegie Supernova Project, and the literature. We find an apparent population correlation between the host galaxy extinction A V and the ratio of total-to-selective dust absorption R V . For SNe with low dust extinction, A V ∼ V ∼ 2.5-2.9, while at high extinctions, A V ∼> 1, low values of R V < 2 are favored. The NIR luminosities are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction. They exhibit low correlation with optical peak luminosities, and thus provide independent information on distances. The combination of NIR and optical data constrains the dust extinction and improves the predictive precision of individual SN Ia distances by about 60%. Using cross-validation, we estimate an rms distance modulus prediction error of 0.11 mag for SNe with optical and NIR data versus 0.15 mag for SNe with optical data alone. Continued study of SNe Ia in the NIR is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  9. CfA3: 185 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FROM THE CfA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Bakos, Gaspar; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Calkins, Mike; Cho, Richard; Contreras, Maria; Jha, Saurabh; Matheson, Tom; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Michael Wood-Vasey, W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Bragg, Ann; Briceno, Cesar; Ciupik, Larry; Dendy, Kristi-Concannon

    2009-01-01

    We present multiband photometry of 185 type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), with over 11,500 observations. These were acquired between 2001 and 2008 at the F. L. Whipple Observatory of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). This sample contains the largest number of homogeneously observed and reduced nearby SNe Ia (z ∼< 0.08) published to date. It more than doubles the nearby sample, bringing SN Ia cosmology to the point where systematic uncertainties dominate. Our natural system photometry has a precision of ∼<0.02 mag in BVRIr'i' and ∼<0.04 mag in U for points brighter than 17.5 mag. We also estimate a systematic uncertainty of 0.03 mag in our SN Ia standard system BVRIr'i' photometry and 0.07 mag for U. Comparisons of our standard system photometry with published SN Ia light curves and comparison stars, where available for the same SN, reveal agreement at the level of a few hundredths mag in most cases. We find that 1991bg-like SNe Ia are sufficiently distinct from other SNe Ia in their color and light-curve-shape/luminosity relation that they should be treated separately in light-curve/distance fitter training samples. The CfA3 sample will contribute to the development of better light-curve/distance fitters, particularly in the few dozen cases where near-infrared photometry has been obtained and, together, can help disentangle host-galaxy reddening from intrinsic supernova color, reducing the systematic uncertainty in SN Ia distances due to dust.

  10. Absolute Distances to Nearby Type Ia Supernovae via Light Curve Fitting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkó, J.; Ordasi, A.; Szalai, T.; Sárneczky, K.; Bányai, E.; Bíró, I. B.; Borkovits, T.; Hegedüs, T.; Hodosán, G.; Kelemen, J.; Klagyivik, P.; Kriskovics, L.; Kun, E.; Marion, G. H.; Marschalkó, G.; Molnár, L.; Nagy, A. P.; Pál, A.; Silverman, J. M.; Szakáts, R.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Székely, P.; Szing, A.; Vida, K.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2018-06-01

    We present a comparative study of absolute distances to a sample of very nearby, bright Type Ia supernovae (SNe) derived from high cadence, high signal-to-noise, multi-band photometric data. Our sample consists of four SNe: 2012cg, 2012ht, 2013dy and 2014J. We present new homogeneous, high-cadence photometric data in Johnson–Cousins BVRI and Sloan g‧r‧i‧z‧ bands taken from two sites (Piszkesteto and Baja, Hungary), and the light curves are analyzed with publicly available light curve fitters (MLCS2k2, SNooPy2 and SALT2.4). When comparing the best-fit parameters provided by the different codes, it is found that the distance moduli of moderately reddened SNe Ia agree within ≲0.2 mag, and the agreement is even better (≲0.1 mag) for the highest signal-to-noise BVRI data. For the highly reddened SN 2014J the dispersion of the inferred distance moduli is slightly higher. These SN-based distances are in good agreement with the Cepheid distances to their host galaxies. We conclude that the current state-of-the-art light curve fitters for Type Ia SNe can provide consistent absolute distance moduli having less than ∼0.1–0.2 mag uncertainty for nearby SNe. Still, there is room for future improvements to reach the desired ∼0.05 mag accuracy in the absolute distance modulus.

  11. The WD+He star binaries as the progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing the MESA stellar evolution code, we computed He accretion onto carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs.We found two possible outcomes for models in which the WD steadily grows in mass towards the Chandrasekhar limit. For relatively low He-accretion rates carbon ignition occurs in the center, leading to a type Ia supernova (SN Ia explosion, whereas for relatively high accretion rates carbon is ignited off-center, probably leading to collapse. Thus the parameter space producing SNe Ia is reduced compared to what was assumed in earlier papers, in which the possibility of off-center ignition was ignored. We then applied these results in binary population synthesis modelling, finding a modest reduction in the expected birthrate of SNe Ia resulting from the WD+He star channel.

  12. [O I] λλ6300, 6364 IN THE NEBULAR SPECTRUM OF A SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubenberger, S.; Kromer, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Pakmor, R.; Pignata, G.; Maeda, K.; Hachinger, S.; Leibundgut, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, a late-phase spectrum of SN 2010lp, a subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), is presented and analyzed. As in 1991bg-like SNe Ia at comparable epochs, the spectrum is characterized by relatively broad [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission lines. However, instead of narrow [Fe III] and [Co III] lines that dominate the emission from the innermost regions of 1991bg-like supernovae (SNe), SN 2010lp shows [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission, usually associated with core-collapse SNe and never previously observed in a subluminous thermonuclear explosion. The [O I] feature has a complex profile with two strong, narrow emission peaks. This suggests that oxygen is distributed in a non-spherical region close to the center of the ejecta, severely challenging most thermonuclear explosion models discussed in the literature. We conclude that, given these constraints, violent mergers are presently the most promising scenario to explain SN 2010lp

  13. SHOCK BREAKOUT FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Chang, Philip; Weinberg, Nevin N.

    2010-01-01

    The mode of explosive burning in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remains an outstanding problem. It is generally thought to begin as a subsonic deflagration, but this may transition into a supersonic detonation (the delayed detonation transition, DDT). We argue that this transition leads to a breakout shock, which would provide the first unambiguous evidence that DDTs occur. Its main features are a hard X-ray flash (∼20 keV) lasting ∼10 -2 s with a total radiated energy of ∼10 40 erg, followed by a cooling tail. This creates a distinct feature in the visual light curve, which is separate from the nickel decay. This cooling tail has a maximum absolute visual magnitude of M V ∼ -9 to -10 at ∼1 day, which depends most sensitively on the white dwarf radius at the time of the DDT. As the thermal diffusion wave moves in, the composition of these surface layers may be imprinted as spectral features, which would help to discern between SN Ia progenitor models. Since this feature should accompany every SNe Ia, future deep surveys (e.g., m = 24) will see it out to a distance of ∼80 Mpc, giving a maximum rate of ∼60 yr -1 . Archival data sets can also be used to study the early rise dictated by the shock heating (at ∼20 days before maximum B-band light). A similar and slightly brighter event may also accompany core bounce during the accretion-induced collapse to a neutron star, but with a lower occurrence rate.

  14. NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET PROPERTIES OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AS OBSERVED WITH THE Swift UVOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Vanden Berk, Daniel; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li Weidong; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, Mark M.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Challis, Peter J.; Mazzali, Paolo; Schmidt, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    We present ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometry of 26 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed from 2005 March to 2008 March with the NASA Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT). The dataset consists of 2133 individual observations, making it by far the most complete study of the UV emission from SNe Ia to date. Grouping the SNe into three subclasses as derived from optical observations, we investigate the evolution of the colors of these SNe, finding a high degree of homogeneity within the normal subclass, but dramatic differences between that group and the subluminous and SN 2002cx-like groups. For the normal events, the redder UV filters on UVOT (u, uvw1) show more homogeneity than do the bluer UV filters (uvm2, uvw2). Searching for purely UV characteristics to determine existing optically based groupings, we find the peak width to be a poor discriminant, but we do see a variation in the time delay between peak emission and the late, flat phase of the light curves. The UV light curves peak a few days before the B band for most subclasses (as was previously reported by Jha et al.), although the SN 2002cx-like objects peak at a very early epoch in the UV. That group also features the bluest emission observed among SNe Ia. As the observational campaign is ongoing, we discuss the critical times to observe, as determined by this study, in order to maximize the scientific output of future observations.

  15. On the Time Variation of Dust Extinction and Gas Absorption for Type Ia Supernovae Observed Through Non-uniform Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Aldering, Gregory; Biederman, Moriah; Herger, Brendan

    2018-01-01

    For Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed through a non-uniform interstellar medium (ISM) in its host galaxy, we investigate whether the non-uniformity can cause observable time variations in dust extinction and in gas absorption due to the expansion of the SN photosphere with time. We show that, owing to the steep spectral index of the ISM density power spectrum, sizable density fluctuation amplitudes at the length scale of typical ISM structures (>~ 10 pc) will translate to much smaller fluctuations on the scales of a SN photosphere. Therefore the typical amplitude of time variation due to non-uniform ISM, of absorption equivalent widths and of extinction, would be small. As a result, we conclude that non-uniform ISM density should not impact cosmology measurements based on SNe Ia. We apply our predictions based on the ISM density power law power spectrum to the observations of two highly reddened SNe Ia, SN 2012cu and SN 2014J.

  16. Cosmological parameter uncertainties from SALT-II type Ia supernova light curve models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Betoule, M.; El-Hage, P.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A.; Marriner, J.; Biswas, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ∼120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ∼255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ∼290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w input – w recovered ) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty; the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  17. Cosmological Parameter Uncertainties from SALT-II Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J. [Pennsylvania U.; Guy, J. [LBL, Berkeley; Kessler, R. [Chicago U., KICP; Astier, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Marriner, J. [Fermilab; Betoule, M. [Paris U., VI-VII; Sako, M. [Pennsylvania U.; El-Hage, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Biswas, R. [Argonne; Pain, R. [Paris U., VI-VII; Kuhlmann, S. [Argonne; Regnault, N. [Paris U., VI-VII; Frieman, J. A. [Fermilab; Schneider, D. P. [Penn State U.

    2014-08-29

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ~120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ~255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ~290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w (input) – w (recovered)) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty, the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  18. Tachyons, Lamb Shifts and Superluminal Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    An elementary account on the origins of cosmic chaos in an open and multiply connected universe is given; there is a finite region in the open 3-space in which the world-lines of galaxies are chaotic, and the mixing taking place in this chaotic nucleus of the universe provides a mechanism to create equidistribution. The galaxy background defines a distinguished frame of reference and a unique cosmic time order; in this context superluminal signal transfer is studied. Tachyons are described by a real Proca field with negative mass square, coupled to a current of subluminal matter. Estimates on tachyon mixing in the geometric optics limit are derived. The potential of a static point source in this field theory is a damped periodic function. We treat this tachyon potential as a perturbation of the Coulomb potential, and study its effects on energy levels in hydrogenic systems. By comparing the induced level shifts to high-precision Lamb shift measurements and QED calculations, we suggest a tachyon mass of 2.1 ke...

  19. The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; McGuire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; DeRose, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age mass metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older massive metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to t1. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.

  20. Considerations about the apparent 'superluminal expansions' in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Castellino, A.; Maccarrone, G.D.; Rodono, M.

    1984-01-01

    The orthodox models devised to explain the apparent 'superluminal expansions' observed in astrophysics - and here briefly summarized and discussed together with the experimental data - do not seem to be too much succesful. Especially when confronted with the most recent observations, suggesting complicated expansion patterns, even with possible accelerations. At this point it may be, therefore, of some interest to explore the possible alternative models in which actual Superluminal motions take place. The ground is prepared starting from a variational principle, introducing the elements of a tachyon mechanics within special relativity, and arguing about the expected behaviour of tachyonic objects when interacting (gravitationally, for instance) among themselves or with ordinary matter. Then the simplest 'Superluminal models' are reviewed and developed, paying particular attention to the observations which they would give rise to. Itis concluded that some of them appear to be physically acceptable and are statistically favoured with respect to the orthodox ones. (Author) [pt

  1. Considerations about the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Castellino, A.; Maccarrone, G. D.; Rodono, M.

    1985-01-01

    The ortodox models devised to explain the apparent ''superluminal expansions'' observed in astrophysics, and here briefly summarized and discussed together with th experimental data, do not seem to be to much successful. Especially when confronted with the most recent observations, suggesting complicated expansion patterns, even with possible accelerations. At this point it may be, therefore, of some interest to explore the possible alternative models in which actual superluminal motion take place. To prepare the ground one starts from a variational principle, introduces the elements of a tachyon mechanics within special relativity, and argues about the expected behaviour of tachyonic objects when interacting (gravitationally, for instance) among themselves or with ordinary matter. Then the simplest ''superluminal models'', paying particular attention to the observations which they would give rise to are revie wed and developed. It is concluded that some of them appear to be physically acceptable and are statistically favoured with respect to the ortodox ones

  2. Binary population synthesis study of the supersoft X-ray phase of single degenerate type Ia supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangcun; Yang Wuming

    2011-01-01

    In the single degenerate (SD) scenario for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), a mass-accreting white dwarf is expected to experience a supersoft X-ray source (SSS) phase. However, some recent observations showed that the expected number of mass-accreting WDs is much lower than that predicted from theory, regardless of whether they are in spiral or elliptical galaxies. In this paper, we performed a binary population synthesis study on the relative duration of the SSS phase to their whole mass-increasing phase of WDs leading to SNe Ia. We found that for about 40% of the progenitor systems, the relative duration is shorter than 2% and the evolution of the mean relative duration shows that it is always smaller than 5%, both for young and old SNe Ia. In addition, before the SNe Ia explosions, more than 55% of the progenitor systems were experiencing a dwarf novae phase and no more than 10% were staying in the SSS phase. These results are consistent with the recent observations and imply that both in early- and late-type galaxies, only a small fraction of mass-accreting WDs resulting in SNe Ia contributes to the supersoft X-ray flux. So, although our results are not directly related to the X-ray output of the SN Ia progenitor, the low supersoft X-ray luminosity observed in early type galaxies may not be able to exclude the validity of the SD model. On the contrary, it is evidence to support the SD scenario.

  3. Imprints of explosion conditions on late-time spectra of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Tiara R.

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a vital role in the discrimination of different cosmological models. These events have been shown to be standardizable based on properties of their light curves during the early-time photospheric phase. However, the distribution of types of progenitor system, the explosion trigger, and the physics of the explosion are still an active topic of discussion. The details of the progenitors and explosion may provide insight into the variation seen in Type Ia supernova light curves and spectra, and therefore, allow for additional methods of standardization among the group. Late-time near-infrared spectral observations for SNe Ia show numerous strong emission features of forbidden line transitions of cobalt and iron, tracing the central distribution of iron-group burning products. As the spectrum ages, the cobalt features fade as expected from the decay of 56Co to 56Fe. This work will show that the strong and isolated [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 mum provides a unique tool to analyze near-infrared spectra of SNe Ia. Several new methods of analysis will be demonstrated to determine some of the initial conditions of the system. The initial central density, rhoc, and the extent of mixing in the central regions of the explosion have signatures in the line profiles of late-time spectra. An embedded magnetic field, B, of the white dwarf can be determined using the evolution of the lines profiles. Currently magnetic field effects are not included in the hydrodynamics and radiation transport of simulations of SNe Ia. Normalization of spectra to the 1.644 mum line allows separation of features produced by stable versus unstable isotopes of iron group elements. Implications for potential progenitor systems, explosion mechanisms, and the origins and morphology of magnetic fields in SNe Ia, in addition to limitations of the method, are discussed. Observations of the late-time near-infrared emission spectrum at multiple epochs allow for the first ever

  4. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  5. Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Graur, Or; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Casertano, Stefano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Hayden, Brian [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W.; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ∼0.25 deg{sup 2} with ∼900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z ∼ 2.5. We classify ∼24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only ∼3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (<500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction is f{sub P} = 0.53{sub stat0.10}{sup ±0.09}{sub sys0.26}{sup ±0.10}, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simple t {sup –1} power law for all times t > 40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20% of all SN Ia explosions—though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  6. THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE IN RADIO AND INFRARED GALAXIES FROM THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M. L.; Pritchet, C. J.; Balam, D.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Perrett, K.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Rich, J.

    2010-01-01

    We have combined the large SN Ia database of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and catalogs of galaxies with photometric redshifts, Very Large Array 1.4 GHz radio sources, and Spitzer infrared sources. We present eight SNe Ia in early-type host galaxies which have counterparts in the radio and infrared source catalogs. We find the SN Ia rate in subsets of radio and infrared early-type galaxies is ∼1-5 times the rate in all early-type galaxies, and that any enhancement is always ∼<2σ. Rates in these subsets are consistent with predictions of the two-component 'A+B' SN Ia rate model. Since infrared properties of radio SN Ia hosts indicate dust-obscured star formation, we incorporate infrared star formation rates into the 'A+B' model. We also show the properties of SNe Ia in radio and infrared galaxies suggest the hosts contain dust and support a continuum of delay time distributions (DTDs) for SNe Ia, although other DTDs cannot be ruled out based on our data.

  7. On type Ia supernovae and the formation of single low-mass white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Justham, Stephen; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Han, Zhanwen

    2008-01-01

    There is still considerable debate over the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Likewise, it is not agreed how single white dwarfs with masses less than ~0.5 Msun can be formed in the field, even though they are known to exist. We consider whether single low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs) could have been formed in binary systems where their companions have exploded as a SN Ia. In this model, the observed single LMWDs are the remnants of giant-branch donor stars whose envelopes have been st...

  8. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in Radio and Infrared Galaxies from the CFHT Supernova Legacy Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, M. L.; Pritchet, C. J.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Pain, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have combined the large SN Ia database of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and catalogs of galaxies with photometric redshifts, VLA 1.4 GHz radio sources, and Spitzer infrared sources. We present eight SNe Ia in early-type host galaxies which have counterparts in the radio and infrared source catalogs. We find the SN Ia rate in subsets of radio and infrared early-type galaxies is ~1-5 times the rate in all early-type galaxies, and that any enhancement is always

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  10. THE PRODUCTION RATE OF SN Ia EVENTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washabaugh, Pearce C.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2013-01-01

    In globular clusters, dynamical evolution produces luminous X-ray emitting binaries at a rate about 200 times greater than in the field. If globular clusters also produce SN Ia at a high rate, it would account for many of the SN Ia production in early-type galaxies and provide insight into their formation. Here we use archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of nearby galaxies that have hosted an SN Ia to examine the rate at which globular clusters produce these events. The location of the SN Ia is registered on an HST image obtained before the event or after the supernova (SN) faded. Of the 36 nearby galaxies examined, 21 had sufficiently good data to search for globular cluster hosts. None of the 21 SNe have a definite globular cluster counterpart, although there are some ambiguous cases. This places an upper limit to the enhancement rate of SN Ia production in globular clusters of about 42 at the 95% confidence level, which is an order of magnitude lower than the enhancement rate for luminous X-ray binaries. Even if all of the ambiguous cases are considered as having a globular cluster counterpart, the upper bound for the enhancement rate is 82 at the 95% confidence level, still a factor of several below that needed to account for half of the SN Ia events. Barring unforeseen selection effects, we conclude that globular clusters are not responsible for producing a significant fraction of the SN Ia events in early-type galaxies.

  11. A Non-Mainstream Viewpoint on Apparent Superluminal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The group velocity of light in material around the AGN jet is acquiescently one (c as a unit), but this is only a hypothesis. Here, we re-derive apparent superluminal and Doppler formulas for the general case (it is assumed that the group velocity of light in the uniform and isotropic medium around a jet (a beaming ...

  12. RADIOACTIVELY POWERED RISING LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    The rising luminosity of the recent, nearby supernova 2011fe shows a quadratic dependence with time during the first ≈0.5-4 days. In addition, studies of the composite light curves formed from stacking together many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have found similar power-law indices for the rise, but may also show some dispersion that may indicate diversity. I explore what range of power-law rises are possible due to the presence of radioactive material near the surface of the exploding white dwarf (WD). I summarize what constraints such a model places on the structure of the progenitor and the distribution and velocity of ejecta. My main conclusion is that for the inferred explosion time for SN 2011fe, its rise requires an increasing mass fraction X 56 ≈ (4-6) × 10 –2 of 56 Ni distributed between a depth of ≈10 –2 and 0.3 M ☉ below the WD's surface. Radioactive elements this shallow are not found in simulations of a single C/O detonation. Scenarios that may produce this material include helium-shell burning during a double-detonation ignition, a gravitationally confined detonation, and a subset of deflagration to detonation transition models. In general, the power-law rise can differ from quadratic depending on the details of the velocity, density, and radioactive deposition gradients in a given event. Therefore, comparisons of this work with observed bolometric rises of SNe Ia would place strong constraints on the properties of the shallow outer layers, providing important clues for identifying the elusive progenitors of SNe Ia.

  13. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ∼2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ∼ 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ∼2000-2400 A). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ∼0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ∼1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  14. Effects of Fallback Accretion on Protomagnetar Outflows in Gamma-Ray Bursts and Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Beniamini, Paz; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Rapidly spinning, strongly magnetized protoneutron stars (“millisecond protomagnetars”) are candidate central engines of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), and binary neutron star mergers. Magnetar birth may be accompanied by the fallback of stellar debris, lasting for seconds or longer following the explosion. Accretion alters the magnetar evolution by (1) providing an additional source of rotational energy (or a potential sink, if the propeller mechanism operates), (2) enhancing the spin-down luminosity above the dipole rate by compressing the magnetosphere and expanding the polar cap region of open magnetic field lines, and (3) supplying an additional accretion-powered neutrino luminosity that sustains the wind baryon loading, even after the magnetar’s internal neutrino luminosity has subsided. The more complex evolution of the jet power and magnetization of an accreting magnetar more readily accounts for the high 56Ni yields of GRB SNe and the irregular time evolution of some GRB light curves (e.g., bursts with precursors followed by a long quiescent interval before the main emission episode). Additional baryon loading from accretion-powered neutrino irradiation of the polar cap lengthens the time frame over which the jet magnetization is in the requisite range σ ≲ 103 for efficient gamma-ray emission, thereby accommodating GRBs with ultralong durations. Though accretion does not significantly raise the maximum energy budget from the limit of ≲ few × 1052 erg for an isolated magnetar, it greatly expands the range of magnetic field strengths and birth spin periods capable of powering GRB jets, reducing the differences between the magnetar properties normally invoked to explain GRBs versus SLSNe.

  15. Multidimensional Models of Type Ia Supernova Nebular Spectra: Strong Emission Lines from Stripped Companion Gas Rule Out Classic Single-degenerate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botyánszki, János; Kasen, Daniel; Plewa, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The classic single-degenerate model for the progenitors of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) predicts that the supernova ejecta should be enriched with solar-like abundance material stripped from the companion star. Spectroscopic observations of normal SNe Ia at late times, however, have not resulted in definite detection of hydrogen. In this Letter, we study line formation in SNe Ia at nebular times using non-LTE spectral modeling. We present, for the first time, multidimensional radiative transfer calculations of SNe Ia with stripped material mixed in the ejecta core, based on hydrodynamical simulations of ejecta–companion interaction. We find that interaction models with main-sequence companions produce significant Hα emission at late times, ruling out these types of binaries being viable progenitors of SNe Ia. We also predict significant He I line emission at optical and near-infrared wavelengths for both hydrogen-rich or helium-rich material, providing an additional observational probe of stripped ejecta. We produce models with reduced stripped masses and find a more stringent mass limit of M st ≲ 1 × 10‑4 M ⊙ of stripped companion material for SN 2011fe.

  16. UNBURNED MATERIAL IN THE EJECTA OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Campillay, Abdo; González, Sergio; Roth, Miguel; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, Barry F; Persson, S. E.; Hamuy, Mario; Mazzali, Paolo; Boldt, Luis; Contreras, Carlos; Salgado, Francisco; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of unburned material in the ejecta of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is investigated using early-time spectroscopy obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The tell-tale signature of pristine material from a C+O white dwarf progenitor star is the presence of carbon, as oxygen is also a product of carbon burning. The most prominent carbon lines in optical spectra of SNe Ia are expected to arise from C II. We find that at least 30% of the objects in the sample show an absorption at ≈6300 Å which is attributed to C II λ6580. An alternative identification of this absorption as Hα is considered to be unlikely. These findings imply a larger incidence of carbon in SNe Ia ejecta than previously noted. We show how observational biases and physical conditions may hide the presence of weak C II lines, and account for the scarcity of previous carbon detections in the literature. This relatively large frequency of carbon detections has crucial implications on our understanding of the explosive process. Furthermore, the identification of the 6300 Å absorptions as carbon would imply that unburned material is present at very low expansion velocities, merely ≈1000 km s –1 above the bulk of Si II. Based on spectral modeling, it is found that the detections are consistent with a mass of carbon of 10 –3 to 10 –2 M ☉ . The presence of this material so deep in the ejecta would imply substantial mixing, which may be related to asymmetries of the flame propagation. Another possible explanation for the carbon absorptions may be the existence of clumps of unburned material along the line of sight. However, the uniformity of the relation between C II and Si II velocities is not consistent with such small-scale asymmetries. The spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia with and without carbon signatures are compared. A trend toward bluer color and lower luminosity at maximum light is found for objects which show carbon.

  17. UNBURNED MATERIAL IN THE EJECTA OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folatelli, Gaston; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken' ichi [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Campillay, Abdo; Gonzalez, Sergio; Roth, Miguel [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, Barry F; Persson, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hamuy, Mario [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Boldt, Luis [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Contreras, Carlos [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Salgado, Francisco [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Suntzeff, Nicholas B., E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    The presence of unburned material in the ejecta of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is investigated using early-time spectroscopy obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The tell-tale signature of pristine material from a C+O white dwarf progenitor star is the presence of carbon, as oxygen is also a product of carbon burning. The most prominent carbon lines in optical spectra of SNe Ia are expected to arise from C II. We find that at least 30% of the objects in the sample show an absorption at Almost-Equal-To 6300 A which is attributed to C II {lambda}6580. An alternative identification of this absorption as H{alpha} is considered to be unlikely. These findings imply a larger incidence of carbon in SNe Ia ejecta than previously noted. We show how observational biases and physical conditions may hide the presence of weak C II lines, and account for the scarcity of previous carbon detections in the literature. This relatively large frequency of carbon detections has crucial implications on our understanding of the explosive process. Furthermore, the identification of the 6300 A absorptions as carbon would imply that unburned material is present at very low expansion velocities, merely Almost-Equal-To 1000 km s{sup -1} above the bulk of Si II. Based on spectral modeling, it is found that the detections are consistent with a mass of carbon of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun }. The presence of this material so deep in the ejecta would imply substantial mixing, which may be related to asymmetries of the flame propagation. Another possible explanation for the carbon absorptions may be the existence of clumps of unburned material along the line of sight. However, the uniformity of the relation between C II and Si II velocities is not consistent with such small-scale asymmetries. The spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia with and without carbon signatures are compared. A trend toward bluer color and lower luminosity at maximum light is found for

  18. AGAINST THE WIND: RADIO LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE INTERACTING WITH LOW-DENSITY CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Chelsea E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasen, Daniel N., E-mail: chelseaharris@berkeley.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    For decades a wide variety of observations spanning the radio through optical and on to the X-ray have attempted to uncover signs of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). The goal of these studies is to constrain the nature of the hypothesized SN Ia mass-donor companion. A continuous CSM is typically assumed when interpreting observations of interaction. However, while such models have been successfully applied to core-collapse SNe, the assumption of continuity may not be accurate for SNe Ia, because shells of CSM could be formed by pre-supernova eruptions (novae). In this work, we model the interaction of SNe with a spherical, low-density, finite-extent CSM and create a suite of synthetic radio synchrotron light curves. We find that CSM shells produce sharply peaked light curves. We also identify a fiducial set of models that obey a common evolution and can be used to generate radio light curves for an interaction with an arbitrary shell. The relations obeyed by the fiducial models can be used to deduce CSM properties from radio observations; we demonstrate this by applying them to the nondetections of SN 2011fe and SN 2014J. Finally, we explore a multiple shell CSM configuration and describe its more complicated dynamics and the resultant radio light curves.

  19. THE SUPERNOVA DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TYPE-Ia PROGENITORS AND METAL ENRICHMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maoz, Dan; Sharon, Keren; Avishay Gal-Yam

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the supernova (SN) delay time distribution (DTD)-the SN rate versus time that would follow a hypothetical brief burst of star formation-can shed light on SN progenitors and physics, as well as on the timescales of chemical enrichment in different environments. We compile recent measurements of the Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rate in galaxy clusters at redshifts from z = 0 out to z = 1.45, just 2 Gyr after cluster star formation at z ∼ 3. We review the plausible range for the observed total iron-to-stellar mass ratio in clusters, based on the latest data and analyses, and use it to constrain the time-integrated number of SN Ia events in clusters. With these data, we recover the DTD of SNe Ia in cluster environments. The DTD is sharply peaked at the shortest time-delay interval we probe, 0Gyr -1.2±0.3 from t = 400 Myr to a Hubble time can satisfy both constraints. Shallower power laws such as t -1/2 cannot, assuming a single DTD, and a single star formation burst (either brief or extended) at high z. This implies that 50%-85% of SNe Ia explode within 1 Gyr of star formation. DTDs from double-degenerate (DD) models, which generically have ∼t -1 shapes over a wide range of timescales, match the data, but only if their predictions are scaled up by factors of 5-10. Single-degenerate (SD) DTDs always give poor fits to the data, due to a lack of delayed SNe and overall low numbers of SNe. The observations can also be reproduced with a combination of two SN Ia populations-a prompt SD population of SNe Ia that explodes within a few Gyr of star formation, and produces about 60% of the iron mass in clusters, and a DD population that contributes the events seen at z < 1.5. An alternative scenario of a single, prompt, SN Ia population, but a composite star formation history in clusters, consisting of a burst at high z, followed by a constant star formation rate, can reproduce the SN rates, but is at odds with direct measurements of star formation in clusters at 0 < z

  20. ON THE LIRA LAW AND THE NATURE OF EXTINCTION TOWARD TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Santiago [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study (TODIAS), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-07-20

    We have studied the relation between the color evolution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from maximum light to the Lira law regime and the presence of narrow absorption features. Based on a nearby sample of 89 SNe Ia, we have found that the rate of change of B - V colors at late phases (between 35 and 80 days after maximum) varies significantly among different SNe Ia. At maximum light, faster Lira law B - V decliners have significantly higher equivalent widths of blended Na I D1 and D2 narrow absorption lines, redder colors, and lower R{sub V} reddening laws. We do not find faster Lira law B - V decliners to have a strong preference for younger galaxy environments, where higher interstellar material (ISM) column densities would be expected. We interpret these results as evidence for the presence of circumstellar material. The differences in colors and reddening laws found at maximum light are also present 55 days afterward, but unlike the colors at maximum they show a significant variation among different host galaxy morphological types. This suggests that the effect of ISM on the colors is more apparent at late times. Finally, we discuss how the transversal expansion of the ejecta in an inhomogeneous ISM could mimic some of these findings.

  1. THE MEAN TYPE IA SUPERNOVA SPECTRUM OVER THE PAST NINE GIGAYEARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R. S.; Howell, D. A.; Riess, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Gal-Yam, A.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the possibility of evolution with redshift in the mean rest-frame ultraviolet (UV; λ ∼ H and Kand Mg II blends, indicating lower IME abundances in the higher redshift SNe. A larger fraction of luminous, wider light-curve width (higher s tretch ) SNe Ia are expected at higher redshift than locally, so we compare our observed spectral evolution with that predicted by a redshift-evolving stretch distribution coupled with a stretch-dependent SN Ia spectrum. We show that the sense of the spectral evolution can be reproduced by this simple model, though the highest redshift events seem additionally deficient in Si and Ca. We also examine the mean SN Ia UV-optical colors as a function of redshift, thought to be sensitive to variations in progenitor composition. We find that the expected stretch variations are sufficient to explain the differences, although improved data at z ∼ 0 will enable more precise tests. Thus, to the extent possible with the available data sets, our results support the continued use of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  2. Quaternionic formulation of tachyons, superluminal transformations and a complex space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaeda, K [Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland)

    1979-04-11

    A theory of tachyons and superluminal transformations is developed on the basis of the quaternionic formulation. A complex space-time adn a complex transformation group which contains both Lorentz transformations and superluminal transformations are introduced. The complex space-time '' the biquaternion space'' which is closed under the superluminal transformations is introduced. The principle of special relativity, such as the conservation of the quadratic form of the metric of the space-time, and the principle of duality are extended to the complex space-time and to bradyons, luxons and tachyons under the complex transformations. SeVeral characteristic features of the superluminal transformations and of tachyons are derived.

  3. Evidence for a Sub-Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia Supernova in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Andrew; Piro, Anthony L.; Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    A long-standing problem is identifying the elusive progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), which can roughly be split into Chandraksekhar and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass events. An important difference between these two cases is the nucleosynthetic yield, which is altered by the increased neutron excess in Chandrasekhar progenitors due to their pre-explosion simmering and high central density. Based on these arguments, we show that the chemical composition of the most metal-rich star in the Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy, COS 171, is dominated by nucleosynthesis from a low-metallicity, low-mass, sub-Chandrasekhar-mass SN Ia. Key diagnostic abundance ratios include Mn/Fe and Ni/Fe, which could not have been produced by a Chandrasekhar-mass SN Ia. Large deficiencies of Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe and Zn/Fe also suggest the absence of alpha-rich freeze-out nucleosynthesis, favoring low-mass white dwarf progenitors of SNe Ia, near 0.95 M ⊙, from comparisons to numerical detonation models. We also compare Mn/Fe and Ni/Fe ratios to the recent yields predicted by Shen et al., finding consistent results. To explain the [Fe/H] at ‑1.35 dex for COS 171 would require dilution of the SN Ia ejecta with ∼104 M ⊙ of material, which is expected for an SN remnant expanding into a warm interstellar medium with n ∼ 1 cm‑3. In the future, finding more stars with the unique chemical signatures we highlight here will be important for constraining the rate and environments of sub-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia.

  4. SN 2006bt: A PERPLEXING, TROUBLESOME, AND POSSIBLY MISLEADING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Narayan, Gautham; Challis, Peter J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Steele, Thea N.

    2010-01-01

    SN 2006bt displays characteristics unlike those of any other known Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We present optical light curves and spectra of SN 2006bt which demonstrate the peculiar nature of this object. SN 2006bt has broad, slowly declining light curves indicative of a hot, high-luminosity SN, but lacks a prominent second maximum in the i band as do low-luminosity SNe Ia. Its spectra are similar to those of low-luminosity SNe Ia, containing features that are only present in cool SN photospheres. Light-curve fitting methods suggest that SN 2006bt is reddened by a significant amount of dust; however, it occurred in the outskirts of its early-type host galaxy and has no strong Na D absorption in any of its spectra, suggesting a negligible amount of host-galaxy dust absorption. C II is possibly detected in our pre-maximum spectra, but at a much lower velocity than other elements. The progenitor was likely very old, being a member of the halo population of a galaxy that shows no signs of recent star formation. SNe Ia have been very successfully modeled as a one-parameter family, and this is fundamental to their use as cosmological distance indicators. SN 2006bt is a challenge to that picture, yet its relatively normal light curves allowed SN 2006bt to be included in cosmological analyses. We generate mock SN Ia data sets which indicate that contamination by similar objects will both increase the scatter of a SN Ia Hubble diagram and systematically bias measurements of cosmological parameters. However, spectra and rest-frame i-band light curves should provide a definitive way to identify and eliminate such objects.

