Non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion and levitation effect: a mode-coupling theory analysis.
Nandi, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Atreyee; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra
2013-03-28
We present a study of diffusion of small tagged particles in a solvent, using mode coupling theory (MCT) analysis and computer simulations. The study is carried out for various interaction potentials. For the first time, using MCT, it is shown that only for strongly attractive interaction potential with allowing interpenetration between the solute-solvent pair the diffusion exhibits a non-monotonic solute size dependence which has earlier been reported in simulation studies [P. K. Ghorai and S. Yashonath, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 5824-5835 (2005)]. For weak attractive and repulsive potential the solute size dependence of diffusion shows monotonic behaviour. It is also found that for systems where the interaction potential does not allow solute-solvent interpenetration, the solute cannot explore the neck of the solvent cage. Thus these systems even with strong attractive interaction will never show any non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion. This non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion has earlier been connected to levitation effect [S. Yashonath and P. Santikary, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 6368 (1994)]. We also show that although levitation is a dynamic phenomena, the effect of levitation can be obtained in the static radial distribution function.
Song, Z. Q.; Ni, Y.; Peng, L. M.; Liang, H. Y.; He, L. H.
2016-03-01
Bioinspired discontinuous nanolaminate design becomes an efficient way to mitigate the strength-ductility tradeoff in brittle materials via arresting the crack at the interface followed by controllable interface failure. The analytical solution and numerical simulation based on the nonlinear shear-lag model indicates that propagation of the interface failure can be unstable or stable when the interfacial shear stress between laminae is uniform or highly localized, respectively. A dimensionless key parameter defined by the ratio of two characteristic lengths governs the transition between the two interface-failure modes, which can explain the non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties observed in various laminate composites.
Non-monotonic dependence of Pickering emulsion gel rheology on particle volume fraction.
Kaganyuk, M; Mohraz, A
2017-03-29
The microstructure of Pickering emulsion gels features a tenuous network of faceted droplets, bridged together by shared monolayers of particles. In this investigation, we use standard oscillatory rheometry in conjunction with confocal microscopy to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the role particle bridged interfaces have on the rheology of Pickering emulsion gels. The zero-shear elastic modulus of Pickering emulsion gels shows a non-monotonic dependence on particle loading, with three separate regimes of power-law and linear gel strengthening, and subsequent gel weakening. The transition from power-law to linear scaling is found to coincide with a peak in the volume fraction of particles that participate in bridging, which we indirectly calculate using measureable quantities, and the transition to gel weakening is shown to result from a loss in network connectivity at high particle loadings. These observations are explained via a simple representation of how Pickering emulsion gels arise from an initial population of partially-covered droplets. Based on these considerations, we propose a combined variable related to the initial droplet coverage, to be used in reporting and rationalizing the rheology of Pickering emulsion gels. We demonstrate the applicability of this variable with Pickering emulsions prepared at variable fluid ratios and with different-sized colloidal particles. The results of our investigation have important implications for many technological applications that utilize solid stabilized multi-phase emulsions and require a priori knowledge or engineering of their flow characteristics.
Karapetsas, George; Sahu, Kirti Chandra; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar K
2014-04-22
We study the thermocapillary-driven spreading of a droplet on a nonuniformly heated substrate for fluids associated with a non-monotonic dependence of the surface tension on temperature. We use lubrication theory to derive an evolution equation for the interface that accounts for capillarity and thermocapillarity. The contact line singularity is relieved by using a slip model and a Cox-Voinov relation; the latter features equilibrium contact angles that vary depending on the substrate wettability, which, in turn, is linked to the local temperature. We simulate the spreading of droplets of fluids whose surface tension-temperature curves exhibit a turning point. For cases wherein these turning points correspond to minima, and when these minima are located within the droplet, then thermocapillary stresses drive rapid spreading away from the minima. This gives rise to a significant acceleration of the spreading whose characteristics resemble those associated with the "superspreading" of droplets on hydrophobic substrates. No such behavior is observed for cases in which the turning point corresponds to a surface tension maximum.
Mapping axonal density and average diameter using non-monotonic time-dependent gradient-echo MRI
Nunes, Daniel; Cruz, Tomás L.; Jespersen, Sune N.; Shemesh, Noam
2017-04-01
White Matter (WM) microstructures, such as axonal density and average diameter, are crucial to the normal function of the Central Nervous System (CNS) as they are closely related with axonal conduction velocities. Conversely, disruptions of these microstructural features may result in severe neurological deficits, suggesting that their noninvasive mapping could be an important step towards diagnosing and following pathophysiology. Whereas diffusion based MRI methods have been proposed to map these features, they typically entail the application of powerful gradients, which are rarely available in the clinic, or extremely long acquisition schemes to extract information from parameter-intensive models. In this study, we suggest that simple and time-efficient multi-gradient-echo (MGE) MRI can be used to extract the axon density from susceptibility-driven non-monotonic decay in the time-dependent signal. We show, both theoretically and with simulations, that a non-monotonic signal decay will occur for multi-compartmental microstructures - such as axons and extra-axonal spaces, which were here used as a simple model for the microstructure - and that, for axons parallel to the main magnetic field, the axonal density can be extracted. We then experimentally demonstrate in ex-vivo rat spinal cords that its different tracts - characterized by different microstructures - can be clearly contrasted using the MGE-derived maps. When the quantitative results are compared against ground-truth histology, they reflect the axonal fraction (though with a bias, as evident from Bland-Altman analysis). As well, the extra-axonal fraction can be estimated. The results suggest that our model is oversimplified, yet at the same time evidencing a potential and usefulness of the approach to map underlying microstructures using a simple and time-efficient MRI sequence. We further show that a simple general-linear-model can predict the average axonal diameters from the four model parameters, and
Time-dependent, non-monotonic response of warm convective cloud fields to changes in aerosol loading
Dagan, Guy; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Heiblum, Reuven H.
2017-06-01
Large eddy simulations (LESs) with bin microphysics are used here to study cloud fields' sensitivity to changes in aerosol loading and the time evolution of this response. Similarly to the known response of a single cloud, we show that the mean field properties change in a non-monotonic trend, with an optimum aerosol concentration for which the field reaches its maximal water mass or rain yield. This trend is a result of competition between processes that encourage cloud development versus those that suppress it. However, another layer of complexity is added when considering clouds' impact on the field's thermodynamic properties and how this is dependent on aerosol loading. Under polluted conditions, rain is suppressed and the non-precipitating clouds act to increase atmospheric instability. This results in warming of the lower part of the cloudy layer (in which there is net condensation) and cooling of the upper part (net evaporation). Evaporation at the upper part of the cloudy layer in the polluted simulations raises humidity at these levels and thus amplifies the development of the next generation of clouds (preconditioning effect). On the other hand, under clean conditions, the precipitating clouds drive net warming of the cloudy layer and net cooling of the sub-cloud layer due to rain evaporation. These two effects act to stabilize the atmospheric boundary layer with time (consumption of the instability). The evolution of the field's thermodynamic properties affects the cloud properties in return, as shown by the migration of the optimal aerosol concentration toward higher values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth L. Sandvik
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen with a propensity to cause chronic, non-healing wounds. Bacterial persisters have been implicated in the recalcitrance of S. aureus infections, and this motivated us to examine the persistence of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. Upon treatment of exponential phase S. aureus with ciprofloxacin, we observed that survival was a non-monotonic function of ciprofloxacin concentration. Maximal killing occurred at 1 µg/mL ciprofloxacin, which corresponded to survival that was up to ~40-fold lower than that obtained with concentrations ≥ 5 µg/mL. Investigation of this phenomenon revealed that the non-monotonic response was associated with prophage induction, which facilitated killing of S. aureus persisters. Elimination of prophage induction with tetracycline was found to prevent cell lysis and persister killing. We anticipate that these findings may be useful for the design of quinolone treatments.
Sandvik, Elizabeth L.; Fazen, Christopher H.; Henry, Theresa C.; Mok, Wendy W.K.; Brynildsen, Mark P.
2015-01-01
Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen with a propensity to cause chronic, non-healing wounds. Bacterial persisters have been implicated in the recalcitrance of S. aureus infections, and this motivated us to examine the persistence of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. Upon treatment of exponential phase S. aureus with ciprofloxacin, we observed that survival was a non-monotonic function of ciprofloxacin concentration. Maximal killing occurred at 1 µg/mL ciprofloxacin, which corresponded to survival that was up to ~40-fold lower than that obtained with concentrations ≥ 5 µg/mL. Investigation of this phenomenon revealed that the non-monotonic response was associated with prophage induction, which facilitated killing of S. aureus persisters. Elimination of prophage induction with tetracycline was found to prevent cell lysis and persister killing. We anticipate that these findings may be useful for the design of quinolone treatments. PMID:26593926
Balaji Gopal, Chirranjeevi; García-Melchor, Max; Lee, Sang Chul; Shi, Yezhou; Shavorskiy, Andrey; Monti, Matteo; Guan, Zixuan; Sinclair, Robert; Bluhm, Hendrik; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Chueh, William C.
2017-05-01
Elastic strain is being increasingly employed to enhance the catalytic properties of mixed ion-electron conducting oxides. However, its effect on oxygen storage capacity is not well established. Here, we fabricate ultrathin, coherently strained films of CeO2-δ between 5.6% biaxial compression and 2.1% tension. In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals up to a fourfold enhancement in equilibrium oxygen storage capacity under both compression and tension. This non-monotonic variation with strain departs from the conventional wisdom based on a chemical expansion dominated behaviour. Through depth profiling, film thickness variations and a coupled photoemission-thermodynamic analysis of space-charge effects, we show that the enhanced reducibility is not dominated by interfacial effects. On the basis of ab initio calculations of oxygen vacancy formation incorporating defect interactions and vibrational contributions, we suggest that the non-monotonicity arises from the tetragonal distortion under large biaxial strain. These results may guide the rational engineering of multilayer and core-shell oxide nanomaterials.
Biswas, Rajib; Chakraborti, Tamaghna; Bagchi, Biman; Ayappa, K G
2012-07-07
Layer-wise, distance-dependent orientational relaxation of water confined in reverse micelles (RM) is studied using theoretical and computational tools. We use both a newly constructed "spins on a ring" (SOR) Ising-type model (with Shore-Zwanzig rotational dynamics) and atomistic simulations with explicit water. Our study explores the effect of reverse micelle size and role of intermolecular correlations, compromised by the presence of a highly polar surface, on the distance (from the interface) dependence of water relaxation. The "spins on a ring" model can capture some aspects of distance dependence of relaxation, such as acceleration of orientational relaxation at intermediate layers. In atomistic simulations, layer-wise decomposition of hydrogen bond formation pattern clearly reveals that hydrogen bond arrangement of water at a certain distance away from the surface can remain frustrated due to the interaction with the polar surface head groups. This layer-wise analysis also reveals the presence of a non-monotonic slow relaxation component which can be attributed to this frustration effect and which is accentuated in small to intermediate size RMs. For large size RMs, the long time component decreases monotonically from the interface to the interior of the RMs with slowest relaxation observed at the interface.
Spin-dependent optical superlattice
Yang, Bing; Dai, Han-Ning; Sun, Hui; Reingruber, Andreas; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-07-01
We propose and implement a lattice scheme for coherently manipulating atomic spins. Using a vector light shift and a superlattice structure, we demonstrate experimentally its capability on addressing spins in double wells and square plaquettes with subwavelength resolution. The quantum coherence of spin manipulations is verified through measuring atom tunneling and spin exchange dynamics. Our experiment presents a building block for engineering many-body quantum states in optical lattices for realizing quantum simulation and computation tasks.
Measurement of non-monotonic Casimir forces between silicon nanostructures
Tang, L.; Wang, M.; Ng, C. Y.; Nikolic, M.; Chan, C. T.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Chan, H. B.
2017-01-01
Casimir forces are of fundamental interest because they originate from quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Apart from controlling this force via the optical properties of materials, a number of novel geometries have been proposed to generate repulsive and/or non-monotonic Casimir forces between bodies separated by vacuum gaps. Experimental realization of these geometries, however, is hindered by the difficulties in alignment when the bodies are brought into close proximity. Here, using an on-chip platform with integrated force sensors and actuators, we circumvent the alignment problem and measure the Casimir force between two surfaces with nanoscale protrusions. We demonstrate that the force depends non-monotonically on the displacement. At some displacements, the Casimir force leads to an effective stiffening of the nanomechanical spring. Our findings pave the way for exploiting the Casimir force in nanomechanical systems using structures of complex and non-conventional shapes.
Complexity of Non-Monotonic Logics
Thomas, Michael
2010-01-01
Over the past few decades, non-monotonic reasoning has developed to be one of the most important topics in computational logic and artificial intelligence. Different ways to introduce non-monotonic aspects to classical logic have been considered, e.g., extension with default rules, extension with modal belief operators, or modification of the semantics. In this survey we consider a logical formalism from each of the above possibilities, namely Reiter's default logic, Moore's autoepistemic logic and McCarthy's circumscription. Additionally, we consider abduction, where one is not interested in inferences from a given knowledge base but in computing possible explanations for an observation with respect to a given knowledge base. Complexity results for different reasoning tasks for propositional variants of these logics have been studied already in the nineties. In recent years, however, a renewed interest in complexity issues can be observed. One current focal approach is to consider parameterized problems and ...
Non-monotonic effect of confinement on the glass transition
Varnik, Fathollah; Franosch, Thomas
2016-04-01
The relaxation dynamics of glass forming liquids and their structure are influenced in the vicinity of confining walls. This effect has mostly been observed to be a monotonic function of the slit width. Recently, a qualitatively new behaviour has been uncovered by Mittal and coworkers, who reported that the single particle dynamics in a hard-sphere fluid confined in a planar slit varies in a non-monotonic way as the slit width is decreased from five to roughly two particle diametres (Mittal et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 145901). In view of the great potential of this effect for applications in those fields of science and industry, where liquids occur under strong confinement (e.g. nano-technology), the number of researchers studying various aspects and consequences of this non-monotonic behaviour has been rapidly growing. This review aims at providing an overview of the research activity in this newly emerging field. We first briefly discuss how competing mechanisms such as packing effects and short-range attraction may lead to a non-monotonic glass transition scenario in the bulk. We then analyse confinement effects on the dynamics of fluids using a thermodynamic route which relates the single particle dynamics to the excess entropy. Moreover, relating the diffusive dynamics to the Widom’s insertion probability, the oscillations of the local dynamics with density at moderate densities are fairly well described. At high densities belonging to the supercooled regime, however, this approach breaks down signaling the onset of strongly collective effects. Indeed, confinement introduces a new length scale which in the limit of high densities and small pore sizes competes with the short-range local order of the fluid. This gives rise to a non-monotonic dependence of the packing structure on confinement, with a corresponding effect on the dynamics of structural relaxation. This non-monotonic effect occurs also in the case of a cone-plate type channel, where the degree
Spin-dependent terahertz oscillator based on hybrid graphene superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Díaz, E.; Miralles, K.; Domínguez-Adame, F. [GISC, Departamento Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gaul, C., E-mail: cgaul@pks.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany)
2014-09-08
We theoretically study the occurrence of Bloch oscillations in biased hybrid graphene systems with spin-dependent superlattices. The spin-dependent potential is realized by a set of ferromagnetic insulator strips deposited on top of a gapped graphene nanoribbon, which induce a proximity exchange splitting of the electronic states in the graphene monolayer. We numerically solve the Dirac equation and study Bloch oscillations in the lowest conduction band of the spin-dependent superlattice. While the Bloch frequency is the same for both spins, we find the Bloch amplitude to be spin dependent. This difference results in a spin-polarized ac electric current in the THz range.
Layered neural networks with non-monotonic transfer functions
Katayama, Katsuki; Sakata, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi
2003-01-01
We investigate storage capacity and generalization ability for two types of fully connected layered neural networks with non-monotonic transfer functions; random patterns are embedded into the networks by a Hebbian learning rule. One of them is a layered network in which a non-monotonic transfer function of even layers is different from that of odd layers. The other is a layered network with intra-layer connections, in which the non-monotonic transfer function of inter-layer is different from that of intra-layer, and inter-layered neurons and intra-layered neurons are updated alternately. We derive recursion relations for order parameters for those layered networks by the signal-to-noise ratio method. We clarify that the storage capacity and the generalization ability for those layered networks are enhanced in comparison with those with a conventional monotonic transfer function when non-monotonicity of the transfer functions is selected optimally. We also point out that some chaotic behavior appears in the order parameters for the layered networks when non-monotonicity of the transfer functions increases.
Kang, Yun
2011-01-01
Combined with all density-dependent factors, the per capita growth rate of a species may be non-monotonic. One important consequence is that species may suffer from weak Allee effects or strong Allee effects. In this paper, we study the permanence of a discrete-time two-species-interaction model with non-monotonic per capita growth rates for the first time. By using the average Lyapunov functions and extending the ecological concept of the relative nonlinearity, we find a simple sufficient condition for guaranteeing the permanence of systems that can model complicated two-species interactions. The extended relative nonlinearity allows us to fully characterize the effects of nonlinearities in the per capita growth functions with non-monotonicity. These results are illustrated with specific two species competition and predator-prey models of generic forms with non-monotone per capita growth rates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Liu
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The compressibility of the spinel solid solutions, (Mg1−xMnxCr2O4 with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, has been investigated by using a diamond-anvil cell coupled with synchrotron X-ray radiation up to ∼10 GPa (ambient T. The second-order Birch–Murnaghan equation of state was used to fit the PV data, yielding the following values for the isothermal bulk moduli (KT, 198.2 (36, 187.8 (87, 176.1 (32, 168.7 (52, 192.9 (61 and 199.2 (61 GPa, for the spinel solid solutions with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, respectively (KT′ fixed as 4. The KT value of the MgCr2O4 spinel is in good agreement with existing experimental determinations and theoretical calculations. The correlation between the KT and x is not monotonic, with the KT values similar at both ends of the binary MgCr2O4MnCr2O4, but decreasing towards the middle. This non-monotonic correlation can be described by two equations, KT = −49.2 (11x + 198.0 (4 (x ≤ ∼0.6 and KT = 92 (41x + 115 (30 (x ≥ ∼0.6, and can be explained by the evolution of the average bond lengths of the tetrahedra and octahedra of the spinel solid solutions. Additionally, the relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient and composition is correspondingly reinterpreted, the continuous deformation of the oxygen array is demonstrated, and the evolution of the component polyhedra is discussed for this series of spinel solid solutions. Our results suggest that the correlation between the KT and composition of a solid solution series may be complicated, and great care should be paid while estimating the KT of some intermediate compositions from the KT of the end-members.
Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions
A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop
2011-01-01
We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and
Reasoning Biases, Non-Monotonic Logics, and Belief Revision
Dutilh Novaes, Catarina; Veluwenkamp, Herman
2017-01-01
A range of formal models of human reasoning have been proposed in a number of fields such as philosophy, logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, psychology, cognitive science etc.: various logics (epistemic logics; non-monotonic logics), probabilistic systems (most notably, but not exclusi
Modeling argumentation based semantics using non-monotonic reasoning
2005-01-01
Argumentation theory is an alternative style of formalizing non-monotonic reasoning. It seems, argumentation theory is a suitable framework for practical and uncertain reasoning, where arguments support conclusions. Dung's approach is an unifying framework which has played an influential role on argumentation research and Artificial Intelligence. Even though the success of the argumentation theory, it seems that argumentation theory is so far from being efficiently implemented like the logic ...
Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Casini, G
2013-06-01
Full Text Available and modeling of defeasible information and non-monotonic reasoning services. Here we formalize a possible way of introducing non-monotonic reasoning into ORM2 schemas, enriching the language with special set of new constraints....
The Non-Monotonic Effect of Financing Constraints on Investment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hirth, Stefan; Viswanatha, Marc
We analyze investment timing in a discrete-time framework with two possible investment dates, which is an extension of the model by Lyandres (2007). While Lyandres could only show non-monotonicity of investment in market frictions, we derive an investment threshold that is U-shaped in the firm's ......'s liquid funds, a result similar to the infinite-horizon model by Boyle and Guthrie (2003). However, due to the tractability of our model, we can more clearly explain the relevant trade-offs leading to the U-shape....
Angle-dependent bandgap engineering in gated graphene superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
García-Cervantes, H.; Sotolongo-Costa, O. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Gaggero-Sager, L. M. [CIICAp, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Naumis, G. G. [Instituto Física, Depto. de Física-Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000, México D.F., México (Mexico); Rodríguez-Vargas, I., E-mail: isaac@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac., México (Mexico)
2016-03-15
Graphene Superlattices (GSs) have attracted a lot of attention due to its peculiar properties as well as its possible technological implications. Among these characteristics we can mention: the extra Dirac points in the dispersion relation and the highly anisotropic propagation of the charge carriers. However, despite the intense research that is carried out in GSs, so far there is no report about the angular dependence of the Transmission Gap (TG) in GSs. Here, we report the dependence of TG as a function of the angle of the incident Dirac electrons in a rather simple Electrostatic GS (EGS). Our results show that the angular dependence of the TG is intricate, since for moderated angles the dependence is parabolic, while for large angles an exponential dependence is registered. We also find that the TG can be modulated from meV to eV, by changing the structural parameters of the GS. These characteristics open the possibility for an angle-dependent bandgap engineering in graphene.
Short Time Uniqueness Results for Solutions of Nonlocal and Non-monotone Geometric Equations
Barles, Guy; Mitake, Hiroyoshi
2010-01-01
We describe a method to show short time uniqueness results for viscosity solutions of general nonlocal and non-monotone second-order geometric equations arising in front propagation problems. Our method is based on some lower gradient bounds for the solution. These estimates are crucial to obtain regularity properties of the front, which allow to deal with nonlocal terms in the equations. Applications to short time uniqueness results for the initial value problems for dislocation type equations, asymptotic equations of a FitzHugh-Nagumo type system and equations depending on the Lebesgue measure of the fronts are presented.
A new non-monotone fitness scaling for genetic algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The properties of selection operators in the genetic algorithm (GA) are studied in detail. It is indicated that the selection of operations is significant for both improving the general fitness of a population and leading to the schema deceptiveness. The stochastic searching characteristics of GA are compared with those of heuristic methods. The influence of selection operators on the GA' s exploration and exploitation is discussed, and the performance of selection operators is evaluated with the premature convergence of the GA taken as an example based on One-Max function. In order to overcome the schema deceptiveness of the GA, a new type of fitness scaling, non monotone scaling, is advanced to enhance the evolutionary ability of a population. The effectiveness of the new scaling method is tested by a trap function and a needle-in-haystack (NiH) function.
Non-monotonic wetting behavior of chitosan films induced by silver nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Praxedes, A.P.P.; Webler, G.D.; Souza, S.T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.S. [Instituto de Química e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Fonseca, E.J.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Oliveira, I.N. de, E-mail: italo@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil)
2016-05-01
Highlights: • The addition of silver nanoparticles modifies the morphology of chitosan films. • Metallic nanoparticles can be used to control wetting properties of chitosan films. • The contact angle shows a non-monotonic dependence on the silver concentration. - Abstract: The present work is devoted to the study of structural and wetting properties of chitosan-based films containing silver nanoparticles. In particular, the effects of silver concentration on the morphology of chitosan films are characterized by different techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By means of dynamic contact angle measurements, we study the modification on surface properties of chitosan-based films due to the addition of silver nanoparticles. The results are analyzed in the light of molecular-kinetic theory which describes the wetting phenomena in terms of statistical dynamics for the displacement of liquid molecules in a solid substrate. Our results show that the wetting properties of chitosan-based films are high sensitive to the fraction of silver nanoparticles, with the equilibrium contact angle exhibiting a non-monotonic behavior.
Non-monotonicity of trace distance under tensor products
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maziero, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.maziero@ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica
2015-10-15
The trace distance (TD) possesses several of the good properties required for a faithful distance measure in the quantum state space. Despite its importance and ubiquitous use in quantum information science, one of its questionable features, its possible non-monotonicity under taking tensor products of its arguments (NMuTP), has been hitherto unexplored. In this article, we advance analytical and numerical investigations of this issue considering different classes of states living in a discrete and finite dimensional Hilbert space. Our results reveal that although this property of TD does not show up for pure states and for some particular classes of mixed states, it is present in a non-negligible fraction of the regarded density operators. Hence, even though the percentage of quartets of states leading to the NMuTP drawback of TD and its strength decrease as the system's dimension grows, this property of TD must be taken into account before using it as a figure of merit for distinguishing mixed quantum states. (author)
Spin-dependent Seebeck effects in a graphene superlattice p–n junction with different shapes
Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Benliang; Yao, Yagang; Zhou, Guanghui; Hu, Ming
2017-10-01
We theoretically calculate the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for a zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbon p–n junction with periodically attached stubs under a perpendicular magnetic field and a ferromagnetic insulator. By using the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combining with the tight-binding Hamiltonian, it is demonstrated that the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for two types of superlattices can be modulated by the potential drop, the magnetization strength, the number of periods of the superlattice, the strength of the perpendicular magnetic field, and the Anderson disorder strength. Interestingly, a metal to semiconductor transition occurs as the number of the superlattice for a crossed superlattice p–n junction increases, and its spin Seebeck coefficient is much larger than that for the T-shaped one around the zero Fermi energy. Furthermore, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed systems can be much pronounced and their maximum absolute value can reach 528 μV K-1 by choosing optimized parameters. Besides, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed p–n junction is strongly enhanced around the zero Fermi energy for a weak magnetic field. Our results provide theoretical references for modulating the thermoelectric properties of a graphene superlattice p–n junction by tuning its geometric structure and physical parameters.
The global convergence of the non-quasi-Newton methods with non-monotone line search
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The non-quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained optimization was investigated. Non-monotone line search procedure is introduced, which is combined with the non-quasi-Newton family. Under the uniform convexity assumption on objective function, the global convergence of the non-quasi-Newton family was proved.Numerical experiments showed that the non-monotone line search was more effective.
Voorspoels, Wouter; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy; Ransom, Keith; Storms, Gert
2015-09-01
A robust finding in category-based induction tasks is for positive observations to raise the willingness to generalize to other categories while negative observations lower the willingness to generalize. This pattern is referred to as monotonic generalization. Across three experiments we find systematic non-monotonicity effects, in which negative observations raise the willingness to generalize. Experiments 1 and 2 show that this effect emerges in hierarchically structured domains when a negative observation from a different category is added to a positive observation. They also demonstrate that this is related to a specific kind of shift in the reasoner's hypothesis space. Experiment 3 shows that the effect depends on the assumptions that the reasoner makes about how inductive arguments are constructed. Non-monotonic reasoning occurs when people believe the facts were put together by a helpful communicator, but monotonicity is restored when they believe the observations were sampled randomly from the environment.
Temperature-Dependent X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Infrared Superlattices Grown by MBE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles J. Reyner
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Strained-layer superlattices (SLSs are an active research topic in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE and infrared focal plane array communities. These structures undergo a >500 K temperature change between deposition and operation. As a result, the lattice constants of the substrate and superlattice are expected to change by approximately 0.3%, and at approximately the same rate. However, we present the first temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements of SLS material on GaSb and show that the superlattice does not contract in the same manner as the substrate. In both InAs/InAs0.65Sb0.35 and In0.8Ga0.2As/InAs0.65Sb0.35 SLS structures, the apparent out-of-plane strain states of the superlattices switch from tensile at deposition to compressive at operation. These changes have ramifications for material characterization, defect generation, carrier lifetime, and overall device performance of superlattices grown by MBE.
Katushkina, O. A.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Gvaramadze, V. V.
2017-02-01
High-resolution mid-infrared observations of astrospheres show that many of them have filamentary (cirrus-like) structure. Using numerical models of dust dynamics in astrospheres, we suggest that their filamentary structure might be related to specific spatial distribution of the interstellar dust around the stars, caused by a gyrorotation of charged dust grains in the interstellar magnetic field. Our numerical model describes the dust dynamics in astrospheres under an influence of the Lorentz force and assumption of a constant dust charge. Calculations are performed for the dust grains with different sizes separately. It is shown that non-monotonic spatial dust distribution (viewed as filaments) appears for dust grains with the period of gyromotion comparable with the characteristic time-scale of the dust motion in the astrosphere. Numerical modelling demonstrates that the number of filaments depends on charge-to-mass ratio of dust.
Kuenzel, Thomas; Nerlich, Jana; Wagner, Hermann; Rübsamen, Rudolf; Milenkovic, Ivan
2015-01-01
Spherical bushy cells (SBCs) of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive input from large excitatory auditory nerve (AN) terminals, the endbulbs of Held, and mixed glycinergic/GABAergic inhibitory inputs. The latter have sufficient potency to block action potential firing in vivo and in slice recordings. However, it is not clear how well the data from slice recordings match the inhibition in the intact brain and how it contributes to complex phenomena such as non-monotonic rate-level functions (RLF). Therefore, we determined the input-output relationship of a model SBC with simulated endbulb inputs and a dynamic inhibitory conductance constrained by recordings in brain slice preparations of hearing gerbils. Event arrival times from in vivo single-unit recordings in gerbils, where 70% of SBC showed non-monotonic RLF, were used as input for the model. Model output RLFs systematically changed from monotonic to non-monotonic shape with increasing strength of tonic inhibition. A limited range of inhibitory synaptic properties consistent with the slice data generated a good match between the model and recorded RLF. Moreover, tonic inhibition elevated the action potentials (AP) threshold and improved the temporal precision of output functions in a SBC model with phase-dependent input conductance. We conclude that activity-dependent, summating inhibition contributes to high temporal precision of SBC spiking by filtering out weak and poorly timed EPSP. Moreover, inhibitory parameters determined in slice recordings provide a good estimate of inhibitory mechanisms apparently active in vivo.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swinteck, N., E-mail: swinteck@email.arizona.edu; Matsuo, S.; Runge, K.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Vasseur, J. O. [Institut d' Electronique, de Micro-électronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR CNRS 8520, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)
2015-08-14
Recent progress in electronic and electromagnetic topological insulators has led to the demonstration of one way propagation of electron and photon edge states and the possibility of immunity to backscattering by edge defects. Unfortunately, such topologically protected propagation of waves in the bulk of a material has not been observed. We show, in the case of sound/elastic waves, that bulk waves with unidirectional backscattering-immune topological states can be observed in a time-dependent elastic superlattice. The superlattice is realized via spatial and temporal modulation of the stiffness of an elastic material. Bulk elastic waves in this superlattice are supported by a manifold in momentum space with the topology of a single twist Möbius strip. Our results demonstrate the possibility of attaining one way transport and immunity to scattering of bulk elastic waves.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rotvig, J.; Smith, H.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1996-01-01
We present an analytical study of one-dimensional semiconductor superlattices in external electric fields, which may be time dependent. A number of general results for the (quasi)energies and eigenstates are derived. An equation of motion for the density matrix is obtained for a two-band model an....... 74, 1831 (1995)], where a set of numerical simulations was presented....
Dealing with non-unique and non-monotonic response in particle sizing instruments
Rosenberg, Phil
2017-04-01
A number of instruments used as de-facto standards for measuring particle size distributions are actually incapable of uniquely determining the size of an individual particle. This is due to non-unique or non-monotonic response functions. Optical particle counters have non monotonic response due to oscillations in the Mie response curves, especially for large aerosol and small cloud droplets. Scanning mobility particle sizers respond identically to two particles where the ratio of particle size to particle charge is approximately the same. Images of two differently sized cloud or precipitation particles taken by an optical array probe can have similar dimensions or shadowed area depending upon where they are in the imaging plane. A number of methods exist to deal with these issues, including assuming that positive and negative errors cancel, smoothing response curves, integrating regions in measurement space before conversion to size space and matrix inversion. Matrix inversion (also called kernel inversion) has the advantage that it determines the size distribution which best matches the observations, given specific information about the instrument (a matrix which specifies the probability that a particle of a given size will be measured in a given instrument size bin). In this way it maximises use of the information in the measurements. However this technique can be confused by poor counting statistics which can cause erroneous results and negative concentrations. Also an effective method for propagating uncertainties is yet to be published or routinely implemented. Her we present a new alternative which overcomes these issues. We use Bayesian methods to determine the probability that a given size distribution is correct given a set of instrument data and then we use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to sample this many dimensional probability distribution function to determine the expectation and (co)variances - hence providing a best guess and an uncertainty for
Semiparametric approach for non-monotone missing covariates in a parametric regression model
Sinha, Samiran
2014-02-26
Missing covariate data often arise in biomedical studies, and analysis of such data that ignores subjects with incomplete information may lead to inefficient and possibly biased estimates. A great deal of attention has been paid to handling a single missing covariate or a monotone pattern of missing data when the missingness mechanism is missing at random. In this article, we propose a semiparametric method for handling non-monotone patterns of missing data. The proposed method relies on the assumption that the missingness mechanism of a variable does not depend on the missing variable itself but may depend on the other missing variables. This mechanism is somewhat less general than the completely non-ignorable mechanism but is sometimes more flexible than the missing at random mechanism where the missingness mechansim is allowed to depend only on the completely observed variables. The proposed approach is robust to misspecification of the distribution of the missing covariates, and the proposed mechanism helps to nullify (or reduce) the problems due to non-identifiability that result from the non-ignorable missingness mechanism. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator are derived. Finite sample performance is assessed through simulation studies. Finally, for the purpose of illustration we analyze an endometrial cancer dataset and a hip fracture dataset.
Semiparametric approach for non-monotone missing covariates in a parametric regression model.
Sinha, Samiran; Saha, Krishna K; Wang, Suojin
2014-06-01
Missing covariate data often arise in biomedical studies, and analysis of such data that ignores subjects with incomplete information may lead to inefficient and possibly biased estimates. A great deal of attention has been paid to handling a single missing covariate or a monotone pattern of missing data when the missingness mechanism is missing at random. In this article, we propose a semiparametric method for handling non-monotone patterns of missing data. The proposed method relies on the assumption that the missingness mechanism of a variable does not depend on the missing variable itself but may depend on the other missing variables. This mechanism is somewhat less general than the completely non-ignorable mechanism but is sometimes more flexible than the missing at random mechanism where the missingness mechansim is allowed to depend only on the completely observed variables. The proposed approach is robust to misspecification of the distribution of the missing covariates, and the proposed mechanism helps to nullify (or reduce) the problems due to non-identifiability that result from the non-ignorable missingness mechanism. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator are derived. Finite sample performance is assessed through simulation studies. Finally, for the purpose of illustration we analyze an endometrial cancer dataset and a hip fracture dataset.
A transition model for quality-of-life data with non-ignorable non-monotone missing data.
Liao, Kaijun; Freres, Derek R; Troxel, Andrea B
2012-12-10
In this paper, we consider a full likelihood method to analyze continuous longitudinal responses with non-ignorable non-monotone missing data. We consider a transition probability model for the missingness mechanism. A first-order Markov dependence structure is assumed for both the missingness mechanism and observed data. This process fits the natural data structure in the longitudinal framework. Our main interest is in estimating the parameters of the marginal model and evaluating the missing-at-random assumption in the Effects of Public Information Study, a cancer-related study recently conducted at the University of Pennsylvania. We also present a simulation study to assess the performance of the model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)
2016-02-01
We investigate the tunneling time (dwell time) in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. It is found that spin-dependent resonant bands form in the spectra of dwell time, which can be effectively manipulated by not only the external magnetic field but also the geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, an intuitive semiclassical delay is defined to illustrate the behavior of the dwell time, and the former one is shown to be the result of “smoothing out” the latter one. We also find that the dwell time in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices behaves surprisingly different from the DMS/NB case, especially for spin-down electrons.
Non-monotonic dynamics and crosstalk in signaling pathways and their implications for pharmacology
van Wijk, Roeland; Tans, Sander J.; Wolde, Pieter Rein Ten; Mashaghi, Alireza
2015-06-01
Currently, drug discovery approaches commonly assume a monotonic dose-response relationship. However, the assumption of monotonicity is increasingly being challenged. Here we show that for two simple interacting linear signaling pathways that carry two different signals with different physiological responses, a non-monotonic input-output relation can arise with simple network topologies including coherent and incoherent feed-forward loops. We show that non-monotonicity of the response functions has severe implications for pharmacological treatment. Fundamental constraints are imposed on the effectiveness and toxicity of any drug independent of its chemical nature and selectivity due to the specific network structure.
A Mathematical Model for Non-monotonic Deposition Profiles in Deep Bed Filtration Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander
2011-01-01
A mathematical model for suspension/colloid flow in porous media and non-monotonic deposition is proposed. It accounts for the migration of particles associated with the pore walls via the second energy minimum (surface associated phase). The surface associated phase migration is characterized...... by advection and diffusion/dispersion. The proposed model is able to produce a nonmonotonic deposition profile. A set of methods for estimating the modeling parameters is provided in the case of minimal particle release. The estimation can be easily performed with available experimental information...... condition for producing non-monotonic deposition profiles. The described physics by the additional equation may be different in different experimental settings....
On the motion of a sessile drop on an incline: Effect of non-monotonic thermocapillary stresses
Mamalis, Dimitrios; Koutsos, Vasileios; Sefiane, Khellil
2016-12-01
We studied the short-time contact-line dynamics of a self-rewetting sessile droplet sliding "freely" on a silicone oil layer, on an inclined, uniformly heated substrate under non-isothermal conditions (liquid-solid). The effect of thermocapillarity and the contribution of surface tension gradients (Marangoni effect) to the droplet motion was investigated. The temperature of the substrate in conjunction with the non-monotonic surface tension/temperature dependence of the deformed self-rewetting droplet was found to significantly affect the early-stage inertial-capillary spreading regime. Infrared (IR) thermography images were also acquired to investigate the generation of thermal patterns at the liquid surface due to the strong surface-tension gradients. Our results demonstrate that the presence of strong surface tension driven flows at the liquid interface combined with droplet deformation (contact-angle hysteresis) gives rise to complex droplet dynamics. The interplay between thermocapillary stresses and body forces results in enhanced spreading rates, temporal non-monotonic dependence of the contact-line speed, as well as the droplet motion overcoming gravity in some instances.
Bifurcations of a predator-prey model with non-monotonic response function
Broer, H.W.; Naudot, Vincent; Roussarie, Robert; Saleh, Khairul
2005-01-01
A 2-dimensional predator-prey model with five parameters is investigated, adapted from the Volterra-Lotka system by a non-monotonic response function. A description of the various domains of structural stability and their bifurcations is given. The bifurcation structure is reduced to four organising
Computation of non-monotonic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems
Li, Huijuan; Liu, AnPing
2017-09-01
In this paper, we propose two methods to compute non-monotonic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems which are asymptotically stable. The first method is to solve a linear optimization problem on a compact and bounded set. The proposed linear programming based algorithm delivers a CPA1
Das Mahanta, Debasish; Patra, Animesh; Samanta, Nirnay; Luong, Trung Quan; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Mitra, Rajib Kumar
2016-10-01
A combined experimental (mid- and far-infrared FTIR spectroscopy and THz time domain spectroscopy (TTDS) (0.3-1.6 THz)) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique are used to understand the evolution of the structure and dynamics of water in its binary mixture with 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME) over the entire concentration range. The cooperative hydrogen bond dynamics of water obtained from Debye relaxation of TTDS data reveals a non-monotonous behaviour in which the collective dynamics is much faster in the low Xw region (where Xw is the mole fraction of water in the mixture), whereas in Xw ˜ 0.8 region, the dynamics gets slower than that of pure water. The concentration dependence of the reorientation times of water, calculated from the MD simulations, also captures this non-monotonous character. The MD simulation trajectories reveal presence of large amplitude angular jumps, which dominate the orientational relaxation. We rationalize the non-monotonous, concentration dependent orientational dynamics by identifying two different physical mechanisms which operate at high and low water concentration regimes.
Dependence of energy levels and optical transitions on layer thicknesses in InSe/GaSe superlattices
Erkoç, Şakir; Katırcıoğlu, Şenay
1998-01-01
We have investigated the dependence of energy levels and optical transition matrix elements in InSe/GaSe superlattices on well and/or barrier widths. Self-consistent-field calculations have been performed within the effective-mass theory approximation.
Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P; Chatron, Jacques; Roman, Stéphane
2017-01-30
Most cochlear implants (CIs) activate their electrodes non-simultaneously in order to eliminate electrical field interactions. However, the membrane of auditory nerve fibers needs time to return to its resting state, causing the probability of firing to a pulse to be affected by previous pulses. Here, we provide new evidence on the effect of pulse polarity and current level on these interactions. In experiment 1, detection thresholds and most comfortable levels (MCLs) were measured in CI users for 100-Hz pulse trains consisting of two consecutive biphasic pulses of the same or of opposite polarity. All combinations of polarities were studied: anodic-cathodic-anodic-cathodic (ACAC), CACA, ACCA, and CAAC. Thresholds were lower when the adjacent phases of the two pulses had the same polarity (ACCA and CAAC) than when they were different (ACAC and CACA). Some subjects showed a lower threshold for ACCA than for CAAC while others showed the opposite trend demonstrating that polarity sensitivity at threshold is genuine and subject- or electrode-dependent. In contrast, anodic (CAAC) pulses always showed a lower MCL than cathodic (ACCA) pulses, confirming previous reports. In experiments 2 and 3, the subjects compared the loudness of several pulse trains differing in current level separately for ACCA and CAAC. For 40 % of the electrodes tested, loudness grew non-monotonically as a function of current level for ACCA but never for CAAC. This finding may relate to a conduction block of the action potentials along the fibers induced by a strong hyperpolarization of their central processes. Further analysis showed that the electrodes showing a lower threshold for ACCA than for CAAC were more likely to yield a non-monotonic loudness growth. It is proposed that polarity sensitivity at threshold reflects the local neural health and that anodic asymmetric pulses should preferably be used to convey sound information while avoiding abnormal loudness percepts.
Chaotic dynamics dependence on doping density in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices
Gui, Yang; Yuanhong, Li; Fengying, Zhang; Yuqi, Li
2012-09-01
A discrete sequential tunneling model is used for studying the influence of the doping density on the dynamical behaviors in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices. Driven by the DC bias, the system exhibits self-sustained current oscillations induced by the period motion of the unstable electric field domain, and an electrical hysteresis in the loop of current density voltage curve is deduced. It is found that the hysteresis range strongly depends on the doping density, and the width of the hysteresis loop increases with increasing the doping density. By adding an external driving ac voltage, more complicated nonlinear behaviors are observed including quasiperiodicity, period-3, and the route of an inverse period-doubling to chaos when the driving frequency changes.
Chaotic dynamics dependence on doping density in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Gui; Li Yuanhong; Zhang Fengying; Li Yuqi
2012-01-01
A discrete sequential tunneling model is used for studying the influence of the doping density on the dynamical behaviors in weakly coupled GaAs/AlAs superlattices.Driven by the DC bias,the system exhibits selfsustained current oscillations induced by the period motion of the unstable electric field domain,and an electrical hysteresis in the loop of current density voltage curve is deduced.It is found that the hysteresis range strongly depends on the doping density,and the width of the hysteresis loop increases with increasing the doping density.By adding an external driving ac voltage,more complicated nonlinear behaviors are observed including quasiperiodicity,period-3,and the route of an inverse period-doubling to chaos when the driving frequency changes.
Non-monotonicity in the quantum-classical transition: Chaos induced by quantum effects
Kapulkin, A; Kapulkin, Arie; Pattanayak, Arjendu K.
2007-01-01
The transition from classical to quantum behavior for chaotic systems is understood to be accompanied by the suppression of chaotic effects as the relative size of $\\hbar$ is increased. We show evidence to the contrary in the behavior of the quantum trajectory dynamics of a dissipative quantum chaotic system, the double-well Duffing oscillator. The classical limit in the case considered has regular behavior, but as the effective $\\hbar$ is increased we see chaotic behavior. This chaos then disappears deeper into the quantum regime, which means that the quantum-classical transition in this case is non-monotonic in $\\hbar$.
Canonical single field slow-roll inflation with a non-monotonic tensor
German, Gabriel; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Sussman, Roberto A
2015-01-01
We take a pragmatic, model independent approach to single field slow-roll canonical inflation by imposing conditions, not on the potential, but on the slow-roll parameter $\\epsilon$ and its derivatives $\\epsilon^{\\prime }$ and $\\epsilon^{\\prime\\prime }$, thereby extracting general conditions on the tensor $r$ and the running $n_{sk}$. Of particular interest is a non-monotonic $\\epsilon$ with a maximum where universality conditions are found among the observables. In models with a monotonically increasing $\\epsilon$ the running is expected to be always negative for positive $\\epsilon^{\\prime\\prime }$. To accommodate a large tensor that meets the limiting values allowed by the Planck data, we study a non-monotonic $\\epsilon$ decreasing during most part of inflation. Since at $\\phi_{H}$, at which the perturbations are produced, some $50$ $-$ $60$ $e$-folds before the end of inflation, $\\epsilon$ is increasing, we thus require that $\\epsilon$ develops a maximum for $\\phi > \\phi_{H}$ after which $\\epsilon$ decreas...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO ChangAn; ZHANG AiQian; LIN Yuan; YIN DaQiang; WANG LianSheng
2009-01-01
Particular non-monotonic dose-response curves of many endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) suggest the existence of diverse toxicity mechanisms at different dose levels. As a result, the biologi-cal activities of EDCs cannot be simply exhibited by unique EC/LD<,50. values, and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for non-monotonic dose-response relationship be-comes an unknown field in the environmental science. In this paper, nine phenols with inverted U-shaped dose-response curves in lymphocyte proliferation test of Carassius auratus were selected. The binding interactions between the phenols and several typical EDCs-related receptors were then explored in a molecular simulation study. The estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bacterial O2 sensing FixL protein (FixL), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were the target receptors in the study. Linear regression QSAR models for the low and high exposure levels of the compounds were developed separately. The results indicated that the lymphocyte proliferation in the low-dose range might involve ER-mediated process, while the proliferation inhibition in the high dose range was dominated by the acute toxicity of phenols due to receptor occupancy and cell damage.
Non-monotonic effect of growth temperature on carrier collection in SnS solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, R.; Steinmann, V.; Mangan, N. M.; Brandt, R. E.; Poindexter, J. R.; Jaramillo, R.; Mailoa, J. P.; Hartman, K.; Polizzotti, A.; Buonassisi, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yang, C.; Gordon, R. G. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)
2015-05-18
We quantify the effects of growth temperature on material and device properties of thermally evaporated SnS thin-films and test structures. Grain size, Hall mobility, and majority-carrier concentration monotonically increase with growth temperature. However, the charge collection as measured by the long-wavelength contribution to short-circuit current exhibits a non-monotonic behavior: the collection decreases with increased growth temperature from 150 °C to 240 °C and then recovers at 285 °C. Fits to the experimental internal quantum efficiency using an opto-electronic model indicate that the non-monotonic behavior of charge-carrier collection can be explained by a transition from drift- to diffusion-assisted components of carrier collection. The results show a promising increase in the extracted minority-carrier diffusion length at the highest growth temperature of 285 °C. These findings illustrate how coupled mechanisms can affect early stage device development, highlighting the critical role of direct materials property measurements and simulation.
Health inequality and non-monotonicity of the health related social welfare function.
Dutta, Indranil
2007-03-01
In a recent paper in this journal Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] have strongly argued for the use of a non-monotonic health related social welfare function. This note discusses both the limitations of the measure proposed by Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and the problems associated with their empirics. We are able to show how non-monotonicity may lead to paradoxical results and policies. Further we examine the empirics of Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and provide an alternative explanation to the observed patterns in the data that do not violate monotonicity. Finally we briefly mention why the Atkinson-Sen framework may be more appropriate as a way forward.
Non-Monotonicity of Excited State Populations Observed in a Cu-He Hollow Cathode Discharge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Xu-Tao
2005-01-01
@@ An interesting non-monotonic structure in the distribution of excited state populations is observed in a Cu-He hollow cathode discharge, and this is explained by l-changing collisions of the excited states with background gas atoms. At helium pressure of 0.1 Torr and cathode current of 200-300mA, relative populations of He I 1snp 1p (n = 2-16) states are measured with the corresponding VUV radiation intensities, and are plotted against excitation energies. As energy levels increase, populations of high-n (n ＞ 10) states are found to decrease much more quickly than low-n (n ＜ 7) populations. For intermediate states (n = 7-10), the declining tendency is interfered by population transfers from 1sns 1 S states due to l-changing collisions, and an obvious non-monotonic structure is formed at relatively low electric current. Measurements have also been carried out for He Ⅱ np 2 p (n = 2-14) series, in which the l-changing collisions are overwhelmed by Stark quenching of the n2S states and thus population interference does not occur.
Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A
2012-11-01
In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour.
InN/GaN Superlattices: Band Structures and Their Pressure Dependence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorczyca, Iza; Suski, Tadek; Staszczak, Grzegorz
2013-01-01
Creation of short-period InN/GaN superlattices is one of the possible ways of conducting band gap engineering in the green-blue range of the spectrum. The present paper reports results of photoluminescence experiments, including pressure effects, on a superlattice sample consisting of unit cells...... density approximation (LDA) with a semi-empirical correction for the ‘‘LDA gap error’’. A similarity is observed between the results of calculations for an InGaN/GaN superlattice (with one monolayer of InGaN) and the experimental results. This indicates that the fabricated InN quantum wells may contain...
On the formation of localized peaks and non-monotonic tailing of breakthrough curves
Siirila, Erica R.; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel
2014-05-01
While breakthrough curve (BTC) analysis is a traditional tool in hydrogeology to obtain hydraulic parameters, in recent years emphasis has been placed on analyzing the shape of the receding portion of the curve. A number of field and laboratory observations have found a constant BTC slope in log-log space, and thus it has been hypothesized that a power law behavior is representative of real aquifers. Usually, monotonicity of the late-time BTC slope is just assumed, meaning that local peaks in the BTC are not considered, and that a local (in time) increase or decrease of BTC slope is also not considered. We contend that local peaks may exist but are sometimes not reported for a number of reasons. For example, when BTCs are obtained from actual measurements, sub-sampling may mask non-monotonicity, or small peaks may be reported as measurement errors and thus smoothed out or removed. When numerical analyses of synthetic aquifers are performed, the simulation method may yield artificially monotonous curves as a consequence of the methods used. For example, Eulerian methods may suffer from numerical dispersion, where curves tend to become over-smoothed while Lagrangian methods may suffer from artificial BTC oscillations stemming from the reconstruction of concentrations from a limited number of particles. A paradigm shift in terms of the BTC shape must also accompany two major advancements within the hydrogeology field: 1) the increase of high frequency data and progression of data collection techniques that diminish the problems of under-sampling BTCs and 2) advancements in supercomputing and numerical simulation allowing for higher resolution of flow and transport problems. As more information is incorporated into BTCs and/or they are obtained in more spatial locations, it is likely that classical definitions of BTC shapes will no longer be adequate descriptors for future treatment of contaminant transport problems. For example, the presence of localized peaks in BTCs
InN/GaN Superlattices: Band Structures and Their Pressure Dependence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorczyca, Iza; Suski, Tadek; Staszczak, Grzegorz;
2013-01-01
with one monolayer of InN and 40 monolayers of GaN. The results are compared with calculations performed for different types of superlattices: InN/GaN, InGaN/GaN, and InN/InGaN/GaN with single monolayers of InN and/or InGaN. The superlattices are simulated by band structure calculations based on the local......Creation of short-period InN/GaN superlattices is one of the possible ways of conducting band gap engineering in the green-blue range of the spectrum. The present paper reports results of photoluminescence experiments, including pressure effects, on a superlattice sample consisting of unit cells...
