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Sample records for superior temporal regions

  1. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

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    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  2. Cross-frequency power correlations reveal the right superior temporal gyrus as a hub region during working memory maintenance.

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    Park, Hyojin; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, June Sic; Jensen, Ole; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized within- and cross-frequency power correlations from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in order to understand how different brain regions cooperate as a network to maintain working memory representations with several features. The working memory items were composed of spatially arranged dots supposedly requiring both the dorsal and the ventral stream to be engaged during maintenance. Using a beamforming technique, we localized memory-dependent sources in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands. After the single-trial power values were extracted from these frequency bands with respect to each source, we calculated the correlations within- and cross-frequency bands. The following general picture emerged: gamma power in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) during working memory maintenance was correlated with numerous other sources in the alpha band in prefrontal, parietal, and posterior regions. In addition, the power correlations within the alpha band showed correlations across posterior-parietal-frontal regions. From these findings, we suggest that the STG dominated by gamma activity serves as a hub region for the network nodes responsible for the retention of the stimulus used in this study, which is likely to depend on both the "where-" and the "what-" visual system simultaneously. The present study demonstrates how oscillatory dynamics reflecting the interaction between cortical areas can be investigated by means of cross-frequency power correlations in source space. This methodological framework could be of general utility when studying functional network properties of the working brain.

  3. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

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    Toemme eNoesselt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  4. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

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    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  5. Superior Temporal Activation as a Function of Linguistic Knowledge: Insights from Deaf Native Signers Who Speechread

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    Capek, Cheryl M.; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K.; David, Anthony S.; Brammer, Michael J.; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic…

  6. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

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    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  7. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

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    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  8. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

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    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  9. Vowel sound extraction in anterior superior temporal cortex.

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    Obleser, Jonas; Boecker, Henning; Drzezga, Alexander; Haslinger, Bernhard; Hennenlotter, Andreas; Roettinger, Michael; Eulitz, Carsten; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2006-07-01

    We investigated the functional neuroanatomy of vowel processing. We compared attentive auditory perception of natural German vowels to perception of nonspeech band-passed noise stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). More specifically, the mapping in auditory cortex of first and second formants was considered, which spectrally characterize vowels and are linked closely to phonological features. Multiple exemplars of natural German vowels were presented in sequences alternating either mainly along the first formant (e.g., [u]-[o], [i]-[e]) or along the second formant (e.g., [u]-[i], [o]-[e]). In fixed-effects and random-effects analyses, vowel sequences elicited more activation than did nonspeech noise in the anterior superior temporal cortex (aST) bilaterally. Partial segregation of different vowel categories was observed within the activated regions, suggestive of a speech sound mapping across the cortical surface. Our results add to the growing evidence that speech sounds, as one of the behaviorally most relevant classes of auditory objects, are analyzed and categorized in aST. These findings also support the notion of an auditory "what" stream, with highly object-specialized areas anterior to primary auditory cortex. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Preference for Audiovisual Speech Congruency in Superior Temporal Cortex.

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    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory speech perception can be altered by concurrent visual information. The superior temporal cortex is an important combining site for this integration process. This area was previously found to be sensitive to audiovisual congruency. However, the direction of this congruency effect (i.e., stronger or weaker activity for congruent compared to incongruent stimulation) has been more equivocal. Here, we used fMRI to look at the neural responses of human participants during the McGurk illusion--in which auditory /aba/ and visual /aga/ inputs are fused to perceived /ada/--in a large homogenous sample of participants who consistently experienced this illusion. This enabled us to compare the neuronal responses during congruent audiovisual stimulation with incongruent audiovisual stimulation leading to the McGurk illusion while avoiding the possible confounding factor of sensory surprise that can occur when McGurk stimuli are only occasionally perceived. We found larger activity for congruent audiovisual stimuli than for incongruent (McGurk) stimuli in bilateral superior temporal cortex, extending into the primary auditory cortex. This finding suggests that superior temporal cortex prefers when auditory and visual input support the same representation.

  11. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

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    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  12. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

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    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  13. Superior Temporal Activity for the Retrieval Process of Auditory-Word Associations

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    Toshimune Kambara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that learning multisensory associations involves the superior temporal regions (Tanabe et al, 2005. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retrieval of multi-sensory associations were unclear. This functional MRI (fMRI study investigated brain activations during the retrieval of multi-sensory associations. Eighteen right-handed college-aged Japanese participants learned associations between meaningless pictures and words (Vw, meaningless sounds and words (Aw, and meaningless sounds and visual words (W. During fMRI scanning, participants were presented with old and new words and were required to judge whether the words were included in the conditions of Vw, Aw, W or New. We found that the left superior temporal region showed greater activity during the retrieval of words learned in Aw than in Vw, whereas no region showed greater activity for the Vw condition versus the Aw condition (k > 10, p < .001, uncorrected. Taken together, the left superior temporal region could play an essential role in the retrieval process of auditory-word associations.

  14. Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

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    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG. PMID:24482117

  15. Phonetic feature encoding in human superior temporal gyrus.

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    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2014-02-28

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG.

  16. Right anterior superior temporal activation predicts auditory sentence comprehension following aphasic stroke.

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    Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that recovery of speech comprehension after left hemisphere infarction may depend on a mechanism in the right hemisphere. However, the role that distinct right hemisphere regions play in speech comprehension following left hemisphere stroke has not been established. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate narrative speech activation in 18 neurologically normal subjects and 17 patients with left hemisphere stroke and a history of aphasia. Activation for listening to meaningful stories relative to meaningless reversed speech was identified in the normal subjects and in each patient. Second level analyses were then used to investigate how story activation changed with the patients' auditory sentence comprehension skills and surprise story recognition memory tests post-scanning. Irrespective of lesion site, performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was positively correlated with activation in the right lateral superior temporal region, anterior to primary auditory cortex. In addition, when the stroke spared the left temporal cortex, good performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was also correlated with the left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area). In distinct contrast to this, good story recognition memory predicted left inferior frontal and right cerebellar activation. The implication of this double dissociation in the effects of auditory sentence comprehension and story recognition memory is that left frontal and left temporal activations are dissociable. Our findings strongly support the role of the right temporal lobe in processing narrative speech and, in particular, auditory sentence comprehension following left hemisphere aphasic stroke. In addition, they highlight the importance of the right anterior superior temporal cortex where the response was dissociated from that in the left posterior temporal lobe.

  17. Morphological study of surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle approach using volume rendering.

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    Sun, Wei; Jia, Linpei; Dong, Yidian; Zhao, Hang; Liu, Haoyuan; Yang, Kerong; Li, Youqiong

    2014-03-01

    In this research, we acquired the length of the superior temporal sulcus, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, and the approach angle between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle measuring 98 specimens by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the point of the superior temporal sulcus, which is closest to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, aimed at finding out the best entrance point of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and reducing the damage to optic radiation as well as other nerve fibers during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 3/5 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point, and there is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  18. Right superior temporal gyrus volume in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt.

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    Pan, Lisa A; Ramos, Lisa; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Brent, David A; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which observed differences in emotion processing and regulation neural circuitry in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are paralleled by structural differences is unknown. We measured brain cortical thickness and grey- and white-matter volumes in 100 adolescents: 28 with a history of suicide attempt and major depressive disorder (MDD); 31 with a history of MDD but no suicide attempt; and a healthy control group (n = 41). The first group compared with controls showed reduction in grey-matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA38), a region important for social emotion processing. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  19. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

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    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  20. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

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    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  1. New human-specific brain landmark: the depth asymmetry of superior temporal sulcus.

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    Leroy, François; Cai, Qing; Bogart, Stephanie L; Dubois, Jessica; Coulon, Olivier; Monzalvo, Karla; Fischer, Clara; Glasel, Hervé; Van der Haegen, Lise; Bénézit, Audrey; Lin, Ching-Po; Kennedy, David N; Ihara, Aya S; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Poupon, Cyril; Brysbaert, Marc; Roberts, Neil; Hopkins, William D; Mangin, Jean-François; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2015-01-27

    Identifying potentially unique features of the human cerebral cortex is a first step to understanding how evolution has shaped the brain in our species. By analyzing MR images obtained from 177 humans and 73 chimpanzees, we observed a human-specific asymmetry in the superior temporal sulcus at the heart of the communication regions and which we have named the "superior temporal asymmetrical pit" (STAP). This 45-mm-long segment ventral to Heschl's gyrus is deeper in the right hemisphere than in the left in 95% of typical human subjects, from infanthood till adulthood, and is present, irrespective of handedness, language lateralization, and sex although it is greater in males than in females. The STAP also is seen in several groups of atypical subjects including persons with situs inversus, autistic spectrum disorder, Turner syndrome, and corpus callosum agenesis. It is explained in part by the larger number of sulcal interruptions in the left than in the right hemisphere. Its early presence in the infants of this study as well as in fetuses and premature infants suggests a strong genetic influence. Because this asymmetry is barely visible in chimpanzees, we recommend the STAP region during midgestation as an important phenotype to investigate asymmetrical variations of gene expression among the primate lineage. This genetic target may provide important insights regarding the evolution of the crucial cognitive abilities sustained by this sulcus in our species, namely communication and social cognition.

  2. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus

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    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language...

  3. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

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    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  4. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus.

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    Said, Christopher P; Moore, Christopher D; Norman, Kenneth A; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  5. Vowel-specific mismatch responses in the anterior superior temporal gyrus: an fMRI study.

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    Leff, Alexander P; Iverson, Paul; Schofield, Thomas M; Kilner, James M; Crinion, Jennifer T; Friston, Karl J; Price, Cathy J

    2009-04-01

    There have been many functional imaging studies that have investigated the neural correlates of speech perception by contrasting neural responses to speech and "speech-like" but unintelligible control stimuli. A potential drawback of this approach is that intelligibility is necessarily conflated with a change in the acoustic parameters of the stimuli. The approach we have adopted is to take advantage of the mismatch response elicited by an oddball paradigm to probe neural responses in temporal lobe structures to a parametrically varied set of deviants in order to identify brain regions involved in vowel processing. Thirteen normal subjects were scanned using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm while they listened to continuous trains of auditory stimuli. Three classes of stimuli were used: 'vowel deviants' and two classes of control stimuli: one acoustically similar ('single formants') and the other distant (tones). The acoustic differences between the standard and deviants in both the vowel and single-formant classes were designed to match each other closely. The results revealed an effect of vowel deviance in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). This was most significant when comparing all vowel deviants to standards, irrespective of their psychoacoustic or physical deviance. We also identified a correlation between perceptual discrimination and deviant-related activity in the dominant superior temporal sulcus (STS), although this effect was not stimulus specific. The responses to vowel deviants were in brain regions implicated in the processing of intelligible or meaningful speech, part of the so-called auditory "what" processing stream. Neural components of this pathway would be expected to respond to sudden, perhaps unexpected changes in speech signal that result in a change to narrative meaning.

  6. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: Segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography

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    Makris, N.; Preti, M.G.; Wassermann, D.; Rathi, Y.; Papadimitriou, G. M.; Yergatian, C.; Dickerson, B. C.; Shenton, M. E.; Kubicki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:23686576

  7. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

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    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  8. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. Architectonic criteria for the core, lateral belt, and parabelt were readily adapted from monkey to human. Additionally, we found evidence for an architectonic subdivision within the parabelt, present in both species......The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...... that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used serial sets of adjacent sections processed for Nissl substance, acetylcholinesterase...

  9. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  10. The impact of vascular factors on language localization in the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M

    2014-08-01

    The left superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been shown in numerous functional imaging studies to be a critical region for language processing, as it is reliably activated when language comprehension is compared with acoustically matched control conditions. Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated several subdivisions in the STS, yet the precise region(s) within the STS that are important for language remain unclear, in large part because the presence of draining veins in the sulcus makes it difficult to determine whether neural activity is localized to the dorsal or ventral bank of the sulcus. We used functional MRI to localize language regions, and then acquired several additional sequences in order to account for the impact of vascular factors. A breath-holding task was used to induce hypercapnia in order to normalize voxel-wise differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity, and veins were identified on susceptibility-weighted and T2*-weighted BOLD images, and masked out. We found that the precise locations of language areas in individual participants were strongly influenced by vascular factors, but that these vascular effects could be ameliorated by hypercapnic normalization and vein masking. After these corrections were applied, the majority of regions activated by language processing were localized to the dorsal bank of the STS.