  5. Applications and Benefits for Big Data Sets Using Tree Distances and The T-SNE Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    BENEFITS FOR BIG DATA SETS USING TREE DISTANCES AND THE T-SNE ALGORITHM by Suyoung Lee March 2016 Thesis Advisor: Samuel E. Buttrey...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS FOR BIG DATA SETS USING TREE DISTANCES AND THE T-SNE...public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) Modern data sets often consist of unstructured data

  6. THE SUBLUMINOUS AND PECULIAR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PTF 09dav

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.; Ofek, E. O.; Blake, S.; Podsiadlowski, P.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cooke, J.; Quimby, R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Thomas, R. C.; Poznanski, D.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hook, I. M.; Mazzali, P.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Cenko, S. B.; Law, N.

    2011-01-01

    PTF 09dav is a peculiar subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Spectroscopically, it appears superficially similar to the class of subluminous SN1991bg-like SNe, but it has several unusual features which make it stand out from this population. Its peak luminosity is fainter than any previously discovered SN1991bg-like SN Ia (M B ∼ -15.5), but without the unusually red optical colors expected if the faint luminosity were due to extinction. The photospheric optical spectra have very unusual strong lines of Sc II and Mg I, with possible Sr II, together with stronger than average Ti II and low velocities of ∼6000 km s -1 . The host galaxy of PTF09dav is ambiguous. The SN lies either on the extreme outskirts (∼41 kpc) of a spiral galaxy or in an very faint (M R ≥ -12.8) dwarf galaxy, unlike other 1991bg-like SNe which are invariably associated with massive, old stellar populations. PTF 09dav is also an outlier on the light-curve-width-luminosity and color-luminosity relations derived for other subluminous SNe Ia. The inferred 56 Ni mass is small (0.019 ± 0.003 M sun ), as is the estimated ejecta mass of 0.36 M sun . Taken together, these properties make PTF 09dav a remarkable event. We discuss various physical models that could explain PTF 09dav. Helium shell detonation or deflagration on the surface of a CO white dwarf can explain some of the features of PTF 09dav, including the presence of Sc and the low photospheric velocities, but the observed Si and Mg are not predicted to be very abundant in these models. We conclude that no single model is currently capable of explaining all of the observed signatures of PTF 09dav.

  7. Statistical separability and the impossibility of the superluminal quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiren

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyse the relation and the difference between the quantum correlation of two points in space and the communication between them. The statistical separability of two points in the space is defined and proven. From this statistical separability, authors prove that the superluminal quantum communication between different points is impossible. To emphasis the compatibility between the quantum theory and the relativity, authors write the von Neumann equation of density operator evolution in the multi-time form. (author)

  8. Superluminal plasmons with resonant gain in population inverted bilayer graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Low, Tony

    2017-12-28

    AB-stacked bilayer graphene with a tunable electronic bandgap in excess of the optical phonon energy presents an interesting active medium, and we consider such theoretical possibility in this work. We argue the possibility of a highly resonant optical gain in the vicinity of the asymmetry gap. Associated with this resonant gain are strongly amplified plasmons, plasmons with negative group velocity and superluminal effects, as well as directional leaky modes.

  9. Superluminal plasmons with resonant gain in population inverted bilayer graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Low, Tony; Chen, Pai-Yen; Basov, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    AB-stacked bilayer graphene with a tunable electronic bandgap in excess of the optical phonon energy presents an interesting active medium, and we consider such theoretical possibility in this work. We argue the possibility of a highly resonant optical gain in the vicinity of the asymmetry gap. Associated with this resonant gain are strongly amplified plasmons, plasmons with negative group velocity and superluminal effects, as well as directional leaky modes.

  10. SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST SAMPLE OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE AND CORRELATIONS WITH HOST-GALAXY SPECTRAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Rachel C.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A.; March, Marisa C.; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Smith, Mathew; Kessler, Rick; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HRs). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically classified or spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release such as host stellar mass and star formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6 σ significance of a nonzero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large data set, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined data sets for future surveys.

  11. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT IN HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS. I. THE SINGLE-DEGENERATE SCENARIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, Noelia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Tissera, Patricia B. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC. 67 Suc. 28, C1428ZAA, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Matteucci, Francesca, E-mail: nj22@st-andrews.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo, 11, I-34100, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-09-10

    The nature of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors remains uncertain. This is a major issue for galaxy evolution models since both chemical and energetic feedback plays a major role in the gas dynamics, star formation, and therefore the overall stellar evolution. The progenitor models for the SNe Ia available in the literature propose different distributions for regulating the explosion times of these events. These functions are known as the delay time distributions (DTDs). This work is the first one in a series of papers aiming at studying five different DTDs for SNe Ia. Here we implement and analyze the single-degenerate (SD) scenario in galaxies dominated by a rapid quenching of the star formation, displaying the majority of the stars concentrated in the bulge component. We find a good fit to both the present observed SN Ia rates in spheroidal-dominated galaxies and the [O/Fe] ratios shown by the bulge of the Milky Way. Additionally, the SD scenario is found to reproduce a correlation between the specific SN Ia rate and the specific star formation rate (sSFR), which closely resembles the observational trend, at variance with previous works. Our results suggest that SN Ia observations in galaxies with very low and very high sSFRs can help to impose more stringent constraints on the DTDs and therefore on SN Ia progenitors.

  12. EVOLUTION IN THE VOLUMETRIC TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE FROM THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrett, K.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Ripoche, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mail Stop 50-232, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Neill, J. D. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Balam, D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Basa, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 38, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, N. [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pritchet, C., E-mail: perrett@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: sullivan@astro.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate (SNR{sub Ia}) as a function of redshift for the first four years of data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This analysis includes 286 spectroscopically confirmed and more than 400 additional photometrically identified SNe Ia within the redshift range 0.1 {<=} z {<=} 1.1. The volumetric SNR{sub Ia} evolution is consistent with a rise to z {approx} 1.0 that follows a power law of the form (1+z){sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} = 2.11 {+-} 0.28. This evolutionary trend in the SNLS rates is slightly shallower than that of the cosmic star formation history (SFH) over the same redshift range. We combine the SNLS rate measurements with those from other surveys that complement the SNLS redshift range, and fit various simple SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) models to the combined data. A simple power-law model for the DTD (i.e., {proportional_to}t{sup -{beta}}) yields values from {beta} = 0.98 {+-} 0.05 to {beta} = 1.15 {+-} 0.08 depending on the parameterization of the cosmic SFH. A two-component model, where SNR{sub Ia} is dependent on stellar mass (M{sub stellar}) and star formation rate (SFR) as SNR{sub Ia}(z) = A Multiplication-Sign M{sub stellar}(z) + B Multiplication-Sign SFR(z), yields the coefficients A = (1.9 {+-} 0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} SNe yr{sup -1} M{sup -1}{sub Sun} and B = (3.3 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} SNe yr{sup -1} (M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}){sup -1}. More general two-component models also fit the data well, but single Gaussian or exponential DTDs provide significantly poorer matches. Finally, we split the SNLS sample into two populations by the light-curve width (stretch), and show that the general behavior in the rates of faster-declining SNe Ia (0.8 {<=} s < 1.0) is similar, within our measurement errors, to that of the slower objects (1.0 {<=} s < 1.3) out to z {approx} 0.8.

  13. IMPACT OF NEW GAMOW–TELLER STRENGTHS ON EXPLOSIVE TYPE IA SUPERNOVA NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kanji; Famiano, Michael A.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Toshio [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hidaka, Jun [Mechanical Engineering Department, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan); Honma, Michio [Center for Mathematical Sciences, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan); Iwamoto, Koichi [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken’ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Otsuka, Takaharu, E-mail: kanji.mori@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: michael.famiano@wmich.edu, E-mail: suzuki@phys.chs.nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: jun.hidaka@meisei-u.ac.jp, E-mail: m-honma@u-aizu.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nomoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: otsuka@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    Recent experimental results have confirmed a possible reduction in the Gamow–Teller (GT{sub +}) strengths of pf-shell nuclei. These proton-rich nuclei are of relevance in the deflagration and explosive burning phases of SNe Ia. While prior GT strengths result in nucleosynthesis predictions with a lower-than-expected electron fraction, a reduction in the GT{sub +} strength can result in a slightly increased electron fraction compared to previous shell model predictions, though the enhancement is not as large as previous enhancements in going from rates computed by Fuller, Fowler, and Newman based on an independent particle model. A shell model parametrization has been developed that more closely matches experimental GT strengths. The resultant electron-capture rates are used in nucleosynthesis calculations for carbon deflagration and explosion phases of SNe Ia, and the final mass fractions are compared to those obtained using more commonly used rates.

  14. MONTE CARLO POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF POST-COMMON-ENVELOPE WHITE DWARF BINARIES AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablimit, Iminhaji [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Li, Xiang-Dong [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-07-20

    Binary population synthesis (BPS) studies provide a comprehensive way to understand the evolution of binaries and their end products. Close white dwarf (WD) binaries have crucial characteristics for examining the influence of unresolved physical parameters on binary evolution. In this paper, we perform Monte Carlo BPS simulations, investigating the population of WD/main-sequence (WD/MS) binaries and double WD binaries using a publicly available binary star evolution code under 37 different assumptions for key physical processes and binary initial conditions. We considered different combinations of the binding energy parameter ( λ {sub g}: considering gravitational energy only; λ {sub b}: considering both gravitational energy and internal energy; and λ {sub e}: considering gravitational energy, internal energy, and entropy of the envelope, with values derived from the MESA code), CE efficiency, critical mass ratio, initial primary mass function, and metallicity. We find that a larger number of post-CE WD/MS binaries in tight orbits are formed when the binding energy parameters are set by λ {sub e} than in those cases where other prescriptions are adopted. We also determine the effects of the other input parameters on the orbital periods and mass distributions of post-CE WD/MS binaries. As they contain at least one CO WD, double WD systems that evolved from WD/MS binaries may explode as type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) via merging. In this work, we also investigate the frequency of two WD mergers and compare it to the SNe Ia rate. The calculated Galactic SNe Ia rate with λ = λ {sub e} is comparable to the observed SNe Ia rate, ∼8.2 × 10{sup 5} yr{sup 1} – ∼4 × 10{sup 3} yr{sup 1} depending on the other BPS parameters, if a DD system does not require a mass ratio higher than ∼0.8 to become an SNe Ia. On the other hand, a violent merger scenario, which requires the combined mass of two CO WDs ≥ 1.6 M {sub ⊙} and a mass ratio >0.8, results in a much lower

  15. NEUTRONIZATION DURING CARBON SIMMERING IN TYPE IA SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Piro, Anthony L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Schwab, Josiah, E-mail: hector.mr@pitt.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    When a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor first ignites carbon in its core, it undergoes ∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} years of convective burning prior to the onset of thermonuclear runaway. This carbon simmering phase is important for setting the thermal profile and composition of the white dwarf. Using the MESA stellar evolution code, we follow this convective burning and examine the production of neutron-rich isotopes. The neutron content of the SN fuel has important consequences for the ensuing nucleosynthesis, and in particular, for the production of secondary Fe-peak nuclei like Mn and stable Ni. These elements have been observed in the X-ray spectra of SN remnants like Tycho, Kepler, and 3C 397, and their yields can provide valuable insights into the physics of SNe Ia and the properties of their progenitors. We find that weak reactions during simmering can at most generate a neutron excess of ≈ 3 × 10{sup −4}. This is ≈ 70% lower than that found in previous studies that do not take the full density and temperature profile of the simmering region into account. Our results imply that the progenitor metallicity is the main contributor to the neutron excess in SN Ia fuel for Z ≳ 1/3 Z {sub ⊙}. Alternatively, at lower metallicities, this neutron excess provides a floor that should be present in any centrally-ignited SN Ia scenario.

  16. NEUTRONIZATION DURING CARBON SIMMERING IN TYPE IA SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Piro, Anthony L.; Schwab, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    When a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor first ignites carbon in its core, it undergoes ∼10 3 –10 4 years of convective burning prior to the onset of thermonuclear runaway. This carbon simmering phase is important for setting the thermal profile and composition of the white dwarf. Using the MESA stellar evolution code, we follow this convective burning and examine the production of neutron-rich isotopes. The neutron content of the SN fuel has important consequences for the ensuing nucleosynthesis, and in particular, for the production of secondary Fe-peak nuclei like Mn and stable Ni. These elements have been observed in the X-ray spectra of SN remnants like Tycho, Kepler, and 3C 397, and their yields can provide valuable insights into the physics of SNe Ia and the properties of their progenitors. We find that weak reactions during simmering can at most generate a neutron excess of ≈ 3 × 10 −4 . This is ≈ 70% lower than that found in previous studies that do not take the full density and temperature profile of the simmering region into account. Our results imply that the progenitor metallicity is the main contributor to the neutron excess in SN Ia fuel for Z ≳ 1/3 Z ⊙ . Alternatively, at lower metallicities, this neutron excess provides a floor that should be present in any centrally-ignited SN Ia scenario.

  17. EVALUATING SYSTEMATIC DEPENDENCIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: THE INFLUENCE OF PROGENITOR 22Ne CONTENT ON DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, Dean M.; Jackson, Aaron P.; Calder, Alan C.; Chamulak, David A.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, F. X.

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework for formal study of systematic effects in supernovae Type Ia (SNe Ia) that utilizes two-dimensional simulations to implement a form of the deflagration-detonation transition (DDT) explosion scenario. The framework is developed from a randomized initial condition that leads to a sample of simulated SNe Ia whose 56 Ni masses have a similar average and range to those observed, and have many other modestly realistic features such as the velocity extent of intermediate-mass elements. The intended purpose is to enable statistically well defined studies of both physical and theoretical parameters of the SNe Ia explosion simulation. We present here a thorough description of the outcome of the SNe Ia explosions produced by our current simulations. A first application of this framework is utilized to study the dependence of the SNe Ia on the 22 Ne content, which is known to be directly influenced by the progenitor stellar population's metallicity. Our study is very specifically tailored to measure how the 22 Ne content influences the competition between the rise of plumes of burned material and the expansion of the star before these plumes reach DDT conditions. This influence arises from the dependence of the energy release, progenitor structure, and laminar flame speed on 22 Ne content. For this study, we explore these three effects for a fixed carbon content and DDT density. By setting the density at which nucleosynthesis takes place during the detonation phase of the explosion, the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion controls the amount of material in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) and therefore 56 Ni produced. Of particular interest is how this influence of 22 Ne content compares to the direct modification of the 56 Ni mass via the inherent neutron excess as discussed by Timmes et al. Although the outcome following from any particular ignition condition can change dramatically with 22 Ne content, with a sample of

  18. The nebular spectra of the transitional Type Ia Supernovae 2007on and 2011iv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Ashall, C.; Pian, E.

    2018-01-01

    The nebular-epoch spectrum of the rapidly declining, 'transitional' Type Ia supernova (SN) 2007on showed double emission peaks, which have been interpreted as indicating that the SN was the result of the direct collision of two white dwarfs. The spectrum can be reproduced using two distinct...... be expected for the bolometric luminosity of the SN. This is the case for both SNe 2007on and 2011iv, also a transitional SN Ia that exploded in the same elliptical galaxy, NGC1404. Although SN 2011iv does not show double-peaked emission line profiles, the width of its emission lines is such that a two...

  19. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Jha, S. W.; McCully, C.; Anderson, J. P.; De Jaeger, T.; Forster, F.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II λ6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity ''photospheric'' component. This Si II λ6355 HVF fades by phase –5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of ∼12,000 km s –1 until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v ≈ 12,000 km s –1 with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v ≈ 31,000 km s –1 two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the ''shallow silicon'' and ''core-normal'' subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the ''low velocity gradient'' group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  20. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  1. Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively.

  2. Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grössing, G; Fussy, S; Pascasio, J Mesa; Schwabl, H

    2016-01-01

    We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively. (paper)

  3. A tale of two GRB-SNe at a common redshift of ζ = 0.54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Z.; Bersier, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Clay, N.; Mottram, C.; Mundell, C.G.; Small, E.; Smith, R.J.; Steele, I.; Guidorzi, C.; Curran, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope optical observations of the optical transients (OTs) of long-duration Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) 060729 and 090618, both at a redshift of z=0.54. For GRB 060729, bumps are seen in the optical light curves (LCs), and the late-time broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the OT resemble those of local Type Ic supernovae (SNe). For GRB 090618, the dense sampling of our optical observations has allowed us to detect well-defined bumps in the optical LCs, as well as a change in colour, that are indicative of light coming from a core-collapse SN. The accompanying SNe for both events are individually compared with SN1998bw, a known GRB supernova, and SN1994I, a typical Type Ic supernova without a known GRB counterpart, and in both cases the brightness and temporal evolution more closely resemble SN1998bw. We also exploit our extensive optical and radio data for GRB 090618, as well as the publicly available Swift-XRT data, and discuss the properties of the afterglow at early times. In the context of a simple jet-like model, the afterglow of GRB 090618 is best explained by the presence of a jet-break at t - t 0 ≥ 0.5 d. We then compare the rest-frame, peak V-band absolute magnitudes of all of the GRB and X-Ray Flash (XRF)-associated SNe with a large sample of local Type Ibc SNe, concluding that, when host extinction is considered, the peak magnitudes of the GRB/XRF-SNe cannot be distinguished from the peak magnitudes of non-GRB/XRF SNe. (authors)

  4. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AS SITES OF THE p-PROCESS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELS COUPLED TO NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travaglio, C.; Gallino, R.; Roepke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2011-01-01

    Beyond Fe, there is a class of 35 proton-rich nuclides, between 74 Se and 196 Hg, called p-nuclei. They are bypassed by the s and r neutron capture processes and are typically 10-1000 times less abundant than the s- and/or r-isotopes in the solar system. The bulk of p-isotopes is created in the 'gamma processes' by sequences of photodisintegrations and beta decays in explosive conditions in both core collapse supernovae (SNe II) and in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). SNe II contribute to the production of p-nuclei through explosive neon and oxygen burning. However, the major problem in SN II ejecta is a general underproduction of the light p-nuclei for A 209 Bi. We select tracers within the typical temperature range for p-process production, (1.5-3.7) x 10 9 K, and analyze in detail their behavior, exploring the influence of different s-process distributions on the p-process nucleosynthesis. In addition, we discuss the sensitivity of p-process production to parameters of the explosion mechanism, taking into account the consequences on Fe and alpha elements. We find that SNe Ia can produce a large amount of p-nuclei, both the light p-nuclei below A = 120 and the heavy-p nuclei, at quite flat average production factors, tightly related to the s-process seed distribution. For the first time, we find a stellar source able to produce both light and heavy p-nuclei almost at the same level as 56 Fe, including the debated neutron magic 92, 94 Mo and 96, 98 Ru. We also find that there is an important contribution from the p-process nucleosynthesis to the s-only nuclei 80 Kr, 86 Sr, to the neutron magic 90 Zr, and to the neutron-rich 96 Zr. Finally, we investigate the metallicity effect on p-process production in our models. Starting with different s-process seed distributions for two metallicities Z = 0.02 and Z = 0.001, running two-dimensional SN Ia models with different initial composition, we estimate that SNe Ia can contribute to at least 50% of the solar p

  5. Utilizing the Updated Gamma-Ray Bursts and Type Ia Supernovae to Constrain the Cardassian Expansion Model and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We update gamma-ray burst (GRB luminosity relations among certain spectral and light-curve features with 139 GRBs. The distance modulus of 82 GRBs at z>1.4 can be calibrated with the sample at z≤1.4 by using the cubic spline interpolation method from the Union2.1 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia set. We investigate the joint constraints on the Cardassian expansion model and dark energy with 580 Union2.1 SNe Ia sample (z<1.4 and 82 calibrated GRBs’ data (1.4SNe Ia significantly improves the constraint on Ωm-ΩΛ plane. In the Cardassian expansion model, the best fit is Ωm=0.24-0.15+0.15 and n=0.16-0.52+0.30  (1σ, which is consistent with the ΛCDM cosmology (n=0 in the 1σ confidence region. We also discuss two dark energy models in which the equation of state w(z is parameterized as w(z=w0 and w(z=w0+w1z/(1+z, respectively. Based on our analysis, we see that our universe at higher redshift up to z=8.2 is consistent with the concordance model within 1σ confidence level.

  6. An Empirical Fitting Method for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves: A Case Study of SN 2011fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V., E-mail: zwk@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We present a new empirical fitting method for the optical light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We find that a variant broken-power-law function provides a good fit, with the simple assumption that the optical emission is approximately the blackbody emission of the expanding fireball. This function is mathematically analytic and is derived directly from the photospheric velocity evolution. When deriving the function, we assume that both the blackbody temperature and photospheric velocity are constant, but the final function is able to accommodate these changes during the fitting procedure. Applying it to the case study of SN 2011fe gives a surprisingly good fit that can describe the light curves from the first-light time to a few weeks after peak brightness, as well as over a large range of fluxes (∼5 mag, and even ∼7 mag in the g band). Since SNe Ia share similar light-curve shapes, this fitting method has the potential to fit most other SNe Ia and characterize their properties in large statistical samples such as those already gathered and in the near future as new facilities become available.

  7. Using Line Profiles to Test the Fraternity of Type Ia Supernovae at High and Low Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stéphane; Dessart, Luc; Leibundgut, Bruno; Branch, David; Höflich, Peter; Tonry, John L.; Matheson, Thomas; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Aguilera, Claudio; Barris, Brian; Becker, Andrew C.; Challis, Peter; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Davis, Tamara M.; Garnavich, Peter; Hicken, Malcolm; Jha, Saurabh; Krisciunas, Kevin; Li, Weidong; Miceli, Anthony; Miknaitis, Gajus; Pignata, Giuliano; Prieto, Jose Luis; Rest, Armin; Riess, Adam G.; Salvo, Maria Elena; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, R. Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2006-03-01

    Using archival data of low-redshift (z1.7] SNe Ia, which are also subluminous. In addition, we give the first direct evidence in two high-z SN Ia spectra of a double-absorption feature in Ca II λ3945, an event also observed, although infrequently, in low-redshift SN Ia spectra (6 out of 22 SNe Ia in our local sample). Moreover, echoing the recent studies of Dessart & Hillier in the context of Type II supernovae (SNe II), we see similar P Cygni line profiles in our large sample of SN Ia spectra. First, the magnitude of the velocity location at maximum profile absorption may underestimate that at the continuum photosphere, as observed, for example, in the optically thinner line S II λ5640. Second, we report for the first time the unambiguous and systematic intrinsic blueshift of peak emission of optical P Cygni line profiles in SN Ia spectra, by as much as 8000 km s-1. All the high-z SNe Ia analyzed in this paper were discovered and followed up by the ESSENCE collaboration and are now publicly available. Based in part on observations obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF); the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO program 170.A-0519) the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership (the NSF [United States], the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council [United Kingdom], the National Research Council [Canada], CONICYT [Chile], the Australian Research Council [Australia], CNPq [Brazil], and CONICET [Argentina]) (programs GN-2002B-Q-14, GN-2003B-Q-11, and GS-2003B-Q-11) the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory; the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona; and the F. L. Whipple Observatory, which is operated by the Smithsonian

  8. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Ashall, C. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moore University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Burns, C. R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Diamond, T. R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601 La Serena (Chile); Sand, D. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stritzinger, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Suntzeff, N.; Krisciunas, K.; Wang, L. [The G.P. and C. Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Contreras, C.; Morrell, N., E-mail: phoeflich77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Ava España 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-09-01

    We study the optical light curve (LC) relations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for their use in cosmology using high-quality photometry published by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). We revisit the classical luminosity decline rate (Δ m {sub 15}) relation and the Lira relation, as well as investigate the time evolution of the ( B − V ) color and B ( B − V ), which serves as the basis of the color–stretch relation and Color–MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT) producing normal-bright and subluminous SNe Ia. Empirical LC relations can be understood as having the same physical underpinnings, i.e., opacities, ionization balances in the photosphere, and radioactive energy deposition changing with time from below to above the photosphere. Some three to four weeks past maximum, the photosphere recedes to {sup 56}Ni-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density ρ {sub c} of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of {sup 56}Ni production. This results in a Δ m {sub 15} spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe Ia and ≈0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color–magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Δ m {sub 15} with little dispersion in both the CSP-I sample and our DDT models. This allows intrinsic SN Ia variations to be separated from the interstellar reddening characterized by E ( B − V ) and R {sub B}. Invoking different scenarios causes a wide spread in empirical relations, which may suggest one dominant scenario.

  9. THE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. II. ARE THEY DOUBLE-DEGENERATE BINARIES? THE SYMBIOTIC CHANNEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, R.

    2010-01-01

    In order for a white dwarf (WD) to achieve the Chandrasekhar mass, M C , and explode as a Type Ia supernova (SNIa), it must interact with another star, either accreting matter from or merging with it. The failure to identify the class or classes of binaries which produce SNeIa is the long-standing 'progenitor problem'. Its solution is required if we are to utilize the full potential of SNeIa to elucidate basic cosmological and physical principles. In single-degenerate models, a WD accretes and burns matter at high rates. Nuclear-burning white dwarfs (NBWDs) with mass close to M C are hot and luminous, potentially detectable as supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). In previous work, we showed that >90%-99% of the required number of progenitors do not appear as SSSs during most of the crucial phase of mass increase. The obvious implication might be that double-degenerate binaries form the main class of progenitors. We show in this paper, however, that many binaries that later become double degenerates must pass through a long-lived NBWD phase during which they are potentially detectable as SSSs. The paucity of SSSs is therefore not a strong argument in favor of double-degenerate models. Those NBWDs that are the progenitors of double-degenerate binaries are likely to appear as symbiotic binaries for intervals >10 6 years. In fact, symbiotic pre-double-degenerates should be common, whether or not the WDs eventually produce SNeIa. The key to solving the Type Ia progenitor problem lies in understanding the appearance of NBWDs. Most of them do not appear as SSSs most of the time. We therefore consider the evolution of NBWDs to address the question of what their appearance may be and how we can hope to detect them.

  10. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA COLORS AND EJECTA VELOCITIES: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN REGRESSION WITH NON-GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the statistical dependence of the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II λ6355 spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model, accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust, and implement a Gibbs sampler and deviance information criteria to estimate the correlation. The method is applied to the apparent colors from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SNe Ia. The apparent color distributions of high-velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae exhibit significant discrepancies for B – V and B – R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B – V and B – R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, respectively. A linear model finds significant slopes of –0.021 ± 0.006 and –0.030 ± 0.009 mag (10 3 km s –1 ) –1 for intrinsic B – V and B – R colors versus velocity, respectively. Because the ejecta velocity distribution is skewed toward high velocities, these effects imply non-Gaussian intrinsic color distributions with skewness up to +0.3. Accounting for the intrinsic-color-velocity correlation results in corrections to A V extinction estimates as large as –0.12 mag for HV SNe Ia and +0.06 mag for NV events. Velocity measurements from SN Ia spectra have the potential to diminish systematic errors from the confounding of intrinsic colors and dust reddening affecting supernova distances

  11. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Brown, Peter J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Landsman, Wayne B.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s –1 ) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M B = –19.46 mag and Δm 15 (B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v Si = 13,400 km s –1 ). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s –1 . After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF

  12. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Ashall, C.; Burns, C. R.; Diamond, T. R.; Phillips, M. M.; Sand, D.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Suntzeff, N.; Krisciunas, K.; Wang, L.; Contreras, C.; Morrell, N.

    2017-01-01

    We study the optical light curve (LC) relations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for their use in cosmology using high-quality photometry published by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). We revisit the classical luminosity decline rate (Δ m 15 ) relation and the Lira relation, as well as investigate the time evolution of the ( B − V ) color and B ( B − V ), which serves as the basis of the color–stretch relation and Color–MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT) producing normal-bright and subluminous SNe Ia. Empirical LC relations can be understood as having the same physical underpinnings, i.e., opacities, ionization balances in the photosphere, and radioactive energy deposition changing with time from below to above the photosphere. Some three to four weeks past maximum, the photosphere recedes to 56 Ni-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density ρ c of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of 56 Ni production. This results in a Δ m 15 spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe Ia and ≈0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color–magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Δ m 15 with little dispersion in both the CSP-I sample and our DDT models. This allows intrinsic SN Ia variations to be separated from the interstellar reddening characterized by E ( B − V ) and R B . Invoking different scenarios causes a wide spread in empirical relations, which may suggest one dominant scenario.

  13. UTILIZING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN A LARGE, FAST, IMAGING SURVEY TO CONSTRAIN DARK ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentner, Andrew R.; Bhattacharya, Suman

    2009-01-01

    We study the utility of a large sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that might be observed in an imaging survey that rapidly scans a large fraction of the sky for constraining dark energy. We consider both the information contained in the traditional luminosity distance test as well as the spread in Ia SN fluxes at fixed redshift induced by gravitational lensing. As would be required from an imaging survey, we include a treatment of photometric redshift uncertainties in our analysis. Our primary result is that the information contained in the mean distance moduli of SNe Ia and the dispersion of SN Ia distance moduli complement each other, breaking a degeneracy between the present dark energy equation of state and its time variation without the need for a high-redshift (z ∼> 0.8) SN sample. Including lensing information also allows for some internal calibration of photometric redshifts. To address photometric redshift uncertainties, we present dark energy constraints as a function of the size of an external set of spectroscopically observed SNe that may be used for redshift calibration, N spec . Depending upon the details of potentially available, external SN data sets, we find that an imaging survey can constrain the dark energy equation of state at the epoch where it is best constrained w p , with a 1σ error of σ(w p ) ∼ 0.03-0.09. In addition, the marginal improvement in the error σ(w p ) from an increase in the spectroscopic calibration sample drops once N spec ∼ a few x 10 3 . This result is important because it is of the order of the size of calibration samples likely to be compiled in the coming decade and because, for samples of this size, the spectroscopic and imaging surveys individually place comparable constraints on the dark energy equation of state. In all cases, it is best to calibrate photometric redshifts with a set of spectroscopically observed SNe with relatively more objects at high redshift (z ∼> 0.5) than the parent sample of

  14. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST SAMPLE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE-Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folatelli, Gaston; Phillips, M. M.; Contreras, Carlos; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Boldt, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Morrell, Nidia; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Hamuy, Mario; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wyatt, Pamela; Li Weidong

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the first set of low-redshift (z s ) light curves in a well-understood photometric system. Methods are described for deriving light-curve parameters, and for building template light curves which are used to fit SN Ia data in the ugriBVYJH bands. The intrinsic colors at maximum light are calibrated using a subsample of supernovae (SNe) assumed to have suffered little or no reddening, enabling color excesses to be estimated for the full sample. The optical-NIR color excesses allow the properties of the reddening law in the host galaxies to be studied. A low average value of the total-to-selective absorption coefficient, R V ∼ 1.7, is derived when using the entire sample of SNe. However, when the two highly reddened SNe (SN 2005A and SN 2006X) in the sample are excluded, a value R V ∼ 3.2 is obtained, similar to the standard value for the Galaxy. The red colors of these two events are well matched by a model where multiple scattering of photons by circumstellar dust steepens the effective extinction law. The absolute peak magnitudes of the SNe are studied in all bands using a two-parameter linear fit to the decline rates and the colors at maximum light, or alternatively, the color excesses. In both cases, similar results are obtained with dispersions in absolute magnitudes of 0.12-0.16 mag, depending on the specific filter-color combination. In contrast to the results obtained from the comparison of the color excesses, these fits of absolute magnitude give R V ∼ 1-2 when the dispersion is minimized, even when the two highly reddened SNe are excluded. This discrepancy suggests that, beyond the 'normal' interstellar reddening produced in the host galaxies, there is an intrinsic dispersion in the colors of SNe Ia which is correlated with luminosity but independent of the decline rate. Finally, a Hubble diagram for the best-observed subsample of SNe is produced by combining the results of the fits of absolute magnitude versus decline rate and color

  15. An Empirical Fitting Method to Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. III. A Three-parameter Relationship: Peak Magnitude, Rise Time, and Photospheric Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the relationship between three parameters of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia): peak magnitude, rise time, and photospheric velocity at the time of peak brightness. The peak magnitude is corrected for extinction using an estimate determined from MLCS2k2 fitting. The rise time is measured from the well-observed B-band light curve with the first detection at least 1 mag fainter than the peak magnitude, and the photospheric velocity is measured from the strong absorption feature of Si II λ6355 at the time of peak brightness. We model the relationship among these three parameters using an expanding fireball with two assumptions: (a) the optical emission is approximately that of a blackbody, and (b) the photospheric temperatures of all SNe Ia are the same at the time of peak brightness. We compare the precision of the distance residuals inferred using this physically motivated model against those from the empirical Phillips relation and the MLCS2k2 method for 47 low-redshift SNe Ia (0.005 Ia in our sample with higher velocities are inferred to be intrinsically fainter. Eliminating the high-velocity SNe and applying a more stringent extinction cut to obtain a “low-v golden sample” of 22 SNe, we obtain significantly reduced scatter of 0.108 ± 0.018 mag in the new relation, better than those of the Phillips relation and the MLCS2k2 method. For 250 km s‑1 of residual peculiar motions, we find 68% and 95% upper limits on the intrinsic scatter of 0.07 and 0.10 mag, respectively.

  16. Superluminal two-color light in a multiple Raman gain medium

    KAUST Repository

    Kudriašov, V.

    2014-09-17

    We investigate theoretically the formation of two-component light with superluminal group velocity in a medium controlled by four Raman pump fields. In such an optical scheme only a particular combination of the probe fields is coupled to the matter and exhibits superluminal propagation; the orthogonal combination is uncoupled. The individual probe fields do not have a definite group velocity in the medium. Calculations demonstrate that this superluminal component experiences an envelope advancement in the medium with respect to the propagation in vacuum.

  17. Superluminal two-color light in a multiple Raman gain medium

    KAUST Repository

    Kudriašov, V.; Ruseckas, J.; Mekys, A.; Ekers, Aigars; Bezuglov, N.; Juzeliūnas, G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the formation of two-component light with superluminal group velocity in a medium controlled by four Raman pump fields. In such an optical scheme only a particular combination of the probe fields is coupled to the matter and exhibits superluminal propagation; the orthogonal combination is uncoupled. The individual probe fields do not have a definite group velocity in the medium. Calculations demonstrate that this superluminal component experiences an envelope advancement in the medium with respect to the propagation in vacuum.

  18. Type-Ia supernova rates to redshift 2.4 from clash: The cluster lensing and supernova survey with Hubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Riess, A. G.; Medezinski, E.; Maoz, D.; Jha, S. W.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Strolger, L.-G.; Coe, D.; Bradley, L.; Koekemoer, A.; Benítez, N.; Molino, A.; Jouvel, S.; Nonino, M.; Balestra, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, ∼13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z > 1.2. We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range 1.8 < z < 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys. We model these results together with previous measurements at z < 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of −1.00 −0.06(0.10) +0.06(0.09) (statistical) −0.08 +0.12 (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at >99% significance level.

  19. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from Clash: The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Maoz, D.; Riess, A. G.; Jha, S. W.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, approximately 13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z greater than 1.2.We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range z greater than 1.8 and less than 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/ GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys.We model these results together with previous measurements at z less than 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of 1.00 (+0.06(0.09))/(-0.06(0.10)) (statistical) (+0.12/-0.08) (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at greater than 99% significance level.