Verification of mesoscopic models of viscoelastic fluids with a non-monotonic flow curve
Kuznetsova, Julia L.; Skul'skiy, Oleg I.
2016-02-01
The non-monotonic flow curve of a 1 wt.% polyacrylonitrile solution in dimethyl sulfoxide is described by two mesoscopic models: the modified Vinogradov-Pokrovsky model and the model proposed by Remmelgas, Harrison and Leal. To obtain an adequate description of the experimental curve, we have selected suitable internal parameters for these models. Analytical solutions for the Couette-Poiseuille flow problems are determined in parametric form, which allows us to plot the distribution of stress components and anisotropy tensor as well as the velocity profiles containing closed loops and weak tangential discontinuities. It is shown that both models predict a similar qualitative picture of structure evolution, but exhibit a significant discrepancy in the quantitative description of the magnitude of molecular chain stretching.
Non-monotonic resonance in a spatially forced Lengyel-Epstein model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haim, Lev [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva 84101 (Israel); Hagberg, Aric [Center for Nonlinear Studies, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Meron, Ehud [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 84990 (Israel)
2015-06-15
We study resonant spatially periodic solutions of the Lengyel-Epstein model modified to describe the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction under spatially periodic illumination. Using multiple-scale analysis and numerical simulations, we obtain the stability ranges of 2:1 resonant solutions, i.e., solutions with wavenumbers that are exactly half of the forcing wavenumber. We show that the width of resonant wavenumber response is a non-monotonic function of the forcing strength, and diminishes to zero at sufficiently strong forcing. We further show that strong forcing may result in a π/2 phase shift of the resonant solutions, and argue that the nonequilibrium Ising-Bloch front bifurcation can be reversed. We attribute these behaviors to an inherent property of forcing by periodic illumination, namely, the increase of the mean spatial illumination as the forcing amplitude is increased.
Semantic Matchmaking as Non-Monotonic Reasoning: A Description Logic Approach
Di Noia, T; Donini, F M; 10.1613/jair.2153
2011-01-01
Matchmaking arises when supply and demand meet in an electronic marketplace, or when agents search for a web service to perform some task, or even when recruiting agencies match curricula and job profiles. In such open environments, the objective of a matchmaking process is to discover best available offers to a given request. We address the problem of matchmaking from a knowledge representation perspective, with a formalization based on Description Logics. We devise Concept Abduction and Concept Contraction as non-monotonic inferences in Description Logics suitable for modeling matchmaking in a logical framework, and prove some related complexity results. We also present reasonable algorithms for semantic matchmaking based on the devised inferences, and prove that they obey to some commonsense properties. Finally, we report on the implementation of the proposed matchmaking framework, which has been used both as a mediator in e-marketplaces and for semantic web services discovery.
Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.
Boywitt, C Dennis
2015-01-01
Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao Xuejing [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); School of mathematics and statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Bordes, Laurent [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, LMA UMR CNRS 5142, 64013 PAU Cedex (France)
2010-08-15
The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of modelling and optimising condition-based maintenance policies for a deteriorating system in presence of covariates. The deterioration is modelled by a non-monotone stochastic process. The covariates process is assumed to be a time-homogenous Markov chain with finite state space. A model similar to the proportional hazards model is used to show the influence of covariates on the deterioration. In the framework of the system under consideration, an appropriate inspection/replacement policy which minimises the expected average maintenance cost is derived. The average cost under different conditions of covariates and different maintenance policies is analysed through simulation experiments to compare the policies performances.
Non-monotonic wetting behavior of chitosan films induced by silver nanoparticles
Praxedes, A. P. P.; Webler, G. D.; Souza, S. T.; Ribeiro, A. S.; Fonseca, E. J. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.
2016-05-01
The present work is devoted to the study of structural and wetting properties of chitosan-based films containing silver nanoparticles. In particular, the effects of silver concentration on the morphology of chitosan films are characterized by different techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By means of dynamic contact angle measurements, we study the modification on surface properties of chitosan-based films due to the addition of silver nanoparticles. The results are analyzed in the light of molecular-kinetic theory which describes the wetting phenomena in terms of statistical dynamics for the displacement of liquid molecules in a solid substrate. Our results show that the wetting properties of chitosan-based films are high sensitive to the fraction of silver nanoparticles, with the equilibrium contact angle exhibiting a non-monotonic behavior.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
2012-01-01
to the understanding of similarities and differences of the two approaches as well as practical applications. The probability approach offers a good framework for representation of randomness and variability. Once the probability distributions of uncertain parameters and their correlations are known the resulting...... uncertainty can be calculated. The possibility approach is particular well suited for representation of uncertainty of a non-statistical nature due to lack of knowledge and requires less information than the probability approach. Based on the kind of uncertainty and knowledge present, these aspects...... by probability distributions is readily done by means of Monte Carlo simulation. Calculation of non-monotonic functions of possibility distributions is done within the theoretical framework of fuzzy intervals, but straight forward application of fuzzy arithmetic in general results in overestimation of interval...
Stability of dynamical systems on the role of monotonic and non-monotonic Lyapunov functions
Michel, Anthony N; Liu, Derong
2015-01-01
The second edition of this textbook provides a single source for the analysis of system models represented by continuous-time and discrete-time, finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional, and continuous and discontinuous dynamical systems. For these system models, it presents results which comprise the classical Lyapunov stability theory involving monotonic Lyapunov functions, as well as corresponding contemporary stability results involving non-monotonicLyapunov functions.Specific examples from several diverse areas are given to demonstrate the applicability of the developed theory to many important classes of systems, including digital control systems, nonlinear regulator systems, pulse-width-modulated feedback control systems, and artificial neural networks. The authors cover the following four general topics: - Representation and modeling of dynamical systems of the types described above - Presentation of Lyapunov and Lagrange stability theory for dynamical sy...
Deau, E. A.; Spilker, L. J.; Flandes, A.
2011-01-01
We used well know phase functions of satellites and rings around the giant planets of our Solar System to study the morphology of the opposition effect (at phase angles alpha morphological model to retrieve the morphological parameters of the surge (A and HWHM). These parameters are found to have a non-monotonic variation with the single scattering albedo, similar to that observed in asteroids, which is unexplained so far. The non-monotonic variation is discussed in the framework of the coherent backscattering and shadow hiding mechanisms.
Non-monotonic temperature dependence of chaos-assisted diffusion in driven periodic systems
Spiechowicz, J.; Talkner, P.; Hänggi, P.; Łuczka, J.
2016-12-01
The spreading of a cloud of independent Brownian particles typically proceeds more effectively at higher temperatures, as it derives from the commonly known Sutherland-Einstein relation for systems in thermal equilibrium. Here, we report on a non-equilibrium situation in which the diffusion of a periodically driven Brownian particle moving in a periodic potential decreases with increasing temperature within a finite temperature window. We identify as the cause for this non-intuitive behaviour a dominant deterministic mechanism consisting of a few unstable periodic orbits embedded into a chaotic attractor together with thermal noise-induced dynamical changes upon varying temperature. The presented analysis is based on extensive numerical simulations of the corresponding Langevin equation describing the studied setup as well as on a simplified stochastic model formulated in terms of a three-state Markovian process. Because chaos exists in many natural as well as in artificial systems representing abundant areas of contemporary knowledge, the described mechanism may potentially be discovered in plentiful different contexts.
Lee, Won-Yong; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, No-Won; Kim, Gil-Sung; Park, Jin-Seong; Lee, Sang-Kwon
2017-03-01
The thermal conductivity of superlattice films is generally anisotropic and should be studied separately in the in-plane and cross-plane directions of the films. However, previous works have mostly focused on the cross-plane thermal conductivity because the electrons and phonons in the cross-plane direction of superlattice films may result in much stronger interface scattering than that in the in-plane direction. Nevertheless, it is highly desirable to perform systematic studies on the effect of interface formation in semiconducting superlattice films on both in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. In this study, we determine both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of Al2O3 (AO)/ZnO superlattice films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on SiO2/Si substrates in the temperature range of 50–300 K by the four-point-probe 3-ω method. Our experimental results indicate that the formation of an atomic AO layer (0.82 nm) significantly contributes to the decrease of the cross-plane thermal conductivity of the AO/ZnO superlattice films compared with that of AO/ZnO thin films. The cross-plane thermal conductivity (0.26–0.63 W m‑1 K‑1 of the AO/ZnO superlattice films (with an AO layer of ∼0.82 nm thickness) is approximately ∼150%–370% less than the in-plane thermal conductivity (0.96–1.19 W m‑1 K‑1) of the corresponding film, implying significant anisotropy. This indicates that the suppression of the cross-plane thermal conductivity is mainly attributed to the superlattice, rather than the nanograin columnar structure in the films. In addition, we theoretically analyzed strong anisotropic behavior of the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the AO/ZnO superlattice films in terms of temperature dependence.
Sinha, Sanjoy K.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Sinha, Debajyoti; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Molenberghs, Geert; Ibrahim, Joseph G.
2010-01-01
Summary For analyzing longitudinal binary data with nonignorable and non-monotone missing responses, a full likelihood method is complicated algebraically, and often requires intensive computation, especially when there are many follow-up times. As an alternative, a pseudo-likelihood approach has been proposed in the literature under minimal parametric assumptions. This formulation only requires specification of the marginal distributions of the responses and missing data mechanism, and uses an independence working assumption. However, this estimator can be inefficient for estimating both time-varying and time-stationary effects under moderate to strong within-subject associations among repeated responses. In this article, we propose an alternative estimator, based on a bivariate pseudo-likelihood, and demonstrate in simulations that the proposed method can be much more efficient than the previous pseudo-likelihood obtained under the assumption of independence. We illustrate the method using longitudinal data on CD4 counts from two clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. PMID:21155748
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beausoleil, Claire; Ormsby, Jean-Nicolas; Gies, Andreas
2013-01-01
A workshop was held in Berlin September 12–14th 2012 to assess the state of the science of the data supporting low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses (“low dose hypothesis”) for chemicals with endocrine activity (endocrine disrupting chemicals or EDCs). This workshop consisted...
Positive Steady States of a Prey-predator Model with Diffusion and Non-monotone Conversion Rate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rui PENG; Ming Xin WANG; Wen Yan CHEN
2007-01-01
In this paper,we study the positive steady states of a prey-predator model with di .usion throughout and a non-monotone conversion rate under the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. We obtain some results of the existence and non-existence of positive steady states.The stability and uniqueness of positive steady states are also discussed.
2015-07-07
non peer -reviewed journals: Final Report: Research Area 4: Electronics: Study of defect levels in InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice using pressure ...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have performed pressure -dependent PL measurements on an InAs/InAs0.86 Sb0.14 T2SL structure. By fitting the measured...peak energy shift and observing a quenching of the PL intensity we have determined a crossover pressure at which we believe the T2SL electron confined
Zeng, Z. Y.; Claro, F.
2001-01-01
We study the transport of electrons in a Fibonacci magnetic superlattice produced on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by parallel magnetic field stripes arranged in a Fibonacci sequence. Both the transmission coefficient and conductance exhibit self-similarity and the six-circle property. The presence of extended states yields a finite conductivity at infinite length, that may be detected as an abrupt change in the conductance as the Fermi energy is varied, much as a metal-insulator t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lara Li Hesse
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The occurrence of tinnitus can be linked to hearing loss in the majority of cases, but there is nevertheless a large degree of unexplained heterogeneity in the relation between hearing loss and tinnitus. Part of the problem might be that hearing loss is usually quantified in terms of increased hearing thresholds, which only provides limited information about the underlying cochlear damage. Moreover, noise exposure that does not cause hearing threshold loss can still lead to hidden hearing loss (HHL, i.e. functional deafferentation of auditory nerve fibres (ANFs through loss of synaptic ribbons in inner hair cells. Whilst it is known that increased hearing thresholds can trigger increases in spontaneous neural activity in the central auditory system, i.e. a putative neural correlate of tinnitus, the central effects of HHL have not yet been investigated. Here, we exposed mice to octave-band noise at 100 and 105 dB SPL, to generate HHL and permanent increases of hearing thresholds, respectively. Deafferentation of ANFs was confirmed through measurement of auditory brainstem responses and cochlear immunohistochemistry. Acute extracellular recordings from the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus demonstrated increases in spontaneous neuronal activity (a putative neural correlate of tinnitus in both groups. Surprisingly the increase in spontaneous activity was most pronounced in the mice with HHL, suggesting that the relation between hearing loss and neuronal hyperactivity might be more complex than currently understood. Our computational model indicated that these differences in neuronal hyperactivity could arise from different degrees of deafferentation of low-threshold ANFs in the two exposure groups.Our results demonstrate that HHL is sufficient to induce changes in central auditory processing, and they also indicate a non-monotonic relationship between cochlear damage and neuronal hyperactivity, suggesting an explanation for why tinnitus might
QSAR study on the non-monotonic dose-response curve of PCBs in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MU YunSong; ZHANG AiQian; GAO ChangAn; PENG SuFen; WANG LianSheng
2009-01-01
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the natural environment exhibit a unique non-monotonic dose-response curve and it is impossible to select one simple index to characterize the bilogogical activity of these compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on non-monotonic dose-response curve has become a real challenge presently. In order to explore the possible mechanism for the non-monotonic dose-response curve of polychlorinated biphenyls con-geners (PCBs) in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay, AM1 method of ChemOffice was adopted to calculate necessary structure descriptors for PCBs, while the interactions between PCBs and simulated AhR ligand binding domain (LBD) were analyzed by using FlexX in SYBYL7.0. Different binding modes for PCBs have been distinguished not only from aligned conformation but also from free binding energy. Some QSAR models were established separately for both low and high doses ranges, revealing that receptor binding may predominate in the interference of the physiological function of cytochrome P4501A-P4501A in the low doses range. But with the higher doses range, the EROD suppression might he related to acute toxicity owing to molecular polarity or distribution of charges and consequently damage structure and function of chicken embryo hepatocyte.
QSAR study on the non-monotonic dose-response curve of PCBs in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the natural environment exhibit a unique non-monotonic dose-response curve and it is impossible to select one simple index to characterize the bilogogical activity of these compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on non-monotonic dose-response curve has become a real challenge presently. In order to explore the possible mechanism for the non-monotonic dose-response curve of polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay, AM1 method of ChemOffice was adopted to calculate necessary structure descriptors for PCBs, while the interactions between PCBs and simulated AhR ligand binding domain (LBD) were analyzed by using FlexX in SYBYL7.0. Different binding modes for PCBs have been distinguished not only from aligned conformation but also from free binding energy. Some QSAR models were established separately for both low and high doses ranges, revealing that receptor binding may predominate in the interference of the physiological function of cytochrome P4501A-P4501A in the low doses range. But with the higher doses range, the EROD suppression might be related to acute toxicity owing to molecular polarity or distribution of charges and consequently damage structure and function of chicken embryo hepatocyte.
Termination-dependent topological surface states of the natural superlattice phase Bi4Se3
Gibson, Q. D.; Schoop, L. M.; Weber, A. P.; Ji, Huiwen; Nadj-Perge, S.; Drozdov, I. K.; Beidenkopf, H.; Sadowski, J. T.; Fedorov, A.; Yazdani, A.; Valla, T.; Cava, R. J.
2013-08-01
We describe the topological surface states of Bi4Se3, a compound in the infinitely adaptive Bi2-Bi2Se3 natural superlattice phase series, determined by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. Two observable cleavage surfaces, terminating at Bi or Se, are characterized by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, and modeled by ab initio density functional theory calculations. Topological surface states are observed on both surfaces, but with markedly different dispersions and Kramers point energies. Bi4Se3 therefore represents the only known compound with different topological states on differently terminated, easily distinguished and stable surfaces.
Zeng, Z. Y.; Claro, F.
2002-02-01
We study the transport of electrons in a Fibonacci magnetic superlattice produced on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by parallel magnetic-field stripes arranged in a Fibonacci sequence. Both the transmission coefficient and conductance exhibit self similarity and the six-circle property. The presence of extended states yields a finite conductivity at infinite length, that may be detected as an abrupt change in the conductance as the Fermi energy is varied, much as a metal-insulator transition. This is a unique feature of transport in this kind of structure, arising from its inherent two-dimensional nature.
Non-monotonic swelling of surface grafted hydrogels induced by pH and/or salt concentration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longo, Gabriel S. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Szleifer, I., E-mail: igal@northwestern.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)
2014-09-28
We use a molecular theory to study the thermodynamics of a weak-polyacid hydrogel film that is chemically grafted to a solid surface. We investigate the response of the material to changes in the pH and salt concentration of the buffer solution. Our results show that the pH-triggered swelling of the hydrogel film has a non-monotonic dependence on the acidity of the bath solution. At most salt concentrations, the thickness of the hydrogel film presents a maximum when the pH of the solution is increased from acidic values. The quantitative details of such swelling behavior, which is not observed when the film is physically deposited on the surface, depend on the molecular architecture of the polymer network. This swelling-deswelling transition is the consequence of the complex interplay between the chemical free energy (acid-base equilibrium), the electrostatic repulsions between charged monomers, which are both modulated by the absorption of ions, and the ability of the polymer network to regulate charge and control its volume (molecular organization). In the absence of such competition, for example, for high salt concentrations, the film swells monotonically with increasing pH. A deswelling-swelling transition is similarly predicted as a function of the salt concentration at intermediate pH values. This reentrant behavior, which is due to the coupling between charge regulation and the two opposing effects triggered by salt concentration (screening electrostatic interactions and charging/discharging the acid groups), is similar to that found in end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers. Understanding how to control the response of the material to different stimuli, in terms of its molecular structure and local chemical composition, can help the targeted design of applications with extended functionality. We describe the response of the material to an applied pressure and an electric potential. We present profiles that outline the local chemical composition of the
Liu, Yingyuan; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhou, Tiejun
2014-01-01
The paper studies a periodic and delayed predator-prey system with non-monotonic functional responses and stage structure. In the system, both the predator and prey are divided into immature individuals and mature individuals by two fixed ages. It is assumed that the immature predators cannot attack preys, and the case of the mature predators attacking the immature preys is also ignored. Based on Mawhin's coincidence degree, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of two positive periodic solutions of the system. An example is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the main results.
Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1991-01-01
The mechanism of the formation of superlattice staking faults in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy PWA 1480 was investigated by observing deformation microstructures in the superalloy single crystals in the temperature range 20-1100 C. Results showed that, in addition to superlattice stacking faults observed after slow strain rate deformation at temperatures from 700 to 950 C, a high-density of superlattice staking faults formed after deformation at 200 C and below. The mechanisms of fault formation, which are different in the high- and the low-temperature regimes, are discussed.
Baba, Isa Abdullahi; Hincal, Evren
2017-05-01
In this article we studied an epidemic model consisting of two strains with different types of incidence rates; bilinear and non-monotone. The model consists of four equilibrium points: disease-free equilibrium, endemic with respect to strain 1, endemic with respect to strain 2, and endemic with respect to both strains. The global stability analysis of the equilibrium points was carried out through the use of Lyapunov functions. Two basic reproduction ratios R 1 0 and R 2 0 are found, and we have shown that if both are less than one, the disease dies out, and if both are greater than one epidemic occurs. Furthermore, epidemics occur with respect to any strain with a basic reproduction ratio greater than one and disease dies out with respect to any strain with a basic reproduction ratio less than one. It was also shown that any strain with highest basic reproduction ratio will automatically outperform the other strain, thereby eliminating it. Numerical simulations were carried out to support the analytic result and to show the effect of the parameter k in the non-monotone incidence rate, which describes the psychological effect of general public towards infection.
Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing
2015-05-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibrium points for neural networks with discontinuous non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays. The fixed point theorem and other analytical tools are used to develop certain sufficient conditions that ensure that the n-dimensional discontinuous neural networks with time-varying delays can have at least 5(n) equilibrium points, 3(n) of which are locally stable and the others are unstable. The importance of the derived results is that it reveals that the discontinuous neural networks can have greater storage capacity than the continuous ones. Moreover, different from the existing results on multistability of neural networks with discontinuous activation functions, the 3(n) locally stable equilibrium points obtained in this paper are located in not only saturated regions, but also unsaturated regions, due to the non-monotonic structure of discontinuous activation functions. A numerical simulation study is conducted to illustrate and support the derived theoretical results.
Acoustoelectric effect in semiconductor superlattice
Mensah, S. Y.; Allotey, F. K. A.; Adjepong, S. K.
1993-10-01
Acoustoelectric effect in semiconductor superlattice has been studied for acoustic wave whose wavelength lambda = 2pi/q is smaller than the mean free path of the electrons l (where ql approaches 1). Unlike the homogeneous bulk material where Weinreich relation is independent of the wave number q in the superlattice we observe a dependence on q i.e. spatial dispersion. In the presence of applied constant field E a threshold value was obtained where the acoustoelectric current changes direction.
Tong, H.; Lan, F.; Liu, Y. J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, X. J.; He, Q.; Wang, K. Z.; Miao, X. S.
2017-09-01
Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of phase-change material, GeTe/Bi2Te3 superlattices, has been investigated in the temperature range of 40-300 K. We have found that thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature, which is contrary to the common results indicated by other works. In this paper, two possible mechanisms are suggested for this result. One is that the thermal conductivity is affected by the thermal boundary resistance at the interfaces between layers, and the other considers the factor of electronic thermal conductivity in the partially coherent regime which is based on the very wave-particle duality of phonons. Finally, the periodic thickness dependence of the thermal conductivity in GeTe/Bi2Te3 superlattices have been measured at room temperature, and the results indicate the main contribution of electron in the total thermal conductivity and the partially coherent regime of phonon. Thus we believe that the second explanation is more reasonable. The work here deepens the understanding of basic mechanisms of thermal transport in phase-change superlattices, and is instructive in modeling and simulation of phase change memories.
Search for scalar-tensor gravity theories with a non-monotonic time evolution of the speed-up factor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Navarro, A [Dept Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, E30071-Murcia (Spain); Serna, A [Dept Fisica, Computacion y Comunicaciones, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E03202-Elche (Spain); Alimi, J-M [Lab. de l' Univers et de ses Theories (LUTH, CNRS FRE2462), Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F92195-Meudon (France)
2002-08-21
We present a method to detect, in the framework of scalar-tensor gravity theories, the existence of stationary points in the time evolution of the speed-up factor. An attractive aspect of this method is that, once the particular scalar-tensor theory has been specified, the stationary points are found through a simple algebraic equation which does not contain any integration. By applying this method to the three classes of scalar-tensor theories defined by Barrow and Parsons, we have found several new cosmological models with a non-monotonic evolution of the speed-up factor. The physical interest of these models is that, as previously shown by Serna and Alimi, they predict the observed primordial abundance of light elements for a very wide range of baryon density. These models are then consistent with recent CMB and Lyman-{alpha} estimates of the baryon content of the universe.
Argumentation-Based Non-Monotonic Reasoning of Agents%基于论辩的Agent非单调推理
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
廖备水; 代建华
2012-01-01
现有的Agent信念修正、慎思、手段-目的推理等理论和方法大多基于经典一阶逻辑,对不完全的、不一致的知识,缺乏有效的处理机制.基于论辩的Agent非单调推理(包括认识推理和实践推理)理论和方法有望弥补这个不足.不过,作为一个新的研究方向,其基本概念、理论、方法及存在的关键性问题尚有待于澄清和梳理.文中首先介绍论辩的基本概念.在此基础上,分析基于论辩的Agent非单调推理的最新研究进展.最后,讨论存在的关键性问题并指出可能的研究方向.%Most of existing theories and methods for belief revision, deliberation, means-ends reasoning etc. are based on classical first order logic, and therefore effective mechanisms are absent in handling incomplete and inconsistent knowledge. Argumentation-based non-monotonic reasoning, including epistemic reasoning and practical reasoning, has become a promising theory to solve the above-mentioned problem. However, as an emerging research area, the basic notions, theories, methods, as well as the existing research problems, are still unclear. In this paper, after presenting the basic notions of argumentation, the recent development of argumentation-based non-monotonic reasoning of agents is analyzed. Finally, some challenging problems are discussed, and the possible future work is pointed out.
PHASE TRANSITION PROPERTIES OF A TWO COMPONENT FINITE MAGNETIC SUPERLATTICE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG XIAO-GUANG; LIU NING-NING; PAN SHAO-HUA; YANG GUO-ZHEN
2000-01-01
We study an (l, n) finite superlattice, which consists of two alternative magnetic materials(components) of l and n atomic layers, respectively. Based on the Ising model, we examine the phase transition properties of the magnetic superlattice. By transfer matrix method we derive the equation for Curie temperature of the superlattice. Numerical results are obtained for the dependence of Curie temperature on the thickness and exchange constants of the superlattice.
Zhao, Xueyan; Deng, Feiqi
2016-07-01
In this paper, a particular property of Lyapunov functions for functional differential equations (FDEs) is developed, that is the direct dependence of the signs of the derivatives of the Lyapunov functions on the initial data. This property implies that the derivatives of the Lyapunov functions for FDEs cannot be guaranteed to be negative definite generally, and then makes the FDEs differ from the ordinary differential equations constitutionally. With this property, we give some enlightenments for the research methods for establishing stability theorems or criteria for FDEs, which may help us to form a common view about the choice of the investigation methods on the stability of FDEs. The conclusion is stated in both the deterministic and stochastic versions. Two illustrative examples are given to show and verify our conclusion through the paper.
Yang, C. H.; Shen, G. Z.; Ao, Z. M.; Xu, Y. W.
2016-09-01
Using the transfer matrix method, the carrier tunneling properties in graphene superlattice generated by the Thue-Morse sequence and Kolakoski sequence are investigated. The positions and strength of the transmission can be modulated by the barrier structures, the incident energy and angle, the height and width of the potential. These carriers tunneling characteristic can be understood from the energy band structures in the corresponding superlattice systems and the carrier’s states in well/barriers. The transmission peaks above the critical incident angle rely on the carrier’s resonance in the well regions. The structural diversity can modulate the electronic and transport properties, thus expanding its applications.
Does non-monotonic behavior of directed flow signal the onset of deconfinement?
Nara, Yasushi
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of nuclear mean-field as well as the formation and decay of nuclear clusters on the directed flow $v_1$ in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions from $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=7.7$ GeV to 27 GeV incident energies within a transport model. Specifically, we use the JAM transport model in which potentials are implemented based on the framework of the relativistic quantum molecular dynamics. Our approach reproduces the rapidity dependence of directed flow data up to $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}\\approx 8$ GeV showing the significant importance of mean-field. However, the slopes of $dv_1/dy$ at mid-rapidity are calculated to be positive at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=11.7$ and 19.6 GeV, and becomes negative above 27 GeV. Thus the result from the JAM hadronic transport model with nuclear mean-field approach is incompatible with the data. Therefore within our approach, we conclude that the excitation function of the directed flow cannot be explained by the hadronic degree of freedom alone.
Does non-monotonic behavior of directed flow signal the onset of deconfinement?
Nara, Yasushi; Ohnishi, Akira
2016-12-01
We investigate the effects of nuclear mean-field as well as the formation and decay of nuclear clusters on the directed flow v1 in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions from √{sNN} = 7.7 GeV to 27 GeV incident energies within a transport model. Specifically, we use the JAM transport model in which potentials are implemented based on the framework of the relativistic quantum molecular dynamics. Our approach reproduces the rapidity dependence of directed flow data up to √{sNN} ≈ 8 GeV showing the significant importance of mean-field. However, the slopes of dv1 / dy at mid-rapidity are calculated to be positive at √{sNN} 11.7 and 19.6 GeV, and become negative above 27 GeV. Thus the result from the JAM hadronic transport model with nuclear mean-field approach is incompatible with the data. Therefore within our approach, we conclude that the excitation function of the directed flow cannot be explained by the hadronic degree of freedom alone.
Troxel, Andrea B.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Sinha, Debajyoti; Molenberghs, Geert
2010-01-01
SUMMARY For longitudinal binary data with non-monotone non-ignorably missing outcomes over time, a full likelihood approach is complicated algebraically, and with many follow-up times, maximum likelihood estimation can be computationally prohibitive. As alternatives, two pseudo-likelihood approaches have been proposed that use minimal parametric assumptions. One formulation requires specification of the marginal distributions of the outcome and missing data mechanism at each time point, but uses an “independence working assumption,” i.e., an assumption that observations are independent over time. Another method avoids having to estimate the missing data mechanism by formulating a “protective estimator.” In simulations, these two estimators can be very inefficient, both for estimating time trends in the first case and for estimating both time-varying and time-stationary effects in the second. In this paper, we propose use of the optimal weighted combination of these two estimators, and in simulations we show that the optimal weighted combination can be much more efficient than either estimator alone. Finally, the proposed method is used to analyze data from two longitudinal clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. PMID:20205269
Zhu, X.; Karagiannis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
2008-01-01
We analyse the impacts of the CAP reforms on technical efficiency of Greek olive farms. We use a production frontier function and a non-monotonic inefficiency effects model which incorporates the influences of exogenous variables on the mean and the variances of farm efficiency. We formulate policy
Mapping axonal density and average diameter using non-monotonic time-dependent gradient-echo MRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nunes, Daniel; Cruz, Tomás L; Jespersen, Sune N
2017-01-01
Abstract White Matter (WM) microstructures, such as axonal density and average diameter, are crucial to the normal function of the Central Nervous System (CNS) as they are closely related with axonal conduction velocities. Conversely, disruptions of these microstructural features may result....... While clearly further modelling and theoretical developments are necessary, we conclude that salient WM microstructural features can be extracted from these simple, SNR-efficient multi-gradient echo MRI, and that this paves the way towards easier estimation of WM microstructure in vivo....
Gate-dependent Pseudospin Mixing in Graphene/boron Nitride Moire Superlattices
2014-08-31
Optical micrograph of a two-terminal field-eect graphene /BN device on a SiO2 /Si substrate. c, Gate-dependent resistance of a typical graphene /BN device...of interband transitions in bare graphene , which is similar to that observed in graphene on SiO2 /Si substrates7–9. The sharp feature shows decreased...300 400 500 600 Energy (meV) a Low doped Si SiO2 BN Au IR beamGraphene Vg σ σ Figure 2 | Infrared micro-spectroscopy of the graphene /BN heterostructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angelis, G I; Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C [Imaging, Proteomics and Genomics, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Reader, A J [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Lionheart, W R, E-mail: georgios.angelis@mmic.man.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester (United Kingdom)
2011-07-07
Iterative expectation maximization (EM) techniques have been extensively used to solve maximum likelihood (ML) problems in positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. Although EM methods offer a robust approach to solving ML problems, they usually suffer from slow convergence rates. The ordered subsets EM (OSEM) algorithm provides significant improvements in the convergence rate, but it can cycle between estimates converging towards the ML solution of each subset. In contrast, gradient-based methods, such as the recently proposed non-monotonic maximum likelihood (NMML) and the more established preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG), offer a globally convergent, yet equally fast, alternative to OSEM. Reported results showed that NMML provides faster convergence compared to OSEM; however, it has never been compared to other fast gradient-based methods, like PCG. Therefore, in this work we evaluate the performance of two gradient-based methods (NMML and PCG) and investigate their potential as an alternative to the fast and widely used OSEM. All algorithms were evaluated using 2D simulations, as well as a single [{sup 11}C]DASB clinical brain dataset. Results on simulated 2D data show that both PCG and NMML achieve orders of magnitude faster convergence to the ML solution compared to MLEM and exhibit comparable performance to OSEM. Equally fast performance is observed between OSEM and PCG for clinical 3D data, but NMML seems to perform poorly. However, with the addition of a preconditioner term to the gradient direction, the convergence behaviour of NMML can be substantially improved. Although PCG is a fast convergent algorithm, the use of a (bent) line search increases the complexity of the implementation, as well as the computational time involved per iteration. Contrary to previous reports, NMML offers no clear advantage over OSEM or PCG, for noisy PET data. Therefore, we conclude that there is little evidence to replace OSEM as the algorithm of choice
Canonical single field slow-roll inflation with a non-monotonic tensor-to-scalar ratio
Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Sussman, Roberto A.
2016-05-01
We take a pragmatic, model independent approach to single field slow-roll canonical inflation by imposing conditions, not on the potential, but on the slow-roll parameter epsilon(phi) and its derivatives epsilon'(phi) and epsilon''(phi), thereby extracting general conditions on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the running nsk at phiH where the perturbations are produced, some 50-60 e-folds before the end of inflation. We find quite generally that for models where epsilon(phi) develops a maximum, a relatively large r is most likely accompanied by a positive running while a negligible tensor-to-scalar ratio implies negative running. The definitive answer, however, is given in terms of the slow-roll parameter ξ2(phi). To accommodate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio that meets the limiting values allowed by the Planck data, we study a non-monotonic epsilon(phi) decreasing during most part of inflation. Since at phiH the slow-roll parameter epsilon(phi) is increasing, we thus require that epsilon(phi) develops a maximum for phi > phiH after which epsilon(phi) decrease to small values where most e-folds are produced. The end of inflation might occur trough a hybrid mechanism and a small field excursion Δphie ≡ |phiH-phie| is obtained with a sufficiently thin profile for epsilon(phi) which, however, should not conflict with the second slow-roll parameter η(phi). As a consequence of this analysis we find bounds for Δphie, rH and for the scalar spectral index nsH. Finally we provide examples where these considerations are explicitly realised.
Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing; Cao, Jinde
2015-11-01
The problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibrium points is addressed for a class of memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays. By virtue of the fixed point theorem, nonsmooth analysis theory and other analytical tools, some sufficient conditions are established to guarantee that such n-dimensional memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks can have 5(n) equilibrium points, among which 3(n) equilibrium points are locally exponentially stable. It is shown that greater storage capacity can be achieved by neural networks with the non-monotonic activation functions introduced herein than the ones with Mexican-hat-type activation function. In addition, unlike most existing multistability results of neural networks with monotonic activation functions, those obtained 3(n) locally stable equilibrium points are located both in saturated regions and unsaturated regions. The theoretical findings are verified by an illustrative example with computer simulations.
Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anupama
2014-08-01
Predicting the effects of mixtures of environmental micropollutants is a priority research area. In this study, the cytotoxicity of ten pharmaceuticals to the rainbow trout cell line RTG-2 was determined using the neutral red uptake assay. Fluoxetine (FL), propranolol (PPN), and diclofenac (DCF) were selected for further study as binary mixtures. Biphasic concentration-response relationships were observed in cells exposed to FL and PPN. In the case of PPN, microscopic examination revealed lysosomal swelling indicative of direct uptake and accumulation of the compound. Three equations describing non-monotonic concentration-response relationships were evaluated and one was found to consistently provide more accurate estimates of the median and 10% effect concentrations compared with a sigmoidal concentration-response model. Predictive modeling of the effects of binary mixtures of FL, PPN, and DCF was undertaken using an implementation of the concentration addition (CA) conceptual model incorporating non-monotonic concentration-response relationships. The cytotoxicity of the all three binary combinations could be adequately predicted using CA, suggesting that the toxic mode of action in RTG-2 cells is unrelated to the therapeutic mode of action of these compounds. The approach presented here is widely applicable to the study of mixture toxicity in cases where non-monotonic concentration-response relationships are observed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Exact Surface States in Photonic Superlattices
Xie, Qiongtao
2012-01-01
We develop an analytical method to derive exact surface states in photonic superlattices. In a kind of infinite bichromatic superlattices satisfying some certain conditions, we analytically obtain their in-gap states, which are superpositions of finite numbers of unstable Bloch waves. By using the unstable in-gap states, we construct exactly several stable surface states in various photonic superlattices. We analytically explore the parametric dependence of these exact surface states. Our analysis provides an exact demonstration for the existence of surface states and would be also helpful to understand surface states in other lattice systems.
Superlattice Optical Bistability Research.
2014-09-26
multilayer heterojunction and superlattice device applications. 2.0 Growth Studies The MBE growth of mercury compound is still relatively new and novel...These superlattices are grown by molecular beam epitaxy in a MBE system specifically designed to handle mercury . MBE is an ultrahigh vacuum evaporative...therefore the growth process is not as well understood as that of III-V semiconductor - compounds . In HgTe-CdTe superlattices the CdTe deposition is
Herhut, Marcel; Brandenbusch, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele
2016-02-01
Protein purification is often performed using cost-intensive chromatographic steps. To discover economic alternatives (e.g., crystallization), knowledge on protein solubility as a function of temperature, pH, and additives in solution as well as their concentration is required. State-of-the-art models for predicting protein solubility almost exclusively consider aqueous salt systems, whereas "salting-in" and "salting-out" effects induced by the presence of an additional polymer are not considered. Thus, we developed the sol-mxDLVO model. Using this newly developed model, protein solubility in the presence of one salt and one polymer, especially the non-monotonic course of protein solubility, could be predicted. Systems considered included salts (NaCl, Na-p-Ts, (NH(4))(2) SO(4)) and the polymer polyethylene glycol (MW: 2000 g/mol, 12000 g/mol) and proteins lysozyme from chicken egg white (pH 4 to 5.5) and D-xylose ketol-isomerase (pH 7) at 298.15 K. The results show that by using the sol-mxDLVO model, protein solubility in polymer-salt solutions can be modeled in good agreement with the experimental data for both proteins considered. The sol-mxDLVO model can describe the non-monotonic course of protein solubility as a function of polymer concentration and salt concentration, previously not covered by state-of-the-art models.
Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George
2015-06-17
We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.
Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.
2015-12-01
Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippe Chassy
Full Text Available Considerable research has been carried out on visual search, with single or multiple targets. However, most studies have used artificial stimuli with low ecological validity. In addition, little is known about the effects of target complexity and expertise in visual search. Here, we investigate visual search in three conditions of complexity (detecting a king, detecting a check, and detecting a checkmate with chess players of two levels of expertise (novices and club players. Results show that the influence of target complexity depends on level of structure of the visual display. Different functional relationships were found between artificial (random chess positions and ecologically valid (game positions stimuli: With artificial, but not with ecologically valid stimuli, a "pop out" effect was present when a target was visually more complex than distractors but could be captured by a memory chunk. This suggests that caution should be exercised when generalising from experiments using artificial stimuli with low ecological validity to real-life stimuli.
Zhang, Hong
2016-01-01
An adaptive moving mesh finite difference method is presented to solve two types of equations with dynamic capillary pressure term in porous media. One is the non-equilibrium Richards Equation and the other is the modified Buckley-Leverett equation. The governing equations are discretized with an adaptive moving mesh finite difference method in the space direction and an implicit-explicit method in the time direction. In order to obtain high quality meshes, an adaptive time-dependent monitor function with directional control is applied to redistribute the mesh grid in every time step, and a diffusive mechanism is used to smooth the monitor function. The behaviors of the central difference flux, the standard local Lax-Friedrich flux and the local Lax-Friedrich flux with reconstruction are investigated by solving a 1D modified Buckley-Leverett equation. With the moving mesh technique, good mesh quality and high numerical accuracy are obtained. A collection of one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical experi...
Nonlinear THz response of metallic armchair graphene nanoribbon superlattices
Wang, Yichao; Andersen, David R.
2016-11-01
We study the third order THz nonlinear response of metallic armchair graphene nanoribbon superlattices in the presence of an elliptically-polarized excitation field using the time dependent perturbation theory. For a one-dimensional Kronig-Penney potential of infinite length, the nonlinear response can be described perturbatively by a low energy \\mathbf{k}\\centerdot \\mathbf{p} N-photon coupling model. Remarkably, as shown by Burset et al the energy dispersion of the metallic band in the direction parallel to the superlattice wavevector is independent of the applied superlattice potential while the energy dispersion in the direction perpendicular to the superlattice wavevector depends strongly on the superlattice parameters. As a result, we predict novel behavior for the nonlinear response of single layer metallic acGNR superlattices to an applied elliptically-polarized electric field. Our work shows that the superlattice potential, periodicity, Fermi level, excitation field polarization state, and temperature all play a significant role in the resulting THz nonlinear conductances.
Troxel, Andrea B; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Sinha, Debajyoti; Molenberghs, Geert
2010-06-30
For longitudinal binary data with non-monotone non-ignorably missing outcomes over time, a full likelihood approach is complicated algebraically, and with many follow-up times, maximum likelihood estimation can be computationally prohibitive. As alternatives, two pseudo-likelihood approaches have been proposed that use minimal parametric assumptions. One formulation requires specification of the marginal distributions of the outcome and missing data mechanism at each time point, but uses an 'independence working assumption,' i.e. an assumption that observations are independent over time. Another method avoids having to estimate the missing data mechanism by formulating a 'protective estimator.' In simulations, these two estimators can be very inefficient, both for estimating time trends in the first case and for estimating both time-varying and time-stationary effects in the second. In this paper, we propose the use of the optimal weighted combination of these two estimators, and in simulations we show that the optimal weighted combination can be much more efficient than either estimator alone. Finally, the proposed method is used to analyze data from two longitudinal clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Blümel, R; Goodman, D S; Kwolek, J M; Smith, W W
2015-01-01
We predict that the steady-state ion number $N_s$ for radio-frequency (rf) traps, loaded at a rate of $\\lambda$ particles per unit time, shows universal non-monotonic behavior as a function of loading rate $\\lambda$. The shape of $N_s(\\lambda)$, characterized by four dynamical regions, is universal in the sense that it is predicted to manifest itself in all rf traps independently of the details of their construction. For $\\lambda\\ll$ 1 particles / rf cycle (Region I), as expected, $N_s(\\lambda)$ increases monotonically with $\\lambda$. However, contrary to intuition, at intermediate $\\lambda \\sim 1$ particles / rf cycle (Region II), $N_s(\\lambda)$ reaches a maximum, followed by a minimum of $N_s(\\lambda)$ (Region III). For $\\lambda\\gg 1$ particles / rf cycle (Region IV), $N_s(\\lambda)$ again rises monotonically. In Region IV numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experiments show $N_s(\\lambda)\\sim \\lambda^{2/3}$. We confirm this prediction experimentally with MOT-loaded Na$^+$ ions stored in a hyb...
Magnetism in lanthanide superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goff, J.P.; Sarthour, R.S.; McMorrow, D.F.
2000-01-01
Neutron diffraction studies of heavy rare-earth superlattices have revealed the stabilization of novel magnetic phases chat are not present in bulk materials. The most striking result is the propagation of the magnetic ordering through nonmagnetic spacer materials. Here we describe some recent X......-ray magnetic resonant scattering studies of light rare-earth superlattices, which illuminate the mechanism of interlayer coupling, and provide access to different areas of Physics. such as the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism. Magnetic X-ray diffraction is found to be particularly well suited...... to the study of the modulated magnetic structures in superlattices, and provides unique information on the conduction-electron spin-density wave responsible for the propagation of magnetic order. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Phonon thermal transport in silicene-germanene superlattice: a molecular dynamics study
Wang, Xinyu; Hong, Yang; Chan, Paddy K. L.; Zhang, Jingchao
2017-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid materials have drawn enormous attention in thermoelectric applications. In this work, we apply a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate the phonon thermal transport in silicene-germanene superlattice. A non-monotonic thermal conductivity of silicene-germanene superlattice with period length is revealed, which is due to the coherent-incoherent phonon conversion and phonon confinement mechanisms. We also calculate the thermal conductivity of a Si-Ge random mixing monolayer, showing a U-shaped trend. Because of the phonon mode localizations at Ge concentration of 80%, thermal conductivity varies dramatically at low doping regions. By changing the total length (L total), the infinite-length thermal conductivities of pure silicene, pure germanene, silicene-germanene superlattice, and Si-Ge random mixing monolayer are extracted as 16.08, 15.95, 5.60 and 4.47 W/m-K, respectively. The thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of the silicene-germanene is also evaluated, showing a small thermal rectification. At L total = 274.7 nm, the TBC of silicene to germanene is 620.49 MW/m2-K, while that of germanene to silicene is 528.76 MW/m2-K.
Piezoelectrics by Design: A Route through Short-period Perovskite Superlattices
Das, Hena; Saha-Dasgupta, T
2010-01-01
Using first-principles density functional theory, we study piezoelectricity in short-period superlattices made with combination of ferroelectric and paraelectric components and exhibiting polar discontinuities. We show that piezoelectric response of such a superlattice can be tuned both in terms of sign and magnitude with a choice of its components. As these superlattices with nonswitchable polarization do not undergo ferroelectric transitions, we predict them to exhibit a robust piezoelectric response with weaker temperature dependence compared to their bulk counterparts.
Magnetic rare earth superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.;
1991-01-01
Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...
Magnetic Graphene Nanohole Superlattices
Yu, Decai; Liu, Miao; Liu, Wei; Liu, Feng
2008-01-01
We investigate the magnetic properties of nano-holes (NHs) patterned in graphene using first principles calculations. We show that superlattices consisting of a periodic array of NHs form a new family of 2D crystalline "bulk" magnets whose collective magnetic behavior is governed by inter-NH spin-spin interaction. They exhibit long-range magnetic order well above room temperature. Furthermore, magnetic semiconductors can be made by doping magnetic NHs into semiconducting NH superlattices. Our findings offer a new material system for fundamental studies of spin-spin interaction and magnetic ordering in low dimensions, and open up the exciting opportunities of making engineered magnetic materials for storage media and spintronics applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. J. Harsan Ma
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We report emerging photoluminescence (PL of bilayer two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO systems. A strong blue PL emerges in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO/LAO/STO which doesn’t show in LAO/STO. PL band in bilayer-2DEGs includes both nearly temperature independent Auger recombination and temperature dependent free electron trapping while it crossovers from Auger recombination to single carrier trapping in LAO/STO. The PL signal of free electron trapping appears at high temperatures and it is much stronger than Auger recombination in the conducting channel in bilayer 2DEGs. This observation shows that high mobility carriers dominate the carrier dynamics in bilayer-2DEGs in LAO/STO superlattices.
Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1989-01-01
The PWA 1480 nickel-base superalloy is known to exhibit a unique minimum in the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) at about 400 C. This paper reports an observation of a deformation mechanism whose temperature dependence correlates exactly with the reduction in the CRSS. It was found that, after monotonic or cyclic deformation of PWA 1480 at 20 C, the deformation substructures typically contain high density of superlattice-intrinsic stacking faults (S-ISFs) within the gamma-prime precipitates. As the temperature of deformation is increased, the density of S-ISFs is reduced, until finally no faults are observed after deformation in the range from 400 to 705 C. The reduction in the fault density corresponds exactly to the reduction in the CRSS, and the temperature at which the fault density is zero corresponds with the minimum in the CRRS. Two possible mechanisms related to the presence of the S-ISFs in the alloy are considered.
Jaynes Cummings Photonic Superlattices
Longhi, Stefano
2011-01-01
A classical realization of the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model, describing the interaction of a two-level atom with a quantized cavity mode, is proposed based on light transport in engineered waveguide superlattices. The optical setting enables to visualize in Fock space dynamical regimes not yet accessible in quantum systems, providing new physical insights into the deep strong coupling regime of the JC model. In particular, bouncing of photon number wave packets in Hilbert space and revivals of populations are explained as generalized Bloch oscillations in an inhomogeneous tight-binding lattice.
Defect enhanced spin and valley polarizations in silicene superlattices
Li, Wen; Lu, Wei-Tao; Li, Yun-Fang; Han, Hai-Hua
2017-04-01
We studied the effect of a defect of superlattice on the spin and valley dependent transport properties in silicene, where there is an abnormal barrier in height. It is found that the transmission resonance is greatly suppressed, because the symmetry of superlattice structure is destroyed by the defect. The spin-up and spin-down electrons near the K and K ‧ valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices and defects. Therefore, the conductances are strongly dependent on the spin and valley of electron. By adjusting the defect strength properly, the spin and valley polarizations could be dramatically enhanced in a wide energy region. Furthermore, the result suggests an application of the structure as a defect-controlled switch.
Magnetic Rare-Earth Superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Böni, P.
1988-01-01
The magnetic structures of several single‐crystal, magnetic rare‐earth superlattice systems grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy are reviewed. In particular, the results of recent neutron diffraction investigations of long‐range magnetic order in Gd‐Y, Dy‐Y, Gd‐Dy, and Ho‐Y periodic superlattices...... are presented. In the Gd‐Y system, an antiphase domain structure develops for certain Y layer spacings, whereas modified helical moment configurations are found to occur in the other systems, some of which are commensurate with the chemical superlattice wavelength. References are made to theoretical interaction...
Magnetic Bloch oscillations in nanowire superlattice rings.
Citrin, D S
2004-05-14
The recent growth of semiconductor nanowire superlattices encourages hope that Bloch-like oscillations in such structures formed into rings may soon be observed in the presence of a time-dependent magnetic flux threading the ring. These magnetic Bloch oscillations are a consequence of Faraday's law; the time-dependent flux produces an electromotive force around the ring, thus leading to the Bloch-like oscillations. In the spectroscopic domain, generalized Wannier-Stark states are found that are manifestations of the emf-induced localization of the states.
Aging in Magnetic Superlattices
Mukherjee, Tathagata; Pleimling, Michel; Binek, Christian
2010-03-01
Aging phenomena can be observed in non-equilibrium systems with slow relaxation dynamics. Magnetic specimens with well defined interactions and dimensions can serve as model systems for universal aspects of aging. Magnetic thin films provide access to a wide range of microscopic parameters. Superlattice structures allow tuning the intra and inter-plane exchange and enable geometrical confinement of the spin fluctuations. We use Co/Cr thin film superlattices to study magnetic aging. The static and dynamic magnetic properties are affected via the Co and Cr film thicknesses. The Curie temperature of the Co films is reduced from the bulk value by geometrical confinement. Cr provides antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co films. In-plane magnetic set fields of some 10-100 mT are applied and the sample is exposed to the latter for various waiting times. After removing the field, relaxation of the magnetization is recorded via longitudinal Kerr-magnetometry and SQUID. The relaxation data are analyzed by scaling plots revealing universal aspects of aging. Financial support by NRI, and NSF through EPSCoR, Career DMR-0547887, DMR-0904999, and MRSEC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
INTAN S. AHMAD
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This work presents the application of a primal-dual interior point method to minimax optimisation problems. The algorithm differs significantly from previous approaches as it involves a novel non-monotone line search procedure, which is based on the use of standard penalty methods as the merit function used for line search. The crucial novel concept is the discretisation of the penalty parameter used over a finite range of orders of magnitude and the provision of a memory list for each such order. An implementation within a logarithmic barrier algorithm for bounds handling is presented with capabilities for large scale application. Case studies presented demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed methodology, which relies on the reformulation of minimax models into standard nonlinear optimisation models. Some previously reported case studies from the open literature have been solved, and with significantly better optimal solutions identified. We believe that the nature of the non-monotone line search scheme allows the search procedure to escape from local minima, hence the encouraging results obtained.