  11. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language. However, the functional organization of the STS remains debated: Is this broad region composed of multiple functionally distinct modules, each specialized for a different process, or are STS subregions multifunctional, contributing to multiple processes? Is the STS spatially organized, and if so, what are the dominant features of this organization? We address these questions by measuring STS responses to a range of social and linguistic stimuli in the same set of human participants, using fMRI. We find a number of STS subregions that respond selectively to certain types of social input, organized along a posterior-to-anterior axis. We also identify regions of overlapping response to multiple contrasts, including regions responsive to both language and theory of mind, faces and voices, and faces and biological motion. Thus, the human STS contains both relatively domain-specific areas, and regions that respond to multiple types of social information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons' responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  13. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dahl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons’ responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  14. Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlowitz, Kalman A; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Long, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality. However, this manipulation led to an increase in the pitch of speaking with no such change in singing. Further analysis revealed that all vocalizations exhibited a cooling-induced increase in the frequency of the first formant, raising the possibility that potential pitch offsets may have been actively avoided during singing. Our results suggest that the right pSTG plays a key role in vocal sensorimotor processing whose impact is dependent on the type of vocalization produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2017-09-01

    Presbyacusis reflects dysfunctions present along the central auditory pathway. Given that the topographic representation of the auditory directional spatial map is deteriorated in the superior colliculus of aged animals, therefore, are spectral and temporal auditory processes altered with aging in the rat's superior colliculus? Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats. In the spectral domain, level thresholds in aged rats were significantly increased when superior colliculus auditory neurons were stimulated with pure tones or Gaussian noise bursts. The sharpness of the frequency response tuning curve at 10 dB SPL above threshold was also significantly broader among the aged rats. Furthermore, in the temporal domain, the minimal silent gap thresholds to Gaussian noises were significantly longer in aged rats. Hence, these results highlight that spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus are impaired during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  17. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  18. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  19. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-07-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  20. [Towards an integrated approach to infantile autism: the superior temporal lobe between neurosciences and psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, Bernard; Robel, Laurence

    2009-02-01

    The superior temporal lobe is currently at the focus of intensive research in infantile autism, a psychopathologic disorder apparently representing the severest failure of access to intersubjectivity, i.e. the ability to accept that others exist independently of oneself. Access to intersubjectivity seems to involve the superior temporal lobe, which is the seat of several relevant functions such as face and voice recognition and perception of others' movements, and coordinates the different sensory inputs that identify an object as being "external". The psychoanalytic approach to infantile autism and recent cognitive data are now converging, and intersubjectivity is considered to result from "mantling" or comodalization of sensory inputs from external objects. Recent brain neuroimaging studies point to anatomic and functional abnormalities of the superior temporal lobe in autistic children. Dialogue is therefore possible between these different disciplines, opening the way to an integrated view of infantile autism in which the superior temporal lobe holds a central place--not necessarily as a primary cause of autism but rather as an intermediary or a reflection of autistic functioning

  1. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  2. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  3. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala.

  4. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  6. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  7. Development from childhood to adulthood increases morphological and functional inter-individual variability in the right superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Milene; Frost, Martin A; Rutten, Sanne; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    We study the developmental trajectory of morphology and function of the superior temporal cortex (STC) in children (8-9 years), adolescents (14-15 years) and young adults. We analyze cortical surface landmarks and functional MRI (fMRI) responses to voices, other natural categories and tones and examine how hemispheric asymmetry and inter-subject variability change across age. Our results show stable morphological asymmetries across age groups, including a larger left planum temporale and a deeper right superior temporal sulcus. fMRI analyses show that a rightward lateralization for voice-selective responses is present in all groups but decreases with age. Furthermore, STC responses to voices change from being less selective and more spatially diffuse in children to highly selective and focal in adults. Interestingly, the analysis of morphological landmarks reveals that inter-subject variability increases during development in the right--but not in the left--STC. Similarly, inter-subject variability of cortically-realigned functional responses to voices, other categories and tones increases with age in the right STC. Our findings reveal asymmetric developmental changes in brain regions crucial for auditory and voice perception. The age-related increase of inter-subject variability in right STC suggests that anatomy and function of this region are shaped by unique individual developmental experiences.

  8. The mesoproterozoic midcontinent rift system, Lake Superior region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Green, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Exposures in the Lake Superior region, and associated geophysical evidence, show that a 2000 km-long rift system developed within the North American craton ??? 1109-1087 Ma, the age span of the most of the volcanic rocks. This system is characterized by immense volumes of mafic igneous rocks, mostly subaerial plateau basalts, generated in two major pulses largely by a hot mantle plume. A new ocean basin was nearly formed before rifting ceased, perhaps due to the remote effect of the Grenville continental collision to the east. Broad sagging/subsidence, combined with a system of axial half-grabens separated along the length of the rift by accommodation zones, provided conditions for the accumulation of as much as 20 km of volcanic rocks and as much as 10 km of post-rift clastic sediments, both along the rift axis and in basins flanking a central, post-volcanic horst. Pre-rift mature, quartzose sandstones imply little or no uplift prior to the onset of rift volcanism. Early post-rift red-bed sediments consist almost entirely of intrabasinally derived volcanic sediment deposited in alluvial fan to fluvial settings; the exception is one gray to black carbon-bearing lacustrine(?) unit. This early sedimentation phase was followed by broad crustal sagging and deposition of progressively more mature red-bed, fluvial sediments with an extra-basinal provenance. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Timescales of sensory- and decision-related activity in the middle temporal and medial superior temporal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicholas S C; Born, Richard T

    2010-10-20

    The contribution of sensory neurons to perceptual decisions about external stimulus events has received much attention, but it is less clear how sensory responses are integrated over time to produce decisions that are both rapid and reliable. To address this issue, we recorded from middle temporal area and medial superior temporal area neurons in rhesus macaques performing a task requiring the detection and discrimination of unpredictable speed changes. We examined how neuronal activity encoded the sign of the speed change and predicted the animals' behavioral judgments and reaction times, with a focus on the timescales over which neuronal activity is informative. False detection trials, on which animals reported a speed change even though none had occurred, were grouped according to the animals' discrimination judgment. By comparing the neuronal responses between the two groups of false detection trials, we were able to predict the animals' choices from the sensory activity of single neurons at levels significantly better than chance. These choice probability measurements were strongest using spike counts in an 80 ms window ending 150 ms before a choice saccade began, but significant choice probabilities were observed in windows as short as 10 ms. While the maximum deviation in spiking rate following a speed change is evident in the transient response, averaging neuronal activity in longer time windows can be more informative about both the stimulus and the animals' behavioral judgments. Thus the timescales found in this study represent a trade-off between producing rapid reactions and overcoming the noise inherent in short time windows.

  10. Differential roles for left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in multimodal integration of action and language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Özyürek, A.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies indicate that both posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG) and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) are involved in integrating information from different modalities. Here we investigated the respective roles of these two areas in integration of action and l

  11. Spectral organization of the human lateral superior temporal gyrus revealed by intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Jones, Robert D; Howard, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The place of the posterolateral superior temporal (PLST) gyrus within the hierarchical organization of the human auditory cortex is unknown. Understanding how PLST processes spectral information is imperative for its functional characterization. Pure-tone stimuli were presented to subjects undergoing invasive monitoring for refractory epilepsy. Recordings were made using high-density subdural grid electrodes. Pure tones elicited robust high gamma event-related band power responses along a portion of PLST adjacent to the transverse temporal sulcus (TTS). Responses were frequency selective, though typically broadly tuned. In several subjects, mirror-image response patterns around a low-frequency center were observed, but typically, more complex and distributed patterns were seen. Frequency selectivity was greatest early in the response. Classification analysis using a sparse logistic regression algorithm yielded above-chance accuracy in all subjects. Classifier performance typically peaked at 100-150 ms after stimulus onset, was comparable for the left and right hemisphere cases, and was stable across stimulus intensities. Results demonstrate that representations of spectral information within PLST are temporally dynamic and contain sufficient information for accurate discrimination of tone frequencies. PLST adjacent to the TTS appears to be an early stage in the hierarchy of cortical auditory processing. Pure-tone response patterns may aid auditory field identification.

  12. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  13. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Dahl; Nikos K Logothetis; Christoph Kayser

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  15. Modulation of Visual Responses in the Superior Temporal Sulcus by Audio-Visual Congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Christoph D.; Nikos K Logothetis; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  16. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine eFoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex is well known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75-200ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity towards dissonance.

  17. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Francine; King-Stephens, David; Weber, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth; Parvizi, Josef; Knight, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance.

  18. Primary temporal region squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed by a superficial temporal artery biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S A W; Kiss, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Superficial temporal artery biopsy is a frequent procedure performed in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. METHODS AND RESULTS: An otherwise healthy 69-year-old man presented with 2months complaint of right temporal region pain. Giant cell arteritis was suspected and a temporal ar...

  19. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  20. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species. PMID:28367117

  2. Deciphering phonemes from syllables in blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Luo, Huan; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Linguistic units such as phonemes and syllables are important for speech perception. How the brain encodes these units is not well understood. Many neuroimaging studies have found distinct representations of consonant-vowel syllables that shared one phoneme and differed in the other phoneme (e.g. /ba/ and /da/), but it is unclear whether this discrimination ability is due to the neural coding of phonemes or syllables. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivariate pattern analysis to explore this question. Subjects listened to nine Mandarin syllables in a consonant-vowel form. We successfully decoded phonemes from the syllables based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Specifically, a classifier trained on the cortical patterns elicited by a set of syllables, which contained two phonemes, could distinguish the cortical patterns elicited by other syllables that contained the two phonemes. The results indicated that phonemes have unique representations in the STG. In addition, there was a categorical effect, i.e. the cortical patterns of consonants were similar, and so were the cortical patterns of vowels. Further analysis showed that phonemes exhibited stronger encoding specificity in the mid-STG than in the anterior STG.

  3. Mental representations of vowel features asymmetrically modulate activity in superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Domahs, Ulrike; Klein, Elise; Domahs, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e.g. [e]) compared to its more specified counterpart in first position (e.g. [o]) should result in stronger activation in STS than in the reverse presentation. Whole-brain analyses confirmed this hypothesis in a bilateral cluster in STS. However, this effect interacted with the feature-distance between first and second vowel and was most pronounced for a minimal, one-feature distance, evidencing the benefit of phonological information for processing acoustically minimal sound differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Positive symptoms associate with cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E; Hibar, D P; van Erp, T G M; Potkin, S G; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Van Haren, N E M; de Zwarte, S M C; Kahn, R S; Cahn, W; Doan, N T; Jørgensen, K N; Gurholt, T P; Agartz, I; Andreassen, O A; Westlye, L T; Melle, I; Berg, A O; Mørch-Johnsen, L; Faerden, A; Flyckt, L; Fatouros-Bergman, H; Jönsson, E G; Hashimoto, R; Yamamori, H; Fukunaga, M; Preda, A; De Rossi, P; Piras, F; Banaj, N; Ciullo, V; Spalletta, G; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Wolf, D H; Satterthwaite, T D; Beard, L M; Sommer, I E; Koops, S; Gruber, O; Richter, A; Krämer, B; Kelly, S; Donohoe, G; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Gill, M; Di Giorgio, A; Bertolino, A; Lawrie, S; Nickson, T; Whalley, H C; Neilson, E; Calhoun, V D; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A; Ehrlich, S

    2017-05-01

    Based on the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in auditory processing, language comprehension and self-monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between STG cortical thickness and positive symptom severity in schizophrenia. This prospective meta-analysis includes data from 1987 individuals with schizophrenia collected at seventeen centres around the world that contribute to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. STG thickness measures were extracted from T1-weighted brain scans using FreeSurfer. The study performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes across sites generated by a model predicting left or right STG thickness with a positive symptom severity score (harmonized SAPS or PANSS-positive scores), while controlling for age, sex and site. Secondary models investigated relationships between antipsychotic medication, duration of illness, overall illness severity, handedness and STG thickness. Positive symptom severity was negatively related to STG thickness in both hemispheres (left: βstd = -0.052; P = 0.021; right: βstd = -0.073; P = 0.001) when statistically controlling for age, sex and site. This effect remained stable in models including duration of illness, antipsychotic medication or handedness. Our findings further underline the important role of the STG in hallmark symptoms in schizophrenia. These findings can assist in advancing insight into symptom-relevant pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-04-08

    During behavioral adaptation through interaction with human and nonhuman agents, marked individual differences are seen in both real-life situations and games. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a neuroimaging experiment in which subjects maximized monetary rewards by learning in a prisoner's dilemma game with two computer agents: agent A, a tit-for-tat player who repeats the subject's previous action, and agent B, a simple stochastic cooperator oblivious to the subject's action. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects (group I) learned optimally in relation to both A and B, while another 1/3 (group II) did so only for B. Post-experiment interviews indicated that group I exploited the agent strategies more often than group II. Significant differences in learning-related brain activity between the two groups were only found in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for both A and B. Furthermore, the learning performance of each group I subject was predictable based on this STS activity, but not in the group II subjects. This differential activity could not be attributed to a behavioral difference since it persisted in relation to agent B for which the two groups behaved similarly. In sharp contrast, the brain structures for reward processing were recruited similarly by both groups. These results suggest that STS provides knowledge of the other agent's strategies for association between action and reward and highlights learning competence during interactive reinforcement learning.

  6. BOLD temporal dynamics of rat superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus following short duration visual stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condon Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The superior colliculus (SC and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are important subcortical structures for vision. Much of our understanding of vision was obtained using invasive and small field of view (FOV techniques. In this study, we use non-invasive, large FOV blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI to measure the SC and LGN's response temporal dynamics following short duration (1 s visual stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments are performed at 7 tesla on Sprague Dawley rats stimulated in one eye with flashing light. Gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences are used to provide complementary information. An anatomical image is acquired from one rat after injection of monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION, a blood vessel contrast agent. BOLD responses are concentrated in the contralateral SC and LGN. The SC BOLD signal measured with gradient-echo rises to 50% of maximum amplitude (PEAK 0.2±0.2 s before the LGN signal (p<0.05. The LGN signal returns to 50% of PEAK 1.4±1.2 s before the SC signal (p<0.05. These results indicate the SC signal rises faster than the LGN signal but settles slower. Spin-echo results support these findings. The post-MION image shows the SC and LGN lie beneath large blood vessels. This subcortical vasculature is similar to that in the cortex, which also lies beneath large vessels. The LGN lies closer to the large vessels than much of the SC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The differences in response timing between SC and LGN are very similar to those between deep and shallow cortical layers following electrical stimulation, which are related to depth-dependent blood vessel dilation rates. This combined with the similarities in vasculature between subcortex and cortex suggest the SC and LGN timing differences are also related to depth-dependent dilation rates. This study shows for the first time that BOLD responses in the rat SC and LGN following short duration visual stimulation are

  7. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo [Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China); He, Hongjian [Bio-X lab, Dept. of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  8. Facial expression recognition takes longer in the posterior superior temporal sulcus than in the occipital face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, David

    2014-07-02

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a face-selective region in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) that responds more strongly during facial expression recognition tasks than during facial identity recognition tasks, but precisely when the rpSTS begins to causally contribute to expression recognition is unclear. The present study addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In Experiment 1, repetitive TMS delivered over the rpSTS of human participants, at a frequency of 10 Hz for 500 ms, selectively impaired a facial expression task but had no effect on a matched facial identity task. In Experiment 2, participants performed the expression task only while double-pulse TMS (dTMS) was delivered over the rpSTS or over the right occipital face area (rOFA), a face-selective region in lateral occipital cortex, at different latencies up to 210 ms after stimulus onset. Task performance was selectively impaired when dTMS was delivered over the rpSTS at 60-100 ms and 100-140 ms. dTMS delivered over the rOFA impaired task performance at 60-100 ms only. These results demonstrate that the rpSTS causally contributes to expression recognition and that it does so over a longer time-scale than the rOFA. This difference in the length of the TMS induced impairment between the rpSTS and the rOFA suggests that the neural computations that contribute to facial expression recognition in each region are functionally distinct.