  20. The Carnegie Supernova Project. I. Third Photometry Data Release of Low-redshift Type Ia Supernovae and Other White Dwarf Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Contreras, Carlos; Burns, Christopher R.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Morrell, Nidia; Hamuy, Mario; Anais, Jorge; Boldt, Luis; Busta, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Folatelli, Gastón; Freedman, Wendy L.; González, Consuelo; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Persson, Sven Eric; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Serón, Jacqueline; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Torres, Simón; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Madore, Barry F.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Villanueva, Steven

    2017-11-01

    We present final natural-system optical (ugriBV) and near-infrared (YJH) photometry of 134 supernovae (SNe) with probable white dwarf progenitors that were observed in 2004-2009 as part of the first stage of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). The sample consists of 123 Type Ia SNe, 5 Type Iax SNe, 2 super-Chandrasekhar SN candidates, 2 Type Ia SNe interacting with circumstellar matter, and 2 SN 2006bt-like events. The redshifts of the objects range from z=0.0037 to 0.0835; the median redshift is 0.0241. For 120 (90%) of these SNe, near-infrared photometry was obtained. Average optical extinction coefficients and color terms are derived and demonstrated to be stable during the five CSP-I observing campaigns. Measurements of the CSP-I near-infrared bandpasses are also described, and near-infrared color terms are estimated through synthetic photometry of stellar atmosphere models. Optical and near-infrared magnitudes of local sequences of tertiary standard stars for each supernova are given, and a new calibration of Y-band magnitudes of the Persson et al. standards in the CSP-I natural system is presented.

  1. Polarisation Spectral Synthesis For Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Mattia

    2017-02-01

    Despite their relevance across a broad range of astrophysical research topics, Type Ia supernova explosions are still poorly understood and answers to the questions of when, why and how these events are triggered remain unclear. In this respect, polarisation offers a unique opportunity to discriminate between the variety of possible scenarios. The observational evidence that Type Ia supernovae are associated with rather low polarisation signals (smaller than a few per cent) places strong constraints for models and calls for modest asphericities in the progenitor system and/or explosion mechanism.The goal of this thesis is to assess the validity of contemporary Type Ia supernova explosion models by testing whether their predicted polarisation signatures can account for the small signals usually observed. To this end, we have implemented and tested an innovative Monte Carlo scheme in the radiative transfer code artis. Compared to previous Monte Carlo approaches, this technique produces synthetic observables (light curves, flux and polarisation spectra) with a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise and therefore in the required computing time. This improvement is particularly crucial for our study as we aim to extract very weak polarisation signals, comparable to those detected in Type Ia supernovae. We have also demonstrated the applicability of this method to other classes of supernovae via a preliminary study of the first spectropolarimetry observations of superluminous supernovae.Using this scheme, we have calculated synthetic spectropolarimetry for three multi-dimensional explosion models recently proposed as promising candidates to explain Type Ia supernovae. Our findings highlight the power of spectropolarimetry in testing and discriminating between different scenarios. While all the three models predict light curves and flux spectra that are similar to each others and reproduce those observed in Type Ia supernovae comparably well, polarisation does

  2. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan); Suntzeff, Nicholas B. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R{sub V} , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R{sub V} , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R{sub V} . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R{sub V} or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  3. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco; Folatelli, Gaston; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R V , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R V , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R V . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R V or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  4. The cooling time of white dwarfs produced from type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangcun; Yang Wuming; Li Zhongmu

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a key role in measuring cosmological parameters, in which the Phillips relation is adopted. However, the origin of the relation is still unclear. Several parameters are suggested, e.g. the relative content of carbon to oxygen (C/O) and the central density of the white dwarf (WD) at ignition. These parameters are mainly determined by the WD's initial mass and its cooling time, respectively. Using the progenitor model developed by Meng and Yang, we present the distributions of the initial WD mass and the cooling time. We do not find any correlation between these parameters. However, we notice that as the range of the WD's mass decreases, its average value increases with the cooling time. These results could provide a constraint when simulating the SN Ia explosion, i.e. the WDs with a high C/O ratio usually have a lower central density at ignition, while those having the highest central density at ignition generally have a lower C/O ratio. The cooling time is mainly determined by the evolutionary age of secondaries, and the scatter of the cooling time decreases with the evolutionary age. Our results may indicate that WDs with a long cooling time have more uniform properties than those with a short cooling time, which may be helpful to explain why SNe Ia in elliptical galaxies have a more uniform maximum luminosity than those in spiral galaxies. (research papers)

  5. Progressive Red Shifts in the Late-Time Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christine; Fesen, Robert; Parrent, Jerod

    2017-01-01

    We examine the evolution of late-time, optical nebular features of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using a sample consisting of 160 spectra of 27 normal SNe Ia taken from the literature as well as unpublished spectra of SN 2008Q and ASASSN-14lp. Particular attention is given to nebular features between 4000-6000 Ang in terms of temporal changes in width and central wavelength. Analysis of the prominent late-time 4700 Ang feature shows a progressive central wavelength shift from ˜4600 Ang to longer wavelengths out to at least day +300 for our entire sample. We find no evidence for the feature’s red-ward shift slowing or halting at an [Fe III] blend centroid ˜4700 Ang as has been proposed. Two weaker adjacent features at around 4850 and 5000 Ang exhibit similar red shifts to that of the 4700 Ang feature. We conclude that the ubiquitous red shift of these common late-time SN Ia spectral features is not mainly due to a decrease in line velocities of forbidden Fe emissions, but the result of decreasing line velocities and opacity of permitted Fe absorption lines.

  6. Time-resolved Polarimetry of the Superluminous SN 2015bn with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloudas, Giorgos; Maund, Justyn R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2017-01-01

    We present imaging polarimetry of the superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, obtained over nine epochs between -20 and +46 days with the Nordic Optical Telescope. This was a nearby, slowly evolving Type I superluminous supernova that has been studied extensively and for which two epochs of spectropol......We present imaging polarimetry of the superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, obtained over nine epochs between -20 and +46 days with the Nordic Optical Telescope. This was a nearby, slowly evolving Type I superluminous supernova that has been studied extensively and for which two epochs...... of spectropolarimetry are also available. Based on field stars, we determine the interstellar polarization in the Galaxy to be negligible. The polarization of SN 2015bn shows a statistically significant increase during the last epochs, confirming previous findings. Our well-sampled imaging polarimetry series allows us...

  7. Superluminal Kinematics in the Milne Universe Causality in the Cosmic Time Order

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    The causality of superluminal signal transfer in the galaxy background is scrutinized. The cosmic time of the comoving galaxy frame determines a distinguished time order for events connected by superluminal signals. Every observer can relate his rest frame to the galaxy frame, and compare so the time order of events in his proper time to the cosmic time order. In this way all observers arrive at identical conclusions on the causality of events connected by superluminal signals. The energy of tachyons (superluminal particles) is defined in the comoving galaxy frame analogous to the energy of subluminal particles. It is positive in the galaxy frame and bounded from below in the rest frames of geodesically moving observers, so that particle-tachyon interactions can be based on energy-momentum conservation. We study tachyons in a Robertson-Walker cosmology with linear expansion factor and open, negatively curved 3-space (Milne universe). This cosmology admits globally geodesic rest frames for uniformly moving obs...

  8. Measurements of entanglement over a kilometric distance to test superluminal models of Quantum Mechanics: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciaro, B.; Faetti, S.; Fronzoni, L.

    2017-08-01

    As shown in the EPR paper (Einstein, Podolsky e Rosen, 1935), Quantum Mechanics is a non-local Theory. The Bell theorem and the successive experiments ruled out the possibility of explaining quantum correlations using only local hidden variables models. Some authors suggested that quantum correlations could be due to superluminal communications that propagate isotropically with velocity vt > c in a preferred reference frame. For finite values of vt and in some special cases, Quantum Mechanics and superluminal models lead to different predictions. So far, no deviations from the predictions of Quantum Mechanics have been detected and only lower bounds for the superluminal velocities vt have been established. Here we describe a new experiment that increases the maximum detectable superluminal velocities and we give some preliminary results.

  9. Neutrino superluminality without Cherenkov-like processes in Finslerian special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zhe; Li Xin; Wang Sai

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Cohen and Glashow [A.G. Cohen, S.L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 181803] pointed out that the superluminal neutrinos reported by the OPERA would lose their energy rapidly via the Cherenkov-like process. The Cherenkov-like process for the superluminal particles would be forbidden if the principle of special relativity holds in any frame instead violated with a preferred frame. We have proposed that the Finslerian special relativity could account for the data of the neutrino superluminality ( (arXiv:1110.6673 [hep-ph])). The Finslerian special relativity preserves the principle of special relativity and involves a preferred direction while consists with the causality. In this Letter, we prove that the energy-momentum conservation is preserved and the energy-momentum is well defined in Finslerian special relativity. The Cherenkov-like process is forbidden in the Finslerian special relativity. Thus, the superluminal neutrinos would not lose energy in their distant propagation.

  10. Subluminal and superluminal propagation of light in an N-type medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Dingan; Guo Hong; Bai Yanfeng; Sun Hui

    2005-01-01

    For a three-level electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) atomic system, we show that, adding a third driving field coupled to a fourth state, the properties of the weak probe light propagation are greatly changed. Due to the increase of the driving field, when the driving and the coupling detunings are zero, the light propagation can be changed from subluminal to superluminal. Also, the analytical solution exhibiting superluminal group velocity is given at the zero probe detuning

  11. QPO detection in superluminal black hole GRS 1915+105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhulla, Yashpal; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the first superluminal Black Hole GRS 1915+105 observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer - Proportion Counter Array (RXTE/PCA). We detect the Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of source which have luminosity very near to Eddington limit and long variability in X-ray light curve. In power density spectrum, we deal with the study of highly variability amplitude, time evolution of the characteristic timescale, Quality Factor and Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). We find significant QPOs in 15 different observation IDs with frequency around 67 Hz although quality factor nearly 20 but in two IDs frequency is found just double. Typical fractional rms for GRS 1915+105 is dominating the hard band increasing steeply with energy more than 13% at 20-40 keV band.

  12. Superluminal Velocities in the Synchronized Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev S. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the non-gravitational generalization of the special relativity, a problem of possible superluminal motion of particles and signals is considered. It has been proven that for the particles with non-zero mass the existence of anisotropic light barrier with the shape dependent on the reference frame velocity results from the Tangherlini transformations. The maximal possible excess of neutrino velocity over the absolute velocity of light related to the Earth (using th e clock with instantaneous synchronization has been estimated. The illusoriness of t he acausality problem has been illustrated and conclusion is made on the lack of the upper limit of velocities of signals of informational nature.

  13. Superluminal Emission Processes as a Key to Understanding Pulsar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrea; Ardavan, H.; Fasel, J., III; Perez, M.; Singleton, J.

    2007-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental work has established that polarization currents can be animated to travel faster than the speed of light in vacuo and that these superluminal distribution patterns emit tightly focused packets of electromagnetic radiation that differ fundamentally from the emission generated by any other known radiation source. Since 2004, a small team at Los Alamos National Laboratory has, in collaboration with UK universities, conducted analytical, computational and practical studies of radiation sources that exceed the speed of light. Numerical evaluations of the Liénard-Wiechert field generated by such sources show that superluminal emission has the following intrinsic characteristics: (i) It is sharply focused along a rigidly rotating spiral-shaped beam that embodies the cusp of the envelope of the emitted wave fronts. (ii) It consists of either one or three concurrent polarization modes that constitute contributions to the field from differing retarded times. (iii) Two of the modes are comparable in strength at both edges of the signal and dominate over the third everywhere except in the middle of the pulse. (iv) The position angles of each of its dominant modes, as well as that of the total field, swing across the beam by as much as 180 degrees and remain approximately orthogonal throughout their excursion across the beam. (v) One of the three modes is highly circularly polarized and differs in its sense of polarization from the other two. (vi) Two of the modes have a very high degree of linear polarization across the entire pulse. Given the fundamental nature of the Liénard-Wiechert field, the coincidence of these characteristics with those of the radio emission received from pulsars is striking, especially coupled with the experimentally demonstrated fact that the radiation intensity on the cusp decays as 1/R instead of 1/R^2 and is therefore intrinsically bright.

  14. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Hα-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M * /M ☉ ) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  15. Type Ia Supernova Properties as a Function of the Distance to the Host Galaxy in the SDSS-II SN Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); et al.

    2012-08-20

    We use type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey to search for dependencies between SN Ia properties and the projected distance to the host galaxy center, using the distance as a proxy for local galaxy properties (local star-formation rate, local metallicity, etc.). The sample consists of almost 200 spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed SNe Ia at redshifts below 0.25. The sample is split into two groups depending on the morphology of the host galaxy. We fit light-curves using both MLCS2k2 and SALT2, and determine color (AV, c) and light-curve shape (delta, x1) parameters for each SN Ia, as well as its residual in the Hubble diagram. We then correlate these parameters with both the physical and the normalized distances to the center of the host galaxy and look for trends in the mean values and scatters of these parameters with increasing distance. The most significant (at the 4-sigma level) finding is that the average fitted AV from MLCS2k2 and c from SALT2 decrease with the projected distance for SNe Ia in spiral galaxies. We also find indications that SNe in elliptical galaxies tend to have narrower light-curves if they explode at larger distances, although this may be due to selection effects in our sample. We do not find strong correlations between the residuals of the distance moduli with respect to the Hubble flow and the galactocentric distances, which indicates a limited correlation between SN magnitudes after standardization and local host metallicity.

  16. On the rates of type Ia supernovae originating from white dwarf collisions in quadruple star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the evolution of stellar hierarchical quadruple systems in the 2+2 (two binaries orbiting each other's barycentre) and 3+1 (triple orbited by a fourth star) configurations. In our simulations, we take into account the effects of secular dynamical evolution, stellar evolution, tidal evolution and encounters with passing stars. We focus on type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) driven by collisions of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs). Such collisions can arise from several channels: (1) collisions due to extremely high eccentricities induced by secular evolution, (2) collisions following a dynamical instability of the system, and (3) collisions driven by semisecular evolution. The systems considered here have initially wide inner orbits, with initial semilatus recti larger than 12 {au}, implying no interaction if the orbits were isolated. However, taking into account dynamical evolution, we find that ≈0.4 (≈0.6) of 2+2 (3+1) systems interact. In particular, Roche Lobe overflow can be triggered possibly in highly eccentric orbits, dynamical instability can ensue due to mass-loss-driven orbital expansion or secular evolution, or a semisecular regime can be entered. We compute the delay-time distributions (DTDs) of collision-induced SNe Ia, and find that they are flatter compared to the observed DTD. Moreover, our combined SNe Ia rates are (3.7± 0.7) × 10^{-6} M_⊙^{-1} and (1.3± 0.2) × 10^{-6} M_⊙^{-1} for 2+2 and 3+1 systems, respectively, three orders of magnitude lower compared to the observed rate, of order 10^{-3} M_⊙^{-1}. The low rates can be ascribed to interactions before the stars evolve to CO WDs. However, our results are lower limits given that we considered a subset of quadruple systems.

  17. Properties and Alignment of Interstellar Dust Grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with Anomalous Polarization Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem, E-mail: thiemhoang@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios ( R {sub V} < 2) and wavelengths of maximum polarization ( λ{sub max} < 0.4 μ m) for several SNe Ia, which indicates peculiar properties of interstellar (IS) dust in the SN-hosted galaxies and/or the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we use an inversion technique to infer the best-fit grain size distribution and the alignment function of interstellar grains along the lines of sight toward four SNe Ia with anomalous extinction and polarization data (SN 1986G, SN 2006X, SN 2008fp, and SN 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of R{sub V}, a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius a < 0.1 μ m is required. For SN 2014J, a simultaneous fit to its observed extinction and polarization is unsuccessful if all the data are attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 2008fp, our best-fit results for model 1 show that in order to reproduce an extreme value of λ{sub max} ∼ 0.15 μ m, small silicate grains must be aligned as efficiently as big grains. For this case, we suggest that strong radiation from the SN can induce efficient alignment of small grains in a nearby intervening molecular cloud via the radiative torque (RAT) mechanism. The resulting time dependence polarization from this RAT alignment model can be tested by observing at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  18. Photometric classification of type Ia supernovae in the SuperNova Legacy Survey with supervised learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möller, A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Leloup, C.; Neveu, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J. [Irfu, SPP, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Pritchet, C., E-mail: anais.moller@anu.edu.au, E-mail: vanina.ruhlmann-kleider@cea.fr, E-mail: clement.leloup@cea.fr, E-mail: jneveu@lal.in2p3.fr, E-mail: nathalie.palanque-delabrouille@cea.fr, E-mail: james.rich@cea.fr, E-mail: raymond.carlberg@utoronto.ca, E-mail: chris.lidman@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pritchet@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    In the era of large astronomical surveys, photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) has become an important research field due to limited spectroscopic resources for candidate follow-up and classification. In this work, we present a method to photometrically classify type Ia supernovae based on machine learning with redshifts that are derived from the SN light-curves. This method is implemented on real data from the SNLS deferred pipeline, a purely photometric pipeline that identifies SNe Ia at high-redshifts (0.2 < z < 1.1). Our method consists of two stages: feature extraction (obtaining the SN redshift from photometry and estimating light-curve shape parameters) and machine learning classification. We study the performance of different algorithms such as Random Forest and Boosted Decision Trees. We evaluate the performance using SN simulations and real data from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), which contains large spectroscopically and photometrically classified type Ia samples. Using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric, where perfect classification is given by 1, we find that our best-performing classifier (Extreme Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) has an AUC of 0.98.We show that it is possible to obtain a large photometrically selected type Ia SN sample with an estimated contamination of less than 5%. When applied to data from the first three years of SNLS, we obtain 529 events. We investigate the differences between classifying simulated SNe, and real SN survey data. In particular, we find that applying a thorough set of selection cuts to the SN sample is essential for good classification. This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of machine learning classification in a high- z SN survey with application to real SN data.

  19. Photometric classification of type Ia supernovae in the SuperNova Legacy Survey with supervised learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möller, A.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Leloup, C.; Neveu, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Carlberg, R.; Lidman, C.; Pritchet, C.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of large astronomical surveys, photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) has become an important research field due to limited spectroscopic resources for candidate follow-up and classification. In this work, we present a method to photometrically classify type Ia supernovae based on machine learning with redshifts that are derived from the SN light-curves. This method is implemented on real data from the SNLS deferred pipeline, a purely photometric pipeline that identifies SNe Ia at high-redshifts (0.2 < z < 1.1). Our method consists of two stages: feature extraction (obtaining the SN redshift from photometry and estimating light-curve shape parameters) and machine learning classification. We study the performance of different algorithms such as Random Forest and Boosted Decision Trees. We evaluate the performance using SN simulations and real data from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), which contains large spectroscopically and photometrically classified type Ia samples. Using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric, where perfect classification is given by 1, we find that our best-performing classifier (Extreme Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) has an AUC of 0.98.We show that it is possible to obtain a large photometrically selected type Ia SN sample with an estimated contamination of less than 5%. When applied to data from the first three years of SNLS, we obtain 529 events. We investigate the differences between classifying simulated SNe, and real SN survey data. In particular, we find that applying a thorough set of selection cuts to the SN sample is essential for good classification. This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of machine learning classification in a high- z SN survey with application to real SN data.

  20. TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.; Aldering, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND NON-UNIFORM INTERSTELLAR DUST ABSTRACT We investigate the time variation of the visual extinction, AV, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, resulting from interstellar dust in front of an expanding photospheric disk of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We simulate interstellar dust clouds according to a power law power spectrum and produce extinction maps that either follow a pseudo-Gaussian distribution or a lognormal distribution. The RV maps are produced through a correlation between AV and RV. With maps of AV and RV generated in each case (pseudo-Gaussian and lognormal), we then compute the effective AV and RV for a SN as its photospheric disk expands behind the dust screen. We find for a small percentage of SNe the AV and RV values can vary by a large factor from day to day in the first 40 days after explosion.

  1. THE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. I. ARE THEY SUPERSOFT SOURCES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a canonical model, the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are accreting, nuclear-burning white dwarfs (NBWDs), which explode when the white dwarf reaches the Chandrasekhar mass, M C . Such massive NBWDs are hot (kT ∼ 100 eV), luminous (L ∼ 10 38 erg s -1 ), and are potentially observable as luminous supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). During the past several years, surveys for soft X-ray sources in external galaxies have been conducted. This paper shows that the results falsify the hypothesis that a large fraction of progenitors are NBWDs which are presently observable as SSSs. The data also place limits on sub-M C models. While SN Ia progenitors may pass through one or more phases of SSS activity, these phases are far shorter than the time needed to accrete most of the matter that brings them close to M C .

  2. A likely candidate of type Ia supernova progenitors: the X-ray pulsating companion of the hot subdwarf HD 49798

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Han Zhanwen

    2010-01-01

    HD 49798 is a hydrogen depleted subdwarf O6 star and has an X-ray pulsating companion (RX J0648.0-4418). The X-ray pulsating companion is a massive white dwarf. Employing Eggleton's stellar evolution code with the optically thick wind assumption, we find that the hot subdwarf HD 49798 and its X-ray pulsating companion could produce a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in future evolution. This implies that the binary system is a likely candidate of an SN Ia progenitor. We also discuss the possibilities of some other WD + He star systems (e.g. V445 Pup and KPD 1930+2752) for producing SNe Ia. (research papers)

  3. Testing averaged cosmology with type Ia supernovae and BAO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, B.; Alcaniz, J.S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro – RJ (Brazil); Coley, A.A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, B3H 3J5 Canada (Canada); Devi, N. Chandrachani, E-mail: thoven@on.br, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.ca, E-mail: chandrachaniningombam@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Box 70-264, México City, México (Mexico)

    2017-02-01

    An important problem in precision cosmology is the determination of the effects of averaging and backreaction on observational predictions, particularly in view of the wealth of new observational data and improved statistical techniques. In this paper, we discuss the observational viability of a class of averaged cosmologies which consist of a simple parametrized phenomenological two-scale backreaction model with decoupled spatial curvature parameters. We perform a Bayesian model selection analysis and find that this class of averaged phenomenological cosmological models is favored with respect to the standard ΛCDM cosmological scenario when a joint analysis of current SNe Ia and BAO data is performed. In particular, the analysis provides observational evidence for non-trivial spatial curvature.

  4. Testing averaged cosmology with type Ia supernovae and BAO data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, B.; Alcaniz, J.S.; Coley, A.A.; Devi, N. Chandrachani

    2017-01-01

    An important problem in precision cosmology is the determination of the effects of averaging and backreaction on observational predictions, particularly in view of the wealth of new observational data and improved statistical techniques. In this paper, we discuss the observational viability of a class of averaged cosmologies which consist of a simple parametrized phenomenological two-scale backreaction model with decoupled spatial curvature parameters. We perform a Bayesian model selection analysis and find that this class of averaged phenomenological cosmological models is favored with respect to the standard ΛCDM cosmological scenario when a joint analysis of current SNe Ia and BAO data is performed. In particular, the analysis provides observational evidence for non-trivial spatial curvature.

  5. THE DISTANCE TO NGC 1316 (FORNAX A) FROM OBSERVATIONS OF FOUR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, Mark M.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco; Roth, Miguel; Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, Sven E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Folatelli, Gaston; Hamuy, Mario; Krisciunas, Kevin; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Kattner, ShiAnne; Contreras, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A) is a well-studied member of the Fornax Cluster and a prolific producer of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), having hosted four observed events since 1980. Here, we present detailed optical- and near-infrared light curves of the spectroscopically normal SN 2006dd. These data are used, along with previously published photometry of the normal SN 1980N and SN 1981D, and the fast-declining, low-luminosity SN 2006mr, to compute independent estimates of the host reddening for each SN, and the distance to NGC 1316. From the three normal SNe, we find a distance of 17.8 ± 0.3 (random) ± 0.3 (systematic) Mpc for H o = 72. Distance moduli derived from the 'EBV' and Tripp methods give the values that are mutually consistent with 4%-8%. Moreover, the weighted means of the distance moduli for these three SNe for three methods agree to within 3%. This consistency is encouraging and supports the premise that Type Ia SNe are reliable distance indicators at the 5% precision level or better. On the other hand, the two methods used to estimate the distance of the fast-declining SN 2006mr both yield a distance to NGC 1316 which is 25%-30% larger. This disparity casts doubt on the suitability of fast-declining events for estimating extragalactic distances. Modest-to-negligible host galaxy reddening values are derived for all four SNe. Nevertheless, two of them (SN 2006dd and SN 2006mr) show strong Na I D interstellar lines in the host galaxy system. The strength of this absorption is completely inconsistent with the small reddening values derived from the SN light curves if the gas in NGC 1316 is typical of that found in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. In addition, the equivalent width of the Na lines in SN 2006dd appears to have weakened significantly some 100-150 days after explosion.

  6. THE FAST DECLINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2003gs, AND EVIDENCE FOR A SIGNIFICANT DISPERSION IN NEAR-INFRARED ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF FAST DECLINERS AT MAXIMUM LIGHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Marion, G. H.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2009-01-01

    We obtained optical photometry of SN 2003gs on 49 nights, from 2 to 494 days after T(B max ). We also obtained near-IR photometry on 21 nights. SN 2003gs was the first fast declining Type Ia SN that has been well observed since SN 1999by. While it was subluminous in optical bands compared to more slowly declining Type Ia SNe, it was not subluminous at maximum light in the near-IR bands. There appears to be a bimodal distribution in the near-IR absolute magnitudes of Type Ia SNe at maximum light. Those that peak in the near-IR after T(B max ) are subluminous in the all bands. Those that peak in the near-IR prior to T(B max ), such as SN 2003gs, have effectively the same near-IR absolute magnitudes at maximum light regardless of the decline rate Δm 15 (B). Near-IR spectral evidence suggests that opacities in the outer layers of SN 2003gs are reduced much earlier than for normal Type Ia SNe. That may allow γ rays that power the luminosity to escape more rapidly and accelerate the decline rate. This conclusion is consistent with the photometric behavior of SN 2003gs in the IR, which indicates a faster than normal decline from approximately normal peak brightness.

  7. A blinded determination of H0 from low-redshift Type Ia supernovae, calibrated by Cepheid variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bonnie R.; Childress, Michael J.; Davis, Tamara M.; Karpenka, Natallia V.; Lidman, Chris; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, Mathew

    2017-10-01

    Presently, a >3σ tension exists between values of the Hubble constant H0 derived from analysis of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background by Planck, and local measurements of the expansion using calibrators of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We perform a blinded re-analysis of Riess et al. (2011) to measure H0 from low-redshift SNe Ia, calibrated by Cepheid variables and geometric distances including to NGC 4258. This paper is a demonstration of techniques to be applied to the Riess et al. (2016) data. Our end-to-end analysis starts from available Harvard -Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA3) and Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) photometries, providing an independent validation of Riess et al. (2011). We obscure the value of H0 throughout our analysis and the first stage of the referee process, because calibration of SNe Ia requires a series of often subtle choices, and the potential for results to be affected by human bias is significant. Our analysis departs from that of Riess et al. (2011) by incorporating the covariance matrix method adopted in Supernova Legacy Survey and Joint Lightcurve Analysis to quantify SN Ia systematics, and by including a simultaneous fit of all SN Ia and Cepheid data. We find H_0 = 72.5 ± 3.1 ({stat}) ± 0.77 ({sys}) km s-1 Mpc-1with a three-galaxy (NGC 4258+LMC+MW) anchor. The relative uncertainties are 4.3 per cent statistical, 1.1 per cent systematic, and 4.4 per cent total, larger than in Riess et al. (2011) (3.3 per cent total) and the Efstathiou (2014) re-analysis (3.4 per cent total). Our error budget for H0 is dominated by statistical errors due to the small size of the SN sample, whilst the systematic contribution is dominated by variation in the Cepheid fits, and for the SNe Ia, uncertainties in the host galaxy mass dependence and Malmquist bias.

  8. Gain-assisted superluminal propagation and rotary drag of photon and surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed; Amin Bacha, Bakht; Iqbal, Azmat; Ur Rahman, Amin; Afaq, A.

    2017-07-01

    Superluminal propagation of light is a well-established phenomenon and has motivated immense research interest that has led to state-of-the-art knowledge and potential applications in the emerging technology of quantum optics and photonics. This study presents a theoretical analysis of the gain-assisted superluminal light propagation in a four-level N -type atomic system by exploiting the scheme of electromagnetically induced gain and superluminal propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) along the gain-assisted atomic-metal interface simultaneously. In addition, a theoretical demonstration is presented on the comparison between Fresnel's rotary photon drag and SPP drag in view of light polarization state rotation by rotating the coherent atomic medium and the atomic-metal interface, respectively. Analogous to photon drag in the superluminal anomalous dispersion region where light polarization rotation occurs opposite the rotation of the gain-assisted atomic medium, the rotation of the atomic-metal interface also rotates the polarization state of SPPs opposite the rotation of the interface. This further confirms the superluminal nature of SPPs propagating along the interface with negative group velocity. Rabi frequencies of the control and pump fields considerably modify both photon and SPP drag coefficients. Metal conductivity also controls SPP propagation.

  9. DES13S2cmm: the first superluminous supernova from the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Sullivan, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Biswas, R.; Brown, P. J.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Finley, D. A.; Fischer, J. A.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R. R.; Kessler, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Lidman, C.; March, M.; Nugent, P. E.; Sako, M.; Smith, R. C.; Spinka, H.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F.; Allam, S. S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Carnero, A.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roe, N. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, L. D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 +/- 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (Type I). Using this redshift, we find M-U(peak) = -21.05(-0.09)(+0.10) for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low-metallicity (subsolar), low stellar-mass host galaxy (log (M/M-circle dot) = 9.3 +/- 0.3), consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to 14 similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find that it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 d rest-frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the bolometric light curves of all SLSNe-I studied herein possess a dispersion of only 0.2-0.3 mag between +25 and +30 d after peak (rest frame) depending on redshift range studied; this could be important for 'standardizing' such supernovae, as is done with the more common Type Ia. We fit the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm with two competing models for SLSNe-I-the radioactive decay of Ni-56, and a magnetar - and find that while the magnetar is formally a better fit, neither model provides a compelling match to the data. Although we are unable to conclusively differentiate between these two physical models for this particular SLSN-I, further DES observations of more SLSNe-I should break this degeneracy, especially if the light curves of SLSNe-I can be observed beyond 100 d in the rest frame of the supernova.

  10. A cannonball model of gamma-ray bursts superluminal signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Dar, Arnon; Rujula, Alvaro De

    2000-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that the long-duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are produced by highly relativistic jets emitted in supernova explosions. We propose that the result of the event is not just a compact object plus the ejecta: within a day, a fraction of the parent star falls back to produce a thick accretion disk. The subsequent accretion generates jets and constitutes the GRB ``engine'', as in the observed ejection of relativistic ``cannonballs'' of plasma by microquasars and active galactic nuclei. The GRB is produced as the jetted cannonballs exit the supernova shell reheated by the collision, re-emitting their own radiation and boosting the light of the shell. They decelerate by sweeping up interstellar matter, which is accelerated to cosmic-ray energies and emits synchrotron radiation: the afterglow. We emphasize here a smoking-gun signature of this model of GRBs: the superluminal motion of the afterglow, that can be searched for ---the sooner the better--- in the particular...

  11. Fast Preparation of Critical Ground States Using Superluminal Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Kartiek; Bhatt, R. N.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a spatiotemporal quench protocol that allows for the fast preparation of ground states of gapless models with Lorentz invariance. Assuming the system initially resides in the ground state of a corresponding massive model, we show that a superluminally moving "front" that locally quenches the mass, leaves behind it (in space) a state arbitrarily close to the ground state of the gapless model. Importantly, our protocol takes time O (L ) to produce the ground state of a system of size ˜Ld (d spatial dimensions), while a fully adiabatic protocol requires time ˜O (L2) to produce a state with exponential accuracy in L . The physics of the dynamical problem can be understood in terms of relativistic rarefaction of excitations generated by the mass front. We provide proof of concept by solving the proposed quench exactly for a system of free bosons in arbitrary dimensions, and for free fermions in d =1 . We discuss the role of interactions and UV effects on the free-theory idealization, before numerically illustrating the usefulness of the approach via simulations on the quantum Heisenberg spin chain.

  12. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Homan, D. C.; Agudo, I.; Kellermann, K. I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lister, M. L.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been monitored since 1995 as part of the 2cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring observations conducted with the VLBA. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of VLBA observations of 3C 111 and from 18 years of radio flux density monitoring observations conducted at the University of Michigan. A major radio flux-density outburst of 3C 111 occurred in 1996 and was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a forward and a backward-shock, which both evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the workflow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradients are revealed; trailing components are formed in the wake of the primary perturbation as a result of Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities from the interaction of the jet with the external medium. The jet-medium interaction is further scrutinized by the linear-polarization signature of jet components traveling along the jet and passing a region of steep pressure/density gradients.

  14. WHITE DWARF/M DWARF BINARIES AS SINGLE DEGENERATE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, M V ∼> 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and M V ∼> 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a 'magnetic bottle' connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the 'nova limit' and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  15. Inverse Doppler shift and control field as coherence generators for the stability in superluminal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Fazal; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Salman

    2015-05-01

    A gain-based four-level atomic medium for the stability in superluminal light propagation using control field and inverse Doppler shift as coherence generators is studied. In regimes of weak and strong control field, a broadband and multiple controllable transparency windows are, respectively, identified with significantly enhanced group indices. The observed Doppler effect for the class of high atomic velocity of the medium is counterintuitive in comparison to the effect of the class of low atomic velocity. The intensity of each of the two pump fields is kept less than the optimum limit reported in [M. D. Stenner and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063801 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.063801] for stability in the superluminal light pulse. Consequently, superluminal stable domains with the generated coherence are explored.

  16. Subluminal and superluminal pulse propagation in inhomogeneous media of nonspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yu; Gao Lei

    2006-01-01

    We study the pulse propagation through a metal/dielectric composites of nonspherical particles enclosed by two gold mirrors. To account for the shape effect, we first adopt Maxwell-Garnett type approximation to obtain the effective dielectric function of composites. Based on the group index, phase time and pulse shape calculations, we find that the particles' shape (characterized by the depolarization factor) plays an important role in determining the subluminal and superluminal pulse propagations through the system. When the inclusions' shape is not spherical, it is possible to observe significant superluminal behavior of the pulse propagation, although the volume fraction is the same. The shape-dependent critical volume fraction is predicted, above which superluminal propagation appears. Furthermore, the Hartman effect in such a system is also investigated

  17. EARLY RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNGEST NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PTF 11kly (SN 2011fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, S. R.; Carpenter, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Fox, Derek B.; Quimby, Robert; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Cenko, S. Bradley; De Bruyn, A. G.; Kamble, Atish; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Maguire, Kate; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter E.; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    On 2011 August 24 (UT) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) discovered PTF11kly (SN 2011fe), the youngest and most nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. We followed this event up in the radio (centimeter and millimeter bands) and X-ray bands, starting about a day after the estimated explosion time. We present our analysis of the radio and X-ray observations, yielding the tightest constraints yet placed on the pre-explosion mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of this supernova. We find a robust limit of M-dot ∼ -8 (w/100 km s -1 ) M sun yr -1 from sensitive X-ray non-detections, as well as a similar limit from radio data, which depends, however, on assumptions about microphysical parameters. We discuss our results in the context of single-degenerate models for SNe Ia and find that our observations modestly disfavor symbiotic progenitor models involving a red giant donor, but cannot constrain systems accreting from main-sequence or sub-giant stars, including the popular supersoft channel. In view of the proximity of PTF11kly and the sensitivity of our prompt observations, we would have to wait for a long time (a decade or longer) in order to more meaningfully probe the circumstellar matter of SNe Ia.