Molecular dynamics simulation of thermal conductivities of superlattice nanowires
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨决宽; 陈云飞; 颜景平
2003-01-01
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate heat transfer in superlattice nanowires. Results show that for fixed period length superlattice nanowires, the ratio of the total interfacial thermal resistance to the total thermal resistance and the effective thermal conductivities are invariant with the changes in interface numbers. Increasing the period length leads to an increase in the average interfacial thermal resistance, which indicates that the interfacial thermal resistance depends not only on the materials that constitute the alternating segments of superlattice nanowires, but also on the lattice strain throughout the segments. The modification of the lattice structure due to the lattice mismatch should be taken into account in the acoustic mismatch model. Simulation results also demonstrated the size confinement effect on the thermal conductivities for low dimensional structures, i.e. the thermal conductivities and the interfacial thermal resistance increase as the nanowire cross-sectional area increases.
The magnetic structure of holmium-erbium superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McMorrow, D.F. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Simpson, J.A.; Cowley, R.A.; Jehan, D.A.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R. [Oxford Physics, Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Thurston, T.R.; Gibbs, D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1994-06-01
The effect of completing crystal-field anisotropies on magnetic order has been investigated in a series of Ho/Er superlattices using neutron and resonant x-ray magnetic diffraction techniques. The neutron diffraction reveals that for temperatures in the interval T{sub N}(Er) {le} T {le} T{sub N}(Ho) the Ho basal-plane order propagates coherently through the paramagnetic Er, and that below T{sub N}(Er) the longitudinal component of the Er moments fails to order across the Ho block. The magnetic superlattice peaks observed in the x-ray scattering display an anomalous energy dependence: a sharp resonance is found at L{sub III}(Ho), with no resonance visible at L{sub III}(Er). These results are discussed with reference to models of exchange in metallic superlattices.
Superconducting superlattices 2: Native and artificial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bozovic, I.; Pavuna, D. [eds.
1998-12-31
This volume is composed of 26 papers presented at the symposium. Topics covered include the following: high-{Tc} superlattices: intrinsic and artificial; low-{Tc} superlattices and multilayers; and theory.
Transfer Matrix for Fibonacci Dielectric Superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡祥宝
2001-01-01
The transfer matrices, which transfer the amplitudes of the electric fields of second- and third-harmonic waves from one side of the interface to the other, are defined for layers joined coherently, and the total transfer matrices for several sequential interfaces can be simply obtained by multiplication of the matrices. Using the transfer matrix method, the interacting processes of second- and third-harmonic waves in a one-dimensional finite Fibonacci dielectric superlattice are investigated. Applying the numerical procedure described in this letter, the dependence of the second- and third-harmonic fields on sample thickness is obtained. The numerical results agree with the quasi-phase-matching theory.
Intrinsic noncollinear magnetization in Fe/Cr superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yartseva, N.S., E-mail: yartseva@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, UD of RAS, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Yartsev, S.V. [ZAO NPO “Spektr”, 14 Berezovskiy 623700 (Russian Federation); Demangeat, C. [UFR de Physique et d’Ingéniérie, Université de Strasbourg, 3 rue de l’Université, 67000 Strasbourg (France)
2014-12-15
Magnetic moments distribution in Fe{sub 3}Cr{sub n} superlattice series with fixed middle Fe monolayer and number of Cr monolayers (MLs) n from 1 to 45 is computed in the framework of collinear and noncollinear Periodic Anderson model. The superlattices are composed of layers in (0 0 1) and (1 1 0) plane with ideal interface. The total energy shows that noncollinear orientation of the magnetic moments remains the ground state for all superlattices with Cr thickness above 5 MLs. Distribution of the magnetic moments for Fe/Cr(0 0 1) superlattices depends on parity of the Cr MLs. For odd numbers Cr magnetic moments are canted and symmetrically distributed between the neighboring Fe slabs. The values of Cr moments are enhanced at the interface and weakened to the bulk in the middle. For even numbers of Cr MLs quasi-helicoidal magnetic moments distribution consisting of two interleaved spirals is found. The moments are screwing sequentially from Fe/Cr interface to perpendicular orientation, keeping the angles and moments for some successive MLs, and then continue screwing towards the next interface. In Fe/Cr(1 1 0) superlattices the magnetic moments of two nonequivalent atoms in the monolayer are canted to each other near Fe/Cr interface and then swing the direction on perpendicular to the fixed Fe moments. - Highlights: • Frustration destroys the collinear magnetization in Fe/Cr superlattices. • Spin spiral were investigated within basic noncollinear Periodic Anderson Model. • Total energy of the spin spiral is generally more stable than collinear magnetization. • Neither step nor alloying at the Fe/Cr interface is necessary for Spin Spiral stability. • The two interleaved spirals calculated are similar to Fishman’s helical state.
两种非单调信赖域算法的数值比较研究%A Numerical Comparison between Two Classes of Non-monotone Trust Region Algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈俊; 张纯
2011-01-01
This paper is aimed at the comparison between two typical non-monotone trust region algorithms for unconstrained optimization. In theory, they both have good convergence properties. The numerical efficiency of the two non-monotone algorithms is the focus of the comparison. Extensive numerical experiments were conducted, making use of the well-known test problems package by J.J. Mot6 et al. [ ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 1981,7（ 1 ） ： 17-41 ]. Then the two algorithms were compared by the performance profiles based on the data obtained from the numerical experiments. The analysis indicates that the numerical efficiency of the algorithm NATR is superior to that of the traditional non-monotone trust region algorithm to a certain extent.%目前求解无约束最优化问题的非单调信赖域算法根据其采用的参考函数值的不同主要有两种：一种是传统的基于最大函数值型，一种是基于函数值加权平均型．理论上该两种算法均具有较好的收敛性质，但关于这两种非单调信赖域算法在实际数值计算效率方面的比较还不充分．为此作者利用国际上广泛采用的无约束优化测试函数包（J．J．More et al．ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software，1981，7（1）：17—41）对这两种方法进行大量的数值试验，并采用剖面分析方法对试验数据进行较全面的分析比较，结果表明基于函数值平均权重的非单调信赖域算法其数值效率在一定程度上优于传统的非单调信赖域算法．
Multiferroicity in Perovskite Manganite Superlattice
Tao, Yong-Mei; Jiang, Xue-Fan; Liu, Jun-Ming
2016-08-01
Multiferroic properties of short period perovskite type manganite superlattice ((R1MnO3)n/(R2MnO3)n (n=1,2,3)) are considered within the framework of classical Heisenberg model using Monte Carlo simulation. Our result revealed the interesting behaviors in Mn spins structure in superlattice. Apart from simple plane spin cycloid structure which is shown in all manganites including bulk, film, and superlattice here in low temperature, a non-coplanar spiral spin structure is exhibited in a certain temperature range when n equals 1, 2 or 3. Specific heat, spin-helicity vector, spin correlation function, spin-helicity correlation function, and spin configuration are calculated to confirm this non-coplanar spiral spin structure. These results are associated with the competition among exchange interaction, magnetic anisotropy, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No. 11447136
Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices
Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.
2003-01-01
Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.
Superlattice Thermoelectric Materials and Devices
Venkatasubramanian, Rama
2002-03-01
We have recently demonstrated a significant enhancement in thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) at 300K, of about 2.4 in p-type Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices, using the concept of phonon-blocking electron-transmitting superlattice structures [1]. The phonon blocking arises from a complex localization-like behavior for phonons in nano-structured superlattices and the electron transmission is facilitated by optimal choice of band-offsets in these semiconductor hetero-structures. We will also discuss the ZT 1.2 results in n-type Bi2Te3/Bi2Te3-xSex superlattices and our initial understanding on the reasons behind the less-than-dramatic performance of these materials compared to the p-type superlattices. Due to the high ZT of the material, devices potentially offer high coefficient of performance (COP) in solid-state refrigeration. The thin-film devices, resulting from rather simple microelectronic processing, allow high cooling power densities to be achieved for a variety of high-power electronic applications. We have obtained 32K and 40K sub-ambient cooling at 298K and 353K, respectively, in these superlattice micro-thermoelements with potential localized active-cooling power densities approaching 700 W/cm2. In addition to high-performance (in terms of COP) and power densities, these thin-film microdevices are also extremely fast-acting, within 10 microsec and about a factor of 23,000 better than bulk thermoelectric technology. Thus, these are of significance for preventing thermal run-away in high-power electronics. We will present results to demonstrate this concept with infrared imaging of cooling/heating with superlattice micro-devices. We will also discuss outstanding issues such as heat removal from the heat sink towards the full exploitation of this technology. In addition, we will compare the state-of-the-art with other thin-film superlattice materials and device concepts. [1] R. Venkatasubramanian, E. Siivola, T. Colpitts, and B.C. O’Quinn, Thin
Einstein's Photoemission from Quantum Confined Superlattices.
Debbarma, S; Ghatak, K P
2016-01-01
This paper is dedicated to the 83th Birthday of Late Professor B. R. Nag, D.Sc., formerly Head of the Departments of Radio Physics and Electronics and Electronic Science of the University of Calcutta, a firm believer of the concept of theoretical minimum of Landau and an internationally well known semiconductor physicist, to whom the second author remains ever grateful as a student and research worker from 1974-2004. In this paper, an attempt is made to study, the Einstein's photoemission (EP) from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, HgTe/CdTe and strained layer quantum well heavily doped superlattices (QWHDSLs) with graded interfaces in the presence of quantizing magnetic field on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion relations within the frame work of k · p formalism. The EP from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, HgTe/CdTe and strained layer quantum wells of heavily doped effective mass superlattices respectively has been presented under magnetic quantization. Besides the said emissions, from the quantum dots of the aforementioned heavily doped SLs have further investigated for the purpose of comparison and complete investigation in the context of EP from quantum confined superlattices. Using appropriate SLs, it appears that the EP increases with increasing surface electron concentration and decreasing film thickness in spiky manners, which are the characteristic features of such quantized hetero structures. Under magnetic quantization, the EP oscillates with inverse quantizing magnetic field due to Shuvnikov-de Haas effect. The EP increases with increasing photo energy in a step-like manner and the numerical values of EP with all the physical variables are totally band structure dependent for all the cases. The most striking features are that the presence of poles in the dispersion relation of the materials in the absence of band tails create the complex energy spectra in the corresponding HD constituent materials of such quantum confined superlattices and effective electron
Thermodynamics of Co/Cr superlattices
Mukherjee, T.; Sahoo, S.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Binek, Ch.
2008-03-01
Progress in ultra thin film growth has resulted in many novel surface and interface induced properties of artificial heterostuctures. Here, we study magnetic superlattices of ultrathin Co and Cr films grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy methodology at a base pressure below 1x10-10 mbar. Our approach is based on controlling two distinct magnetic degrees of freedom. First, the critical temperature, Tc, of individual Co films is tailored via geometrical confinement of the correlation length perpendicular to the film. Various thickness dependent values, Tc(d), between zero and the bulk Curie temperature of 1388 K are realized. Second, the Tc-tailored Co films are antiferromagnetically coupled through Cr interlayer films. The oscillating coupling strength is tailored via the Cr interlayer thickness. The resulting thermodynamic properties of such Co/Cr superlattices are studied with the help of SQUID magnetometry. Particular emphasis is laid on tailoring magnetic entropy changes in the vicinity of room temperature. X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity are used to correlate structural data with the magnetic properties.
Complex band structure and superlattice electronic states
Schulman, J. N.; McGill, T. C.
1981-04-01
The complex band structures of the bulk materials which constitute the alternating layer (001) semiconductor-semiconductor superlattice are investigated. The complex bands near the center of the Brillouin zone in the [001] direction are studied in detail. The decay lengths of superlattice states whose energies lie in the bulk band gaps of one of the semiconductors are determined from the dispersion curves of these bands for imaginary k-->. This method is applied using a tight-binding band-structure calculation to two superlattices: the AlAs-GaAs superlattice and the CdTe-HgTe superlattice. The decay lengths of AlAs-GaAs superlattice conduction-band minimum states are found to be substantially shorter than those for the CdTe-HgTe superlattice. These differences in the decay of the states in the two superlattices result in differences in the variation of the conduction-band effective masses with the thickness of the AlAs and CdTe layers. The conduction-band effective masses increase more rapidly with AlAs thickness in the AlAs-GaAs superlattice than with CdTe thickness in the CdTe-HgTe superlattice.
Phonon-induced polariton superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lima, Jr., M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Santos, P. V.;
2006-01-01
We show that the coherent interaction between microcavity polaritons and externally stimulated acoustic phonons forms a tunable polariton superlattice with a folded energy dispersion determined by the phonon population and wavelength. Under high phonon concentration, the strong confinement of the...... of the optical and excitonic polariton components in the phonon potential creates weakly coupled polariton wires with a virtually flat energy dispersion....
Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jagd Christensen, Morten
1997-05-01
This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.
Huge spin-transfer torque in a magnetic tunnel junction by a superlattice barrier
Chen, C. H.; Tseng, P.; Ko, C. W.; Hsueh, W. J.
2017-09-01
Huge spin-transfer torque (STT) in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) achieved by superlattice barrier composed of alternate layers of a nonmagnetic metal and an insulator is proposed. The magnitude of the STT depends on the number of cells in the superlattice barrier and the nonmagnetic metal layer's thickness. The result shows that the STT of the novel superlattice-barrier MTJ can reach values up to four orders of magnitude greater than those of traditional single-barrier stacks based on three cells superlattice by designing the nonmagnetic metal layer's thickness. In addition, the spin-transfer torque of the proposed MTJ can also be thousands of magnitude greater than those of traditional double-barrier MTJs.
Thermal conductivity measurement of InGaAs/InGaAsP superlattice thin films
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zhen; YANG Juekuan; ZHUANG Ping; CHEN Minhua; ZHU Jian; CHEN Yunfei
2006-01-01
The thermal conductivities of InGaAs/InGaAsP superlattices with different period lengths were measured from 100 to 320 K using 3ω method.In this temperature range, the thermal conductivities were found to decrease with an increase in temperature. For the period length-dependant thermal conductivity, the minimum value does exist at a certain period length, which demonstrates that at a short period length, superlattice thermal conductivity increases with a decrease in the period length. When the period is longer than a certain period length, the interface thermal resistance dominates in phonon transport. The experimental and theoretical results confirmed the previous predictions from the lattice dynamics analysis, i.e. with the increase in period length, the dominant mechanisms of phonon transport in superlattices will shift from wave mode to particle mode. This is crucial for the cutoff of the phonons and lays a sound foundation for the design of superlattice structures.
Structural and magnetic properties of holmium-scandium alloys and superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.
1997-01-01
The properties of Ho-Sc alloys and superlattices grown by molecular-beam epitaxy have been investigated using x-ray and neutron-diffraction techniques. Structural studies reveal that the alloy samples have different a lattice parameters for the Sc-seed layer and the Ho:Sc alloy grown on top...... of the seed layer; while the superlattices have different a lattice parameters for the Sc seed, and for both the Ho and Sc in the superlattice layers. The structural characteristics are related to the large lattice mismatches (of the order 7%) between the constituent elements. The magnetic moments....... It is found that a good description of the dependence of T-N upon concentration is given by a virtual-crystal model where the peak in the conduction-electron susceptibility varies linearly between that of the pure constituents. In the superlattices, the moments also form a basal-plane helix at T...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y. T.; Woo, T. P.; Lo, S. T. [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kim, G. H. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Liang, C. T. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
2014-05-15
In this report, we will discuss the nonmonotonic magnetoresistance (MR) in an AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) in a perpendicular magnetic field B in the ballistic region (k{sub B}T τ/h > 1) and in the weakly-disordered limit (k{sub F}l = 159 >> 1), where k{sub B}, T, τ , h, k{sub F} , and l represent the Boltzmann constant, temperature, elastic scattering time, reduced Planck constant, Fermi wave vector and mean free path, respectively. The MR shows a local maximum between the weak localization (WL) and the Shubnikov-de Haas regions. In the low magnetic field regime, the quantum correction to the conductivity is proportional to T{sup -3/2}, which is consistent with a recent theory [T. A. Sedrakyan, and M. E. Raikh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106806 (2008)]. According to our results, as the temperature is increased, the position of the MR maximum in B increases. These results cannot be explained by present theories. Moreover, in the high-magnetic-field regime, neither the magnetic and nor the temperature dependences of the observed MR is consistent with present theories. We, therefore, suggest that while some features of the observed nonmonotonic MR can be successfully explained, further experimental and theoretical studies are necessary to obtain a thorough understanding of the MR effects.
Alvaro, M; Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Melnik, R V N; Prabhakar, S
2013-08-21
In this paper we develop a kinetic model for the analysis of semiconductor superlattices, accounting for quantum effects. The model consists of a Boltzmann-Poisson type system of equations with simplified Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collisions, obtained from the general time-dependent Schrödinger-Poisson model using Wigner functions. This system for superlattice transport is supplemented by the quantum mechanical part of the model based on the Ben-Daniel-Duke form of the Schrödinger equation for a cylindrical superlattice of finite radius. The resulting energy spectrum is used to characterize the Fermi-Dirac distribution that appears in the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision, thereby coupling the quantum mechanical and kinetic parts of the model. The kinetic model uses the dispersion relation obtained by the generalized Kronig-Penney method, and allows us to estimate radii of quantum wire superlattices that have the same miniband widths as in experiments. It also allows us to determine more accurately the time-dependent characteristics of superlattices, in particular their current density. Results, for several experimentally grown superlattices, are discussed in the context of self-sustained coherent oscillations of the current density which are important in an increasing range of current and potential applications.
Designing Optical Properties in DNA-Programmed Nanoparticle Superlattices
Ross, Michael Brendan
A grand challenge of modern science has been the ability to predict and design the properties of new materials. This approach to the a priori design of materials presents a number of challenges including: predictable properties of the material building blocks, a programmable means for arranging such building blocks into well understood architectures, and robust models that can predict the properties of these new materials. In this dissertation, we present a series of studies that describe how optical properties in DNA-programmed nanoparticle superlattices can be predicted prior to their synthesis. The first chapter provides a history and introduction to the study of metal nanoparticle arrays. Chapter 2 surveys and compares several geometric models and electrodynamics simulations with the measured optical properties of DNA-nanoparticle superlattices. Chapter 3 describes silver nanoparticle superlattices (rather than gold) and identifies their promise as plasmonic metamaterials. In chapter 4, the concept of plasmonic metallurgy is introduced, whereby it is demonstrated that concepts from materials science and metallurgy can be applied to the optical properties of mixed metallic plasmonic materials, unveiling rich and tunable optical properties such as color and asymmetric reflectivity. Chapter 5 presents a comprehensive theoretical exploration of anisotropy (non-spherical) in nanoparticle superlattice architectures. The role of anisotropy is discussed both on the nanoscale, where several desirable metamaterial properties can be tuned from the ultraviolet to near-infrared, and on the mesoscale, where the size and shape of a superlattice is demonstrated to have a pronounced effect on the observed far-field optical properties. Chapter 6 builds upon those theoretical data presented in chapter 5, including the experimental realization of size and shape dependent properties in DNA-programmed superlattices. Specifically, nanoparticle spacing is explored as a parameter that
Mechanism Analyses of Pressure Non-Monotonic Effect on Flammability Limits%压力对可燃极限非单调作用的机理分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田雪沁; 陶志强; 张海
2011-01-01
1D, laminar premixed CH4/Air flames at elevated pressures were numerically studied to assess pressure effect on flammability limits, with attention primarily paid to maximum flame temperature loss caused by radiation, dominant chain branching and termination reactions and species profiles at different pressures. It was found that radiation heat loss effect increases with decreasing equivalence ratio, especially at the turning point showing the non-monotonic pressure effect. As pressure increases, sensitivity coefficient of main chain termination reaction H＋O2＋M=HO2＋M changes non-monotonously, firstly increases then decreases and this chain termination reaction is gradually substituted by reaction HO2＋CH3=OH＋CH3O. The main reason of such change is that the relative concentration of HO2 species becomes higher than that of other species as pressure increases.%采用CHEMKIN的PREMIX模块对非常压下贫燃侧的一维、层流CH4／Air预混火焰进行数值模拟，分析了不同的压力下辐射引起的最高火焰温度损失、主要反应的敏感性系数和主要自由基摩尔分数的变化。结果表明，辐射热损失随着当量比的下降而加强，在非单调变化的拐点附近，热辐射损失对最高火焰温度的相对变化作用明显加强。随着压力增大，近极限火焰的主要链终止反应H＋O2＋M=HO2＋M的敏感性呈现先增大后减小的非单调变化，并逐渐被HO2＋CH3=OH＋CH30取代；引起以上变化的原因是，随着压力增大，HO2对其它主要基团（OH、O、H）的相对浓度明显增大。
Analytical Study of Electromagnetic Wave in Superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian
2004-01-01
The theoretical description of soliton solutions and exact analytical solutions in the sine-Gordon equation is extended to superlattice physics. A family of interesting exact solutions and a new exact analytical solution have been obtained for the electromagnetic wave propagating through a superlattice. In more general cases, the vector potential along the propagating direction obeys the sine-Gordon equation. Some mathematical results of theoretical investigation are given for different cases in superlattices.
Self-Organized Growth of Alloy Superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chason, E.; Floro, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Lagally, M.G.; Liu, F.; Tersoff, J.; Venezuela, P.
1998-10-19
We predict theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the spontaneous formation of a superlattice during crystal growth. When a strained alloy grows by "step flow", the steps at the surface form periodic bunches. The resulting modulated strain biases the incorporation of the respective alloy components at different steps in the bunch, leading to the formation of a superlattice. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy for SiGe grown on Si give clear evidence for such spontaneous superlattice formation.
Measuring spin correlations in optical lattices using superlattice potentials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kim Georg Lind; Andersen, Brian Møller; Bruun, Georg Morten;
2011-01-01
We suggest two experimental methods for probing both short- and long-range spin correlations of atoms in optical lattices using superlattice potentials. The first method involves an adiabatic doubling of the periodicity of the underlying lattice to probe neighboring singlet (triplet) correlations...... for fermions (bosons) by the occupation of the resulting vibrational ground state. The second method utilizes a time-dependent superlattice potential to generate spin-dependent transport by any number of prescribed lattice sites, and probes correlations by the resulting number of doubly occupied sites....... For experimentally relevant parameters, we demonstrate how both methods yield large signatures of antiferromagnetic correlations of strongly repulsive fermionic atoms in a single shot of the experiment. Lastly, we show how this method may also be applied to probe d-wave pairing, a possible ground-state candidate...
Patel, Nitin
Today, more than 40% of all cutting tools used in machining applications are covered with coatings. Coatings improve wear resistance, increase tool life, enable use at higher speed, and broaden the application range. Superlattices, where thin layers (typically deposited in an alternating fashion, are widely used commercially. Importantly, the hardness value of a superlattice (e.g. TiN/AlN) can significantly exceed the rule of mixture value. Superlattice coatings built from crystallographically dissimilar materials are not widely studied but hold promise for improvements in performance by allowing for both hardness and toughness to be simultaneously optimized. This is what this thesis is concerned with: a structure-property comparison of isostructural superlattices with corresponding non-isostructural superlattices. In order to grow both isostructural and non-isostructural superlattices from the same set of materials, it is necessary to grow monolithic films in different phases. Towards this end, the synthesis of different phases of AlN, (Ti,Al)N, TaN, and TiN was investigated. Films were grown by pulsed laser deposition in two different chambers that had different base pressures to study the effect of background gases on the phases and orientations of the films. Growth of AlN and (Ti,Al)N films is strongly affected in a chamber that had a base pressure of 10-6 Torr, but the films adopt their stable nitride structures in a chamber with the lower base pressure of 10-8 Torr. TaN adopts either the cubic rock salt structure or its stable hexagonal structure, depending on the growth temperature, while TiN grows as rock salt in all conditions. Single crystal epitaxial superlattices were then grown with different compositions, periodicities, and crystallographic orientations to compare the effect of chemistry, nanostructure, and crystallographic texture on hardness. Finally, the structure-property relationships of non-isostructural (cubic/hexagonal) superlattices are
Magnetocaloric properties of Co/Cr superlattices
Mukherjee, Tathagata; Skomski, Ralph; Sellmyer, David; Binek, Christian
2010-03-01
Nanostructured materials aiming on refrigeration applications are experimentally realized by molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of Co/Cr superlattices using mean-field theoretical concepts as guiding principles.footnotetextT. Mukherjee, S. Sahoo, R. Skomski, D. J. Sellmyer, and Ch. Binek, Phys. Rev. B 79, 144406-1-9 (2009). Magnetocaloric properties are deduced from measurements of the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization of our samples. More generally, the potential of artificial antiferromagnets for near room-temperature refrigeration is explored. The effects of intra-plane and inter-plane exchange interactions on the magnetic phase diagram in Ising-type model systems are revisited in mean-field considerations with special emphasis on tailoring magnetocaloric properties. The experimental results are discussed in light of our theoretical findings, and extrapolations for future improved nanostructures are provided. Financial support by NRI, and NSF through EPSCoR, Career DMR-0547887, and MRSEC.
Interwell excitons in GaAs superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Sayed, Karim El; Sanders, G.;
1997-01-01
The formation of spatially indirect excitons in superlattices with narrow minibands is investigated experimentally. The interwell exciton is similar to the first Wannier-Stark localized exciton of an electrically biased superlattice. However, in the present case the localization is mediated by th...
Photoacoustic transformation of Bessel light beams in magnetoactive superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mityurich, G. S., E-mail: George-mityurich@mail.ru [Belarusian Trade and Economics University of Consumer Cooperatives (Belarus); Chernenok, E. V.; Sviridova, V. V.; Serdyukov, A. N. [Gomel State University (Belarus)
2015-03-15
Photoacoustic transformation of the TE mode of a Bessel light beam (BLB) has been studied for piezoelectric detection in short-period superlattices formed by magnetoactive crystals of bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) and bismuth silicate (Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}) types. It is shown that the resulting signal amplitude can be controlled using optical schemes of BLB formation with a tunable cone angle. A resonant increase in the signal amplitude has been found in the megahertz range of modulation frequencies and its dependences on the BLB modulation frequency, geometric sizes of the two-layer structure and piezoelectric transducer, radial coordinate of the polarization BLB mode, and dissipative superlattice parameters are analyzed.
Electronic structure of a graphene superlattice with massive Dirac fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lima, Jonas R. F., E-mail: jonas.iasd@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) - Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)
2015-02-28
We study the electronic and transport properties of a graphene-based superlattice theoretically by using an effective Dirac equation. The superlattice consists of a periodic potential applied on a single-layer graphene deposited on a substrate that opens an energy gap of 2Δ in its electronic structure. We find that extra Dirac points appear in the electronic band structure under certain conditions, so it is possible to close the gap between the conduction and valence minibands. We show that the energy gap E{sub g} can be tuned in the range 0 ≤ E{sub g} ≤ 2Δ by changing the periodic potential. We analyze the low energy electronic structure around the contact points and find that the effective Fermi velocity in very anisotropic and depends on the energy gap. We show that the extra Dirac points obtained here behave differently compared to previously studied systems.
Nonlinear thermoelectric efficiency of superlattice-structured nanowires
Karbaschi, Hossein; Lovén, John; Courteaut, Klara; Wacker, Andreas; Leijnse, Martin
2016-09-01
We theoretically investigate nonlinear ballistic thermoelectric transport in a superlattice-structured nanowire. By a special choice of nonuniform widths of the superlattice barriers—analogous to antireflection coating in optical systems—it is possible to achieve a transmission which comes close to a square profile as a function of energy. We calculate the low-temperature output power and power-conversion efficiency of a thermoelectric generator based on such a structure and show that the efficiency remains high also when operating at a significant power. To provide guidelines for experiments, we study how the results depend on the nanowire radius, the number of barriers, and on random imperfections in barrier width and separation. Our results indicate that high efficiencies can indeed be achieved with today's capabilities in epitaxial nanowire growth.
Resonant tunnelling in a Fibonacci bilayer graphene superlattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Sinha, C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Biswas, R. [Department of Physics, PK College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)
2010-02-15
The transmission coefficients (TCs) and angularly averaged conductance for quasi-particle transport are studied for a bilayer graphene superlattice arranged according to the Fibonacci sequence. The transmission is found to be symmetric around the superlattice growth direction and highly sensitive to the direction of the quasi-particle incidence. The transmission spectra are fragmented and appear in groups due to the quasi-periodicity of the system. The average conductance shows interesting structures sharply dependent on the height of the potential barriers between two graphene strips. The low-energy conductance due to Klein transmission is substantially modified by the inclusion of quasi-periodicity in the system. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Spectral properties of Fibonacci superlattices formed using armchair graphene nanoribbons
Korol, A. M.; Litvynchuk, S. I.; Bagliuk, S. V.; Lazarenko, M. V.
2016-03-01
We discuss and analyze the dependence spectra of the transmission coefficient T on the quasiparticle energy E of one variety of graphene-based Fibonacci superlattices (SL). The SL is built from armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNR), and the quasi-periodicity is produced by metal-like (MGNR) and semiconductor (SCGNR) ribbons, placed along the lattice growth axis in accordance with the Fibonacci sequence, which are used as individual SL elements. It is shown that the difference in the values of quantized transverse quasi-momentum of electrons in MGNR and SCGNR is enough to form an effective quasi-periodic modulation in the examined structure (no additional factors required), and the optimal nanoribbon width range for this purpose is determined. We also analyzed the dependence of the spectral properties of the test structure on the geometric parameters of the superlattice, and the external electrostatic potential. We paid particular attention to the fact that each Fibonacci generation had a Dirac superlattice band gap. The results of the study can be useful in the determination of optimal parameters for graphene-based nanoelectronic devices.
THz laser based on quasi-periodic AlGaAs superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malyshev, K V [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-06-30
The use of quasi-periodic AlGaAs superlattices as an active element of a quantum cascade laser of terahertz range is proposed and theoretically investigated. A multi-colour emission, having from three to six peaks of optical gain, is found in Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and figurate superlattices in electric fields of intensity F = 11 - 13 kV cm{sup -1} in the frequency range f = 2 - 4 THz. The peaks depend linearly on the electric field, retain the height of 20 cm{sup -1}, and strongly depend on the thickness of the AlGaAs-layers. (lasers)
Interface disorder and transport properties in HTC/CMR superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haberkorn, N.; Guimpel, J.; Sirena, M.; Steren, L.B.; Campillo, G.; Saldarriaga, W.; Gomez, M.E
2004-08-01
The physical properties of superlattices are affected by interface disorder, like roughness and interdiffusion. X-ray diffraction allows its measurement through modeling and structure refinement. The high-T{sub c} RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (RBCO) and colossal magnetoresistance La{sub x}A{sub 1-x}MnO{sub 3} (LAMO) perovskites are interesting superlattice partners given their similar lattice parameters and because the combination of magnetic and superconducting properties is interesting for both basic and applied research. We have investigated the structural and transport properties of YBCO/La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} and GdBCO/La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.04}MnO{sub 3} superlattices grown by sputtering on (1 0 0)MgO. We find a roughness of 1 RBCO unit cell and a 30% interdiffusion in the same length from the interfaces for all samples. The superconducting behavior is found strongly dependent on the LAMO layer thickness.
Manganite/Cuprate Superlattice as Artificial Reentrant Spin Glass
Ding, Junfeng
2016-05-04
Emerging physical phenomena at the unit-cell-controlled interfaces of transition-metal oxides have attracted lots of interest because of the rich physics and application opportunities. This work reports a reentrant spin glass behavior with strong magnetic memory effect discovered in oxide heterostructures composed of ultrathin manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and cuprate La2CuO4 (LCO) layers. These heterostructures are featured with enhanced ferromagnetism before entering the spin glass state: a Curie temperature of 246 K is observed in the superlattice with six-unit-cell LSMO layers, while the reference LSMO film with the same thickness shows much weaker magnetism. Furthermore, an insulator-metal transition emerges at the Curie temperature, and below the freezing temperature the superlattices can be considered as a glassy ferromagnetic insulator. These experimental results are closely related to the interfacial spin reconstruction revealed by the first-principles calculations, and the dependence of the reentrant spin glass behavior on the LSMO layer thickness is in line with the general phase diagram of a spin system derived from the infinite-range SK model. The results of this work underscore the manganite/cuprate superlattices as a versatile platform of creating artificial materials with tailored interfacial spin coupling and physical properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate superlattices incorporating niobium oxide nanolayers
Sarath Kumar, S. R.
2014-04-22
A novel superlattice structure based on epitaxial nanoscale layers of NbOx and Nb-doped SrTiO3 is fabricated using a layer-by-layer approach on lattice matched LAO substrates. The absolute Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the [(NbOx) a/(Nb-doped SrTiO3)b]20 superlattices (SLs) were found to increase with decreasing layer thickness ratio (a/b ratio), reaching, at high temperatures, a power factor that is comparable to epitaxial Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STNO) films (∼0.7 W m-1 K-1). High temperature studies reveal that the SLs behave as n-type semiconductors and undergo an irreversible change at a varying crossover temperature that depends on the a/b ratio. By use of high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, the irreversible changes are identified to be due to a phase transformation from cubic NbO to orthorhombic Nb2O5, which limits the highest temperature of stable operation of the superlattice to 950 K. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Revisiting HOPG superlattices: Structure and conductance properties
Patil, Sumati; Kolekar, Sadhu; Deshpande, Aparna
2017-04-01
Superlattices observed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been studied extensively by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The interest in the study of graphite superlattices has seen a resurgence since the discovery of graphene. Single layer graphene, bilayer graphene, and few layer graphene can now be grown on different substrates. The adherence of graphene to various substrates often leads to a periodic out-of-plane modulation and superlattices due to lattice mismatch. In this paper, we report STM imaging and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) of different kinds of superlattices on HOPG characterized by a variation in lattice periodicities. Our study also shows evidence of the displacement of the topmost HOPG layer by scanning different areas of the same superlattice. A correlation between the lattice periodicity with its conductance properties is derived. The results of this work are important for understanding the origin of the superlattice structure on HOPG. Investigation of such superlattices may open up possible ways to modify two dimensional electron systems to create materials with tailored electronic properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volodin, V. A., E-mail: volodin@isp.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Sachkov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Sinyukov, M. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2015-05-15
The angular anisotropy of interface phonons and their interaction with optical phonons in (001) GaAs/AlAs superlattices are calculated and experimentally studied. Experiments were performed by Raman light scattering in different scattering geometries for phonons with the wave vector directed normally to the superlattice and along its layers. Phonon frequencies were calculated by the extended Born method taking the Coulomb interaction into account in the rigid-ion approximation. Raman scattering spectra were calculated in the Volkenshtein bond-polarizability approximation. Calculations confirmed that the angular anisotropy of phonons observed in experiments appears due to interaction (mixing) of optical phonons, in which atoms are mainly displaced normally to superlattices, with interface phonons (TO-IF modes). In the scattering geometry, when the wave vector lies in the plane of superlattice layers, the mixed TO-IF modes are observed under nonresonance conditions. The Raman spectra for TO-IF modes depend on the mixing of atoms at heteroboundaries.
Volodin, V. A.; Sachkov, V. A.; Sinyukov, M. P.
2015-05-01
The angular anisotropy of interface phonons and their interaction with optical phonons in (001) GaAs/AlAs superlattices are calculated and experimentally studied. Experiments were performed by Raman light scattering in different scattering geometries for phonons with the wave vector directed normally to the superlattice and along its layers. Phonon frequencies were calculated by the extended Born method taking the Coulomb interaction into account in the rigid-ion approximation. Raman scattering spectra were calculated in the Volkenshtein bond-polarizability approximation. Calculations confirmed that the angular anisotropy of phonons observed in experiments appears due to interaction (mixing) of optical phonons, in which atoms are mainly displaced normally to superlattices, with interface phonons (TO-IF modes). In the scattering geometry, when the wave vector lies in the plane of superlattice layers, the mixed TO-IF modes are observed under nonresonance conditions. The Raman spectra for TO-IF modes depend on the mixing of atoms at heteroboundaries.
Optical constants of GaAs-AlGaAs superlattices and multiple quantum wells
Kahen, K. B.; Leburton, J. P.
1986-01-01
The optical properties of GaAs-Al sub x Ga sub 1-xAs superlattices are calculated as a function of the frequency and superlattice structure. The comutations are performed using a partition method which combines the vectors k.p method with the pseudopotential technique. The influence of the super-structure on the electronic properties of the systems is accounted for by appropriate quantization conditions. The anisotropy and structure dependence of the dielectric constant result mainly from the contribution of the gamma region while the contributions of the other regions of the Brillouin zone are rather insensitive to the superlattice structure. The superlattice index of refraction values are shown to attain maxima at the various quantized transition energies, where for certain structures, the difference between the refractive indices of the superlattices and its corresponding Al sub x Ga sub 1-xAs alloy can be as large as 2%. In general results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Magnetic structure of holmium-yttrium superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; Cowley, R.A.;
1993-01-01
that the superlattices have high crystallographic integrity: the structural coherence length parallel to the growth direction is typically almost-equal-to 2000 angstrom, while the interfaces between the two elements are well defined and extend over approximately four lattice planes. The magnetic structures were......We present the results of a study of the chemical and magnetic structures of a series of holmium-yttrium superlattices and a 5000 angstrom film of holmium, all grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. By combining the results of high-resolution x-ray diffraction with detailed modeling, we show...... determined using neutron-scattering techniques. The moments on the Ho3+ ions in the superlattices form a basal-plane helix. From an analysis of the superlattice structure factors of the primary magnetic satellites, we are able to determine separately the contributions made by the holmium and yttrium...
Interwell excitons in GaAs superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Sayed, Karim El; Sanders, G.;
1996-01-01
The formation of spatially indirect excitons in superlattices with narrow minibands is theoretically and experimentally investigated. We identify the experimental conditions for the observation of interwell excitons and find a distinct excitonic state energetically located between the Is exciton ...
Polyadic Cantor superlattices with variable lacunarity.
Jaggard, D L; Jaggard, A D
1997-02-01
Reflection and transmission properties of polyadic fractal superlattices are formulated, solved analytically, and characterized for variations in stage of growth, fractal dimension, and lacunarity. This is the first time to our knowledge that the effect of lacunarity on wave interactions with such structures has been considered. The results are summarized by families of reflection data that we denote twist plots. A new doubly recursive computational technique efficiently provides the reflection and transmission coefficients for a large class of Cantor superlattices with numerous interfaces.
Analytical Study of Electromagnetic Wave in Superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LINChang; ZHANGXiu-Lian
2004-01-01
The theoretical description of soliton solutions and exact analytical solutions in the sine-Gordon equation is extended to superlattice physics. A family of interesting exact solutions and a new exact analytical solution have been obtained for the electromagnetic wave propagating through a superlattice. In more general cases, the vector potential along the propagating direction obeys the sine-Gordon equation. Some mathematical results of theoretical investigation are given for different cases in supedattices.
Smith, D; Mcgill, T.
1984-01-01
We report on a theoretical study of the electronic properties of HgTe-CdTe superlattices. The band gap as a function of layer thickness, effective masses normal to the layer plane and tunneling length are compared to the corresponding (Hg, Cd)Te alloys. We find that the superlattice possesses a number of properties that may make it superior to the corresponding alloy as an infrared material.
Ferromagnet / superconductor oxide superlattices
Santamaria, Jacobo
2006-03-01
The growth of heterostructures combining oxide materials is a new strategy to design novel artificial multifunctional materials with interesting behaviors ruled by the interface. With the (re)discovery of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) materials, there has been renewed interest in heterostructures involving oxide superconductors and CMR ferromagnets where ferromagnetism (F) and superconductivity (S) compete within nanometric distances from the interface. In F/S/F structures involving oxides, interfaces are especially complex and various factors like interface disorder and roughness, epitaxial strain, polarity mismatch etc., are responsible for depressed magnetic and superconducting properties at the interface over nanometer length scales. In this talk I will focus in F/S/F structures made of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO). The high degree of spin polarization of the LCMO conduction band, together with the d-wave superconductivity of the YBCO make this F/S system an adequate candidate for the search of novel spin dependent effects in transport. We show that superconductivity at the interface is depressed by various factors like charge transfer, spin injection or ferromagnetic superconducting proximity effect. I will present experiments to examine the characteristic distances of the various mechanisms of superconductivity depression. In particular, I will discuss that the critical temperature of the superconductor depends on the relative orientation of the magnetization of the F layers, giving rise to a new giant magnetoresistance effect which might be of interest for spintronic applications. Work done in collaboration with V. Peña^1, Z. Sefrioui^1, J. Garcia-Barriocanal^1, C. Visani^1, D. Arias^1, C. Leon^1 , N. Nemes^2, M. Garcia Hernandez^2, S. G. E. te Velthuis^3, A. Hoffmann^3, M. Varela^4, S. J. Pennycook^4. Work supported by MCYT MAT 2005-06024, CAM GR- MAT-0771/2004, UCM PR3/04-12399 Work at Argonne supported by the Department of Energy, Basic
Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping-Fan Yang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.
Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Zhu, Rui [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)
2015-07-15
We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S) case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.
Second-Harmonic and Third-Harmonic Generations in the Thue-Morse Dielectric Superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡祥宝
2002-01-01
Theoretical work on the optical properties of the one-dimensional dielectric superlattice is extended. 3Byv means of a transfer matrix method, the second-harmonic and third-harmonic generations in a one-dimensional tinite Thue Morse dielectric superlattice are analysed. The electric field amplitude variables of the second-harmonic and third-harmonic can be expressed by the formula of matrices. Taking advantage of numerical procedure, we discuss the dependence of the second-harmonic and third-harmonic on the fundamental wavelength and the field amplitude variables of the fundamental wave. High conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic can be obtained at some special fundamental wavelength.
Strong reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in superlattices and quantum dot superlattices
Fomin, V. M.; Nika, D. L.; Cocemasov, A. I.; Isacova, C. I.; Schmidt, O. G.
2012-06-01
Thermal transport is theoretically investigated in the planar Si/Ge superlattices and Si/Ge quantum dot superlattices. The phonon states in the considered nanostructures are obtained using the Face-centered Cubic Cell model of lattice dynamics. A significant reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity is revealed in both considered structures in a wide range of temperatures from 100 K to 400 K. This effect is explained by the removal of the high-energy and high-velocity phonon modes from the heat flux due to their localization in superlattice segments and the phonon scattering on the interfaces. The obtained results show prospects of the planar superlattices and quantum-dot superlattices for thermoelectric and thermo-insulating applications.
Ultrasound focusing images in superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narita, Michiko; Tanaka, Yukihiro; Tamura, Shin-ichiro [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)
2002-03-04
We study theoretically ultrasound focusing in periodic multilayered structures, or superlattices, by solving the wave equation with the Green function method and calculating the transmitted ultrasound amplitude images of both the longitudinal and transverse modes. The constituent layers assumed are elastically isotropic but the periodically stacked structure is anisotropic. Thus anisotropy of ultrasound propagation is predicted even at low frequencies and it is enhanced significantly at higher frequencies due to the zone-folding effect of acoustic dispersion relations. An additional effect studied is the interference of ultrasound (known as the internal diffraction), which can be recognized when the propagation distance is comparable to the ultrasound wavelength. Numerical examples are developed for millimetre-scale Al/polymer multilayers used recently for imaging experiment with surface acoustic waves. (author)
Photoluminescence and pressure effects in short period InN/nGaN superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Staszczak, G.; Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.
2013-01-01
Measurements of photoluminescence and its dependence on hydrostatic pressure are performed on a set of InN/nGaN superlattices with one InN monolayer and with different numbers of GaN monolayers. The emission energies, EPL, measured at ambient pressure, are close to the value of the band gap, Eg...
Strain-tunable half-metallicity in hybrid graphene-hBN monolayer superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Fanchao, E-mail: fanchao.meng@mail.mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 0C5 (Canada); Zhang, Shiqi [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Lee, In-Ho [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 1 Doryong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Sukky [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Ciobanu, Cristian V., E-mail: cciobanu@mines.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)
2016-07-01
Highlights: • Armchair superlattices have a bandgap modulated by the deformed domain widths. • Strain and domain width lead to novel spin-dependent behavior for zigzag boundaries. • Limits for spin-dependent bandgap and half-metallic behavior have been charted. - Abstract: As research in 2-D materials evolves toward combinations of different materials, interesting electronic and spintronic properties are revealed and may be exploited in future devices. A way to combine materials is the formation of spatially periodic domain boundaries in an atom-thick monolayer: as shown in recent reports, when these domains are made of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, the resulting superlattice has half-metallic properties in which one spin component is (semi)metallic and the other is semiconductor. We explore here the range of spin-dependent electronic properties that such superlattices can develop for different type of domain boundaries, domain widths, and values of tensile strain applied to the monolayer. We show evidence of an interplay between strain and domain width in determining the electronic properties: while for armchair boundaries the bandgap is the same for both spin components, superlattices with zigzag boundaries exhibit rich spin-dependent behavior, including different bandgaps for each spin component, half-metallicity, and reversal of half-metallicity. These findings can lead to new ways of controlling the spintronic properties in hybrid-domain monolayers, which may be exploited in devices based on 2-D materials.
Photoluminescence and pressure effects in short period InN/nGaN superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Staszczak, G.; Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.;
2013-01-01
Measurements of photoluminescence and its dependence on hydrostatic pressure are performed on a set of InN/nGaN superlattices with one InN monolayer and with different numbers of GaN monolayers. The emission energies, EPL, measured at ambient pressure, are close to the value of the band gap, Eg, ...
Zener tunneling of light waves in an optical superlattice.
Ghulinyan, Mher; Oton, Claudio J; Gaburro, Zeno; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Toninelli, Costanza; Wiersma, Diederik S
2005-04-01
We report on the observation of Zener tunneling of light waves in spectral and time-resolved transmission measurements, performed on an optical superlattice made of porous silicon. The structure was designed to have two photonic minibands, spaced by a narrow frequency gap. A gradient in the refractive index was introduced to create two optical Wannier-Stark ladders and, at a critical value of the optical gradient, tunneling between energy bands was observed in the form of an enhanced transmission peak and a characteristic time dependence of the transmission.
Theory of the Fermi-level energy in semiconductor superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luscombe, J.H. (Central Research Laboratories, Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas (USA)); Aggarwal, R. (Central Research Laboratories, Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas (USA) Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA)); Reed, M.A. (Central Research Laboratories, Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas (USA) Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (USA)); Frensley, W.R. (Central Research Laboratories, Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas (USA) Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas (USA)); Luban, M. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Ames Lab., IA (USA))
1991-09-15
A theoretical study of the properties of the Fermi level in semiconductor superlattices (SL's) is made which is based upon the carrier occupation of the minibands in thermal equilibrium. We find, for a fixed carrier density and temperature, that the SL Fermi level can differ significantly from that obtained using commonly employed three-dimensional approximations, depending upon the relative spacings and widths of the minibands, with the SL Fermi level being higher than the corresponding bulk value. We find that the SL Fermi level is a sensitive function of the relative widths of the quantum wells and barriers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, Joseph [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
1997-10-08
Using high-accuracy numerical methods the author investigates the dynamics of independent electrons in both ideal and realistic superlattices subject to arbitrary ac and/or dc electric fields. For a variety of superlattice potentials, optically excited initial wave packets, and combinations of ac and dc electric fields, he numerically solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In the case of ideal periodic superlattice potentials, he investigates a long list of dynamical phenomena involving multiple miniband transitions and time-dependent electric fields. These include acceleration effects associated with interminiband transitions in strong fields, Zener resonances between minibands, dynamic localization with ac fields, increased single-miniband transport with an auxiliary resonant ac field, and enhanced or suppressed interminiband probability exchange using an auxiliary ac field. For all of the cases studied, the resulting time-dependent wave function is analyzed by projecting the data onto convenient orthonormal bases. This allows a detailed comparison with approximately analytic treatments. In an effort to explain the rapid decay of experimentally measured Bloch oscillation (BO) signals the author incorporates a one-dimensional representation of interface roughness (IR) into their superlattice potential. He shows that as a result of IR, the electron dynamics can be characterized in terms of many discrete, incommensurate frequencies near the Block frequency. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been removed from this report and will be processed separately.
Anisotropy in layered half-metallic Heusler alloy superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azadani, Javad G.; Munira, Kamaram; Sivakumar, Chockalingam; Butler, William H. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Romero, Jonathon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Ma, Jianhua; Ghosh, Avik W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)
2016-01-28
We show that when two Heusler alloys are layered in the [001], [110], or [111] directions for various thicknesses to form a superlattice, the Slater-Pauling rule may still be satisfied and the resulting superlattice is often half-metallic with gaps comparable to or larger than those of its constituents. In addition, uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is induced because of the differences in the electronic structure of the two Heuslers in the superlattice. Various full-full, full-half, and half-half Heusler superlattices are studied, and potential half-metallic superlattices with perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy are identified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chew, Khian-Hooi; Lim, Kok-Geng [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ong, Lye-Hock [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Iwata, Makoto [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, Aichi, 4668555 (Japan)
2014-08-15
We have developed a thermodynamic model based on the Landau-Ginzburg theory to study the effect of composition and interface intermixing on ferroelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}/Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (BT/BST) superlattices. Dependence of the lattice parameter and the substrate-induced misfit strain of BST layer in BT/BST superlattices on Ba/Sr content are obtained. Effect of composition and interface intermixing on ferroelectricity of superlattices are examined by investigating the modulated profiles of polarization and the mismatch in polarization at interface. Our study reveals that the polarization behaviors of BT/BST superlattices can be manipulated by varying the Ba/Sr content in BST layer without changing the period thickness of superlattices. The effect of Ba/Sr content on polarization behavior of BT/BST superlattices is stronger than the effect of interface intermixing on polarization of the superlattices. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debashis De
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The photoemission from quantum wires and dots of effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials was investigated on the basis of newly formulated electron energy spectra, in the presence of external light waves, which controls the transport properties of ultra-small electronic devices under intense radiation. The effect of magnetic quantization on the photoemission from the aforementioned superlattices, together with quantum well superlattices under magnetic quantization, has also been investigated in this regard. It appears, taking HgTe/Hg1−xCdxTe and InxGa1−xAs/InP effective mass superlattices, that the photoemission from these quantized structures is enhanced with increasing photon energy in quantized steps and shows oscillatory dependences with the increasing carrier concentration. In addition, the photoemission decreases with increasing light intensity and wavelength as well as with increasing thickness exhibiting oscillatory spikes. The strong dependence of the photoemission on the light intensity reflects the direct signature of light waves on the carrier energy spectra. The content of this paper finds six different applications in the fields of low dimensional systems in general.