  9. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  10. Responses in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus show a feature-based response to facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tessa R; Andrews, Timothy J; Hymers, Mark; Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Marsden, Samuel P; Strachan, James W A; Trakulpipat, Chayanit; Wang, Liang; Wu, Tian; Young, Andrew W

    2015-08-01

    The face-selective region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in analysing facial expressions. However, it is less clear how facial expressions are represented in this region. In this study, we used the face composite effect to explore whether the pSTS contains a holistic or feature-based representation of facial expression. Aligned and misaligned composite images were created from the top and bottom halves of faces posing different expressions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a behavioural matching task in which they judged whether the top half of two images was the same or different. The ability to discriminate the top half of the face was affected by changes in the bottom half of the face when the images were aligned, but not when they were misaligned. This shows a holistic behavioural response to expression. In Experiment 2, we used fMR-adaptation to ask whether the pSTS has a corresponding holistic neural representation of expression. Aligned or misaligned images were presented in blocks that involved repeating the same image or in which the top or bottom half of the images changed. Increased neural responses were found in the right pSTS regardless of whether the change occurred in the top or bottom of the image, showing that changes in expression were detected across all parts of the face. However, in contrast to the behavioural data, the pattern did not differ between aligned and misaligned stimuli. This suggests that the pSTS does not encode facial expressions holistically. In contrast to the pSTS, a holistic pattern of response to facial expression was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Together, these results suggest that pSTS reflects an early stage in the processing of facial expression in which facial features are represented independently.

  11. Virtual lesion of right posterior superior temporal sulcus modulates conscious visual perception of fearful expressions in faces and bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Stienen, Bernard M C; Aglioti, Salvatore M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    The posterior Superior Temporal Suclus (pSTS) represents a central hub in the complex cerebral network for person perception and emotion recognition as also suggested by its heavy connections with face- and body-specific cortical (e.g., the fusiform face area, FFA and the extrastriate body area, EBA) and subcortical structures (e.g., amygdala). Information on whether pSTS is causatively involved in sustaining conscious visual perception of emotions expressed by faces and bodies is lacking. We explored this issue by combining a binocular rivalry procedure (where emotional and neutral face and body postures rivaled with house images) with off-line, 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We found that temporary inhibition of the right pSTS reduced perceptual dominance of fearful faces and increased perceptual dominance of fearful bodies, while leaving unaffected the perception of neutral face and body images. Inhibition of the vertex had no effect on conscious visual perception of neutral or emotional face or body stimuli. Thus, the right pSTS plays a causal role in shortening conscious vision of fearful faces and in prolonging conscious vision of fearful bodies. These results suggest that pSTS selectively modulates the activity of segregated networks involved in the conscious visual perception of emotional faces or bodies. We speculate that the opposite role of the right pSTS for conscious perception of fearful face and body may be explained by the different connections that this region entertains with face- and body-selective visual areas as well as with amygdalae and premotor regions.

  12. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  13. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex

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    Blomert Leo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies propose the (posterior superior temporal cortex (STC as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent versus nonmatching (incongruent multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs. We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. Results The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. Conclusions These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for

  14. Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexicosemantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2012-07-11

    Congenitally deaf individuals receive little or no auditory input, and when raised by deaf parents, they acquire sign as their native and primary language. We asked two questions regarding how the deaf brain in humans adapts to sensory deprivation: (1) is meaning extracted and integrated from signs using the same classical left hemisphere frontotemporal network used for speech in hearing individuals, and (2) in deafness, is superior temporal cortex encompassing primary and secondary auditory regions reorganized to receive and process visual sensory information at short latencies? Using MEG constrained by individual cortical anatomy obtained with MRI, we examined an early time window associated with sensory processing and a late time window associated with lexicosemantic integration. We found that sign in deaf individuals and speech in hearing individuals activate a highly similar left frontotemporal network (including superior temporal regions surrounding auditory cortex) during lexicosemantic processing, but only speech in hearing individuals activates auditory regions during sensory processing. Thus, neural systems dedicated to processing high-level linguistic information are used for processing language regardless of modality or hearing status, and we do not find evidence for rewiring of afferent connections from visual systems to auditory cortex.

  15. Poor Receptive Joint Attention Skills Are Associated with Atypical Grey Matter Asymmetry in the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

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    William eHopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either grey matter volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. MRI scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had more rightward asymmetries in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less grey matter than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  16. Repetition suppression in auditory-motor regions to pitch and temporal structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Chen, Joyce L; Hollinger, Avrum; Penhune, Virginia B; Palmer, Caroline; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Music performance requires control of two sequential structures: the ordering of pitches and the temporal intervals between successive pitches. Whether pitch and temporal structures are processed as separate or integrated features remains unclear. A repetition suppression paradigm compared neural and behavioral correlates of mapping pitch sequences and temporal sequences to motor movements in music performance. Fourteen pianists listened to and performed novel melodies on an MR-compatible piano keyboard during fMRI scanning. The pitch or temporal patterns in the melodies either changed or repeated (remained the same) across consecutive trials. We expected decreased neural response to the patterns (pitch or temporal) that repeated across trials relative to patterns that changed. Pitch and temporal accuracy were high, and pitch accuracy improved when either pitch or temporal sequences repeated over trials. Repetition of either pitch or temporal sequences was associated with linear BOLD decrease in frontal-parietal brain regions including dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, pre-SMA, and superior parietal cortex. Pitch sequence repetition (in contrast to temporal sequence repetition) was associated with linear BOLD decrease in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) while pianists listened to melodies they were about to perform. Decreased BOLD response in IPS also predicted increase in pitch accuracy only when pitch sequences repeated. Thus, behavioral performance and neural response in sensorimotor mapping networks were sensitive to both pitch and temporal structure, suggesting that pitch and temporal structure are largely integrated in auditory-motor transformations. IPS may be involved in transforming pitch sequences into spatial coordinates for accurate piano performance.

  17. Pantomiming tool use with an imaginary tool in hand as compared to demonstration with tool in hand specifically modulates the left middle and superior temporal gyri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausberg, Hedda; Kazzer, Philipp; Heekeren, Hauke R; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological lesion studies evidence the necessity to differentiate between various forms of tool-related actions such as real tool use, tool use demonstration with tool in hand and without physical target object, and pantomime without tool in hand. However, thus far, neuroimaging studies have primarily focused only on investigating tool use pantomimes. The present fMRI study investigates pantomime without tool in hand as compared to tool use demonstration with tool in hand in order to explore patterns of cerebral signal modulation associated with acting with imaginary tools in hand. Fifteen participants performed with either hand (i) tool use pantomime with an imaginary tool in hand in response to visual tool presentation and (ii) tool use demonstration with tool in hand in response to visual-tactile tool presentation. In both conditions, no physical target object was present. The conjunction analysis of the right and left hands executions of tool use pantomime relative to tool use demonstration yielded significant activity in the left middle and superior temporal lobe. In contrast, demonstration relative to pantomime revealed large bihemispherically distributed homologous areas of activity. Thus far, fMRI studies have demonstrated the relevance of the left middle and superior temporal gyri in viewing, naming, and matching tools and related actions and contexts. Since in our study all these factors were equally (ir)relevant both in the tool use pantomime and the tool use demonstration conditions, the present findings enhance the knowledge about the function of these brain regions in tool-related cognitive processes. The two contrasted conditions only differ regarding the fact that the pantomime condition requires the individual to act with an imaginary tool in hand. Therefore, we suggest that the left middle and superior temporal gyri are specifically involved in integrating the projected mental image of a tool in the execution of a tool-specific movement

  18. Morphologic Study of Superior Temporal Sulcus-Amygdaloid Body and Lateral Fissure-Amygdaloid Body Surgical Approach by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Ren, Bichen; Chang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Youqiong; Duan, Haobo; Cheng, Kailiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, 83 patients were measured by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering technique. The authors acquired the curve length of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure on the cerebral hemisphere, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the center of amygdaloid body separately, the vertical diameter, the transversal diameter, and the anteroposterior diameter of the amygdaloid body and the 2 approach angles between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the center of amygdaloid body and the shortest segment from lateral fissure to the center of the amygdaloid body. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the 2 points of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure, which are closest to the center of amygdaloid body, aimed at finding out the best entrance points of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the amygdaloid body and reducing the damage to the nerve fibers or blood vessels during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 1/4 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point and the point at the front side 1/3 of the lateral fissure. There is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  19. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  20. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  1. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  2. Plasticity in bilateral superior temporal cortex: Effects of deafness and cochlear implantation on auditory and visual speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carly A; Lazard, Diane S; Hartley, Douglas E H

    2017-01-01

    While many individuals can benefit substantially from cochlear implantation, the ability to perceive and understand auditory speech with a cochlear implant (CI) remains highly variable amongst adult recipients. Importantly, auditory performance with a CI cannot be reliably predicted based solely on routinely obtained information regarding clinical characteristics of the CI candidate. This review argues that central factors, notably cortical function and plasticity, should also be considered as important contributors to the observed individual variability in CI outcome. Superior temporal cortex (STC), including auditory association areas, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory and visual speech information. The current review considers evidence of cortical plasticity within bilateral STC, and how these effects may explain variability in CI outcome. Furthermore, evidence of audio-visual interactions in temporal and occipital cortices is examined, and relation to CI outcome is discussed. To date, longitudinal examination of changes in cortical function and plasticity over the period of rehabilitation with a CI has been restricted by methodological challenges. The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in studying cortical function in CI users is becoming increasingly recognised as a potential solution to these problems. Here we suggest that fNIRS offers a powerful neuroimaging tool to elucidate the relationship between audio-visual interactions, cortical plasticity during deafness and following cochlear implantation, and individual variability in auditory performance with a CI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Time course of superior temporal sulcus activity in response to eye gaze: a combined fMRI and MEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2008-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to be involved in gaze processing, but temporal data regarding this issue are lacking. We investigated this topic by combining fMRI and MEG in four normal subjects. Photographs of faces with either averted or straight eye gazes were presented and subjects passively viewed the stimuli. First, we analyzed the brain areas involved using fMRI. A group analysis revealed activation of the STS for averted compared to straight gazes, which was confirmed in all subjects. We then measured brain activity using MEG, and conducted a 3D spatial filter analysis. The STS showed higher activity in response to averted versus straight gazes during the 150–200 ms period, peaking at around 170 ms, after stimulus onset. In contrast, the fusiform gyrus, which was detected by the main effect of stimulus presentations in fMRI analysis, exhibited comparable activity across straight and averted gazes at about 170 ms. These results indicate involvement of the human STS in rapid processing of the eye gaze of another individual. PMID:19015114

  4. Spatio-temporal analysis of regional PV generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power is growing in importance worldwide and hence needs to be represented in operation and planning of power system. As opposed to traditional generation technologies, it is characterized by exhibiting both a high variability and a significant spatial dependence. This paper...... presents a fundamental analysis of regional solar generation time series, aiming to potentially facilitate large-scale solar integration. It will focus on characterizing the underlying dependence structure at the system level as well as describing both statistical and temporal properties of regional PV...

  5. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  6. Naturalistic fMRI Mapping Reveals Superior Temporal Sulcus as the Hub for the Distributed Brain Network for Social Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life. PMID:22905026

  7. Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  8. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  9. Involvement of the superior temporal cortex and the occipital cortex in spatial hearing: evidence from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewald, Jörg; Meister, Ingo G; Weidemann, Jürgen; Töpper, Rudolf

    2004-06-01

    The processing of auditory spatial information in cortical areas of the human brain outside of the primary auditory cortex remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the occipital cortex (OC) in spatial hearing using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The right STG is known to be of crucial importance for visual spatial awareness, and has been suggested to be involved in auditory spatial perception. We found that rTMS of the right STG induced a systematic error in the perception of interaural time differences (a primary cue for sound localization in the azimuthal plane). This is in accordance with the recent view, based on both neurophysiological data obtained in monkeys and human neuroimaging studies, that information on sound location is processed within a dorsolateral "where" stream including the caudal STG. A similar, but opposite, auditory shift was obtained after rTMS of secondary visual areas of the right OC. Processing of auditory information in the OC has previously been shown to exist only in blind persons. Thus, the latter finding provides the first evidence of an involvement of the visual cortex in spatial hearing in sighted human subjects, and suggests a close interconnection of the neural representation of auditory and visual space. Because rTMS induced systematic shifts in auditory lateralization, but not a general deterioration, we propose that rTMS of STG or OC specifically affected neuronal circuits transforming auditory spatial coordinates in order to maintain alignment with vision.