  18. Early UV emission from disc-originated matter (DOM) in Type Ia supernovae in the double-degenerate scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Naveh; Soker, Noam

    2017-09-01

    We show that the blue and UV excess emission in the first few days of some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be accounted in the double-degenerate (DD) scenario by the collision of the SN ejecta with circumstellar matter that was blown by the accretion disc formed during the merger process of the two white dwarfs (WDs). We assume that in cases of excess early light, the disc blows the circumstellar matter, that we term disc-originated matter (DOM), hours to days before explosion. To perform our analysis, we first provide a model-based definition for early excess light, replacing the definition of excess light relative to a power-law fit to the rising luminosity. We then examine the light curves of the SNe Ia iPTF14atg and SN 2012cg, and find that the collision of the ejecta with a DOM in the frame of the DD scenario can account for their early excess emission. Thus, early excess light does not necessarily imply the presence of a stellar companion in the frame of the single-degenerate scenario. Our findings further increase the variety of phenomena that the DD scenario can account for, and emphasize the need to consider all different SN Ia scenarios when interpreting observations.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Palomar Transient Factory SNe IIn photometry (Ofek+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, E. O.; Arcavi, I.; Tal, D.; Sullivan, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Ben-Ami, S.; Bersier, D.; Cao, Y.; Cenko, S. B.; De Cia, A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fransson, C.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R.; Surace, J.; Quimby, R.; Yaron, O.

    2017-07-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Law et al. 2009PASP..121.1395L; Rau et al. 2009PASP..121.1334R) and its extension the intermediate PTF (iPTF) found over 2200 spectroscopically confirmed SNe. We selected 19 SNe IIn for which PTF/iPTF has good coverage of the light-curve rise and peak; they are listed in Table 1. Optical spectra were obtained with a variety of telescopes and instruments, including the Double Spectrograph (Oke & Gunn 1982PASP...94..586O) at the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, the Kast spectrograph (Miller & Stone 1993, Lick Observatory Technical Report 66 (Santa Cruz, CA: Lick Observatory)) at the Lick 3 m Shane telescope, the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (Oke et al. 1995PASP..107..375O) on the Keck-1 10 m telescope, and the Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (Faber et al. 2003SPIE.4841.1657F) on the Keck-2 10 m telescope. (2 data files).

  20. Superluminous Devices Versus Low-Level Laser for Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveshtarov Vasil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the pain intensity reduction between the mean radiation doses per session of gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAIAs laser with superluminous diodes (SLD in four of the most common pain-related chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD - local myalgia, myofascial pain, myofascial pain with a referral, and arthralgia. This study was implemented on 124 patients with pain-related temporomandibular disorders according to the DC/TMD criteria. We applied trigger point oriented near-infrared laser (785 nm, 100 s, 8 J/cm2 and SLD cluster sessions (the cluster is composed of 49 SLDs with a combination of visible red (633 nm and infrared (880 nm diodes, 200 mW, 300 s, 8 J/cm2 for the temporomandibular joints and the affected muscles. Patients were evaluated at the start of the treatment, and after the 6th session of combined phototherapy. The pain intensity scores were measured according to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Our results show that the most statistically manifested pain reduction is found for the SLD dose, р = 0,000118, followed by the overall dose (laser plus SLD; р = 0,001031, and the laser dose; р = 0,030942 (ANOVA dispersion analyses. Consequently, it can be concluded that myalgia is better treated through lower doses of red light compared to infrared laser doses because SLDs combine the prooxidative effect of photons with 633 nm wavelength, a large area of exposure, sufficient tissue penetration, and some positive warming thermal impact of the SLD clusters.

  1. Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhorst, Peter; Knill, Emanuel; Glancy, Scott; Zhang, Yanbao; Mink, Alan; Jordan, Stephen; Rommal, Andrea; Liu, Yi-Kai; Christensen, Bradley; Nam, Sae Woo; Stevens, Martin J; Shalm, Lynden K

    2018-04-01

    From dice to modern electronic circuits, there have been many attempts to build better devices to generate random numbers. Randomness is fundamental to security and cryptographic systems and to safeguarding privacy. A key challenge with random-number generators is that it is hard to ensure that their outputs are unpredictable 1-3 . For a random-number generator based on a physical process, such as a noisy classical system or an elementary quantum measurement, a detailed model that describes the underlying physics is necessary to assert unpredictability. Imperfections in the model compromise the integrity of the device. However, it is possible to exploit the phenomenon of quantum non-locality with a loophole-free Bell test to build a random-number generator that can produce output that is unpredictable to any adversary that is limited only by general physical principles, such as special relativity 1-11 . With recent technological developments, it is now possible to carry out such a loophole-free Bell test 12-14,22 . Here we present certified randomness obtained from a photonic Bell experiment and extract 1,024 random bits that are uniformly distributed to within 10 -12 . These random bits could not have been predicted according to any physical theory that prohibits faster-than-light (superluminal) signalling and that allows independent measurement choices. To certify and quantify the randomness, we describe a protocol that is optimized for devices that are characterized by a low per-trial violation of Bell inequalities. Future random-number generators based on loophole-free Bell tests may have a role in increasing the security and trust of our cryptographic systems and infrastructure.

  2. Supernovae Ia in 2017: a long time delay from merger/accretion to explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2018-04-01

    I use recent observational and theoretical studies of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to further constrain the viable SN Ia scenarios and to argue that there must be a substantial time delay between the end of the merger of the white dwarf (WD) with a companion or the end of mass accretion on to the WD and its terminal explosion. This merger/accretion to explosion delay (MED) is required to allow the binary system to lead to a more or less spherical explosion and to prevent a pre-explosion ionizing radiation. Considering these recent results and the required MED, I conclude that the core degenerate scenario is somewhat more favorable over the other scenarios, followed by the double degenerate scenario. Although the single degenerate scenario is viable as well, it is less likely to account for common (normal) SN Ia. As all scenarios require substantial MED, the MED has turned from a disadvantage of the core degenerate scenario to a challenge that theory should overcome. I hope that the requirement for a MED will stimulate the discussion of the different SN Ia scenarios and the comparison of the scenarios to each other.

  3. The superluminal radio source 4c 39. 25 as relativistic jet prototype. El cuasar superluminal 4C 93. 25 como prototipo de jet relativistia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A.; Gomez, J.L.; Marcaide, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a numerical code which solves the synchrotron radiation transfer equations to compute the total and polarized emission of bent shocked relativistic jets, and we have applied it to reproduce the compact structure, kinematic evolution of the superluminal radio source 4C 39.25 contains a bent relativistic jet which is misaligned relative to the observer near the core region, leading to a relatively low core brightness. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. Type Ia Supernovae Progenitor Problem and the Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological observations strongly suggest our universe is the interior of an expanding black hole. If the constant mass of the universe is assumed then from the equation for Schwarzschild radius: r S = 2 Gmc it follows that proportionality constant Gc depends linearly on the universe’s radius R u , identified with r S , i.e. Gc Because the Chandrasekhar limit M Ch relates to the speed of light and to the Newton’s constant as M Ch ( c = G 3 = 2 so expansion involves gradual decrease of M Ch . In result, a single white dwarf can alone become the Type Ia supernova progenitor, which provides a complementary solution to single-degenerate and double-degenerate models for SNe Ia. Both alternative scenarios: G R u and c R are analyzed in regard of their consistence with observations, and their consequences to cosmology.

  5. On the Superluminal Motion of Radio-Loud AGNs Zhi-Bin Zhang1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    xies—radiation mechanisms: non-thermal—quasars: general. 1. Introduction. Rees (1966) predicted that the transverse velocity of an object moving relativistically in some special directions may appear to exceed the speed of light. The apparent superluminal motion (SM) is essentially a geometric effect or a light travel-time.

  6. On some recent suggestions of superluminal communication through the collapse of the wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Weber, T.

    1979-01-01

    With reference to some recent suggestions of superluminal communication through the collapse of the wave function, it is proved that the suggested effects are derived using contradictory assumptions. Since the proof is based only on non-relativistic arguments, it is concluded that the difficulties connected with quantum measurement theory are only of conceptual nature. (author)

  7. Superluminal tunneling of a relativistic half-integer spin particle through a potential barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanni Luca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of a relativistic Dirac half-integer spin free particle tunneling through a rectangular quantum-mechanical barrier. If the energy difference between the barrier and the particle is positive, and the barrier width is large enough, there is proof that the tunneling may be superluminal. For first spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, the tunneling is always superluminal regardless the barrier width. Conversely, the second spinor components of particle and antiparticle states may be either subluminal or superluminal depending on the barrier width. These results derive from studying the tunneling time in terms of phase time. For the first spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, it is always negative while for the second spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, it is always positive, whatever the height and width of the barrier. In total, the tunneling time always remains positive for particle states while it becomes negative for antiparticle ones. Furthermore, the phase time tends to zero, increasing the potential barrier both for particle and antiparticle states. This agrees with the interpretation of quantum tunneling that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle provides. This study’s results are innovative with respect to those available in the literature. Moreover, they show that the superluminal behaviour of particles occurs in those processes with high-energy confinement.

  8. SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA SN 2015bn IN THE NEBULAR PHASE: EVIDENCE FOR THE ENGINE-POWERED EXPLOSION OF A STRIPPED MASSIVE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Blanchard, P. K.; Challis, P.; Cowperthwaite, P. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Margutti, R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Chornock, R. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Maguire, K. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Arcavi, I.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Chambers, K. C.; Magnier, E. A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, T.-W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Gal-Yam, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Mazzali, P. A., E-mail: matt.nicholl@cfa.harvard.edu [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-10

    We present nebular-phase imaging and spectroscopy for the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) SN 2015bn, at redshift z = 0.1136, spanning +250–400 days after maximum light. The light curve exhibits a steepening in the decline rate from 1.4 mag (100 days){sup −1} to 1.7 mag (100 days){sup −1}, suggestive of a significant decrease in the opacity. This change is accompanied by a transition from a blue continuum superposed with photospheric absorption lines to a nebular spectrum dominated by emission lines of oxygen, calcium, and magnesium. There are no obvious signatures of circumstellar interaction or large {sup 56}Ni mass. We show that the spectrum at +400 days is virtually identical to a number of energetic SNe Ic such as SN 1997dq, SN 2012au, and SN 1998bw, indicating similar core conditions and strengthening the link between “hypernovae”/long gamma-ray bursts and SLSNe. A single explosion mechanism may unify these events that span absolute magnitudes of −22 < M {sub B} < −17. Both the light curve and spectrum of SN 2015bn are consistent with an engine-driven explosion ejecting 7–30 M {sub ⊙} of oxygen-dominated ejecta (for reasonable choices in temperature and opacity). A strong and relatively narrow O i λ 7774 line, seen in a number of these energetic events but not in normal supernovae, may point to an inner shell that is the signature of a central engine.

  9. No Evidence of Circumstellar Gas Surrounding Type Ia Supernova SN 2017cbv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Raphael; Amanullah, Rahman; Bulla, Mattia; Goobar, Ariel; Johansson, Joel; Lundqvist, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Nearby type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), such as SN 2017cbv, are useful events to address the question of what the elusive progenitor systems of the explosions are. Hosseinzadeh et al. suggested that the early blue excess of the light curve of SN 2017cbv could be due to the supernova ejecta interacting with a non-degenerate companion star. Some SN Ia progenitor models suggest the existence of circumstellar (CS) environments in which strong outflows create low-density cavities of different radii. Matter deposited at the edges of the cavities should be at distances at which photoionization due to early ultraviolet (UV) radiation of SNe Ia causes detectable changes to the observable Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption lines. To study possible narrow absorption lines from such material, we obtained a time series of high-resolution spectra of SN 2017cbv at phases between ‑14.8 and +83 days with respect to B-band maximum, covering the time at which photoionization is predicted to occur. Both narrow Na I D and Ca II H&K are detected in all spectra, with no measurable changes between the epochs. We use photoionization models to rule out the presence of Na I and Ca II gas clouds along the line of sight of SN 2017cbv between ∼8 × 1016–2 × 1019 cm and ∼1015–1017 cm, respectively. Assuming typical abundances, the mass of a homogeneous spherical CS gas shell with radius R must be limited to {M}{{H} {{I}}}{CSM}R/{10}17[{cm}])}2 {M}ȯ . The bounds point to progenitor models that deposit little gas in their CS environment.

  10. Superluminal and negative delay times in isotropic-anisotropic one-dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchani, N.; El Moussaouy, A.; Aynaou, H.; El Hassouani, Y.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the possibility of superluminal and negative delay times for electromagnetic wave propagation in a linear and passive periodic structure consisting of alternating isotropic and anisotropic media. This phenomenon is due to the birefringence of the anisotropic layers of the structure. By adjusting the orientations of these layers, the delay times of transmitted waves can be controlled from subluminality to superluminality and vice versa. Numerical results indicate that the apparent superluminal propagation of light occurs inside the photonic band-gaps when the principal axes of the anisotropic layers are parallel or perpendicular to the fixed axes. For other orientations of these layers, tunneling and superluminal regimes appear inside the photonic bandgaps and in the allowed bands for frequencies close to the transmission minima. The effect of the number of unit cells of the photonic crystal structure on the propagation of light with superluminal and negative delay times is also investigated. We show that the structure exhibits the Hartman effect in which the tunneling delay time of the electromagnetic wave through the photonic band-gap of the structure converges asymptotically to a finite value with increasing the number of layers. The Green's function approach has been used to derive the transmission and reflection coefficients, the density of states, and the delay times of electromagnetic waves propagating through the structure. The control of the magnitude and the sign of the delay time of light propagation represent a key point in slow and fast light technologies. The proposed structure in this study represents a new system for controlling the delay times of wave propagation without a need of active or non-linear media as well as lossy or asymmetric periodic structures.

  11. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  12. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT-CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN ANALYSIS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of the properties of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the near-infrared using recent data from Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope and the literature. We construct a hierarchical Bayesian framework, incorporating several uncertainties including photometric error, peculiar velocities, dust extinction, and intrinsic variations, for principled and coherent statistical inference. SN Ia light-curve inferences are drawn from the global posterior probability of parameters describing both individual supernovae and the population conditioned on the entire SN Ia NIR data set. The logical structure of the hierarchical model is represented by a directed acyclic graph. Fully Bayesian analysis of the model and data is enabled by an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the conditional probabilistic structure using Gibbs sampling. We apply this framework to the JHK s SN Ia light-curve data. A new light-curve model captures the observed J-band light-curve shape variations. The marginal intrinsic variances in peak absolute magnitudes are σ(M J ) = 0.17 ± 0.03, σ(M H ) = 0.11 ± 0.03, and σ(M Ks ) = 0.19 ± 0.04. We describe the first quantitative evidence for correlations between the NIR absolute magnitudes and J-band light-curve shapes, and demonstrate their utility for distance estimation. The average residual in the Hubble diagram for the training set SNe at cz > 2000kms -1 is 0.10 mag. The new application of bootstrap cross-validation to SN Ia light-curve inference tests the sensitivity of the statistical model fit to the finite sample and estimates the prediction error at 0.15 mag. These results demonstrate that SN Ia NIR light curves are as effective as corrected optical light curves, and, because they are less vulnerable to dust absorption, they have great potential as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  13. An exploration of heterogeneity in supernova type Ia samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Ujjaini [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (India); Lasue, Jeremie, E-mail: ujjaini.alam@gmail.com, E-mail: jeremie.lasue@irap.omp.eu [IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, Toulouse (France)

    2017-06-01

    We examine three SNe Type Ia datasets: Union2.1, JLA and Panstarrs to check their consistency using cosmology blind statistical analyses as well as cosmological parameter fitting. We find that the Panstarrs dataset is the most stable of the three to changes in the data, although it does not, at the moment, go to high enough redshifts to tightly constrain the equation of state of dark energy, w . The Union2.1, drawn from several different sources, appears to be somewhat susceptible to changes within the dataset. The JLA reconstructs well for a smaller number of cosmological parameters. At higher degrees of freedom, the dependence of its errors on redshift can lead to varying results between subsets. Panstarrs is inconsistent with the other two datasets at about 2σ confidence level, and JLA and Union2.1 are about 1σ away from each other. For the Ω{sub 0} {sub m} − w cosmological reconstruction, with no additional data, the 1σ range of values in w for selected subsets of each dataset is two times larger for JLA and Union2.1 as compared to Panstarrs. The range in Ω{sub 0} {sub m} for the same subsets remains approximately similar for all three datasets. We find that although there are differences in the fitting and correction techniques used in the different samples, the most important criterion is the selection of the SNe, a slightly different SNe selection can lead to noticeably different results both in the purely statistical analysis and in cosmological reconstruction. We note that a single, high quality low redshift sample could help decrease the uncertainties in the result. We also note that lack of homogeneity in the magnitude errors may bias the results and should either be modeled, or its effect neutralized by using other, complementary datasets. A supernova sample with high quality data at both high and low redshifts, constructed from a few surveys to avoid heterogeneity in the sample, and with homogeneous errors, would result in a more robust

  14. DETERMINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HOST GALAXY EXTINCTION PROBABILITIES AND A STATISTICAL APPROACH TO ESTIMATING THE ABSORPTION-TO-REDDENING RATIO R{sub V}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cikota, Aleksandar [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Deustua, Susana [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marleau, Francine, E-mail: acikota@eso.org [Institute for Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25/8, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-03-10

    We investigate limits on the extinction values of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to statistically determine the most probable color excess, E(B – V), with galactocentric distance, and use these statistics to determine the absorption-to-reddening ratio, R{sub V}, for dust in the host galaxies. We determined pixel-based dust mass surface density maps for 59 galaxies from the Key Insight on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). We use SN Ia spectral templates to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of color excess E(B – V) with R{sub V} = 3.1 and investigate the color excess probabilities E(B – V) with projected radial galaxy center distance. Additionally, we tested our model using observed spectra of SN 1989B, SN 2002bo, and SN 2006X, which occurred in three KINGFISH galaxies. Finally, we determined the most probable reddening for Sa–Sap, Sab–Sbp, Sbc–Scp, Scd–Sdm, S0, and irregular galaxy classes as a function of R/R{sub 25}. We find that the largest expected reddening probabilities are in Sab–Sb and Sbc–Sc galaxies, while S0 and irregular galaxies are very dust poor. We present a new approach for determining the absorption-to-reddening ratio R{sub V} using color excess probability functions and find values of R{sub V} = 2.71 ± 1.58 for 21 SNe Ia observed in Sab–Sbp galaxies, and R{sub V} = 1.70 ± 0.38, for 34 SNe Ia observed in Sbc–Scp galaxies.

  15. A MISMATCH IN THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA BETWEEN LOW-REDSHIFT AND INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AS A POSSIBLE SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTY FOR SUPERNOVA COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mathew [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Konishi, Kohki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Lampeitl, Hubert [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Mercantile House, Hampshire Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 2EG (United Kingdom); Riess, Adam G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-05-15

    We present Keck high-quality rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) through optical spectra of 21 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.11 {<=} z {<=} 0.37 and a mean redshift of 0.22 that were discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. Using the broadband photometry of the SDSS survey, we are able to reconstruct the SN host-galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), allowing for a correction for the host-galaxy contamination in the SN Ia spectra. Comparison of composite spectra constructed from a subsample of 17 high-quality spectra to those created from a low-redshift sample with otherwise similar properties shows that the Keck/SDSS SNe Ia have, on average, extremely similar rest-frame optical spectra but show a UV flux excess. This observation is confirmed by comparing synthesized broadband colors of the individual spectra, showing a difference in mean colors at the 2.4{sigma}-4.4{sigma} level for various UV colors. We further see a slight difference in the UV spectral shape between SNe with low-mass and high-mass host galaxies. Additionally, we detect a relationship between the flux ratio at 2770 and 2900 A and peak luminosity that differs from that observed at low redshift. We find that changing the UV SED of an SN Ia within the observed dispersion can change the inferred distance moduli by {approx}0.1 mag. This effect only occurs when the data probe the rest-frame UV. We suggest that this discrepancy could be due to differences in the host-galaxy population of the two SN samples or to small-sample statistics.

  16. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies. A preference of hydrogen-poor events for extreme emission line galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Leloudas, G.; Schulze, S.; Kruehler, T.; Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, L.; Mehner, A.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Amorin, R.; Thoene, C. C.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Gallazzi, A.; Helminiak, K. G.; Hjorth, J.; Ibar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusi...

  17. The cosmic transparency measured with Type Ia supernovae: implications for intergalactic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobar, Ariel; Dhawan, Suhail; Scolnic, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Observations of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are used to study the cosmic transparency at optical wavelengths. Assuming a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model based on baryon acoustic oscillations and cosmic microwave background measurements, redshift dependent deviations of SN Ia distances are used to constrain mechanisms that would dim light. The analysis is based on the most recent Pantheon SN compilation, for which there is a 0.03 ± 0.01 {({stat})} mag discrepancy in the distant supernova distance moduli relative to the ΛCDM model anchored by supernovae at z < 0.05. While there are known systematic uncertainties that combined could explain the observed offset, here we entertain the possibility that the discrepancy may instead be explained by scattering of supernova light in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We focus on two effects: Compton scattering by free electrons and extinction by dust in the IGM. We find that if the discrepancy is entirely due to dimming by dust, the measurements can be modelled with a cosmic dust density Ω _IGM^dust = 8 × 10^{-5} (1+z)^{-1}, corresponding to an average attenuation of 2 × 10-5 mag Mpc-1 in V band. Forthcoming SN Ia studies may provide a definitive measurement of the IGM dust properties, while still providing an unbiased estimate of cosmological parameters by introducing additional parameters in the global fits to the observations.

  18. The cosmic transparency measured with Type Ia supernovae: implications for intergalactic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobar, Ariel; Dhawan, Suhail; Scolnic, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Observations of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are used to study the cosmic transparency at optical wavelengths. Assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmological model based on BAO and CMB results, redshift dependent deviations of SN Ia distances are used to constrain mechanisms that would dim light. The analysis is based on the most recent Pantheon SN compilation, for which there is a 0.03± 0.01 {(stat)} mag discrepancy in the distant supernova distance moduli relative to the ΛCDM model anchored by supernovae at z measurements can be modeled with a cosmic dust density Ω _IGM^dust = 8 \\cdot 10^{-5} (1+z)^{-1}, corresponding to an average attenuation of 2 . 10-5 mag Mpc-1 in V-band. Forthcoming SN Ia studies may provide a definitive measurement of the IGM dust properties, while still providing an unbiased estimate of cosmological parameters by introducing additional parameters in the global fits to the observations.

  19. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: SECOND PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, Abdo; Morrell, Nidia; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Roth, Miguel; Boldt, Luis N.; Burns, Chris; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Persson, Sven E.; Contreras, Carlos; Gonzalez, Sergio; Folatelli, Gaston; Salgado, Francisco; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Hamuy, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) was a five-year observational survey conducted at Las Campanas Observatory that obtained, among other things, high-quality light curves of ∼100 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Presented here is the second data release of nearby SN Ia photometry consisting of 50 objects, with a subset of 45 having near-infrared follow-up observations. Thirty-three objects have optical pre-maximum coverage with a subset of 15 beginning at least five days before maximum light. In the near-infrared, 27 objects have coverage beginning before the epoch of B-band maximum, with a subset of 13 beginning at least five days before maximum. In addition, we present results of a photometric calibration program to measure the CSP optical (uBgVri) bandpasses with an accuracy of ∼1%. Finally, we report the discovery of a second SN Ia, SN 2006ot, similar in its characteristics to the peculiar SN 2006bt.

  20. PRE-DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEARBY SN 2009nr: IMPLICATIONS FOR PROMPT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Beacom, J. F.; Szczygiel, D. M.; Mogren, K.; Eastman, J. D.; Martini, P.; Stoll, R.; Prieto, J. L.; Pojmanski, G.; Pilecki, B.

    2011-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ia supernova SN 2009nr in UGC 8255 (z = 0.0122). Following the discovery announcement at what turned out to be 10 days after peak, we detected it at V ≅15.7 mag in data collected by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) North telescope 2 weeks prior to the peak, and then followed it up with telescopes ranging in aperture from 10 cm to 6.5 m. Using early photometric data available only from ASAS, we find that the supernova is similar to the overluminous Type Ia SN 1991T, with a peak at M V ≅ -19.6 mag, and a slow decline rate of Δm 15 (B) ≅ 0.95 mag. The early post-maximum spectra closely resemble those of SN 1991T, while the late-time spectra are more similar to those of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Interestingly, SN 2009nr has a projected distance of 13.0 kpc (∼4.3 disk scale lengths) from the nucleus of the small star-forming host galaxy UGC 8255. This indicates that the progenitor of SN 2009nr is not associated with a young stellar population, calling into question the conventional association of luminous SNe Ia with the 'prompt' component directly correlated with current star formation. The pre-discovery observation of SN 2009nr using ASAS demonstrates the science utility of high-cadence all sky surveys conducted using small telescopes for the discovery of nearby (d ∼< 50 Mpc) supernovae.

  1. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS IN IAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Kreft

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We are reviewing and commenting highlights of the research published in Image Analysis and Stereology journal (IAS, volume 35, where 16 original research papers on image analysis, computer vision, modelling, and other approaches were published. We have reported on the precision of curve length estimation in the plane. Further, a focus was on a robust estimation technique for 3D point cloud registration. Next contribution in computer vision was on the accuracy of stereo matching algorithm based on illumination control. An attempt was also made to automatically diagnose prenatal cleft lip with representative key points and identify the type of defect in three-dimensional ultrasonography. Similarly, a new report is presenting estimation of torsion of digital curves in 3D images and next, the nuchal translucency by ultrasound is being analyzed. Also in ophthalmology, image analysis may help physicians to establish a correct diagnosis, which is supported by a new approach to measure tortuosity of retinal vessel. Another report of medical significance analyzed correlation of the shape parameters for characterization of images of corneal endothelium cells. Shape analysis is also an important topic in material science, e.g. in analyzing fine aggregates in concrete. As in concrete, in fiber reinforced composites image analysis may aid in improved quality, where the direction of fibers have decisive impact on properties. Automatic defect detection using a computer vision system improves productivity quality in industrial production, hence we report of a new Haar wavelet-based approach.

  2. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.

  3. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-07-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.

  4. Single Degenerate Models for Type Ia Supernovae: Progenitor's Evolution and Nucleosynthesis Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Leung, Shing-Chi

    2018-06-01

    We review how the single degenerate models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) works. In the binary star system of a white dwarf (WD) and its non-degenerate companion star, the WD accretes either hydrogen-rich matter or helium and undergoes hydrogen and helium shell-burning. We summarize how the stability and non-linear behavior of such shell-burning depend on the accretion rate and the WD mass and how the WD blows strong wind. We identify the following evolutionary routes for the accreting WD to trigger a thermonuclear explosion. Typically, the accretion rate is quite high in the early stage and gradually decreases as a result of mass transfer. With decreasing rate, the WD evolves as follows: (1) At a rapid accretion phase, the WD increase its mass by stable H burning and blows a strong wind to keep its moderate radius. The wind is strong enough to strip a part of the companion star's envelope to control the accretion rate and forms circumstellar matter (CSM). If the WD explodes within CSM, it is observed as an "SN Ia-CSM". (X-rays emitted by the WD are absorbed by CSM.) (2) If the WD continues to accrete at a lower rate, the wind stops and an SN Ia is triggered under steady-stable H shell-burning, which is observed as a super-soft X-ray source: "SN Ia-SSXS". (3) If the accretion continues at a still lower rate, H shell-burning becomes unstable and many flashes recur. The WD undergoes recurrent nova (RN) whose mass ejection is smaller than the accreted matter. Then the WD evolves to an "SN Ia-RN". (4) If the companion is a He star (or a He WD), the accretion of He can trigger He and C double detonations at the sub-Chandrasekhar mass or the WD grows to the Chandrasekhar mass while producing a He-wind: "SN Ia-He CSM". (5) If the accreting WD rotates quite rapidly, the WD mass can exceed the Chandrasekhar mass of the spherical WD, which delays the trigger of an SN Ia. After angular momentum is lost from the WD, the (super-Chandra) WD contracts to become a delayed SN Ia

  5. Snežna jama (Slovenia): Interdisciplinary dating of cave sediments and implication for landscape evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuselmann, Philipp; Mihevc, Andrej; Pruner, Petr; Horáček, Ivan; Čermák, Stanislav; Hercman, Helena; Sahy, Diana; Fiebig, Markus; Hajna, Nadja Zupan; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-10-15

    Caves are important markers of surface evolution, since they are, as a general rule, linked with ancient valley bottoms by their springs. However, caves can only be dated indirectly by means of the sediments they contain. If the sediment is older than common dating methods, one has to use multiple dating approaches in order to get meaningful results. U/Th dating, palaeomagnetic analysis of flowstone and sediment profiles, cosmogenic dating of quartz pebbles, and mammalian dating allowed a robust estimate of speleogenesis, sediment deposition, climatic change at the surface, and uplift history on the Periadriatic fault line during the Plio-Pleistocene. Our dates indicate that Snežna jama was formed in the (Upper) Miocene, received its sedimentary deposits during the Pliocene in a rather low-lying, hilly landscape, and became inactive due to uplift along the Periadriatic and Sava faults and climatic changes at the beginning of the Quaternary. Although it is only a single cave, the information contained within it makes it an important site of the Southern Alps.

  6. Observational Evidence for High Neutronization in Supernova Remnants: Implications for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Andrews, Brett; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Bravo, Eduardo; Timmes, F. X.; Miles, Broxton J.; Townsley, Dean M.; Piro, Anthony L.; Mori, Hideyuki; Park, Sangwook

    2017-01-01

    The physical process whereby a carbon–oxygen white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains highly uncertain. The degree of neutronization in SN Ia ejecta holds clues to this process because it depends on the mass and the metallicity of the stellar progenitor, and on the thermodynamic history prior to the explosion. We report on a new method to determine ejecta neutronization using Ca and S lines in the X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). Applying this method to Suzaku data of Tycho, Kepler , 3C 397, and G337.2−0.7 in the Milky Way, and N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud, we find that the neutronization of the ejecta in N103B is comparable to that of Tycho and Kepler , which suggests that progenitor metallicity is not the only source of neutronization in SNe Ia. We then use a grid of SN Ia explosion models to infer the metallicities of the stellar progenitors of our SNRs. The implied metallicities of 3C 397, G337.2−0.7, and N103B are major outliers compared to the local stellar metallicity distribution functions, indicating that progenitor metallicity can be ruled out as the origin of neutronization for these SNRs. Although the relationship between ejecta neutronization and equivalent progenitor metallicity is subject to uncertainties stemming from the 12 C + 16 O reaction rate, which affects the Ca/S mass ratio, our main results are not sensitive to these details.

  7. Observational Evidence for High Neutronization in Supernova Remnants: Implications for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Andrews, Brett [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Yamaguchi, Hiroya [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bravo, Eduardo [E.T.S. Arquitectura del Vallès, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Carrer Pere Serra 1-15, E-08173 Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Timmes, F. X. [The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (United States); Miles, Broxton J.; Townsley, Dean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Piro, Anthony L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mori, Hideyuki [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 602, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Park, Sangwook, E-mail: hector.mr@pitt.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The physical process whereby a carbon–oxygen white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains highly uncertain. The degree of neutronization in SN Ia ejecta holds clues to this process because it depends on the mass and the metallicity of the stellar progenitor, and on the thermodynamic history prior to the explosion. We report on a new method to determine ejecta neutronization using Ca and S lines in the X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). Applying this method to Suzaku data of Tycho, Kepler , 3C 397, and G337.2−0.7 in the Milky Way, and N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud, we find that the neutronization of the ejecta in N103B is comparable to that of Tycho and Kepler , which suggests that progenitor metallicity is not the only source of neutronization in SNe Ia. We then use a grid of SN Ia explosion models to infer the metallicities of the stellar progenitors of our SNRs. The implied metallicities of 3C 397, G337.2−0.7, and N103B are major outliers compared to the local stellar metallicity distribution functions, indicating that progenitor metallicity can be ruled out as the origin of neutronization for these SNRs. Although the relationship between ejecta neutronization and equivalent progenitor metallicity is subject to uncertainties stemming from the {sup 12}C + {sup 16}O reaction rate, which affects the Ca/S mass ratio, our main results are not sensitive to these details.

  8. STUDY OF THE DETONATION PHASE IN THE GRAVITATIONALLY CONFINED DETONATION MODEL OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meakin, Casey A.; Townsley, Dean; Jordan, George C.; Truran, James; Lamb, Don; Seitenzahl, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    We study the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) through the detonation phase and into homologous expansion. In the GCD model, a detonation is triggered by the surface flow due to single-point, off-center flame ignition in carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs). The simulations are unique in terms of the degree to which nonidealized physics is used to treat the reactive flow, including weak reaction rates and a time-dependent treatment of material in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE). Careful attention is paid to accurately calculating the final composition of material which is burned to NSE and frozen out in the rapid expansion following the passage of a detonation wave over the high-density core of the WD; and an efficient method for nucleosynthesis postprocessing is developed which obviates the need for costly network calculations along tracer particle thermodynamic trajectories. Observational diagnostics are presented for the explosion models, including abundance stratifications and integrated yields. We find that for all of the ignition conditions studied here a self-regulating process comprised of neutronization and stellar expansion results in final 56 Ni masses of ∼1.1 M sun . But, more energetic models result in larger total NSE and stable Fe-peak yields. The total yield of intermediate mass elements is ∼0.1 M sun and the explosion energies are all around 1.5 x 10 51 erg. The explosion models are briefly compared to the inferred properties of recent SN Ia observations. The potential for surface detonation models to produce lower-luminosity (lower 56 Ni mass) SNe is discussed.

  9. TESTING THE DISTANCE-DUALITY RELATION WITH GALAXY CLUSTERS AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Lima, J. A. S.; Ribeiro, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a new and model-independent cosmological test for the distance-duality (DD) relation, η = D L (z)(1 + z) -2 /D A (z) = 1, where D L and D A are, respectively, the luminosity and angular diameter distances. For D L we consider two sub-samples of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) taken from Constitution data whereas D A distances are provided by two samples of galaxy clusters compiled by De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al. by combining Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and X-ray surface brightness. The SNe Ia redshifts of each sub-sample were carefully chosen to coincide with the ones of the associated galaxy cluster sample (Δz A (z) ape D L (z), we have tested the DD relation by assuming that η is a function of the redshift parameterized by two different expressions: η(z) = 1 + η 0 z and η(z) = 1 + η 0 z/(1 + z), where η 0 is a constant parameter quantifying a possible departure from the strict validity of the reciprocity relation (η 0 = 0). In the best scenario (linear parameterization), we obtain η 0 = -0.28 +0.44 -0.44 (2σ, statistical + systematic errors) for the De Filippis et al. sample (elliptical geometry), a result only marginally compatible with the DD relation. However, for the Bonamente et al. sample (spherical geometry) the constraint is η 0 = -0.42 +0.34 -0.34 (3σ, statistical + systematic errors), which is clearly incompatible with the duality-distance relation.

  10. Related Progenitor Models for Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts and Type Ic Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Dena, David R.; Langer, Norbert; Moriya, Takashi J.; Schootemeijer, Abel

    2018-05-01

    We model the late evolution and mass loss history of rapidly rotating Wolf–Rayet stars in the mass range 5 M ⊙…100 M ⊙). We find that quasi-chemically homogeneously evolving single stars computed with enhanced mixing retain very little or no helium and are compatible with Type Ic supernovae. The more efficient removal of core angular momentum and the expected smaller compact object mass in our lower-mass models lead to core spins in the range suggested for magnetar-driven superluminous supernovae. Our higher-mass models retain larger specific core angular momenta, expected for long-duration gamma-ray bursts in the collapsar scenario. Due to the absence of a significant He envelope, the rapidly increasing neutrino emission after core helium exhaustion leads to an accelerated contraction of the whole star, inducing a strong spin-up and centrifugally driven mass loss at rates of up to {10}-2 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1 in the last years to decades before core collapse. Because the angular momentum transport in our lower-mass models enhances the envelope spin-up, they show the largest relative amounts of centrifugally enforced mass loss, i.e., up to 25% of the expected ejecta mass. Our most massive models evolve into the pulsational pair-instability regime. We would thus expect signatures of interaction with a C/O-rich circumstellar medium for Type Ic superluminous supernovae with ejecta masses below ∼10 M ⊙ as well as for the most massive engine-driven explosions with ejecta masses above ∼30 M ⊙. Signs of such interaction should be observable at early epochs of the supernova explosion; they may be related to bumps observed in the light curves of superluminous supernovae, or to the massive circumstellar CO-shell proposed for Type Ic superluminous supernova Gaia16apd.