Goos-Hänchen shifts in AA-stacked bilayer graphene superlattices
Zahidi, Youness; Redouani, Ilham; Jellal, Ahmed
2016-07-01
The quantum Goos-Hänchen shifts of the transmitted electron beam through an AA-stacked bilayer graphene superlattices are investigated. We found that the band structures of graphene superlattices can have more than one Dirac point, their locations do not depend on the number of barriers. It was revealed that any n-barrier structure is perfectly transparent at normal incidence around the Dirac points created in the superlattices. We showed that the Goos-Hänchen shifts display sharp peaks inside the transmission gap around two Dirac points (E =VB + τ, E =VW + τ), which are equal to those of transmission resonances. The obtained Goos-Hänchen shifts are exhibiting negative as well as positive behaviors and strongly depending on the location of Dirac points. It is observed that the maximum absolute values of the shifts increase as long as the number of barriers is increased. Our analysis is done by considering four cases: single, double barriers, superlattices without and with defect.
A weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice as a harmonic hypersonic-electrical transducer
Poyser, C. L.; Akimov, A. V.; Balanov, A. G.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, A. J.
2015-08-01
We study experimentally and theoretically the effects of high-frequency strain pulse trains on the charge transport in a weakly coupled semiconductor superlattice. In a frequency range of the order of 100 GHz such excitation may be considered as single harmonic hypersonic excitation. While travelling along the axis of the SL, the hypersonic acoustic wavepacket affects the electron tunnelling, and thus governs the electrical current through the device. We reveal how the change of current depends on the parameters of the hypersonic excitation and on the bias applied to the superlattice. We have found that the changes in the transport properties of the superlattices caused by the acoustic excitation can be largely explained using the current-voltage relation of the unperturbed system. Our experimental measurements show multiple peaks in the dependence of the transferred charge on the repetition rate of the strain pulses in the train. We demonstrate that these resonances can be understood in terms of the spectrum of the applied acoustic perturbation after taking into account the multiple reflections in the metal film serving as a generator of hypersonic excitation. Our findings suggest an application of the semiconductor superlattice as a hypersonic-electrical transducer, which can be used in various microwave devices.
Magnetic properties of rare earth superlattices
Wilkins, C J T
2001-01-01
Single-crystal Tm/Y and Tm/Lu superlattices have been grown using molecular beam epitaxy and their chemical structures have been determined using X-ray diffraction. Magnetisation measurements have revealed a more complicated phase diagram than that of pure Tm. Application of a field along the c-direction gave rise to an extra transition, and transitions were detected for the superlattices when the field was applied along the b-axis. In neutron diffraction studies, c-axis longitudinally modulated magnetic structures were found for both Tm/Y and Tm/Lu, which propagate coherently through the non-magnetic layers. In the case of Tm/Lu superlattices, there is evidence for ordering of the basal plane components.
Electrical transport engineering of semiconductor superlattice structures
Shokri, Aliasghar
2014-04-01
We investigate the influence of doping concentration on band structures of electrons and electrical transmission in a typical aperiodic semiconductor superlattice consisting of quantum well and barrier layers, theoretically. For this purpose, we assume that each unit cell of the superlattice contains alternately two types of material GaAs (as a well) and GaAlAs (as a barrier) with six sublayers of two materials. Our calculations are based on the generalized Kronig-Penny (KP) model and the transfer matrix method within the framework of the parabolic conductance band effective mass approximation in the coherent regime. This model reduces the numerical calculation time and enables us to use the transfer matrix method to investigate transport in the superlattices. We show that by varying the doping concentration and geometrical parameters, one can easily block the transmission of the electrons. The numerical results may be useful in designing of nanoenergy filter devices.
Electrical transport engineering of semiconductor superlattice structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shokri, Aliasghar, E-mail: aashokri@tpnu.ac.ir
2014-04-01
We investigate the influence of doping concentration on band structures of electrons and electrical transmission in a typical aperiodic semiconductor superlattice consisting of quantum well and barrier layers, theoretically. For this purpose, we assume that each unit cell of the superlattice contains alternately two types of material GaAs (as a well) and GaAlAs (as a barrier) with six sublayers of two materials. Our calculations are based on the generalized Kronig–Penny (KP) model and the transfer matrix method within the framework of the parabolic conductance band effective mass approximation in the coherent regime. This model reduces the numerical calculation time and enables us to use the transfer matrix method to investigate transport in the superlattices. We show that by varying the doping concentration and geometrical parameters, one can easily block the transmission of the electrons. The numerical results may be useful in designing of nanoenergy filter devices.
Ballistic miniband conduction in a graphene superlattice
Lee, Menyoung; Wallbank, John R.; Gallagher, Patrick; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David
2016-09-01
Rational design of long-period artificial lattices yields effects unavailable in simple solids. The moiré pattern in highly aligned graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures is a lateral superlattice with high electron mobility and an unusual electronic dispersion whose miniband edges and saddle points can be reached by electrostatic gating. We investigated the dynamics of electrons in moiré minibands by measuring ballistic transport between adjacent local contacts in a magnetic field, known as the transverse electron focusing effect. At low temperatures, we observed caustics of skipping orbits extending over hundreds of superlattice periods, reversals of the cyclotron revolution for successive minibands, and breakdown of cyclotron motion near van Hove singularities. At high temperatures, electron-electron collisions suppress focusing. Probing such miniband conduction properties is a necessity for engineering novel transport behaviors in superlattice devices.
Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices
Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason
2007-03-01
Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.
Resonance frequency in ferromagnetic superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu Rongke; Huang Andong [School of Science, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Li Da; Zhang Zhidong, E-mail: rkqiu@163.com [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research and International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)
2011-10-19
The resonance frequency in two-layer and three-layer ferromagnetic superlattices is studied, using the Callen's Green function method, the Tyablikov decoupling approximation and the Anderson-Callen decoupling approximation. The effects of interlayer exchange coupling, anisotropy, external magnetic field and temperature on the resonance frequency are investigated. It is found that the resonance frequencies increase with increasing external magnetic field. In a parameter region of the asymmetric system, each sublayer corresponds to its own resonance frequency. The anisotropy of a sublayer affects only the resonance frequency corresponding to this sublayer. The stronger the anisotropy, the higher is the resonance frequency. The interlayer exchange coupling affects only the resonance frequencies belonging to the sublayers connected by it. The stronger the interlayer exchange coupling, the higher are the resonance frequencies. All the resonance frequencies decrease as the reduced temperature increases. The results direct the method to enhance and adjust the resonance frequency of magnetic multilayered materials with a wide band.
Electronic properties of superlattices on quantum rings
da Costa, D. R.; Chaves, A.; Ferreira, W. P.; Farias, G. A.; Ferreira, R.
2017-04-01
We present a theoretical study of the one-electron states of a semiconductor-made quantum ring (QR) containing a series of piecewise-constant wells and barriers distributed along the ring circumference. The single quantum well and the superlattice cases are considered in detail. We also investigate how such confining potentials affect the Aharonov–Bohm like oscillations of the energy spectrum and current in the presence of a magnetic field. The model is simple enough so as to allow obtaining various analytical or quasi-analytical results. We show that the well-in-a-ring structure presents enhanced localization features, as well as specific geometrical resonances in its above-barrier spectrum. We stress that the superlattice-in-a-ring structure allows giving a physical meaning to the often used but usually artificial Born–von-Karman periodic conditions, and discuss in detail the formation of energy minibands and minigaps for the circumferential motion, as well as several properties of the superlattice eigenstates in the presence of the magnetic field. We obtain that the Aharonov–Bohm oscillations of below-barrier miniband states are reinforced, owing to the important tunnel coupling between neighbour wells of the superlattice, which permits the electron to move in the ring. Additionally, we analysis a superlattice-like structure made of a regular distribution of ionized impurities placed around the QR, a system that may implement the superlattice in a ring idea. Finally, we consider several random disorder models, in order to study roughness disorder and to tackle the robustness of some results against deviations from the ideally nanostructured ring system.
Electronic properties of superlattices on quantum rings.
da Costa, D R; Chaves, A; Ferreira, W P; Farias, G A; Ferreira, R
2017-04-26
We present a theoretical study of the one-electron states of a semiconductor-made quantum ring (QR) containing a series of piecewise-constant wells and barriers distributed along the ring circumference. The single quantum well and the superlattice cases are considered in detail. We also investigate how such confining potentials affect the Aharonov-Bohm like oscillations of the energy spectrum and current in the presence of a magnetic field. The model is simple enough so as to allow obtaining various analytical or quasi-analytical results. We show that the well-in-a-ring structure presents enhanced localization features, as well as specific geometrical resonances in its above-barrier spectrum. We stress that the superlattice-in-a-ring structure allows giving a physical meaning to the often used but usually artificial Born-von-Karman periodic conditions, and discuss in detail the formation of energy minibands and minigaps for the circumferential motion, as well as several properties of the superlattice eigenstates in the presence of the magnetic field. We obtain that the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of below-barrier miniband states are reinforced, owing to the important tunnel coupling between neighbour wells of the superlattice, which permits the electron to move in the ring. Additionally, we analysis a superlattice-like structure made of a regular distribution of ionized impurities placed around the QR, a system that may implement the superlattice in a ring idea. Finally, we consider several random disorder models, in order to study roughness disorder and to tackle the robustness of some results against deviations from the ideally nanostructured ring system.
Theory of Semiconducting Superlattices and Microstructures
1992-03-01
Core excitons ir. superlattices We have developed the first theory of Hjalmarsor.- Frenke ’ core excitons in superlattices, and applied it to strained...technique has been described are accelerated. A kinetic tempcrature TK is defined as by Kirkpatrick et al.31 and uses thr Monte Carlo algo- the average...classical kinetic energy of the atoms, rithm of Metropolis et al.32 Monte Carlo steps are taken 3/2kTK=(l/N)4rn’mlv,, where i=1,2, . . . ,n is the
FABRICATION OF PHOTONIC CRYSTAL WITH SUPERLATTICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Cheng; Chen Haihua; Zhang Jizhong; Wei Hongmei; Gu Zhongze
2006-01-01
A novel technique was used to fabricate three-dimensional photonic crystals with superlattices. The super structure was fabricated by assembling monodispersed microspheres in the grooves of the scales of morpho butterfly, which makes the photonic crystal being composed of two kinds of different photonic structures (natural groove structure of butterfly wing and artificial microspherical colloids arrangement). The superstructural photonic crystal exhibits some unique optical properties different from both the butterfly wing and the colloidal crystal. The approach exhibited here provides a new way for fabricate photonic crystals with superlattices.
Tunneling in quantum superlattices with variable lacunarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villatoro, Francisco R. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Monsoriu, Juan A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jmonsori@fis.upv.es
2008-05-19
Fractal superlattices are composite, aperiodic structures comprised of alternating layers of two semiconductors following the rules of a fractal set. The scattering properties of polyadic Cantor fractal superlattices with variable lacunarity are determined. The reflection coefficient as a function of the particle energy and the lacunarity parameter present tunneling curves, which may be classified as vertical, arc, and striation nulls. Approximate analytical formulae for such curves are derived using the transfer matrix method. Comparison with numerical results shows good accuracy. The new results may be useful in the development of band-pass energy filters for electrons, semiconductor solar cells, and solid-state radiation sources up to THz frequencies.
Kiyama, T; Ohsumi, H; Murakami, Y; Wakabayashi, Y; Izumi, M; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2003-01-01
We report the results of resonant X-ray scattering (RXS) measurement of superlattices which consist of La sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 5 MnO sub 3 and La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 0 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 0 MnO sub 3 multilayers. An interference technique made it possible to observe RXS reflections from ferro-type orbital ordering in the superlattices. RXS can reveal the local circumstances around specific atoms in materials regulated atomically. In this experiment, we observed that the superlattice is actually composed of two kinds of layers with different lattice distortion states, presenting 'orbital superlattices', in which layers with different orbital states are stacked alternately in an atomic scale. (author)
Enhanced valley-resolved thermoelectric transport in a magnetic silicene superlattice
Niu, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Yong Mei; Dong, Shihao
2015-07-01
Electrons in two-dimensional crystals with a honeycomb lattice structure possess a valley degree of freedom in addition to charge and spin, which has revived the field of valleytronics. In this work we investigate the valley-resolved thermoelectric transport through a magnetic silicene superlattice. Since spin is coupled to the valley, this device allows a coexistence of the insulating transmission gap of one valley and the metallic resonant band of the other, resulting in a strong valley polarization Pv. Pv oscillates with the barrier strength V with its magnitude greatly enhanced by the superlattice structure. In addition, a controllable fully valley polarized transport and an on/off switching effect in the conductance spectra are obtained. Furthermore, the spin- and valley-dependent thermopowers can be controlled by V, the on-site potential difference between A and B sublattices and Fermi energy, and enhanced by the superlattice structure. Enhanced valley-resolved thermoelectric transport and its control by means of gate voltages make the magnetic silicene superlattice attractive in valleytronics applications.
Metal-insulator transitions in LaTiO3 / CaTiO3 superlattices
Seo, Sung Seok A.; Lee, Ho Nyung
2010-03-01
Strongly correlated electrons at an interface of complex oxide heterostructures often show interesting behaviors that require an introduction of new physical concepts. For example, the metallic transport behavior found in the superlattices of a Mott insulator LaTiO3 and a band insulator SrTiO3 (STO) has established the concept of interfacial electronic reconstruction. In this work, we have studied the transport property of a new type of Mott/band insulator LaTiO3/CaTiO3 (LTO/CTO) superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to rule out concerns about the PLD plume-triggered oxygen vacancies generated in STO substrates, which might influence transport measurement, and to investigate the effect of epitaxial strain, we have used insulating NdGaO3 substrates. While both LTO and CTO single films are highly insulating, we have observed intriguing metal-insulator transitions (MIT) in the LTO/CTO superlattices depending on the global LTO/CTO thickness ratio and temperature. (Note that LTO/STO superlattices are metallic at all temperatures (2-300 K)). In this talk, we will discuss the origin of the MIT in the scheme of self compensation mechanism of d-electrons at the hetero-interface between LTO and CTO.
Nanomechanical characterization of rod-like superlattice assembled from tobacco mosaic viruses
Wang, Haoran; Wang, Xinnan; Li, Tao; Lee, Byeongdu
2013-01-01
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and TMV-derived materials have demonstrated their great potential in biomedical applications, where the mechanical properties are determining factors for their proper functionalities and structural integrity. Recently, it has been found that a superlattice structure can be formed by two-dimensional hexagonal packing TMV self-assembly in Barium ions solution. In parallel to the exploration of possible applications of TMV superlattice, the mechanical properties were characterized by the atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation. The elastic modulus of 2.14 GPa was obtained by application of the extended Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model with the force vs sample deformation data. The adhesion force was taken into consideration, and an easy-to-implement approach of using the extended JKR model was proposed by processing both the theoretical model and the experimental data. Finite element analysis was conducted to evaluate the reinforcing effect of the like-charge forces between the TMVs and the mechanical properties of the TMV superlattice. Using the Halpin-Tsai model, the transverse elastic modulus of the superlattice sample varied within 2.00-4.38 GPa, depending on the indentation locations. Attraction-repulsion equilibrium was found to maintain the packing of TMVs. This provides useful information to address the sources of the attraction and repulsion forces to control the TMV assembly.
Saroka, V. A.; Batrakov, K. G.
2016-09-01
The paper focuses on superlattices consisting of two coplanar fragments of one-layer graphene nanoribbons that have different width and are connected at an angle. Classification of such superlattices was carried out; their electronic properties were studied using the tight-binding method. It was demonstrated that in superlattices consisting of two fragments of graphene nanoribbons with armchair edges connected at an angle of 60°, the band gap can be regulated by the number of dimeric carbon atom chains of one of the fragments. In that case one can observe a periodic dependence of the band gap on the number of chains with a characteristic period equal to three dimeric chains. The number of dimeric chains of the second superlattice fragment regulates the average band gap value near which the periodic oscillations occur, as well as the amplitude of those oscillations. Therefore, one can accomplish a sufficiently precise band gap tuning for such structures. Such tuning can find its wide application in the booming carbon nanoelectronics industry when creating generators, amplifiers and sensors in the nanochains.
Low dark current N structure superlattice MWIR photodetectors
Salihoglu, Omer; Muti, Abdullah; Turan, Rasit; Ergun, Yuksel; Aydinli, Atilla
2014-06-01
Commercially available read out integrated circuits (ROICs) require the FPA to have high dynamic resistance area product at zero bias (R0A) which is directly related to dark current of the detector. Dark current arises from bulk and surface contributions. Recent band structure engineering studies significantly suppressed the bulk contribution of the type-II superlattice infrared photodetectors (N structure, M structure, W structure). In this letter, we will present improved dark current results for unipolar barrier complex supercell superlattice system which is called as "N structure". The unique electronic band structure of the N structure increases electron-hole overlap under bias, significantly. N structure aims to improve absorption by manipulating electron and hole wavefunctions that are spatially separated in T2SLs, increasing the absorption while decreasing the dark current. In order to engineer the wavefunctions, we introduce a thin AlSb layer between InAs and GaSb layers in the growth direction which also acts as a unipolar electron barrier. Despite the difficulty of perfect lattice matching of InAs and AlSb, such a design is expected to reduce dark current. Experiments were carried out on Single pixel with mesa sizes of 100 × 100 - 700 × 700 μm photodiodes. Temperature dependent dark current with corresponding R0A resistance values are reported.
Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices
Monozon, B. S.; Schmelcher, P.
2017-02-01
Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.
Interface bands in carbon nanotube superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaskolski, W.; Pelc, M. [Instytut Fizyki UMK, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Santos, H.; Chico, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ayuela, A. [Centro de Fisica de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (Facultad de Quimicas), and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20080 Donostia (Spain)
2010-02-15
We study the electronic band structure of several carbon nanotube superlattices built of two kinds of intermolecular junctions: (12, 0)/(6, 6) and (8, 0)/(14, 0). In particular, we focus on the energy bands originating from interface states. We find that in case of the metallic (12, 0)/(6, 6) superlattices, the interface bands change periodically their character from bonding- to antibonding-like vs. increasing length of the (6, 6) tube. We show that these changes are related to the decay of the charge density Friedel oscillations in the metallic (6, 6) tube. However, when we explore other chiralities without rotational symmetry, no changes in bondingantibonding character are observed for semiconductor superlattices, as exemplified in the case of (8, 0)/(14, 0) superlattices. Our results indicate that unless metallic tubes are employed in the junctions, the bonding-antibonding crossings are not present (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Absorption properties of type-II InAs/InAsSb superlattices measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Webster, P. T.; Riordan, N. A.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Johnson, S. R., E-mail: shane.johnson@asu.edu [Center for Photonics Innovation and School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Steenbergen, E. H. [U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXAN, Wright Patterson, Ohio 45433 (United States); Synowicki, R. A. [J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., 645 M. Street, Suite 102, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 (United States)
2015-02-09
Strain-balanced InAs/InAsSb superlattices offer access to the mid- to long-wavelength infrared region with what is essentially a ternary material system at the GaSb lattice constant. The absorption coefficients of InAs/InAsSb superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (100)-oriented GaSb substrates are measured at room temperature over the 30 to 800 meV photon energy range using spectroscopic ellipsometry, and the miniband structure of each superlattice is calculated using a Kronig-Penney model. The InAs/InAsSb conduction band offset is used as a fitting parameter to align the calculated superlattice ground state transition energy to the measured absorption onset at room temperature and to the photoluminescence peak energy at low temperature. It is observed that the ground state absorption coefficient and transition strength are proportional to the square of the wavefunction overlap and the ground state absorption coefficient approaches a maximum value of around 5780 cm{sup −1} as the wavefunction overlap approaches 100%. The absorption analysis of these samples indicates that the optical joint density of states is weakly dependent on the period thickness and Sb content of the superlattice, and that wavefunction overlap is the principal design parameter in terms of obtaining strong absorption in these structures.
Giri, Ashutosh; Braun, Jeffrey L.; Hopkins, Patrick E.
2016-06-01
We report on the thermal boundary resistances across crystalline and amorphous confined thin films and the thermal conductivities of amorphous/crystalline superlattices for Si/Ge systems as determined via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Thermal resistances across disordered Si or Ge thin films increase with increasing length of the interfacial thin films and in general demonstrate higher thermal boundary resistances in comparison to ordered films. However, for films ≲3 nm, the resistances are highly dependent on the spectral overlap of the density of states between the film and leads. Furthermore, the resistances at a single amorphous/crystalline interface in these structures are much lower than those at interfaces between the corresponding crystalline materials, suggesting that diffusive scattering at an interface could result in higher energy transmissions in these systems. We use these findings, together with the fact that high mass ratios between amorphous and crystalline materials can lead to higher thermal resistances across thin films, to design amorphous/crystalline superlattices with very low thermal conductivities. In this regard, we study the thermal conductivities of amorphous/crystalline superlattices and show that the thermal conductivities decrease monotonically with increasing interface densities above 0.1 nm-1. These thermal conductivities are lower than that of the homogeneous amorphous counterparts, which alludes to the fact that interfaces non-negligibly contribute to thermal resistance in these superlattices. Our results suggest that the thermal conductivity of superlattices can be reduced below the amorphous limit of its material constituent even when one of the materials remains crystalline.
Exchange bias in Fe/Cr double superlattices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, J. S.; Felcher, G. P.; Inomata, A.; Goyette, R.; Nelson, C.; Bader, S. D.
1999-11-30
Utilizing the oscillatory interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Cr superlattices, we have constructed ''double superlattice'' structures where a ferromagnetic (F) and an antiferromagnetic (AF) Fe/Cr superlattice are coupled through a Cr spacer. The minor hysteresis loops in the magnetization are shifted from zero field, i.e., the F superlattice is exchange biased by the AF one. The double superlattices are sputter-deposited with (211) epitaxy and possess uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The magnitude of the bias field is satisfactorily described by the classic formula for collinear spin structures. The coherent structure and insensitivity to atomic-scale roughness makes it possible to determine the spin distribution by polarized neutron reflectivity, which confirms that the spin structure is collinear. The magnetic reversal behavior of the double superlattices suggests that a realistic model of exchange bias needs to address the process of nucleating local reverse domains.
Tkach, N V; Zegrya, G G
2002-01-01
The theoretical investigation of the spectrum of electrons, holes, and excitons in the superlattice of cylindrical quantum dots with weakest coupling of quasiparticles between vertical layers of quantum dots is carried out. The calculations are fulfilled by the example of cylindrical quantum dots of beta-HgS introduced into beta-CdS as the superlattice. It is shown that electron and hole in such system form quasi-two-dimensional energy minibands, but excitons are described by the Sugano-Shinada model. The dependence of quasiparticle spectra on geometric parameters of the superlattice with cylindrical quantum dots is studied. It is shown that the position of minibands of all quasiparticles is very sensitive to variation of the quantum dot height
Hoi, Bui Dinh; Bau, Nguyen Quang; Nam, Nguyen Dinh
2016-01-01
The magnetoresistivity (MR) is theoretically calculated in a compositional semiconductor superlattice (CSSL), subjected to a crossed DC electric field and magnetic field, in the presence of an intense electromagnetic wave (EMW). The magnetic field is oriented along the growth direction of the CSSL and the electron-acoustic phonon interaction is taken into account at low temperature. Numerical results for the GaN/AlGaN CSSL show the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in the MR whose period does not depend on the temperature and amplitude decreases with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative amplitude of these oscillations is in good agreement with other theories and experiments in some two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. The influence of the EMW as well as superlattice structure on the MR is discussed and compared with available theoretical and experimental results.
Strain-Mediated Inverse Photoresistivity in SrRuO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3Superlattices
Liu, Heng-Jui
2015-12-09
© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. In the pursuit of novel functionalities by utilizing the lattice degree of freedom in complex oxide heterostructure, the control mechanism through direct strain manipulation across the interfaces is still under development, especially with various stimuli, such as electric field, magnetic field, light, etc. In this study, the superlattices consisting of colossal-magnetoresistive manganites La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and photostrictive SrRuO3 (SRO) have been designed to investigate the light-dependent controllability of lattice order in the corresponding functionalities and rich interface physics. Two substrates, SrTiO3 (STO) and LaAlO3 (LAO), have been employed to provide the different strain environments to the superlattice system, in which the LSMO sublayers exhibit different orbital occupations. Subsequently, by introducing light, we can modulate the strain state and orbital preference of LSMO sublayers through light-induced expansion of SRO sublayers, leading to surprisingly opposite changes in photoresistivity. The observed photoresistivity decreases in the superlattice grown on STO substrate while increases in the superlattice grown on LAO substrate under light illumination. This work has presented a model system that demonstrates the manipulation of orbital-lattice coupling and the resultant functionalities in artificial oxide superlattices via light stimulus. A fascinating model system of optic-driven functionalities has been achieved by artificial superlattices consisting of manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and photostrictive SrRuO3 (SRO). With design of different initial strain and orbital states in superlattices, we can even control the photoresistivity of the superlattices in an opposite trend that cannot be achieved in pure single film.
Hydrostatic pressure and strain effects in short period InN/GaN superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede;
2012-01-01
The electronic structures of short-period pseudomorphically grown superlattices (SLs) of the form mInN/nGaN are calculated and the band gap variation with the well and the barrier thicknesses is discussed including hydrostatic pressure effects. The calculated band gap shows a strong dependence on...... strongly on the strain conditions and SL geometry, but weakly on the applied external hydrostatic pressure....
Superlattices assembled through shape-induced directional binding.
Lu, Fang; Yager, Kevin G; Zhang, Yugang; Xin, Huolin; Gang, Oleg
2015-01-01
Organization of spherical particles into lattices is typically driven by packing considerations. Although the addition of directional binding can significantly broaden structural diversity, nanoscale implementation remains challenging. Here we investigate the assembly of clusters and lattices in which anisotropic polyhedral blocks coordinate isotropic spherical nanoparticles via shape-induced directional interactions facilitated by DNA recognition. We show that these polyhedral blocks--cubes and octahedrons--when mixed with spheres, promote the assembly of clusters with architecture determined by polyhedron symmetry. Moreover, three-dimensional binary superlattices are formed when DNA shells accommodate the shape disparity between nanoparticle interfaces. The crystallographic symmetry of assembled lattices is determined by the spatial symmetry of the block's facets, while structural order depends on DNA-tuned interactions and particle size ratio. The presented lattice assembly strategy, exploiting shape for defining the global structure and DNA-mediation locally, opens novel possibilities for by-design fabrication of binary lattices.
Kinetics of electron transfer from photoexcited superlattice electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nozik, A.J.; Turner, J.A.; Peterson, M.W.
1988-05-05
A kinetic model has been developed that quantitatively describes electron transfer from photoexcited superlattice electrodes into liquid solutions. The model permits electron transfer from all quantum levels as well as from surface states; it also takes into account recombination in the bulk, space charge layer, and surfaces states, and band-edge movement. The model calculations define the values of the rate constants for heterogeneous electron transfer and hot electron thermalization among the various energy levels in the supperlattice quantum wells that are necessary to achieve hot electron transfer from excited quantum states. The question of whether hot electron transfer is manifested by a dependence of the photocurrent action spectra on acceptor redox potential is examined in detail.
Plasmon modes of a massive Dirac plasma, and their superlattices
Sachdeva, Rashi; Thakur, Anmol; Vignale, Giovanni; Agarwal, Amit
2015-05-01
We explore the collective density oscillations of a collection of charged massive Dirac particles, in one, two, and three dimensions, and their one-dimensional (1D) superlattice. We calculate the long-wavelength limit of the dynamical polarization function analytically, and use the random phase approximation to obtain the plasmon dispersion. The density dependence of the long-wavelength plasmon frequency in massive Dirac systems is found to be different compared to systems with parabolic and gapless Dirac dispersion. We also calculate the long-wavelength plasmon dispersion of a 1D metamaterial made from 1D and 2D massive Dirac plasma. Our analytical results will be useful for exploring the use of massive Dirac materials as electrostatically tunable plasmonic metamaterials and can be experimentally verified by infrared spectroscopy, as in the case of graphene [L. Ju et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.146].
Optical Studies on Antimonide Superlattice Infrared Detector Material
Hoglund, Linda; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Ting, David Z.; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Liao, Anna; Keo, Sam; Lee, Michael C.; Nguyen, Jean; Mumolo, Jason M.;
2010-01-01
In this study the material quality and optical properties of type II InAs/GaSb superlattices are investigated using transmission and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The influence of the material quality on the intensity of the luminescence and on the electrical properties of the detectors is studied and a good correlation between the photodetector current-voltage (IV) characteristics and the PL intensity is observed. Studies of the temperature dependence of the PL reveal that Shockley-Read-Hall processes are limiting the minority carrier lifetime in both the mid-IR wavelength and the long-IR wavelength detector material studied. These results demonstrate that PL spectroscopy is a valuable tool for optimization of infrared detectors.
Transport properties of graphene under periodic and quasiperiodic magnetic superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Wei-Tao, E-mail: luweitao@lyu.edu.cn [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Wang, Shun-Jin [Department of Physics, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Wang, Yong-Long; Jiang, Hua [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Li, Wen [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China)
2013-08-15
We study the transmission of Dirac electrons through the one-dimensional periodic, Fibonacci, and Thue–Morse magnetic superlattices (MS), which can be realized by two different magnetic blocks arranged in certain sequences in graphene. The numerical results show that the transmission as a function of incident energy presents regular resonance splitting effect in periodic MS due to the split energy spectrum. For the quasiperiodic MS with more layers, they exhibit rich transmission patterns. In particular, the transmission in Fibonacci MS presents scaling property and fragmented behavior with self-similarity, while the transmission in Thue–Morse MS presents more perfect resonant peaks which are related to the completely transparent states. Furthermore, these interesting properties are robust against the profile of MS, but dependent on the magnetic structure parameters and the transverse wave vector.
Spin-polarized transport in graphene nanoribbon superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Xin-Xin; Xie Yue-E; OuYang Tao; Chen Yuan-Ping
2012-01-01
By the Green's function method,we investigate spin transport properties of a zigzag graphene nanoribbon superlattice (ZGNS) under a ferromagnetic insulator and edge effect.The exchange splitting induced by the ferromagnetic insulator eliminates the spin degeneracy,which leads to spin-polarized transport in structure.Spin-dependent minibands and minigaps are exhibited in the conductance profile near the Fermi energy.The location and width of the miniband are associated with the geometry of the ZGNS.In the optimal structure,the spin-up and spin-down minibands can be separated completely near the Fermi energy.Therefore,a wide,perfect spin polarization with clear stepwise pattern is observed,i.e.,the perfect spin-polarized transport can be tuned from spin up to spin down by varying the electron energy.
Superlattices: problems and new opportunities, nanosolids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsu Raphael
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Superlattices were introduced 40 years ago as man-made solids to enrich the class of materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The field metamorphosed to quantum wells and quantum dots, with ever decreasing dimensions dictated by the technological advancements in nanometer regime. In recent years, the field has gone beyond semiconductors to metals and organic solids. Superlattice is simply a way of forming a uniform continuum for whatever purpose at hand. There are problems with doping, defect-induced random switching, and I/O involving quantum dots. However, new opportunities in component-based nanostructures may lead the field of endeavor to new heights. The all important translational symmetry of solids is relaxed and local symmetry is needed in nanosolids.
Ultrafast structural dynamics of perovskite superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woerner, M.; Korff Schmising, C. von; Zhavoronkov, N.; Elsaesser, T. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, Berlin (Germany); Bargheer, M. [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Potsdam (Germany); Vrejoiu, I.; Hesse, D.; Alexe, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)
2009-07-15
Femtosecond X-ray diffraction provides direct insight into the ultrafast reversible lattice dynamics of materials with a perovskite structure. Superlattice (SL) structures consisting of a sequence of nanometer-thick layer pairs allow for optically inducing a tailored stress profile that drives the lattice motions and for limiting the influence of strain propagation on the observed dynamics. We demonstrate this concept in a series of diffraction experiments with femtosecond time resolution, giving detailed information on the ultrafast lattice dynamics of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic superlattices. Anharmonically coupled lattice motions in a SrRuO{sub 3}/PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SRO/PZT) SL lead to a switch-off of the electric polarizations on a time scale of the order of 1 ps. Ultrafast magnetostriction of photoexcited SRO layers is demonstrated in a SRO/SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) SL. (orig.)
Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C L Roy
2002-11-01
The purpose of the present paper is to report a study of tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices (SSL); specially, we have analysed diverse features of transmission coefficient of SSL. The SSL we have considered is Ga0.7Al0.3As–GaAs which has been drawing considerable attention during the recent past on account of some typical features of its band structure. We have indicated how our results would help fabrication of ultra high speed devices.
Dynamic square superlattice of Faraday waves
Kahouadji, Lyes; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon; Tuckerman, Laurette
2014-11-01
Faraday waves are computed in a 3D container using BLUE, a code based on a hybrid Front-Tracking/Level-set algorithm for Lagrangian tracking of arbitrarily deformable phase interfaces. A new dynamic superlattice pattern is described which consists of a set of square waves arranged in a two-by-two array. The corners of this array are connected by a bridge whose position oscillates in time between the two diagonals.
MBE growth and characterisation of light rare-earth superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Bryn-Jacobsen, C.
1996-01-01
The molecular beam epitaxy growth techniques which have already successfully produced a range of heavy rare-earth superlattices have now been extended to produce superlattices of two light rare-earth elements, Nd/Pr, as well as superlattices and alloy films of a heavy/light system, Ho/Pr. High......-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis shows the Nd/Pr superlattices to be of high structural quality, while the Ho/Pr superlattices are significantly less so. In the Ho/Pr superlattices, Pr is found to retain its bulk dhcp crystal structure even in thin layers (down to 6 atomic planes thick) sandwiched between...... thick layers of hcp Ho. In addition, neutron diffraction studies of the He/Pr superlattices have shown that the helical Ho magnetic order is not coherent through the dhcp Pr layers, in contrast to previous hcp/hcp superlattices Ho/Y, Ho/Lu and Ho/Er. The series of Ho:Pr alloy films has shown structural...
Wave-function reconstruction in a graded semiconductor superlattice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Meinhold, D.
2004-01-01
We reconstruct a test wave function in a strongly coupled, graded well-width superlattice by resolving the spatial extension of the interband polarisation and deducing the wave function employing non-linear optical spectroscopy. The graded gap superlattice allows us to precisely control the dista...
Electronic Structures and Giant Magnetoresistance of Co/Cu Superlattices with Different Orientations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHANG Jia-Xiang; ZHAO Xiao-Dan
2006-01-01
@@ The electronic structures of Co3 Cu3 superlattices with the orientations of (100), (110) and (111) are calculated by the first-principle method within the framework of the density functional theory. It has been found that the spin-dependent scattering and charge transfers are prominent at interfaces compared to the interior layers for the three orientation superlattices. We also evaluate the magnetoresistance ratio by using the two-current model The results show that the giant magnetoresistance ratio decreases in the order of (110), (100), (111) orientations for Co3Cu3 models (49. 4%, 37. 7%, 29.3%, respectively). Further analysis shows that an expansion of average atomic volume would enhance the magnetic moment of Co, which is consistent with other calculation and experimental results. In addition, the giant magnetoresistance effect is analysed from the point of charge transfer.
Electronic structure and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caid M.
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The structural, electronic and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices have been computationally evaluated for different conﬁgurations with m = n and m≠n using the full-potential linear mufﬁn-tin method. The exchange and correlation potentials are treated by the local density approximation (LDA. The ground state properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem binary compounds are determined and compared with the available data. It is found that the superlattice band gaps vary depending on the layers used. The optical constants, including the dielectric function ε(ω, the refractive index n(ω and the refractivity R(ω, are calculated for radiation energies up to 35 eV.
Nonlinear dynamics and band transport in a superlattice driven by a plane wave
Apostolakis, A.; Awodele, M. K.; Alekseev, K. N.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Balanov, A. G.
2017-06-01
A quantum particle transport induced in a spatially periodic potential by a propagating plane wave has a number of important implications in a range of topical physical systems. Examples include acoustically driven semiconductor superlattices and cold atoms in an optical crystal. Here we apply a kinetic description of the directed transport in a superlattice beyond standard linear approximation, and utilize exact path-integral solutions of the semiclassical transport equation. We show that the particle drift and average velocities have nonmonotonic dependence on the wave amplitude with several prominent extrema. Such nontrivial kinetic behavior is related to global bifurcations developing with an increase of the wave amplitude. They cause dramatic transformations of the system phase space and lead to changes of the transport regime. We describe different types of phase trajectories contributing to the directed transport and analyze their spectral content.
Phase diagrams of a finite superlattice with two disordered interfaces: Monte Carlo simulation
Feraoun, A.; Zaim, A.; Kerouad, M.
2015-11-01
The phase diagrams and the magnetic properties of an Ising finite superlattice with two disordered interfaces are investigated using Monte Carlo simulations based on Metropolis algorithm. The superlattice consists of k unit cells, where the unit cell contains L layers of spin-1/2 (A atoms), L layers of spin-1 (B atoms), and a disordered interface, with two layers in between, which is characterized by a random arrangement of A and B atoms Ap B1-p A1-p Bp with a negative A-B coupling. The A-A and B-B exchange coupling are considered ferromagnetic. We have investigated the effects of the thickness of the film, the crystal field interactions and the surface exchanges coupling on the magnetic properties. The obtained results show that the number of compensation points and the number of first-order phase transition lines depend strongly on the thickness, the probability p and the exchange interactions in the surfaces.
Interfacial Ferromagnetism in LaNiO3/CaMnO3 Superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grutter, Alexander J.; Yang, Hao; Kirby, B. J.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Browning, Nigel D.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, Elke; Mehta, V. V.; Alaan, U. S.; Suzuki, Y.
2013-08-01
We observe interfacial ferromagnetism in superlattices of the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3 and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3. LaNiO3 exhibits a thickness dependent metal-insulator transition and we find the emergence of ferromagnetism to be coincident with the conducting state of LaNiO3. That is, only superlattices in which the LaNiO3 layers are metallic exhibit ferromagnetism. Using several magnetic probes, we have determined that the ferromagnetism arises in a single unit cell of CaMnO3 at the interface. Together these results suggest that ferromagnetism can be attributed to a double exchange interaction among Mn ions mediated by the adjacent itinerant metal.
Interfacial ferromagnetism in LaNiO3/CaMnO3 superlattices.
Grutter, A J; Yang, H; Kirby, B J; Fitzsimmons, M R; Aguiar, J A; Browning, N D; Jenkins, C A; Arenholz, E; Mehta, V V; Alaan, U S; Suzuki, Y
2013-08-23
We observe interfacial ferromagnetism in superlattices of the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3 and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3. LaNiO3 exhibits a thickness dependent metal-insulator transition and we find the emergence of ferromagnetism to be coincident with the conducting state of LaNiO3. That is, only superlattices in which the LaNiO3 layers are metallic exhibit ferromagnetism. Using several magnetic probes, we have determined that the ferromagnetism arises in a single unit cell of CaMnO3 at the interface. Together these results suggest that ferromagnetism can be attributed to a double exchange interaction among Mn ions mediated by the adjacent itinerant metal.
Yang, Dachi; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Fonseca, Luis F.; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Hunter, Gary W.
2014-01-01
For hydrogen sensors built with pure Pd nanowires, the instabilities causing baseline drifting and temperature-driven sensing behavior are limiting factors when working within a wide temperature range. To enhance the material stability, we have developed superlattice-structured palladium and copper nanowires (PdCu NWs) with random-gapped, screw-threaded, and spiral shapes achieved by wet-chemical approaches. The microstructure of the PdCu NWs reveals novel superlattices composed of lattice groups structured by four-atomic layers of alternating Pd and Cu. Sensors built with these modified NWs show significantly reduced baseline drifting and lower critical temperature (259.4 K and 261 K depending on the PdCu structure) for the reverse sensing behavior than those with pure Pd NWs (287 K). Moreover, the response and recovery times of the PdCu NWs sensor were of ~9 and ~7 times faster than for Pd NWs sensors, respectively.
Can fractal-like spectra be experimentally observed in aperiodic superlattices?
Maciá, Enrique; Domínguez-Adame, Francisco
1996-07-01
We numerically investigate the effects of inhomogeneities in the energy spectrum of aperiodic semiconductor superlattices, focusing our attention on Thue-Morse and Fibonacci sequences. In the absence of disorder, the corresponding electronic spectra are self-similar. The presence of a certain degree of randomness, due to imperfections occurring during the growth processes, gives rise to a progressive loss of quantum coherence, smearing out the finer details of the energy spectra predicted for perfect aperiodic superlattices and spurring the onset of electron localization. However, depending on the degree of disorder introduced, a critical size for the system exists, below which peculiar transport properties, related to the pre-fractal nature of the energy spectrum, may be measured.
Current responsivity of semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ignatov, Anatoly A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1999-01-01
The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed for curr......The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed...... for currently available superlattice diodes show that both the magnitudes and the roll-off frequencies of the responsivity are strongly influenced by an excitation of hybrid plasma-Bloch oscillations which are found to be eigenmodes of the system in the THz-frequency band. The expected room temperature values...
Plasmon nanoparticle superlattices as optical-frequency magnetic metamaterials.
Alaeian, Hadiseh; Dionne, Jennifer A
2012-07-02
Nanocrystal superlattices have emerged as a new platform for bottom-up metamaterial design, but their optical properties are largely unknown. Here, we investigate their emergent optical properties using a generalized semi-analytic, full-field solver based on rigorous coupled wave analysis. Attention is given to superlattices composed of noble metal and dielectric nanoparticles in unary and binary arrays. By varying the nanoparticle size, shape, separation, and lattice geometry, we demonstrate the broad tunability of superlattice optical properties. Superlattices composed of spherical or octahedral nanoparticles in cubic and AB(2) arrays exhibit magnetic permeabilities tunable between 0.2 and 1.7, despite having non-magnetic constituents. The retrieved optical parameters are nearly polarization and angle-independent over a broad range of incident angles. Accordingly, nanocrystal superlattices behave as isotropic bulk metamaterials. Their tunable permittivities, permeabilities, and emergent magnetism may enable new, bottom-up metamaterials and negative index materials at visible frequencies.
Transverse magnetic mode along THz waveguides with biased superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aceituno, P. [Dpto. Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: paceitun@ull.es; Hernandez-Cabrera, A. [Dpto. Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Vasko, F.T. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS Ukraine, Pr. Nauki 41, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)
2008-05-15
We study the propagation of transverse magnetic modes arising from a waveguide consisting on a GaAs-based superlattice located at vacuum-dielectric interface. The transverse mode is generated by the ultrafast intersubband response of the superlattice subjected to a high-frequency electric field. The superlattice is also subjected to a homogeneous bias potential to get a biased superlattice with equipopulated levels. The heterostructure is analyzed through the tight-binding approximation, and considering the level broadening caused by different scattering processes (homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening mechanisms). We pay special attention to the dispersion relations of the complex dielectric permittivity because of real and imaginary parts of this function play a key role in wide miniband superlattices.
Theory of silicon superlattices - Electronic structure and enhanced mobility
Moriarty, J. A.; Krishnamurthy, S.
1983-01-01
A realistic tight-binding band-structure model of silicon superlattices is formulated and used to study systems of potential applied interest, including periodic layered Si-Si(1-x)Ge(x) heterostructures. The results suggest a possible new mechanism for achieving enhanced transverse carrier mobility in such structures: reduced transverse conductivity effective masses associated with the superlattice band structure. For electrons in 100-line-oriented superlattices, a reduced conductivity mass arises intrinsically from the lower symmetry of the superlattice and its unique effect on the indirect bulk silicon band gap. An order of magnitude estimate of the range of mobility enhancement expected from this mechanism appears to be consistent with preliminary experimental results on Si-Si(1-x)Ge(x) superlattices.
Choi, Joshua J.
2012-09-12
The self-assembly of colloidal nanocrystals into ordered superstructures depends critically on the shape of the nanocrystal building blocks. We investigated the self-assembly of cubic PbSe nanocrystals from colloidal suspensions in real-time using in situ synchrotron-based X-ray scattering. We combined small-angle and wide-angle scattering to investigate the translational ordering of nanocrystals and their orientational ordering in the lattice sites, respectively. We found that cubic PbSe nanocrystals assembled into a face-up (i.e., 〈100〉 normal to the interface) configuration at the liquid/substrate interface whereas nanocubes at the liquid/air interface assume a corner-up (i.e., 〈111〉 normal to the interface) configuration. The latter nanocrystal superlattice displays polymorphism as a function inter-NC separation distance. We explain the observed superlattice structure polymorphs in terms of the interactions directing the self-assembly. Insights into the directed self-assembly of superlattices gained from this study have important implication on the future development of nanocrystals as building blocks in artificial solids. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
da Silva, Carlos; Saiz, Fernan; Romero, David A.; Amon, Cristina H.
2016-03-01
Promoting coherent transport of phonons at material interfaces is a promising strategy for controlling thermal transport in nanostructures and an alternative to traditional methods based on structural defects. Coherent transport is particularly relevant in short-period heterostructures with smooth interfaces and long-wavelength heat-carrying phonons, such as two-dimensional superlattices of graphene and boron nitride. In this work, we predict phonon properties and thermal conductivities in these superlattices using a normal mode decomposition approach. We study the variation of the frequency dependence of these properties with the periodicity and interface configuration (zigzag and armchair) for superlattices with period lengths within the coherent regime. Our results showed that the thermal conductivity decreases significantly from the first period length (0.44 nm) to the second period length (0.87 nm), 13% across the interfaces and 16% along the interfaces. For greater periods, the conductivity across the interfaces continues decreasing at a smaller rate of 11 W/mK per period length increase (0.43 nm), driven by changes in the phonon group velocities (coherent effects). In contrast, the conductivity along the interfaces slightly recovers at a rate of 2 W/mK per period, driven by changes in the phonon relaxation times (diffusive effects). By changing the interface configuration from armchair to zigzag, the conductivities for all period lengths increase by approximately 7% across the interfaces and 19% along the interfaces.
Helimagnetic order in bulk MnSi and CoSi/MnSi superlattices
Loh, G. C.; Khoo, K. H.; Gan, C. K.
2017-01-01
Skyrmions are nanoscopic whirls of spins that reside in chiral magnets. It is only fairly recent that a plethora of applications for these quasiparticles emerges, especially in data storage. On the other hand, spin spirals are the periodic analogs of skyrmions, and are equally imperative in the course of exploration to enhance our understanding of helimagnetism. In this study, a new infrastructure based on the B20 compound, MnSi is propounded as a hosting material for spin spirals; alternating thin layers of CoSi and MnSi in the superlattice form provides a facile way of varying the properties of the spin spirals across a continuum. Using first-principles calculations based on full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW)-based density functional theory (DFT), the spin order of bulk MnSi, MnSi film, and the CoSi/MnSi superlattice is investigated. Spin dispersion plots as a function of propagation vectors show that the spiral size changes in the presence of CoSi - we find that the size of the spiral is reduced in the superlattice with thin CoSi layers (CoSi:MnSi=1:1 thickness ratio), whilst at a larger CoSi:MnSi=2:1 thickness ratio, the material behaves as a ferromagnet. In a similar fashion, the spin moment and orbital occupancy depend significantly on the thickness of the CoSi layers. However, the exchange interaction between Mn atoms appears to be generally impervious to the presence of CoSi. Succinctly, the CoSi/MnSi superlattice could be an excellent functional material in data storage applications.
Temperature dependence of hydrophobic hydration dynamics: from retardation to acceleration.
Duboué-Dijon, Elise; Fogarty, Aoife C; Laage, Damien
2014-02-13
The perturbation induced by a hydrophobic solute on water dynamics is essential in many biochemical processes, but its mechanism and magnitude are still debated. A stringent test of the different proposed pictures is provided by recent NMR measurements by Qvist and Halle (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 10345-10353) which showed that, unexpectedly, the perturbation changes in a non-monotonic fashion when the solution is cooled below room temperature. Here we perform and analyze molecular dynamics simulations of a small paradigm amphiphilic solute, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), in dilute aqueous solutions over the 218-350 K temperature range. We first show that our simulations properly reproduce the non-monotonic temperature dependence. We then develop a model which combines our previously suggested entropic excluded-volume effect with a perturbation factor arising from the difference between local structural fluctuations in the shell and the bulk. Our model provides a detailed molecular understanding of the hydrophobic perturbation over the full temperature range investigated. It shows that the excluded-volume factor brings a dominant temperature-independent contribution to the perturbation at all temperatures, and provides a very good approximation at room temperature. The non-monotonic temperature dependence of the perturbation is shown to arise from the structural factor and mostly from relative shifts between the shell and bulk distributions of local structures, whose amplitude remains very small compared to the widths of those distributions.
Schmitt, Julien; Hajiw, Stéphanie; Lecchi, Amélie; Degrouard, Jéril; Salonen, Anniina; Impéror-Clerc, Marianne; Pansu, Brigitte
2016-06-30
An efficient method to form 3D superlattices of gold nanoparticles inside oil emulsion droplets is presented. We demonstrate that this method relies on Ostwald ripening, a well-known phenomenon occurring during the aging of emulsions. The key point is that the nanoparticle concentration inside the smaller droplets is increasing very slowly with time, thus inducing the crystallization of the nanoparticles into superlattices. Using oil-in-water emulsions doped with hydrophobic gold nanoparticles, we demonstrate that this method is efficient for different types of oils (toluene, cyclohexane, dodecane, and hexadecane). 3D superlattices of the nanoparticles are obtained, with dimensions reaching a hundred nanometers. The kinetics of the crystallization depends on the solubility of the oil in water but also on the initial concentration of the gold nanoparticles in oil. This method also provides an innovative way to obtain the complete phase diagram of nanoparticle suspensions with concentration. Indeed, during this slow crystallization process, a transition from a disordered suspension to a fcc structure is observed, followed by a transition toward a bcc structure. This evolution with time provides key results to understand the role played by the ligands located at the surface of the nanoparticles in order to control the type of superlattices which are formed.
Electronic structure of superlattices of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride
Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.
2011-11-14
We study the electronic structure of superlattices consisting of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride slabs, using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the system favors a short C–B bond length at the interface between the two component materials. A sizeable band gap at the Dirac point is opened for superlattices with single graphene layers but not for superlattices with graphene bilayers. The system is promising for applications in electronic devices such as field effect transistors and metal-oxide semiconductors.