  10. Determination of the sphere origin for MEG source modelling in temporal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teale, Peter; Benkers, Tara; Rojas, Donald; Reite, Martin

    2002-04-07

    This paper addresses the choice of spherical volume used in modelling MEG data recorded from temporal (auditory cortex) brain regions. We used MRI data sets to compute best-fitting spheres for the cranial cavity or inner skull table, and for the outer scalp surface. In addition, a 'generic' sphere was computed as the mean of the origin coordinates for the cranial spheres. The effects of these sphere choices were evaluated by estimating equivalent current dipoles as source generators for the M100 component of the auditory evoked field, and comparing the goodness-of-fit and 95% confidence volumes. Results indicate that for this area the cranial cavity is a better choice of surface to fit than the outer scalp. The 'generic' sphere results were also superior to those obtained using individual outer surfaces.

  11. Coding for stimulus velocity by temporal patterning of spike discharges in visual cells of cat superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, G

    1993-07-01

    Statistical analyses, performed on extracellularly recorded spike trains generated by 69 single motion sensitive visual cells in the intermediate layers of superior colliculi of pretrigeminal cat preparations, revealed that--even in the unstimulated condition (38/69)--most neuronal spike discharge patterns tended to switch between two stochastically distinct states, in the form of rapidly alternating "bursting" (high frequency) and "resting" (low frequency) episodes. The numbers of consecutive interspike intervals within a given state were, as a rule, independent integer-valued random variables with discrete probability distributions, in essential agreement with the semi-Markov model proposed by Ekholm and Hyvärinen [(1970) Biophysical Journal, 10, 773-796]. The introduction of visual stimuli (47/69) moving with velocities of 2-160 deg/sec caused systematic and reproducible changes in the ratio of bursting to resting activities, decreases in overall discharge variability, and increases in signal transinformation flow. Moreover, with one group of stimulated cells (28/47), increasing stimulus velocity caused increasingly precise ("stimulus-forced") synchronization of bursting episodes with specific phases of stimulus movement; while for a smaller group (12/47), stimulus-related alternations between bursting and resting states assumed the form of semi-rhythmical burst discharges within the characteristic 60-80 Hz "gamma oscillation" range ("stimulus-induced" synchronization). For a minority of cells (7/47), switching between bursting and resting states--although characteristically modified by stimulus velocity--remained largely desynchronized with all phases of stimulus transit. It was argued that such temporal patterns of discharge may constitute elements of a candidate "distribution" code for movement detection by the cat visual system.

  12. Decreased replication origin activity in temporal transition regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zeqiang; Hughes, Christina M; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; Norio, Paolo; Sen, Ranjan; Fiering, Steven; Allis, C David; Bouhassira, Eric E; Schildkraut, Carl L

    2009-11-30

    In the mammalian genome, early- and late-replicating domains are often separated by temporal transition regions (TTRs) with novel properties and unknown functions. We identified a TTR in the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, which contains replication origins that are silent in embryonic stem cells but activated during B cell development. To investigate which factors contribute to origin activation during B cell development, we systematically modified the genetic and epigenetic status of the endogenous Igh TTR and used a single-molecule approach to analyze DNA replication. Introduction of a transcription unit into the Igh TTR, activation of gene transcription, and enhancement of local histone modifications characteristic of active chromatin did not lead to origin activation. Moreover, very few replication initiation events were observed when two ectopic replication origin sequences were inserted into the TTR. These findings indicate that the Igh TTR represents a repressive compartment that inhibits replication initiation, thus maintaining the boundaries between early and late replication domains.

  13. Superiority of Filtered Tailings Storage Facility to Conventional Tailings Impoundment in Southern Rainy Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the superiority of a filtered tailings storage facility (FTSF to conventional tailings impoundment in the southern rainy regions of China (SRRC, the tailings slurry leakage and pollution accident occurring at the wet tailings dam (WTD of Yinshan were analyzed, the properties of the tailings were tested in a laboratory, and the possibility of tailings liquefaction was evaluated. Comparisons of the slope stabilities of the filtered tailings dam (FTD and WTD in normal operation, flood, continuous rainfall, and earthquake situations were simulated using the Slide software. The results show that the FTD has less chance of seepage, lower failure probability, and limited potential destructiveness than the WTD with average slope safety factors of 2.120 for normal operation, 1.919 for flooding, 1.204 for continuous rainfall, and 1.724 for a magnitude-6.0 earthquake. The disaster chain model of the WTD of Yinshan belongs to the bursting and slippage chain. As the most safe and effective active prevention measure, the FTSF has the advantages of saving water, protecting the environment, improving its stability in flood and rainfall situations, and reducing the dam failure probability and potential losses, which is greatly applicable to the SRRC.

  14. Bathymetric distribution of fish in the Apostle Islands region, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, William R.

    1966-01-01

    Records of seasonal and “all-season” (April-December) bathymetric distribution are given for 17 species of fish taken in bottom trawls and experimental gill nets fished on the bottom in 1958–63 in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior. The data are based on catches from 578 trawl tows at 2–59 fathoms and 301,900 linear feet of gill nets fished at 2–89 fathoms. Size of the fish varied widely among different species from the same gear and the same species from different gears. Seasonal differences in depth distribution were greatest for lake trout, bloaters, round whitefish, and older smelt, which exhibited an inshore movement in the summer and fall, and for longnose suckers, which migrated to deeper water with progress of the seasons. The all-season bathymetric distributions varied considerably among species. Round whitefish, 0- and I-group smelt, longnose suckers, ninespine sticklebacks, and johnny darters were most abundant at < 10 fathoms. Concentrations of lake trout, lake herring, lake whitefish, older smelt, trout-perch, and burbot were greatest at 10–29 fathoms. Pygmy whitefish were most common at 30–39 fathoms, bloaters and spoonhead sculpins at 40–49 fathoms, and shortjaw ciscoes, slimy sculpins, and fourhorn sculpins at 50–59 fathoms. The kiyi was most abundant at 70–79 fathoms.

  15. Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region of migraine patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region (TSBF) was measured by the local 133 Xenon washout technique in 43 migraine patients; 19 were reexamined in the course of spontaneous attacks. During attacks, TSBF was normal compared to headache-free state. In 13 unilateral attacks, the median ipsilateral to contralateral ratio TSBF was 1: 1.276, (NS). During 30 deg C passive head-up tilt, TSBF descreased by a median of 27% during headache-free intervals and by a median, 21% during migraine attacks. The difference between the 2 occasions was not significant. Head-up tilt resulted in a median 4.5% increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and a median 5.3% increase in heart rate (HR) during headache-free intervals and 3.4% and 3.2% respectively during migraine attacks. These results are evidence against a vasomotor disturbance of the extracranial tissues during attacks of migraine. The cardio-vascular response to the orthostatic stimulus indicates a normal function of this part of the autonomic nervous system during migraine attacks.

  16. Absent activation in medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction but not superior temporal sulcus during the perception of biological motion in schizophrenia: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Hashimoto,1,2 Atsuhito Toyomaki,1 Masahiro Hirai,3 Tamaki Miyamoto,1 Hisashi Narita,1 Ryo Okubo,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan Background: Patients with schizophrenia show disturbances in both visual perception and social cognition. Perception of biological motion (BM is a higher-level visual process, and is known to be associated with social cognition. BM induces activation in the “social brain network”, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS. Although deficits in the detection of BM and atypical activation in the STS have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether other nodes of the “social brain network” are also atypical in patients with schizophrenia.Purpose: We aimed to explore whether brain regions other than STS were involved during BM perception in patients with schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods and patients: Seventeen patients with schizophrenia, and 17 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, underwent fMRI scanning during a one-back visual task, containing three experimental conditions: (1 BM, (2 scrambled motion (SM, and (3 static condition. We used one-sample t-tests to examine neural responses selective to BM versus SM within each group, and two-sample t-tests to directly compare neural patterns to BM versus SM in schizophrenics versus controls.Results: We found significant activation in the STS region when BM was contrasted with SM in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. On the contrary, significant activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ was found only in the

  17. Music listening engages specific cortical regions within the temporal lobes: differences between musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Aubé, William; Peretz, Isabelle; Barrios, Fernando A; Armony, Jorge L; Concha, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Music and speech are two of the most relevant and common sounds in the human environment. Perceiving and processing these two complex acoustical signals rely on a hierarchical functional network distributed throughout several brain regions within and beyond the auditory cortices. Given their similarities, the neural bases for processing these two complex sounds overlap to a certain degree, but particular brain regions may show selectivity for one or the other acoustic category, which we aimed to identify. We examined 53 subjects (28 of them professional musicians) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a paradigm designed to identify regions showing increased activity in response to different types of musical stimuli, compared to different types of complex sounds, such as speech and non-linguistic vocalizations. We found a region in the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) (planum polare) that showed preferential activity in response to musical stimuli and was present in all our subjects, regardless of musical training, and invariant across different musical instruments (violin, piano or synthetic piano). Our data show that this cortical region is preferentially involved in processing musical, as compared to other complex sounds, suggesting a functional role as a second-order relay, possibly integrating acoustic characteristics intrinsic to music (e.g., melody extraction). Moreover, we assessed whether musical experience modulates the response of cortical regions involved in music processing and found evidence of functional differences between musicians and non-musicians during music listening. In particular, bilateral activation of the planum polare was more prevalent, but not exclusive, in musicians than non-musicians, and activation of the right posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (planum temporale) differed between groups. Our results provide evidence of functional specialization for music processing in specific

  18. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José van Tol

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  19. Time Course of the Involvement of the Right Anterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Right Fronto-Parietal Operculum in Emotional Prosody Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, Rene S.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional

  20. Bloqueo regional axilar en trauma de miembro superior en el Hospital General Luis Vernaza.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Ligua, Rosa Mariluz

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar tiempo de analgesia en el posoperatorio, medir analgesia mediante escala visual análoga (EVA), protocolizar el bloqueo axilar del plexo braquial como anestesia de elección en el trauma de miembro superior antebrazo muñeca y mano para disminuir losrequerimientos analgésico posquirúrgicos, valoración demográfica por edad sexo y ASA en el Hospital General Luis Vernaza. Materiales y métodos: El estudio fue prospectivo analítico experi...

  1. Temporal evolution of continental lithospheric strength in actively deforming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, W.; Pollitz, F.F.

    2008-01-01

    It has been agreed for nearly a century that a strong, load-bearing outer layer of earth is required to support mountain ranges, transmit stresses to deform active regions and store elastic strain to generate earthquakes. However the dept and extent of this strong layer remain controversial. Here we use a variety of observations to infer the distribution of lithospheric strength in the active western United States from seismic to steady-state time scales. We use evidence from post-seismic transient and earthquake cycle deformation reservoir loading glacio-isostatic adjustment, and lithosphere isostatic adjustment to large surface and subsurface loads. The nearly perfectly elastic behavior of Earth's crust and mantle at the time scale of seismic wave propagation evolves to that of a strong, elastic crust and weak, ductile upper mantle lithosphere at both earthquake cycle (EC, ???10?? to 103 yr) and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA, ???103 to 104 yr) time scales. Topography and gravity field correlations indicate that lithosphere isostatic adjustment (LIA) on ???106-107 yr time scales occurs with most lithospheric stress supported by an upper crust overlying a much weaker ductile subtrate. These comparisons suggest that the upper mantle lithosphere is weaker than the crust at all time scales longer than seismic. In contrast, the lower crust has a chameleon-like behavior, strong at EC and GIA time scales and weak for LIA and steady-state deformation processes. The lower crust might even take on a third identity in regions of rapid crustal extension or continental collision, where anomalously high temperatures may lead to large-scale ductile flow in a lower crustal layer that is locally weaker than the upper mantle. Modeling of lithospheric processes in active regions thus cannot use a one-size-fits-all prescription of rheological layering (relation between applied stress and deformation as a function of depth) but must be tailored to the time scale and tectonic

  2. The Relative Weight of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Sentence Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Sun, Yuanyuan; Feng, Yanmei; Zhang, Yujun; Yin, Shankai

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic temporal envelope (E) cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80-7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8.2% to 16.3% when E information from only one region was available, the scores ranged from 57.9% to 87.7% when E information from two frequency regions was presented, suggesting a synergistic effect among the temporal E cues in different frequency regions. Next, the relative contributions of the E information from the five frequency regions to sentence perception were computed using a least-squares approach. The results demonstrated that, for Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, the temporal E cues of Frequency Region 1 (80-502 Hz) and Region 3 (1,022-1,913 Hz) contributed more to the intelligence of sentence recognition than other regions, particularly the region of 80-502 Hz, which contained fundamental frequency (F0) information.

  3. The Relative Weight of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Sentence Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic temporal envelope (E cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80–7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8.2% to 16.3% when E information from only one region was available, the scores ranged from 57.9% to 87.7% when E information from two frequency regions was presented, suggesting a synergistic effect among the temporal E cues in different frequency regions. Next, the relative contributions of the E information from the five frequency regions to sentence perception were computed using a least-squares approach. The results demonstrated that, for Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, the temporal E cues of Frequency Region 1 (80–502 Hz and Region 3 (1,022–1,913 Hz contributed more to the intelligence of sentence recognition than other regions, particularly the region of 80–502 Hz, which contained fundamental frequency (F0 information.

  4. Temporal changes of mid-latitude surface regions on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Hirtzig, Mathieu; Stephan, Katrin; Sotin, Christophe; Drossart, Pierre; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Lawrence, Kenneth; Jaumann, Ralf; Brown, Robert H.; Bratsolis, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    The Cassini-Huygens instruments revealed that Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, has a complex, dynamic and Earth-like surface. Understanding the distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan is important for constraining models of its interior, surface-atmospheric interactions, and climate evolution. Data from the remote sensing instruments have shown the presence of diverse terrains, suggesting exogenic and endogenic processes. However, interpretations of surface features need a precise knowledge of the contribution by the dense intervening atmosphere, especially the troposphere. Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) collects spectro-images within the so-called “methane windows” where the methane atmospheric absorption is weak, but non-negligible, permitting however a good perception of the surface. In order to make a good evaluation of the atmosphere and extract surface information we follow a method using a statistical tool and a Radiative transfer code with which we analyze regions of interest (i.e. regions of unknown origin), in order to monitor if their spectral behavior changes with time. These are cryovolcanic candidates and for comparison undifferentiated plains. We find that the cryovolcanic candidates Tui Regio and Sotra Patera change with time becoming darker and brighter respectively in terms of surface albedo while the plains do not present any significant change. The surface brightening of Sotra supports a possible cryovolcanic rather than an exogenic origin. The unchanged surface behavior of the plains supports a sedimentary origin rather than cryovolcanic. Such a variety of geologic processes and their relationship to the methane cycle make Titan particularly significant in Solar System studies.