  11. Constraining the Single-degenerate Channel of Type Ia Supernovae with Stable Iron-group Elements in SNR 3C 397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, Pranav; Kashyap, Rahul; Fisher, Robert [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States); Timmes, Frank [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Townsley, Dean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 870324, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Byrohl, Chris [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg August Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-05-20

    Recent Suzaku X-ray spectra of supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397 indicate enhanced stable iron group element abundances of Ni, Mn, Cr, and Fe. Seeking to address key questions about the progenitor and explosion mechanism of 3C 397, we compute nucleosynthetic yields from a suite of multidimensional hydrodynamics models in the near-Chandrasekhar-mass, single-degenerate paradigm for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Varying the progenitor white dwarf (WD) internal structure, composition, ignition, and explosion mechanism, we find that the best match to the observed iron peak elements of 3C 397 are dense (central density ≥6 × 10{sup 9} g cm{sup −3}), low-carbon WDs that undergo a weak, centrally ignited deflagration, followed by a subsequent detonation. The amount of {sup 56}Ni produced is consistent with a normal or bright normal SNe Ia. A pure deflagration of a centrally ignited, low central density (≃2 × 10{sup 9} g cm{sup −3}) progenitor WD, frequently considered in the literature, is also found to produce good agreement with 3C 397 nucleosynthetic yields, but leads to a subluminous SN Ia event, in conflict with X-ray line width data. Additionally, in contrast to prior work that suggested a large supersolar metallicity for the WD progenitor for SNR 3C 397, we find satisfactory agreement for solar- and subsolar-metallicity progenitors. We discuss a range of implications our results have for the single-degenerate channel.

  12. The principle of relativity, superluminality and EPR experiments. "Riserratevi sotto coverta ..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciaro, B.

    2015-07-01

    The principle of relativity claims the invariance of the results for experiments carried out in inertial reference frames if the system under examination is not in interaction with the outside world. In this paper it is analysed a model suggested by J. S. Bell, and later developed by P. H. Eberhard, D. Bohm and B. Hiley on the basis of which the EPR correlations would be due to superluminal exchanges between the various parts of the entangled system under examination. In the model the existence of a privileged reference frame (PF) for the propagation of superluminal signals is hypothesized so that these superluminal signals may not give rise to causal paradoxes. According to this model, in an EPR experiment, the entangled system interacts with the outer world since the result of the experiment depends on an entity (the reference frame PF) that is not prepared by the experimenter. The existence of this privileged reference frame makes the model non invariant for Lorentz transformations. In this paper, in opposition to what claimed by the authors mentioned above, the perfect compatibility of the model with the theory of relativity is strongly maintained since, as already said, the principle of relativity does not require that the results of experiments carried out on systems interacting with the outside world should be invariant.

  13. Time-resolved Polarimetry of the Superluminous SN 2015bn with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Maund, Justyn R. [The Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Pursimo, Tapio [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Hsiao, Eric [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Malesani, Daniele; De Ugarte Postigo, Antonio [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Patat, Ferdinando [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sollerman, Jesper [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Wheeler, J. Craig [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We present imaging polarimetry of the superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, obtained over nine epochs between −20 and +46 days with the Nordic Optical Telescope. This was a nearby, slowly evolving Type I superluminous supernova that has been studied extensively and for which two epochs of spectropolarimetry are also available. Based on field stars, we determine the interstellar polarization in the Galaxy to be negligible. The polarization of SN 2015bn shows a statistically significant increase during the last epochs, confirming previous findings. Our well-sampled imaging polarimetry series allows us to determine that this increase (from ∼0.54% to ≳1.10%) coincides in time with rapid changes that took place in the optical spectrum. We conclude that the supernova underwent a “phase transition” at around +20 days, when the photospheric emission shifted from an outer layer, dominated by natal C and O, to a more aspherical inner core, dominated by freshly nucleosynthesized material. This two-layered model might account for the characteristic appearance and properties of Type I superluminous supernovae.

  14. X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY FLASHES FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, Peter; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2009-01-01

    and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) about 12.9 ± 3.6 nearby SNe Ia should have been detected, but only 0.8 ± 0.7 non-coincidental matches have been found. With the High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) and Swift satellites, we expect to see 5.6 ± 1.3 SN-Ia flashes from known nearby SNe Ia but, yet, no SN-Ia flashes were detected. With the trigger thresholds for these experiments and the upper limits on the SN-Ia distances, we show that the bolometric peak luminosity of SN-Ia flashes must be less ∼10 46 erg s -1 . Our observational limit is several orders-of-magnitude smaller than the peak luminosities predicted for both the early flashes. We attribute this difference to the absorption of the X- and γ-rays by the accretion disk of large-scale height or common envelope that would be smothering the WD.

  15. ''Superluminal'' phenomena can be attributed to instantaneous tunneling of excitations in near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'man, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Recent new observations of superluminal transmission of photons afresh raised the discussions of problem of their reality and significance. The possibilities and conditions of such transferring are examined by the covariant theory of dispersion relations and are resulted into the THEOREM: Superluminal transfer of excitations (jumps) through the linear passive substance can been elected nothing but by the instantaneous tunneling of virtual particles on distances of order of half wavelength corresponding to energy, which is lacking to the nearest stable (resonance) state. The nonlocality of electromagnetic field must be describable via the 4-potential A m u, whereas electric and magnetic fields remain unconnected in the near zone. (The proof or its preliminary version in: M.E.Perel'man: gen-physics/ 0309123.) The experimental data can be interpreted on this base as the sequential processes of scattering of single photons. Their temporal distributions are estimated with taking into account durations of scattering: in optically thin media the usual statistical description is invalid and interpretation via the theory of scattering is required. So in the most known experiments of M.D.Stenner, D.L.Gauthier, M.A.Neifeld. Nature, 425, 696 (2003) the pulse (389 THz) on the entrance of gas cell of L = 40 cm length is J(t, x = 0; w) = J o I(t)I(w). The measured group refraction index n g = -19 and the duration of formation tau = -27 as, therefore the free path length is of order l = 40 cm and the probability of single scattering p(w) = exp(-L/l) = 0.37. Thereby for photons, which undergo not more than one scattering the intensity on the outlet J(t,x = L;wω) Jω(w){pI(L/c-(t,x=0;wI(L/c - |tau| +(1-p)I(L/c), i.e. the outlet must be represented by the sum of two Gaussians, initial and advanced. As the non-shifted peak must be twice bigger than advanced, the center of their envelope will be displaced into the side of speed c or even to c/n. And it possibly predefined

  16. The detonation of a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf at the origin of the low-luminosity Type Ia supernova 1999by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stéphane; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John

    2018-03-01

    While Chandrasekhar-mass (MCh) models with a low 56Ni yield can match the peak luminosities of fast-declining, 91bg-like Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), they systematically fail to reproduce their faster light-curve evolution. Here, we illustrate the impact of a low ejecta mass on the radiative display of low-luminosity SNe Ia, by comparing a sub-MCh model resulting from the pure central detonation of a C-O white dwarf (WD) to an MCh delayed-detonation model with the same 56Ni yield of 0.12 M⊙. Our sub-MCh model from a 0.90 M⊙ WD progenitor has a ˜5 d shorter rise time in the integrated UV-optical-IR (uvoir) luminosity, as well as in the B band, and a ˜20 per cent higher peak uvoir luminosity (˜1 mag brighter peak MB). This sub-MCh model also displays bluer maximum-light colours due to the larger specific heating rate, and larger post-maximum uvoir and B-band decline rates. The luminosity decline at nebular times is also more pronounced, reflecting the enhanced escape of gamma rays resulting from the lower density of the progenitor WD. The deficit of stable nickel in the innermost ejecta leads to a notable absence of forbidden lines of [Ni II] in the nebular spectra. In contrast, the MCh model displays a strong line due to [Ni II] 1.939 μm, which could in principle serve to distinguish between different progenitor scenarios. Our sub-MCh model offers an unprecedented agreement with optical and near-infrared observations of the 91bg-like SN 1999by, making a strong case for a WD progenitor significantly below the Chandrasekhar-mass limit for this event and other low-luminosity SNe Ia.

  17. THE VERY YOUNG TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2013dy: DISCOVERY, AND STRONG CARBON ABSORPTION IN EARLY-TIME SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nugent, Peter E.; Graham, Melissa; Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Shivvers, Isaac; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Li, Weidong; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Howie Marion, G.; Kasen, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Valenti, Stefano; Howell, D. Andrew; Ciabattari, Fabrizio; Cenko, S. Bradley; Balam, Dave; Hsiao, Eric; Sand, David

    2013-01-01

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2013dy in NGC 7250 (d ≈ 13.7 Mpc) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Combined with a prediscovery detection by the Italian Supernova Search Project, we are able to constrain the first-light time of SN 2013dy to be only 0.10 ± 0.05 days (2.4 ± 1.2 hr) before the first detection. This makes SN 2013dy the earliest known detection of an SN Ia. We infer an upper limit on the radius of the progenitor star of R 0 ≲ 0.25 R ☉ , consistent with that of a white dwarf. The light curve exhibits a broken power law with exponents of 0.88 and then 1.80. A spectrum taken 1.63 days after first light reveals a C II absorption line comparable in strength to Si II. This is the strongest C II feature ever detected in a normal SN Ia, suggesting that the progenitor star had significant unburned material. The C II line in SN 2013dy weakens rapidly and is undetected in a spectrum 7 days later, indicating that C II is detectable for only a very short time in some SNe Ia. SN 2013dy reached a B-band maximum of M B = –18.72 ± 0.03 mag ∼17.7 days after first light

  18. THE VERY YOUNG TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2013dy: DISCOVERY, AND STRONG CARBON ABSORPTION IN EARLY-TIME SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nugent, Peter E.; Graham, Melissa; Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Shivvers, Isaac; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Howie Marion, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kasen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Valenti, Stefano; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Ciabattari, Fabrizio [Monte Agliale Observatory, Borgo a Mozzano, Lucca, I-55023 Italy (Italy); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balam, Dave [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Hsiao, Eric [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Sand, David, E-mail: zwk@astro.berkeley.edu [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); and others

    2013-11-20

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2013dy in NGC 7250 (d ≈ 13.7 Mpc) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Combined with a prediscovery detection by the Italian Supernova Search Project, we are able to constrain the first-light time of SN 2013dy to be only 0.10 ± 0.05 days (2.4 ± 1.2 hr) before the first detection. This makes SN 2013dy the earliest known detection of an SN Ia. We infer an upper limit on the radius of the progenitor star of R {sub 0} ≲ 0.25 R {sub ☉}, consistent with that of a white dwarf. The light curve exhibits a broken power law with exponents of 0.88 and then 1.80. A spectrum taken 1.63 days after first light reveals a C II absorption line comparable in strength to Si II. This is the strongest C II feature ever detected in a normal SN Ia, suggesting that the progenitor star had significant unburned material. The C II line in SN 2013dy weakens rapidly and is undetected in a spectrum 7 days later, indicating that C II is detectable for only a very short time in some SNe Ia. SN 2013dy reached a B-band maximum of M{sub B} = –18.72 ± 0.03 mag ∼17.7 days after first light.

  19. The Galah Survey: Classification and Diagnostics with t-SNE Reduction of Spectral Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traven, G.; Zwitter, T.; Žerjal, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Matijevič, G. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kos, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; De Silva, G.; Sharma, S. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Asplund, M.; Freeman, K.; Lin, J.; Da Costa, G.; Duong, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Casey, A. R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Martell, S. L. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Schlesinger, K. J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Simpson, J. D. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Zucker, D. B. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Anguiano, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Horner, J., E-mail: gregor.traven@fmf.uni-lj.si [Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre, University of Southern Queensland, Towoomba QLD 4350 (Australia); and others

    2017-02-01

    Galah is an ongoing high-resolution spectroscopic survey with the goal of disentangling the formation history of the Milky Way using the fossil remnants of disrupted star formation sites that are now dispersed around the Galaxy. It is targeting a randomly selected magnitude-limited ( V ≤ 14) sample of stars, with the goal of observing one million objects. To date, 300,000 spectra have been obtained. Not all of them are correctly processed by parameter estimation pipelines, and we need to know about them. We present a semi-automated classification scheme that identifies different types of peculiar spectral morphologies in an effort to discover and flag potentially problematic spectra and thus help to preserve the integrity of the survey results. To this end, we employ the recently developed dimensionality reduction technique t-SNE ( t -distributed stochastic neighbor embedding), which enables us to represent the complex spectral morphology in a two-dimensional projection map while still preserving the properties of the local neighborhoods of spectra. We find that the majority (178,483) of the 209,533 Galah spectra considered in this study represents normal single stars, whereas 31,050 peculiar and problematic spectra with very diverse spectral features pertaining to 28,579 stars are distributed into 10 classification categories: hot stars, cool metal-poor giants, molecular absorption bands, binary stars, H α /H β emission, H α /H β emission superimposed on absorption, H α /H β P-Cygni, H α /H β inverted P-Cygni, lithium absorption, and problematic. Classified spectra with supplementary information are presented in the catalog, indicating candidates for follow-up observations and population studies of the short-lived phases of stellar evolution.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamical Effects on Nuclear Deflagration Fronts in Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Boyan; Collins, David C.; Hoeflich, Peter; Weatherford, Charles A.; Diamond, Tiara R.

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a study of the effects of magnetic fields on non-distributed nuclear burning fronts as a possible solution to a fundamental problem for the thermonuclear explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass ({M}Ch}) white dwarf (WD), the currently favored scenario for the majority of Type Ia SNe. All existing 3D hydrodynamical simulations predict strong global mixing of the burning products due to Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instabilities, which contradicts observations. As a first step toward studying the flame physics, we present a set of computational magnet-hydrodynamic models in rectangular flux tubes, resembling a small inner region of a WD. We consider initial magnetic fields up to {10}12 {{G}} of various orientations. We find an increasing suppression of RT instabilities starting at about {10}9 {{G}}. The front speed tends to decrease with increasing magnitude up to about {10}11 {{G}}. For even higher fields new small-scale, finger-like structures develop, which increase the burning speed by a factor of 3 to 4 above the field-free RT-dominated regime. We suggest that the new instability may provide sufficiently accelerated energy production during the distributed burning regime to go over the Chapman–Jougey limit and trigger a detonation. Finally, we discuss the possible origins of high magnetic fields during the final stage of the progenitor evolution or the explosion.

  1. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Arcavi, Iair; Sand, David J.; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Valenti, Stefano; Bostroem, K. Azalee; Brown, Peter; Kasen, Daniel; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.

    2017-01-01

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U , B , and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R _☉ from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ 6580) absorption up through day −13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  2. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117-5575 (United States); Sand, David J.; Tartaglia, Leonardo [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Valenti, Stefano; Bostroem, K. Azalee [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5270 (United States); Brown, Peter [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kasen, Daniel [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8169 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian D., E-mail: griffin@lco.global [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-08-20

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U , B , and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R {sub ☉} from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ 6580) absorption up through day −13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  3. A metric space for Type Ia supernova spectra: a new method to assess explosion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasdelli, Michele; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Röpke, F. K.; Sim, S. A.; Pakmor, R.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Fink, M.

    2017-04-01

    Over the past years, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have become a major tool to determine the expansion history of the Universe, and considerable attention has been given to, both, observations and models of these events. However, until now, their progenitors are not known. The observed diversity of light curves and spectra seems to point at different progenitor channels and explosion mechanisms. Here, we present a new way to compare model predictions with observations in a systematic way. Our method is based on the construction of a metric space for SN Ia spectra by means of linear principal component analysis, taking care of missing and/or noisy data, and making use of partial least-squares regression to find correlations between spectral properties and photometric data. We investigate realizations of the three major classes of explosion models that are presently discussed: delayed-detonation Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, sub-Chandrasekhar-mass detonations and double-degenerate mergers, and compare them with data. We show that in the principal component space, all scenarios have observed counterparts, supporting the idea that different progenitors are likely. However, all classes of models face problems in reproducing the observed correlations between spectral properties and light curves and colours. Possible reasons are briefly discussed.

  4. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors

  5. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia, E-mail: schakraborti@post.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors.

  6. The first IA-64 microprocessor

    CERN Document Server

    Rusu, S

    2000-01-01

    The first implementation of the IA-64 architecture achieves high performance by using a highly parallel execution core, while maintaining binary compatibility with the IA-32 instruction set. Explicitly parallel instruction computing (EPIC) design maximizes performance through hardware and software synergy. The processor contains 25.4 million transistors and operates at 800 MHz. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18- mu m CMOS process with six metal layers and packaged in a 1012-pad organic land grid array using C4 (flip chip) assembly technology. A core speed back-side bus connects the processor to a 4-MB L3 cache. (6 refs).

  7. Superluminal phenomena can be attributed to instantaneous tunneling of excitations in near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelman, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Recent new observations of superluminal transmission of photons afresh raised the discussions of problem of their reality and significance. The possibilities aitd conditions of such transferring are examined by the covariant theory of dispersion relations and are resulted into the THEOREM: Superluminal transfer of excitations (jumps) through the linear passive substance can been elected nothing but by the instantaneous tunneling of virtual particles on distances of order of half wavelength corresponding to energy, which is lacking to the nearest stable (resonance) state. The nonlocality of electromagnetic field must be describable via the 4-potential A μ , whereas electric and magnetic fields remain unconnected in the near zone. (The proof of its preliminary version in: M.E.Perefman: gen-physics/ 0309123.) The experimental data can be interpreted on this base as the sequential processes of scattering of single photons. Their temporal distributions are estimated with taking into account durations of scattering: in optically thin media the usual statistical description is invalid and interpretation via the theory of scattering is required. So in the most known experiments of M.D.Stenner, D.L.Gauthier, M.A.Neifeld. Nature, 425, 695 (2003) the pulse (389 THz) on the entrance of gas cell of l = 40 cm length is J(t,x = O;ω) = ,J o I(t)I(ω). .The measured group refraction index ng = -19 and the duration of formation τ = -27 as, therefore the free path length is of order l= 40 cm and the probability of single scattering p(?) =exp(-L/l) 0.37. Thereby for photons, which undergo not more than one scattering the intensity on the outlet J(t,x = Lω) = JtI(τ){pI(L/c - |τ|) + (1- p)I(L/c)], i.e. the outlet must be represented by the sum of two Gaussians, initial and advanced. As the non-shifted peak must be twice bigger than advanced, the center of their envelope will be displaced into the side of speed c or even to c/n. And it possibly predefined the conclusions

  8. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics a superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly non-causal processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the non-causal. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That

  9. Light propagation from subluminal to superluminal in a three-level Λ-type system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Guo Hong; Bai, Yanfeng; Han Dingan; Fan Shuangli; Chen Xuzong

    2005-01-01

    We show that the group velocity of a weak electromagnetic pulse can be manipulated by adjusting the relative phase of the probing and the pumping fields applied to a Λ-type three-level system, whose two lower states are coupled by an external control magnetic field. Such control field can, in principle, cause the light propagation to be changed from subluminal to superluminal by modulating the relative phase. The same effect can be obtained by varying the intensities of the pumping and the control magnetic fields, but it is different with Agarwal's [Phys. Rev. A 64 (2001) 053809]. The effect of Doppler broadening on the dispersion is also investigated

  10. Higher Dimensional Spacetimes for Visualizing and Modeling Subluminal, Luminal and Superluminal Flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froning, H. David; Meholic, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly explores higher dimensional spacetimes that extend Meholic's visualizable, fluidic views of: subluminal-luminal-superluminal flight; gravity, inertia, light quanta, and electromagnetism from 2-D to 3-D representations. Although 3-D representations have the potential to better model features of Meholic's most fundamental entities (Transluminal Energy Quantum) and of the zero-point quantum vacuum that pervades all space, the more complex 3-D representations loose some of the clarity of Meholic's 2-D representations of subluminal and superlumimal realms. So, much new work would be needed to replace Meholic's 2-D views of reality with 3-D ones.

  11. An analysis of superluminal propagation becoming subluminal in highly dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this article the time-moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse are used to characterize the traversal time and the pulse width as the pulse propagates through highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with propagation distance is analyzed in two physical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, and Raman gain doublet amplifying medium. It is found that the superluminal pulse propagation in these two cases with anomalous dispersion is always accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation.

  12. Diffraction effects in microwave propagation at the origin of superluminal behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranfagni, A. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Ricci, A.M. [Istituto per le Telecomunicazioni e l' Elettronica della Marina Militare ' Giancarlo Vallauri' (Mariteleradar), Viale Italia 72, 57100 Livorno (Italy); Ruggeri, R. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: rocco.ruggeri@isc.cnr.it; Agresti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)

    2008-10-27

    Superluminal behaviors, as evidenced by the presence of forerunners, in advanced position with respect to the main luminal peak, have been revealed in microwave propagation experiments by using a radar technique. The results are interpreted on the basis of (fast) complex waves, usually considered only in the near-field region, but still surviving beyond this limit. Consideration of further diffraction effects, as due to geometrical limitations of the experimental set-up, allows for the obtainment of a plausible description of the results.

  13. IAS 12 needs methodical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkenscheid, R.P.F.M.; Janssen, C.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a methodology used to establish the expected value of uncertain tax positions. The Project Update on Income Taxes released by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) in September 2008 aims to reduce the differences between IAS 12 Income Taxes and the SFAS 109

  14. Testing ΛCDM at the lowest redshifts with SN Ia and galaxy velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Scolnic, Daniel M. [University of Chicago, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: huterer@umich.edu, E-mail: dshafer2@jhu.edu, E-mail: dscolnic@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    Peculiar velocities of objects in the nearby universe are correlated due to the gravitational pull of large-scale structure. By measuring these velocities, we have a unique opportunity to test the cosmological model at the lowest redshifts. We perform this test, using current data to constrain the amplitude of the ''signal'' covariance matrix describing the velocities and their correlations. We consider a new, well-calibrated ''Supercal'' set of low-redshift SNe Ia as well as a set of distances derived from the fundamental plane relation of 6dFGS galaxies. Analyzing the SN and galaxy data separately, both results are consistent with the peculiar velocity signal of our fiducial ΛCDM model, ruling out the noise-only model with zero peculiar velocities at greater than 7σ (SNe) and 8σ (galaxies). When the two data sets are combined appropriately, the precision of the test increases slightly, resulting in a constraint on the signal amplitude of A = 1.05{sub −0.21}{sup +0.25}, where A = 1 corresponds to our fiducial model. Equivalently, we report an 11% measurement of the product of the growth rate and amplitude of mass fluctuations evaluated at z {sub eff} = 0.02, f σ{sub 8} = 0.428{sub −0.045}{sup +0.048}, valid for our fiducial ΛCDM model. We explore the robustness of the results to a number of conceivable variations in the analysis and find that individual variations shift the preferred signal amplitude by less than ∼0.5σ. We briefly discuss our Supercal SN Ia results in comparison with our previous results using the JLA compilation.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA DIVERSITY FROM ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaofeng [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Lifan [Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Baron, Eddie [Department of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kromer, Markus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jack, Dennis [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany); Zhang Tianmeng [National Astronomical Observatory of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Aldering, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire des Hautes Energies, Paris (France); Arnett, W. David [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Baade, Dietrich [European Southern Observatory, 85748 Garching (Germany); Barris, Brian J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Benetti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, 35122 Padova (Italy); Bouchet, Patrice [CEA/DSM/DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burrows, Adam S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Canal, Ramon [Department d' Astronomia i Meterorologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona 8007 (Spain); Carlberg, Raymond G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3J3 (Canada); Di Carlo, Elisa [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Challis, Peter J., E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Harvard/Smithsonian Center Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This data set provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 A. Significant diversity is seen in the near-maximum-light spectra ({approx}2000-3500 A) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope observations, provide further evidence of increased dispersion in the UV emission with respect to the optical. The peak luminosities measured in the uvw1/F250W filter are found to correlate with the B-band light-curve shape parameter {Delta}m{sub 15}(B), but with much larger scatter relative to the correlation in the broadband B band (e.g., {approx}0.4 mag versus {approx}0.2 mag for those with 0.8 mag < {Delta}m{sub 15}(B) < 1.7 mag). SN 2004dt is found as an outlier of this correlation (at > 3{sigma}), being brighter than normal SNe Ia such as SN 2005cf by {approx}0.9 mag and {approx}2.0 mag in the uvw1/F250W and uvm2/F220W filters, respectively. We show that different progenitor metallicity or line-expansion velocities alone cannot explain such a large discrepancy. Viewing-angle effects, such as due to an asymmetric explosion, may have a significant influence on the flux emitted in the UV region. Detailed modeling is needed to disentangle and quantify the above effects.

  16. PTF11kx: A Type Ia Supernova with Hydrogen Emission Persisting after 3.5 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Harris, C. E.; Nugent, P. E.; Kasen, D.; Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Fox, O. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    The optical transient PTF11kx exhibited both the characteristic spectral features of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the signature of ejecta interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) containing hydrogen, indicating the presence of a nondegenerate companion. We present an optical spectrum at 1342 days after peak from Keck Observatory, in which the broad component of H α emission persists with a similar profile as in early-time observations. We also present Spitzer IRAC detections obtained 1237 and 1818 days after peak, and an upper limit from Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet imaging at 2133 days. We interpret our late-time observations in the context of published results—and reinterpret the early-time observations—in order to constrain the CSM’s physical parameters and to compare to theoretical predictions for recurrent-nova systems. We find that the CSM’s radial extent may be several times the distance between the star and the CSM’s inner edge, and that the CSM column density may be two orders of magnitude lower than previous estimates. We show that the H α luminosity decline is similar to other SNe with CSM interaction and demonstrate how our infrared photometry is evidence for newly formed, collisionally heated dust. We create a model for PTF11kx’s late-time CSM interaction and find that X-ray reprocessing by photoionization and recombination cannot reproduce the observed H α luminosity, suggesting that the X-rays are thermalized and that H α radiates from collisional excitation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results regarding the progenitor scenario and the geometric properties of the CSM for the PTF11kx system.

  17. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA......’ in Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Host galaxies of Superluminous Supernovae (Angus+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, C. R.; Levan, A. J.; Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Lyman, J. D.; Stanway, E. R.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    Here we use nIR and rest-frame UV observations of a sample of 21 SLSN host galaxies, within a redshift range of 0.019 SCP 06F6). This HST sample (programme GO-13025; PI: Levan) comprised 21 targets, based on the sample of Neill et al. (2011ApJ...727...15N), supplemented with luminous SNe from the literature (up to 2012 Jan). (6 data files).

  19. Pregnancies in glycogen storage disease type Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Danielle H. J.; Rake, Jan Peter; Schwarz, Martin; Ullrich, Kurt; Weinstein, David A.; Merkel, Martin; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Smit, G. Peter A.

    OBJECTIVE: Reports on pregnancies in women with glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) are scarce. Because of improved life expectancy, pregnancy is becoming an important issue. We describe 15 pregnancies by focusing on dietary treatment, biochemical parameters, and GSD-Ia complications. STUDY

  20. Special relativity and superluminal motions: a discussion of some recent experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recami, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)]|[Bergamo Univ., Bergamo (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria]|[State Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Fontana, F. [Pirelli Cavi, Milan (Italy). R and D sector; Garavaglia, R. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Informazione

    2000-03-01

    Some experiments, performed at Berkeley, Cologne, Florence, Vienna, Orsay and Rennes led to the claim that something seems to travel with a group velocity larger than the speed c of light in vacuum. Various other experimental results seem to point in the same direction. For instance, localized wavelet-type solutions of Maxwell equations have been found, both theoretically and experimentally, that travel with superluminal speed. Even mounic and electronic neutrinos - it has been proposed - might be tachyons, since their square mass appears to be negative. With regard to the first mentioned experiments, it was very recently claimed by Guenter Nimtz that those results with evanescent waves or tunnelling photons - implying superluminal signal and impulse transmission - violate Einstein causality. This note, on the contrary, discusses that all such results do not place relativistic causality in jeopardy, even if they refer to actual tachyonic motions. In fact, special relativity can cope even with also the known paradoxes , devised for faster than light motion, even if this is not widely recognized. Here the paper shows, in detail and rigorously, how to solve the oldest casual paradox. originally proposed by Tolman, which is the kernel of many further tachyon paradoxes. The key to the solution is a careful application of tachyon mechanics, as it unambiguously follows from special relativity.

  1. In search of superluminal quantum communications: recent experiments and possible improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocciaro, B; Faetti, S; Fronzoni, L

    2013-01-01

    As shown in the famous EPR paper (Einstein, Podolsky e Rosen, 1935), Quantum Mechanics is non-local. The Bell theorem and the experiments by Aspect and many others, ruled out the possibility of explaining quantum correlations between entangled particles using local hidden variables models (except for implausible combinations of loopholes). Some authors (Bell, Eberhard, Bohm and Hiley) suggested that quantum correlations could be due to superluminal communications (tachyons) that propagate isotropically with velocity v t > c in a preferred reference frame. For finite values of v t , Quantum Mechanics and superluminal models lead to different predictions. Some years ago a Geneva group and our group did experiments on entangled photons to evidence possible discrepancies between experimental results and quantum predictions. Since no discrepancy was found, these experiments established only lower bounds for the possible tachyon velocities v t . Here we propose an improved experiment that should lead us to explore a much larger range of possible tachyon velocities V t for any possible direction of velocity V-vector of the tachyons preferred frame.

  2. In search of superluminal quantum communications: recent experiments and possible improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciaro, B.; Faetti, S.; Fronzoni, L.

    2013-06-01

    As shown in the famous EPR paper (Einstein, Podolsky e Rosen, 1935), Quantum Mechanics is non-local. The Bell theorem and the experiments by Aspect and many others, ruled out the possibility of explaining quantum correlations between entangled particles using local hidden variables models (except for implausible combinations of loopholes). Some authors (Bell, Eberhard, Bohm and Hiley) suggested that quantum correlations could be due to superluminal communications (tachyons) that propagate isotropically with velocity vt > c in a preferred reference frame. For finite values of vt, Quantum Mechanics and superluminal models lead to different predictions. Some years ago a Geneva group and our group did experiments on entangled photons to evidence possible discrepancies between experimental results and quantum predictions. Since no discrepancy was found, these experiments established only lower bounds for the possible tachyon velocities vt. Here we propose an improved experiment that should lead us to explore a much larger range of possible tachyon velocities Vt for any possible direction of velocity vec V of the tachyons preferred frame.

  3. Special relativity and superluminal motions: a discussion of some recent experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Fontana, F.; Garavaglia, R.

    2000-03-01

    Some experiments, performed at Berkeley, Cologne, Florence, Vienna, Orsay and Rennes led to the claim that something seems to travel with a group velocity larger than the speed c of light in vacuum. Various other experimental results seem to point in the same direction. For instance, localized wavelet-type solutions of Maxwell equations have been found, both theoretically and experimentally, that travel with superluminal speed. Even muonic and electronic neutrinos - it has been proposed - might be tachyons, since their square mass appears to be negative. With regard to the first mentioned experiments, it was very recently claimed by Guenter Nimtz that those results with evanescent waves or tunnelling photons - implying superluminal signal and impulse transmission - violate Einstein causality. This note, on the contrary, discusses that all such results do not place relativistic causality in jeopardy, even if they refer to actual tachyonic motions. In fact, special relativity can cope even with also the known paradoxes , devised for faster than light motion, even if this is not widely recognized. Here the paper shows, in detail and rigorously, how to solve the oldest casual paradox. originally proposed by Tolman, which is the kernel of many further tachyon paradoxes. The key to the solution is a careful application of tachyon mechanics, as it unambiguously follows from special relativity

  4. Tunneling time, the Hartman effect, and superluminality: A proposed resolution of an old paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winful, Herbert G.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of tunneling time is replete with controversy and paradoxes. The controversy stems from the fact that many tunneling time definitions seem to predict superluminal tunneling velocities. One prediction, termed the Hartman effect, states that the tunneling time becomes independent of barrier length for thick enough barriers, ultimately resulting in unbounded tunneling velocities. Experiments done with 'single photons', classical light waves, and microwaves all show this apparent superluminality. The origin of these paradoxical effects has been a mystery for decades. In this article, we review the history of tunneling times starting with the early work of MacColl, Hartman, and Wigner. We discuss some of the tunneling time definitions, with particular emphasis on the phase time (also known as the group delay or Wigner time) and the dwell time. The key experiments are reviewed. We then discuss our recent work, which suggests that the group delay in tunneling is not a transit time as has been assumed for decades. It is, in reality, a lifetime and hence should not be used to assign a speed of barrier traversal. We show how this new understanding along with the concept of energy storage and release resolves all the outstanding tunneling time paradoxes

  5. On the possibility of superluminal energy propagation in a hyperbolic metamaterial of metal-dielectric layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Gang Luan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy propagation of electromagnetic fields in the effective medium of a one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of dielectric and metallic layers is investigated. We show that the medium behaves like Drude and Lorentz medium, respectively, when the electric field is parallel and perpendicular to the layers. For arbitrary time-varying electromagnetic fields in this medium, the energy density formula is derived. We prove rigorously that the group velocity of any propagating mode obeying the hyperbolic dispersion must be slower than the speed of light in vacuum, taking into account the frequency dependence of the permittivity tensor. That is, it is not possible to have superluminal propagation in this dispersive hyperbolic medium consisting of real dielectric and metallic material layers. The propagation velocity of a wave packet is also studied numerically. This packet velocity is very close to the velocity of the propagating mode having the central frequency and central wave vector of the wave packet. When the frequency spread of the wave packet is not narrow enough, small discrepancy between these two velocities manifests, which is caused by the non-penetration effect of the evanescent modes. This work reveals that no superluminal phenomenon can happen in a dispersive anisotropic metamaterial medium made of real materials.

  6. Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. A.; Cao, Y.; Piro, A. L.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bue, B. D.; Cenko, S. B.; Dhawan, S.; Ferretti, R.; Fox, O. D.; Fremling, C.; Goobar, A.; Howell, D. A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; McCully, C.; Nugent, P. E.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN, that is, when the SN could have first been detected by our survey, occurred only 0.15{+/- }0.070.15 days before our first detection. In the ∼24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by ∼2 mag, featuring a near-linear rise in flux for ≳ 3 days. Early spectra show strong C II absorption, which disappears after ∼7 days. Unlike the extensively observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the {(B-V)}0 colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the nonevolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong C II absorption, are the result of either ejecta interaction with nearby, unbound material or vigorous mixing of radioactive 56Ni in the SN ejecta, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  7. On excitation and radiation of detector moving in vacuum with acceleration or moving rectilinearly with superluminal velocity in a medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.; Frolov, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of excitation of a detector moving in vacuum with constant acceleration is being discussed in recent years. It is noted in the paper that this excitation and radiation associated with it are similar to those taking place in the range of anomalous Doppler effect occurring during motion of the detector with constant superluminal velocity in medium

  8. THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Winge, C. [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nugent, P. E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stanishev, V., E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl [CENTRA - Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

    2013-04-01

    We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

  9. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  10. A MEASUREMENT OF THE RATE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, LluIs; Miquel, Ramon; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Ihara, Yutaka; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Marriner, John; Molla, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z ≤ 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37 +0.17+0.01 -0.12-0.01 ) SNur h 2 and (0.55 +0.13+0.02 -0.11-0.01 ) SNur h 2 (SNux = 10 -12 L -1 xsun yr -1 ) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31 +0.18+0.01 -0.12-0.01 ) SNur h 2 and (0.49 +0.15+0.02 -0.11-0.01 ) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04 +1.99+0.07 -1.11-0.04 ) SNur h 2 and (0.36 +0.84+0.01 -0.30-0.01 ) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94 +1.31+0.043 -0.91-0.015 and 3.02 +1.31+0.062 -1.03-0.048 , for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r L = [(0.49 +0.15 -0.14 )+(0.91 +0.85 -0.81 ) x z] SNuB h 2 . A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most three hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are hostless to be (9.4 +8.3 -5.1 )%.