Influence of Deviation on Optical Transmission through Aperiodic Superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIN Hai-Long; YANG Xiang-Bo; LAN Sheng; HU Wei
2007-01-01
We propose a deviation model and study the influences of the relative error and sensitivity of a machine on the transmission coefficients (TCs) of Fibonacci superlattices. It is found that for a system with fewer layers, the influence of deviation can be ignored. When superlattices become more complicated, they may be fabricated by a machine with suitable relative error and possess the designed value of TC. However, when the number of system layers exceeds some critical value, superlattices should be manufactured only by precise machines. The influence of the sensitivity is also discussed.
ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young SJ
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.
ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips
2010-01-01
The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100) substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively. PMID:20672085
Raman fingerprint of aligned graphene/h-BN superlattices.
Eckmann, Axel; Park, Jaesung; Yang, Huafeng; Elias, Daniel; Mayorov, Alexander S; Yu, Geliang; Jalil, Rashid; Novoselov, Kostya S; Gorbachev, Roman V; Lazzeri, Michele; Geim, Andre K; Casiraghi, Cinzia
2013-11-13
Graphene placed on hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) experiences a superlattice (Moiré) potential, which leads to a strong reconstruction of graphene's electronic spectrum with new Dirac points emerging at sub-eV energies. Here we study the effect of such superlattices on graphene's Raman spectrum. In particular, the 2D Raman peak is found to be exquisitely sensitive to the misalignment between graphene and h-BN lattices, probably due to the presence of a strain distribution with the same periodicity of the Moiré potential. This feature can be used to identify graphene superlattices with a misalignment angle smaller than 2°.
Sculptured 3D twister superlattices embedded with tunable vortex spirals.
Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Denz, Cornelia; Joseph, Joby
2011-09-01
We present diverse reconfigurable complex 3D twister vortex superlattice structures in a large area embedded with tunable vortex spirals as well as dark rings, threaded by vortex helices. We demonstrate these tunable complex chiral vortex superlattices by the superposition of relatively phase engineered plane waves. The generated complex 3D twister lattice vortex structures are computationally as well as experimentally analyzed using various tools to verify the presence of phase singularities. Our observation indicates the application-specific flexibility of our approach to tailor the transverse superlattice spatial irradiance profile of these longitudinally whirling vortex-cluster units and dark rings.
Mukherjee, T.; Pleimling, M.; Binek, Ch.
2009-03-01
Aging phenomena are observed in various systems brought into non-equilibrium and subsequently showing slow relaxation dynamics. Magnetic specimens with well defined interactions and dimensions can serve as model systems for universal aspects of aging. Magnetic thin films provide access to a wide range of microscopic parameters. Superlattice structures allow tuning the intra and inter-plane exchange and enable geometrical confinement of the spin fluctuations. We use Co/Cr thin film superlattices to study magnetic aging. The static and dynamic properties are affected via the Co and Cr film thicknesses. TC of the Co films is reduced from the bulk value by geometrical confinement. Non-ergodic behavior sets in at a tunable temperature T^* in a range of some 100K above zero. Cr provides antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co films. Non-equilibrium spin states are set via low field cooling in 5mT in-plane magnetic field to below T^*. Next various in-plane magnetic set fields of some 10-100 mT are applied and the sample is exposed to the latter for various waiting times tw, respectively. After removing the field, relaxation of the magnetization is recorded via longitudinal Kerr-magnetometry. The relaxation data are analyzed by scaling plots revealing universal aspects of aging. Financial support by Teledyne-Isco, NRI, and NSF through EPSCoR, Career DMR-0547887, and MRSEC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botti, S.; Andreani, L. C.
2001-06-15
The linear combination of bulk bands method recently introduced by Wang, Franceschetti, and Zunger [Phys. Rev. Lett. >78, 2819 (1997)] is applied to a calculation of energy bands and optical constants of (GaAs){sub n}/(AlAs){sub n} and (GaAs){sub n}/(vacuum){sub n} (001) superlattices with n ranging from 4 to 20. Empirical pseudopotentials are used for the calculation of the bulk energy bands. Quantum-confinement-induced shifts of critical point energies are calculated and are found to be larger for the GaAs/vacuum system. The E{sub 1} peak in the absorption spectra has a blueshift and splits into two peaks for decreasing superlattice period; the E{sub 2} transition instead is found to be split for large-period GaAs/AlAs superlattices. The band contribution to linear birefringence of GaAs/AlAs superlattices is calculated and compared with recent experimental results of Sirenko [Phys. Rev. B >60, 8253 (1999)]. The frequency-dependent part reproduces the observed increase with decreasing superlattice period, while the calculated zero-frequency birefringence does not account for the experimental results and points to the importance of local-field effects.
Quantum Transport: The Link between Standard Approaches in Superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1998-01-01
Theories describing electrical transport in semiconductor superlattices can essentially be divided in three disjoint categories: (i) transport in a miniband; (ii) hopping between Wannier-Stark ladders; and (iii) sequential tunneling. We present a quantum transport model, based on nonequilibrium...
Plasmonic Enhanced Type-II Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SVT Associates proposes an novel type II superlattice structure to extend the cutoff wavelength and CBIRD SL photo diode structure with unipolar barriers to suppress...
The soliton properties of dipole domains in superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张启义; 田强
2002-01-01
The formation and propagation of dipole domains in superlattices are studied both by the modified discrete driftmodel and by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The spatiotemporal distribution of the electric field and electrondensity are presented. The numerical results are compared with the soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodingerequation and analysed. It is shown that the numerical solutions agree with the soliton solutions of the nonlinearSchrodinger equation. The dipole electric-field domains in semiconductor superlattices have the properties of solitons.
Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide
2015-02-09
AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...band solar cell incorporating low dimensional structures made with dilute nitrogen alloys of III-V semiconductors is investigated theoretically and
Experimental evidence of delocalized states in random dimer superlattices
Bellani, V.; Díez, E.; Hey, R.; Toni, L.; Tarricone, L.; Parravicini, G.B.; Domínguez-Adame Acosta, Francisco; Gómez-Alcalá, R.
1999-01-01
We study the electronic properties of GaAs-AlGaAs superlattices with intentional correlated disorder by means of photoluminescence and vertical dc resistance. The results are compared to those obtained in ordered and uncorrelated disordered superlattices. We report the first experimental evidence that spatial correlations inhibit localization of states in disordered low-dimensional systems, as our previous theoretical calculations suggested, in contrast to the earlier belief that all eigensta...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowarik, S.; Weber, C. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hinderhofer, A.; Gerlach, A.; Schreiber, F. [Universität Tübingen, Institut für Angewandte Physik, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Wang, C.; Hexemer, A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leone, S. R. [Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2015-11-15
Highly crystalline and stable molecular superlattices are grown with the smallest possible stacking period using monolayers (MLs) of the organic semiconductors pentacene (PEN) and perfluoro-pentacene (PFP). Superlattice reflections in X-ray reflectivity and their energy dependence in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity measurements show that PFP and PEN MLs indeed alternate even though the coherent ordering is lost after ∼ 4 ML. The observed lattice spacing of 15.9 Å in the superlattice is larger than in pure PEN and PFP films, presumably because of more upright standing molecules and lack of interdigitation between the incommensurate crystalline PEN and PFP layers. The findings are important for the development of novel organic quantum optoelectronic devices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Kowarik
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Highly crystalline and stable molecular superlattices are grown with the smallest possible stacking period using monolayers (MLs of the organic semiconductors pentacene (PEN and perfluoro-pentacene (PFP. Superlattice reflections in X-ray reflectivity and their energy dependence in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity measurements show that PFP and PEN MLs indeed alternate even though the coherent ordering is lost after ∼ 4 ML. The observed lattice spacing of 15.9 Å in the superlattice is larger than in pure PEN and PFP films, presumably because of more upright standing molecules and lack of interdigitation between the incommensurate crystalline PEN and PFP layers. The findings are important for the development of novel organic quantum optoelectronic devices.
Electron-confined LO-phonon scattering in GaAs-Al0.45Ga0.55As superlattice
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D Abouelaoualim
2006-02-01
We develop a theoretical model to the scattering time due to the electron-confined LO-phonon in GaAs-AlGa1-As superlattice taking into account the sub-band parabolicity. Using the new analytic wave function of electron miniband conduction of superlattice and a reformulation slab model for the confined LO-phonon modes, an expression for the electron-confined LO-phonon scattering time is obtained. In solving numerically a partial differential equation for the phonon generation rate, our results show that for = 0.45, the LO-phonon in superlattice changes from a bulk-like propagating mode to a confined mode. The dispersion of the relaxation time due to the emission of confined LO-phonons depends strongly on the total energy.
The Non-Monotonic Effect of Financing Constraints on Investment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hirth, Stefan; Viswanatha, Marc
We analyze investment timing in a discrete-time framework with two possible investment dates, which is an extension of the model by Lyandres (2007). We derive an investment threshold that is U-shaped in the firm's liquid funds, a result similar to the infinite-horizon models by Boyle and Guthrie...
8th International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning
Truszczynski, Mirek
2000-01-01
The papers gathered in this collection were presented at the 8th International Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning, NMR2000. The series was started by John McCarthy in 1978. The first international NMR workshop was held at Mohonk Mountain House, New Paltz, New York in June, 1984, and was organized by Ray Reiter and Bonnie Webber. In the last 10 years the area of nonmonotonic reasoning has seen a number of important developments. Significant theoretical advances were made in the understanding of general abstract principles underlying nonmonotonicity. Key results on the expressibility and computational complexity of nonmonotonic logics were established. The role of nonmonotonic reasoning in belief revision, abduction, reasoning about action, planing and uncertainty was further clarified. Several successful NMR systems were built and used in applications such as planning, scheduling, logic programming and constraint satisfaction. The papers in the proceedings reflect these recent advances in the field. They are g...
The Non-Monotonic Effect of Financing Constraints on Investment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hirth, Stefan; Viswanatha, Marc
We analyze investment timing in a discrete-time framework with two possible investment dates, which is an extension of the model by Lyandres (2007). We derive an investment threshold that is U-shaped in the firm's liquid funds, a result similar to the infinite-horizon models by Boyle and Guthrie ...... (2003) and Hirth and Uhrig-Homburg (2007). However, due to the tractability of our model, we can more clearly explain the relevant trade-offs leading to the U-shape: The firm balances financing costs and abandonment risk for present and future investment, respectively....
Coherent quantum transport features in carbon superlattice structures
McIntosh, R.; Henley, S. J.; Silva, S. R. P.; Bhattacharyya, S.
2016-10-01
Whilst resonant transmission is well understood and can be fully harnessed for crystalline superlattices, a complete picture has not yet emerged for disordered superlattices. It has proven difficult to tune resonant transmission in disordered diamond-like carbon (DLC) superlattices as conventional models are not equipped to incorporate significant structural disorder. In this work, we present concurrent experimental and theoretical analysis which addresses resonant transmission in DLC superlattices. Devices were fabricated by growing alternate layers of DLC with different percentages of sp3 hybridized carbon.Coherent quantum transport effects were demonstrated in these structurally disordered DLC superlattices through distinct current modulation with negative differential resistance (NDR) in the current-voltage (I-V) measurements. A model was developed using tight-binding calculations assuming a random variation of the hopping integral to simulate structural (bond-length) disorder. Calculations of the I-V characteristics compliment the interpretation of the measurements and illustrate that while DLC superlattice structures are unlike their classical counterparts, the near-field structural order will help with the confinement of quantised states. The present model provides an empirical guide for tailoring the properties of future devices, giving rise to much hope that carbon electronics operating at high frequencies over large areas can now be developed.
Carbon-coated nanoparticle superlattices for energy applications
Li, Jun; Yiliguma, Affa; Wang, Yifei; Zheng, Gengfeng
2016-07-01
Nanoparticle (NP) superlattices represent a unique material architecture for energy conversion and storage. Recent reports on carbon-coated NP superlattices have shown exciting electrochemical properties attributed to their rationally designed compositions and structures, fast electron transport, short diffusion length, and abundant reactive sites via enhanced coupling between close-packed NPs, which are distinctive from their isolated or disordered NP or bulk counterparts. In this minireview, we summarize the recent developments of highly-ordered and interconnected carbon-coated NP superlattices featuring high surface area, tailorable and uniform doping, high conductivity, and structure stability. We then introduce the precisely-engineered NP superlattices by tuning/studying specific aspects, including intermetallic structures, long-range ordering control, and carbon coating methods. In addition, these carbon-coated NP superlattices exhibit promising characteristics in energy-oriented applications, in particular, in the fields of lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, and electrocatalysis. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are discussed to further explore the carbon-coated NP superlattices for optimized electrochemical performances.
Ion beam studies in strained layer superlattices
Pathak, A P; Bhattacharya, D P; Dev, B N; Ghosh, S; Goswami, D K; Lakshmi-Bala, S; Nageswara-Rao, S V S; Satyam, P V; Siddiqui, A M; Srivastava, S K; Turos, A
2002-01-01
The potential device application of semiconductor heterostructures and strained layer superlattices has been highlighted. Metal organic chemical vapour deposition grown In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As/InP lattice-matched structure has been irradiated by 130 MeV Ag sup 1 sup 3 sup + and studied by RBS/Channelling using 3.5 MeV He sup 2 sup + ions. Ion irradiation seems to have induced a finite tensile strain in the InGaAs layer, indicating thereby that ion beam mixing occurs at this energy. Other complementary techniques like high resolution XRD and STM are needed to conclude the structural modifications in the sample.
Nonreciprocal Multiferroic Superlattices with Broken Parity Symmetry
Tang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Weiyi
Multiferroic materials are characterized by the coexistence of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic (or antiferromagnetic) orders, the coupling to lattice vibration can be invoked either through piezoelectric or piezomagnetic effects. In this paper, the polaritonic band structures of multiferroic superlattices composed of oppositely polarized domains are investigated using the generalized transfer matrix method. For the primitive cell with broken parity symmetry, the polaritonic band structure is asymmetrical with respect to the forward and backward propagation directions (nonreciprocality). In particular, the band extreme points move away from the Brillouin zone center. This asymmetry in band-gap positions and widths can be used to design compact one-way optical isolators, while the extremely slow light velocities near the asymmetrical upper edges of lower bands includes the essential ingredients for designing slow light devices.
Magnetic Field in Superlattices Semiconductors of Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciano Nascimento
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this work we present a study on the super-semiconductor networks, using the Kronig-Penney model for the effective mass approximation, and then the calculations for the application of the magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the layers of super lattices crystals. The magnetic field applied parallel to the layers, was used to adjust the resonance of a higher energy subband of a well by thermal excitation with a lower energy subband of the adjacent well, increasing energy levels in its tunneling rate. We use the formalism of Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics. Introducing the calculations in a systematic way in superlattices for each semiconductor quantum well to assess their energy spectrum systematically studied.
Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors. In our FY12 IRAD “Strained Layer Superlattice Infrared Detector Array...
Phase diagrams and magnetic properties of tri-layer superlattices: Mean field study
Naji, S.; Belhaj, A.; Labrim, H.; Bahmad, L.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.
2014-04-01
Motivated by spintronic device applications, we engineer a superlattice model based on periodic tri-layers consisting of spins σ={1}/{2}, S=1 and q={3}/{2} residing on the sites of a square lattice, interacting with an external magnetic field. We study its phase diagrams and magnetic properties. We determine the corresponding ground state phase diagrams. Then, we show that this Ising lattice model exhibits a ferromagnetic phase F1, two ferrimagnetic phases F2, F3 and an antiferromagnetic phase F4. It is found that the magnetic behaviors depend on the moduli space controlled by the exchange interaction couplings. More precisely, the hysteresis loops have been established.
Crossover from Incoherent to Coherent Phonon Scattering in Epitaxial Oxide Superlattices
2013-12-08
of the superlattices. Figure 3a shows a high-resolution, short-angular-range θ–2θ X - ray diffraction (XRD) scan of a (STO)6/(CTO)6 superlattice...function of interface density. We do so by synthesizing superlattices of electrically insulating perovskite oxides 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE...synthesizing superlattices of electrically insulating perovskite oxides and systematically varying the interface density, with unit-cell precision, using two
``N'' structure for type-II superlattice photodetectors
Salihoglu, Omer; Muti, Abdullah; Kutluer, Kutlu; Tansel, Tunay; Turan, Rasit; Ergun, Yuksel; Aydinli, Atilla
2012-08-01
In the quest to raise the operating temperature and improve the detectivity of type II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors, we introduce a design approach that we call the "N structure." N structure aims to improve absorption by manipulating electron and hole wavefunctions that are spatially separated in T2SLs, increasing the absorption while decreasing the dark current. In order to engineer the wavefunctions, we introduce a thin AlSb layer between InAs and GaSb layers in the growth direction which also acts as a unipolar electron barrier. Unlike the symmetrical insertion of AlSb into GaSb layers, N design aims to exploit the shifting of the electron and hole wavefunctions under reverse bias. With cutoff wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K, temperature dependent dark current and detectivity measurements show that the dark current density is 3.6 × 10-9 A/cm2, under zero bias. Photodetector reaches background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) condition at 125 K with the BLIP detectivity (D*BLIP) of 2.6 × 1010 Jones under 300 K background and -0.3 V bias voltage.
Artificial charge-modulationin atomic-scale perovskite titanate superlattices.
Ohtomo, A; Muller, D A; Grazul, J L; Hwang, H Y
2002-09-26
The nature and length scales of charge screening in complex oxides are fundamental to a wide range of systems, spanning ceramic voltage-dependent resistors (varistors), oxide tunnel junctions and charge ordering in mixed-valence compounds. There are wide variations in the degree of charge disproportionation, length scale, and orientation in the mixed-valence compounds: these have been the subject of intense theoretical study, but little is known about the microscopic electronic structure. Here we have fabricated an idealized structure to examine these issues by growing atomically abrupt layers of LaTi(3+)O(3) embedded in SrTi(4+)O(3). Using an atomic-scale electron beam, we have observed the spatial distribution of the extra electron on the titanium sites. This distribution results in metallic conductivity, even though the superlattice structure is based on two insulators. Despite the chemical abruptness of the interfaces, we find that a minimum thickness of five LaTiO(3) layers is required for the centre titanium site to recover bulk-like electronic properties. This represents a framework within which the short-length-scale electronic response can be probed and incorporated in thin-film oxide heterostructures.
Quasi-ternary nanoparticle superlattices through nanoparticle design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kortright, Jeffrey; Shevchenko, Elena V.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Aloni, Shaul; Alivisatos, A. Paul
2007-06-19
Individual nanoscale building blocks exhibit a wide range of size-dependent properties, since their size can be tuned over known characteristic length scales of bulk materials. In the last several years, the possibility of combining different materials in the form of two and three component nanoparticles (NPs) has been extensively explored. Also multi-component materials can be obtained via self-assembly of NPs from their binary colloidal mixtures. These new nanocrystal solids may possess tunable collective properties that originate from interactions between size and composition controlled building blocks. Exchange coupling between neighboring NPs of magnetically soft and hard materials enhances the magnetic energy product of the nanocomposite material. Randomly mixed solids of small and large semiconducting CdSe NPs revealed enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of large semiconductor particles accompanied by quenching of photoluminescence of the small particles because of long-range resonant transfer of electronic excitations from the more electronically confined small particles to higher excited states of the large particles. Recently, it was demonstrated that binary semiconducting composite materials can show strongly enhanced electronic properties with about 100-fold higher conductance as compared to the sum of individual conductances of single-component films. Creation of highly periodic superlattices is expected not just provide the control of the homogeneity of the sample but also affect their properties. It was shown that silver nanocrystals organized into periodic cubic structures vibrated coherently [20] and demonstrated a change in electronic transport properties.
Coercivity enhancement in (Co/CoO)n superlattices
Polisetty, Srinivas; Binek, Christian
2009-03-01
The temperature dependence of the coercivity is studied in (Co/CoO)n periodic multilayer thin film superstructures below and above the exchange bias blocking temperature. The ferromagnetic Co thin films are grown with the help of MBE at a base pressure of 10E-10 m.bar whereas antiferromagnetic CoO thin films are grown from in-situ oxidized Co. The thicknesses of these films are monitored by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). A mean-field theory^1 is outlined which provides an analytic and intuitive expression for the enhancement of the coercivity of the ferromagnet which experiences the exchange coupling with a neighboring antiferromagnet. An experimental approach is developed allowing to determine the interface susceptibility of an individual antiferromagnetic pinning layer by systematic change in the thickness of the antiferromagnet thin films in various sets of superlattice samples measured at different temperatures, respectively. The experiment enables us to separate out the intrinsic coercivity from the contribution induced by exchange coupling at the interface. It is the goal of our study to evidence or disprove if it is simply this susceptibility of the reversible interface magnetization creating the spin drag effect and by that the coercivity enhancement. Financial support by NSF through CAREER DMR-0547887, NRI and Nebraska MRSEC. ^1G. Scholten, K. D. Usadel, and U. Nowak, Phys. Rev B. 71, 064413 (2005).
Quantum Dot Superlattice Enabled Rational Design in Optoelectronics and Hydrogen Generation
2014-11-25
Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 22-April-2013 to 21-April-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum Dot Superlattice Enabled Rational Design...15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum Dots , Optoelectronic Applications, Charge Transfer, Superlattices, Density Functional Theory, Coupling...FA2386-13-1-4074 “ Quantum Dot Superlattice Enabled Rational Design in Optoelectronics and Hydrogen Generation” April 21, 2014 PI and Co-PI
Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Lifen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Temperature and carrier density-dependent spin dynamics for GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs with different structural symmetries have been studied by using time-resolved Kerr rotation technique. The spin relaxation time is measured to be much longer for the symmetrically designed GaAs QW comparing with the asymmetrical one, indicating the strong influence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on spin relaxation. D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism has been revealed to be the dominant contribution for spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs QWs. The spin relaxation time exhibits non-monotonic-dependent behavior on both temperature and photo-excited carrier density, revealing the important role of non-monotonic temperature and density dependence of electron-electron Coulomb scattering. Our experimental observations demonstrate good agreement with recently developed spin relaxation theory based on microscopic kinetic spin Bloch equation approach.
H2-dependent attachment kinetics and shape evolution in chemical vapor deposition graphene growth
Meca, Esteban; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Lowengrub, John
2017-09-01
Experiments on graphene growth through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) involving methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) gases reveal a complex shape evolution and a non-monotonic dependence on the partial pressure of H2 ({{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} ). To explain these intriguing observations, we develop a microkinetic model for the stepwise decomposition of CH4 into mobile radicals and consider two possible mechanisms of attachment to graphene crystals: CH radicals to hydrogen-decorated edges of the crystals and C radicals to bare crystal edges. We derive an effective mass flux and an effective kinetic coefficient, both of which depend on {{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} , and incorporate these into a phase field model. The model reproduces both the non-monotonic dependence on {{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} and the characteristic shapes of graphene crystals observed in experiments. At small {{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} , growth is limited by the kinetics of attachment while at large {{p}{{\\text{H}2}}} growth is limited because the effective mass flux is small. We also derive a simple analytical model that captures the non-monotone behavior, enables the two mechanisms of attachment to be distinguished and provides guidelines for CVD growth of defect-free 2D crystals.
Quasi-Dirac points in one-dimensional graphene superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, C.H.; Tseng, P.; Hsueh, W.J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw
2016-08-26
Quasi-Dirac points (QDPs) with energy different from the traditional Dirac points (TDPs) have been found for the first time in one-dimensional graphene superlattices. The angular-averaged conductance reaches a minimum value at the QDPs, at which the Fano factor approaches 1/3. Surprisingly, the minimum conductance at these QDPs may be lower than that at the TDPs under certain conditions. This is remarkable as the minimum conductance attainable in graphene superlattices was believed to appear at TDPs. - Highlights: • Quasi-Dirac points (QDPs) are found for the first time in one-dimensional graphene superlattices. • The QDP is different from the traditional Dirac points (TDPs) in graphene superlattices. • The angular-averaged conductance reaches a minimum value at the QDPs, at which the Fano factor approaches 1/3. • The minimum conductance at these QDPs may be lower than that at the TDPs under certain conditions. • The minimum conductance attainable in graphene superlattices was believed to appear at TDPs.
Interlayer diffusion studies of a Laves phase exchange spring superlattice.
Wang, C; Kohn, A; Wang, S G; Ward, R C C
2011-03-23
Rare earth Laves phase (RFe(2)) superlattice structures grown at different temperatures are studied using x-ray reflectivity (XRR), x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The optimized molecular beam epitaxy growth condition is matched with the XRR simulation, showing minimum diffusion/roughness at the interfaces. Electron microscopy characterization reveals that the epitaxial growth develops from initial 3D islands to a high quality superlattice structure. Under this optimum growth condition, chemical analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy with high spatial resolution is used to study the interface. The analysis shows that the interface roughness is between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and there is no significant interlayer diffusion. The locally sharp interface found in this work explains the success of simple structural models in predicting the magnetic reversal behavior of Laves exchange spring superlattices.
Rabi Oscillations in Realistic Superlattice with Finite Bloch Bands
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Wen-Bin; ZHANG Ping; LUO Ying; ZHAO Xian-Geng
2001-01-01
We investigate the dynamical processes taking place in nanodevices by high-frequency dc-ac fields. We found that Rabi oscillations between minibands are clearly identified under theoretical resonant conditions derived by an ideal two-band superlattice model, the resonant conditions have broadened, and the amount of broadening is about four times of the Rabi oscillation frequency. We also want to elucidate the role of different mechanisms that could lead to loss of quantum coherence. Our results show how the dephasing effects of disorder of interface roughness and doping fluctuation that after some periods destroy coherent oscillations, such as Rabi oscillations,can be reduced dramatically if we apply a bias static electric field to the superlattice system. The doping fluctuation dephasing effect is much stronger than that of interface roughness in the coherent process of realistic superlattices.
Electronic states of InSe/GaSe superlattice
Erkoç, Ş.; Allahverdi, K.; Ibrahim, Z.
1994-06-01
Analysis of recent publications revealed an increasing interest in epitaxial growth of InSe/GaSe superlattice. Within the effective mass theory we carried out self-consistent calculations of the confined and itinerant electronic states, potential profile and charge density distribution of InSe/GaSe superlattice, where the InSe layers are the well and the GaSe layers the barrier. Calculations were performed for three types of doping: uniform, modulated in the well, and modulated in the barrier. It has been found that the Coulomb interaction in the well and barrier forces the formation of localized states in the barrier region. The possibility of an insulator-metal transition in InSe/GaSe superlattice is predicted for modulation doping in the barrier and for a doping level n = 10 19cm-3. A decrease of the barrier height has been found for modulation doping in the well.
Electric and magnetic superlattices in trilayer graphene
Uddin, Salah; Chan, K. S.
2016-01-01
The properties of one dimensional Kronig-Penney type of periodic electric and vector potential on ABC-trilayer graphene superlattices are investigated. The energy spectra obtained with periodic vector potentials shows the emergence of extra Dirac points in the energy spectrum with finite energies. For identical barrier and well widths, the original as well as the extra Dirac points are located in the ky = 0 plane. An asymmetry between the barrier and well widths causes a shift in the extra Dirac points away from the ky = 0 plane. Extra Dirac points having same electron hole crossing energy as that of the original Dirac point as well as finite energy Dirac points are generated in the energy spectrum when periodic electric potential is applied to the system. By applying electric and vector potential together, the symmetry of the energy spectrum about the Fermi level is broken. A tunable band gap is induced in the energy spectrum by applying both electric and vector potential simultaneously with different barrier and well widths.
Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices
Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk'Yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge
2016-06-01
The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.
Sing, Michelle K.; Wang, Zhen-Gang; McKinley, Gareth H.; Olsen, Bradley D.
2015-01-01
Numerical solution of a coupled set of Smoluchowski convection-diffusion equations of associating polymers modelled as finitely extensible dumbbells enables computation of time-dependent end-to-end distributions for bridged, dangling, and looped chains in three dimensions as a function of associating end-group kinetics. Non-monotonic flow curves which can lead to flow instabilities during shear flow result at low equilibrium constant and high association rate from two complementary phenomena:...
Raman-induced Spin-Orbit Coupling in Optical Superlattices
Li, Junru; Huang, Wujie; Shteynas, Boris; Burchesky, Sean; Top, Furkan; Jamison, Alan; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2016-05-01
We demonstrate a new scheme for spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of ultracold atoms. Instead of internal (hyperfine) states, two lowest bands in an optical superlattice were used as pseudospins. A Raman process was implemented to provide coupling between pseudospin and momentum. With single internal state and far-detuned beams used, our new scheme will allow convenient generalisation to a wide range of atoms. Pseudospin interaction is tuneable by controlling the superlattice, allowing us to study many-body phenomena in SOC systems such as the stripe phase.
Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul
2007-03-14
Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.
The solition properties of dipole domains in superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张启义; 田强
2002-01-01
The formation and propagation of dipole domains in superlattices are studied both by the modified discrete drift model and by the nonlinear schroedinger equation,the spatiotemporal distribution of the electric field and electron density are presented.The numerical results are compared with the soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and analysed.It is shown that the numerical solutions agree with the soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.The dipole electric-field domains in semiconductor superlattices have the properties of solitons.
Photon BLOCH oscillations in porous silicon optical superlattices.
Agarwal, V; del Río, J A; Malpuech, G; Zamfirescu, M; Kavokin, A; Coquillat, D; Scalbert, D; Vladimirova, M; Gil, B
2004-03-01
We report the first observation of oscillations of the electromagnetic field in an optical superlattice based on porous silicon. These oscillations are an optical equivalent of well-known electronic Bloch oscillations in crystals. Elementary cells of our structure are composed by microcavities whose coupling gives rise to the extended collective modes forming optical minigaps and minibands. By varying thicknesses of the cavities along the structure axis, we have created an effective electric field for photons. A very high quality factor of the confined optical state of the Wannier-Stark ladder may allow lasing in porous silicon-based superlattices.
Binding Graphene Sheets Together Using Silicon: Graphene/Silicon Superlattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Yong
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We propose a superlattice consisting of graphene and monolayer thick Si sheets and investigate it using a first-principles density functional theory. The Si layer is found to not only strengthen the interlayer binding between the graphene sheets compared to that in graphite, but also inject electrons into graphene, yet without altering the most unique property of graphene: the Dirac fermion-like electronic structure. The superlattice approach represents a new direction for exploring basic science and applications of graphene-based materials.
Zuleta, J. N.; Reyes-Gómez, E.
2016-05-01
The interband optical absorption spectra of a GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs variably spaced semiconductor superlattice under crossed in-plane magnetic and growth-direction applied electric fields are theoretically investigated. The electronic structure, transition strengths and interband absorption coefficients are analyzed within the weak and strong magnetic-field regimes. A dramatic quenching of the absorption coefficient is observed, in the weak magnetic-field regime, as the applied electric field is increased, in good agreement with previous experimental measurements performed in a similar system under growth-direction applied electric fields. A decrease of the resonant tunneling in the superlattice is also theoretically obtained in the strong magnetic-field regime. Moreover, in this case, we found an interband absorption coefficient weakly dependent on the applied electric field. Present theoretical results suggest that an in-plane magnetic field may be used to tune the optical properties of variably spaced semiconductor superlattices, with possible future applications in solar cells and magneto-optical devices.
Amorphous sub-nanometre Tb-doped SiO(x)N(y)/SiO2 superlattices for optoelectronics.
Ramírez, Joan Manel; Wojcik, Jacek; Berencén, Yonder; Ruiz-Caridad, Alícia; Estradé, Sònia; Peiró, Francesca; Mascher, Peter; Garrido, Blas
2015-02-27
Amorphous sub-nanometre Tb-doped SiOxNy/SiO2 superlattices were fabricated by means of alternating deposition of 0.7 nm thick Tb-doped SiOxNy layers and of 0.9 nm thick SiO2 barrier layers in an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system with in situ Tb-doping capability. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed a well-preserved superlattice morphology after annealing at a high temperature of 1000 °C. In addition, transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were deposited by electron beam evaporation using a shadow mask approach to allow for the optoelectronic characterization of superlattices. Tb(3+) luminescent spectral features were obtained using three different excitation sources: UV laser excitation (photoluminescence (PL)), under a bias voltage (electroluminescence (EL)) and under a highly energetic electron beam (cathodoluminescence (CL)). All techniques displayed Tb(3+) inner transitions belonging to (5)D4 levels except for the CL spectrum, in which (5)D3 transition levels were also observed. Two competing mechanisms were proposed to explain the spectral differences observed between PL (or EL) and CL excitation: the population rate of the (5)D3 state and the non-radiative relaxation rate of the (5)D3-(5)D4 transition due to a resonant OH-mode. Moreover, the large number of interfaces (trapping sites) that electrons have to get through was identified as the main reason for observing a bulk-limited charge transport mechanism governed by Poole-Frenkel conduction in the J-V characteristic. Finally, a linear EL-J dependence was measured, with independent spectral shape and an EL onset voltage as low as 6.7 V. These amorphous sub-nanometre superlattices are meant to provide low-cost solutions in different areas including sensing, photovoltaics or photonics.
Amorphous sub-nanometre Tb-doped SiOxNy/SiO2 superlattices for optoelectronics
Ramírez, Joan Manel; Wojcik, Jacek; Berencén, Yonder; Ruiz-Caridad, Alícia; Estradé, Sònia; Peiró, Francesca; Mascher, Peter; Garrido, Blas
2015-02-01
Amorphous sub-nanometre Tb-doped SiOxNy/SiO2 superlattices were fabricated by means of alternating deposition of 0.7 nm thick Tb-doped SiOxNy layers and of 0.9 nm thick SiO2 barrier layers in an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system with in situ Tb-doping capability. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed a well-preserved superlattice morphology after annealing at a high temperature of 1000 °C. In addition, transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were deposited by electron beam evaporation using a shadow mask approach to allow for the optoelectronic characterization of superlattices. Tb3+ luminescent spectral features were obtained using three different excitation sources: UV laser excitation (photoluminescence (PL)), under a bias voltage (electroluminescence (EL)) and under a highly energetic electron beam (cathodoluminescence (CL)). All techniques displayed Tb3+ inner transitions belonging to 5D4 levels except for the CL spectrum, in which 5D3 transition levels were also observed. Two competing mechanisms were proposed to explain the spectral differences observed between PL (or EL) and CL excitation: the population rate of the 5D3 state and the non-radiative relaxation rate of the 5D3-5D4 transition due to a resonant OH-mode. Moreover, the large number of interfaces (trapping sites) that electrons have to get through was identified as the main reason for observing a bulk-limited charge transport mechanism governed by Poole-Frenkel conduction in the J-V characteristic. Finally, a linear EL-J dependence was measured, with independent spectral shape and an EL onset voltage as low as 6.7 V. These amorphous sub-nanometre superlattices are meant to provide low-cost solutions in different areas including sensing, photovoltaics or photonics.
Pang, Bin; Zhang, Lunyong; Chen, Y B; Zhou, Jian; Yao, Shuhua; Zhang, Shantao; Chen, Yanfeng
2017-01-25
The heterostructure interface provides a powerful platform for exploring rich emergent phenomena, such as interfacial superconductivity and nontrivial topological surface states. Here, SrRuO3/SrIrO3 superlattices were epitaxially synthesized. The magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these superlattices were characterized. A broad cusp-type splitting in the zero-field-cooling/field-cooling temperature-dependent magnetization and magnetization relaxation, which follows the modified stretched function model, accompanied by double hysteresis magnetization loops were demonstrated. These physical effects were modulated by the SrIrO3 layer thickness, which confirms the coexistence of interfacial spin glass and ferromagnetic ordering in the superlattices. In addition, the topological Hall effect was observed at low temperatures, and it is weakened with the increase of the SrIrO3 layer thickness. These results suggest that a noncoplanar spin texture is generated at the SrRuO3/SrIrO3 interfaces because of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. This work demonstrates that SrIrO3 can effectively induce interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in superlattices, which would serve as a mechanism to develop spintronic devices with perovskite oxides.
Yang, Dachi; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Fonseca, Luis F; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Hunter, Gary W
2014-01-20
For hydrogen sensors built with pure Pd nanowires, the instabilities causing baseline drifting and temperature-driven sensing behavior are limiting factors when working within a wide temperature range. To enhance the material stability, we have developed superlattice-structured palladium and copper nanowires (PdCu NWs) with random-gapped, screw-threaded, and spiral shapes achieved by wet-chemical approaches. The microstructure of the PdCu NWs reveals novel superlattices composed of lattice groups structured by four-atomic layers of alternating Pd and Cu. Sensors built with these modified NWs show significantly reduced baseline drifting and lower critical temperature (259.4 K and 261 K depending on the PdCu structure) for the reverse sensing behavior than those with pure Pd NWs (287 K). Moreover, the response and recovery times of the PdCu NWs sensor were of ~9 and ~7 times faster than for Pd NWs sensors, respectively.
Electronic and optical properties of 4.2 μm"N" structured superlattice MWIR photodetectors
Salihoglu, O.; Hostut, M.; Tansel, T.; Kutluer, K.; Kilic, A.; Alyoruk, M.; Sevik, C.; Turan, R.; Ergun, Y.; Aydinli, A.
2013-07-01
We report on the development of a new structure for type II superlattice photodiodes that we call the "N" design. In this new design, we insert an electron barrier between InAs and GaSb in the growth direction. The barrier pushes the electron and hole wavefunctions towards the layer edges and under bias, increases the overlap integral by about 25% leading to higher detectivity. InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices were studied with density functional theory. Both AlAs and InSb interfaces were taken into account by calculating the heavy hole-light hole (HH-LH) splittings. Experiments were carried out on single pixel photodiodes by measuring electrical and optical performance. With cut-off wavelength of 4.2 μm at 120 K, temperature dependent dark current and detectivity measurements show that the dark current is 2.5 × 10-9 A under zero bias with corresponding R0A resistance of 1.5 × 104 Ω cm2 for the 500 × 500 μm2 single pixel square photodetectors. Photodetector reaches BLIP condition at 125 K with the BLIP detectivity (DBLIP∗) of 2.6 × 1010 Jones under 300 K background and -0.3 V bias voltage.
Real-time Observation of Vo ordering dynamics in LaCoO3 /STO superlattice
Jang, Jae Hyuck; Mishra, Rohan; Kim, Young-Min; He, Qian; Qiao, Liang; Biegalski, Michael D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Oak Ridge National Lab. Collaboration; Vanderbilt University Collaboration; Korea Basic Science Institute Collaboration
2014-03-01
Properties of solid oxide fuel cell, catalysts etc. is dependent on the distribution and transport behavior of oxygen ions. In this study, we observe the dynamics of vacancy ordering in LaCoO3/SrTiO3 (LCO/STO) superlattice and LCO films using high angle annular dark field and annular bright field (ABF) STEM. Vo ordering was directly observed by tracking interatomic spacings, withs nucleation, propagation and interaction of different Vo nuclei demonstrated. Moreover, ABF images show that on 1-D (110) vacancy channels form in the depleted layers.In the case for superlattice, very small contribution of vacancy injection was observed. When this approach is applied to 15 u.c. LCO film, however, a sequence of different phases is observed, starting from disordered perovskite LaCoO3-x to a brownmillerite La3Co3O8-x to eventually brownmillerite La2Co2O5-x. Kinetics of the ordering and vacancy injection, as well as implications for beam-driven phase-transformation at an atomic scale, will be discussed. Research at ORNL supported by the MSE division, BES U.S. DOE, and through a user project supported by ORNL's CMMS, which is also sponsored by BES U.S. DOE.
Binding energy of exciton in a nanowire superlattice in magnetic and electric fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galvan-Moya, J E; Gutierrez, W [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia A.A. 678 (Colombia); Moscoso, C, E-mail: edogalvan@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia A.A. 5997 (Colombia)
2010-02-01
We study the binding energy of excitons in a cylindrical GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As nanowire superlattice, embedded in Ga{sub 1-y}Al{sub y}As matrix, in the presence of magnetic and electric fields applied parallel to the growth direction. We express the exciton trial function as a product of one-particle wave functions of the electron and the hole with variationally determined envelope function, which describes the exciton intrinsic properties and depends only on the electron-hole separation. By using a functional derivative technique, we derive a differential equation for this envelope function, which we solve numerically. By varying the wire radius, interwell barrier width and well sizes we obtain binding energies ranging in character from one for strongly coupled superlattice to that for a system of stack of isolated disks. The behaviour of the binding energies and the charge distributions as functions of the interwell coupling, well sizes, and the external fields is consistently described with our simple formalism.
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm−2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm−2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential. PMID:26865160
Phase coexistence and electric-field control of toroidal order in oxide superlattices
Damodaran, A. R.; Clarkson, J. D.; Hong, Z.; Liu, H.; Yadav, A. K.; Nelson, C. T.; Hsu, S.-L.; McCarter, M. R.; Park, K.-D.; Kravtsov, V.; Farhan, A.; Dong, Y.; Cai, Z.; Zhou, H.; Aguado-Puente, P.; García-Fernández, P.; Íñiguez, J.; Junquera, J.; Scholl, A.; Raschke, M. B.; Chen, L.-Q.; Fong, D. D.; Ramesh, R.; Martin, L. W.
2017-10-01
Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a1/a2 phase. At room temperature, the coexisting vortex and ferroelectric phases form a mesoscale, fibre-textured hierarchical superstructure. The vortex phase possesses an axial polarization, set by the net polarization of the surrounding ferroelectric domains, such that it possesses a multi-order-parameter state and belongs to a class of gyrotropic electrotoroidal compounds. Finally, application of electric fields to this mixed-phase system permits interconversion between the vortex and the ferroelectric phases concomitant with order-of-magnitude changes in piezoelectric and nonlinear optical responses. Our findings suggest new cross-coupled functionalities.
Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors
Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.
2016-05-01
SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.
Superlattice conductivity sign change induced by intense electromagnetic radiation
Kryuchkov, S. V.; Kukhar', E. I.; Ionkina, E. S.
2016-07-01
The current density in a superlattice exposed to a quantizing electric field and the terahertz field has been calculated. The calculations have been carried out taking into account inelastic scattering of charge carriers by phonons. The possibility of an absolute negative conductivity, i.e., the emergence of electric current opposing the direction of the quantizing electric field, has been demonstrated.
Strong impact of impurity bands on domain formation in superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1998-01-01
The formation of electric field domains in doped semiconductor superlattices is described within a microscopic model. Due to the presence of impurity bands in low-doped samples the current-voltage characteristic is essentially different compared to medium-doped samples. (C) 1998 Published by Else...
Coherent magnetic structures in terbium/holmium superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.;
1997-01-01
Neutron-scattering techniques have been used to investigate the magnetic properties of three Tb/Ho superlattices grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. It is revealed that for temperatures in the range T = 10 to T-N(Ho)approximate to 130 K, there is a basal-plane ferromagnetic alignment of Tb moments...
The structural and magnetic properties of holmium/scandium superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.;
1997-01-01
The properties of Ho/Sc superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been investigated using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Structural studies reveal the novel existence of more than one a lattice parameter. Examining the magnetic properties, it is found that the Ho 4f...
Magnetic structures of holmium-lutetium alloys and superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Swaddling, P.P.; Cowley, R.A.; Ward, R.C.C.;
1996-01-01
Alloys and superlattices of Ho and Lu have been grown using molecular beam epitaxy and their magnetic structures determined using neutron-scattering techniques. The 4f moments in the alloys form a helix at all compositions with the moments aligned in the basal plane perpendicular to the wave vector...
Bypassing of a barrier by dissociated and superlattice dislocations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhushan, Karihaloo
1975-01-01
Very simple procedures are used to calculate the upper and lower bounds for the applied stress required for the leading extended (superlattice) dislocation in a group of n coplanar screw dislocations of like sign with Burgers vector b to bypass a noncoplanar perfect screw dislocation with Burgers...... vector mb (m...
Type-II superlattice photodiodes: an alternative for VLWIR detection
Brown, Gail J.; Houston, Shanee; Szmulowicz, Frank; Mahalingam, Krishnamur; Haugan, Heather; Wei, Yajun; Gin, Aaron; Razeghi, Manijeh
2003-09-01
In the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) band, λ>14 microns, the detector materials are currently limited to extrinsic semiconductors. These extrinsic materials can be either heavily doped bulk semiconductor, like silicon or germanium, or a doped quantum well heterostructure. An alternative choice that provides the opportunity for higher temperature operation for VLWIR sensing is an intrinsic material based on a type-II InAs/Ga(In)Sb superlattice. There are many possible designs for these superlattices which will produce the same narrow band gap by adjusting individual layer thicknesses, indium content or substrate orientation. The infrared properties of various compositions and designs of these type-II superlattices have been studied. In the past few years, excellent results have been obtained on photoconductive and photodiode samples designed for infrared detection beyond 15 microns. An overview of the status of this material system will be presented. In addition, the latest experimental results for superlattice photodiodes with cut-off wavelengths as long as 30 microns will be covered.
Heterojunction and superlattice detectors for infrared to ultraviolet
Perera, A. G. U.
2016-07-01
The interest in Infrared and Ultraviolet detectors has increased immensely due to the emergence of important applications over a wide range of activities. Detectors based on free carrier absorption known as Hetero-junction Interfacial Workfunction Internal Photoemission (HEIWIP) detectors and variations of these heterojunction structures to be used as intervalence band detectors for a wide wavelength region are presented. Although this internal photoemission concept is valid for all semiconductor materials systems, using a well-studied III-V system of GaAs/AlxGa1-x As to cover a wide wavelength range from UV to far-infrared (THz) is an important development in detector technology. Using the intervalence band (heavy hole, light hole and split off) transitions for high operating temperature detection of mid Infrared radiation is also discussed. A promising new way to extend the detection wavelength threshold beyond the standard threshold connected with the energy gap in a GaAs/AlxGa1-x As system is also presented. Superlattice detector technology, which is another promising detector architecture, can be optimized using both Type I and Type II heterostructures. Here the focus will be on Type II Strained Layer (T2SL) Superlattice detectors. T2SL Superlattices based on InAs/(In,GA)Sb have made significant improvements demonstrating focal plane arrays operating around 80 K and with multiple band detection capability. A novel spectroscopic method to evaluate the band offsets of both heterojunction and superlattice detectors is also discussed.
Hot electrons in superlattices: quantum transport versus Boltzmann equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Rott, S.;
1999-01-01
A self-consistent solution of the transport equation is presented for semiconductor superlattices within different approaches: (i) a full quantum transport model based on nonequilibrium Green functions, (ii) the semiclassical Boltzmann equation for electrons in a miniband, and (iii) Boltzmann...
Multistability, chaos, and random signal generation in semiconductor superlattices
Ying, Lei; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-06-01
Historically, semiconductor superlattices, artificial periodic structures of different semiconductor materials, were invented with the purpose of engineering or manipulating the electronic properties of semiconductor devices. A key application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers, and detectors in the "unusual" spectral range of subterahertz and terahertz (0.1-10 THz), which cannot be readily realized using conventional radiation sources, the so-called THz gap. Efforts in the past three decades have demonstrated various nonlinear dynamical behaviors including chaos, suggesting the potential to exploit chaos in semiconductor superlattices as random signal sources (e.g., random number generators) in the THz frequency range. We consider a realistic model of hot electrons in semiconductor superlattice, taking into account the induced space charge field. Through a systematic exploration of the phase space we find that, when the system is subject to an external electrical driving of a single frequency, chaos is typically associated with the occurrence of multistability. That is, for a given parameter setting, while there are initial conditions that lead to chaotic trajectories, simultaneously there are other initial conditions that lead to regular motions. Transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt. Multistability thus presents an obstacle to utilizing the superlattice system as a reliable and robust random signal source. However, we demonstrate that, when an additional driving field of incommensurate frequency is applied, multistability can be eliminated, with chaos representing the only possible asymptotic behavior of the system. In such a case, a random initial condition will lead to a trajectory landing in a chaotic attractor with probability 1, making quasiperiodically driven semiconductor superlattices potentially as a reliable
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Li-Gong; LIUShu-Man; LUO Shuai; YANG Tao; WANG Li-Jun; LIUFeng-Qi; YE Xiao-Ling; XU Bo; WANG Zhan-Guo
2011-01-01
InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices were grown on (100) GaSb substrates by meta.lorga.nic chemical vapor deposition. Raman scattering spectroscopy reveals that it is possible to grow superlattices with almost pure GaAs-like and mixed-like (plane of mixed As and Sb atoms that connect the GaSb and lnAs layers) interfaces. Introducing the InSb-like interface results in nanopipes and As contamination of the GaSb layers. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy demonstrate that the superlattices with a mixed-like interface have better morphology and crystalline quality.%InAs/GaSb type-Ⅱ superlattices were grown on (100) GaSb substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.Raman scattering spectroscopy reveals that it is possible to grow superlattices with almost pure GaAs-like and mixed-like (plane of mixed As and Sb atoms that connect the GaSb and InAs layers) interfaces.Introducing the InSb-like interface results in nanopipes and As contamination of the GaSb layers.X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy demonstrate that the superlattices with a mixed-like interface have better morphology and crystalline quality.InAs/GaSb type-Ⅱ superlattices (SLs) have been shown to be a promising alternative to the existing HgCdTe and quantum well infrared detectors.[1,2]This material system can be tailored over a wide range of infrared wavelength from 3 to more than 30 μm by changing the thicknesses of the InAs and GaSb layers.Using the same technique,the Auger recombination rate can be significantly reduced in InAs/GaSb SLs,which is especially important for realizing high-performance infrared detectors at room temperature.[3,4] Furthermore,due to the large electron effective mass of the SL structures,the bandto-band tunneling current is intrinsically small compared to that of HgCdTe.[5] Since both the anion and the cation change across the interface (IF) of the InAs/GaSb SL,two types of interfaces are possible,InSb-like and GaAs-like.It has been shown that the
Geisler, Benjamin; Blanca-Romero, Ariadna; Pentcheva, Rossitza
2017-03-01
We investigate the structural, electronic, transport, and thermoelectric properties of LaNiO3/SrTiO3(001 ) superlattices containing either exclusively n - or p -type interfaces or coupled interfaces of opposite polarity by using density functional theory calculations with an on-site Coulomb repulsion term. The results show that significant octahedral tilts are induced in the SrTiO3 part of the superlattice. Moreover, the La-Sr distances and Ni-O out-of-plane bond lengths at the interfaces exhibit a distinct variation by about 7 % with the sign of the electrostatic doping. In contrast to the much studied LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system, the charge mismatch at the interfaces is exclusively accommodated within the LaNiO3 layers, whereas the interface polarity leads to a band offset and to the formation of an electric field within the coupled superlattice. Features of the electronic structure indicate an orbital-selective quantization of quantum well states. The potential- and confinement-induced multiband splitting results in complex cylindrical Fermi surfaces with a tendency towards nesting that depends on the interface polarity. The analysis of the thermoelectric response reveals a particularly large positive Seebeck coefficient (135 μ V /K) and a high figure of merit (0.35) for room-temperature cross-plane transport in the p -type superlattice that is attributed to the participation of the SrTiO3 valence band. Superlattices with either n - or p -type interfaces show cross-plane Seebeck coefficients of opposite sign and thus emerge as a platform to construct an oxide-based thermoelectric generator with structurally and electronically compatible n - and p -type oxide thermoelectrics.