  5. Swelling of the temporal region: a case of benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecka, M; Weismann, K; Herning, Gudrun Margrethe

    1997-01-01

    A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tiss....... A small prolactinoma of the pituitary gland was incidentally found. The condition, designated benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy, should be distinguished from similar diseases affecting the skin and the subcutaneous tissue of the scalp. The cause remains unknown......A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tissue...

  6. Swelling of the temporal region: a case of benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecka, M; Weismann, K; Herning, Gudrun Margrethe

    1997-01-01

    A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tiss....... A small prolactinoma of the pituitary gland was incidentally found. The condition, designated benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy, should be distinguished from similar diseases affecting the skin and the subcutaneous tissue of the scalp. The cause remains unknown......A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tissue...

  7. Geographical and temporal variation of regional development and innovation in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Inkinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    . Analysis was conducted using principal component indices from the years 1995–2007 to provide a temporal trend perspective of the most successful locations in innovation activity and regional development. Availability of an extensive workforce, income and higher education have steadily been the most......Variations in regional development are basically carried forward by technological development together with spatial concentrations of production and finance. The main argument behind this paper is that innovation and regional development variables have temporal variations in a spatial context...... “distinct” variables corresponding to regional development in Finland, whereas innovation occupies a stable middling position among explanative variables. Regional development and innovation activity is still concentrated in the core urban regions, but this tendency has lost at least some of its importance....

  8. Regional activation of the human medial temporal lobe during intentional encoding of objects and positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, T.Z.; Liptrot, Matthew George; Skimminge, A.

    2009-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) consists of several regions thought to be involved in learning and memory. However, the degree of functional specialization among these regions remains unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated effects of both content and processing stage, but findings have been i....... These results provide additional evidence for functional specialization within the MTL, but were less clear regarding the specific nature of content specificity in these regions. © 2009 Elsevier Inc....

  9. Escenarios mundiales y regionales de la educación superior Global and regional scenarios of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Segrera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta un análisis y un ejercicio prospectivo de posibles escenarios y alternativas globales de la educación superior, de entre ellos: modelo tradicional; modelo de libre mercado; educación permanente; red global de instituciones; desaparición de las universidades. Estos escenarios tienen relaciones con el desarrollo de temas de largo contexto, como la globaliazación, la sociedad del conocimiento, las redes de cooperación regionales, la educación permanente y sobre todo los desdoblamientos de la disputa respecto al significado de la educación superior como bien público o comercio rentable.The article presents an analysis and a prospective exercise of possible global scenarios and alternatives for higher education, such as: traditional model; free market model; permanent education; global chain of institutions; disappearance of the universities. These scenarios are related to the development of the large context topics, such as globalization, the society of knowledge, the chains of regional cooperation, permanent education and all the unfoldings of the dispute on the meaning of higher education as a public good or a profitable business.

  10. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  11. ARTERIO-VENOUS FISTULA IN THE TEMPORAL REGIONS – A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dobrin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The arterio-venous fistulae in the temporal regions, to be first described by Bartholin around 1730, were considered as tardy post-traumatic lesions correlated with the impact of tough objects in the above-mentioned area. The superficial temporal arterio-venous axis is usually interested at the level of the pterional region, while establishment of some communication between the artery and the vein generates an arterio-venous fistula with a systolodiastolic murmur and the tendency for progressive growth. The study discusses a clinical case and its surgical solution.

  12. Lake Superior summer water temperatures are increasing more rapidly than regional air temperatures: A positive ice-albedo feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jay A.; Colman, Steven M.

    2007-03-01

    Lake Superior summer (July-September) surface water temperatures have increased approximately 2.5°C over the interval 1979-2006, equivalent to a rate of (11 +/- 6) × 10-2°C yr-1, significantly in excess of regional atmospheric warming. This discrepancy is caused by declining winter ice cover, which is causing the onset of the positively stratified season to occur earlier at a rate of roughly a half day per year. An earlier start of the stratified season significantly increases the period over which the lake warms during the summer months, leading to a stronger trend in mean summer temperatures than would be expected from changes in summer air temperature alone.

  13. The Impact of Single Session Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Chang Ni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation in a randomized order with a 1-week interval. Neuropsychological functions were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Behavioral outcomes were measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. In comparison to that in the sham stimulation, the reaction time in the CCPT significantly decreased following single DLPFC session (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.71 while there were no significant differences in the CCPT and WCST following single pSTS session. Besides, the results in behavioral outcomes were inconsistent and had discrepancy between reports of parents and patients. In conclusion, a single session of iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC may alter the neuropsychological function in adults with ASD. The impacts of multiple-sessions iTBS over the DLPFC or pSTS deserve further investigations.

  14. Activity changes in the left superior temporal sulcus reflect the effects of childcare training on young female students' perceptions of infants' negative facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ayahito; Niwano, Katsuko; Tanabe, Motoko; Sato, Yosuke; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2017-09-12

    In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers. Twenty-seven subjects who attended a childcare training session (i.e., the experimental group) and 28 subjects who did not attend the training (i.e., the control group) participated in this study. The participants went through fMRI scanning twice: before and after the childcare training session. They were presented with happy, neutral, and sad infant faces one by one during fMRI scanning. The present neuroimaging results revealed that the activity patterns of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) for sad faces were modulated by the interaction between the time point of the data collection and group differences. The present results are the first to highlight the effects of childcare training on the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  15. The Consolidation of Object and Context Recognition Memory Involve Different Regions of the Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Israela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Salgado-Tonda, Paloma; Chavez-Hurtado, Julio; McGaugh, James L.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2008-01-01

    These experiments investigated the involvement of several temporal lobe regions in consolidation of recognition memory. Anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, was infused into the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, insular cortex, or basolateral amygdala of rats immediately after the sample phase of object or object-in-context recognition memory…

  16. Characteristics of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of China’s Superiority Olympic Events%我国奥运优势项目时空演变发展特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓林; 任德利; 袁锋

    2015-01-01

    In the present project,we looked at the number of gold medals that China has won at the Olympic Sum-mer and Winter Games,the places of origin of the gold medalists,and the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of the gold-winning sports events. Temporally,we found a wave-like upward pattern in the number of gold medals,and that superiority events are mainly distributed among six events,i. e. ,weightlifting,gymnastics div-ing,shooting,table tennis and badminton, in four major subgroups of events:the speed-and-power-demanding, the difficulty-and-beauty-demanding,the accuracy-demanding,and the net events,the first subgroup being based on fit-ness and the latter three on skill. The superiority Olympic events have contributed 74. 6%of all gold medals won by China at the Olympic Games,with an uneven regional distribution,showing a difference in quality longitudinally and one in quantity latitudinally. These events are distributed over three regions,which are rated as strong,fairly strong and weak respectively. For the comprehensive upgrade of China’s competitiveness in the Olympic events,we suggest deepening the priority development strategy,seizing the opportunity for national coordinated regional development to promote coordinated regional development of competitive sports,working for an even distribution and development of the superiority Olympic events,and broadening development paths.%利用文献资料法、数理统计法与比较研究法等,对我国所参加的历届夏季奥运会与冬季奥运会所获金牌数量、金牌运动员籍贯以及金牌项目的时空分布特征进行研究。结果表明:我国奥运会金牌总数在时间分布上呈现波浪式前进态势;我国奥运优势项目主要分布在体能主导类的快速力量性,技能主导类的表现难美性、表现准确性、隔网对抗性四大亚项群的举重、体操与跳水、射击、乒乓球与羽毛球六个项目;奥运优势

  17. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF REGIONAL CONVERGENCE AT COUNTY LEVEL IN JIANGSU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Ying-xia; MA Rong-hua; GE Ying; HUANG Xing-yuan

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of regional convergence include spatial and temporal dimensions. Spatial Markov chain can be used to explore how regions evolve by considering both individual regions and their geographic neighbors.Based on per capita GDP data set of 77 counties from 1978 to 2000, this paper attempts to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of regional convergence in Jiangsu. First, traditional Markov matrix for five per capita GDP classes is constructed for later comparison. Moreover, each region's spatial lag is derived by averaging all its neighbors' per capita GDP data. Conditioning on per capita GDP class of its spatial lag at the beginning of each year, spatial Markov transition probabilities of each region are calculated accordingly. Quantitatively, for a poor region, the probability of moving upward is 3.3% ifit is surrounded by its poor neighbors, and even increases to 18.4% ifit is surrounded by its rich neighbors, but it goes down to 6.2% on average if ignoring regional context. For a rich region, the probability of moving down ward is 1.2% if it is surrounded by its rich neighbors, but increases to 3.0% if it is surrounded by its poor neighbors, and averages 1.5% irrespective of regional context. Spatial analysis of regional GDP class transitions indicates those 10 upward moves of both regions and their neighbors are unexceptionally located in the southern Jiangsu,while downward moves of regions or their neighbors are almost in the northern Jiangsu. These empirical results provide a spatial explanation to the "convergence clubs" detected by traditional Markov chain.

  18. RELN-expressing neuron density in layer I of the superior temporal lobe is similar in human brains with autism and in age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-09-05

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A case of double depressor palsy followed by pursuit deficit due to sequential infarction in bilateral thalamus and right medial superior temporal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Myeong In; Lee, Seung Uk

    2016-12-05

    We present a unique case of a patient who suffered two rare events affecting the supranuclear control, first of the vertical and second of the horizontal eye movements. The first event involved bilateral thalamic infarcts that resulted in double depressor palsy. The second event occurred 1 year later and it involved supranuclear control of horizontal eye movements creating pursuit deficit. A 47-year-old male presented with complaints of diplopia upon awakening. He had atrial fibrillation, mitral valve regurgitation, aortic valve regurgitation, and a history of spleen infarction 1 year ago. His right eye was hypertrophic and right eye downgaze was limited unilaterally of equal degree in adduction and abduction. The patient was diagnosed with double depressor palsy of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an old infarction of the left thalamus, and diffusion MRI showed acute infarction of the right thalamus. The patient's daily warfarin dose was 2 mg and it was increased to 5 mg with cilostazol 75 mg twice a day. Seven weeks later, the patient's ocular movement revealed near normal muscle action, and subjectively, the patient was diplopia free. At follow-up 12 months later, the patient revisited the hospital because of sudden onset of blurred vision on right gaze. He was observed to have smooth pursuit deficit to the right side, and orthophoric position of the eyes in primary gaze. MRI of the brain showed an acute infarction in the right medial superior temporal area. The patient experienced very rare abnormal eyeball movements twice. This case highlights the importance of evaluating vertical movement of the eyes and vascular supplies when patients present with depressor deficit and supports the theory of a supranuclear function in patients who present with pursuit deficit.

  20. Nonrandom community assembly and high temporal turnover promote regional coexistence in tropics but not temperate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Amy L; Inouye, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    A persistent challenge for ecologists is understanding the ecological mechanisms that maintain global patterns of biodiversity, particularly the latitudinal diversity gradient of peak species richness in the tropics. Spatial and temporal variation in community composition contribute to these patterns of biodiversity, but how this variation and its underlying processes change across latitude remains unresolved. Using a model system of sessile marine invertebrates across 25 degrees of latitude, from the temperate zone to the tropics, we tested the prediction that spatial and temporal patterns of taxonomic richness and composition, and the community assembly processes underlying these patterns, will differ across latitude. Specifically, we predicted that high beta diversity (spatial variation in composition) and high temporal turnover contribute to the high species richness of the tropics. Using a standardized experimental approach that controls for several confounding factors that hinder interpretation of prior studies, we present results that support our predictions. In the temperate zone, communities were more similar across spatial scales from centimeters to tens of kilometers and temporal scales up to one year than at lower latitudes. Since the patterns at northern latitudes were congruent with a null model, stochastic assembly processes are implicated. In contrast, the communities in the tropics were a dynamic spatial and temporal mosaic, with low similarity even across small spatial scales and high temporal turnover at both local and regional scales. Unlike the temperate zone, deterministic community assembly processes such as predation likely contributed to the high beta diversity in the tropics. Our results suggest that community assembly processes and temporal dynamics vary across latitude and help structure and maintain latitudinal patterns of diversity.