  11. ia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Isabel Carricondo Martínez

    Full Text Available La elevada prevalencia de la fibromialgia en la actualidad y sus grandes repercusiones sociales, justifican la constante búsqueda de tratamientos para paliar los síntomas de una enfermedad hasta hoy incurable. Este artículo presenta, por una parte, un breve repaso sobre el concepto de fibromialgia y de la ketamina, como tercera línea de tratamiento, y por otra, la visión desde una perspectiva fenomenológica, de una paciente con fibromialgia, tras someterse a dicho tratamiento, junto con sus vivencias más íntimas y personales desde el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad.

  12. THE POST-MERGER MAGNETIZED EVOLUTION OF WHITE DWARF BINARIES: THE DOUBLE-DEGENERATE CHANNEL OF SUB-CHANDRASEKHAR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THE FORMATION OF MAGNETIZED WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Suoqing; Fisher, Robert T.; García-Berro, Enrique; Tzeferacos, Petros; Jordan, George; Lee, Dongwook; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Cremer, Pascal; Behrends, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a crucial role as standardizable cosmological candles, though the nature of their progenitors is a subject of active investigation. Recent observational and theoretical work has pointed to merging white dwarf binaries, referred to as the double-degenerate channel, as the possible progenitor systems for some SNe Ia. Additionally, recent theoretical work suggests that mergers which fail to detonate may produce magnetized, rapidly rotating white dwarfs. In this paper, we present the first multidimensional simulations of the post-merger evolution of white dwarf binaries to include the effect of the magnetic field. In these systems, the two white dwarfs complete a final merger on a dynamical timescale, and are tidally disrupted, producing a rapidly rotating white dwarf merger surrounded by a hot corona and a thick, differentially rotating disk. The disk is strongly susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and we demonstrate that this leads to the rapid growth of an initially dynamically weak magnetic field in the disk, the spin-down of the white dwarf merger, and to the subsequent central ignition of the white dwarf merger. Additionally, these magnetized models exhibit new features not present in prior hydrodynamic studies of white dwarf mergers, including the development of MRI turbulence in the hot disk, magnetized outflows carrying a significant fraction of the disk mass, and the magnetization of the white dwarf merger to field strengths ∼2 × 10 8 G. We discuss the impact of our findings on the origins, circumstellar media, and observed properties of SNe Ia and magnetized white dwarfs

  13. The Post-merger Magnetized Evolution of White Dwarf Binaries: The Double-degenerate Channel of Sub-Chandrasekhar Type Ia Supernovae and the Formation of Magnetized White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Suoqing; Fisher, Robert T.; García-Berro, Enrique; Tzeferacos, Petros; Jordan, George; Lee, Dongwook; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Cremer, Pascal; Behrends, Jan

    2013-08-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a crucial role as standardizable cosmological candles, though the nature of their progenitors is a subject of active investigation. Recent observational and theoretical work has pointed to merging white dwarf binaries, referred to as the double-degenerate channel, as the possible progenitor systems for some SNe Ia. Additionally, recent theoretical work suggests that mergers which fail to detonate may produce magnetized, rapidly rotating white dwarfs. In this paper, we present the first multidimensional simulations of the post-merger evolution of white dwarf binaries to include the effect of the magnetic field. In these systems, the two white dwarfs complete a final merger on a dynamical timescale, and are tidally disrupted, producing a rapidly rotating white dwarf merger surrounded by a hot corona and a thick, differentially rotating disk. The disk is strongly susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and we demonstrate that this leads to the rapid growth of an initially dynamically weak magnetic field in the disk, the spin-down of the white dwarf merger, and to the subsequent central ignition of the white dwarf merger. Additionally, these magnetized models exhibit new features not present in prior hydrodynamic studies of white dwarf mergers, including the development of MRI turbulence in the hot disk, magnetized outflows carrying a significant fraction of the disk mass, and the magnetization of the white dwarf merger to field strengths ~2 × 108 G. We discuss the impact of our findings on the origins, circumstellar media, and observed properties of SNe Ia and magnetized white dwarfs.

  14. THE POST-MERGER MAGNETIZED EVOLUTION OF WHITE DWARF BINARIES: THE DOUBLE-DEGENERATE CHANNEL OF SUB-CHANDRASEKHAR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THE FORMATION OF MAGNETIZED WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Suoqing; Fisher, Robert T. [University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Department of Physics, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States); Garcia-Berro, Enrique [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Tzeferacos, Petros; Jordan, George; Lee, Dongwook [Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Loren-Aguilar, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Cremer, Pascal [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Behrends, Jan [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-08-20

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a crucial role as standardizable cosmological candles, though the nature of their progenitors is a subject of active investigation. Recent observational and theoretical work has pointed to merging white dwarf binaries, referred to as the double-degenerate channel, as the possible progenitor systems for some SNe Ia. Additionally, recent theoretical work suggests that mergers which fail to detonate may produce magnetized, rapidly rotating white dwarfs. In this paper, we present the first multidimensional simulations of the post-merger evolution of white dwarf binaries to include the effect of the magnetic field. In these systems, the two white dwarfs complete a final merger on a dynamical timescale, and are tidally disrupted, producing a rapidly rotating white dwarf merger surrounded by a hot corona and a thick, differentially rotating disk. The disk is strongly susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and we demonstrate that this leads to the rapid growth of an initially dynamically weak magnetic field in the disk, the spin-down of the white dwarf merger, and to the subsequent central ignition of the white dwarf merger. Additionally, these magnetized models exhibit new features not present in prior hydrodynamic studies of white dwarf mergers, including the development of MRI turbulence in the hot disk, magnetized outflows carrying a significant fraction of the disk mass, and the magnetization of the white dwarf merger to field strengths {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} G. We discuss the impact of our findings on the origins, circumstellar media, and observed properties of SNe Ia and magnetized white dwarfs.

  15. Dark Matter Ignition of Type Ia Supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-10-02

    Recent studies of low redshift type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) indicate that half explode from less than Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, implying ignition must proceed from something besides the canonical criticality of Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia progenitors. We show that 1-100 PeV mass asymmetric dark matter, with imminently detectable nucleon scattering interactions, can accumulate to the point of self-gravitation in a white dwarf and collapse, shedding gravitational potential energy by scattering off nuclei, thereby heating the white dwarf and igniting the flame front that precedes SN Ia. We combine data on SN Ia masses with data on the ages of SN Ia-adjacent stars. This combination reveals a 2.8σ inverse correlation between SN Ia masses and ignition ages, which could result from increased capture of dark matter in 1.4 vs 1.1 solar mass white dwarfs. Future studies of SN Ia in galactic centers will provide additional tests of dark-matter-induced type Ia ignition. Remarkably, both bosonic and fermionic SN Ia-igniting dark matter also resolve the missing pulsar problem by forming black holes in ≳10  Myr old pulsars at the center of the Milky Way.

  16. Gonorréia Gonorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Oliveira Penna

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A gonorréia é uma infecção bacteriana freqüente, causada pela Neisseria gonorrhoeae, um diplococo Gram-negativo de transmissão quase que exclusiva através de contato sexual ou perinatal. Primariamente afeta membranas mucosas do trato genital inferior, e mais raramente, as mucosas do reto, orofaringe e conjuntiva. A infecção genital ascendente na mulher leva a uma complicação séria, a salpingite aguda, uma das principais causas de infertilidade feminina. A partir dos anos 90, deu-se início a um novo tempo no que se refere a descobertas sobre a patogenia da gonorréia e seu agente etiológico. O controle da gonorréia tem sido difícil na maioria das populações, e essa permanece um exemplo da influência que os fatores sociais, comportamentais e demográficos exercem na epidemiologia de uma doença infecciosa. O manejo da gonorréia e de outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis requer tanto o tratamento do paciente e de seu parceiro sexual como medidas de saúde pública para interromper a transmissão da infecção e evitar complicações a longo prazo.Gonorrhea is a common bacterial infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Gram-negative diplococcus that is transmitted almost exclusively by sexual contact or perinatally. It primarily affects the mucous membranes of the lower genital tract and less frequently those of the rectum, oropharynx, and conjunctivae. Ascending genital infection in women leads to the predominant complication, acute salpingitis, one of the most common causes of female infertility in the world. Since the 1990s, a remarkable surge of information ensued regarding the pathogenesis of gonorrhea and its agent. Gonorrohea has proven difficult to control in most populations and remains a prime example of the influence that social, behavioral, and demographic factors can have on the epidemiology of an infectious disease. The management of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections requires both

  17. Holographic View of the Brain Memory Mechanism Based on Evanescent Superluminal Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Musha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available D. Pollen and M. Trachtenberg proposed the holographic brain theory to help explain the existence of photographic memories in some people. They suggested that such individuals had more vivid memories because they somehow could access a very large region of their memory holograms. Hameroff suggested in his paper that cylindrical neuronal microtubule cavities, or centrioles, function as waveguides for the evanescent photons for quantum signal processing. The supposition is that microtubular structures of the brain function as a coherent fiber bundle set used to store holographic images, as would a fiber-optic holographic system. In this paper, the author proposes that superluminal photons propagating inside the microtubules via evanescent waves could provide the access needed to record or retrieve a quantum coherent entangled holographic memory.

  18. Ultraviolet Light Curves of Gaia16apd in Superluminous Supernova Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstov, Alexey; Zhiglo, Andrey; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Blinnikov, Sergei [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sorokina, Elena [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozyreva, Alexandra, E-mail: alexey.tolstov@ipmu.jp [The Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2017-08-10

    Observations of Gaia16apd revealed extremely luminous ultraviolet emission among superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Using radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we perform a comparison of UV light curves, color temperatures, and photospheric velocities between the most popular SLSN models: pair-instability supernova, magnetar, and interaction with circumstellar medium. We find that the interaction model is the most promising to explain the extreme UV luminosity of Gaia16apd. The differences in late-time UV emission and in color evolution found between the models can be used to link an observed SLSN event to the most appropriate model. Observations at UV wavelengths can be used to clarify the nature of SLSNe and more attention should be paid to them in future follow-up observations.

  19. Subluminal and superluminal terahertz radiation in metamaterials with electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-07-29

    We propose a scheme to design a new type of optical metamaterial that can mimic the functionality of four-state atomic systems of N-type energy-level configuration with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that in such metamaterial a transition from a single EIT to a double EIT of terahertz radiation may be easily achieved by actively tuning the intensity of the infrared pump field or passively tuning the geometrical parameters of resonator structures. In addition, the group velocity of the terahertz radiation can be varied from subluminal to superluminal by changing the pump field intensity. The scheme suggested here may be used to construct chip-scale slow and fast light devices and to realize rapidly responded switching of terahertz radiation at room temperature.

  20. Flow cytometry combined with viSNE for the analysis of microbial biofilms and detection of microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgier, Linn; Freimann, Remo; Zupanic, Anze; Kroll, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms serve essential ecosystem functions and are used in different technical applications. Studies from stream ecology and waste-water treatment have shown that biofilm functionality depends to a great extent on community structure. Here we present a fast and easy-to-use method for individual cell-based analysis of stream biofilms, based on stain-free flow cytometry and visualization of the high-dimensional data by viSNE. The method allows the combined assessment of community structure, decay of phototrophic organisms and presence of abiotic particles. In laboratory experiments, it allows quantification of cellular decay and detection of survival of larger cells after temperature stress, while in the field it enables detection of community structure changes that correlate with known environmental drivers (flow conditions, dissolved organic carbon, calcium) and detection of microplastic contamination. The method can potentially be applied to other biofilm types, for example, for inferring community structure for environmental and industrial research and monitoring. PMID:27188265

  1. A TRACER METHOD FOR COMPUTING TYPE IA SUPERNOVA YIELDS: BURNING MODEL CALIBRATION, RECONSTRUCTION OF THICKENED FLAMES, AND VERIFICATION FOR PLANAR DETONATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsley, Dean M.; Miles, Broxton J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Timmes, F. X. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Calder, Alan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brown, Edward F., E-mail: Dean.M.Townsley@ua.edu [The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We refine our previously introduced parameterized model for explosive carbon–oxygen fusion during thermonuclear Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by adding corrections to post-processing of recorded Lagrangian fluid-element histories to obtain more accurate isotopic yields. Deflagration and detonation products are verified for propagation in a medium of uniform density. A new method is introduced for reconstructing the temperature–density history within the artificially thick model deflagration front. We obtain better than 5% consistency between the electron capture computed by the burning model and yields from post-processing. For detonations, we compare to a benchmark calculation of the structure of driven steady-state planar detonations performed with a large nuclear reaction network and error-controlled integration. We verify that, for steady-state planar detonations down to a density of 5 × 10{sup 6} g cm{sup −3}, our post-processing matches the major abundances in the benchmark solution typically to better than 10% for times greater than 0.01 s after the passage of the shock front. As a test case to demonstrate the method, presented here with post-processing for the first time, we perform a two-dimensional simulation of a SN Ia in the scenario of a Chandrasekhar-mass deflagration–detonation transition (DDT). We find that reconstruction of deflagration tracks leads to slightly more complete silicon burning than without reconstruction. The resulting abundance structure of the ejecta is consistent with inferences from spectroscopic studies of observed SNe Ia. We confirm the absence of a central region of stable Fe-group material for the multi-dimensional DDT scenario. Detailed isotopic yields are tabulated and change only modestly when using deflagration reconstruction.

  2. Ia diastolic dysfunction: an echocardiographic grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Anil; Mookadam, Farouk; Hakim, Fayaz A; Mulroy, Eoin; Saadiq, Rayya; Doherty, Mairead; Cha, Stephen; Seward, James; Wilansky, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate that a distinct group of patients with Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction who do not conform to present ASE/ESE diastolic grading exists. Echocardiographic and demographic data of the Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction were extracted and compared with that of Grades I and II in 515 patients. The mean of age of the cohort was 75 ± 9 years and body mass index did not differ significantly between the 3 groups (P = 0.45). Measurements of left atrial volume index (28.58 ± 7 mL/m(2) in I, 33 ± 10 mL/m(2) in Ia, and 39 ± 12 mL/m(2) in II P Ia, and 79 ± 15 msec in II P Ia, and 217 ± 57 msec in II P Ia, and 22 ± 8 in II), and lateral E/e' (8 ± 3 in I, 15 ± 6 in Ia, and 18 ± 9 in II P Ia compared with I and II. These findings remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, and smoking. Patients with echocardiographic characteristics of relaxation abnormality (E/A ratio of Ia group. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prepubertal growth in congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kjaergaard, S; Muller, J; Skovby, F

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To delineate the pattern of growth in prepubertal children with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia) in order to identify critical period(s) and possible cause(s) of growth failure.

  4. SODIUM ABSORPTION SYSTEMS TOWARD SN Ia 2014J ORIGINATE ON INTERSTELLAR SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Nogami, D. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kawabata, K. S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Honda, S.; Arai, A. [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2, Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Moritani, Y.; Ishigaki, M.; Nomoto, K.; Schramm, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hashimoto, O. [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Takayama, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Yamanaka, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mazzali, P. A., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-01-10

    Na i D absorbing systems toward Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively studied over the last decade with the aim of finding circumstellar material (CSM), which is an indirect probe of the progenitor system. However, it is difficult to deconvolve CSM components from non-variable, and often dominant, components created by interstellar material (ISM). We present a series of high-resolution spectra of SN Ia 2014J from before maximum brightness to ≳250 days after maximum brightness. The late-time spectrum provides unique information for determining the origin of the Na i D absorption systems. The deep late-time observation allows us to probe the environment around the SN at a large scale, extending to ≳40 pc. We find that a spectrum of diffuse light in the vicinity, but not directly in the line of sight, of the SN has absorbing systems nearly identical to those obtained for the “pure” SN line of sight. Therefore, basically all Na i D systems seen toward SN 2014J must originate from foreground material that extends to at least ∼40 pc in projection and none at the CSM scale. A fluctuation in the column densities at a scale of ∼20 pc is also identified. After subtracting the diffuse, “background” spectrum, the late-time Na i D profile along the SN line of sight is consistent with profiles near maximum brightness. The lack of variability on a ∼1 year timescale is consistent with the ISM interpretation for the gas.

  5. The control of superluminal group velocity in a system equivalent to the Y-type four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Luming; Guo Hong; Xiao Feng; Peng Xiang; Chen Xuzong

    2005-01-01

    We study a new way to control the superluminal group velocity of light pulse in hot atomic gases with the five-level atomic configuration. The model of an equivalent Y-type four-level is applied and shows that the light goes faster by using an additional incoherent pumping field. The experiment is performed and shows in good agreement with our theoretical predictions

  6. Nonlinear decline-rate dependence and intrinsic variation of typeIa supernova luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lifan; Strovink, Mark; Conley, Alexander; Goldhaber,Gerson; Kowalski, Marek; Perlmutter, Saul; Siegrist, James

    2005-12-14

    Published B and V fluxes from nearby Type Ia supernova are fitted to light-curve templates with 4-6 adjustable parameters. Separately, B magnitudes from the same sample are fitted to a linear dependence on B-V color within a post-maximum time window prescribed by the CMAGIC method. These fits yield two independent SN magnitude estimates B{sub max} and B{sub BV}. Their difference varies systematically with decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15} in a form that is compatible with a bilinear but not a linear dependence; a nonlinear form likely describes the decline-rate dependence of B{sub max} itself. A Hubble fit to the average of B{sub max} and B{sub BV} requires a systematic correction for observed B-V color that can be described by a linear coefficient R = 2.59 {+-} 0.24, well below the coefficient R{sub B} {approx} 4.1 commonly used to characterize the effects of Milky Way dust. At 99.9% confidence the data reject a simple model in which no color correction is required for SNe that are clustered at the blue end of their observed color distribution. After systematic corrections are performed, B{sub max} and B{sub BV} exhibit mutual rms intrinsic variation equal to 0.074 {+-} 0.019 mag, of which at least an equal share likely belongs to B{sub BV}. SN magnitudes measured using maximum-luminosity or cmagic methods show comparable rms deviations of order {approx}0.14 mag from the Hubble line. The same fit also establishes a 95% confidence upper limit of 486 km s{sup -1} on the rms peculiar velocity of nearby SNe relative to the Hubble flow.

  7. Abundance Tomography of Type Ia Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.; Mazzali, P.A.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of early time spectra of Type Ia Supernovae is presented. A new method to derive a detailed abundance distribution of the SN ejecta through comparison with synthetic spectra, called 'Abundance Tomography' is introduced and applied to the normal SN Ia 2002bo. Conclusions regarding the explosion mechanism are drawn

  8. Intelligent Autonomous Systems 11: IAS-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, H.I.; Groen, F.; Petriu, E.

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the eleventh International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-11) at the University of Ottawa in Canada. As ever, the purpose of the IAS conference is to bring together leading international researchers with an interest in all aspects of the

  9. Instrument ampersand controls section (IA) improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.; Paul, J.

    1993-01-01

    This portion of the panel session briefly delineates improvements in the Instrument and Controls (IA) Section over the past few years. These improvements are listed briefly in summary form. The status of publication of the IA Section of AG-1 is reviewed

  10. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensory neuropathy type IA Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve abnormalities in ...

  11. A CHANDRASEKHAR MASS PROGENITOR FOR THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANT 3C 397 FROM THE ENHANCED ABUNDANCES OF NICKEL AND MANGANESE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Foster, Adam R.; Brickhouse, Nancy S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bravo, Eduardo [E.T.S. Arquitectura del Vallès, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Carrer Pere Serra 1-15, E-08173 Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Koyama, Katsuji [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Eriksen, Kristoffer A., E-mail: hiroya.yamaguchi@nasa.gov [Theoretical Design Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Despite decades of intense efforts, many fundamental aspects of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain elusive. One of the major open questions is whether the mass of an exploding white dwarf (WD) is close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Here, we report the detection of strong K-shell emission from stable Fe-peak elements in the Suzaku X-ray spectrum of the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397. The high Ni/Fe and Mn/Fe mass ratios (0.11–0.24 and 0.018–0.033, respectively) in the hot plasma component that dominates the K-shell emission lines indicate a degree of neutronization in the supernova ejecta that can only be achieved by electron capture in the dense cores of exploding WDs with a near-Chandrasekhar mass. This suggests a single-degenerate origin for 3C 397, since Chandrasekhar mass progenitors are expected naturally if the WD accretes mass slowly from a companion. Together with other results supporting the double-degenerate scenario, our work adds to the mounting evidence that both progenitor channels make a significant contribution to the SN Ia rate in star-forming galaxies.

  12. A CHANDRASEKHAR MASS PROGENITOR FOR THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANT 3C 397 FROM THE ENHANCED ABUNDANCES OF NICKEL AND MANGANESE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Badenes, Carles; Foster, Adam R.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Bravo, Eduardo; Maeda, Keiichi; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Koyama, Katsuji; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of intense efforts, many fundamental aspects of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain elusive. One of the major open questions is whether the mass of an exploding white dwarf (WD) is close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Here, we report the detection of strong K-shell emission from stable Fe-peak elements in the Suzaku X-ray spectrum of the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397. The high Ni/Fe and Mn/Fe mass ratios (0.11–0.24 and 0.018–0.033, respectively) in the hot plasma component that dominates the K-shell emission lines indicate a degree of neutronization in the supernova ejecta that can only be achieved by electron capture in the dense cores of exploding WDs with a near-Chandrasekhar mass. This suggests a single-degenerate origin for 3C 397, since Chandrasekhar mass progenitors are expected naturally if the WD accretes mass slowly from a companion. Together with other results supporting the double-degenerate scenario, our work adds to the mounting evidence that both progenitor channels make a significant contribution to the SN Ia rate in star-forming galaxies

  13. Multifrequency radio VLBI observations of the superluminal low-frequency variable quasar NRAO 140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marscher, A.P.; Broderick, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    VLBI maps of the quasar NRAO 140 at three wavelengths: 18, 6, and 2.8 cm are presented. The source consists of a jetlike structure delineated by a nearly colinear series of components which are progressively more compact toward the northwestern end of the source. The multifrequency observations make it possible to dissect accurately the spectrum of the source, which leads to an affirmation of the previously reported Compton problem and superluminal motion. The Compton problem requires relativistic motion with Doppler factor delta greater than 3.7. One of the components is separating from the core at a rate of 0.15 milliarcsec/yr, which translates to an apparent velocity between 4c and 13c, depending on the values of H(0) and q(0). The energy in relativistic electrons in one of the components far exceeds the energy in magnetic field, but the total energy requirement need not exceed approximately 10 to the 54th ergs. 27 references

  14. H i Absorption in the Steep-Spectrum Superluminal Quasar 3C 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlström; Vermeulen; Taylor; Conway

    1999-11-01

    The search for H i absorption in strong compact steep-spectrum sources is a natural way to probe the neutral gas contents in young radio sources. In turn, this may provide information about the evolution of powerful radio sources. The recently improved capabilities of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have made it possible to detect a 0.31% (19 mJy) deep neutral atomic hydrogen absorption line associated with the steep-spectrum superluminal quasar 3C 216. The redshift (z=0.67) of the source shifts the frequency of the 21 cm line down to the ultra-high-frequency (UHF) band (850 MHz). The exact location of the H i-absorbing gas remains to be determined by spectral line VLBI observations at 850 MHz. We cannot exclude that the gas might be extended on galactic scales, but we think it is more likely to be located in the central kiloparsec. Constraints from the lack of X-ray absorption probably rule out obscuration of the core region, and we argue that the most plausible site for the H i absorption is in the jet-cloud interaction observed in this source.

  15. Pulsational Pair-instability Model for Superluminous Supernova PTF12dam:Interaction and Radioactive Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstov, Alexey; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Blinnikov, Sergei; Quimby, Robert [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sorokina, Elena [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Baklanov, Petr, E-mail: alexey.tolstov@ipmu.jp [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Being a superluminous supernova, PTF12dam can be explained by a {sup 56}Ni-powered model, a magnetar-powered model, or an interaction model. We propose that PTF12dam is a pulsational pair-instability supernova, where the outer envelope of a progenitor is ejected during the pulsations. Thus, it is powered by a double energy source: radioactive decay of {sup 56}Ni and a radiative shock in a dense circumstellar medium. To describe multicolor light curves and spectra, we use radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the STELLA code. We found that light curves are well described in the model with 40 M {sub ⊙} ejecta and 20–40 M {sub ⊙} circumstellar medium. The ejected {sup 56}Ni mass is about 6 M {sub ⊙}, which results from explosive nucleosynthesis with large explosion energy (2–3)×10{sup 52} erg. In comparison with alternative scenarios of pair-instability supernova and magnetar-powered supernova, in the interaction model, all the observed main photometric characteristics are well reproduced: multicolor light curves, color temperatures, and photospheric velocities.

  16. Spatially Resolved MaNGA Observations of the Host Galaxy of Superluminous Supernova 2017egm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Schady, Patricia; Xiao, Lin; Eldridge, J. J.; Schweyer, Tassilo; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Yu, Po-Chieh; Smartt, Stephen J.; Inserra, Cosimo

    2017-11-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are found predominantly in dwarf galaxies, indicating that their progenitors have a low metallicity. However, the most nearby SLSN to date, SN 2017egm, occurred in the spiral galaxy NGC 3191, which has a relatively high stellar mass and correspondingly high metallicity. In this Letter, we present detailed analysis of the nearby environment of SN 2017egm using MaNGA IFU data, which provides spectral data on kiloparsec scales. From the velocity map we find no evidence that SN 2017egm occurred within some intervening satellite galaxy, and at the SN position most metallicity diagnostics yield a solar and above solar metallicity (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})∼ 8.8{--}9.1). Additionally, we measure a small Hα equivalent width (EW) at the SN position of just 34 Å, which is one of the lowest EWs measured at any SLSN or gamma-ray burst position, and indicative of the progenitor star being comparatively old. We also compare the observed properties of NGC 3191 with other SLSN host galaxies. The solar-metallicity environment at the position of SN 2017egm presents a challenge to our theoretical understanding, and our spatially resolved spectral analysis provides further constraints on the progenitors of SLSNe.

  17. THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY: TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE MEASUREMENT IN z {approx} 0.1 CLUSTERS AND THE LATE-TIME DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, David J.; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bildfell, Chris; Pritchet, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Zaritsky, Dennis; Just, Dennis W.; Herbert-Fort, Stephane [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sivanandam, Suresh [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mahdavi, Andisheh, E-mail: dsand@lcogt.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We describe the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, designed to measure the cluster Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in a sample of 57 X-ray selected galaxy clusters, with redshifts of 0.05 < z < 0.15. Utilizing our real-time analysis pipeline, we spectroscopically confirmed twenty-three cluster SNe Ia, four of which were intracluster events. Using our deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam imaging, we measured total stellar luminosities in each of our galaxy clusters, and we performed detailed supernova (SN) detection efficiency simulations. Bringing these ingredients together, we measure an overall cluster SN Ia rate within R{sub 200} (1 Mpc) of 0.042{sup +0.012}{sub -0.010}{sup +0.010}{sub -0.008} SNuM (0.049{sup +0.016}{sub -0.014}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.004} SNuM) and an SN Ia rate within red-sequence galaxies of 0.041{sup +0.015}{sub -0.015}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.010} SNuM (0.041{sup +0.019}{sub -0.015}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.004} SNuM). The red-sequence SN Ia rate is consistent with published rates in early-type/elliptical galaxies in the 'field'. Using our red-sequence SN Ia rate, and other cluster SN measurements in early-type galaxies up to z {approx} 1, we derive the late-time (>2 Gyr) delay time distribution (DTD) of SN Ia assuming a cluster early-type galaxy star formation epoch of z{sub f} = 3. Assuming a power-law form for the DTD, {Psi}(t){proportional_to}t{sup s} , we find s = -1.62 {+-} 0.54. This result is consistent with predictions for the double degenerate SN Ia progenitor scenario (s {approx} -1) and is also in line with recent calculations for the double detonation explosion mechanism (s {approx} -2). The most recent calculations of the single degenerate scenario DTD predicts an order-of-magnitude drop-off in SN Ia rate {approx}6-7 Gyr after stellar formation, and the observed cluster rates cannot rule this out.

  18. OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE IA SUPERNOVA SN 2011fe IN M101 FOR NEARLY 500 DAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kaicheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Xulin; Chen, Jia; Chen, Juncheng; Huang, Fang; Mo, Jun; Rui, Liming; Song, Hao; Sai, Hanna; Li, Wenxiong [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhang, JuJia; Bai, Jinming [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650011 (China); Zhang, Tianmeng; Wu, Chao [National Astronomical Observatory of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, Weikang [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Wang, Lifan, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We present well-sampled optical observations of the bright Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2011fe in M101. Our data, starting from ∼16 days before maximum light and extending to ∼463 days after maximum, provide an unprecedented time series of spectra and photometry for a normal SN Ia. Fitting the early-time rising light curve, we find that the luminosity evolution of SN 2011fe follows a t{sup n} law, with the index n being close to 2.0 in the VRI bands but slightly larger in the U and B bands. Combining the published ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) photometry, we derive the contribution of UV/NIR emission relative to the optical. SN 2011fe is found to have stronger UV emission and reaches its UV peak a few days earlier than other SNe Ia with similar Δm{sub 15}(B), suggestive of less trapping of high-energy photons in the ejecta. Moreover, the U-band light curve shows a notably faster decline at late phases (t ≈ 100–300 days), which also suggests that the ejecta may be relatively transparent to UV photons. These results favor the notion that SN 2011fe might have a progenitor system with relatively lower metallicity. On the other hand, the early-phase spectra exhibit prominent high-velocity features (HVFs) of O i λ7773 and the Ca ii NIR triplet, but only barely detectable in Si ii 6355. This difference can be caused by either an ionization/temperature effect or an abundance enhancement scenario for the formation of HVFs; it suggests that the photospheric temperature of SN 2011fe is intrinsically low, perhaps owing to incomplete burning during the explosion of the white dwarf.

  19. On the type Ia supernovae 2007on and 2011iv: evidence for Chandrasekhar-mass explosions at the faint end of the luminosity-width relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashall, C.; Mazzali, P. A.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Hoeflich, P.; Burns, C. R.; Gall, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2018-06-01

    Radiative transfer models of two transitional type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been produced using the abundance stratification technique. These two objects - designated SN 2007on and SN 2011iv - both exploded in the same galaxy, NGC 1404, which allows for a direct comparison. SN 2007on synthesized 0.25 M_{⊙} of 56Ni and was less luminous than SN 2011iv, which produced 0.31 M_{⊙} of 56Ni. SN 2007on had a lower central density (ρc) and higher explosion energy (Ekin ˜1.3 ± 0.3 × 1051erg) than SN 2011iv, and it produced less nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) elements (0.06 M_{⊙}). Whereas, SN 2011iv had a larger ρc, which increased the electron capture rate in the lowest velocity regions, and produced 0.35 M_{⊙} of stable NSE elements. SN 2011iv had an explosion energy of ˜Ekin ˜0.9 ± 0.2 × 1051erg. Both objects had an ejecta mass consistent with the Chandrasekhar mass (Ch-mass), and their observational properties are well described by predictions from delayed-detonation explosion models. Within this framework, comparison to the sub-luminous SN 1986G indicates SN 2011iv and SN 1986G have different transition densities (ρtr) but similar ρc. Whereas SN 1986G and SN 2007on had a similar ρtr but different ρc. Finally, we examine the colour-stretch parameter sBV versus Lmax relation and determine that the bulk of SNe Ia (including the sub-luminous ones) are consistent with Ch-mass delayed-detonation explosions, where the main parameter driving the diversity is ρtr. We also find ρc to be driving the second-order scatter observed at the faint end of the luminosity-width relationship.

  20. 76 FR 54521 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12754 and 12755] Iowa Disaster IA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major [[Page 54522

  1. Penerapan PSAK Adopsi IAS 41 Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyanto, Stefanus; Sukendar, Heri; Kurniawati, Heny

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the application of PSAK adopted from IAS 41: Agriculture should be applied to State-Owned Enterprises, especially the plantation SOE. So that the SOE financial information produced becomes more useful for decision-making. Furthermore, this study wants to answer what benefits can be obtained from the implementation of this standard on the plantation-based SOE. The main characteristic of IAS is the use of fair value model for biological assets owned by the a...

  2. High-Dimensional Modeling for Cytometry: Building Rock Solid Models Using GemStone™ and Verity Cen-se'™ High-Definition t-SNE Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Bagwell, C

    2018-01-01

    This chapter outlines how to approach the complex tasks associated with designing models for high-dimensional cytometry data. Unlike gating approaches, modeling lends itself to automation and accounts for measurement overlap among cellular populations. Designing these models is now easier because of a new technique called high-definition t-SNE mapping. Nontrivial examples are provided that serve as a guide to create models that are consistent with data.

  3. A Model for Forecasting Enlisted Student IA Billet Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    IA execution ........................................... 4   Figure 2.   Learning center to resource sponsor alignment...initial entry training” [3]. 4 Figure 1. Training that counts as student IA execution The second type of chargeable training is the...Reference [ 4 ] describes the process the Navy uses to build the student IA program. It comprises three steps. The first is to forecast student IA E

  4. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE 56Ni PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Fraser, Morgan; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Pastorello, Andrea; Valenti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M g = –17.42 ± 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] λ4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive 56 Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m AB ∼ 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any 56 Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M ☉ of 56 Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae (∼10 –4 of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z ☉ ), high progenitor mass (>60 M ☉ ) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).

  5. A New Approach for Obtaining Cosmological Constraints from Type Ia Supernovae using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Elise; Wolf, Rachel; Sako, Masao

    2016-11-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation techniques that robustly account for systematic measurement uncertainties will be crucial for the next generation of cosmological surveys. We present a new analysis method, superABC, for obtaining cosmological constraints from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) without any likelihood assumptions. The ABC method works by using a forward model simulation of the data where systematic uncertainties can be simulated and marginalized over. A key feature of the method presented here is the use of two distinct metrics, the `Tripp' and `Light Curve' metrics, which allow us to compare the simulated data to the observed data set. The Tripp metric takes as input the parameters of models fit to each light curve with the SALT-II method, whereas the Light Curve metric uses the measured fluxes directly without model fitting. We apply the superABC sampler to a simulated data set of $\\sim$1000 SNe corresponding to the first season of the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program. Varying $\\Omega_m, w_0, \\alpha$ and $\\beta$ and a magnitude offset parameter, with no systematics we obtain $\\Delta(w_0) = w_0^{\\rm true} - w_0^{\\rm best \\, fit} = -0.036\\pm0.109$ (a $\\sim11$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Tripp metric and $\\Delta(w_0) = -0.055\\pm0.068$ (a $\\sim7$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Light Curve metric. Including 1% calibration uncertainties in four passbands, adding 4 more parameters, we obtain $\\Delta(w_0) = -0.062\\pm0.132$ (a $\\sim14$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Tripp metric. Overall we find a $17$% increase in the uncertainty on $w_0$ with systematics compared to without. We contrast this with a MCMC approach where systematic effects are approximately included. We find that the MCMC method slightly underestimates the impact of calibration uncertainties for this simulated data set.