Resonance Raman Scattering Studies of Gallium - - Aluminum-Arsenide Superlattices.
Gant, Thomas Andrew
We have made resonance Raman scattering studies of folded LA phonons and quantized LO phonons in several GaAs-AlAs superlattices. The motivation for this work was to study the electronic structure and the electron -phonon interaction in these structures. The samples were not intentionally doped. The Raman spectra of optic phonons were usually taken at a temperature of 10 K or less. The folded acoustic phonon work was taken at temperatures ranging from 200-300 K in order to enhance the scattering by the thermal factor. Two samples in particular have received very close attention: sample 2292 (50 A GaAs- 20 A AlAs) and sample 3250 (20 A GaAs- 50 A AlAs). In sample 2292 we have made resonance studies of the folded LA phonons and the GaAs -like confined LO_2 mode near the second heavy hole exciton. The results on the folded acoustic phonons show a very strong resonance enhancement for the second order folded phonons, but very little for the first order. An interference between two different scattering channels (the n = 1 light hole and the n = 2 heavy hole subbands) seems to be responsible for this effect. The resonance profile for the LO_2 confined optic phonon in sample 2292 shows 4 peaks in the region from 1.8 eV to 2.05 eV. We have studied the dependence of this resonance profile on the power density. A higher power density was achieved by using the same laser power with a tighter focus. At the higher power density the peak at 1.93 eV (formerly the strongest peak present) vanished. This "bleaching" effect is related to screening due to the higher carrier density. In sample 3250 we have studied the polarization dependence of the resonance profiles of four peaks (LO _2, LO_4, LO_6, and an interface mode) near the lowest direct gap. The A_1 symmetry confined LO modes are seen in both polarized and depolarized geometries, in violation of the usual selection rule (polarized). A mechanism is proposed to explain this result, which has been previously observed by other
Picosecond luminescence approach to vertical transport in GaAs/GaAlAs superlattices
Deveaud, B.; Chomette, A.; Lambert, B.; Regreny, A.; Romestain, R.; Edel, P.
1986-03-01
Picosecond luminescence of GaAs/GaAlAs superlattices has been measured at 5 K. Asymetrical structures where one larger well is introduced at 9000 Å from the surface are studied. It is then possible to estimate the mean transfer time of photoexcited carriers through 9000 Å of superlattice. This time is found to be about 4 nsec in a 40/40 Å superlattice and 800 psec in a 30/30 Å one. This evidences the rather high mobility of small period superlattices in the growth direction.
A GaAssolarAlAs superlattice autocorrelator for picosecond THz radiation pulses
Winnerl, S.; Pesahl, S.; Schomburg, E.; Grenzer, J.; Renk, K. F.; Pellemans, H. P. M.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Pavel'ev, D. G.; Koschurinov, Yu.; Ignatov, A. A.; Melzer, B.; Ustinov, V.; Ivanov, S.; Kop'ev, P. S.
1999-01-01
We report on a GaAs/AlAs, wide-miniband, superlattice autocorrelator for picosecond THz radiation pulses (operated at room temperature); the autocorrelator is based on the THz radiation-induced reduction of current through the superlattice. THz radiation (frequency 7.2 THz) from the FELIX (free-electron laser for infrared experiments) was coupled into the superlattice with an antenna system. We measured the current reduction for two time-delayed pulses and found that the signal decreased when the time delay was smaller than the pulse duration. With this superlattice autocorrelator we were able to resolve laser pulses that had a duration of a few picoseconds.
Quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices for neuromorphic networks and nonlinear control systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malyshev, K. V., E-mail: malyshev@bmstu.ru [Electronics and Laser Technology Department, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)
2015-01-28
The application of quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices as a nonlinear element of the FitzHugh–Nagumo neuromorphic network is proposed and theoretically investigated on the example of Fibonacci and figurate superlattices. The sequences of symbols for the figurate superlattices were produced by decomposition of the Fibonacci superlattices' symbolic sequences. A length of each segment of the decomposition was equal to the corresponding figurate number. It is shown that a nonlinear network based upon Fibonacci and figurate superlattices provides better parallel filtration of a half-tone picture; then, a network based upon traditional diodes which have cubic voltage-current characteristics. It was found that the figurate superlattice F{sup 0}{sub 11}(1) as a nonlinear network's element provides the filtration error almost twice less than the conventional “cubic” diode. These advantages are explained by a wavelike shape of the decreasing part of the quasiperiodic superlattice's voltage-current characteristic, which leads to multistability of the network's cell. This multistability promises new interesting nonlinear dynamical phenomena. A variety of wavy forms of voltage-current characteristics opens up new interesting possibilities for quasiperiodic superlattices and especially for figurate superlattices in many areas—from nervous system modeling to nonlinear control systems development.
Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride
Kaloni, T. P.
2013-11-12
We study a superlattice of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride by first principles calculations and demonstrate that the interaction between the layers of the superlattice is very small. As a consequence, quasi free-standing silicene is realized in this superlattice. In particular, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved. Due to the wide band gap of hexagonal boron nitride, the superlattice realizes the characteristic physical phenomena of free-standing silicene. In particular, we address by model calculations the combined effect of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and an external electric field, which induces a transition from a semimetal to a topological insulator and further to a band insulator.
Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Bianconi
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.
Quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices for neuromorphic networks and nonlinear control systems
Malyshev, K. V.
2015-01-01
The application of quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices as a nonlinear element of the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuromorphic network is proposed and theoretically investigated on the example of Fibonacci and figurate superlattices. The sequences of symbols for the figurate superlattices were produced by decomposition of the Fibonacci superlattices' symbolic sequences. A length of each segment of the decomposition was equal to the corresponding figurate number. It is shown that a nonlinear network based upon Fibonacci and figurate superlattices provides better parallel filtration of a half-tone picture; then, a network based upon traditional diodes which have cubic voltage-current characteristics. It was found that the figurate superlattice F011(1) as a nonlinear network's element provides the filtration error almost twice less than the conventional "cubic" diode. These advantages are explained by a wavelike shape of the decreasing part of the quasiperiodic superlattice's voltage-current characteristic, which leads to multistability of the network's cell. This multistability promises new interesting nonlinear dynamical phenomena. A variety of wavy forms of voltage-current characteristics opens up new interesting possibilities for quasiperiodic superlattices and especially for figurate superlattices in many areas—from nervous system modeling to nonlinear control systems development.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of nanoscale superlattices (SLs) as the active elements of high efficiency thermoelectric coolers. Recent models predict that the...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tikhonov, Yu.A.; Razumnaya, A.G.; Torgashev, V.I.; Zakharchenko, I.N.; Yuzyuk, Yu.I. [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); El Marssi, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France); Ortega, N.; Kumar, A.; Katiyar, R.S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (United States)
2015-01-01
A prominent central peak in the sub-THz frequency range was observed in the Raman spectra of BaTiO{sub 3}/(Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} (BT/BST) superlattice grown on (001)MgO substrate. Both soft and central mode show an anomaly around 200 K and 280 K, which can be correlated with orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition of BST and BT, respectively. The observed temperature dependence of the central mode enabled us to explain rather broad temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity previously observed in BT/BST superlattices. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Priimak, Dmitri
2014-01-01
We present finite differences numerical algorithm for solving 2D spatially homogeneous Boltzmann transport equation for semiconductor superlattices (SL) subject to time dependant electric field along SL axis and constant perpendicular magnetic field. Algorithm is implemented in C language targeted to CPU and in CUDA C language targeted to commodity NVidia GPUs. We compare performance and merits of one implementation versus another and discuss various methods of optimization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Q. L. Ma
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The ferrimagnetic superlattice (SL [MnGa/Co2FeAl]n exhibiting perpendicular magnetic anisotropy opened a new method for spintronics materials used in magnetic random access memory, because of the high anisotropy, small damping constant and tunable magnetization. In this work, we fabricated SLs with different MnGa composition and studied the MnGa composition dependence of the structure and magnetic properties of the SLs. Furthermore, we fabricated fully perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with SLs as both top and bottom electrodes. A clear tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR effect with TMR ratio of 1.3% at room temperature was observed.
Half-metallic perovskite superlattices with colossal thermoelectric figure of merit
Upadhyay Kahaly, M.
2013-05-09
Nowadays heavy experimental efforts are focussed on doped oxide thermoelectrics to increase the thermopower and thermoelectric performance. We propose a high thermoelectric figure of merit for half-metallic SrTi1−xCoxO3 (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) in a superlattice with SrTiO3, which is stable at high temperatures and in an oxygen environment. The maximal value of Z hardly depends on the doping, while the temperature at which the maximum occurs increases with the Co concentration. The easy tunability from being an insulator to a half-metal under substitutional doping combined with the colossal figure of merit opens up great potential in the emerging field of spin-caloritronics.
Chen, Zhuoying; O'Brien, Stephen
2008-06-01
We report a nanoparticle radius ratio dependent study of the formation of binary nanoparticle superlattices (BNSLs) of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots. While keeping all other parameters identical in the system, the effective nanoparticle radius ratio, gamma(eff), was tuned to allow the formation of five different BNSL structures, AlB(2), cub-NaZn(13), ico-NaZn(13), CaCu(5), and MgZn(2). For each structure, gamma(eff) is located close to a local maximum of its space-filling factor, based on a model for space filling principles. We demonstrate the ability to select specific BNSLs based solely on gamma(eff), highlighting the role of entropic forces as a driver for self-assembly.
Optical Absorption Spectra and Intraband Dynamics in Terahertz-Driven Semiconductor Superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MI Xian-Wu
2004-01-01
@@ We have theoretically investigated the optical absorption spectrum and intraband dynamics by subjecting a superlattice to both a terahertz (THz)-frequency driving field and an optical pulse by using an excitonic basis.In the presence of a THz dc field, the satellite structures in the absorption spectra are presented. The satellite structure is a result from the THz nonlinear dynamics of Wannier-Stark ladder excitons. On the other hand, the coherent intraband polarization is investigated. We find that the excitonic Bloch oscillation is driven by the THz field and yields an intraband polarization that continues to oscillate at times much longer than the intraband dephasing time. The temporal evolution of the slowly varying components of the intraband polarization is dependent on the THz frequency.
Analytic Solution for In-Plane Valence Subbands of Strained SiGe Superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Yan-Wu(吕燕伍); SUN Gregory
2003-01-01
Effective mass theory is used to calculate the in-plane valence subbands of strained SiGe superlattice within the 6 × 6 Luttinger model and under a correct boundary condition. The envelope wavefunctions are given analytically as a linear combination of bulk wavefunctions. The boundary conditions imposed on the envelope functions yield a 24 × 24 matrix, and from the zeros of its determinant the in-plane energy dispersion E is obtained as a function of in-plane wavevector kⅡ. We discuss the mixing among the heavy-hole, light-hole and spin-split-off states at finite kⅡ and the dependence of the dispersion on the spin-split-off band and strain.
Short-wavelength infrared photodetector with InGaAs/GaAsSb superlattice
Jin, Chuan; Xu, Qingqing; Yu, Chengzhang; Chen, Jianxin
2016-05-01
In this paper, our recent study on InGaAs/GaAsSb Type II photodetector for extended short wavelength infrared detection is reported. The high quality InGaAs/GaAsSb superlattices (SLs) was grown successfully by molecular beam epitaxy. The full width of half maximum of the SLs peak is 39". Its optical properties were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) at different temperature. The dependences of peak energy on temperature were measured and analyzed. The photodetector with InGaAs/GaAsSb absorption regions has a Quantum Efficiency (QE) product of 12.51% at 2.1um and the 100% cutoff wavelength is at 2.5um, at 300K under zero bias. The dominant mechanism of the dark current is discussed.
Komar, Paulina; Chávez-Ángel, Emigdio; Euler, Christoph; Balke, Benjamin; Kolb, Ute; Müller, Mathis M.; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Jakob, Gerhard
2016-10-01
Thermoelectric modules based on half-Heusler compounds offer a cheap and clean way to create eco-friendly electrical energy from waste heat. Here we study the impact of the period composition on the electrical and thermal properties in non-symmetric superlattices, where the ratio of components varies according to (TiNiSn)n:(HfNiSn)6-n, and 0 ⩽ n ⩽ 6 unit cells. The thermal conductivity (κ) showed a strong dependence on the material content achieving a minimum value for n = 3, whereas the highest value of the figure of merit ZT was achieved for n = 4. The measured κ can be well modeled using non-symmetric strain relaxation applied to the model of the series of thermal resistances.
DLTS study of the Wannier-Stark effect in Ge/Si QD superlattices
Sobolev, Mikhail M.; Cirlin, Georgii E.; Tonkikh, Alexander A.
2007-12-01
Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been applied to study the emission of electrons from quantum states in a 20-layer quantum-dot superlattice (QDSL) of Ge in a Ge/Si p-n heterostructure. Changes in the DLTS spectra of this structure strongly depend on the applied bias Ur. There are three bias ranges corresponding to three modes of the Wannier-Stark effect: Wannier-Stark ladder mode, Wannier-Stark localization and non-resonant Zener tunneling. The DLTS peaks for all the three modes are associated with emission of electrons from deep-level defects into the Wannier-Stark localized states resulting from the splitting of the electron miniband of the Ge/Si QDSL.
DLTS study of the Wannier-Stark effect in Ge/Si QD superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobolev, Mikhail M. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytechnicheskaya ul., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: m.sobolev@mail.ioffe.ru; Cirlin, Georgii E.; Tonkikh, Alexander A. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytechnicheskaya ul., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2007-12-15
Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been applied to study the emission of electrons from quantum states in a 20-layer quantum-dot superlattice (QDSL) of Ge in a Ge/Si p-n heterostructure. Changes in the DLTS spectra of this structure strongly depend on the applied bias U{sub r}. There are three bias ranges corresponding to three modes of the Wannier-Stark effect: Wannier-Stark ladder mode, Wannier-Stark localization and non-resonant Zener tunneling. The DLTS peaks for all the three modes are associated with emission of electrons from deep-level defects into the Wannier-Stark localized states resulting from the splitting of the electron miniband of the Ge/Si QDSL.
Thermodynamics and Magnetocaloric properties of Fe/Cr Superlattices
Mukherjee, T.; Michalski, S.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Binek, Ch.
2011-03-01
We explore MC properties of tailored Fe/Cr superlattices involving simple 3d metals. Our multilayers are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition with emphasis on maximizing magnetic entropy changes near room temperature. We use nanostructuring to tailor magnetic interaction and exploit geometrical confinement in order to fit the FM to paramagnetic transition temperature of the FM constituent films. In concert this leads to an optimized global metamagnetic transition maximizing the isothermal entropy change. Thermodynamic and MC properties of such Fe/Cr superlattices are studied with the help of SQUID magnetometry. Entropy changes are deduced via the Maxwell relation in single phase regions and via the Clausis-Clapeyron relations at first order metamagnetic transitions, X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity are used to correlate structural data with the magnetic properties. Financial support by NRI, and NSF through EPSCoR, Career DMR-0547887, and MRSEC Grant No. 0820521.
Isolated structures in two-dimensional optical superlattice
Zou, Xin-Hao; Yang, Bao-Guo; Xu, Xia; Tang, Peng-Ju; Zhou, Xiao-Ji
2017-10-01
Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices". Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.
Coupled bloch-phonon oscillations in semiconductor superlattices
Dekorsy; Bartels; Kurz; Kohler; Hey; Ploog
2000-07-31
We investigate coherent Bloch oscillations in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs superlattices with electronic miniband widths larger than the optical phonon energy. In these superlattices the Bloch frequency can be tuned into resonance with the optical phonon. Close to resonance a direct coupling of Bloch oscillations to LO phonons is observed which gives rise to the coherent excitation of LO phonons. The density necessary for driving coherent LO phonons via Bloch oscillations is about 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the density necessary to drive coherent LO phonons in bulk GaAs. The experimental observations are confirmed by the theoretical description of this phenomenon [A.W. Ghosh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1084 (2000)].
Phonons in Ge/Si superlattices with Ge quantum dots
Milekhin, A G; Pchelyakov, O P; Schulze, S; Zahn, D R T
2001-01-01
Ge/Si superlattices with Ge quantum dots obtained by means of molecular-beam epitaxy were investigated by means of light Raman scattering under resonance conditions. These structures are shown to have oscillation properties of both two-dimensional and zero-dimensional objects. Within spectrum low-frequency range one observes twisted acoustic phonons (up to 15 order) typical for planar superlattices. Lines of acoustic phonons are overlapped with a wide band of continuous emission. Analysis of frequencies of Ge and Ge-Si optical phonons shows that Ge quantum dots are pseudoamorphous ones and mixing of Ge and Si atoms is a negligible one. One detected low-frequency shift of longitudinal optical phonons at laser excitation energy increase (2.54-2.71 eV)
Isolated Structures in Two-Dimensional Optical Superlattice
Zou, Xinhao; Xu, Xia; Tang, Pengju; Zhou, Xiaoji
2016-01-01
Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices." Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.
Heterogenous Material Integration and Band Engineering With Type II Superlattice
2015-10-26
of chemical vapor deposited graphene transferred to SiO2 . Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 122108 (2011). 113 Ferrari, A. C. Raman spectroscopy of graphene ...extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2 . Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 206-209 (2008). 130 Fang, T., Konar, A., Xing, H. & Jena, D. Mobility...AlSb strained layer superlattices. 15. SUBJECT TERMS crystal growth, characterization, semiconductor fabrication, infrared detectors, graphene
Probing equilibrium by nonequilibrium dynamics: Aging in Co/Cr superlattices
Binek, Christian
2013-03-01
Magnetic aging phenomena are investigated in a structurally ordered Co/Cr superlattice through measurements of magnetization relaxation, magnetic susceptibility, and hysteresis at various temperatures above and below the onset of collective magnetic order. We take advantage of the fact that controlled growth of magnetic multilayer thin films via molecular beam epitaxy allows tailoring the intra and inter-layer exchange interaction and thus enables tuning of magnetic properties including the spin-fluctuation spectra. Tailored nanoscale periodicity in Co/Cr multilayers creates mesoscopic spatial magnetic correlations with slow relaxation dynamics when quenching the system into a nonequilibrium state. Magnetization relaxation in weakly correlated spin systems depends on the microscopic spin-flip time of about 10 ns and is therefore a fast process. The spin correlations in our Co/Cr superlattice bring the magnetization dynamics to experimentally better accessible time scales of seconds or hours. In contrast to spin-glasses, where slow dynamics due to disorder and frustration is a well-known phenomenon, we tune and increase relaxation times in ordered structures. This is achieved by increasing spin-spin correlation between mesoscopically correlated regions rather than individual atomic spins, a concept with some similarity to block spin renormalization. Magnetization transients are measured after exposing the Co/Cr heterostructure to a magnetic set field for various waiting times. Scaling analysis reveals an asymptotic power-law behavior in accordance with a full aging scenario. The temperature dependence of the relaxation exponent shows pronounced anomalies at the equilibrium phase transitions of the antiferromagnetic superstructure and the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition of the Co layers. The latter leaves only weak fingerprints in the equilibrium magnetic behavior but gives rise to a prominent change in nonequilibrium properties. Our findings suggest that
Transparent conducting oxides: a δ-doped superlattice approach.
Cooper, Valentino R; Seo, Sung S Ambrose; Lee, Suyoun; Kim, Jun Sung; Choi, Woo Seok; Okamoto, Satoshi; Lee, Ho Nyung
2014-08-11
Metallic states appearing at interfaces between dissimilar insulating oxides exhibit intriguing phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetism. Despite tremendous progress in understanding their origins, very little is known about how to control the conduction pathways and the distribution of charge carriers. Using optical spectroscopic measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) simulations, we examine the effect of SrTiO3 (STO) spacer layer thickness on the optical transparency and carrier distribution in La δ-doped STO superlattices. We experimentally observe that these metallic superlattices remain highly transparent to visible light; a direct consequence of the appropriately large gap between the O 2p and Ti 3d states. In superlattices with relatively thin STO layers, we predict that three-dimensional conduction would occur due to appreciable overlap of quantum mechanical wavefunctions between neighboring δ-doped layers. These results highlight the potential for using oxide heterostructures in optoelectronic devices by providing a unique route for creating novel transparent conducting oxides.
Shape-Anisotropy Driven Symmetry Transformations in Nanocrystal Superlattice Polymorphs
Bian, Kaifu
2011-04-26
Despite intense research efforts by research groups worldwide, the potential of self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices (NCSLs) has not been realized due to an incomplete understanding of the fundamental molecular interactions governing the self-assembly process. Because NCSLs reside naturally at length-scales between atomic crystals and colloidal assemblies, synthetic control over the properties of constituent nanocrystal (NC) building blocks and their coupling in ordered assemblies is expected to yield a new class of materials with remarkable optical, electronic, and vibrational characteristics. Progress toward the formation of suitable test structures and subsequent development of NCSL-based technologies has been held back by the limited control over superlattice spacing and symmetry. Here we show that NCSL symmetry can be controlled by manipulating molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface and the surrounding solvent. Specifically, we demonstrate solvent vapor-mediated NCSL symmetry transformations that are driven by the orientational ordering of NCs within the lattice. The assembly of various superlattice polymorphs, including face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), and body-centered tetragonal (bct) structures, is studied in real time using in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) under controlled solvent vapor exposure. This approach provides quantitative insights into the molecular level physics that controls solvent-ligand interactions and assembly of NCSLs. Computer simulations based on all-atom molecular dynamics techniques confirm several key insights gained from experiment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Theory of THz harmonic generation in semiconductor superlattices (Conference Presentation)
Pereira, Mauro F.; Winge, David O.; Wacker, Andreas
2016-10-01
Superlattices are artificial structures with a wide range of applications and open possibilities for controlling and study transport and optical [M.F. Pereira Jr., Phys. Rev. B 52, (1995)] properties of semiconductors. In this work, we start from the full Nonequilibrium Greens Functions approach [A. Wacker et a, IEEE Journal of Sel. Top. in Quantum Electron.,19 1200611, (2013),T. Schmielau and M.F. Pereira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 231111, (2009)] to obtain Voltage-Current curves and compare them with experiments. By adjusting the numerical solutions of the corresponding Dyson equations to a simple model, analytical solutions are given for the nonlinear response of a biased superlattice under sub-THz radiation. The frequency multiplication process leading to multiple harmonicgeneration is described. This hybrid approach leads to predictive simulations and may have important application for a new generation of devices where the superlattices are used as both sources and detectors and may be particular useful for high resolution transient spectroscopy [A.A. Yablokov et at, IEEE Transactions on THz Science and Technology 5, 845 (2015)].
Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice
Iskin, Menderes
2011-05-01
We study the ground-state phases of the Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice in two dimensions, including the superfluid phase and the Mott and charge-density-wave insulators. First, we discuss the single-particle Hofstadter problem, and show that the presence of a checkerboard superlattice gives rise to a magnetic flux-independent energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Then, we consider the many-particle problem, and derive an analytical mean-field expression for the superfluid-Mott and superfluid-charge-density-wave insulator phase transition boundaries. Finally, since the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice is in many ways similar to that of the extended Bose-Hubbard model, we comment on the effects of magnetic field on the latter model, and derive an analytical mean-field expression for the superfluid-insulator phase transition boundaries as well. This work is supported by Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (FP7-PEOPLE-IRG-2010-268239).
Structure and magnetic properties of thin films and superlattices
Bentall, M J
2002-01-01
Thin layers of rare earth elements and Laves phase superlattices were grown using molecular beam epitaxy. Their structure and magnetic properties have been probed using x-ray and neutron scattering, magnetisation measurements and high resolution electron microscopy. When holmium is grown on yttrium, the x-ray scattering from layers with a thickness below T sub c ' 115 A is characteristic of a pseudomorphic layer with the same in-plane lattice parameter as the yttrium substrate to within 0.05%. For layers above T sub c ' there is a sharp reduction in misfit strain which is probably due to the creation of edge dislocations. When gadolinium is grown on yttrium, no sharp change of strain of the thin layer was observed up to a thickness of 2920 A. This is characteristic of a pseudomorphic layer, and a failure to nucleate dislocations. For the Laves phase superlattices, a study of the x-ray scattering near several Bragg reflections revealed the presence of numerous superlattice peaks, showing that the samples exhib...
Reversible solvent vapor-mediated phase changes in nanocrystal superlattices.
Goodfellow, Brian W; Korgel, Brian A
2011-04-26
Colloidal nanocrystals are being explored for use in a variety of applications, from solar cells to transistors to medical diagnostics and therapy. Ordered assemblies of nanocrystals, or superlattices, are one particularly interesting class of these materials, in which the nanocrystals serve as modular building blocks to construct nanostructures by self-assembly with spatial and temporal complexity and unique properties. From a fundamental perspective, the nanocrystals are simple molecular models that can be manipulated and studied to test statistical mechanical and thermodynamic models of crystallization and disorder. An article by Bian et al. in this issue of ACS Nano reports surprising new phase behavior in semiconductor nanocrystal superlattices: reversible transitions between non-close-packed body-centered cubic (bcc) and body-centered tetragonal (bct) structures, and close-packed face-centered cubic (fcc) structures, observed by real-time in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements, upon solvent vapor exposure and increased interparticle separation. These studies offer new insight and raise new questions about superlattice structure and the forces that control self-assembly. Accompanying computer simulations show that ligand-ligand interactions are important. Furthermore, it appears that ligand-coated nanocrystals have more in common with soft microphase-separated materials, like diblock copolymers and surfactant assemblies, than previously realized.
Shape-anisotropy driven symmetry transformations in nanocrystal superlattice polymorphs.
Bian, Kaifu; Choi, Joshua J; Kaushik, Ananth; Clancy, Paulette; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Hanrath, Tobias
2011-04-26
Despite intense research efforts by research groups worldwide, the potential of self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices (NCSLs) has not been realized due to an incomplete understanding of the fundamental molecular interactions governing the self-assembly process. Because NCSLs reside naturally at length-scales between atomic crystals and colloidal assemblies, synthetic control over the properties of constituent nanocrystal (NC) building blocks and their coupling in ordered assemblies is expected to yield a new class of materials with remarkable optical, electronic, and vibrational characteristics. Progress toward the formation of suitable test structures and subsequent development of NCSL-based technologies has been held back by the limited control over superlattice spacing and symmetry. Here we show that NCSL symmetry can be controlled by manipulating molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface and the surrounding solvent. Specifically, we demonstrate solvent vapor-mediated NCSL symmetry transformations that are driven by the orientational ordering of NCs within the lattice. The assembly of various superlattice polymorphs, including face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), and body-centered tetragonal (bct) structures, is studied in real time using in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) under controlled solvent vapor exposure. This approach provides quantitative insights into the molecular level physics that controls solvent-ligand interactions and assembly of NCSLs. Computer simulations based on all-atom molecular dynamics techniques confirm several key insights gained from experiment.
Spin Filtering in a Nanowire Superlattice by Dresselhause Spin-Orbit Coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Samad Javidan
2011-01-01
@@ An InAs/GaSb nanowire Superlattice using GaAs for the impure layers is proposed.Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling eliminates spin degeneracy, induces one miniband in the superlattices to split into two minibands and leads to complete spin polarization and excellent filtering by optimizing the well and barrier widths and GaAs layer distances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouchard, A.M.
1994-07-27
This report discusses the following topics: Bloch oscillations and other dynamical phenomena of electrons in semiconductor superlattices; solvable dynamical model of an electron in a one-dimensional aperiodic lattice subject to a uniform electric field; and quantum dynamical phenomena of electrons in aperiodic semiconductor superlattices.
Mughnetsyan, Vram; Manaselyan, Aram; Kirakosyan, Albert
2017-04-01
The Rashba spin-orbit coupling for electronic states in a strained one layer superlattice, composed of InAs/GaAs quantum rings has been investigated in the presence of uniform magnetic field directed perpendicular to the lattice plane. The dispersion surfaces and the energy dependencies on the magnetic field induction are obtained by the exact diagonalization procedure using the Fourier transformation to the momentum space. The characteristic splitting of the mini-bands as well as the crossings of the dispersion surfaces at the high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone have been observed. An upward shift of the minibands by about 60 meV due to strain in superlattice has been observed.
X-ray crystal truncation rod scattering from MBE grown (CaF 2-SrF 2)/Si(111) superlattices
Harada, J.; Itoh, Y.; Shimura, T.; Takahashi, I.; Alvarez, J. C.; Sokolov, N. S.
1994-01-01
Flouride CaF 2-SrF 2 superlattices (SLs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by means of X-ray diffractometry for the first time. The diffraction patterns showed reasonably good crystalline quality of the SLs and a type-B epitaxial relation to the Si(111) substrate. From the analysis of the crystal truncation rod (CTR) profiles, based on the pseudomorphic model, it was obtained that despite the same high temperature (770°C) of formation of the CaF 2/Si(111) interface its structure depended on the growth temperature of the SLs. The shape of the CTR profiles confirmed the existence of the superlattice which consists of one or two monolayer thick SrF 2 layers. Some CaF 2/SrF 2-interface roughness was noticeable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Djedai, S. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université de Rouen, UMR 6634 CNRS, avenue de l' université – BP12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée et Théorique, Université de Tebessa, BP 12002 Tebessa (Algeria); Talbot, E. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université de Rouen, UMR 6634 CNRS, avenue de l' université – BP12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Berche, P.E., E-mail: pierre.berche@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université de Rouen, UMR 6634 CNRS, avenue de l' université – BP12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)
2014-11-15
Monte Carlo simulations are used to perform an atomic scale modeling of the magnetic properties of epitaxial exchange-coupled DyFe{sub 2}/YFe{sub 2} superlattices. These samples, extremely well-researched experimentally, are constituted by a hard ferrimagnet DyFe{sub 2} and a soft ferrimagnet YFe{sub 2} antiferromagnetically coupled. Depending on the layers’ thickness and on the temperature, the field dependence of the magnetization depth profile is complex going from a unique giant ferromagnetic block to exchange spring behavior when the soft YFe{sub 2} layers reverse for positive bias fields. In some particular conditions of temperature and layers' thicknesses, it can even be easier to reverse the hard thin DyFe{sub 2} layers for positive fields, while the soft thick YFe{sub 2} layers keep their magnetization along the field. In this work, we reproduce by Monte Carlo simulations hysteresis loops for the net and compound-specific magnetizations at different temperatures, and assess the quality of the results by a direct comparison to experimental hysteresis loops. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulations of DyFe{sup 2}/YFe{sup 2} superlattices have been performed. • The superlattices consist in strongly magnetically coupled hard/soft layers. • The results are compared to experiments for several thicknesses. • The influence of the temperature may induce strong changes in the reversal mode.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, C., E-mail: cwang@mail.sim.ac.cn; Wang, F.; Cao, J. C., E-mail: jccao@mail.sim.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terahertz Solid-State Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)
2014-09-01
Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation.
Nonlinear optical response in Kronig-Penney type graphene superlattice in terahertz regime
Jiang, Lijuan; Yuan, Rui-Yang; Zhao, Xin; Lv, Jing; Yan, Hui
2015-05-01
The terahertz nonlinear optical response in Kronig-Penney (KP) type graphene superlattice is demonstrated. The single-, triple- and quintuple-frequencies of the fifth-order nonlinear responses are investigated for different frequencies and temperatures with the angle φ along the periodicity of the superlattice toward the external field tuning from 0 to π/2. The results show that the fifth-order nonlinear optical conductance of graphene superlattice is enhanced in the terahertz regime when φ = 0, i.e. an external field is applied along the periodicity of the superlattice. The fifth-order nonlinear optical conductances at φ = 0 for different frequencies and temperatures are calculated. The results show that the nonlinear optical conductance is enhanced in low frequency and low temperature. Our results suggest that KP type graphene superlattices are preferred structures for developing graphene-based nonlinear photonics and optoelectronics devices.
ON THE CHARACTERIZATION OF METALLIC SUPERLATTICE STRUCTURES BY X—RAY DIFFRACTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MINGXU; WenxueYU; 等
1999-01-01
To solve the problem on the microstructural characterization of metallic superlattices,taking the NiFe/Cu superlattices as example,we show that the sturctures of metallic superlattices can be characterized exactly by combining low-angle X-ray diffraction with high-angle X-ray diffraction.First,we determine exactly the total film thickness by a straightforward and precise method based on a modified Bragg law from the subsidiary maxima around the low-angle X-ray diffraction peak.Then.by combining with the simulation of high-angle X-ray diffraction.we obtain the sturctural parameters such as the superlattice period,the sublayer and buffer thickness,This characterization procedure is also applicable to other types of metallic superlattices.
Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis L.
2013-06-01
The new contribution of this paper is to develop a cylindrical representation of an already known multiphysics model for embedded nanowire superlattices (NWSLs) of wurtzite structure that includes a coupled, strain dependent 8-band k .p Hamiltonian in cylindrical coordinates and investigate the influence of coupled piezo-electromechanical effects on the barrier localization and critical radius in such NWSLs. The coupled piezo-electromechanical model for semiconductor materials takes into account the strain, piezoelectric effects, and spontaneous polarization. Based on the developed 3D model, the band structures of electrons (holes) obtained from results of modeling in Cartesian coordinates are in good agreement with those values obtained from our earlier developed 2D model in cylindrical coordinates. Several parameters such as lattice mismatch, piezo-electric fields, valence, and conduction band offsets at the heterojunction of AlxGa1-xN/GaN superlattice can be varied as a function of the Al mole fraction. When the band offsets at the heterojunction of AlxGa1-xN/GaN are very small and the influence of the piezo-electromechanical effects can be minimized, then the barrier material can no longer be treated as an infinite potential well. In this situation, it is possible to visualize the penetration of the Bloch wave function into the barrier material that provides an estimation of critical radii of NWSLs. In this case, the NWSLs can act as inversion layers. Finally, we investigate the influence of symmetry of the square and cylindrical NWSLs on the band structures of electrons in the conduction band.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ning, Zhen-Dong, E-mail: ningzd@semi.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Shu-Man, E-mail: liusm@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo, Shuai; Ren, Fei; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yang, Tao; Liu, Feng-Qi [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhan-Guo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Lian-Cheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)
2016-04-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Structural and optical properties of InAs/InAsSb superlattices were investigated. • Temperature dependent photoluminescence emission was investigated in detail. • The Varshni and Bose–Einstein parameters were obtained. - Abstract: InAs/InAsSb superlattices were grown on (0 0 1) GaSb substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition for potential applications as mid-infrared optoelectronic devices. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence emission and spectral photoconductivity were used to characterize the grown structures. Generally, photoluminescence emission measurements of InAs/InAsSb superlattices were performed over the temperature range from 11 K to 300 K. The Varshni and Bose–Einstein parameters were determined. Low-temperature photoluminescence measurements showed peaks at 3–5 μm, while photoconductance results showed strong spectral response up to room temperature, when the photoresponse onset was extended to 5.5 μm. The photoluminescence emission band covers the CO{sub 2} absorption peak making it suitable for application in CO{sub 2} detection.
Onoda, Masashige; Tamura, Asato
2017-02-01
The crystal structures, electronic properties, and spin dynamics of CuxV4O11 with 1.2 ≤ x system, are explored through measurements of x-ray four-circle diffraction, electrochemistry, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, magnetization, and electron paramagnetic resonance. This system has superlattice structures mainly ascribed to the partial ordering of Cu ions. Cu1.78V4O11 is triclinic with space group Pbar{1} and the double supercell of the V4O11 substructure of the composite crystal. The significantly Cu-extracted crystal Cu1.40V4O11 has a quadruple supercell with space group P1. The electron transport for V ions is nonmetallic owing to the polaronic nature and/or phonon softening and to the random potential of Cu ions. The Curie-Weiss-type paramagnetism basically originates from the Cu2+ chain coordinated octahedrally, and the EPR relaxation at low temperatures is understood through the exchange mechanism for the dipole-dipole and anisotropic exchange interactions. The near absence of paramagnetic behaviors of V4+ ions might be due to the spin-singlet ladder model or alternating-exchange chain model depending on the superlattice structure and valence distribution. The electrochemical performance of Li rechargeable batteries using this superlattice system is about 300 A h kg-1 at voltages above 2 V.
Dynamics of alkyl chains in monolayer protected metal clusters and their superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhopadhyay, R [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mitra, S [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Johnson, M [Institute Lau-Langevin, BP156, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Pradeep, T [Department of Chemistry and SAIF, IITm, Chennai 600 036 (India)
2007-12-15
Alkyl chains dynamics in monolayer protected metal cluster (MPC) systems of gold and silver have been studied by the quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique. Isolated MPCs investigated are 6, 12 and 18 carbon n-alkyl chain thiolate protected 4 nm diameter gold clusters while the superlattices are their silver analogues. Evolution of dynamics with temperature is found to be very different in the isolated clusters and their superlattices. While continuous evolution of the dynamics of the monolayer was observed in isolated MPCs, it is abrupt in superlattice systems and occurs at a temperature consistent with the superlattice melting detected in calorimetry measurements. A model where the chain undergoes uniaxial rotational diffusion with additional body axis fluctuation was found to describe the data consistently. For the superlattice systems, the chains are found to be held by strong inter-chain interactions below the superlattice melting. The data from the planar silver thiolate systems show similar behavior like the superlattice systems, consistent with the calorimetric data.
Goodfellow, Brian W; Yu, Yixuan; Bosoy, Christian A; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Korgel, Brian A
2015-07-02
This paper addresses the assembly of body centered-cubic (bcc) superlattices of organic ligand-coated nanocrystals. First, examples of bcc superlattices of dodecanethiol-capped Au nanocrystals and oleic acid-capped PbS and PbSe nanocrystals are presented and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). These superlattices tend to orient on their densest (110) superlattice planes and exhibit a significant amount of {112} twinning. The same nanocrystals deposit as monolayers with hexagonal packing, and these thin films can coexist with thicker bcc superlattice layers, even though there is no hexagonal plane in a bcc lattice. Both the preference of bcc in bulk films over the denser face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattice structure and the transition to hexagonal monolayers can be rationalized in terms of packing frustration of the ligands. A model is presented to calculate the difference in entropy associated with capping ligand packing frustration in bcc and fcc superlattices.
Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes
Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.
2006-01-01
We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.
The DUV Stability of Superlattice-Doped CMOS Detector Arrays
Hoenk, M. E.; Carver, A. G.; Jones, T.; Dickie, M.; Cheng, P.; Greer, H. F.; Nikzad, S.; Sgro, J.; Tsur, S.
2013-01-01
JPL and Alacron have recently developed a high performance, DUV camera with a superlattice doped CMOS imaging detector. Supperlattice doped detectors achieve nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency in the deep and far ultraviolet, and a single layer, Al2O3 antireflection coating enables 64% external quantum efficiency at 263nm. In lifetime tests performed at Applied Materials using 263 nm pulsed, solid state and 193 nm pulsed excimer laser, the quantum efficiency and dark current of the JPL/Alacron camera remained stable to better than 1% precision during long-term exposure to several billion laser pulses, with no measurable degradation, no blooming and no image memory at 1000 fps.
Electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Hemeng; Li, Changan; Song, Yun [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Tianxing, E-mail: txma@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Li-Gang, E-mail: sxwlg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Hai-Qing [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)
2014-08-18
We investigate the electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices using transfer matrix method. By introducing two kinds of gradient potentials of square barriers along electrons propagation direction, we find that Bloch oscillations up to terahertz can occur. Wannier-Stark ladders, as the counterpart of Bloch oscillation, are obtained as a series of equidistant transmission peaks, and the localization of the electronic wave function is also signature of Bloch oscillation. Furthermore, the period of Bloch oscillation decreases linearly with increasing gradient of barrier potentials.
Surface photovoltage spectroscopy of quantum wells and superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bachrach-Ashkenasy, N.; Kronik, L.; Shapira, Y. [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Rosenwaks, Y.; Hanna, M.C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Leibovitch, M.; Ram, P. [Physics Department, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)
1996-02-01
Surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) has been employed to monitor optical transitions in quantum well and superlattice structures at room temperature. Excellent agreement is found between theoretical predictions of heavy hole and electron energy level positions and the observed transitions. The results show that using this technique, the complete band diagram of the quantum structure may be constructed. SPS emerges as a powerful tool capable of monitoring optical transitions above the lowest one in a simple to interpret, contactless, and nondestructive way. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Elastic superlattices with simultaneously negative effective mass density and shear modulus
Solís-Mora, I. S.; Palomino-Ovando, M. A.; Pérez-Rodríguez, F.
2013-03-01
We investigate the vibrational properties of superlattices with layers of rubber and polyurethane foam, which can be either conventional or auxetic. Phononic dispersion calculations show a second pass band for transverse modes inside the lowest band gap of the longitudinal modes. In such a band, the superlattices behave as a double-negative elastic metamaterial since the effective dynamic mass density and shear modulus are both negative. The pass band is associated to a Fabry-Perot resonance band which turns out to be very narrow as a consequence of the high contrast between the acoustic impedances of the superlattice components.
Physical properties of ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system in electric field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Wei; Lo Veng-Cheong; Bai Bao-Dong
2005-01-01
Based on the differential operator technique, a transverse Ising model (TIM) in the effective-field theory is developed to study the physical properties of a ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system. The effects of an external electric field on the polarization, susceptibility and pyroelectric coefficient of the ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system are discussed in detail. The susceptibility of the ferroelectric superlattice A3/B3 system decreases with the increase of the electric field, implying that the polarization is weak.
Sankin, Vladimir; Andrianov, Alexandr; Petrov, Alexey; Zakhar'in, Alexey; Lepneva, Ala; Shkrebiy, Pavel
2012-10-09
: We report on efficient terahertz (THz) emission from high-electric-field-biased SiC structures with a natural superlattice at liquid helium temperatures. The emission spectrum demonstrates a single line, the maximum of which shifts linearly with increases in bias field. We attribute this emission to steady-state Bloch oscillations of electrons in the SiC natural superlattice. The properties of the THz emission agree fairly with the parameters of the Bloch oscillator regime, which have been proven by high-field electron transport studies of SiC structures with natural superlattices.
Effect of the degree of disorder on electronic and optical properties in random superlattices
Wang, E. G.; Su, W. P.; Ting, C. S.
1994-01-01
A three-dimensional tight-binding calculation is developed and used to study disorder effects in a realistic random superlattice. With increasing disorder, a tendency of possible indirect-direct band-gap transition is suggested. Direct evidence of mobility edges between localized and extended states in three-dimensional random systems is given. As system disorder increases, the optical absorption intensities increase dramatically from five to forty-five times stronger than the ordered (GaAs)(sub 1)/(AlAs)(sub 1) superlattice. It is believed that the degree of disorder significantly affects electronic and optical properties of GaAs/AlAs random superlattices.
Optical Properties of Self-Organized PbS Quantum Dot Superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YE Chang-Hui; YAO Lian-Zeng; MU Ji-Mei; SHI Gang; ZHANG Li-De
2000-01-01
Self-organization of PbS into quantum dot superlattices has been demonstrated for the first time, and hexaplanar colloidal crystals 1 - 10 μm in size made from PbS quantum dots 3 - 6 nm in diameter are revealed in transmissionelectron microscope micrographs, and the inner structures of the superlattices can be seen by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra have been recorded. The ordering of the superlattices is crucial for the understanding of the fundamental properties of quantum-dot arrays, as well as for their optimal utilization in optical and electronic applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Baorong; KONG Linghua; LV Jianhong; HU Xiwei
2009-01-01
Both temperature dependence of polarizability and plasmon dispersion in unmagnetized metal (or semiconductor) electron gases are investigated in this paper.It is obtained that,with a continuous variation of temperature in a large region,the polarizability and dispersion change non-monotonously.The static polarizability x(q,ω=0,μ,T) and dispersion ωp(q,T) for finite T in three,two and one dimensional electron gases are calculated numerically.In addition,dispersion relation ω(q) at a definite temperature (T≠0) is similar to that at T=0.
Chatzakis, Ioannis; Luo, Liang; Wang, Jigang; Shen, Nian Hai; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas
2011-03-01
Currently, there is strong interest to explore the dynamic control of the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials, which have important implications on their optoelectronic applications. While the design, fabrication and photo-doping of metamaterial/semiconductor structures have been actively pursued, some fundamental issues related to highly photo-excited states, their dynamic tuning and temporal evolution remain open. Using optical-pump terahertz probe spectroscopy, we report on the pump fluence dependence of the electric dipole resonance tunability in metamaterials. We find a previously undiscovered large non-monotonic variation on the strength of the dipole resonance peak with the photo-injected carrier concentration.
Magnetic interactions in BiFe₀.₅Mn₀.₅O₃ films and BiFeO₃/BiMnO₃ superlattices.
Xu, Qingyu; Sheng, Yan; Khalid, M; Cao, Yanqiang; Wang, Yutian; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Zhang, Wen; He, Maocheng; Wang, Shuangbao; Zhou, Shengqiang; Li, Qi; Wu, Di; Zhai, Ya; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Peng; Xu, Y B; Du, Jun
2015-03-13
The clear understanding of exchange interactions between magnetic ions in substituted BiFeO3 is the prerequisite for the comprehensive studies on magnetic properties. BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films and BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), the ferroelectricity at room temperature has been inferred from the observation of PFM hysteresis loops and electrical writing of ferroelectric domains for both samples. Spin glass behavior has been observed in both samples by temperature dependent magnetization curves and decay of thermo-remnant magnetization with time. The magnetic ordering has been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements, and Fe-O-Mn interaction has been confirmed to be antiferromagnetic (AF). The observed spin glass in BiFe0.5Mn0.5O3 films has been attributed to cluster spin glass due to Mn-rich ferromagnetic (FM) clusters in AF matrix, while spin glass in BiFeO3/BiMnO3 superlattices is due to competition between AF Fe-O-Fe, AF Fe-O-Mn and FM Mn-O-Mn interactions in the well ordered square lattice with two Fe ions in BiFeO3 layer and two Mn ions in BiMnO3 layer at interfaces.
Weak Topological Insulators in PbTe/SnTe superlattice
Yang, Gang; Liu, Junwei; Fu, Liang; Duan, Wenhui; Liu, Chaoxing
2014-03-01
It is desirable to realize topological phases in artificial structures by engineering electronic band structures. In this paper, we investigate (PbTe)m(SnTe)2n-m superlattices along the [001] direction and find a robust weak topological insulator phase for a large variety of layer numbers m and 2 n - m . We confirm this topologically non-trivial phase by calculating Z2 topological invariants and topological surface states based on the first-principles calculations. We show that the folding of Brillouin zone due to the superlattice structure plays an essential role in inducing topologically non-trivial phases in this system. This mechanism can be generalized to other systems in which band inversion occurs at multiple momenta, and gives us a brand-new way to engineer topological materials in artificial structures. We acknowledge support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. LF is supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences.
Beating the amorphous limit in thermal conductivity by superlattices design.
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Mossa, Stefano; Barrat, Jean-Louis
2015-09-16
The value measured in the amorphous structure with the same chemical composition is often considered as a lower bound for the thermal conductivity of any material: the heat carriers are strongly scattered by disorder, and their lifetimes reach the minimum time scale of thermal vibrations. An appropriate design at the nano-scale, however, may allow one to reduce the thermal conductivity even below the amorphous limit. In the present contribution, using molecular-dynamics simulation and the Green-Kubo formulation, we study systematically the thermal conductivity of layered phononic materials (superlattices), by tuning different parameters that can characterize such structures. We have discovered that the key to reach a lower-than-amorphous thermal conductivity is to block almost completely the propagation of the heat carriers, the superlattice phonons. We demonstrate that a large mass difference in the two intercalated layers, or weakened interactions across the interface between layers result in materials with very low thermal conductivity, below the values of the corresponding amorphous counterparts.
Type-ii binary superlattices for infrared detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Razeghi, M.; Mohseni, H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston (United States); Brown, G. J. [WPAFB, Colombus (United States)
2001-12-01
III-V quantum wells and superlattices based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb, and related compounds have attracted many attentions due to their unique band alignments and physical properties. Recently, novel electronic and optoelectronic heterostructures have been proposed from this material system for hundred gigahertz logic circuits, terahertz transistors. RTDs, infrared lasers, and infrared detectors. In this paper we will describe the ongoing research at the Center for Quantum Devices to develop the theory, modeling, growth, characterization, and device fabrication techniques for this material system. We have demonstarted the first uncooled infrared detectors from type-II superlattices. The measured detectivity is more than 1 x 10{sup 8} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W at 10.6 {mu}m at room temperature which is higher than the commercially available uncooled photon detectors at similar wavelength. In paralle, we have demonstraed the first high-performance p-i-n type-II photodiode in the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) range operating at T=80K. The devices with cutoff wavelength of 16 mm showed a responsivity of 3.5 A/W at 80 K leading to a detectivity of {approx}1.51x10{sup 10} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W. Similar devices with cutoff wavelengths up to 25 {mu}m was demonstrated at 80 K. To enhance this technology further, we plan to move from quantum wells to quantum wire and quantum dots.
Microemulsion-based synthesis of copper nanodisk superlattices
Sun, Lei; Zhao, Yanbao; Guo, Wenjing; Tao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhijun
2011-06-01
Nanocrystal superlattices (NCSs) comprised of self-assembled copper nanodisks were successfully synthesized in quaternary W/O microemulsions containing Span 80-Tween 80, liquid paraffin and n-butanol. Morphologies, structure and thermal properties of the Cu nanocrystals were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). The reaction conditions which effect the growth of the Cu nanodisks were explored, and a mechanism for the formation of the Cu NCSs is proposed. XRD and TEM studies show that the as-synthesized Cu nanodisks exhibit a cubic crystal structure, and FT-IR and TG analysis show that the surfaces of the Cu nanodisks are covered with surfactants, which assist in the formation of the superlattice and prevent the oxidation of the Cu nanocrystals. Variation of the reaction parameters such as mass ratio of the surfactants and the presence of oleic acid is found to have a significant effect on the formation of the Cu nanodisks.