  1. Visual Field Map Clusters in High-Order Visual Processing: Organization of V3A/V3B and a New Cloverleaf Cluster in the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa A

    2017-01-01

    The cortical hierarchy of the human visual system has been shown to be organized around retinal spatial coordinates throughout much of low- and mid-level visual processing. These regions contain visual field maps (VFMs) that each follows the organization of the retina, with neighboring aspects of the visual field processed in neighboring cortical locations. On a larger, macrostructural scale, groups of such sensory cortical field maps (CFMs) in both the visual and auditory systems are organized into roughly circular cloverleaf clusters. CFMs within clusters tend to share properties such as receptive field distribution, cortical magnification, and processing specialization. Here we use fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) modeling to investigate the extent of VFM and cluster organization with an examination of higher-level visual processing in temporal cortex and compare these measurements to mid-level visual processing in dorsal occipital cortex. In human temporal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) has been implicated in various neuroimaging studies as subserving higher-order vision, including face processing, biological motion perception, and multimodal audiovisual integration. In human dorsal occipital cortex, the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS) contains the V3A/B cluster, which comprises two VFMs subserving mid-level motion perception and visuospatial attention. For the first time, we present the organization of VFMs in pSTS in a cloverleaf cluster. This pSTS cluster contains four VFMs bilaterally: pSTS-1:4. We characterize these pSTS VFMs as relatively small at ∼125 mm(2) with relatively large pRF sizes of ∼2-8° of visual angle across the central 10° of the visual field. V3A and V3B are ∼230 mm(2) in surface area, with pRF sizes here similarly ∼1-8° of visual angle across the same region. In addition, cortical magnification measurements show that a larger extent of the pSTS VFM surface areas are devoted to the peripheral

  2. Contributions to singing ability by the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of the non-language-dominant hemisphere: first evidence from subdural cortical stimulation, Wada testing, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Ralph O; Golby, Alexandra; Whalen, Stephen; Sato, Susumu; Theodore, William H; Kufta, Conrad V; Devinsky, Orrin; Balish, Marshall; Bromfield, Edward B

    2010-03-01

    Although the substrates that mediate singing abilities in the human brain are not well understood, invasive brain mapping techniques used for clinical decision making such as intracranial electro-cortical testing and Wada testing offer a rare opportunity to examine music-related function in a select group of subjects, affording exceptional spatial and temporal specificity. We studied eight patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing indwelling subdural electrode seizure focus localization. All patients underwent Wada testing for language lateralization. Functional assessment of language and music tasks was done by electrode grid cortical stimulation. One patient was also tested non-invasively with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional organization of singing ability compared to language ability was determined based on four regions-of-interest (ROIs): left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and left and right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). In some subjects, electrical stimulation of dominant pSTG can interfere with speech and not singing, whereas stimulation of non-dominant pSTG area can interfere with singing and not speech. Stimulation of the dominant IFG tends to interfere with both musical and language expression, while non-dominant IFG stimulation was often observed to cause no interference with either task; and finally, that stimulation of areas adjacent to but not within non-dominant pSTG typically does not affect either ability. Functional fMRI mappings of one subject revealed similar music/language dissociation with respect to activation asymmetry within the ROIs. Despite inherent limitations with respect to strictly research objectives, invasive clinical techniques offer a rare opportunity to probe musical and language cognitive processes of the brain in a select group of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-20

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development.

  4. REGIONAL DOCUMENTS OF THE 18th CENTURY IN TERMS OF THE TEMPORALITY CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorban Oksana Anatolyevna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of actualizing the category of temporality in the document texts of the 18th century, made up in the offices of the Don Army Land and kept in the State Archive of Volgograd region. The author highlights the lexical, morphological and syntactic means of text time expression. They include the names of time units, months, designations of reference to a particular moment or to the length of time, the sequence of events, etc. The special place in the texts is occupied by the specific dates which record the facts of reality and define the text time of document as objective period. The date of drawing up the document is the starting time point of the entire text. The morphological tools include verbal forms which are grouped into content units. They describe the correlation between events and the time of document creation and perform the text-forming function. The model of such temporal organization of the army charters is presented in this paper. The syntactic means are expressed by prepositional-case structures, complex sentences with temporary conjunctions, adverbial participles expressing different temporal relations. The compositional and speech structure of the documents demonstrates the interaction of the old and new traditions of their design and the actualization of temporality in them.

  5. Desempenho agronômico das videiras 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' no norte de Minas Gerais Agronomic performance of 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' vines in the north region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Feldberg

    2007-06-01

    productivity for 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' grapes and can be indicated for cultivation in the Jaíba region.

  6. Awake fMRI reveals a specialized region in dog temporal cortex for face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Cook, Peter; Weiller, Samuel K.; Berns, Helen P.; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral evidence suggests that dogs, like humans and monkeys, are capable of visual face recognition. But do dogs also exhibit specialized cortical face regions similar to humans and monkeys? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in six dogs trained to remain motionless during scanning without restraint or sedation, we found a region in the canine temporal lobe that responded significantly more to movies of human faces than to movies of everyday objects. Next, using a new stimulus set to investigate face selectivity in this predefined candidate dog face area, we found that this region responded similarly to images of human faces and dog faces, yet significantly more to both human and dog faces than to images of objects. Such face selectivity was not found in dog primary visual cortex. Taken together, these findings: (1) provide the first evidence for a face-selective region in the temporal cortex of dogs, which cannot be explained by simple low-level visual feature extraction; (2) reveal that neural machinery dedicated to face processing is not unique to primates; and (3) may help explain dogs’ exquisite sensitivity to human social cues. PMID:26290784

  7. Temporal Structures of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Its Impact on the Regional Climate Variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the temporal structure of the variation of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and its impact on regional climate variability are analyzed using various datasets. The results show that blocking formations in the Atlantic region are sensitive to the phase of the NAO. Sixty-seven percent more winter blocking days are observed during the negative phase compared to the positive phase of the NAO. The average length of blocking during the negative phase is about 11 days, which is nearly twice as long as the 6-day length observed during the positive phase of the NAO. The NAO-related differences in blocking frequency and persistence are associated with changes in the distribution of the surface air temperature anomaly, which, to a large extent, is determined by the phase of the NAO. The distribution of regional cloud amount is also sensitive to the phase of the NAO. For the negative phase, the cloud amounts are significant, positive anomalies in the convective zone in the Tropics and much less cloudiness in the mid latitudes. But for the positive phase of the NAO, the cloud amount is much higher in the mid-latitude storm track region. In the whole Atlantic region, the cloud amount shows a decrease with the increase of surface air temperature. These results suggest that there may be a negative feedback between the cloud amount and the surface air temperature in the Atlantic region.

  8. Dose reduction in fluoroscopic interventions using a combination of a region of interest (ROI) x-ray attenuator and spatially different, temporally variable temporal filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Pope, Liza; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Titus, A. H.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2013-03-01

    A novel dose reduction technique for fluoroscopic interventions involving a combination of a material x-ray region of interest (ROI) attenuator and spatially different, temporally variable ROI temporal recursive filter, was used to guide the catheter to the ROI in three live animal studies, two involving rabbits and one involving a sheep. In the two rabbit studies presented , a catheter was guided to the entrance of the carotid artery. With the added ROI attenuator the image under the high attenuation region is very noisy. By using temporal filtering with a filter weight of 0.6 on previous frames, the noise is reduced. In the sheep study the catheter was guided to the descending aorta of the animal. The sheep offered a relatively higher attenuation to the incident x-rays and thus a higher temporal filter weight of 0.8 on previous frames was used during the procedure to reduce the noise to levels acceptable by the interventionalist. The image sequences from both studies show that significant dose reduction of 5-6 times can be achieved with acceptable image quality outside the ROI by using the above mentioned technique. Even though the temporal filter weighting outside the ROI is higher, the consequent lag does not prevent perception of catheter movement.

  9. Interesting Spatio-Temporal Region Discovery Computations Over Gpu and Mapreduce Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M.; Prasad, S. K.; Shekhar, S.; Zhou, X.

    2015-07-01

    Discovery of interesting paths and regions in spatio-temporal data sets is important to many fields such as the earth and atmospheric sciences, GIS, public safety and public health both as a goal and as a preliminary step in a larger series of computations. This discovery is usually an exhaustive procedure that quickly becomes extremely time consuming to perform using traditional paradigms and hardware and given the rapidly growing sizes of today's data sets is quickly outpacing the speed at which computational capacity is growing. In our previous work (Prasad et al., 2013a) we achieved a 50 times speedup over sequential using a single GPU. We were able to achieve near linear speedup over this result on interesting path discovery by using Apache Hadoop to distribute the workload across multiple GPU nodes. Leveraging the parallel architecture of GPUs we were able to drastically reduce the computation time of a 3-dimensional spatio-temporal interest region search on a single tile of normalized difference vegetative index for Saudi Arabia. We were further able to see an almost linear speedup in compute performance by distributing this workload across several GPUs with a simple MapReduce model. This increases the speed of processing 10 fold over the comparable sequential while simultaneously increasing the amount of data being processed by 384 fold. This allowed us to process the entirety of the selected data set instead of a constrained window.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Trends and periodicities of regional drought projections in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek; Jain, Manoj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is believed to be altering the hydrologic cycle of different regions worldwide. This may alter the occurrence and distribution of extreme events such as droughts and floods. India is one of the most drought affected country, it is therefore important to understand spatiotemporal variation of droughts in future due to climate change. In this paper, we have analyzed the spatiotemporal projections of droughts over India for 21st century using Global Climate Model (GCM) precipitation projections of ESM2G model under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) namely, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. K-means Clustering algorithm has been exploited to obtain homogeneous precipitation region in India for regional drought analysis. Further, temporal analysis of projected annual minimum SPI for year 2006 to 2100 has been performed for different homogeneous regions obtained using cluster analysis. Trend analysis of annual minimum SPI series has also been performed using Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope method. Furthermore, periodicity in SPI series have been examined using wavelet periodogram analysis. Findings of this paper suggest that major drought events for Northeastern and Southern India are likely to occur in second half of the 21st century while for all other parts of India, most of the major drought events are expected in first half of the 21st century. Also, wavelet periodicity analysis indicates inter-annual periodicities of projected droughts between 3 to 9.5 years in different regions of India.

  11. Multi-regional synthesis of temporal trends in biotic assemblages in streams and rivers of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Keenen, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Biotic assemblages in aquatic ecosystems are excellent integrators and indicators of changing environmental conditions within a watershed. Therefore, temporal changes in abiotic environmental variables often can be inferred from temporal changes in biotic assemblages. Algae, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage data were collected from 91 sampling sites in 4 geographic regions (northeastern/north-central, southeastern, south-central, and western), collectively encompassing the continental United States, from 1993 to 2009 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report uses a multivariate approach to synthesize temporal trends in biotic assemblages and correlations with relevant abiotic parameters as a function of biotic assemblage, geographic region, and land use. Of the three groups of biota, algal assemblages had temporal trends at the greatest percentage of sites. Of the regions, a greater percentage of sites in the northeastern/north-central and western regions had temporal trends in biotic assemblages. In terms of land use, a greater percentage of watersheds draining agricultural, urban, and undeveloped areas had significant temporal changes in biota, as compared to watersheds with mixed use. Correlations between biotic assemblages and abiotic variables indicate that, in general, macroinvertebrate assemblages correlated with water quality and fish assemblages correlated with physical habitat. Taken together, results indicate that there are regional differences in how individual biotic assemblages (algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish) respond to different abiotic drivers of change.

  12. Regional frequency analysis to asses wind resource spatial and temporal variations in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortuza, M.; Demissie, D.

    2013-12-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy's annual wind technologies market report, the wind power capacity in the country grew from 2.5 gigawatts in early 2000 to 60 gigawatts in 2012, making it one of the largest new sources of electric capacity additions in the U.S. in recent years. With over 2.8 gigawatts of current capacity (eighth largest in the nation), Washington State plays a significant role in this rapidly increasing energy resource. To further expand and/or optimize these capacities, assessment of wind resource and its spatial and temporal variations are important. However, since at-site frequency analysis using meteorological data is not adequate for extending wind frequency to locations with no data, longer return period, and heterogeneous topography and surface, a regional frequency analysis based on L-moment method is adopted in this study to estimate regional wind speed patterns and return periods in Washington State using hourly mean wind speed data from 1979 - 2010. The analysis applies the k-means, hierarchical and self-organizing map clustering techniques to explore potential clusters or regions; statistical tests are then applied to identify homogeneous regions and appropriate probability distribution models. The result from the analysis is expected to provide essential knowledge about the areas with potential capacity of constructing wind power plants, which can also be readily extended to assist decisions on their daily operations.

  13. Increase in oxytocin and vasopressin concentration in the blood outflowing from sella turcica region after superior cervical ganglion stimulation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska, S.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion influences the oxytocin and vasopressin release into the blood in condition of the of the sella turcica integrity. The experiments were performed on male rats under urethane-chloralose anaesthesia. Four 0.7 ml samples of the blood from the sella turcica region flowing through a tube inserted in the maxillary interna vein were collected in the 30, 35, 60 and 90 min of the experiments. The animals were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) after the exposition of superior cervical ganglion. 3) after the collection of the 1-st sample of the blood the superior cervical ganglion was electrically stimulated for 30 min with trains of pulses. Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) were determined in the blood plasma by radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion evoked an significant increase of AVP and OXY release into the blood. The increase of AVP release occurred after 30 min longer latency than the increase of OXY release. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs.

  14. Multiscale temporal variability and regional patterns in 555 years of conterminous U.S. streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle; Lall, Upmanu; Sun, Xun; Cook, Edward R.

    2017-04-01

    The development of paleoclimate streamflow reconstructions in the conterminous United States (CONUS) has provided water resource managers with improved insights into multidecadal and centennial scale variability that cannot be reliably detected using shorter instrumental records. Paleoclimate streamflow reconstructions have largely focused on individual catchments limiting the ability to quantify variability across the CONUS. The Living Blended Drought Atlas (LBDA), a spatially and temporally complete 555 year long paleoclimate record of summer drought across the CONUS, provides an opportunity to reconstruct and characterize streamflow variability at a continental scale. We explore the validity of the first paleoreconstructions of streamflow that span the CONUS informed by the LBDA targeting a set of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow sites. The reconstructions are skillful under cross validation across most of the country, but the variance explained is generally low. Spatial and temporal structures of streamflow variability are analyzed using hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and wavelet analyses. Nine spatially coherent clusters are identified. The reconstructions show signals of contemporary droughts such as the Dust Bowl (1930s) and 1950s droughts. Decadal-scale variability was detected in the late 1900s in the western U.S., however, similar modes of temporal variability were rarely present prior to the 1950s. The twentieth century featured longer wet spells and shorter dry spells compared with the preceding 450 years. Streamflows in the Pacific Northwest and Northeast are negatively correlated with the central U.S. suggesting the potential to mitigate some drought impacts by balancing economic activities and insurance pools across these regions during major droughts.