  6. SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE POWERED BY MAGNETARS: LATE-TIME LIGHT CURVES AND HARD EMISSION LEAKAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S. Q.; Wang, L. J.; Dai, Z. G.; Wu, X. F.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research performed by two groups has revealed that the magnetar spin-down energy injection model with full energy trapping can explain the early-time light curves of SN 2010gx, SN 2013dg, LSQ12dlf, SSS120810, and CSS121015 but fails to fit the late-time light curves of these superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). These results imply that the original magnetar-powered model is challenged in explaining these SLSNe. Our paper aims to simultaneously explain both the early- and late-time data/upper limits by considering the leakage of hard emissions. We incorporate quantitatively the leakage effect into the original magnetar-powered model and derive a new semianalytical equation. Comparing the light curves reproduced by our revised magnetar-powered model with the observed data and/or upper limits of these five SLSNe, we found that the late-time light curves reproduced by our semianalytical equation are in good agreement with the late-time observed data and/or upper limits of SN 2010gx, CSS121015, SN 2013dg, and LSQ12dlf and the late-time excess of SSS120810, indicating that the magnetar-powered model might be responsible for these SLSNe and that the gamma-ray and X-ray leakages are unavoidable when the hard photons were down-Comptonized to softer photons. To determine the details of the leakage effect and unveil the nature of SLSNe, more high-quality bolometric light curves and spectra of SLSNe are required

  7. An Ultraviolet Excess in the Superluminous Supernova Gaia16apd Reveals a Powerful Central Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Blanchard, P. K.; Milisavljevic, D.; Challis, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Margutti, R. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Metzger, B. D. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chornock, R., E-mail: matt.nicholl@cfa.harvard.edu [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Since the discovery of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) in the last decade, it has been known that these events exhibit bluer spectral energy distributions than other supernova subtypes, with significant output in the ultraviolet. However, the event Gaia16apd seems to outshine even the other SLSNe at rest-frame wavelengths below ∼3000 Å. Yan et al. have recently presented HST UV spectra and attributed the UV flux to low iron-group abundance in the outer ejecta, and hence reduced line blanketing. Here, we present UV and optical light curves over a longer baseline in time, revealing a rapid decline at UV wavelengths despite a typical optical evolution. Combining the published UV spectra with our own optical data, we demonstrate that Gaia16apd has a much hotter continuum than virtually any SLSN at maximum light, but it cools rapidly thereafter and is indistinguishable from the others by ∼10–15 days after peak. Comparing the equivalent widths of UV absorption lines with those of other events, we show that the excess UV continuum is a result of a more powerful central power source, rather than a lack of UV absorption relative to other SLSNe or an additional component from interaction with the surrounding medium. These findings strongly support the central-engine hypothesis for hydrogen-poor SLSNe. An explosion ejecting M {sub ej} = 4.8(0.2/ κ ) M {sub ⊙}, where κ is the opacity in cm{sup 2} g{sup −1}, and forming a magnetar with spin period P = 2 ms, and B = 2 × 10{sup 14} G (lower than other SLSNe with comparable rise times) can consistently explain the light curve evolution and high temperature at peak. The host metallicity, Z = 0.18 Z {sub ⊙}, is comparable to other SLSNe.

  8. ASASSN-15LH: A SUPERLUMINOUS ULTRAVIOLET REBRIGHTENING OBSERVED BY SWIFT AND HUBBLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Peter J.; Yang, Yi; Wang, Lifan [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Cooke, Jeff; Mould, Jeremy [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); Olaes, Melanie; Quimby, Robert M. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Baade, Dietrich [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Gehrels, Neil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hoeflich, Peter [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Maund, Justyn [Department of Physics and Astronomy F39 Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Wheeler, J. Craig [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We present and discuss ultraviolet and optical photometry from the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope, X-ray limits from the X-Ray Telescope on Swift, and imaging polarimetry and ultraviolet/optical spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope , all from observations of ASASSN-15lh. It has been classified as a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN I), making it more luminous than any other supernova observed. ASASSN-15lh is not detected in the X-rays in individual or co-added observations. From the polarimetry we determine that the explosion was only mildly asymmetric. We find the flux of ASASSN-15lh to increase strongly into the ultraviolet, with an ultraviolet luminosity 100 times greater than the hydrogen-rich, ultraviolet-bright SLSN II SN 2008es. We find that objects as bright as ASASSN-15lh are easily detectable beyond redshifts of ∼4 with the single-visit depths planned for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Deep near-infrared surveys could detect such objects past a redshift of ∼20, enabling a probe of the earliest star formation. A late rebrightening—most prominent at shorter wavelengths—is seen about two months after the peak brightness, which is itself as bright as an SLSN. The ultraviolet spectra during the rebrightening are dominated by the continuum without the broad absorption or emission lines seen in SLSNe or tidal disruption events (TDEs) and the early optical spectra of ASASSN-15lh. Our spectra show no strong hydrogen emission, showing only Ly α absorption near the redshift previously found by optical absorption lines of the presumed host. The properties of ASASSN-15lh are extreme when compared to either SLSNe or TDEs.

  9. ON THE EARLY-TIME EXCESS EMISSION IN HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Waldman, Roni; Ofek, Eran O.; Yaron, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Perley, Daniel A. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Quimby, Robert M. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fremling, Christoffer; Taddia, Francesco; Sollerman, Jesper [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Valenti, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: paul.vreeswijk@weizmann.ac.il [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2017-01-20

    We present the light curves of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc, discovered by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory. Both show excess emission at early times and a slowly declining light curve at late times. The early bump in PTF 12dam is very similar in duration (∼10 days) and brightness relative to the main peak (2–3 mag fainter) compared to that observed in other SLSNe I. In contrast, the long-duration (>30 days) early excess emission in iPTF 13dcc, whose brightness competes with that of the main peak, appears to be of a different nature. We construct bolometric light curves for both targets, and fit a variety of light-curve models to both the early bump and main peak in an attempt to understand the nature of these explosions. Even though the slope of the late-time decline in the light curves of both SLSNe is suggestively close to that expected from the radioactive decay of {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}Co, the amount of nickel required to power the full light curves is too large considering the estimated ejecta mass. The magnetar model including an increasing escape fraction provides a reasonable description of the PTF 12dam observations. However, neither the basic nor the double-peaked magnetar model is capable of reproducing the light curve of iPTF 13dcc. A model combining a shock breakout in an extended envelope with late-time magnetar energy injection provides a reasonable fit to the iPTF 13dcc observations. Finally, we find that the light curves of both PTF 12dam and iPTF 13dcc can be adequately fit with the model involving interaction with the circumstellar medium.

  10. Superluminal paradox’ in wave packet propagation and its quantum mechanical resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolovski, D., E-mail: dgsokol15@gmail.com [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011, Bilbao (Spain); Akhmatskaya, E. [Basque Center for Applied Mathematics (BCAM), Alameda de Mazarredo, 14 48009, Bilbao Bizkaia (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    We analyse in detail the reshaping mechanism leading to apparently ‘superluminal’ advancement of a wave packet traversing a classically forbidden region. In the coordinate representation, a barrier is shown to act as an effective beamsplitter, recombining envelopes of the freely propagating pulse with various spacial shifts. Causality ensures that none of the constituent envelopes are advanced with respect to free propagation, yet the resulting pulse is advanced due to a peculiar interference effect, similar to the one responsible for ‘anomalous’ values which occur in Aharonov’s ‘weak measurements’. In the momentum space, the effect is understood as a bandwidth phenomenon, where the incident pulse probes local, rather than global, analytical properties of the transmission amplitude T(p). The advancement is achieved when T(p) mimics locally an exponential behaviour, similar to the one occurring in Berry’s ‘superoscillations’. Seen in a broader quantum mechanical context, the ‘paradox’ is but a consequence of an attempt to obtain ‘which way?’ information without destroying the interference between the pathways of interest. This explains, to a large extent, the failure to adequately describe tunnelling in terms of a single ‘tunnelling time’. -- Highlights: •Apparent superluminality is described in the language of quantum measurements. •A barrier acts as a beamsplitter delaying copies of the initial pulse. •In the coordinate space the effect is similar to what occurs in ‘weak measurements’. •In the momentum space it relies on superoscillations in the transmission amplitude. •It is an interference effect, unlikely to be explained in simpler physical terms.

  11. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: II Superluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available In part I of this paper we have deduced generalised Einstein mass variation formulae assuming relative frame velocities vc. We again use the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for v>c is defined by the equation m(v=m0(v[(v/c2-1]-1/2 for the actual mass m(v. The residual mass is essentially the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed, and we emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae applicable to superluminal relative frame velocities, assuming only the extended Lorentz transformations and their consequences, and two invariants that are known to apply in special relativity. The present authors have previously speculated a dual framework such that both the rest mass m0∗ and the residual mass at infinite velocity m∞∗ (by which we mean p∞∗/c, assuming finite momentum at infinity are equally important parameters in the specification of mass as a function of its velocity, and the two arbitrary constants can be so determined. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may also be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and two distinct mass profiles are determined as functions of their velocity with the rest mass assumed to be alternatively prescribed at the origin of either frame. The two profiles so obtained (M(U,m(u and (M∗(U,m∗(u although distinct have a common ratio M(U/M∗(U=m(u/m∗(u that is a function of v>c, indicating that observable mass depends upon the frame in which the rest mass is prescribed. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  12. Two transitional type Ia supernovae located in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1404: SN 2007on and SN 2011iv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, C.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Ashall, C.; Baron, E.; Burns, C. R.; Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Mazzali, P. A.; Phillips, M. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Anderson, J. P.; Benetti, S.; Brown, P. J.; Campillay, A.; Challis, P.; Contreras, C.; Elias de la Rosa, N.; Folatelli, G.; Foley, R. J.; Fraser, M.; Holmbo, S.; Marion, G. H.; Morrell, N.; Pan, Y.-C.; Pignata, G.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Taddia, F.; Robledo, S. Torres; Valenti, S.

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared observations of the fast-declining Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) 2007on and 2011iv, hosted by the Fornax cluster member NGC 1404. The B-band light curves of SN 2007on and SN 2011iv are characterised by Δm15 (B) decline-rate values of 1.96 mag and 1.77 mag, respectively. Although they have similar decline rates, their peak B- and H-band magnitudes differ by 0.60 mag and 0.35 mag, respectively. After correcting for the luminosity vs. decline rate and the luminosity vs. colour relations, the peak B-band and H-band light curves provide distances that differ by 14% and 9%, respectively. These findings serve as a cautionary tale for the use of transitional SNe Ia located in early-type hosts in the quest to measure cosmological parameters. Interestingly, even though SN 2011iv is brighter and bluer at early times, by three weeks past maximum and extending over several months, its B - V colour is 0.12 mag redder than that of SN 2007on. To reconcile this unusual behaviour, we turn to guidance from a suite of spherical one-dimensional Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation explosion models. In this context, 56Ni production depends on both the so-called transition density and the central density of the progenitor white dwarf. To first order, the transition density drives the luminosity-width relation, while the central density is an important second-order parameter. Within this context, the differences in the B - V colour evolution along the Lira regime suggest that the progenitor of SN 2011iv had a higher central density than SN 2007on. The photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A58

  13. EXTINCTION LAWS TOWARD STELLAR SOURCES WITHIN A DUSTY CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nozawa, Takaya, E-mail: nagao@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Many astronomical objects are surrounded by dusty environments. In such dusty objects, multiple scattering processes of photons by circumstellar (CS) dust grains can effectively alter extinction properties. In this paper, we systematically investigate the effects of multiple scattering on extinction laws for steady-emission sources surrounded by the dusty CS medium using a radiation transfer simulation based on the Monte Carlo technique. In particular, we focus on whether and how the extinction properties are affected by properties of CS dust grains by adopting various dust grain models. We confirm that behaviors of the (effective) extinction laws are highly dependent on the properties of CS grains, especially the total-to-selective extinction ratio R{sub V}, which characterizes the extinction law and can be either increased or decreased and compared with the case without multiple scattering. We find that the criterion for this behavior is given by a ratio of albedos in the B and V bands. We also find that either small silicate grains or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary for realizing a low value of R{sub V} as often measured toward SNe Ia if the multiple scattering by CS dust is responsible for their non-standard extinction laws. Using the derived relations between the properties of dust grains and the resulting effective extinction laws, we propose that the extinction laws toward dusty objects could be used to constrain the properties of dust grains in CS environments.

  14. EXTINCTION LAWS TOWARD STELLAR SOURCES WITHIN A DUSTY CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nozawa, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    Many astronomical objects are surrounded by dusty environments. In such dusty objects, multiple scattering processes of photons by circumstellar (CS) dust grains can effectively alter extinction properties. In this paper, we systematically investigate the effects of multiple scattering on extinction laws for steady-emission sources surrounded by the dusty CS medium using a radiation transfer simulation based on the Monte Carlo technique. In particular, we focus on whether and how the extinction properties are affected by properties of CS dust grains by adopting various dust grain models. We confirm that behaviors of the (effective) extinction laws are highly dependent on the properties of CS grains, especially the total-to-selective extinction ratio R V , which characterizes the extinction law and can be either increased or decreased and compared with the case without multiple scattering. We find that the criterion for this behavior is given by a ratio of albedos in the B and V bands. We also find that either small silicate grains or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary for realizing a low value of R V as often measured toward SNe Ia if the multiple scattering by CS dust is responsible for their non-standard extinction laws. Using the derived relations between the properties of dust grains and the resulting effective extinction laws, we propose that the extinction laws toward dusty objects could be used to constrain the properties of dust grains in CS environments.

  15. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  16. IAS 41 Agriculture: Fair Value Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Issuing this standard that had to be applied for the first time for the financial statements started after 1.01.2003 meant a change of direction from two points of view: on one hand, through IAS 41 was issued for the first time an extensive standard typical for this sector and, on the other hand, for the first time were included in the income statement, independently from the sales transactions, incomes from variations of the fair value of an asset. Because of this last aspect, IAS 41 can be considered an important standard, because it represents the starting point of a consistent transition from the purchase cost principle towards a fair value accounting. IASC has dedicated to the thematic field of agriculture a specific standard, because this economic branch has a great importance for the developing countries. On the other hand, IAS 41 is also applied for the agricultural activities of the enterprises from other sectors.

  17. Stimulation of protective antibodies against type Ia and Ib group B streptococci by a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, M R; Paoletti, L C; Rodewald, A K; Michon, F; DiFabio, J; Jennings, H J; Kasper, D L

    1993-01-01

    Antisera elicited by type Ia group B streptococci (GBS) contain antibodies that react with both type Ia and type Ib strains. Previous studies suggested that antibodies elicited by type Ia organisms recognized a carbohydrate antigen or epitope common to Ia and Ib strains. We now report the synthesis and immunogenicity testing of a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (Ia-TT) conjugate vaccine. Ia-TT elicited type Ia polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in all three of the rabbi...

  18. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The basal tone in the reconstructs and its changes were recorded following 0 Ca2+, KCl, bethanechol, isoproterenol, protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and Rho kinase (ROCK) and PKC inhibitors Y-27632 and Gö-6850, respectively. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence (IF), and immunocytochemical (IC) analyses were also performed. The reconstructs developed spontaneous tone (0.68 ± 0.26 mN). Bethanechol (a muscarinic agonist) and K+ depolarization produced contraction, whereas isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and Y-27632 produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the tone. Maximal decrease in basal tone with Y-27632 and Gö-6850 (each 10−5 M) was 80.45 ± 3.29 and 17.76 ± 3.50%, respectively. WB data with the IAS constructs′ SMCs revealed higher levels of RhoA/ROCK, protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor or inhibitory phosphoprotein for myosin phosphatase (CPI-17), phospho-CPI-17, MYPT1, and 20-kDa myosin light chain vs. rectal smooth muscle. WB, IF, and IC studies of original SMCs and redispersed from the reconstructs for the relative distribution of different signal transduction proteins confirmed the feasibility of reconstruction of IAS with functional properties similar to intact IAS and demonstrated the development of myogenic tone with critical dependence on RhoA/ROCK. We conclude that it is feasible to bioengineer IAS constructs using human IAS SMCs that behave like intact IAS. PMID:22790596

  19. Do we really know Mup (i.e. the transition mass between Type Ia and core-collapse supernova progenitors)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straniero, O; Piersanti, L; Cristallo, S

    2016-01-01

    M up is the minimum stellar mass that, after the core-helium burning, develops temperature and density conditions for the occurrence of a hydrostatic carbon burning. Stars whose mass is lower than this limit are the progenitors of C-O white dwarfs and, when belong to a close binary system, may give rise to explosive phenomena, such as novae or type Ia supernovae. Stars whose mass is only slightly larger than M up ignite C in a degenerate core and, in turn, experience a thermonuclear runaway. Their final fate may be a massive O-Ne WDs or, if the core mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, an e-capture SNe. More massive objects ignite C in non-degenerate conditions. These “massive “ stars are the progenitors of various kind of core-collapse supernovae (type IIp. IIL, IIN, Ib, Ic). It goes without saying that M up is a fundamental astrophysical parameter. From its knowledge depends our understanding of the SNe progenitors, of their rates, of the chemical evolution, of the WD luminosity functions and much more. A precise evaluation of M up relies on our knowledge of various input physics used in stellar modeling, such as the plasma neutrino rate, responsible of the cooling of the core, the equation of state of high density plasma, which affects the heating of the contracting core and its compressibility, and some key nuclear reaction rates, such as, in particular, the 12 C+ 12 C and the 12 C+α. In this paper we review the efforts made to determine this important parameter and we provide an up-to-date evaluation of the uncertainties due to the relevant nuclear physics inputs. (paper)

  20. The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z~0.5 from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, J. D.; Sullivan, M.; Balam, D.; Pritchet, C. J.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Hardin, D.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lusset, V.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D.; Tao, C.

    2006-09-01

    We present a measurement of the distant Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate derived from the first 2 yr of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey. We observed four 1deg×1deg fields with a typical temporal frequency of ~4 observer-frame days over time spans of 158-211 days per season for each field, with breaks during the full Moon. We used 8-10 m class telescopes for spectroscopic follow-up to confirm our candidates and determine their redshifts. Our starting sample consists of 73 spectroscopically verified SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.2=0.47)=[0.42+0.13-0.09(syst.)+/-0.06(stat.)×10-4 yr-1 Mpc3, assuming h=0.7, Ωm=0.3, and a flat cosmology. Using recently published galaxy luminosity functions derived in our redshift range, we derive a SN Ia rate per unit luminosity of rL(=0.47)=0.154+0.048-0.033(syst.)+0.039-0.031(stat.) SN units. Using our rate alone, we place an upper limit on the component of SN Ia production that tracks the cosmic star formation history of 1 SN Ia per 103 Msolar of stars formed. Our rate and other rates from surveys using spectroscopic sample confirmation display only a modest evolution out to z=0.55. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. This work is also based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Program 171.A-0486), and on observations (programs GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004A-Q-11, GN-2003B-Q-9, and GS-2003B-Q-8) obtained at the Gemini

  1. Limiting Superluminal Electron and Neutrino Velocities Using the 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and the IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of two PetaelectronVolt (PeV)-scale neutrino events reported by Ice Cube allows one to place constraints on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the neutrino sector. After first arguing that at least one of the PetaelectronVolt IceCube events was of extragalactic origin, I derive an upper limit for the difference between putative superluminal neutrino and electron velocities of less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19) in units where c = 1, confirming that the observed PetaelectronVolt neutrinos could have reached Earth from extragalactic sources. I further derive a new constraint on the superluminal electron velocity, obtained from the observation of synchrotron radiation from the Crab Nebula flare of September, 2010. The inference that the greater than 1 GigaelectronVolt gamma-rays from synchrotron emission in the flare were produced by electrons of energy up to approx. 5.1 PetaelectronVolt indicates the nonoccurrence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation by these electrons. This implies a new, strong constraint on superluminal electron velocities delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 5 x 10(exp -21). It immediately follows that one then obtains an upper limit on the superluminal neutrino velocity alone of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19), many orders of magnitude better than the time-of-flight constraint from the SN1987A neutrino burst. However, if the electrons are subluminal the constraint on the absolute value of delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17), obtained from the Crab Nebula gamma-ray spectrum, places a weaker constraint on superluminal neutrino velocity of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17).

  2. Causality and superluminal behavior in classical field theories: Applications to k-essence theories and modified-Newtonian-dynamics-like theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Field theories with Lorentz (or diffeomorphism invariant) action can exhibit superluminal behavior through the breaking of local Lorentz invariance. Quantum induced superluminal velocities are well-known examples of this effect. The issue of the causal behavior of such propagation is somewhat controversial in the literature and we intend to clarify it. We provide a careful analysis of the meaning of causality in classical relativistic field theories and stress the role played by the Cauchy problem and the notion of chronology. We show that, in general, superluminal behavior threatens causality only if one assumes that a prior chronology in spacetime exists. In the case where superluminal propagation occurs, however, there are at least two nonconformally related metrics in spacetime and thus two available notions of chronology. These two chronologies are on equal footing, and it would thus be misleading to choose ab initio one of them to define causality. Rather, we provide a formulation of causality in which no prior chronology is assumed. We argue that this is the only way to deal with the issue of causality in the case where some degrees of freedom propagate faster than others. In that framework, then, it is shown that superluminal propagation is not necessarily noncausal, the final answer depending on the existence of an initial data formulation. This also depends on global properties of spacetime that we discuss in detail. As an illustration of these conceptual issues, we consider two field theories, namely, k-essence scalar fields and bimetric theories of gravity, and we derive the conditions imposed by causality. We discuss various applications such as the dark energy problem, modified-Newtonian-dynamics-like theories of gravity, and varying speed of light theories

  3. 3D Simulations of Supernova Remnants from Type Ia Supernova Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather; Reynolds, S. P.; Frohlich, C.; Blondin, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe) originate from thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. A great deal is still unknown about the explosion mechanisms, particularly the degree of asymmetry. However, Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) can bear the imprint of asymmetry long after the explosion. A SNR of interest is G1.9+0.3, the youngest Galactic SNR, which demonstrates an unusual spatial distribution of elements in the ejecta. While its X-ray spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission, spectral lines of highly ionized Si, S, and Fe are seen in a few locations, with Fe near the edge of the remnant and with strongly varying Fe/Si ratios. An asymmetric explosion within the white dwarf progenitor may be necessary to explain these unusual features of G1.9+0.3, in particular the shocked Fe at large radii. We use the VH-1 hydrodynamics code to evolve initial Type Ia explosion models in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions at an age of 100 seconds provided by other researchers to study asymmetry, the ignition properties, and the nucleosynthesis resulting from these explosions. We follow the evolution of these models interacting with a uniform external medium to a few hundred years in age. We find the abundance and location of ejecta elements from our models to be inconsistent with the observations of G1.9+0.3; while our models show asymmetric element distributions, we find no tendency for iron-group elements to be found beyond intermediate-mass elements, or for significant iron to be reverse-shocked at all at the age of G1.9+0.3. We compare the amounts of shocked iron-group and intermediate-mass elements as a function of time in the different models. Some new kind of explosion asymmetry may be required to explain G1.9+0.3. This work was performed as part of NC State University's Undergraduate Research in Computational Astrophysics (URCA) program, an REU program supported by the National Science Foundation through award AST-1032736.

  4. Low-z Type Ia Supernova Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuy, Mario

    The discovery of acceleration and dark energy in 1998 arguably constitutes one of the most revolutionary discoveries in astrophysics in recent years. This paradigm shift was possible thanks to one of the most traditional cosmological tests: the redshift-distance relation between galaxies. This discovery was based on a differential measurement of the expansion rate of the universe: the current one provided by nearby (low-z) type Ia supernovae and the one in the past measured from distant (high-z) supernovae. This paper focuses on the first part of this journey: the calibration of the type Ia supernova luminosities and the local expansion rate of the universe, which was made possible thanks to the introduction of digital CCD (charge-coupled device) digital photometry. The new technology permitted us in the early 1990s to convert supernovae as precise tools to measure extragalactic distances through two key surveys: (1) the "Tololo Supernova Program" which made possible the critical discovery of the "peak luminosity-decline rate" relation for type Ia supernovae, the key underlying idea today behind precise cosmology from supernovae, and (2) the Calán/Tololo project which provided the low - z type Ia supernova sample for the discovery of acceleration.

  5. 78 FR 36010 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13605 and 13606] Iowa Disaster IA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4119- DR), dated 05/31...

  6. 76 FR 54522 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12760 and 12761] Iowa Disaster IA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4016- DR), dated 08/24...

  7. 76 FR 27738 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12541 and 12542] Iowa Disaster IA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa dated 05/04/2011. Incident: Severe storms and tornadoes...

  8. 78 FR 28939 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13567 and 13568] Iowa Disaster IA-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4114- DR), dated 05/06...

  9. 76 FR 52042 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12734 and 12735] Iowa Disaster IA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa Dated. Incident: Severe Storms and Flash Flooding. Incident...

  10. 76 FR 55721 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12772 and 12773] Iowa Disaster IA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4018- DR), dated 08/30...

  11. 75 FR 47035 - Iowa Disaster # IA-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12258 and 12259] Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1930- DR), dated 07/29...

  12. 75 FR 51507 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12279 and 12280] Iowa Disaster IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1930-DR), dated 08/14/2010. Incident: Severe...

  13. 75 FR 10329 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12053 and 12054] Iowa Disaster IA-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of IOWA (FEMA--1877-- DR), dated 02...

  14. 75 FR 11582 - IOWA Disaster # IA-00023

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12062 and 12063] IOWA Disaster IA-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1880- DR), dated 03/02...

  15. 78 FR 42147 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13645 and 13646] Iowa Disaster IA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4126- DR), dated 07/02...

  16. 76 FR 29284 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12568 and 12569] Iowa Disaster IA-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1977- DR), dated 05/05...

  17. 75 FR 45681 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12252 and 12253] Iowa Disaster IA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1928- DR), dated 07/27...

  18. 76 FR 66768 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12895 and 12896] Iowa Disaster IA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1998-DR), dated 10/18/2011. Incident: Flooding...

  19. 78 FR 48762 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13699 and 13700] Iowa Disaster IA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4135- DR), dated 07/31...

  20. 75 FR 53006 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12258 and 12259] Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA- 1930-DR...

  1. Penerapan PSAK Adopsi IAS 41 Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanus Ariyanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the application of PSAK adopted from IAS 41: Agriculture should be applied to State-Owned Enterprises, especially the plantation SOE. So that the SOE financial information produced becomes more useful for decision-making. Furthermore, this study wants to answer what benefits can be obtained from the implementation of this standard on the plantation-based SOE. The main characteristic of IAS is the use of fair value model for biological assets owned by the agriculture-based entity. The use of this model raises a lot of controversy, primarily, associated with relevant quality and reliability of the information it produces. Research used qualitative method with data collection through literature study, survey, interview, and observation. Survey and interview were divided into two major parts, which were: on the compilers of financial statements and the stakeholders. From this study it can be concluded that the PSAK based on IAS 41 have not to be implemented yet in the near future due to IAS 41 will undergo quite significant revision. Currently, the State-Owned Enterprises could use the PSAK plantation SOE that has been issued.

  2. Comparison of recent SnIa datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.C. Bueno; Perivolaropoulos, L.; Nesseris, S.

    2009-01-01

    We rank the six latest Type Ia supernova (SnIa) datasets (Constitution (C), Union (U), ESSENCE (Davis) (E), Gold06 (G), SNLS 1yr (S) and SDSS-II (D)) in the context of the Chevalier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization w(a) = w 0 +w 1 (1−a), according to their Figure of Merit (FoM), their consistency with the cosmological constant (ΛCDM), their consistency with standard rulers (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO)) and their mutual consistency. We find a significant improvement of the FoM (defined as the inverse area of the 95.4% parameter contour) with the number of SnIa of these datasets ((C) highest FoM, (U), (G), (D), (E), (S) lowest FoM). Standard rulers (CMB+BAO) have a better FoM by about a factor of 3, compared to the highest FoM SnIa dataset (C). We also find that the ranking sequence based on consistency with ΛCDM is identical with the corresponding ranking based on consistency with standard rulers ((S) most consistent, (D), (C), (E), (U), (G) least consistent). The ranking sequence of the datasets however changes when we consider the consistency with an expansion history corresponding to evolving dark energy (w 0 ,w 1 ) = (−1.4,2) crossing the phantom divide line w = −1 (it is practically reversed to (G), (U), (E), (S), (D), (C)). The SALT2 and MLCS2k2 fitters are also compared and some peculiar features of the SDSS-II dataset when standardized with the MLCS2k2 fitter are pointed out. Finally, we construct a statistic to estimate the internal consistency of a collection of SnIa datasets. We find that even though there is good consistency among most samples taken from the above datasets, this consistency decreases significantly when the Gold06 (G) dataset is included in the sample

  3. IAS 25, Bilanzierung von Finanzinvestitionen (Accounting for Investments)

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Manfred

    1997-01-01

    IAS 25, Bilanzierung von Finanzinvestitionen (Accounting for Investments). - In: Rechnungslegung nach International Accounting Standards (IAS) / hrsg. von Jörg Baetge ... - Stuttgart : Schäffer-Poeschel, 1997. - S. 923-953

  4. 77 FR 68682 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...-1436; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-29] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA AGENCY: Federal... Guthrie, IA. Decommissioning of the Guthrie Center non-directional radio beacon (NDB) at Guthrie County... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Guthrie, IA, area, creating additional...

  5. 77 FR 66067 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-1432; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-25] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Boone, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Boone, IA, area, creating additional...

  6. 77 FR 66069 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-1435; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-28] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Perry, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Perry, IA, area, creating additional...

  7. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...-1430; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-23] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY: Federal... Class E airspace at Grinnell Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, by removing reference to the Grinnell NDB... Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, and amends the geographic coordinates of the airport to coincide with the...

  8. 76 FR 73501 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...-0845; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-19] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA AGENCY: Federal... Carroll, IA. Decommissioning of the Carroll non-directional beacon (NDB) at Arthur N. Neu Airport, Carroll, IA, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule...

  9. 75 FR 23580 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...-1155; Airspace Docket No. 09-ACE-14] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Mapleton, IA, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at James G. Whiting Memorial Field Airport, Mapleton, IA. The FAA is...

  10. 78 FR 76053 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ...-0255; Airspace Docket No. 13-ACE-4] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Chariton, IA. Decommissioning of the Chariton non-directional beacon (NDB) at Chariton Municipal Airport... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Chariton, IA, area...

  11. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...-0830; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-16] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA AGENCY: Federal... Centerville, IA. Decommissioning of the Centerville non-directional beacon (NDB) and cancellation of the NDB... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for the Centerville, IA, area...

  12. 77 FR 4459 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...-0846; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-18] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA AGENCY: Federal... Greenfield, IA. Decommissioning of the Greenfield non-directional beacon (NDB) at Greenfield Municipal... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Greenfield, IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Greenfield...

  13. 76 FR 75449 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...-0831; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-17] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA AGENCY: Federal... for Stuart, IA, to accommodate new COPTER area navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Stuart, IA, creating...

  14. 78 FR 18800 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ...-1433; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-26] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA AGENCY: Federal... Decorah, IA. Decommissioning of the Decorah non-directional beacon (NDB) at Decorah Municipal Airport has... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Decorah, IA, area...

  15. 75 FR 23581 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...-1153; Airspace Docket No. 09-ACE-13] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA AGENCY: Federal... Emmetsburg, IA, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Emmetsburg Municipal Airport, Emmetsburg, IA. The FAA is taking...

  16. 75 FR 37292 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ...-0085; Airspace Docket No. 10-ACE-1] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA AGENCY: Federal... Cherokee, IA. Decommissioning of the Pilot Rock non-directional beacon (NDB) at Cherokee County Regional Airport, Cherokee, IA has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument...

  17. Superluminal propagation in a poly-chromatically driven gain assisted four-level N-type atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacha, Bakht Amin; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ullah, Arif; Ali, Hazrat

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of light propagation in an N-type four-level gain assisted model (Agarwal and Dasgupta 2004 Phys. Rev. A 70 023802) under poly-chromatic pump fields. The system exhibits interesting results of multiple controllable pairs of the gain doublet profile with changes in the intensity of the control field. We observe multiple anomalous dispersive regions for superluminal propagation in the medium. A negative group velocity of −37.50 m s −1 with a negative time delay of −8 ms is observed between each gain doublet in anomalous dispersive regions. This generalized model and its predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups. (paper)

  18. Low threshold optical bistability and superluminal light propagation using a dielectric slab via inter-dot tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherzadeh, S; Nasehi, R; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The optical bistability (OB) behavior of a dielectric slab doped with quantum dot (QD) molecules is investigated in the presence of the inter-dot tunneling effect. It is shown that the threshold point of OB reduces by increasing inter-dot tunneling as well as by reducing the slab thickness. It is worth noting that the threshold of OB in a slab doped with QD molecules is smaller, by at least one order of magnitude, in respect to free QD molecules. We find that the inter-dot tunneling induces a negative group delay to the reflected pulse and it propagates in the superluminal region. Such simple control can be used in all optical switching. (paper)

  19. MOJAVE. X. PARSEC-SCALE JET ORIENTATION VARIATIONS AND SUPERLUMINAL MOTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 817 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Homan, D. C. [Department of Physics, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kovalev, Y. Y. [Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Savolainen, T., E-mail: mlister@purdue.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parsec-scale kinematics of 200 active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets based on 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data obtained between 1994 August 31 and 2011 May 1. We present new VLBA 15 GHz images of these and 59 additional AGNs from the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12-16 yr interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ∼0.°5 to ∼2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5-12 yr), however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. We find that the moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features), are slow (<0.1 mas yr{sup –1}), are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the

  20. Coréia aguda na gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados doze casos de coréia aguda observados entre 150.000 gestantes (1/12.500. A maioria dos surtos ocorreu no segundo trimestre da primeira gravidez. A duração média dos sintomas foi de três meses, não tendo sido registrado caso algum de óbito materno. Todos os partos foram espontâneos e normais. Houve apenas um óbito fetal conseqüente a choque hemorrágico. São tecidas considerações a propósito dos aspectos clínico, laboratorial e prognóstico da coréia gravídica, sendo focalizado mais pormenorizadamente o problema fisiopatogênico dessa afecção.

  1. Genetic algorithms and supernovae type Ia analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanos, Charalampos; Nesseris, Savvas

    2009-01-01

    We introduce genetic algorithms as a means to analyze supernovae type Ia data and extract model-independent constraints on the evolution of the Dark Energy equation of state w(z) ≡ P DE /ρ DE . Specifically, we will give a brief introduction to the genetic algorithms along with some simple examples to illustrate their advantages and finally we will apply them to the supernovae type Ia data. We find that genetic algorithms can lead to results in line with already established parametric and non-parametric reconstruction methods and could be used as a complementary way of treating SNIa data. As a non-parametric method, genetic algorithms provide a model-independent way to analyze data and can minimize bias due to premature choice of a dark energy model

  2. Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, In-Ho; Moon, Han Seb

    2011-01-01

    We present the continuous control of the light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with an on-resonant standing-wave coupling field in the 5S 1/2 -5P 1/2 transition of the Λ-type system of 87 Rb atoms. When a coupling field was changed from a traveling-wave to a standing-wave field by adjusting the power of a counterpropagating coupling field, the probe pulse propagation continuously transformed from subluminal propagation, due to electromagnetically induced transparency with the traveling-wave coupling field, to superluminal propagation, due to narrow enhanced absorption with the standing-wave coupling field. The group velocity of the probe pulse was measured to be approximately 0.004c to -0.002c as a function of the disparity between the powers of the copropagating and the counterpropagating coupling fields.