Commensurability oscillations in a two-dimensional lateral superlattice
Davies, John; Long, Andrew; Grant, David; Chowdhury, Suja
2000-03-01
We have calculated and measured conduction in a two-dimensional electron gas subject to a weak two-dimensional periodic potential and a normal magnetic field. Simulations with a potential Vx \\cos(2π x/a) + Vy \\cos(2π y/a) show the usual commensurability oscillations in ρ_xx(B) with Vx alone. The introduction of Vy suppresses these oscillations, rather than introducing the additional oscillations in ρ_yy(B) expected from previous perturbation theories. We explain this in terms of drift of the guiding center of cyclotron motion along contours of an effective potential: open orbits of the guiding center contribute to conduction but closed orbits do not. All orbits are closed in a symmetric superlattice with |V_x| = |V_y| and commensurability oscillations are therefore quenched. Experiments on etched superlattices confirm this picture. Conventional lattice-matched samples give a symmetric potential and weak oscillations; the symmetry is broken by the piezoelectric effect in stressed samples, leading to strong oscillations. Periodic modulation of the magnetic field can be treated in the same way, which explains previous experimental results.
Magnetic domain wall energy in Ni/Co superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toyoki, Kentaro; Nishimura, Takashi; Harimoto, Shotaro; Shiratsuchi, Yu, E-mail: shiratsuchi@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nakatani, Ryoichi
2014-12-15
The magnetic domain wall energy density σ{sub W} of a Ni/Co superlattice possessing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was determined using the magnetic domain theory derived by Kooy and Enz (1960). To determine σ{sub W}, we obtained the saturation magnetization, magnetic domain period, and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy by individual measurements. Using the magnetic domain period and the ferromagnetic layer thickness, we first determined the dipolar length. The estimated dipolar length was about 15–25 nm, which is in good agreement with the change in the magnetization curve with the ferromagnetic layer thickness. By using the dipolar length and saturation magnetization, the σ{sub W} was calculated to be 4–7 erg/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Magnetic domain wall energy of a Ni/Co superlattice was determined experimentally. • The magnetic domain wall energy was estimated to be 4–8 erg/cm{sup 2}. • Using estimated value, the magnetization curves were reproduced well. • The estimated value is reasonable compared with the other ferromagnetic materials.
Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizukami, S.
2015-01-01
To extend density limits in magnetic recording industry, two separate strategies were developed to build the storage bit in last decade, introduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and adoption of ferrimagnetism/antiferromagnetism. Meanwhile, these properties significantly improve device performance, such as reducing spin-transfer torque energy consumption and decreasing signal-amplitude-loss. However, materials combining PMA and antiferromagnetism rather than transition-metal/rare-earth system were rarely developed. Here, we develop a new type of ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting PMA based on abundant Heusler alloy families. The superlattice is formed by [MnGa/Co2FeAl] unit with their magnetizations antiparallel aligned. The effective anisotropy (Kueff) over 6 Merg/cm3 is obtained, and the SL can be easily built on various substrates with flexible lattice constants. The coercive force, saturation magnetization and Kueff of SLs are highly controllable by varying the thickness of MnGa and Co2FeAl layers. The SLs will supply a new choice for magnetic recording and spintronics memory application such as magnetic random access memory.
Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes
Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.
2017-05-01
InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.
Dimensional control of cobalt spin state in oxide superlattices
Jeong, Da Woon; Choi, W. S.; Okamoto, S.; Sohn, C. H.; Park, H. J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Lee, H. N.; Kim, K. W.; Moon, S. J.; Noh, T. W.
2013-03-01
Perovskite cobalt oxide is a very intriguing system with various spin states owing to the delicate balance between crystal field splitting and Hund exchange energy. In this talk, we show that its spin state can be altered through dimensional control, enabled by digital synthesis of perovskite cobalt oxide superlattices. We employed a few unit cells of LaCoO3 as an active magnetic layer, separated by LaAlO3 spacer layer. High quality [(LaCoO3) n (LaAlO3) n ]8 (n = 2, 6, and 10) superlattices were fabricated using pulsed laser epitaxy. Spectroscopic tools including x-ray absorption spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy revealed clear evolution of the electronic structure and resultant spin state by changing dimensionality. Specifically, the spin state changed from a high to a low spin state with a larger optical band gap, as the dimension reduced from 3D to 2D. Dynamic mean field calculation supported the critical role of dimensionality on the spin state and electronic structure of LaCoO3.
Ma, Q L; Zhang, X M; Miyazaki, T; Mizukami, S
2015-01-19
To extend density limits in magnetic recording industry, two separate strategies were developed to build the storage bit in last decade, introduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and adoption of ferrimagnetism/antiferromagnetism. Meanwhile, these properties significantly improve device performance, such as reducing spin-transfer torque energy consumption and decreasing signal-amplitude-loss. However, materials combining PMA and antiferromagnetism rather than transition-metal/rare-earth system were rarely developed. Here, we develop a new type of ferrimagnetic superlattice exhibiting PMA based on abundant Heusler alloy families. The superlattice is formed by [MnGa/Co2FeAl] unit with their magnetizations antiparallel aligned. The effective anisotropy (K(u)(eff)) over 6 Merg/cm(3) is obtained, and the SL can be easily built on various substrates with flexible lattice constants. The coercive force, saturation magnetization and K(u)(eff) of SLs are highly controllable by varying the thickness of MnGa and Co2FeAl layers. The SLs will supply a new choice for magnetic recording and spintronics memory application such as magnetic random access memory.
Choi, Joshua J.
2011-03-09
The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Simple theoretical analysis of the Einstein’s photoemission from quantum confined superlattices
Pahari, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, S.; Saha, A.; De, D.; Ghatak, K. P.
2009-11-01
In this paper, we study the Einstein's photoemission from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI and HgTe/CdTe quantum well superlattices (QWSLs) with graded interfaces and quantum well effective mass superlattices in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field on the basis of newly formulated dispersion relations in the respective cases. Besides, the same has been studied from the afore-mentioned quantum dot superlattices and it appears that the photoemission oscillates with increasing carrier degeneracy and quantizing magnetic field in different manners. In addition, the photoemission oscillates with film thickness and increasing photon energy in quantum steps together with the fact that the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation will introduce new physical ideas and new experimental findings under different external conditions. The influence of band structure is apparent from all the figures and we have suggested three applications of the analyses of this paper in the fields of superlattices and microstructures.
High-Detectivity Type-II Superlattice Detectors for 6-14 um Infrared Applications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SVT Associates proposes an novel type II superlattice structure to extend the cutoff wavelength and CBIRD SL photo diode structure with unipolar barriers to suppress...
2007-11-02
superlattices. These experiments have opened the arena of photon assisted transport to semiconductor devices and paved the way for future teraherz: electronics based on quantum transport in semiconductor nanostructures.
Engineering the electronic structure of graphene superlattices via Fermi velocity modulation
Lima, Jonas R. F.
2017-01-01
Graphene superlattices have attracted much research interest in the last years, since it is possible to manipulate the electronic properties of graphene in these structures. It has been verified that extra Dirac points appear in the electronic structure of the system. The electronic structure in the vicinity of these points has been studied for a gapless and gapped graphene superlattice and for a graphene superlattice with a spatially modulated energy gap. In each case a different behavior was obtained. In this work we show that via Fermi velocity engineering it is possible to tune the electronic properties of a graphene superlattice to match all the previous cases studied. We also obtained new features of the system never observed before, reveling that the electronic structure of graphene is very sensitive to the modulation of the Fermi velocity. The results obtained here are relevant for the development of novel graphene-based electronic devices.
Harmonic hexagonal superlattice pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG LiFang; XIE WeiXia; ZHAO HaiTao; FAN WeiLi
2009-01-01
We report a harmonic hexagonal superlattice pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge in air/argon mixture at atmospheric pressure.The bifurcation scenario of harmonic hexagonal superlattice pattern with the applied voltage increasing is given.The phase diagram of the pattern types as a function of the applied voltage and the air-concentration is obtained.The hysteresis of pattern transitions at the upward and downward stage of the applied voltage is observed.The correlation measurements indicate that harmonic hexagonal superlattice pattern is an interleaving of two different transient sublattices.The spatial power spectrum demonstrates that harmonic hexagonal superlattice pattern has two separate wave vectors.Both small wave vector qh and big wave vector Kh,belong to the harmonic mode,and they obey a triad resonant interaction q1h + q2h,=Kh.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aram, Tahereh Nemati [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut Neel, 38042 Grenoble (France); Asgari, Asghar, E-mail: asgari@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)
2015-06-05
In this paper, using Kronig–Penney model, the electronic states in graphene-based superlattices with various substrates and considering exact electron Fermi velocity values are investigated. The analysis of our results clearly indicates that the difference between Fermi velocity values of gaped and gapless graphene regions determines the patency rate of band gap. Also, using transfer matrix method (TMM) the absorbance spectrum of mentioned structures is calculated. The more important result is that the absorbance of these structures is significantly near zero. - Highlights: • The electronic states in graphene superlattices with various substrates are investigated. • The exact electron Fermi velocity values are considered. • Using TMM the absorbance spectrum of two graphene-based superlattices is calculated. • The widest (narrowest) energy band gap belong to quartz–SiC (quartz–h-BN) superlattice.
Interwell and intrawell magnetoexcitons in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Timofeev, V. B.; Filin, A. I.; Tartakovskii, A. I.
1997-01-01
The formation of spatially indirect (interwell) excitons in superlattices (SLs) with different barrier widths (different tunneling coupling) is experimentally investigated in a strong enough magnetic field with the use of photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE), reflectance spec...
Erofeeva, Elena A
2014-12-01
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.) seed reproduction indices such as the total number of seeds, the number of normally developed seeds and underdeveloped seeds per anthodium, and seed weight are suggested to assess the level of environmental pollution (bioindication). However, the non-monotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependence of some T. officinale seed reproduction indices on intensity of motor traffic pollution in wide range of values over 2 years of observation. In 2010, the increase in traffic intensity induced a monotonic increase in the total seed number and the number of normally developed seeds. Besides, motor traffic pollution decreased the number of undeveloped seeds and seed weight in comparison with the control. In 2011, for all studied T. officinale indices except seed weight, complicated non-monotonic dependences on traffic intensity were found that could be attributed to paradoxical effects. It is hypothesised that the significant differences in the studied dependencies in 2010-2011 were caused by changes in weather conditions because traffic intensity did not differ significantly between the two observation years.
Transport in weakly-coupled superlattices: A quantitative approach for photon-assisted tunneling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1997-01-01
Photon-assisted tunneling is studied in weakly-coupled semiconductor superlattices under THz irradiation. Using a microscopic transport model we find excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data for two different samples without using any fitting parameters.......Photon-assisted tunneling is studied in weakly-coupled semiconductor superlattices under THz irradiation. Using a microscopic transport model we find excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data for two different samples without using any fitting parameters....
Electron transport across a quantum wire embedding a saw-tooth superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Yuan-Ping; Yan Xiao-Hong; Lu Mao-Wang; Deng Yu-Xiang
2004-01-01
By developing the recursive Green function method, the transport properties through a quantum wire embedding a finite-length saw-tooth superlattice are studied in the presence of magnetic field. The effects of magnetic modulation and the geometric structures of the superlattice on transmission coefficient are discussed. It is shown that resonant electron gas. The transmission spectrum can be tailored to match requirements through adjusting the size of saw-tooth quantum dot and field strength.
Tyc, Michał H.; Salejda, Włodzimierz; Klauzer-Kruszyna, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Karol
2007-05-01
The dispersion relation for polarized light transmitting through a one-dimensional superlattice composed of aperiodically arranged layers made of ordinary dielectric and negative refraction metamaterials is calculated with finite element method. Generalized Fibonacci, generalized Thue-Morse, double-periodic and Rudin-Shapiro superlattices are investigated, using their periodic approximants. Strong dispersion of metamaterials is taken into account. Group velocities and effective refraction indices in the structures are calculated. The self-similar structure of the transmission spectra is observed.
Tunable Negative Differential Resistance in Planer Graphene Superlattice Resonant Tunneling Diode
Sattari-Esfahlan, S. M.; Fouladi-Oskuei, J.; S. Shojaei
2017-01-01
In this paper, we report on the controllable negative differential resistance (NDR) in a proposed planar graphene superlattice structure. High value of peak to valley ratio (PVR) is predicted. This is significant because of appearance of NDR with high PVR at low biases. Our finding is important since beside the other potential applications of the graphene, proposes implementation of the graphene based superlattice in electronic devices such as resonant tunneling diode and filters.
Moire superlattice effects in graphene/boron-nitride van der Waals heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wallbank, John R.; Chen, Xi; Fal' ko, Vladimir I. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Mucha-Kruczynski, Marcin [Department of Physics, University of Bath (United Kingdom)
2015-06-15
Van der Waals heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride feature a moire superlattice for graphene's Dirac electrons. Here, we review the effects generated by this superlattice, including a specific miniband structure featuring gaps and secondary Dirac points, and a fractal spectrum of magnetic minibands known as Hofstadter's butterfly. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Supersolid Phase in One-Dimensional Hard-Core Boson Hubbard Model with a Superlattice Potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Huai-Ming; LIANG Ying
2008-01-01
The ground state of the one-dimensional hard-core boson Hubbard model with a superlattice potential is studied by quantum Monte Carlo methods. We demonstrate that besides the CDW phase and the Mort insulator phase, the supersolid phase emerges due to the presence of the superlattice potential, which reflects the competition with the hopping term. We also study the densities of sublattices and have a clear idea about the distribution of the bosons on the lattice.
Self-Organization of PbS into Quantum Dots Superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Self-organization of PbS into quantum dots superlattices is demonstrated for the first time, and hexaplanar colloidal crystals 1-10m m in size made from PbS quantum dots 4nm in diameter are shown in Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) micrograph, and the inner structures of the superlattices can be seen from the High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM).
Controlling Chaos Probability of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Weak Optical Superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Jun; LUO Xiao-Bing
2009-01-01
@@ The spatial chaos probability of a Bose-Einstein condensate perturbed by a weak optical superlattice is studied. It is demonstrated that the spatial chaotic solution appears with a certain probability in a given parameter region under a random boundary condition. The effects of the lattice depths and wave vectors on the chaos probability are illustrated, and different regions associated with different chaos probabilities are found. This suggests a feasible scheme for suppressing and strengthening chaos by adjusting the optical superlattice experimentally.
Study on band gap structure of Fibonacci quantum superlattices by using the transfer matrix method
Ferrando, V.; Castro-Palacio, J. C.; Marí, B.; Monsoriu, J. A.
2014-02-01
The scattering properties of particles in a one-dimensional Fibonacci sequence based potential have been analyzed by means of the Transfer Matrix Method. The electronic band gaps are examined comparatively with those obtained using the corresponding periodic potentials. The reflection coefficient shows self-similar properties for the Fibonacci superlattices. Moreover, by using the generalized Bragg's condition, the band gaps positions are derived from the golden mean involved in the design of the superlattice structure.
Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium-Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained Layer Superlattices
2014-06-03
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Minority carrier lifetimes in undoped and Beryllium -doped Type-2 Ga-free, InAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattices (SLS) with...is unlimited. Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium -Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained Layer Superlattices The views, opinions and/or findings contained in...Brook University W-5510 Melville Library West Sayville, NY 11796 -3362 1 ABSTRACT Minority Carrier Lifetime in Beryllium -Doped InAs/InAsSb Strained
Manganites in Perovskite Superlattices: Structural and Electronic Properties
Jilili, Jiwuer
2016-07-13
Perovskite oxides have the general chemical formula ABO3, where A is a rare-earth or alkali-metal cation and B is a transition metal cation. Perovskite oxides can be formed with a variety of constituent elements and exhibit a wide range of properties ranging from insulators, metals to even superconductors. With the development of growth and characterization techniques, more information on their physical and chemical properties has been revealed, which diversified their technological applications. Perovskite manganites are widely investigated compounds due to the discovery of the colossal magnetoresistance effect in 1994. They have a broad range of structural, electronic, magnetic properties and potential device applications in sensors and spintronics. There is not only the technological importance but also the need to understand the fundamental mechanisms of the unusual magnetic and transport properties that drive enormous attention. Manganites combined with other perovskite oxides are gaining interest due to novel properties especially at the interface, such as interfacial ferromagnetism, exchange bias, interfacial conductivity. Doped manganites exhibit diverse electrical properties as compared to the parent compounds. For instance, hole doped La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 is a ferromagnetic metal, whereas LaMnO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator. Since manganites are strongly correlated systems, heterojunctions composed of manganites and other perovskite oxides are sunject to complex coupling of the spin, orbit, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom and exhibit unique electronic, magnetic, and transport properties. Electronic reconstructions, O defects, doping, intersite disorder, magnetic proximity, magnetic exchange, and polar catastrophe are some effects to explain these interfacial phenomena. In our work we use first-principles calculations to study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of manganite based superlattices. Firstly, we investigate the electronic
Design of MWIR Type-II Superlattices for Infrared Photon Detectors
Grein, Christoph
The Type II InAs/GaInSb and InAs/InAsSb superlattices are material systems for implementation as photodetector absorbers in infrared imaging applications. In addition to cutoff wavelengths spanning the infrared spectrum, they offer degrees of freedom in their materials design (e.g. layer thicknesses, alloy compositions, number of layers in one superlattice period) that permit the optimization of an infrared photon detector's figures of merit such as detectivity through the tuning of material properties like generation/recombination lifetimes and optical absorption. We describe efforts to obtain accurate electronic band structures of superlattice semiconductors with infrared energy gaps, and employing them to evaluate nonradiative minority carrier lifetimes. Simple device models are utilized to suggest potential performance enhancements that arise from employing superlattices as infrared absorber. We also discuss current efforts to simulate the molecular beam epitaxial growth of InAs/InAsSb superlattices to predict dominant native point defects and other growth nonidealities. Design of MWIR Type-II Superlattices for Infrared Photon Detectors.
High-temperature crystallization of nanocrystals into three-dimensional superlattices
Wu, Liheng; Willis, Joshua J.; McKay, Ian Salmon; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Qin, Jian; Cargnello, Matteo; Tassone, Christopher J.
2017-08-01
Crystallization of colloidal nanocrystals into superlattices represents a practical bottom-up process with which to create ordered metamaterials with emergent functionalities. With precise control over the size, shape and composition of individual nanocrystals, various single- and multi-component nanocrystal superlattices have been produced, the lattice structures and chemical compositions of which can be accurately engineered. Nanocrystal superlattices are typically prepared by carefully controlling the assembly process through solvent evaporation or destabilization or through DNA-guided crystallization. Slow solvent evaporation or cooling of nanocrystal solutions (over hours or days) is the key element for successful crystallization processes. Here we report the rapid growth (seconds) of micrometre-sized, face-centred-cubic, three-dimensional nanocrystal superlattices during colloidal synthesis at high temperatures (more than 230 degrees Celsius). Using in situ small-angle X-ray scattering, we observe continuous growth of individual nanocrystals within the lattices, which results in simultaneous lattice expansion and fine nanocrystal size control due to the superlattice templates. Thermodynamic models demonstrate that balanced attractive and repulsive interparticle interactions dictated by the ligand coverage on nanocrystal surfaces and nanocrystal core size are responsible for the crystallization process. The interparticle interactions can also be controlled to form different superlattice structures, such as hexagonal close-packed lattices. The rational assembly of various nanocrystal systems into novel materials is thus facilitated for both fundamental research and for practical applications in the fields of magnetics, electronics and catalysis.
Molecular dynamics study of the lattice thermal conductivity of Kr/Ar superlattice nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Yunfei; Li Deyu; Yang Juekuan; Wu Yonghua; Lukes, J.R.; Majumdar, Arun
2004-06-15
The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) method has been used to calculate the lattice thermal conductivities of Ar and Kr/Ar nanostructures in order to study the effects of interface scattering, boundary scattering, and elastic strain on lattice thermal conductivity. Results show that interface scattering poses significant resistance to phonon transport in superlattices and superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of the Kr/Ar superlattice nanowire is only about ((1)/(3)) of that for pure Ar nanowires with the same cross-sectional area and total length due to the additional interfacial thermal resistance. It is found that nanowire boundary scattering provides significant resistance to phonon transport. As the cross-sectional area increases, the nanowire boundary scattering decreases, which leads to increased nanowire thermal conductivity. The ratio of the interfacial thermal resistance to the total effective thermal resistance increases from 30% for the superlattice nanowire to 42% for the superlattice film. Period length is another important factor affecting the effective thermal conductivity of the nanostructures. Increasing the period length will lead to increased acoustic mismatch between the adjacent layers, and hence increased interfacial thermal resistance. However, if the total length of the superlattice nanowire is fixed, reducing the period length will lead to decreased effective thermal conductivity due to the increased number of interfaces. Finally, it is found that the interfacial thermal resistance decreases as the reference temperature increases, which might be due to the inelastic interface scattering.
Evolving random fractal Cantor superlattices for the infrared using a genetic algorithm.
Bossard, Jeremy A; Lin, Lan; Werner, Douglas H
2016-01-01
Ordered and chaotic superlattices have been identified in Nature that give rise to a variety of colours reflected by the skin of various organisms. In particular, organisms such as silvery fish possess superlattices that reflect a broad range of light from the visible to the UV. Such superlattices have previously been identified as 'chaotic', but we propose that apparent 'chaotic' natural structures, which have been previously modelled as completely random structures, should have an underlying fractal geometry. Fractal geometry, often described as the geometry of Nature, can be used to mimic structures found in Nature, but deterministic fractals produce structures that are too 'perfect' to appear natural. Introducing variability into fractals produces structures that appear more natural. We suggest that the 'chaotic' (purely random) superlattices identified in Nature are more accurately modelled by multi-generator fractals. Furthermore, we introduce fractal random Cantor bars as a candidate for generating both ordered and 'chaotic' superlattices, such as the ones found in silvery fish. A genetic algorithm is used to evolve optimal fractal random Cantor bars with multiple generators targeting several desired optical functions in the mid-infrared and the near-infrared. We present optimized superlattices demonstrating broadband reflection as well as single and multiple pass bands in the near-infrared regime.
Thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, P.D., E-mail: pabloborges@ufv.br [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Tec., Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Rio Paranaíba, MG (Brazil); Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Petersen, J.E.; Scolfaro, L. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Leite Alves, H.W. [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Caixa Postal 110, São João Del Rei 36300-000, MG (Brazil); Myers, T.H. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)
2015-07-15
Doping in a manner that introduces anisotropy in order to reduce thermal conductivity is a significant focus in thermoelectric research today. By solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in the constant scattering time (τ) approximation, in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory, we compare the Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) of bulk PbTe to PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures and PbTe doping superlattices (SLs) with periodically doped planes. Bismuth and Thallium were used as the n- and p-type impurities, respectively. The effects of carrier concentration are considered via chemical potential variation in a rigid band approximation. The impurity bands near the Fermi level in the electronic structure of PbTe SLs are of Tl s- and Bi p-character, and this feature is independent of the doping concentration or the distance between impurity planes. We observe the impurity bands to have a metallic nature in the directions perpendicular to the doping planes, yet no improvement on the values of ZT is found when compared to bulk PbTe. For the PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures, the calculated S presents good agreement with recent experimental data, and an anisotropic behavior is observed for low carrier concentrations (n<10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}). A large value of ZT{sub ||} (parallel to the growth direction) of 3.0 is predicted for n=4.7×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and T=700 K, whereas ZT{sub p} (perpendicular to the growth direction) is found to peak at 1.5 for n=1.7×10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. Both electrical conductivity enhancement and thermal conductivity reduction are analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit for PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructure along the [0 0 1] direction, P.D. Borges, J.E. Petersen, L. Scolfaro, H.W. Leite Alves, T.H. Myers, Improved thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of IV
Two-dimensional Confinement of Heavy Fermions in Artificial Superlattices
Shishido, Hiroaki
2011-03-01
Low dimensionality and strong electron-electron Coulomb interactions are both key parameters for novel quantum states of condensed matter. A metallic system with the strongest electron correlations is reported in rare-earth and actinide compounds with f electrons, known as heavy-fermion compounds, where the effective mass of the conduction electrons are strikingly enhanced by the electron correlations up to some hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. We realized experimentally a two-dimensional heavy fermion system, adjusting the dimensionality in a controllable fashion. We grew artificial superlattices of CeIn 3 (m)/ LaIn 3 (n), in which m -layers of heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeIn 3 and n -layers of a non-magnetic isostructual compound LaIn 3 are stacked alternately, by a molecular beam epitaxy. By reducing the thickness of the CeIn 3 layers, the magnetic order was suppressed and the effective electron mass was further enhanced. The Néel temperature becomes zero at around m = 2 , concomitant with striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. Standard Fermi liquid behaviors are, however, recovered under high magnetic field. These behaviors imply new ``dimensional tuning'' towards a quantum critical point. We also succeeded to fabricate artificial superlattices of a heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn 5 and non-magnetic divalent Yb-compound YbCoIn 5 . Superconductivity survives even in CeCoIn 5 (3)/ YbCoIn 5 (5) films, while the thickness of CeCoIn 5 layer, 2.3 nm, is comparable to the c -axis coherence length ξc ~ 2 nm. This work has been done in collaboration with Y. Mizukami, S. Yasumoto, M. Shimozawa, H. Kontani, T. Shibauchi, T. Terashima and Y. Matsuda.superconductivity is realized in the artificial superlattices. This work has been done in collaboration with Y. Mizukami, S. Yasumoto, M. Shimozawa, H. Kontani, T
Li, Xiaodan; Wu, Shunqing; Zhou, Sen; Zhu, Zizhong
2014-01-01
Superlattice provides a new approach to enrich the class of materials with novel properties. Here, we report the structural and electronic properties of superlattices made with alternate stacking of two-dimensional hexagonal germanene (or silicene) and a MoS2 monolayer using the first principles approach. The results are compared with those of graphene/MoS2 superlattice. The distortions of the geometry of germanene, silicene, and MoS2 layers due to the formation of the superlattices are all r...
Effective negative refractive index in ferromagnet-semiconductor superlattices.
Tarkanyan, Roland H; Niarchos, Dimitris G
2006-06-12
Problem of anomalous refraction of electromagnetic waves is analyzed in a superlattice which consists of alternating layers of ferromagnetic insulator and nonmagnetic semiconductor. Effective permittivity and permeability tensors are derived in the presence of an external magnetic field parallel to the plane of the layers. It is shown that in the case of the Voigt configuration, the structure behaves as a left-handed medium with respect to TE-type polarized wave, in the low-frequency region of propagation. The relative orientation of the Poynting vector and the refractive wave vector is examined in different frequency ranges. It is shown that the frequency region of existence for the backward mode can be changed using external magnetic field as tuning parameter.
Dynamical Axion Field in a Magnetic Topological Insulator Superlattice
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
We propose that the dynamical axion field can be realized in a magnetic topological insulator superlattice or a topological paramagnetic insulator. The magnetic fluctuations of these systems produce a pseudoscalar field which has an axionic coupling to the electromagnetic field, and thus it gives a condensed-matter realization of the axion electrodynamics. Compared to the previously proposed dynamical axion materials where a long range antiferromagnetic order is required, the systems proposed here have the advantage that only an uniform magnetization or a paramagnetic state is needed for the dynamic axion. We further propose several experiments to detect such a dynamical axion field. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Electronic and magnetic properties of zincblende half-metal superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fong, C Y; Qian, M C; Pask, J; Yang, L H; Dag, S
2003-11-05
Zincblende half-metallic compounds such as CrAs, with large magnetic moments and high Curie temperatures, are promising materials for spintronic applications. They explore layered materials, consisting of alternating layers of zincblende half-metals, by first principles calculations, and find that superlattices of (CrAs){sub 1}(MnAs){sub 1} and (CrAs){sub 2}(MnAs){sub 2} are half-metallic with magnetic moments of 7.0{mu}{sub B} and 14.0{mu}{sub B} per unit cell, respectively. They discuss the nature of the bonding and half-metallicity in these materials and, based on the understanding acquired, develop a simple expression for the magnetic moment in such materials. They explore the range of lattice constants over which half-metallicity is manifested, and suggest corresponding substrates for growth in thin film form.
Photon transport enhanced by transverse Anderson localization in disordered superlattices
Hsieh, Pin-Chun; McMillan, James; Tsai, Min-An; Lu, Ming; Panoiu, Nicolae; Wong, Chee Wei
2014-01-01
One of the daunting challenges in optical physics is to accurately control the flow of light at the subwavelength scale, by patterning the optical medium one can design anisotropic media. The light transport can also be significantly affected by Anderson localization, namely the wave localization in a disordered medium, a ubiquitous phenomenon in wave physics. Here we report the photon transport and collimation enhanced by transverse Anderson localization in chip-scale dispersion engineered anisotropic media. We demonstrate a new type of anisotropic photonic structure in which diffraction is nearly completely arrested by cascaded resonant tunneling through transverse guided resonances. By perturbing the shape of more than 4,000 scatterers in these superlattices we add structural disordered in a controlled manner and uncover the mechanism of disorder-induced transverse localization at the chip-scale. Arrested spatial divergence is captured in the power-law scaling, along with exponential asymmetric mode profil...
Tunable anisotropic superfluidity in an optical kagome superlattice
Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Tao; Eggert, Sebastian; Pelster, Axel
2015-07-01
We study the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model on the kagome lattice with a broken sublattice symmetry. Such a superlattice structure can naturally be created and tuned by changing the potential offset of one sublattice in the optical generation of the frustrated lattice. The superstructure gives rise to a rich quantum phase diagram, which is analyzed by combining quantum Monte Carlo simulations with the generalized effective potential Landau theory. Mott phases with noninteger filling and a characteristic order along stripes are found, which show a transition to a superfluid phase with an anisotropic superfluid density. Surprisingly, the direction of the superfluid anisotropy can be tuned by changing the particle number, the hopping strength, or the interaction. Finally, we discuss characteristic signatures of anisotropic phases in time-of-flight absorption measurements.
Laser induced structural transformation in chalcogenide based superlattices
Zallo, Eugenio; Wang, Ruining; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella
2016-05-01
Superlattices made of alternating layers of nominal GeTe and Sb2Te3 have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A structural irreversible transformation into ordered GeSbTe alloy is induced by high power laser light exposure. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering under laser illumination gives a maximum average temperature in the sample of 177 °C. The latter is lower than the growth temperature and of 400 °C necessary by annealing to transform the structure in a GeSbTe alloy. The absence of this configuration after in situ annealing even up to 300 °C evidences an electronic excitation induced-transition which brings the system into a different and stable crystalline state.
Influence of impurity on electronic properties of carbon nanotube superlattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AA Shokri
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, electronic properties of single-wall armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs superlattices, n(12,0/m(6,6 and n(12,0/m(11,0 are investigated. For this reason, the topological defects of pentagon–heptagon pairs at interfaces of carbon hexagonal network appear. These defects break the symmetry of the system, and then change the electrical properties. The calculations include two parts: investigation of the structures in the absence and presence of the impurity effect, which are calculated by the nearest-neighbor tight binding model . Out numerical results can be useful in designing nanoelectronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.
An organic donor/acceptor lateral superlattice at the nanoscale.
Otero, Roberto; Ecija, David; Fernandez, Gustavo; Gallego, José María; Sanchez, Luis; Martín, Nazario; Miranda, Rodolfo
2007-09-01
A precise control of the nanometer-scale morphology in systems containing mixtures of donor/acceptor molecules is a key factor to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. Here we report on a scanning tunneling microscopy study of the first stages of growth of 2-[9-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)anthracen-10(9H)-ylidene]-1,3-dithiole, as electron donor, and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, as electron acceptor, on a Au(111) substrate under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Due to differences in bonding strength with the substrate and different interactions with the Au(111) herringbone surface reconstruction, mixed thin films spontaneously segregate into a lateral superlattice of interdigitated nanoscale stripes with a characteristic width of about 10-20 nm, a morphology that has been predicted to optimize the efficiency of organic solar cells.
Titanium-based silicide quantum dot superlattices for thermoelectrics applications.
Savelli, Guillaume; Stein, Sergio Silveira; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Faucherand, Pascal; Montès, Laurent; Dilhaire, Stefan; Pernot, Gilles
2015-07-10
Ti-based silicide quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) are grown by reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition. They are made of titanium-based silicide nanodots scattered in an n-doped SiGe matrix. This is the first time that such nanostructured materials have been grown in both monocrystalline and polycrystalline QDSLs. We studied their crystallographic structures and chemical properties, as well as the size and the density of the quantum dots. The thermoelectric properties of the QDSLs are measured and compared to equivalent SiGe thin films to evaluate the influence of the nanodots. Our studies revealed an increase in their thermoelectric properties-specifically, up to a trifold increase in the power factor, with a decrease in the thermal conductivity-making them very good candidates for further thermoelectric applications in cooling or energy-harvesting fields.
Designing magnetic superlattices that are composed of single domain nanomagnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derek M. Forrester
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Background: The complex nature of the magnetic interactions between any number of nanosized elements of a magnetic superlattice can be described by the generic behavior that is presented here. The hysteresis characteristics of interacting elliptical nanomagnets are described by a quasi-static method that identifies the critical boundaries between magnetic phases. A full dynamical analysis is conducted in complement to this and the deviations from the quasi-static analysis are highlighted. Each phase is defined by the configuration of the magnetic moments of the chain of single domain nanomagnets and correspondingly the existence of parallel, anti-parallel and canting average magnetization states.Results: We give examples of the phase diagrams in terms of anisotropy and coupling strength for two, three and four magnetic layers. Each phase diagrams character is defined by the shape of the magnetic hysteresis profile for a system in an applied magnetic field. We present the analytical solutions that enable one to define the “phase” boundaries between the emergence of spin-flop, anti-parallel and parallel configurations. The shape of the hysteresis profile is a function of the coupling strength between the nanomagnets and examples are given of how it dictates a systems magnetic response. Many different paths between metastable states can exist and this can lead to instabilities and fluctuations in the magnetization.Conclusion: With these phase diagrams one can find the most stable magnetic configurations against perturbations so as to create magnetic devices. On the other hand, one may require a magnetic system that can easily be switched between phases, and so one can use the information herein to design superlattices of the required shape and character by choosing parameters close to the phase boundaries. This work will be useful when designing future spintronic devices, especially those manipulating the properties of CoFeB compounds.
Structural and optical investigation of InAsxP1-x/InP strained superlattices
Lamberti, C.; Bordiga, S.; Boscherini, F.; Mobilio, S.; Pascarelli, S.; Gastaldi, L.; Madella, M.; Papuzza, C.; Rigo, C.; Soldani, D.; Ferrari, C.; Lazzarini, L.; Salviati, G.
1998-01-01
We report a complete characterization of InAsxP1-x/InP (0.05
Negative Magnetoresistance in Silicon Doped AlAs-GaAs Short Period Superlattices
Gougam, A. B.; Sicart, J.; Robert, J. L.
1997-01-01
We report the negative magnetoresistance effect observed in GaAs-AlAs short period superlattices doped selectively in GaAs or in AlAs or doped uniformly. This doping technique introduces deep donor states with different thermal activation energies. Consequently, the low temperature electron concentration is different in samples doped at the same silicon concentration. We find the magnetic correction to the conductivity increasing with the free carrier density. The low magnetic field data are interpreted in the framework of a weak localization model derived from the Kawabata theory in 3D anisotropic systems. The theory of effective mass in superlattices is applied and we find that the inelastic scattering time does not depend on the doping modulation. Nous présentons des résultats de magnétorésistance négative obtenus avec des superréseaux à courte période de GaAs-AlAs dopés au silicium sélectivement dans GaAs ou AlAs et uniformément dopés. Ce type de dopage permet d'introduire des niveaux donneurs d'énergie d'activation thermique différents. Ceci permet d'obtenir à basse température des concentrations d'électrons différentes à partir d'une concentration initiale de dopant identique pour tous les échantillons. Nous mettons ainsi en évidence une correction magnétique à la conductivité qui augmente avec la densité de porteurs libres. Les mesures à faible champ sont interprétées en termes de faible localisation à partir du modèle de Kawabata 3D dans lequel l'anisotropie de masse effective du superréseau est introduite. Nous trouvons que le temps de diffusion inélastique ne dépend pas de la modulation de dopage.
Trends in (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m superlattices with varying layer thicknesses
Jilili, J.
2015-09-01
We investigate the thickness dependence of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m (n, m = 2, 4, 6, 8) superlattices using density functional theory. The electronic structure turns out to be highly sensitive to the onsite Coulomb interaction. In contrast to bulk SrTiO3, strongly distorted O octahedra are observed in the SrTiO3 layers with a systematic off centering of the Ti atoms. The systems favour ferromagnetic spin ordering rather than the antiferromagnetic spin ordering of bulk LaMnO3 and all show half-metallicity, while a systematic reduction of the minority spin band gaps as a function of the LaMnO3 and SrTiO3 layer thicknesses originates from modifications of the Ti dxy states.
Investigation of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of GaAs/AlAs Superlattices
Li, Ran
The thermal conductivities of superlattices are essential to improve the properties of thermoelectrics and optoelectronics; however, limited results in relation to both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities have been reported. A convenient, effective, and accurate experimental method is required to improve the current research on the thermal properties of superlattices. We conducted an experimental research study on two GaAs/AlAs superlattice samples with a total superlattice layer thickness of 2 microm using a combination of the 2-omega and 3-omega techniques. The samples have period thicknesses of 4 nm and 10 nm, respectively. To explore the thermal conductivities of the substrate and insulation layer of the superlattice samples indirectly, a controlled sample with the same structure, but without a superlattice layer, is used. We obtained the thermal conductivities of the GaAs substrate and insulation layer (SiO2 thin film) using the 3-omega technique and FEM simulation model. We also explored the deviation of the experimental results of the 2-omega technique from the Fourier's Law through the controlled sample. These parameters obtained from the controlled sample are used in the data analysis in the following superlattice research. In the superlattice study, we combine the 3-omega and 2-omega techniques to characterize the anisotropic thermal conductivity of GaAs/AlAs superlattice from the same wafer. The in-plane thermal conductivity, cross-plane thermal conductivity, and anisotropy are obtained from the same wafer by comparing the experimental results with the FEM simulated results. This combination works fine in general and demonstrates a significant reduction in thermal conductivity compared to that of equivalent bulk materials. Superlattices with different period thicknesses but the same total superlattice thickness present a significant difference in both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the superlattices. However, we
Broadband Midwave Infrared InAs/GaSb Superlattice Light-Emitting Diodes
Ricker, Russell; Provence, Sydney; Norton, Dennis; Prineas, John; Boggess, Thomas
Broadband (3.0 μm to 5.0 μm) emission is reported from InAs/GaSb superlattice light-emitting diodes grown via molecular beam epitaxy . Stacked active regions, each with a different emission wavelength, were connected with tunnel junctions, resulting in multiple emission wavelengths in a monolithic structure. Eight active regions provided eight overlapping emission spectra, simulating a broadband spectrum. Chips with mesas of sizes ranging from 24 μm x 24 μm to 400 μm x 400 μm were fabricated and wire bonded to a leadless chip carrier (LCC). The LCC was mounted in a liquid nitrogen cryostat. At low input currents, distinct peaks were observed at 3.3 μm, 3.6 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.2 μm, 4.5 μm, 4.9 μm, and 5.3 μm. At high input currents a continuous spectrum was observed with a peak near 3.8 μm and with a full-width at half-maximum of 1.42 μm. In quasi-continuous operation at 77 K, radiances exceeding 0.35 W/cm2-sr in a Lambertian profile were achieved. Current dependent electroluminescent spectra measured at liquid nitrogen temperatures demonstrate the blending of the various colors from each stage into one smooth spectrum at high currents.
Strain Engineering of the Band Gap of HgTe Quantum Wells Using Superlattice Virtual Substrates
Leubner, Philipp; Lunczer, Lukas; Brüne, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.
2016-08-01
The HgTe quantum well (QW) is a well-characterized two-dimensional topological insulator (2D TI). Its band gap is relatively small (typically on the order of 10 meV), which restricts the observation of purely topological conductance to low temperatures. Here, we utilize the strain dependence of the band structure of HgTe QWs to address this limitation. We use CdTe-Cd 0.5Zn0.5Te strained-layer superlattices on GaAs as virtual substrates with adjustable lattice constant to control the strain of the QW. We present magnetotransport measurements, which demonstrate a transition from a semimetallic to a 2D-TI regime in wide QWs, when the strain is changed from tensile to compressive. Most notably, we demonstrate a much enhanced energy gap of 55 meV in heavily compressively strained QWs. This value exceeds the highest possible gap on common II-VI substrates by a factor of 2-3, and extends the regime where the topological conductance prevails to much higher temperatures.
Investigation of resonant Raman scattering in type II GaAs/AlAs superlattices
Choi, H
2001-01-01
GAMMA-related Type I outgoing RR spectra within several theoretical models. Thereby, the mechanisms of the Type II RR scattering, the origins of the RR lineshape and the polarisation dependence, are fully explained, clarifying the spectral features observed in the GaAs zone-centre optic phonon region. The Type II resonance also allows the observation of zone boundary (X-point) phonons from intervalley (IV) scattering. A model of the IV electron-phonon interaction involving X conduction band electrons and zone boundary phonons in Type II SLs is presented. With the predicted SL selection rules for IV scattering, the simultaneous observation of both the zone-boundary longitudinal acoustic and optic phonons can be understood and the spectral features quantitatively explained. As a consequence of the band alignment in GaAs/AIAs superlattices (SLs) and the indirect nature of bulk AIAs, quantum confinement can be used to engineer a Type II system. This produces an electron population in the AIAs longitudinal (X sub ...
Superlattice of Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and nanolayers for spintronics application.
Nie, Tianxiao; Kou, Xufeng; Tang, Jianshi; Fan, Yabin; Lang, Murong; Chang, Li-Te; Chu, Chia-Pu; He, Liang; Lee, Sheng-Wei; Xiu, Faxian; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L
2014-12-19
Fe(x)Ge(1-x) superlattices with two types of nanostructures, i.e. nanodots and nanolayers, were successfully fabricated using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization clearly shows that both the Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and nanolayers exhibit a lattice-coherent structure with the surrounding Ge matrix without any metallic precipitations or secondary phases. The magnetic measurement reveals the nature of superparamagnetism in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots, while showing the absence of superparamagnetism in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanolayers. Magnetotransport measurements show distinct magnetoresistance (MR) behavior, i.e. a negative to positive MR transition in Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanodots and only positive MR in nanolayers, which could be due to a competition between the orbital MR and spin-dependent scatterings. Our results open a new growth strategy for engineering Fe(x)Ge(1-x) nanostructures to facilitate the development of Ge-based spintronics and magnetoelectronics devices.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R T Tagiyeva
2004-09-01
Localized magnetic polaritons are investigated in the systems consisting of two magnetic superlattices, coupled by a ferromagnetic contact layer. The general dispersion relation for localized magnetic polaritons are derived in the framework of the electromagnetic wave theory in the Voigt geometry by the `transfer' matrix method. The numerical calculations were carried out for different parameters of the superlattices and contact layer and then discussed.
Giant piezoelectric response in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect
Liu, Chang; Wu, Huaping; Wang, Jie
2016-11-01
Flexoelectricity describes the linear response of electrical polarization to a strain gradient, which can be used to enhance the piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric material or realize the piezoelectric effect in nonpiezoelectric materials. Here, we demonstrate from thermodynamics theory that a giant piezoelectric effect exists in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect. The apparent piezoelectric coefficient is calculated from the closed-form of analytical expression of the polarization distribution in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice subjected to a normal stress, in which the flexoelectric effect is included. It is found that there exists a strong nonlinear coupling between the flexoelectric and piezoelectric effects, which significantly enhances the apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice. For a specific thickness ratio of the piezoelectric and dielectric layers, the enhanced apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the superlattice is ten times larger than that of its pure piezoelectric counterpart. The present work suggests an effective way to obtain giant apparent piezoelectric effect in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices through flexoelectric effect.
MgO/Cu2O Superlattices: Growth of Epitaxial Two-Dimensional Nanostructures
Yang, M. J.; Wadekar, P. V.; Hsieh, W. C.; Huang, H. C.; Lin, C. W.; Chou, J. W.; Liao, C. H.; Chang, C. F.; Seo, H. W.; You, S. T.; Tu, L. W.; Lo, I. K.; Ho, N. J.; Yeh, S. W.; Liao, H. H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chu, W. K.
2016-12-01
Alternated stacking of dissimilar layers can produce novel superlattice materials with multiple functionalities. The majority of such work reported in literature on epitaxial superlattices has been on alternating layers with the same space group (SG) and crystal structure (CS), whereas superlattices with the same CS but different SG have not been studied as much. We have grown superlattices with two well-known oxide materials, viz. cuprite (Cu2O, CS = cubic and SG = Pn bar{3} m) and magnesium oxide (MgO, CS = cubic, SG = Fm bar{3} m). An MgO buffer layer grown near 650°C at the film-substrate interface was found to be essential to achieving reasonable long-range atomic order. Grazing-angle x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, and electron diffraction analyses as well as transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the interface abruptness, smoothness, and general crystallinity of the individual layers. Interdiffusion between MgO and Cu2O near interfacial regions places a limit of 250°C on the growth temperature for fabrication of superlattices with reasonably sharp interfaces.
Mukherjee, Debangshu; Stone, Greg; Moon, Eun Ju; Young, Joshua; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Rondinelli, James; May, Steven; Alem, Nasim
The brownmillerite phase A2B2O5 consists of ordered oxygen vacancies in alternate perovskite layers forming chiral tetrahedral chains. The handedness of these tetrahedral chains control the polarization of the structure. The current study focuses on 1-1 brownmillerite superlattices grown on a SrTiO3 substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. The B-site in this structure is iron throughout the superlattice film, while the A-site alternates between calcium and strontium in the superlattice layers. In this study, we use atomic resolution aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to investigate the structure and chemistry of the film-substrate interface as well as the chemical structure of the superlattice. Atom positions are determined to measure displacement vectors of A-site cations in the superlattice structure. D.M., G.A.S., V.G. and N.A. were supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1420620. E.J.M. and S.J.M. were supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1151649.
Energy landscape of self-assembled superlattices of PbSe nanocrystals.
Quan, Zewei; Wu, Di; Zhu, Jinlong; Evers, Wiel H; Boncella, James M; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Wang, Zhongwu; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Xu, Hongwu
2014-06-24
Self-assembly of nanocrystals (NCs) into superlattices is an intriguing multiscale phenomenon that may lead to materials with novel collective properties, in addition to the unique properties of individual NCs compared with their bulk counterparts. By using different dispersion solvents, we synthesized three types of PbSe NC superlattices--body-centered cubic (bcc), body-centered tetragonal (bct), and face-centered cubic (fcc)--as confirmed by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Solution calorimetric measurements in hexane show that the enthalpy of formation of the superlattice from dispersed NCs is on the order of -2 kJ/mol. The calorimetric measurements reveal that the bcc superlattice is the energetically most stable polymorph, with the bct being 0.32 and the fcc 0.55 kJ/mol higher in enthalpy. This stability sequence is consistent with the decreased packing efficiency of PbSe NCs from bcc (17.2%) to bct (16.0%) and to fcc (15.2%). The small enthalpy differences among the three polymorphs confirm a closely spaced energy landscape and explain the ease of formation of different NC superlattices at slightly different synthesis conditions.
Temperature Dependence of Short-Range Order in β-Brass
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage
1967-01-01
Critical scattering of neutrons around the superlattice reflections (1, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) from a single crystal of beta-brass has been measured at temperatures from 2 to 25deg C above the transition temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical peak intensity, proportional to the susc......Critical scattering of neutrons around the superlattice reflections (1, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) from a single crystal of beta-brass has been measured at temperatures from 2 to 25deg C above the transition temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical peak intensity, proportional...
Crossover from incoherent to coherent phonon scattering in epitaxial oxide superlattices
Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Yadav, Ajay K.; Cheaito, Ramez; Rossen, Pim B.; Soukiassian, Arsen; Suresha, S. J.; Duda, John C.; Foley, Brian M.; Lee, Che-Hui; Zhu, Ye; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Moore, Joel E.; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Majumdar, Arun; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zurbuchen, Mark A.
2014-02-01
Elementary particles such as electrons or photons are frequent subjects of wave-nature-driven investigations, unlike collective excitations such as phonons. The demonstration of wave-particle crossover, in terms of macroscopic properties, is crucial to the understanding and application of the wave behaviour of matter. We present an unambiguous demonstration of the theoretically predicted crossover from diffuse (particle-like) to specular (wave-like) phonon scattering in epitaxial oxide superlattices, manifested by a minimum in lattice thermal conductivity as a function of interface density. We do so by synthesizing superlattices of electrically insulating perovskite oxides and systematically varying the interface density, with unit-cell precision, using two different epitaxial-growth techniques. These observations open up opportunities for studies on the wave nature of phonons, particularly phonon interference effects, using oxide superlattices as model systems, with extensive applications in thermoelectrics and thermal management.
Rashidian, Z.; Hajati, Y.; Rezaeipour, S.; Baher, S.
2017-02-01
The spin and valley transports in a superlattice of normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction are studied theoretically. Transport properties in particular valley-resolved conductance, spin and valley polarization have been computed by the Landauer Buttiker formula. We achieve fully valley and spin polarized current in the superlattice N/F/N structure. Our findings also imply that by increasing the number of ferromagnetic barriers, the onset of fully spin and valley polarized current always occur for lower values of staggered potential(Δz/E) and length of the ferromagnetic region (Kf L) in the silicene supelattice structure as compared with N/F/N silicene junction. Fully spin and valley polarizations make silicene superlattice a suitable candidate for spin-valleytronics applications.
The Tip-Induced Twisted Bilayer Graphene Superlattice on HOPG: Capillary Attraction Effect
Yin, Long Jing; Feng, Ke Ke; Dou, Rui-Fen; Nie, Jia-Cai
2014-01-01
We use the tip of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to manipulate single weakly bound nanometer-sized sheets on the the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface through artifically increasing the tip and sample interaction in humid environment. By this means it is possible to tear apart a graphite sheet againt a step and fold this part onto the HOPG surface and thus generate the gaphene superlattices with hexagonal symmetry. The tip and sample surface interactions, including the van der Waals force, eletrostatic force and capillary attraction force originating from the Laplace pressure due to the formation of a highly curved fluid meniscus connecting the tip and sample, are discussed in details to understand the fromation mechnism of graphen superlattice induced by the STM tip. Especially, the capillary force is the key role in manipulating the graphite surface sheet in the hunmidity condition. Our approach may provides a simple and feasible route to prepare the controllable superlattices and g...
Noise-enhanced spontaneous chaos in semiconductor superlattices at room temperature
Alvaro, M.; Carretero, M.; Bonilla, L. L.