  15. Versatility of the pinwheel flap to reconstruct circular defects in the temporal and scalp region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Tekin; Eroglu, Lutfi

    2013-04-01

    The pinwheel flap technique involves raising four small rotation flaps, which are 90° apart from each other and converge into a defect in their centre. It is suitable for resurfacing defects of the scalp, which offers limited skin mobility. It may also be used for certain circular skin defects on the hairless temporal region. This study first re-formularised the original description of this flap technique via a laboratory study. Thanks to a new smaller flap design, closure was achieved with a lesser scar. Afterwards, the technique was used on the 14 patients who had circular skin defects of the temple and scalp. Defect diameters and resultant scar lengths were recorded. When the new design was used, scarring required for defect closure was less than half of that required for the original design. Thus, it was easier to avoid distortion to the anatomical subunits such as eyebrows and hairline. It is believed that this technique is quite appropriate for closing circular defects of scalp up to 50 mm, and temporal defects up to 40 mm. Also, Z-plasties can be added to the design when needed to increase flap rotation and decrease skin distortion.

  16. Research on Temporal-spatial Evolution of Regional Disparity of Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methods of the Malmquist index analysis, global spatial autocorrelation analysis and local spatial autocorrelation are used to calculate and analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the Forestry Total Factor Productivity based on the data from 30 provinces in China from 1997 to 2012 by using the software DEAP2.1, DeoDa, ArcGIS. The results show the following: The Forestry Total Factor Productivity presented obvious fluctuations in temporal patterns but presented stable characteristics in spatial patterns; The Forestry Total Factor Productivity showed the characteristics of discrete distribution from 1997 to 2003 and showed the characteristics of concentrated distribution from 2003 to 2012; The Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China presented obvious binary space structure; The high value agglomeration area gradually had become concentrated in the Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces and low concentration areas were mainly distributed in Gansu, Qinghai, Szechwan and other surrounding provinces. The main reasons for spatial distribution of Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China were the differences of macro-policy on forestry, lacking and changing of investments in forestry science and technology, the difference of forestry resource distribution and unbalanced regional economic development level.

  17. Temporal morphological changes in the Imhotep region of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    CERN Document Server

    Groussin, O; Barbieri, C; Lamy, P; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Rickman, H; Keller, H U; Hearn, M F A; Auger, A -T; Barucci, M A; Bertaux, J -L; Bertini, I; Besse, S; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Davidsson, B; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; El-Maarry, M R; Fornasier, S; Fulle, M; Gutiérrez, P J; Güttler, C; Hviid, S; Ip, W -H; Jorda, L; Knollenberg, J; Kovacs, G; Kramm, J R; Kührt, E; Küppers, M; Lara, L M; Lazzarin, M; Moreno, J J Lopez; Lowry, S; Marchi, S; Marzari, F; Massironi, M; Mottola, S; Naletto, G; Oklay, N; Pajola, M; Pommerol, A; Thomas, N; Toth, I; Tubiana, C; Vincent, J -B

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first major temporal morphological changes observed on the surface of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in the smooth terrains of the Imhotep region. We use images of the OSIRIS cameras onboard Rosetta to follow the temporal changes from 24 May 2015 to 11 July 2015. The morphological changes observed on the surface are visible in the form of roundish features, which are growing in size from a given location in a preferential direction, at a rate of 5.6 - 8.1$\\times$10$^{-5}$ m s$^{-1}$ during the observational period. The location where changes started and the contours of the expanding features are bluer than the surroundings, suggesting the presence of ices (H$_2$O and/or CO$_2$) exposed on the surface. However, sublimation of ices alone is not sufficient to explain the observed expanding features. No significant variations in the dust activity pattern are observed during the period of changes.

  18. Vertical and temporal variability in concentration and distribution of thaumarchaeotal tetraether lipids in Lake Superior and the implications for the application of the TEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, M.; Werne, J.P.; Kish, J.L.; Hicks, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the vertical and temporal distribution of Thaumarchaeota derived core isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids through sampling and analysis of both suspended particulate matter from the water column at different times in the annual cycle and a 3 year lon

  19. Spatio-temporal variations in aerosol properties over the oceanic regions between coastal India and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh; Gogoi, Mukunda M.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), mass concentrations of black carbon (MB) and composite aerosols (MT) in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were made during onward [Dec 2007 to Jan 2008; Northern Hemispheric (NH) winter] and return (Mar-Apr 2008; NH spring) legs of the trans-continental cruise of 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year of 2007-2008. Large latitudinal gradients are seen; with AOD decreasing from coastal India (AOD~0.45) to coastal Antarctica (AOD~0.04) during NH winter. The measurements also evidenced a strong seasonality of AOD over all regions, with a decrease of the values and gradient in NH spring. BC concentration in the MABL decreases exponentially from 3800 ng m-3 (over 10°N) to 624 ng m-3 near equator and much lower values (<100 ng m-3) over southern oceanic region. Seasonality in the latitudinal gradients of AOD, MB and MT exists over regions north of 20°S. Multi campaign [Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean (2004), Special Expedition to Larsemann Hills (2007) and Tropical Indian Ocean cruise (2010)] analysis over these oceanic regions showed that the pattern over the regions (south of 20°S) remained the same. Seasonality of AOD exists over Atlantic Ocean as well. Temporal variation of AOD at different latitudes derived from AERONET data also showed marked seasonality and latitudinal variation in northern hemisphere than in southern Hemisphere. Satellite retrieved AOD showed good correlation with the ship borne measurements; while GOCART retrieved AOD underestimates but gives a measure of the spatial variations.

  20. APUNTES SOBRE SOCIOLOGÍA DE LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN CONTEXTO INTERNACIONAL, REGIONAL Y LOCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner,José Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    El presente artículo analiza el estadio de desarrollo en que se encuentra la sociología de la educación superior en los países del norte, con énfasis en los Estados Unidos y Europa, y su grado de implantación en América Latina de habla hispana y en Chile, en particular. Revisa los procesos de institucionalización académica, profesionalización de la investigación y producción disciplinaria en los países centrales y su posterior evolución por difusión geográfica, inclusión de nuevos temas, énfa...

  1. Spatio-temporal filtering for determination of common mode error in regional GNSS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Gruszczynski, Maciej; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The spatial correlation between different stations for individual components in the regional GNSS networks seems to be significant. The mismodelling in satellite orbits, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), largescale atmospheric effects or satellite antenna phase centre corrections can all cause the regionally correlated errors. This kind of GPS time series errors are referred to as common mode errors (CMEs). They are usually estimated with the regional spatial filtering, such as the "stacking". In this paper, we show the stacking approach for the set of ASG-EUPOS permanent stations, assuming that spatial distribution of the CME is uniform over the whole region of Poland (more than 600 km extent). The ASG-EUPOS is a multifunctional precise positioning system based on the reference network designed for Poland. We used a 5- year span time series (2008-2012) of daily solutions in the ITRF2008 from Bernese 5.0 processed by the Military University of Technology EPN Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC). At the beginning of our analyses concerning spatial dependencies, the correlation coefficients between each pair of the stations in the GNSS network were calculated. This analysis shows that spatio-temporal behaviour of the GPS-derived time series is not purely random, but there is the evident uniform spatial response. In order to quantify the influence of filtering using CME, the norms L1 and L2 were determined. The values of these norms were calculated for the North, East and Up components twice: before performing the filtration and after stacking. The observed reduction of the L1 and L2 norms was up to 30% depending on the dimension of the network. However, the question how to define an optimal size of CME-analysed subnetwork remains unanswered in this research, due to the fact that our network is not extended enough.

  2. Regional and local scale modeling of stream temperatures and spatio-temporal variation in thermal sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Robert H; Kashiwagi, Michael T; Prochaska, Anthony P

    2014-07-01

    Understanding variation in stream thermal regimes becomes increasingly important as the climate changes and aquatic biota approach their thermal limits. We used data from paired air and water temperature loggers to develop region-scale and stream-specific models of average daily water temperature and to explore thermal sensitivities, the slopes of air-water temperature regressions, of mostly forested streams across Maryland, USA. The region-scale stream temperature model explained nearly 90 % of the variation (root mean square error = 0.957 °C), with the mostly flat coastal plain streams having significantly higher thermal sensitivities than the steeper highlands streams with piedmont streams intermediate. Model R (2) for stream-specific models was positively related to a stream's thermal sensitivity. Both the regional and the stream-specific air-water temperature regression models benefited from including mean daily discharge from regional gaging stations, but the degree of improvement declined as a stream's thermal sensitivity increased. Although catchment size had no relationship to thermal sensitivity, steeper streams or those with greater amounts of forest in their upstream watershed were less thermally sensitive. The subset of streams with three or more summers of temperature data exhibited a wide range of annual variation in thermal sensitivity at a site, with the variation not attributable to discharge, precipitation patterns, or physical attributes of streams or their watersheds. Our findings are a useful starting point to better understand patterns in stream thermal regimes. However, a more spatially and temporally comprehensive monitoring network should increase understanding of stream temperature variation and its controls as climatic patterns change.

  3. RESRO: A spatio-temporal model to optimise regional energy systems emphasising renewable energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadocha S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RESRO (Reference Energy System Regional Optimization optimises the simultaneous fulfilment of the heat and power demand in regional energy systems. It is a mixed-integer program realised in the modelling language GAMS. The model handles information on geographically disaggregated data describing heat demand and renewable energy potentials (e.g. biomass, solar energy, ambient heat. Power demand is handled spatially aggregated in an hourly time resolution within 8 type days. The major idea is to use a high-spatial, low-temporal heat resolution and a low-spatial, hightemporal power resolution with both demand levels linked with each other. Due to high transport losses the possibilities for heat transport over long distances are unsatisfying. Thus, the spatial, raster-based approach is used to identify and utilise renewable energy resources for heat generation close to the customers as well as to optimize district heating grids and related energy flows fed by heating plants or combined heat and power (CHP plants fuelled by renewables. By combining the heat and electricity sector within the model, it is possible to evaluate relationships between these energy fields such as the use of CHP or heat pump technologies and also to examine relationships between technologies such as solar thermal and photovoltaic facilities, which are in competition for available, suitable roof or ground areas.

  4. Setor educacional do MERCOSUL: convergência e integração regional da educação superior brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide S. Silveira

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho busca apreender as recentes modificações na educação superior brasileira por meio de duas mediações principais: o Estado brasileiro e o Setor Educacional do Mercado Comum do Sul (SEM. O contexto é de internacionalização da economia e de relações sociopolíticas que consistem nas formas históricas de estruturas articuladas institucionalmente na organização e funcionamento da educação. Evidencia os esforços de gestão supranacional dos assuntos educacionais ao mesmo tempo em que procura compreender a relação entre a grande política (formulada em nível supranacional no SEM e a pequena política, levada adiante no aparelho de Estado brasileiro, em tono da formulação das políticas públicas de educação superior. Desvela os mecanismos institucionais que vêm propiciando a integração e regionalização da educação superior por meio de dois vetores direcionadores da reforma da educação superior: avaliação e mobilidade. O tempo da pesquisa remonta à gênese do MERCOSUL, no início dos anos 1990, estendendo-se até os dias atuais, com base na análise documental de atas de reuniões, protocolos, planos de ação, tratados e acordos firmados no âmbito do SEM e pelo conjunto de indicações e de legislação formuladas nos mandatos de governos brasileiros, no período 1995-2014, de modo a acrescentar a dimensão do tempo à compreensão da ação política dos sujeitos envolvidos na formulação das políticas de educação superior em âmbito regional e nacional; e, à apreensão dos embates de forças com disputas teóricas e políticas em torno da reforma da educação superior.

  5. Temporal and spatial variability of ammonia in urban and agricultural regions of northern Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Thompson, Tammy M.; Van Damme, Martin; Chen, Xi; Benedict, Katherine B.; Shao, Yixing; Day, Derek; Boris, Alexandra; Sullivan, Amy P.; Ham, Jay; Whitburn, Simon; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre-François; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2017-05-01

    Concentrated agricultural activities and animal feeding operations in the northeastern plains of Colorado represent an important source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3). The NH3 from these sources contributes to regional fine particle formation and to nitrogen deposition to sensitive ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), located ˜ 80 km to the west. In order to better understand temporal and spatial differences in NH3 concentrations in this source region, weekly concentrations of NH3 were measured at 14 locations during the summers of 2010 to 2015 using Radiello passive NH3 samplers. Weekly (biweekly in 2015) average NH3 concentrations ranged from 2.66 to 42.7 µg m-3, with the highest concentrations near large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The annual summertime mean NH3 concentrations were stable in this region from 2010 to 2015, providing a baseline against which concentration changes associated with future changes in regional NH3 emissions can be assessed. Vertical profiles of NH3 were also measured on the 300 m Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tower throughout 2012. The highest NH3 concentration along the vertical profile was always observed at the 10 m height (annual average concentration of 4.63 µg m-3), decreasing toward the surface (4.35 µg m-3) and toward higher altitudes (1.93 µg m-3). The NH3 spatial distributions measured using the passive samplers are compared with NH3 columns retrieved by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite and concentrations simulated by the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). The satellite comparison adds to a growing body of evidence that IASI column retrievals of NH3 provide very useful insight into regional variability in atmospheric NH3, in this case even in a region with strong local sources and sharp spatial gradients. The CAMx comparison indicates that the model does a reasonable job simulating NH3 concentrations near sources but tends to

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide air concentrations in Canadian agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Tuduri, Ludovic; Harner, Tom; Blanchard, Pierrette; Waite, Don; Poissant, Laurier; Murphy, Clair; Belzer, Wayne; Aulagnier, Fabien; Li, Yi-Fan; Sverko, Ed

    The Canadian Pesticide Air Sampling Campaign was initiated in 2003 to assess atmospheric levels of pesticides, especially currently used pesticides (CUPs) in agricultural regions across Canada. In the first campaign during the spring to summer of 2003, over 40 pesticides were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of pesticides in the Canadian atmosphere was shown to reflect the pesticide usage in each region. Several herbicides including triallate, bromoxynil, MCPA, 2,4-D, dicamba, trifluralin and ethalfluralin were detected at highest levels at Bratt's Lake, SK in the prairie region. Strong relationships between air concentrations and dry depositions were observed at this site. Although no application occurred in the Canadian Prairies in 2003, high air concentrations of lindane ( γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) were still observed at Bratt's Lake and Hafford, SK. Two fungicides (chlorothalonil and metalaxyl) and two insecticides (endosulfan and carbofuran) were measured at highest levels at Kensington, PEI. Maximum concentrations of chlorpyrifos and metolachlor were found at St. Anicet, QC. The southern Ontario site, Egbert showed highest concentration of alachlor. Malathion was detected at the highest level at the west coast site, Abbotsford, BC. In case of legacy chlorinated insecticides, high concentrations of DDT, DDE and dieldrin were detected in British Columbia while α-HCH and HCB were found to be fairly uniform across the country. Chlordane was detected in Ontario, Québec and Prince Edward Island. This study demonstrates that the sources for the observed atmospheric occurrence of pesticides include local current pesticide application, volatilization of pesticide residues from soil and atmospheric transport. In many instances, these data represent the first measurements for certain pesticides in a given part of Canada.