  3. Modulation of macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide: Stem cell requirements, accessory lymphocyte involvement, and IA-inducing factor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, P.A.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of induction of murine macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 microgram of LPS resulted in a 3- to 10-fold increase in the number of IA-positive peritoneal macrophages (flow cytometry and immunofluorescence) and a 6-to 16-fold increase by radioimmunoassay. The isolated lipid A moiety of LPS was a potent inducer of macrophage Ia expression. Ia induction required a functional myelopoietic system as indicated by the finding that the response to LPS was eliminated in irradiated (900 rads) mice and reinstated by reconstitution with bone marrow cells. Comparison of LPS-induced Ia expression in normal and LPS-primed mice revealed a faster secondary response to LPS. The memory response could be adoptively transferred to normal mice with nonadherent spleen cells prepared 60 days after LPS injection. Spleen cells prepared 5 days after LPS injection caused Ia induction in LPS-nonresponder mice; such induction was not observed in irradiated (900 rads) recipients. The cell responsible for this phenomenon was identified as a Thy-1+, immunoglobulin-negative nonadherent cell. The biosynthesis and expression of Ia were not increased by direct exposure of macrophages to LPS in vitro. Small amounts of LPS inhibited Ia induction by gamma interferon. LPS showed positive regulatory effects on Ia expression by delaying the loss of Ia expression on cultured macrophages and by stimulating the production of Ia-inducing factors. Supernatants from cultured spleen cells stimulated with LPS in vitro contained antiviral and Ia-inducing activity that was acid labile, indicating that the active factor is gamma interferon. We conclude that induction of Ia expression by LPS in vivo is a bone-marrow-dependent, radiation-sensitive process which involves the stimulation of a gamma interferon-producing accessory lymphocyte and a delay in Ia turnover

  4. Timescale stretch parameterization of Type Ia supernova B-band light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kim, M.; Knop, R.A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.; York, T.

    2001-01-01

    R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w identically equal to s times (1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ''composite curve.'' The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with Z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z, and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B band template that best fits this composite curve fits the individual supernova photometry data when stretched by a factor s with chi 2/DoF ∼ 1, thus as well as any parameterization can, given the current data sets. The measurement of the data of explosion, however, is model dependent and not tightly constrained by the current data. We also demonstrate the 1 + z light-cure time-axis broadening expected from cosmological expansion. This argues strongly against alternative explanations, such as tired light, for the redshift of distant objects

  5. Properties of Deflagration Fronts and Models for Type IA Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, I.; Höflich, P.

    2000-01-01

    restructuring of the WD prior to the detonation. Therefore, we do not expect that the precise, microphysical prescription for the speed of a subsonic burning front has a significant effect on the outcome. However, at the current level of uncertainties for the burning front, the relation between properties of the burning front and of the initial white dwarf cannot be obtained from a comparison between observation and theoretical predictions by one-dimensional models. Multidimensional calculations are needed (1) to get inside the relations between model parameters such as central density and properties of the deflagration front and its relation to the transition density between deflagration and detonation and (2) to make use of information on asphericity that is provided by polarization measurements. These questions are essential to test, estimate, and predict some of the evolutionary effects of SNe Ia and their use as cosmological yardsticks.

  6. Measurement of Omegam, OmegaLambda from a blind analysis of TypeIa supernovae with CMAGIC: Using color information to verify the acceleration of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Wang, L.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Commins, E.D.; Fadeyev, V.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Gibbons, R.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D.A.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lidman, C.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Strovink, M.; Thomas, R.C.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements of (Omega) m and (Omega) # Lambda# from a blind analysis of 21 high redshift supernovae using a new technique (CMAGIC) for fitting the multicolor lightcurves of Type Ia supernovae, first introduced in Wang et al. (2003). CMAGIC takes advantage of the remarkably simple behavior of Type Ia supernovae on color-magnitude diagrams, and has several advantages over current techniques based on maximum magnitudes. Among these are a reduced sensitivity to host galaxy dust extinction, a shallower luminosity-width relation, and the relative simplicity of the fitting procedure. This allows us to provide a cross check of previous supernova cosmology results, despite the fact that current data sets were not observed in a manner optimized for CMAGIC. We describe the details of our novel blindness procedure, which is designed to prevent experimenter bias. The data are broadly consistent with the picture of an accelerating Universe, and agree with a at Universe within 1.7σ, including systematics. We also compare the CMAGIC results directly with those of a maximum magnitude fit to the same SNe, finding that CMAGIC favors more acceleration at the 1.6σ level, including systematics and the correlation between the two measurements. A fit for w assuming a at Universe yields a value which is consistent with a cosmological constant within 1.2σ

  7. The nebular spectra of the transitional Type Ia Supernovae 2007on and 2011iv: broad, multiple components indicate aspherical explosion cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Ashall, C.; Pian, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Gall, C.; Phillips, M. M.; Höflich, P.; Hsiao, E.

    2018-05-01

    The nebular-epoch spectrum of the rapidly declining, `transitional' Type Ia supernova (SN) 2007on showed double emission peaks, which have been interpreted as indicating that the SN was the result of the direct collision of two white dwarfs. The spectrum can be reproduced using two distinct emission components, one redshifted and one blueshifted. These components are similar in mass but have slightly different degrees of ionization. They recede from one another at a line-of-sight speed larger than the sum of the combined expansion velocities of their emitting cores, thereby acting as two independent nebulae. While this configuration appears to be consistent with the scenario of two white dwarfs colliding, it may also indicate an off-centre delayed detonation explosion of a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. In either case, broad emission line widths and a rapidly evolving light curve can be expected for the bolometric luminosity of the SN. This is the case for both SNe 2007on and 2011iv, also a transitional SN Ia that exploded in the same elliptical galaxy, NGC 1404. Although SN 2011iv does not show double-peaked emission line profiles, the width of its emission lines is such that a two-component model yields somewhat better results than a single-component model. Most of the mass ejected is in one component, however, which suggests that SN 2011iv was the result of the off-centre ignition of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf.

  8. Measurement of Omega_m, Omega_Lambda from a blind analysis of TypeIa supernovae with CMAGIC: Using color information to verify theacceleration of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Wang, L.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Commins, E.D.; Fadeyev, V.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Gibbons, R.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D.A.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lidman, C.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain,R.; Perlmutter, S.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Strovink,M.; Thomas, R.C.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2006-02-21

    We present measurements of {Omega}{sub m} and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} from a blind analysis of 21 high redshift supernovae using a new technique (CMAGIC) for fitting the multicolor lightcurves of Type Ia supernovae, first introduced in Wang et al. (2003). CMAGIC takes advantage of the remarkably simple behavior of Type Ia supernovae on color-magnitude diagrams, and has several advantages over current techniques based on maximum magnitudes. Among these are a reduced sensitivity to host galaxy dust extinction, a shallower luminosity-width relation, and the relative simplicity of the fitting procedure. This allows us to provide a cross check of previous supernova cosmology results, despite the fact that current data sets were not observed in a manner optimized for CMAGIC. We describe the details of our novel blindness procedure, which is designed to prevent experimenter bias. The data are broadly consistent with the picture of an accelerating Universe, and agree with a at Universe within 1.7{sigma}, including systematics. We also compare the CMAGIC results directly with those of a maximum magnitude fit to the same SNe, finding that CMAGIC favors more acceleration at the 1.6{sigma} level, including systematics and the correlation between the two measurements. A fit for w assuming a at Universe yields a value which is consistent with a cosmological constant within 1.2{sigma}.

  9. Sensitivity studies for supernovae type Ia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thien Tam; Goebel, Kathrin; Reifarth, Rene [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Calder, Alan [SUNY - Department of Physics and Astronomy, New York (United States); Pignatari, Marco [Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Townsley, Dean [The University of Alabama (United States); Travaglio, Claudia [INAF - Astrophysical Observatory, Turin (Italy); Collaboration: NuGrid collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The NuGrid research platform provides a simulation framework to study the nucleosynthesis in multi-dimensional Supernovae Type Ia models. We use a large network of over 5,000 isotopes and more than 60,000 reactions. The nucleosynthesis is investigated in post-processing simulations with temperature and density profiles, initial abundance distributions and a set of reaction rates as input. The sensitivity of the isotopic abundances to α-, proton-, and neutron-capture reaction, their inverse reactions, as well as fusion reactions were investigated. First results have been achieved for different mass coordinates of the exploding star.

  10. The Implementation of IAS 16 and IAS 41 at Andrew Peller Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe-Antunes, Pascale; Moore, James

    2013-01-01

    This case asks students to play the role of Doug Grodeckie, Manager of Financial Reporting at Andrew Peller Limited (APL). Doug was asked to prepare a report analyzing Andrew Peller Limited's current tangible long-lived assets disclosures and making recommendations on how best to comply with International Accounting Standard (IAS) 16 Property,…

  11. IAS 41 Implementation Challenges – The Case of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Feleagă; Niculae Feleagă; Vasile Răileanu

    2012-01-01

    Although agriculture is an important part of the world economy, accounting in agriculture still has many shortcomings. The adoption of IAS 41 "Agriculture" has tried to improve this situation and increase the comparability of financial statements of entities in the agricultural sector. Although controversial, IAS 41 is the first step of a consistent transition to fair value assessment in the agricultural sector. The objective of our work is the analysis of IAS 41 and curr...

  12. Theoretical considerations about implementation of IAS 41 in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana FELEAGĂ; Niculae FELEAGĂ; Vasile RĂILEANU

    2012-01-01

    Although agriculture is an important part of the world economy, accounting in agriculture still has many shortcomings. The adoption of IAS 41 „Agricuture” has tried to improve this situation and increase the comparability of financial statements of entities in the agricultural sector. Although controversial, IAS 41 is the first step of a consistent transition to fair value assessment in the agricultural sector. The objective of our work is the analysis of IAS 41 and current accounting agricul...

  13. Anastilosis Virtual de Felipéia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Costa Lima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This text is about a virtual anastylosis of Felipéia, capital of Paraíba, the first city founded in Brazil under the Spanish Crown in 1585, during the Iberic Union. Recently, infographics resources enabled the reconstruction, with great precision, of the old city’s ground plans from Dutch maps from 1634-37, and establish the first hypothesis of a tridimensional configuration of the city. Now, measuring and studies are being done to make possible a piece by piece virtual anastylosis of the buildings and, after that, a tridimensional virtual reconstruction of the historical city, which will enable virtual walkabouts on the streets, squares and buildings.

  14. DARK MATTER ADMIXED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a 19-isotope nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core M DM : a larger M DM generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 M ⊙ as M DM increases from 0.01 to 0.03 M ⊙ . We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous Type Ia supernovae

  15. 3IA Conference (3IA’2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Miaoulis, Georgios; Intelligent Computer Graphics 2011

    2012-01-01

    In Computer Graphics, the use of intelligent techniques started more recently than in other research areas. However, during these last two decades, the use of intelligent Computer Graphics techniques is growing up year after year and more and more interesting techniques are presented in this area.   The purpose of this volume is to present current work of the Intelligent Computer Graphics community, a community growing up year after year. This volume is a kind of continuation of the previously published Springer volumes “Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Computer Graphics” (2008), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2009” (2009) and “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2010” (2010).   This volume contains selected extended papers from the last 3IA Conference (3IA’2011), which has been held in Athens (Greece) in May 2011. This year papers are particularly exciting and concern areas like virtual reality, artificial life, data visualization, games, global illumination, point cloud modelling, declarativ...

  16. Autologous peptides constitutively occupy the antigen binding site on Ia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Sette, A; Colon, S M

    1988-01-01

    Low molecular weight material associated with affinity-purified class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of mouse (Ia) had the expected properties of peptides bound to the antigen binding site of Ia. Thus, the low molecular weight material derived from the I-Ad isotype...

  17. The Connection between IAS/IFRS and Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the degree of social responsibility arising from the statement of comprehensive income prepared according to IAS/IFRS, to demonstrate whether the values obtained from prospects and from the calculation of the indicators are sufficient to analyze the Company's performance from the perspective of social responsibility and sustainable value or not. In order to achieve the objective of harmonization, the European Union adopted the IAS/IFRS developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part, the financial statements to be prepared according to IAS 1 and IAS 7 and, in particular, the so called statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income for the period are analyzed by underling the function of the same and by presenting some financial performance indicators. Then, the research highlights how these values obtained are not useful to communicate the company's strategy in terms of social responsibility and sustainable value. In the second part the analyses exposes the concept of social balance. According to the social responsibility view the IAS/IFRS financial statements should be accompanied by the social balance. It becomes crucial to complete the set of financial statements stated from IAS 1 with a social balance as well as the same IAS 1 contemplates. For this reason it is possible to say that the connection between IAS/IFRS and social responsibility is weak.

  18. Scholarship for Service: IA Tutorials and Workshops for Educators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvine, Cynthia E; Falby, Naomi B

    2005-01-01

    ... of Information Assurance (IA) and computer security. The target audience of the workshops has been 2-year college, 4-year college, and university-level educators who have responsibility for teaching curricula that are, or could be, related to IA issues...

  19. The dense core vesicle protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is required for active avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, G N; Nishimura, T; Schindler, C W; Panlilio, L V; Notkins, A L

    2014-06-06

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild-type (WT) mice showed 60-70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10-15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60-70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Theoretical considerations about implementation of IAS 41 in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana FELEAGĂ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although agriculture is an important part of the world economy, accounting in agriculture still has many shortcomings. The adoption of IAS 41 „Agricuture” has tried to improve this situation and increase the comparability of financial statements of entities in the agricultural sector. Although controversial, IAS 41 is the first step of a consistent transition to fair value assessment in the agricultural sector. The objective of our work is the analysis of IAS 41 and current accounting agricultural situation in Romania. Accounting regulations in Romania are in accordance with European directives and, in many respects, converged with IFRS referential. Provisions of IAS 41, however, are not reflected directly in Romanian regulations. With the increase of forest land transactions and foreign investments in animal farms, it is expected that recognition and measurement of biological assets under IAS 41 to become a necessity.

  1. Adiponectin levels correlate with the severity of hypertriglyceridaemia in glycogen storage disease Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, R. H. J.; Smit, G. P. A.; Reijngoud, D. -J.; Kuipers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is characterized by severe hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. Little is known about the aetiology of the hyperlipidaemia in GSD Ia. Adipokines play an important regulatory role in lipid metabolism. We investigated whether adipokine

  2. Relativistic jet with shock waves like model of superluminal radio source. Jet relativista con ondas de choque como modelo de radio fuentes superluminales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A.; Gomez, J.L.; Marcaide, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the compact radio sources at milliarcsecond angular resolution can be explained in terms of shock waves propagating along bent jets. These jets consist of narrow-angle cones of plasma flowing at bulk relativistic velocities, within tangled magnetic fields, emitting synchrotron radiation. We have developed a numerical code which solves the synchrotron radiation transfer equations to compute the total and polarized emission of bent shocked relativistic jets, and we have applied it to reproduce the compact structure, kenimatic evolution and time flux density evolution of the superluminal radio source 4C 39.25 and to obtain its jet physical parameters. (Author) 23 ref.

  3. Millisecond Magnetar Birth Connects FRB 121102 to Superluminous Supernovae and Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Margalit, Ben [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Berger, Edo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Subarcsecond localization of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 revealed its coincidence with a dwarf host galaxy and a steady (“quiescent”) nonthermal radio source. We show that the properties of the host galaxy are consistent with those of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRB) and hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). Both LGRBs and SLSNe-I were previously hypothesized to be powered by the electromagnetic spin-down of newly formed, strongly magnetized neutron stars with millisecond birth rotation periods (“millisecond magnetars”). This motivates considering a scenario whereby the repeated bursts from FRB 121102 originate from a young magnetar remnant embedded within a young hydrogen-poor supernova (SN) remnant. Requirements on the gigahertz free–free optical depth through the expanding SN ejecta (accounting for photoionization by the rotationally powered magnetar nebula), energetic constraints on the bursts, and constraints on the size of the quiescent source all point to an age of less than a few decades. The quiescent radio source can be attributed to synchrotron emission from the shock interaction between the fast outer layer of the supernova ejecta with the surrounding wind of the progenitor star, or the radio source can from deeper within the magnetar wind nebula as outlined in Metzger et al. Alternatively, the radio emission could be an orphan afterglow from an initially off-axis LGRB jet, though this might require the source to be too young. The young age of the source can be tested by searching for a time derivative of the dispersion measure and the predicted fading of the quiescent radio source. We propose future tests of the SLSNe-I/LGRB/FRB connection, such as searches for FRBs from nearby SLSNe-I/LGRBs on timescales of decades after their explosions.

  4. PS1-10bzj: A FAST, HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA IN A METAL-POOR HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunnan, R.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Milisavljevic, D.; Drout, M.; Sanders, N. E.; Challis, P. M.; Czekala, I.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Leibler, C.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huber, M. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Roth, K. C. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Scolnic, D., E-mail: rlunnan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-07-10

    We present observations and analysis of PS1-10bzj, a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey at a redshift z = 0.650. Spectroscopically, PS1-10bzj is similar to the hydrogen-poor SLSNe 2005ap and SCP 06F6, though with a steeper rise and lower peak luminosity (M{sub bol} {approx_equal} -21.4 mag) than previous events. We construct a bolometric light curve, and show that while PS1-10bzj's energetics were less extreme than previous events, its luminosity still cannot be explained by radioactive nickel decay alone. We explore both a magnetar spin-down and circumstellar interaction scenario and find that either can fit the data. PS1-10bzj is located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South and the host galaxy is imaged in a number of surveys, including with the Hubble Space Telescope. The host is a compact dwarf galaxy (M{sub B} Almost-Equal-To -18 mag, diameter {approx}< 800 pc), with a low stellar mass (M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }), young stellar population ({tau}{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 5 Myr), and a star formation rate of {approx}2-3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The specific star formation rate is the highest seen in an SLSN host so far ({approx}100 Gyr{sup -1}). We detect the [O III] {lambda}4363 line, and find a low metallicity: 12 + (O/H) = 7.8 {+-} 0.2 ({approx_equal} 0.1 Z{sub Sun }). Together, this indicates that at least some of the progenitors of SLSNe come from young, low-metallicity populations.

  5. Millisecond Magnetar Birth Connects FRB 121102 to Superluminous Supernovae and Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Margalit, Ben; Berger, Edo

    2017-01-01

    Subarcsecond localization of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 revealed its coincidence with a dwarf host galaxy and a steady (“quiescent”) nonthermal radio source. We show that the properties of the host galaxy are consistent with those of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRB) and hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). Both LGRBs and SLSNe-I were previously hypothesized to be powered by the electromagnetic spin-down of newly formed, strongly magnetized neutron stars with millisecond birth rotation periods (“millisecond magnetars”). This motivates considering a scenario whereby the repeated bursts from FRB 121102 originate from a young magnetar remnant embedded within a young hydrogen-poor supernova (SN) remnant. Requirements on the gigahertz free–free optical depth through the expanding SN ejecta (accounting for photoionization by the rotationally powered magnetar nebula), energetic constraints on the bursts, and constraints on the size of the quiescent source all point to an age of less than a few decades. The quiescent radio source can be attributed to synchrotron emission from the shock interaction between the fast outer layer of the supernova ejecta with the surrounding wind of the progenitor star, or the radio source can from deeper within the magnetar wind nebula as outlined in Metzger et al. Alternatively, the radio emission could be an orphan afterglow from an initially off-axis LGRB jet, though this might require the source to be too young. The young age of the source can be tested by searching for a time derivative of the dispersion measure and the predicted fading of the quiescent radio source. We propose future tests of the SLSNe-I/LGRB/FRB connection, such as searches for FRBs from nearby SLSNe-I/LGRBs on timescales of decades after their explosions.

  6. EARLY EMISSION FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli; Livne, Eli

    2012-01-01

    A unique feature of deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) white dwarf explosion models of supernovae of type Ia is the presence of a strong shock wave propagating through the outer envelope. We consider the early emission expected in such models, which is produced by the expanding shock-heated outer part of the ejecta and precedes the emission driven by radioactive decay. We expand on earlier analyses by considering the modification of the pre-detonation density profile by the weak shocks generated during the deflagration phase, the time evolution of the opacity, and the deviation of the post-shock equation of state from that obtained for radiation pressure domination. A simple analytic model is presented and shown to provide an acceptable approximation to the results of one-dimensional numerical DDT simulations. Our analysis predicts a ∼10 3 s long UV/optical flash with a luminosity of ∼1 to ∼3 × 10 39 erg s –1 . Lower luminosity corresponds to faster (turbulent) deflagration velocity. The luminosity of the UV flash is predicted to be strongly suppressed at t > t drop ∼ 1 hr due to the deviation from pure radiation domination.

  7. TURBULENT OXYGEN FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, we examined turbulence-flame interactions in carbon-burning thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. In this study, we consider turbulence-flame interactions in the trailing oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen flame. Scaling arguments analogous to the carbon flames are presented and then compared against three-dimensional simulations for a range of Damkoehler numbers (Da 16 ) at a fixed Karlovitz number. The simulations suggest that turbulence does not significantly affect the oxygen flame when Da 16 16 >1, turbulence enhances heat transfer and drives the propagation of a flame that is narrower than the corresponding inductive flame would be. Furthermore, burning under these conditions appears to occur as part of a combined carbon-oxygen turbulent flame with complex compound structure. The simulations do not appear to support the possibility of a transition to detonation in the oxygen flame, but do not preclude it either.

  8. Analysis of Intel IA-64 Processor Support for Secure Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unalmis, Bugra

    2001-01-01

    .... Systems could be constructed for which serious security threats would be eliminated. This thesis explores the Intel IA-64 processor's hardware support and its relationship to software for building a secure system...

  9. Muudetud IFRS 3 ja IAS 27 / Monika Peetson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peetson, Monika, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise Raamatupidamisstandardite Nõukogu poolt välja antud muudetud standarditest IFRS 3 "Äriühendused" ja IAS 27 "Konsolideeritud ja konsolideerimata finantsaruanded" ning nendega kaasnevatest muudatustest

  10. RadNet Air Data From Mason City, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Mason City, IA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. A problem with the analysis of type Ia supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type Ia supernovae have light curves that have widths and magnitudes that can be used for testing cosmologies and they provide one of the few direct measurements of time dilation. It is shown that the standard analysis that calibrates the light curve against a rest-frame average (such as SALT2 removes all the cosmological information from the calibrated light curves. Consequently type Ia supernovae calibrated with these methods cannot be used to investigate cosmology. The major evidence that supports the hypothesis of a static universe is that the measurements of the widths of the rawlight curves of type Ia supernovae do not show any time dilation. The intrinsicwavelength dependence shown by the SALT2 calibration templates is also consistent with no time dilation. Using a static cosmological model the peak absolute magnitudes of raw type Ia supernovae observations are also independent of redshift. These results support the hypothesis of a static universe.

  12. Molecular analysis of glycogen storage disease type Ia in Iranian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we examined GSD Ia caused by the defective glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic (G6PC) gene. .... M, male; F, female; FBS, fasting blood sugar; TG, serum triglycerides; NA, not available; .... consanguinity: the homozygosity index (HI).

  13. Molecular profiling identifies prognostic markers of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Shao, Jinchen; Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Ruiying; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiaohui; Tu, Shichun; Han, Baohui; Yu, Keke

    2017-09-26

    We previously showed that different pathologic subtypes were associated with different prognostic values in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (AC). We hypothesize that differential gene expression profiles of different subtypes may be valuable factors for prognosis in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. We performed microarray gene expression profiling on tumor tissues micro-dissected from patients with acinar and solid predominant subtypes of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. These patients had undergone a lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection at the Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China in 2012. No patient had preoperative treatment. We performed the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) analysis to look for gene expression signatures associated with tumor subtypes. The histologic subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2015 WHO lung Adenocarcinoma classification. We found that patients with the solid predominant subtype are enriched for genes involved in RNA polymerase activity as well as inactivation of the p53 pathway. Further, we identified a list of genes that may serve as prognostic markers for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Validation in the TCGA database shows that these genes are correlated with survival, suggesting that they are novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we have uncovered novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma using gene expression profiling in combination with histopathology subtyping.

  14. DETECTION OF BROAD Hα EMISSION LINES IN THE LATE-TIME SPECTRA OF A HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lin; Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Quimby, R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Ofek, E.; Gal-Yam, A.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Leloudas, G.; Cia, A. de; Yaron, O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cao, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, P. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rebbapragada, Umaa D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woźniak, P. R., E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu [Space and Remote Sensing, ISR-2, MS-B244 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.3434, with a slow-evolving light curve and spectral features similar to SN2007bi. It rises in 83–148 days to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}, then decays slowly at 0.015 mag day{sup −1}. The measured ejecta velocity is ∼ 13,000 km s{sup −1}. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (70–220 M{sub ⊙}), and the total radiative and kinetic energy (E{sub rad} ∼ 10{sup 51} erg, E{sub kin} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 53} erg), are typical of slow-evolving H-poor SLSN events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251 days (rest, post-peak) reveals a Balmer Hα emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ∼4500 km s{sup −1} and a ∼300 km s{sup −1} blueward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Hα emission with a luminosity of ∼2 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1} as resulting from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a discrete H-rich shell, located at a distance of ∼4 × 10{sup 16} cm from the explosion site. This interaction causes the rest-frame r-band LC to brighten at late times. The fact that the late-time spectra are not completely absorbed by the shock-ionized H-shell implies that its Thomson scattering optical depth is likely ≤1, thus setting upper limits on the shell mass ≤30 M{sub ⊙}. Of the existing models, a Pulsational Pair Instability supernova model can naturally explain the observed 30 M{sub ⊙} H-shell, ejected from a progenitor star with an initial mass of (95–150) M{sub ⊙} about 40 years ago. We estimate that at least ∼15% of all SLSNe-I may have late-time Balmer emission lines.

  15. The hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova iPTF 13ajg and its host galaxy in absorption and emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa; Rubin, Adam; Yaron, Ofer; Tal, David; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Savaglio, Sandra [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Quimby, Robert M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Perley, Daniel A.; Cao, Yi [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Taddia, Francesco; Sollerman, Jesper; Leloudas, Giorgos [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, AlbaNova 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: paul.vreeswijk@weizmann.ac.il [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2014-12-10

    We present imaging and spectroscopy of a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, iPTF 13ajg. At a redshift of z = 0.7403, derived from narrow absorption lines, iPTF 13ajg peaked at an absolute magnitude of M {sub u,} {sub AB} = –22.5, one of the most luminous supernovae to date. The observed bolometric peak luminosity of iPTF 13ajg is 3.2 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}, while the estimated total radiated energy is 1.3 × 10{sup 51} erg. We detect narrow absorption lines of Mg I, Mg II, and Fe II, associated with the cold interstellar medium in the host galaxy, at two different epochs with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope. From Voigt profile fitting, we derive the column densities log N(Mg I) =11.94 ± 0.06, log N(Mg II) =14.7 ± 0.3, and log N(Fe II) =14.25 ± 0.10. These column densities, as well as the Mg I and Mg II equivalent widths of a sample of hydrogen-poor SLSNe taken from the literature, are at the low end of those derived for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) whose progenitors are also thought to be massive stars. This suggests that the environments of hydrogen-poor SLSNe and GRBs are different. From the nondetection of Fe II fine-structure absorption lines, we derive a lower limit on the distance between the supernova and the narrow-line absorbing gas of 50 pc. The neutral gas responsible for the absorption in iPTF 13ajg exhibits a single narrow component with a low velocity width, ΔV = 76 km s{sup –1}, indicating a low-mass host galaxy. No host galaxy emission lines are detected, leading to an upper limit on the unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of SFR{sub [O} {sub II]}<0.07M{sub ⊙}yr{sup −1}. Late-time imaging shows the iPTF 13ajg host galaxy to be faint, with g {sub AB} ≈ 27.0 and R {sub AB} ≥ 26.0 mag, corresponding to M {sub B,} {sub Vega} ≳ –17.7 mag.

  16. Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Inference: Hierarchical Models for Nearby SN Ia in the Optical and Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Kirshner, R. P.; Narayan, G.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Friedman, A. S.; Hicken, M.

    2010-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova light curves spanning optical through near infrared data simultaneously. The near infrared light curves are found to be excellent standard candles (sigma(MH) = 0.11 +/- 0.03 mag) that are less vulnerable to systematic error from dust extinction, a major confounding factor for cosmological studies. A hierarchical statistical framework incorporates coherently multiple sources of randomness and uncertainty, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances, for probabilistic inference with Type Ia SN light curves. Inferences are drawn from the full probability density over individual supernovae and the SN Ia and dust populations, conditioned on a dataset of SN Ia light curves and redshifts. To compute probabilistic inferences with hierarchical models, I have developed BayeSN, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm based on Gibbs sampling. This code explores and samples the global probability density of parameters describing individual supernovae and the population. I have applied this hierarchical model to optical and near infrared data of over 100 nearby Type Ia SN from PAIRITEL, the CfA3 sample, and the literature. Using this statistical model, I find that SN with optical and NIR data have a smaller residual scatter in the Hubble diagram than SN with only optical data. The continued study of Type Ia SN in the near infrared will be important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  17. Adoption of IFRS/IAS impacting the companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Baranová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent time, there were done marked changes in IAS/IFRS, changes in existing rules. Fifteen standards of IAS have been amended just before the end of 2003 and in course of the first quarter of the year 2004 updating of other standards IAS has been done. The requirement of changes hangs together, among others, also with the recent affairs about the bankruptcies of big companies. In this connection, accelerated and turning changes are proceeding in EU. Since 2005 every EU listed company has to prepare the consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS/IAS. Vast survey on the impacts of IFRS adoption was carried by Mazars in 2005. 25 Czech companies have been also interviewed within the study. These Czech companies have exhibit a strong mastery and readiness for the conversion and transition process. Such a summary is quite unwonted in a number of perspectives. But the aim of the author is not to question the study. In the Czech environment, the specific facts in the field of financial reporting and accounting are given. Following these specifics, the truth is that preparing the financial statements in accordance with IFRS/IAS brings undoubtedly valuation and technical entanglements for which the process is costly.

  18. Premaximum observations of the type Ia SN 1990N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibundgut, B.; Kirshner, R.P.; Filippenko, A.V.; Shields, J.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Phillips, M.M.; Sonneborn, G.

    1991-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric observations of SN 1990N were obtained at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths, beginning 14 days before maximum light. The early observations reveal important differences from spectra of SN Ia's around maximum light. Photometry and spectroscopy obtained after maximum show that SN 1990N is a typical SN Ia and that most of the observed differences are due to the early epoch of the observations. The most significant characteristics are (1) the high velocities of Ca and Si up to 22,000 km/s; (2) the presence of Co and Fe 2 weeks before maximum; and (3) the more rapid increase in the UV flux compared to the optical. The most popular models for white dwarf deflagration that have provided the standard interpretation for SN Ia's at maximum light do not reproduce the high velocities of Ca II and Si II lines observed in SN 1990N. 37 refs

  19. IAS 39 og konverterbar gæld

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund Møller, Peder; Thinggaard, Frank

    , at der er en betydelig beholdning af konverterbare realkreditlån, som der skal aflægges regnskab for. Denne artikel har til formål at belyse de alternativer, der findes i IAS39 til regnskabsmæssig behandling af konverterbar gæld. I juli 2008 kom der en tilføjelse til IAS 39, "Eligible Hedged Items". Den......: 1. dagsværdimetode, hvor "hele det konverterbare lån", dvs. både den "rene gæld" og den indbyggede indfrielsesoption, der iflg. IAS 39 udgør de to komponenter i et konverterbart lån, føres til dagsværdi, 2. udskillelsesmetode, hvor der anvendes amortiseret kostpris for den "rene gæld" og dagsværdi...

  20. Type Ia supernovae yielding distances with 3-4% precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Burke, David L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hicken, Malcolm [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Weikang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-26

    The luminosities of Type Ia supernovae (SN), the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and light-curve decline rate. These relationships have been used to calibrate their luminosities to within ~0.14–0.20 mag from broadband optical light curves, yielding individual distances accurate to ~7–10%. Here we identify a subset of SN Ia that erupt in environments having high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, these SN can be calibrated to within ~0.065–0.075 mag, corresponding to ~3–4% in distance — the best yet with SN Ia by a substantial margin. The small scatter suggests that variations in only one or two progenitor properties account for their light-curve-width/color/luminosity relation.

  1. Consolidated Financial Statements – in IAS 27 perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aspects concerning the preparation and publication of the consolidated financial statements have been the subject of the settlement by the Committee for International Accounting Standards (IAS even since 1976 with the publication of IAS 3 “Consolidated financial statements”. Subsequently, the standard has been amended and revised successively, on several occasions. The latest version issued in 2008 includes changes on the accounting of interests that do not control and the loss of control on a subsidiary. The actual version also includes the subsequent amendments resulting from IFRS issued until 31st of December 2010. This paper presents the essential aspects of IAS 27 (the actual version and a practical example of how to elaborate consolidated accounts in accordance with this standard.

  2. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T

    2003-12-11

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (> 300 M{sub solar}). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super-Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and that their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  3. Interaction between a "processed" ovalbumin peptide and Ia molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Colon, S; Smith, C

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled immunogenic peptides to purified Ia molecules in detergent solution was examined by equilibrium dialysis. We used the chicken ovalbumin peptide ovalbumin-(323-339)-Tyr, which is immunogenic in the BALB/c mouse and restricted to I-Ad. 125I-labeled ovalbumin-(323-339)-Tyr......-Ak but not to I-Ek, I-Ad, or I-Ed. Thus, a specific interaction between Ia and antigen that correlates with the major histocompatibility complex restriction was demonstrated, strongly arguing in favor of a determinant selection hypothesis for such restriction....

  4. Tillämpning av IAS 40 i onoterade fastighetsbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Fredrik; Nilsson, Karolina; Ericsson, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Enligt IAS 40 – Förvaltningsfastigheter, definieras förvaltningsfastigheter som ”mark eller byggnader eller del av byggnad som innehas i syfte att generera hyresinkomster eller värdestegring”. Onoterade fastighetsbolag i Sverige har idag möjlighet att välja mellan att värdera sina fastigheter till anskaffningsvärde eller verkligt värde. IAS – International Accounting Standards är en internationell redovisningsstandard inom EU som började tillämpas i januari 2001, men blev obligatorisk för bör...

  5. How is IFRS/IAS implemented in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Mastergradsoppgave i bedriftsøkonomi - Høgskolen i Bodø, 2007 The thesis investigates how IFRS/IAS is implemented in China. The main idea of the study is to find out the answers of following questions: How has the environment of Chinese accounting changed? What are the reasons for convergence with IFRS/IAS in China? What is the new finding in new accounting standards from perspective of accounting as technology? How can we understand the process of accounting institutionaliz...

  6. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  7. Are superluminal connections necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1977-01-01

    The following theorem is proved. If the statistical predictions of quantum theory are true in general and if the macroscopic world is not radically different from what is observed, then what happens macroscopically in one space-time region must in some cases depend on variables that are controlled by experimenters in far-away, space-like-separated regions

  8. Superluminous accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy; Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Centrum Astronomiczne)

    1981-07-01

    Upper limits are computed for the total luminosities and collimation of radiation from thick, radiation supported accretion discs around black holes. Numerical results are obtained for the 'extreme' discs with rsub(out) = 10/sup 3/ GMsub(BH)/c/sup 2/, the angular momentum of the black hole being Jsub(BH) = 0.998 GMsub(BH)/c. The high luminosity (L approximately 8.5 Lsub(Edd)) and substantial collimation of radiation found for these discs indicate that such discs can explain both the high luminosities of quasars and similar objects and may produce some of the observed beams and jets.

  9. 75 FR 65390 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12279 and 12280] Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA--1930--DR), dated 08/14/ 2010...

  10. 75 FR 51506 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12258 and 12259] Iowa Disaster Number IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA- 1930-DR...

  11. 75 FR 62897 - Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12279 and 12280] Iowa Disaster Number IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of IOWA (FEMA-1930-DR), dated 08/14/2010. Incident...