2014-08-01
Physical systems exhibiting fast spontaneous chaotic oscillations are used to generate high-quality true random sequences in random number generators. The concept of using fast practical entropy sources to produce true random sequences is crucial to make storage and transfer of data more secure at very high speeds. While the first high-speed devices were chaotic semiconductor lasers, the discovery of spontaneous chaos in semiconductor superlattices at room temperature provides a valuable nanotechnology alternative. Spontaneous chaos was observed in 1996 experiments at temperatures below liquid nitrogen. Here we show spontaneous chaos at room temperature appears in idealized superlattices for voltage ranges where sharp transitions between different oscillation modes occur. Internal and external noises broaden these voltage ranges and enhance the sensitivity to initial conditions in the superlattice snail-shaped chaotic attractor thereby rendering spontaneous chaos more robust.
Deng, Hanying; Malomed, Boris A; Chen, Xianfeng; Panoiu, Nicolae C
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that graphene-based photonic superlattices provide a versatile platform for electrical and all-optical control of photonic beams with deep-subwavelength accuracy. Specifically, by inserting graphene sheets into periodic metallo-dielectric structures one can design optical superlattices that posses photonic Dirac points (DPs) at frequencies at which the spatial average of the permittivity of the superlattice, $\\bar{ \\varepsilon}$, vanishes. Similar to the well-known zero-$\\bar{n}$ bandgaps, we show that these zero-$\\bar{\\varepsilon}$ DPs are highly robust against structural disorder. We also show that, by tuning the graphene permittivity via the optical Kerr effect or electrical doping, one can induce a spectral variation of the DP exceeding \\SI{30}{\
Phonon-pumped terahertz gain in n-type GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices
Sun, Gregory; Soref, Richard A.
2001-05-01
Local population inversion and far-IR gain are proposed and theoretically analyzed for an unbiased n-doped GaAs/Al0.15Ga0.85As superlattice pumped solely by phonons. The lasing transition occurs at the Brillouin zone boundary of the superlattice wave vector kz between the two conduction minibands CB1 and CB2 of the opposite curvature in kz space. The proposed waveguided structure is contacted above and below by heat sinks at 300 K and 77 K, respectively. Atop the superlattice, a heat buffer layer confines longitudinal optical phonons for enhanced optical-phonon pumping of CB1 electrons. A gain of 345 cm-1 at 4.5 THz is predicted for a doping density of 2.8×1016cm-3.
Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Superlattices from an Adiabatic Bond Charge Model
Ward, Alistair; Broido, David
2007-03-01
The adiabatic bond charge model (ABCM) has successfully rendered phonon dispersions of a host of bulk semiconductors [1,2] and has also been used to calculate the phonon dispersions in quantum well superlattices [3]. We have developed an ABCM for superlattices and combined it with a symmetry-based representation of the anharmonic interatomic forces to calculate the lattice thermal conductivity of short-period superlattices, using an iterative solution to the Boltzmann-Peierls equation [4]. We compare our ABCM results with those obtained from some commonly used models for the interatomic forces in semiconductors to assess the importance of accurate descriptions of the phonon dispersions in thermal conductivity calculations. [1] W. Weber, Physical Review B 15, 4789 (1977). [2] K. C. Rustagi and W. Weber, Solid State Communications 18, 673 (1976). [3] S. K. Yip and Y. C. Chang, Physical Review B 30 7037 (1984). [4] D. A. Broido, A. Ward, and N. Mingo, Physical Review B 72, 014308 (2005).
Synthesis and electrical properties of In2O3(ZnO)m superlattice nanobelt
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐欣月; 高红; 武立立; 温静; 潘思明; 刘欣; 张喜田
2015-01-01
One-dimensional (1D) In2O3(ZnO)m superlattice nanobelts are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. The formation of In2O3(ZnO)m superlattice is verified by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The typical zigzag boundaries could be clearly observed. An additional peak at 614 cm−1 is found in the Raman spec-trum, which may correspond to the superlattice structure. The study about the electrical transport properties reveals that the In2O3(ZnO)m nanobelts exhibit peculiar nonlinear I–V characteristics even under the Ohmic contact measurement con-dition, which are different from the Ohmic behaviors of the In-doped ZnO nanobelts. The photoelectrical measurements show the differences in photocurrent property between them, and their transport mechanisms are also discussed.
Nanoscale form dictates mesoscale function in plasmonic DNA–nanoparticle superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ross, Michael B.; Ku, Jessie C.; Vaccarezza, Victoria M.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin , Chad A. (NWU)
2016-06-15
The nanoscale manipulation of matter allows properties to be created in a material that would be difficult or even impossible to achieve in the bulk state. Progress towards such functional nanoscale architectures requires the development of methods to precisely locate nanoscale objects in three dimensions and for the formation of rigorous structure–function relationships across multiple size regimes (beginning from the nanoscale). Here, we use DNA as a programmable ligand to show that two- and three-dimensional mesoscale superlattice crystals with precisely engineered optical properties can be assembled from the bottom up. The superlattices can transition from exhibiting the properties of the constituent plasmonic nanoparticles to adopting the photonic properties defined by the mesoscale crystal (here a rhombic dodecahedron) by controlling the spacing between the gold nanoparticle building blocks. Furthermore, we develop a generally applicable theoretical framework that illustrates how crystal habit can be a design consideration for controlling far-field extinction and light confinement in plasmonic metamaterial superlattices.
Wannier-Stark localization and terahertz electroluminescence of natural SiC superlattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sankin, V. I.; Andrianov, A. V.; Petrov, A. G.; Zakhar' in, A. O. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2013-12-04
We report on efficient terahertz electroluminescence in the region of 1.5-2 THz from high electric field biased 6H-SiC n{sup +}−n{sup −}−n{sup +} structures with a natural superlattice at 7 K. The properties of the terahertz emission allow it to be attributed to spontaneous radiation resulting from electron Bloch oscillations in SiC natural superlattice. The use of the unique object, namely, natural superlattice of SiC allowed us to demonstrate a whole series of remarkable effects of Wannier-Stark localization and to get the intensive terahertz emission under steady-state electrical excitation of Bloch oscillations.
Enhancing chaotic behavior at room temperature in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As superlattices
Ruiz-Garcia, M.; Essen, J.; Carretero, M.; Bonilla, L. L.; Birnir, B.
2017-02-01
Previous theoretical and experimental work has put forward 50-period semiconductor superlattices as fast, true random number generators at room temperature. Their randomness stems from feedback between nonlinear electronic dynamics and stochastic processes that are intrinsic to quantum transitions. This paper theoretically demonstrates that shorter superlattices with higher potential barriers contain fully chaotic dynamics over several intervals of the applied bias voltage compared to the 50-period device which presented a much weaker chaotic behavior. The chaos arises from deterministic dynamics, hence it persists even in the absence of additional stochastic processes. Moreover, the frequency of the chaotic current oscillations is higher for shorter superlattices. These features should allow for faster and more robust generation of true random numbers.
Effect of roughness on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in (Co90Fe10/Pt)n superlattices
Qiu, Jinjun; Meng, Zhaoliang; Yang, Yi; Ying, Ji Feng; Yap, Qi Jia; Han, Guchang
2016-05-01
Superlattice [Co90Fe10(0.21)/Pt(0.23)]n (unit in nm) with the repeat cycles n ranging from 3 to 30 were studied. Both effective anisotropy (Keff) and PMA constant (KU) reached a maximum at n=8. When the 3 nm Pt underlayer was deposited at low energy condition, the Keff and KU of (CoFe/Pt)8 are 4.0 and 6.1 Merg/cc, respectively. On the other hand, the Keff and KU increased to 6.8 and 9.7 Merg/cc, respectively, when the Pt underlayer deposited at high energy condition. As the n increases, the surface roughness monotonously increases and d111 inside the superlattice layers increase and relax from bottom to top part. The interface roughness and relaxation in superlattice reduce the PMA considerably.
Effect of roughness on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in (Co90Fe10/Ptn superlattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinjun Qiu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Superlattice [Co90Fe10(0.21/Pt(0.23]n (unit in nm with the repeat cycles n ranging from 3 to 30 were studied. Both effective anisotropy (Keff and PMA constant (KU reached a maximum at n=8. When the 3 nm Pt underlayer was deposited at low energy condition, the Keff and KU of (CoFe/Pt8 are 4.0 and 6.1 Merg/cc, respectively. On the other hand, the Keff and KU increased to 6.8 and 9.7 Merg/cc, respectively, when the Pt underlayer deposited at high energy condition. As the n increases, the surface roughness monotonously increases and d111 inside the superlattice layers increase and relax from bottom to top part. The interface roughness and relaxation in superlattice reduce the PMA considerably.
Modeling functional piezoelectricity in perovskite superlattices with competing instabilities
Swartz, Charles; Wu, Xifan
2012-02-01
Multi-component Perovskite Superlattices (SLs) of the form ABO3, provide a very promising avenue for the design of materials with multifunctional properties. Furthermore the interfaces of such multi-component SLs are home to competing anti-ferrodistortive and ferroelectric instabilities which can produce unexpected functionalities. However, at present first principles calculations exceeding more than 10 units cells, are particularly costly as they scale with the valence electrons as N^3. We present a first-principles modeling technique that allows us to accurately model the piezoelectric strains of paraelectric/ferroelectric SLs, BaTiO3/CaTiO3 and PbTiO3/SrTiO3, under a fixed displacement field. The model is based on a maximally localized wannier center layer polarization technique, as well as a truncated cluster expansion, that makes use of the fact that such PE/FE SLs have been shown to have highly localized ionic and electronic interface effects. The prediction of the piezoelectricity for a SL of an arbitrary stacking sequence will be demonstrated. We also use our model to conduct a systemic study of the interface effects on piezoelectric response in the above SLs paying special attention to a strong non-linear effect observed in Bulk SrTiO3.
Thiol passivation of MWIR type II superlattice photodetectors
Salihoglu, O.; Muti, A.; Aydinli, A.
2013-06-01
Poor passivation on photodetectors can result in catastrophic failure of the device. Abrupt termination of mesa side walls during pixel definition generates dangling bonds that lead to inversion layers and surface traps leading to surface leakage currents that short circuit diode action. Good passivation, therefore, is critical in the fabrication of high performance devices. Silicondioxide has been the main stay of passivation for commercial photodetectors, deposited at high temperatures and high RF powers using plasma deposition techniques. In photodetectors based on III-V compounds, sulphur passivation has been shown to replace oxygen and saturate the dangling bonds. Despite its effectiveness, it degrades over time. More effort is required to create passivation layers which eliminate surface leakage current. In this work, we propose the use of sulphur based octadecanethiol (ODT), CH3(CH2)17SH, as a passivation layer for the InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors that acts as a self assembled monolayer (SAM). ODT SAMs consist of a chain of 18 carbon atoms with a sulphur atom at its head. ODT Thiol coating is a simple process that consist of dipping the sample into the solution for a prescribed time. Excellent electrical performance of diodes tested confirm the effectiveness of the sulphur head stabilized by the intermolecular interaction due to van der Walls forces between the long chains of ODT SAM which results in highly stable ultrathin hydrocarbon layers without long term degradation.
One-way electromagnetic waveguide using multiferroic Fibonacci superlattices
Tang, Zhenghua; Lei, Dajun; Huang, Jianquan; Jin, Gui; Qiu, Feng; Yan, Wenyan
2015-12-01
The multiferroic Fibonacci superlattices (MFSs) are composed of single-phase multiferroic domains with polarization and magnetization according to the rule of Fibonacci sequence. We propose to construct a one-way electromagnetic waveguide by the MFSs. The forbidden band structures of the MFSs for the forward and backward electromagnetic waves are not completely overlapped, and an obvious translation between them occurs around the fixed point ω bar = 1 with broken time-reversal and space inversion symmetries (TRSIS), which indicates the existence of one-way electromagnetic modes in the MFSs. Transmission spectrum is utilized to present this property and to indicate further one-way electromagnetic modes lying within the polaritonic band gap. The maximum forbidden bandwidth (divided by midgap frequency) of 5.4% for the backward electromagnetic wave (BEW) is found, in which the forward electromagnetic wave (FEW) can pass. The functions of one-way propagation modes and polaritonic band gap integrated into the MFSs can miniaturize the one-way photonic devices. The properties can also be applied to construct compact microwave isolators.
Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects
He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng
2016-11-01
Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11404090, and 11674026), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2015205189), the Hebei Education Department Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. QN2014022), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China.
Ge/SiGe superlattices for nanostructured thermoelectric modules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chrastina, D., E-mail: daniel@chrastina.net [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Cecchi, S. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Hague, J.P. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Frigerio, J. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Samarelli, A.; Ferre–Llin, L.; Paul, D.J. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Müller, E. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zurich (EMEZ), ETH-Zürich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J. [Institut für Halbleiter und Festkörperphysik, Universität Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Isella, G. [L-NESS Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy)
2013-09-30
Thermoelectrics are presently used in a number of applications for both turning heat into electricity and also for using electricity to produce cooling. Mature Si/SiGe and Ge/SiGe heteroepitaxial growth technology would allow highly efficient thermoelectric materials to be engineered, which would be compatible and integrable with complementary metal oxide silicon micropower circuits used in autonomous systems. A high thermoelectric figure of merit requires that electrical conductivity be maintained while thermal conductivity is reduced; thermoelectric figures of merit can be improved with respect to bulk thermoelectric materials by fabricating low-dimensional structures which enhance the density of states near the Fermi level and through phonon scattering at heterointerfaces. We have grown and characterized Ge-rich Ge/SiGe/Si superlattices for nanofabricated thermoelectric generators. Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has been used to obtain nanoscale-heterostructured material which is several microns thick. Crystal quality and strain control have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the material and interface quality. Electrical conductivity has been characterized by the mobility spectrum technique. - Highlights: ► High-quality Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells for thermoelectric applications ► Mobility spectra of systems featuring a large number of parallel conduction channels ► Competitive thermoelectric properties measured in single devices.
Study of Crystals Semiconductors in Superlattices via Quantum Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
*1A. L. C. L. Jamshidi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This work analyzes, from the effects related to the processes of transportation of carrier and the changes in the electronic structure of semiconductors materials due to the presence of defects and disorders in the crystalline net. These defects are located in specific areas of the material and either interact or remain inert. In general, they are described by local wave functions. The study of superlattices of semiconductor crystal considers important parameters such as disorder effects in crystals and the alternate periodic growth of the layer of two semiconductors with different gaps and minigaps energies. The quantum mechanical calculations are applied for determining the physical properties of the semiconductors crystals. This study encompasses the effects of defects and the crystalline disorders evaluation by quantum mechanics. Further, it is discuss the presence of defects in the periodic, quasiperiodic and disordered arrangements. The theoretical approach use to understand the mechanism and the results of experimental techniques in which are characterized the current and optic transportation of a semiconductor crystal.
Hetero-engineering infrared detectors with type-II superlattices
Tian, Z.-B.; DeCuir, E. A.; Gautam, N.; Krishna, S.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Pattison, J. W.; Dhar, N.; Welser, R. E.; Sood, A. K.
2013-09-01
InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2-SLs) are of great interest as they provide a lot of band engineering flexibility. A wide variety of unipolar barrier structures have been investigated with this material system. In this report, we will present our recent work on the development of low noise long-wave infrared (LWIR) InAs/GaSb T2-SLs photodetectors. By adopting a so-called pBiBn design, the dark current of LWIR photodetectors is greatly suppressed. The LWIR pBiBn device has demonstrated a dark current density as low as 1.42×10-5 A/cm2 at -60 mV, and R0A of 5365 Ωcm2 at 76 K. A peak detectivity at 7.8 μm of 7.7×1011 cmHz1/2W-1 is obtained at 76 K. Further effort to reduce the operating bias is also reported. By refining the energy-band alignment, a 2-μm-thick LWIR pBiBn device has demonstrated a single pass (no AR coating) quantum efficiency of 20% at 10 μm under zero-bias at 77 K. We have recently extended our efforts to further reduce the dark current by using an interband cascade (IC) photodetector structure. Some further details about the device operation and results will be discussed.
Dimensionality Control of d-orbital Occupation in Oxide Superlattices
Jeong, Da Woon; Choi, Woo Seok; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Kyung Wan; Moon, Soon Jae; Cho, Deok-Yong; Lee, Ho Nyung; Noh, Tae Won
2014-08-01
Manipulating the orbital state in a strongly correlated electron system is of fundamental and technological importance for exploring and developing novel electronic phases. Here, we report an unambiguous demonstration of orbital occupancy control between t2g and eg multiplets in quasi-two-dimensional transition metal oxide superlattices (SLs) composed of a Mott insulator LaCoO3 and a band insulator LaAlO3. As the LaCoO3 sublayer thickness approaches its fundamental limit (i.e. one unit-cell-thick), the electronic state of the SLs changed from a Mott insulator, in which both t2g and eg orbitals are partially filled, to a band insulator by completely filling (emptying) the t2g (eg) orbitals. We found the reduction of dimensionality has a profound effect on the electronic structure evolution, which is, whereas, insensitive to the epitaxial strain. The remarkable orbital controllability shown here offers a promising pathway for novel applications such as catalysis and photovoltaics, where the energy of d level is an essential parameter.
Development of Type-II superlattice VLWIR detectors in JAXA
Sakai, Michito; Murooka, Jumpei; Kumeta, Ayaka; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Inada, Hiroshi; Iguchi, Yasuhiro; Hiroe, Yuta; Kimata, Masafumi
2017-02-01
One of JAXA's future missions, using an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), requires the focal plane array (FPA) that has high sensitivity up to the very long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR) region. Since a Type-II superlattice (T2SL) is the only known infrared material to exhibit performance that is theoretically predicted to be higher than that of HgCdTe additionally the cutoff wavelength can be tailored in the wavelength region of 3-30 μm, we started the research and development of the T2SL detector in 2009. In order to confirm our final goal, which is to realize the FPA with a cutoff wavelength of 15 μm, we first fabricated the 320 × 256 (QVGA format) InAs/GaInSb T2SL FPA with a cutoff wavelength of 15 μm, and the large-format 640 × 512 (VGA format) T2SL FPA is followed because the other missions, using an infrared imager, require the large-format FPA. The noise-equivalent delta temperature measured with F1.4 optics was 0.15 K for QVGA format T2SL FPA at 77 K. It was 0.35 K for VGA format T2SL FPA at 77 K, but there is non-uniformity, and further improvements are necessary to achieve high performance FPAs.
Direct probing of vertical electron movement in superlattices by sub-picosecond luminescence
Deveaud, B.; Chomette, A.; Clérot, F.; Lambert, B.; Auvray, P.; Gauneau, M.; Regreny, A.
Vertical transport in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices is probed in structures with graded composition. Such structures allow boi to impose a quasi-electric field to the carriers and to evidence the carrier movement by the temporal changes in the luminescence lineshape. The fit of this lineshape by a drift-diffusion model gives the transport properties of electrons. High mobility of the electrons is evidenced for the shortest period superlattices, in agreement with previous optical measurements. Smaller mobilities are observed when the miniband width becomes smaller.
Fabrication of Si/SiO2 Superlattice Microwire Array Solar Cells Using Microsphere Lithography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shigeru Yamada
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A fabrication process for silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2 superlattice microwire array solar cells was developed. The Si/SiO2 superlattice microwire array was fabricated using a microsphere lithography process with polystyrene particles. The solar cell shows a photovoltaic effect and an open-circuit voltage of 128 mV was obtained. The limiting factors of the solar cell performance were investigated from the careful observations of the solar cell structures. We also investigated the influence of the microwire array structure on light trapping in the solar cells.
Molecular dynamics simulation of thermal conductivity of GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawamura, Takahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)
2007-06-15
We calculated thermal conductivity of GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices by molecular dynamics simulation. The results of investigation of the effect of quantum dots on thermal conductivity as a function of superlattice period are presented in this paper. An empirical potential function of Stillinger-Weber potential was used for simulations. Thermal conductivity was obtained by Green-Kubo's equation. The results show that the values of thermal conductivity parallel to the wetting layers decreased due to the effect of quantum dots. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Investigation of InAs/GaSb-based superlattices by diffraction methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashuach, Y.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lakin, E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zolotoyabko, E., E-mail: zloto@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Grossman, S.; Klin, O.; Weiss, E. [SCD, SemiConductor Devices, P. O. Box 2250, Haifa 31021 (Israel)
2010-02-15
We use high-resolution X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy in order to study the strain state, atomic intermixing and layer thicknesses in the MBE-grown GaSb/InSb/InAs/InSb superlattices. Simple and fast metrology procedure is developed, which allows us to obtain the most important technological parameters, such as the thicknesses of the GaSb, InAs and ultra-thin InSb sub-layers, the superlattice period and the fraction of atomic substitutions in the InSb sub-layers.
Formation of uniform magnetic structures and epitaxial hydride phases in Nd/Pr superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goff, J.P.; Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; McMorrow, D.F.;
1997-01-01
, and that the stacking sequence is coherent over many bilayer repeats. The neutron measurements show that for the hexagonal sites of the dhcp structure, the Nd magnetic order propagates coherently through the Pr, whereas the order on the cubic sites is either suppressed or confined to single Nd blocks. It is also shown...... that the singlet ground state of Pr is perturbed to produce a local moment on the hexagonal sites, so that in some cases there is a uniform magnetic structure throughout the superlattice. These results cast new light on the theory of magnetic interactions in rare-earth superlattices. Within a few months of growth...
Effect of exchange interaction in ferromagnetic superlattices: A Monte Carlo study
Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.
2016-10-01
The Monte Carlo simulation is used to investigate the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic superlattices through the Ising model. The reduced critical temperatures of the ferromagnetic superlattices are studied each as a function of layer thickness for different values of exchange interaction. The exchange interaction in each layer within the interface and the crystal field in the unit cell are studied. The magnetic coercive fields and magnetization remnants are obtained for different values of exchange interaction, different values of temperature and crystal field with fixed values of physical parameters.
2D wave-front shaping in optical superlattices using nonlinear volume holography.
Yang, Bo; Hong, Xu-Hao; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan
2016-07-01
Nonlinear volume holography is employed to realize arbitrary wave-front shaping during nonlinear processes with properly designed 2D optical superlattices. The concept of a nonlinear polarization wave in nonlinear volume holography is investigated. The holographic imaging of irregular patterns was performed using 2D LiTaO3 crystals with fundamental wave propagating along the spontaneous polarization direction, and the results agree well with the theoretical predictions. This Letter not only extends the application area of optical superlattices, but also offers an efficient method for wave-front shaping technology.
Strain-free polarization superlattice in silicon carbide: a theoretical investigation.
Deák, Peter; Buruzs, Adam; Gali, Adam; Frauenheim, Thomas
2006-06-16
A strain-free superlattice of inversion domains along the hexagonal axis of SiC is investigated by theoretical calculations. The induced polarization causes a zigzag shape in the band edges, leading to spatial separation of photoexcited carriers and to an effective band gap narrowing tunable over a wide range by the geometry and on a smaller scale by the intensity of the excitation. Calculations on the SiC surface indicate that preparation of such a superlattice might be possible in atomic layer epitaxy with properly chosen sources and temperatures.
Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios; Kosevich, Yuriy A; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2007-03-30
We demonstrate the existence of Bloch oscillations of acoustic fields in sound propagation through a superlattice of water cavities and layers of methyl methacrylate. To obtain the acoustic equivalent of a Wannier-Stark ladder, we employ a set of cavities with different thicknesses. Bloch oscillations are observed as time-resolved oscillations of transmission in a direct analogy to electronic Bloch oscillations in biased semiconductor superlattices. Moreover, for a particular gradient of cavity thicknesses, an overlap of two acoustic minibands occurs, which results in resonant Zener-like transmission enhancement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl F. Renk
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We describe the operation of a semiconductor-superlattice parametric oscillator (SPO at a subterahertz frequency (near 300 GHz. The oscillator is driven by a microwave source (frequency near 100 GHz. We also present an analysis indicating that operation at frequencies above 1 THz should be possible. The SPO is based on the ability of conduction electrons in a superlattice to perform Bloch oscillations. Broadband tunability as well as the monochromacy of a driving microwave field are transferred to the SPO.
Synchrotron X-Ray Study on Structures of Ni80Fe20/Cu Superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Ming; LUO Guang-Ming; CHAI Chun-Lin; YANG Tao; MAI Zhen-Hong; LAI Wu-Yan; WU Zhong-Hua; WANG De-Wu
2001-01-01
We have shown that, in contrast to the results in the literature, the Bragg peak intensity of Ni80Fe20/Cu superlattices is enhanced at the incident x-ray energy slightly higher than the absorption edge of the heavier element (Cu). The atomic density at Ni80Fe20/Cu interface was analysed by the diffraction anomalous fine structure technology with the incident angle of x-ray fixed at the first Bragg peak. Our results demonstrate the epitaxy growth of Ni80Fe20/Cu superlattices. Upon annealing, the epitaxity of Ni80Fe20/Cu multilayers becomes poor but the local crystallinity in each layer is improved.
The chemical and magnetic structures of holmium-yttrium and holmium-lutetium superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McMorrow, D.F.; Jehan, D.A.; Swaddling, P.P.;
1993-01-01
We present the results of a study of the chemical and magnetic structures of Ho/Y and Ho/Lu superlattices, all grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By combining the results of high-resolution X-ray diffraction with detailed modelling we show that the superlattices have high crystallographic integrity......: the average structural coherence length in the growth direction is approximately 2000 angstrom, while the interfaces between the two elements are well defined, extending over approximately four lattice planes. The magnetic structures were determined using neutron scattering techniques. In the case of the Ho...
Design and Manufacture of GeSi/Si Superlattice Nanocrystalline Photodetector
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
According to Maxwell's theory, the optical transmission characteristics in GeSi/Si superlattice nanocrystalline layer have been analyzed and calculated. The calculated result shows that when the total thickness L is 340nm, the single mode lightwave can be transmitted only at periodic number M≥15.5. In addition, at the direction of transmission, when the transmission distance is larger than 500μm, the lightwave intensity is decreased greatly. Based on the above parameters, the design and manufacture of GeSi/Si superlattice nanocrystalline photodetector are carried out.
Resonant tunnelling and intersubband absorption in AlN - GaN superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumann, E.; Giorgetta, F.R.; Hofstetter, D. [University of Neuchatel, 1 A.-L. Breguet, Neuchatel, 2000 (Switzerland); Wu, H.; Schaff, W.J.; Eastman, L.F. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Kirste, L. [Fraunhofer-Institute of Applied Solid State Physics, Tullastrasse 72, Freiburg, 79108 (Germany)
2005-02-01
We report on intersubband absorption and photovoltage measurements on regular GaN/AlN-based superlattice structures at 1.55 {mu}m. For high barriers, the photovoltage peaks at a higher energy than the absorbance spectrum due to the decrease of the tunnelling probability. The observed photovoltage is thus the macroscopic manifestation that the 2-dimensional electron gas at the top of the superlattice gets depleted by a vertical transport of electrons. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Thermal conductivity of GaAs/AlAs superlattices:The Umklapp process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Yu-Rong; Yan Xiao-Hong; Cao Jue-Xian; Xiao Yang; Mao Yu-Liang; Xiang Jun; Yu Hai-Lin
2004-01-01
The thermal conductivity of GaAs/AlAs superlattices limited by the three-phonon Umklapp process and boundary scattering has been studied theoretically based on the model of lattice dynamics with force constant matrix. It was found that the Umklapp relaxation rate approximates BTω2/n with a fitting parameter B. The thermal conductivity increases with the increase of temperature at low temperatures, and would show a peak behaviour at about 60K before falling off at high temperatures. In addition, the thermal conductivity increases with the increase of period thickness of the superlattices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lv, Kai [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstrucutres, Lab of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics and Electronic information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China); Zhu, H. P.; Zou, W. Q.; Zhang, F. M.; Wu, X. S., E-mail: xswu@nju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstrucutres, Lab of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2015-05-14
The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}){sub m}/(SrRuO{sub 3}){sub n} superlattices have been investigated based on the first principles calculations. An obvious Jahn-Teller distortion, which depends on m, n, appears in MnO{sub 6} octahedron in the superlattices. The stretch along c-axis of MnO{sub 6} octahedron at the interface lifts the Mn e{sub g} orbital degeneracy, with electrons preferring the lower energy 3z{sup 2}−r{sup 2} to the higher energy x{sup 2}−y{sup 2}. Benefitting from the charge transfer at the interface, the still occupied x{sup 2}−y{sup 2} orbital can mediate a robust in-plane double exchange interaction. La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} block is ferromagnetic and metallic, even for the superlattice with m = n = 1.
Laser-induced magnetisation dynamics in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3} superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Razdolski, Ilya; Subkhangulov, Ruslan R.; Gheorghe, Diana G.; Kimel, Alexey V.; Kirilyuk, Andrei; Rasing, Theo [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials (Netherlands); Bern, Francis; Ziese, Michael [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, University of Leipzig (Germany); Vrejoiu, Ionela [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)
2015-10-15
Laser-induced magnetisation dynamics of a La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3} superlattice is studied by means of a single-colour optical pump-probe technique. Significant differences in the magnetisation dynamics of a superlattice with respect to the single layers of constituent materials are demonstrated. Below the Curie temperature T{sub C} of SrRuO{sub 3}, laser-induced ultrafast demagnetisation is found to be followed by a uniform precession of the magnetisation around its new equilibrium. The data is described within a simple model based on a displacive excitation of a precessional magnetisation dynamics. The model is shown to give a good fit to the experimental data. As the initial temperature approaches T{sub C}, the oscillations get suppressed and eventually vanish. The magnetisation dynamics is shown to depend on whether the two distinct magnetisation vectors in the superlattice are ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically aligned. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, C.N.L.
1996-06-01
Studies of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) thin films and YBCO/STO superlattices has been performed. The dc magnetron sputtered YBCO single layer investigation concerned the dependence of the secondary phase formation and superconducting transport properties on sputtering target and ambient gas composition. YBCO/STO superlattices, grown by dc and rf magnetron sputtering, respectively, were analyzed with respect to microstructure and formation of secondary phases. The main characterization techniques used in this study have been x-ray diffraction to identify phases and to obtain orientational relationships, scanning electron microscopy to study surface morphology, transmission electron microscopy for microstructural characterization, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy for chemical characterization. With the aim to reduce or avoid the formation of copper-rich surface particles and still maintain satisfactory superconducting transport properties, YBCO films were deposited using copper-poor or yttrium-rich sputtering targets in an Ar:O{sub 2} or Ar:O{sub 2}:N{sub 2}O sputtering gas mixture. It was found that the use of yttrium-rich targets and N{sub 2}O in the sputtering gas is a reliable way to achieve smooth films without surface particles and with satisfactory superconducting properties, while the use of copper-poor targets and N{sub 2}O deteriorates those properties. Based on the previous results, YBCO/STO superlattices were grown using yttrium-rich YBCO targets and stoichiometric STO targets, respectively, in a Ar:O{sub 2}:N{sub 2}O sputtering gas mixture. The superlattices were found to have sharp interfaces and no indications of interface reactions were detected. 61 refs, 18 figs, 3 tabs
Li, Xiaodan; Wu, Shunqing; Zhou, Sen; Zhu, Zizhong
2014-03-01
Superlattice provides a new approach to enrich the class of materials with novel properties. Here, we report the structural and electronic properties of superlattices made with alternate stacking of two-dimensional hexagonal germanene (or silicene) and a MoS2 monolayer using the first principles approach. The results are compared with those of graphene/MoS2 superlattice. The distortions of the geometry of germanene, silicene, and MoS2 layers due to the formation of the superlattices are all relatively small, resulting from the relatively weak interactions between the stacking layers. Our results show that both the germanene/MoS2 and silicene/MoS2 superlattices are manifestly metallic, with the linear bands around the Dirac points of the pristine germanene and silicene seem to be preserved. However, small band gaps are opened up at the Dirac points for both the superlattices due to the symmetry breaking in the germanene and silicene layers caused by the introduction of the MoS2 sheets. Moreover, charge transfer happened mainly within the germanene (or silicene) and the MoS2 layers (intra-layer transfer), as well as some part of the intermediate regions between the germanene (or silicene) and the MoS2 layers (inter-layer transfer), suggesting more than just the van der Waals interactions between the stacking sheets in the superlattices.
Cai, Danyun; Mo, Yunjie; Feng, Xiaofang; He, Yingyou; Jiang, Shaoji
2017-06-01
In this study, a model based on the First Principles calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation were established to study the growth characteristic of Ag thin film at low substrate temperature. On the basis of the interaction between the adatom and nearest-neighbor atoms, some simplifications and assumptions were made to categorize the diffusion behaviors of Ag adatoms on Ag(001). Then the barriers of all possible diffusion behaviors were calculated using the Climbing Image Nudged Elastic Band method (CI-NEB). Based on the Arrhenius formula, the morphology variation, which is attributed to the surface diffusion behaviors during the growth, was simulated with a temperature-dependent KMC model. With this model, a non-monotonic relation between the surface roughness and the substrate temperature (decreasing from 300 K to 100 K) were discovered. The analysis of the temperature dependence on diffusion behaviors presents a theoretical explanation of diffusion mechanism for the non-monotonic variation of roughness at low substrate temperature.
Exploring optimum growth window for high quality InAs/GaInSb superlattice materials
Haugan, H. J.; Brown, G. J.; Kim, M.; Mahalingam, K.; Elhamri, S.; Mitchel, W. C.; Grazulis, L.
2013-06-01
We report ternary growth studies to develop a largely strained InAs/InGaSb superlattice (SL) material for very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) detection. We select a SL structure of 47.0 Å InAs/21.5 Å In0.25Ga0.75Sb that theoretically designed for the greatest possible detectivity, and tune growth conditions for the best possible material quality. Since material quality of grown SLs is largely influenced by extrinsic defects such as nonradiative recombination centers and residual background dopings in the grown layers, we investigate the effect of growth temperature (Tg) on the spectral responses and charge carrier transports using photoconductivity and temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements. Results indicate that molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth process we developed produces a consistent gap near 50 meV within a range of few meV, but SL spectral sensing determined by photoresponse (PR) intensity is very sensitive to the minor changes in Tg. For the SLs grown from 390 to 470 °C, a PR signal gradually increases as Tg increases from 400 to 440 °C by reaching a maximum at 440 °C. Outside this growth window, the SL quality deteriorates very rapidly. All SLs grown for this study were n-type, but the mobility varied in a variety of range between 11,300 and 21 cm2/Vs. The mobility of the SL grown at 440 °C was approximately 10,000 V/cm2 with a sheet carrier concentration of 5 × 1011 cm-2, but the mobility precipitously dropped to 21 cm2/Vs at higher temperatures. Using the knowledge we learned from this growth set, other growth parameters for the MBE ternary SL growth should be further adjusted in order to achieve high performance of InAs/InGaSb materials suitable for VLWIR detection.
Structural and magnetic properties of an InGaAs/Fe3Si superlattice in cylindrical geometry
Deneke, Ch; Schumann, J.; Engelhard, R.; Thomas, J.; Müller, C.; Khatri, M. S.; Malachias, A.; Weisser, M.; Metzger, T. H.; Schmidt, O. G.
2009-01-01
The structure and magnetic properties of an InGaAs/Fe3Si superlattice in a cylindrical geometry are investigated by electron microscopy techniques, x-ray diffraction and magnetometry. To form a radial superlattice, a pseudomorphic InGaAs/Fe3Si bilayer has been released from its substrate self-forming into rolled-up microtubes. Oxide-free interfaces as well as areas of crystalline bonding are observed and an overall lattice mismatch between succeeding layers is determined. The cylindrical symmetry of the final radial superlattice shows a significant effect on the magnetization behavior of the rolled-up layers.
Nafidi, Ab.; EL Abidi, A.; El Kaaouachi, A.; Nafidi, Ah.
2005-06-01
We report here the band structure and new magneto-transport results for HgTe (56 Å) / CdTe (30 Å) superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The angular dependence of the transverse magnetoresistance follows the two-dimensional (2D) behaviour. At low temperature, the sample exhibits p type conductivity with a concentration of 1.84×1012 cm-2 and a Hall mobility of 8200 cm2/Vs. The observed Shubnikov-de Haas effect gives a carrier density of 1.80×1012 cm-2. The superlattice heavy holes dominate the conduction in plane with an effective mass of 0.297 m0 and Fermi energy (2D) of 14 meV. In intrinsic regime, the measured gap Eg = 190 meV agree well with calculated Eg(Γ, 300 K) =178 meV. The formalism used here predicts that the system is semiconductor, for our HgTe to CdTe thickness ratio d1/d2 = 1,87, when d2 < 140 Å. In our case, d2=30 Å and Eg (Γ, 4.2 K) = 111 meV. In spite of it, the sample exhibits the features typical of a p type semiconductor and is a medium-infrared detector (7 μm< λ< 11 μm).
Thickness dependence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in FeMn/Pt bilayers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yumeng Yang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available We investigated spin Hall magnetoresistance in FeMn/Pt bilayers, which was found to be one order of magnitude larger than that of heavy metal and insulating ferromagnet or antiferromagnet bilayer systems, and comparable to that of NiFe/Pt bilayers. The spin Hall magnetoresistance shows a non-monotonic dependence on the thicknesses of both FeMn and Pt. The former can be accounted for by the thickness dependence of net magnetization in FeMn thin films, whereas the latter is mainly due to spin accumulation and diffusion in Pt. Through analysis of the Pt thickness dependence, the spin Hall angle, spin diffusion length of Pt and the real part of spin mixing conductance were determined to be 0.2, 1.1 nm, and 5.5 × 1014 Ω−1m−2, respectively. The results corroborate the spin orbit torque effect observed in this system recently.
Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Senthil, Karuppanan; Cho, Hyung Koun; Lee, Sang Yeol
2013-01-01
High-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the fundamental building blocks in realizing the potential applications of the next-generation displays. Atomically controlled superlattice structures are expected to induce advanced electric and optical performance due to two-dimensional electron gas system, resulting in high-electron mobility transistors. Here, we have utilized a semiconductor/insulator superlattice channel structure comprising of ZnO/Al2O3 layers to realize high-performance TFTs. The TFT with ZnO (5 nm)/Al2O3 (3.6 nm) superlattice channel structure exhibited high field effect mobility of 27.8 cm(2)/Vs, and threshold voltage shift of only < 0.5 V under positive/negative gate bias stress test during 2 hours. These properties showed extremely improved TFT performance, compared to ZnO TFTs. The enhanced field effect mobility and stability obtained for the superlattice TFT devices were explained on the basis of layer-by-layer growth mode, improved crystalline nature of the channel layers, and passivation effect of Al2O3 layers.
The magnetic phase diagram and zero field structure of holmium-lutetium superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swaddling, P.P. [Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); McMorrow, D.F. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Cowley, R.A. [Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Simpson, J.A. [Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wells, M.R. [Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ward, R.C.C. [Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Clausen, K.N. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Collins, M.F. [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Buyers, W.J.L. [AECL, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)
1995-02-09
Neutron diffraction has been used to study the magnetic structure of a series of Ho/Lu superlattices. In zero field a transition to a ferromagnetic phase of Ho is observed at low temperatures, and the stability of this phase has been investigated by applying a magnetic field in the basal plane. ((orig.)).
FIR Induced Intrinsic Exciton Transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs Superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dremin, A. A.; Timofeev, V. B.; Birkedal, Dan;
1997-01-01
Intrinsic transitions of confined excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices with different barrier widths have been studied with the use of resonant far-infrared absorption under variation of magnetic field perpendicular and tilted with respect to the growth directions. Few resonances have been...
Passivation of MBE grown InGaSb/InAs superlattice photodiodes
Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam S.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.
2005-01-01
We have performed wet chemical passivation tests on InGaSb/InAs superlattice photodiode structures grown molecular beam epitaxy. The details of the devices growth and characterization as well as the results of chemical passivation involving RuCl3 and H2SO4 with SiO2 dielectric depositions are presented.
Studies of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in Cd1-xMnx Te/CdTe Superlattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Chen-Jia; WANG Xue-Zhong; Vittorio BELLANI; Angiolino STELLA
2006-01-01
Cd1-xMnxTe/CdTe superlattices and thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed on Cd1-xMnxTe/CdTe superlattices with compositions x = 0.4, 0.8, and Cd1-xMnxTe thin films with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 at room temperature in the photon energy range 1.4-5eV. In superlattices the pseudodielectric functions measured by ellipsometry show specific features related to the exciton transition between quantized interbands. The exciton transitions related to the heavy holes of 11H, 22H, and 33H are observed and identified. In thin films spectroscopic ellipsometry allows the clear identification of the energy gap E0. Additionally, critical point transitions are observable in both the spectra of the superlattices and films. Photoreflectance spectra were also performed at room temperature in order to compare with our ellipsometry results. After taking into account the strain-induced and quantum confinement effects, the theoretical calculations are in good agreement with our experimental spectra. Ellipsometry appears to be a suited technique to monitor the MBE growth, ultimately also in situ, of diluted magnetic low-dimensional systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Shenyang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Senor, David J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Setyawan, Wahyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2016-07-08
Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the for- mation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was devel- oped. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn’t cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along $\\langle$110$\\rangle$ directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along $\\langle$110$\\rangle$ directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.
Deposition of TiN/CrN hard superlattices by reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Harish C Barshilia; K S Rajam
2003-02-01
Multilayer superlattice coatings of TiN/CrN were deposited on silicon substrates using a reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering process. Superlattice period, also known as modulation wavelength (), was controlled by controlling the dwell time of the substrate underneath Ti and Cr targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the films. The XRD data showed 1st and 2nd order satellite reflections along the principal reflection for films having 132 Å $\\geq \\Lambda \\geq$ 84 Å, thus confirming the formation of superlattice. The multilayer coatings exhibited hardness () as high as 3200 kg/mm2, which is 2 times the rule-of-mixtures value (i.e. $H_{TiN}$ = 2200 kg/mm2 and $H_{CrN}$ = 1000 kg/mm2). Detailed investigations on the effects of various process parameters indicated that hardness of the superlattice coatings was affected not only by modulation wavelength but also by nitrogen partial pressure and ion bombardment during deposition.
The reflection and interference of electrons at the interface of superlattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG; Xingkui
2002-01-01
［1］Mukherji, D., Nag, B. R., Band structure of semiconductor superlattice, Phys. Rev., 1975,B12: 4338-4345.［2］Bastard, G., Superlattice band structure in the envelop-function approximation, Phys. Rev., 1981,B24: 5693-5697.［3］Ninno, D., Wong, K. B., Geh, M. A. et al., Optical transitions at confined resonance in(001)GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs superlattice, Phys. Rev., 1985, B32: 2700-2702.［4］Cho, H. S., Prucnal, P. R., New formalism of the Kronig-Penney model with application to superlattice, Phys.Rev., 1987, B36: 3237-3242.［5］Adachi, S., GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1-xAs: Material parameters for use in research and device application, J. Appl. Phys., 1985, 58(3): R1-R29.［6］Levine, B. F., Bethea,C.G., Shen,V.O. et al., Tunable long-wavelength detectors using graded barrier quantum wells grown by electron beam source molecular beam epitaxy, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1990, 57(4): 383-385.
Inelastic Quantum Transport in Superlattices: Success and Failure of the Boltzmann Equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Rott, Stephan;
1999-01-01
Electrical transport in semiconductor superlattices is studied within a fully self-consistent quantum transport model based on nonequilibrium Green functions, including phonon and impurity scattering. We compute both the drift-velocity-held relation and the momentum distribution function covering...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
OUYANG BiYao; ZHAO XianGeng; CHEN ShiGang; LIU Jie
2001-01-01
In this paper, we study the dynamic behavior and quasi-energy spectrum of multiband superlattice Bloch electrons in quantum kicked potential. We show analytically and numerically the avoided crossing and band suppression about the quasi-energy spectrum, the dynamic nonlocalization, and the electron oscillation behavior between two bands.
Kalesaki, E.; Evers, W.H.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Delerue, C.
2013-01-01
The electronic structure of recently synthesized square superlattices with atomic coherence composed of PbSe, CdSe, or CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) attached along {100} facets is investigated using tight-binding calculations. In experimental realizations of these systems [W. H. Evers et al., Nano Lett. 1
Design of a terahertz CW photomixer based on PIN and superlattice PIN devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krozer, Viktor; Eichhorn, Finn
2006-01-01
We present the design of a photomixer LO based on standard and superlattice PIN diodes, operating at 1 THz. The design is based on a direct integration of a double slot antenna with the PIN device and a suitable matching circuit. The antenna has been designed together with a dielectric lens using...
Coherent dynamics of interwell excitons in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mizeikis, V.; Birkedal, Dan; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner;
1997-01-01
Coherent exciton dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs narrow-miniband superlattice is studied by spectrally resolved transient four-wave mixing. Coherent optical properties of the investigated structure are found to be strongly affected by the existence of two different heavy-hole excitonic states. One ...
Hu, Shenyang; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie
2016-10-01
Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was developed. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn't cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.
Last gasp of a black hole: unitary evaporation implies non-monotonic mass loss
Bianchi, Eugenio
2014-01-01
We show within the usual two-dimensional approximation that unitarity and the restoration of Minkowski vacuum correlations at the end of black hole evaporation impose unexpected constraints on its mass loss rate: before disappearing the black hole emits one or more negative energy burst, leading to a temporary increase of its mass.
Last gasp of a black hole: unitary evaporation implies non-monotonic mass loss
Bianchi, Eugenio; Smerlak, Matteo
2014-10-01
We show within the usual two-dimensional approximation that unitarity and the restoration of Minkowski vacuum correlations at the end of black hole evaporation impose unexpected constraints on its mass loss rate: before disappearing the black hole emits one or more negative energy burst, leading to a temporary increase of its mass.
Universal, non-monotonic structure in the saturation curves of a linear Paul trap
Wells, James; Kwolek, Jonathan; Goodman, Douglas; Blümel, Reinhold; Smith, Winthrop
2016-05-01
A common technique to measure ion-atom collision rates in a hybrid trap if the ions have no optical transitions (e.g. alkalis) is to monitor the fluorescence of the neutrals in the presence of a saturated linear Paul trap (LPT). We present numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experimental results that show that the steady-state ion capacity of an LPT, Ns, exhibits nonlinear, nonmonotonic behavior as a function of ion loading rate, Λ. The steady state as a function of loading rate, Ns(Λ) , shows four distinct regions. In Region I, at the lowest Λ, Ns(Λ) increases monotonically. Then, Ns(Λ) reaches a plateau in Region II, before decreasing to a local minimum in Region III. Finally, in Region IV, Ns(Λ) once again increases monotonically. This behavior appears universal to any Paul trap, regardless of geometry or species trapped. We examine this behavior experimentally as a function of the q stability parameter of the Paul trap and simulate numerically the effect of the particular trap geometry on the onset of each of the four regions. Funding from NSF Grant PHY-1307874.
Non-monotonic Travelling Wave Fronts in a System of Fractional Flow Equations from Porous Media
Zegeling, P.A.; Hönig, O.; Doster, F.; Hilfer, R.
2016-01-01
Motivated by observations of saturation overshoot, this article investigates generic classes of smooth travelling wave solutions of a system of two coupled nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations resulting from a flux function of high symmetry. All boundary resp. limit value problems of t
Convergence Time and Phase Transition in a Non-monotonic Family of Probabilistic Cellular Automata
Ramos, A. D.; Leite, A.
2017-08-01
In dynamical systems, some of the most important questions are related to phase transitions and convergence time. We consider a one-dimensional probabilistic cellular automaton where their components assume two possible states, zero and one, and interact with their two nearest neighbors at each time step. Under the local interaction, if the component is in the same state as its two neighbors, it does not change its state. In the other cases, a component in state zero turns into a one with probability α , and a component in state one turns into a zero with probability 1-β . For certain values of α and β , we show that the process will always converge weakly to δ 0, the measure concentrated on the configuration where all the components are zeros. Moreover, the mean time of this convergence is finite, and we describe an upper bound in this case, which is a linear function of the initial distribution. We also demonstrate an application of our results to the percolation PCA. Finally, we use mean-field approximation and Monte Carlo simulations to show coexistence of three distinct behaviours for some values of parameters α and β.
A pathway EM-algorithm for estimating vaccine efficacy with a non-monotone validation set.
Yang, Yang; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Chen, Yanjun; Kenah, Eben
2014-09-01
Here, we consider time-to-event data where individuals can experience two or more types of events that are not distinguishable from one another without further confirmation, perhaps by laboratory test. The event type of primary interest can occur only once. The other types of events can recur. If the type of a portion of the events is identified, this forms a validation set. However, even if a random sample of events are tested, confirmations can be missing nonmonotonically, creating uncertainty about whether an individual is still at risk for the event of interest. For example, in a study to estimate efficacy of an influenza vaccine, an individual may experience a sequence of symptomatic respiratory illnesses caused by various pathogens over the season. Often only a limited number of these episodes are confirmed in the laboratory to be influenza-related or not. We propose two novel methods to estimate covariate effects in this survival setting, and subsequently vaccine efficacy. The first is a pathway expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm that takes into account all pathways of event types in an individual compatible with that individual's test outcomes. The pathway EM iteratively estimates baseline hazards that are used to weight possible event types. The second method is a non-iterative pathway piecewise validation method that does not estimate the baseline hazards. These methods are compared with a previous simpler method. Simulation studies suggest mean squared error is lower in the efficacy estimates when the baseline hazards are estimated, especially at higher hazard rates. We use the pathway EM-algorithm to reevaluate the efficacy of a trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine during the 2003-2004 influenza season in Temple-Belton, Texas, and compare our results with a previously published analysis. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.
Gene set enrichment analysis for non-monotone association and multiple experimental categories
Heinloth Alexandra N; Irwin Richard D; Dai Shuangshuang; Lin Rongheng; Boorman Gary A; Li Leping
2008-01-01
Abstract Background Recently, microarray data analyses using functional pathway information, e.g., gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and significance analysis of function and expression (SAFE), have gained recognition as a way to identify biological pathways/processes associated with a phenotypic endpoint. In these analyses, a local statistic is used to assess the association between the expression level of a gene and the value of a phenotypic endpoint. Then these gene-specific local statis...
Approximations for Monotone and Non-monotone Submodular Maximization with Knapsack Constraints
Kulik, Ariel; Tamir, Tami
2011-01-01
Submodular maximization generalizes many fundamental problems in discrete optimization, including Max-Cut in directed/undirected graphs, maximum coverage, maximum facility location and marketing over social networks. In this paper we consider the problem of maximizing any submodular function subject to $d$ knapsack constraints, where $d$ is a fixed constant. We establish a strong relation between the discrete problem and its continuous relaxation, obtained through {\\em extension by expectation} of the submodular function. Formally, we show that, for any non-negative submodular function, an $\\alpha$-approximation algorithm for the continuous relaxation implies a randomized $(\\alpha - \\eps)$-approximation algorithm for the discrete problem. We use this relation to improve the best known approximation ratio for the problem to $1/4- \\eps$, for any $\\eps > 0$, and to obtain a nearly optimal $(1-e^{-1}-\\eps)-$approximation ratio for the monotone case, for any $\\eps>0$. We further show that the probabilistic domain ...