  7. Integración regional centroamericana de la Educación Superior Pública: escenarios y desafíos / Central america regional integration of the public higher education: challenges and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Varela, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda aquí un breve análisis acerca de la globalización y de la sociedad del conocimiento, en su relación con las iniciativas de articulación académica interinstitucional y de integración regional impulsadas por las instituciones de educación superior pública de Centroamérica, a partir de 1995 y en el escenario asociativo del Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. El propósito consiste en identificar elementos que permitan discernir el carácter y los niveles de reconfiguración académica e institucional que, de manera general, las nuevas realidades estructurales en curso acarrean para la educación superior pública de Centroamérica.Abstract:This article develops a brief analysis about globalization and the society of knowledge in terms of the attempts of inter-institutional and regional academic articulation proposed –since 1995- by the Central American institutions of higher education through Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. The principal aim is to identify those elements that could clarify the character and the levels of the academic and institutional reconfiguration that, in a general way, the new ongoing structural realities demand from Central American public higher education.

  8. Increased functional connectivity between superior colliculus and brain regions implicated in bodily self-consciousness during the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Tempelmann, Claus; Berthoz, Alain; Heinze, Hans-Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Bodily self-consciousness refers to bodily processes operating at personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal spatial dimensions. Although the neural underpinnings of representations of personal and peripersonal space associated with bodily self-consciousness were thoroughly investigated, relatively few is known about the neural underpinnings of representations of extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness. In the search to unravel brain structures generating a representation of the extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the implication of the superior colliculus (SC) in bodily illusions, and more specifically in the rubber hand illusion (RHi), which constitutes an established paradigm to study the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness. We observed activation of the colliculus ipsilateral to the manipulated hand associated with eliciting of RHi. A generalized form of context-dependent psychophysiological interaction analysis unravelled increased illusion-dependent functional connectivity between the SC and some of the main brain areas previously involved in bodily self-consciousness: right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), bilateral ventral premotor cortex (vPM), and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We hypothesize that the collicular map of the extrapersonal space interacts with maps of the peripersonal and personal space generated at rTPJ, vPM and the postcentral gyrus, producing a unified representation of space that is relevant for bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that processes of multisensory integration of bodily-related sensory inputs located in this unified representation of space constitute one main factor underpinning emergence of bodily self-consciousness.

  9. Dural based primary osteosarcoma in right fronto-temporal region:Case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosal Nandita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary dural based osteosarcoma in the right fronto-temporal convexity in a 43-year-old female who presented with a short history of seizure and headache. Radiologic evaluation revealed a well defined brightly enhancing extra-axial lesion in the right fronto-temporal region with a dural tail around the sylvian fissure. The overlying bone was uninvolved. Paraffin section of the tumor showed plump cells with moderate nuclear and cellular pleomorphism with eosinophilic extracellular material (osteiod between the cells. At a few places, lace like osteiod was seen encasing individual cells signifying osteiod being formed by tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry for epithelial membrane antigen was focally positive and negative for S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein. A final histopathological diagnosis of dural based primary osteosarcoma of the right fronto-temporal region was rendered. To the best of our knowledge this will be the eighth such case in literature.

  10. Spatio-temporal Distribution of Latent Heating in the Southeast Asian Monsoon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, M. D.; Hoyos, C. D.; Webster, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Latent Heat (LH), released as a result of deep convection, plays an important role in the vertical distribution of the diabatic energy budget from the surface to the atmosphere: the motor which drives the global atmospheric circulation, including the Southeast Asian Monsoon. In particular, knowing the spatio-temporal structure of the LH during the wet monsoon season could be a key factor to understand the interaction between seasonal features of the monsoon with the summer manifestation of the intra-seasonal oscillation in the Indian Ocean basin, and hence the distribution of the precipitation. Several studies have investigated how the structure of heating in the tropics has a direct influence in the dynamical response of the atmosphere to the large-scale dynamical forcing associated with tropical precipitating systems. However, these studies assume a uniform geographically distribution of the vertical diabatic heating profiles across the Tropics. The major objective of this study is to produce and to examine three-dimensional latent heating structures over the Indian Monsoon region for the three summer seasons of 1998-2000 period using TRMM-2A12 (GPROF algorithm) and TRMM-CSH (CSH algorithm) data. A specific goal in this work is to explore the differences in the distribution of the latent heating throughout the intraseasonal cycle. This intra- seasonal cycle not only generates wet and dry spells over the South-East Asian continent but also determines the spatial distribution of the climatological JJAS rainfall in the Indian Monsoon Region. Results show spatial distribution differences between the LH profiles during the suppressed and active phases of the oscillation as well as differences in the vertical. During an active phase of the oscillation over the Indian Ocean, the released latent heat is concentrated predominantly near the equator while during the suppressed phased the heating is concentrated in the Bay of Bengal and the continental South East Asia

  11. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Shimizu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB, a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR. A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011. By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism.

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria incidence in the Peruvian Amazon Region between 2002 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Calle, Veronica; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Abatih, Emmanuel; DeDeken, Redgi; Rodriguez, Hugo; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Gamboa, Dionicia; D´Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon where the persistence of high-risk transmission areas (hotspots) challenges the current malaria control strategies. This study aimed at identifying significant space-time clusters of malaria incidence in Loreto region 2002–2013 and to determine significant changes across years in relation to the control measures applied. Poisson regression and purely temporal, spatial, and space-time analyses were conducted. Three significantly different periods in terms of annual incidence rates (AIR) were identified, overlapping respectively with the pre-, during, and post- implementation control activities supported by PAMAFRO project. The most likely space-time clusters of malaria incidence for P. vivax and P. falciparum corresponded to the pre- and first two years of the PAMAFRO project and were situated in the northern districts of Loreto, while secondary clusters were identified in eastern and southern districts with the latest onset and the shortest duration of PAMAFRO interventions. Malaria in Loreto was highly heterogeneous at geographical level and over time. Importantly, the excellent achievements obtained during 5 years of intensified control efforts totally vanished in only 2 to 3 years after the end of the program, calling for sustained political and financial commitment for the success of malaria elimination as ultimate goal. PMID:28091560

  13. Spatial and temporal variations in high turbidity surface water off the Thule region, northwestern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yoshihiko; Iida, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Shin; Aoki, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    Glacial meltwater discharge from the Greenland ice sheet and ice caps forms high turbidity water in the proglacial ocean off the Greenland coast. Although the timing and magnitude of high turbidity water export affect the coastal marine environment, for example, through impacts on biological productivity, little is known about the characteristics of this high turbidity water. In this paper, we therefore report on the spatial and temporal variations in high turbidity water off the Thule region in northwestern Greenland, based on remote sensing reflectance data at a wavelength of 555 nm (Rrs555). The high turbidity area, identified on the basis of high reflectivity (Rrs555 ≥ 0.0070 sr-1), was generally distributed near the coast, where many outlet glaciers terminate in the ocean and on land. The extent of the high turbidity area exhibited substantial seasonal and interannual variability, and its annual maximum extent was significantly correlated with summer air temperature. Assuming a linear relationship between the high turbidity area and summer temperature, annual maximum extent increases under the influence of increasing glacial meltwater discharge, as can be inferred from present and predicted future warming trends.

  14. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL DISPARITIES OF INTERNET DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU He-li; LIU Gui-fang; QIAN Le-xiang

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the disparities of Intemet development in China spatially-temporally. The major objective is to measure the differences between Eastern, Central and Western China. Methods of map presentation, correlation, Lorenz curve, Gini Coefficient and location quotient analysis are conducted in this study.For convenience, the indicator of regional Internet development is simplified as the number of domain names registered under .CN in each province. The data used are collected from the semi-annual surveys of the Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China since 1999. There are several findings: 1) The number of domain names in each province (city) declines gradually from the east to the west. 2) The gap between the highest growth provinces (cities) and the lowest ones is rather large. 3) Although the absolute differences between the eastern, central and western China have been enlarged, the relative differences in each province (city) have remained constant.4) Provinces (cities) are classified into three types according to location quotient changes, namely, rising type,changeless type and declining type. Compared with industrial and economic growth, Intemet sector in the eastern and western China is relatively ascending, while that in the central China is descending. 5) The number of domain names at provincial level is not statistically consistent with GDP.

  15. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia : The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base

  16. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A and optical (Landsat-8 data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM and a random forest (RF method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure–up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  17. The spatial and temporal variability of the surface mass balance in Antarctica: results from a regional climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipzig, N.P.M. van; Meijgaard, E. van; Oerlemans, J.

    2002-01-01

    A 14 year integration with a regional atmospheric model (RACMO) is used to obtain detailed information on the Antarctic surface mass balance and to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for the spatial and temporal distribution of the surface mass balance. The model (Δx = 55 km) uses the pa

  18. The Role of Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Incidental and Intentional Retrieval of Item and Relational Information in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-06-01

    Considerable neuropsychological and neuroimaging work indicates that the medial temporal lobes are critical for both item and relational memory retrieval. However, there remain outstanding issues in the literature, namely the extent to which medial temporal lobe regions are differentially recruited during incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information, and the extent to which aging may affect these neural substrates. The current fMRI study sought to address these questions; participants incidentally encoded word pairs embedded in sentences and incidental item and relational retrieval were assessed through speeded reading of intact, rearranged, and new word-pair sentences, while intentional item and relational retrieval were assessed through old/new associative recognition of a separate set of intact, rearranged, and new word pairs. Results indicated that, in both younger and older adults, anterior hippocampus and perirhinal cortex indexed incidental and intentional item retrieval in the same manner. In contrast, posterior hippocampus supported incidental and intentional relational retrieval in both age groups and an adjacent cluster in posterior hippocampus was recruited during both forms of relational retrieval for older, but not younger, adults. Our findings suggest that while medial temporal lobe regions do not differentiate between incidental and intentional forms of retrieval, there are distinct roles for anterior and posterior medial temporal lobe regions during retrieval of item and relational information, respectively, and further indicate that posterior regions may, under certain conditions, be over-recruited in healthy aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Temporal behavior of unresolved transition array emission in water window soft x-ray spectral region from multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thanh-Hung, E-mail: dinh@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dunne, Padraig; O' Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Fujioka, Shinsuke [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    We have characterized the spectral structure and the temporal history of the laser-produced high-Z multi-charged ion plasmas for the efficient water window soft x-ray sources. Strong unresolved transition array emission was observed due to 4d–4f and 4f–5g transitions from Au, Pb, and Bi plasmas in the 280–700 eV photon energy region. The temporal behavior of the emission was essentially similar of that of the laser pulse with a slight delay between different transitions. These results provide feedback for accurate modeling of the atomic processes with the radiative hydrodynamic simulations.

  20. Dynamics of multifractal and correlation characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of regional seismicity before the strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kiyashchenko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the distribution of regional seismicity and the results of numerical simulations of the seismic process show the increase of inhomogenity in spatio-temporal distribution of the seismicity prior to large earthquakes and formation of inhomogeneous clusters in a wide range of scales. Since that, the multifractal approach is appropriate to investigate the details of such dynamics. Here we analyze the dynamics of the seismicity distribution before a number of strong earthquakes occurred in two seismically active regions of the world: Japan and Southern California. In order to study the evolution of spatial inhomogeneity of the seismicity distribution, we consider variations of two multifractal characteristics: information entropy of multifractal measure generation process and the higher-order generalized fractal dimension of the continuum of the earthquake epicenters. Also we studied the dynamics of the level of spatio-temporal correlations in the seismicity distribution. It is found that two aforementioned multifractal characteristics tend to decrease and the level of spatio-temporal correlations tends to increase before the majority of considered strong earthquakes. Such a tendency can be considered as an earthquake precursory signature. Therefore, the results obtained show the possibility to use multifractal and correlation characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of regional seismicity for seismic hazard risk evaluation.

  1. Regional heavy metal pollution in crops by integrating physiological function variability with spatio-temporal stability using multi-temporal thermal remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiling; Liu, Xiangnan; Zhang, Biyao; Ding, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal stress in crops is characterized by stability in space and time, which differs from other stressors that are typically more transient (e.g., drought, pests/diseases, and mismanagement). The objective of this study is to assess regional heavy metal stress in rice by integrating physiological function variability with spatio-temporal stability based on multi-temporal thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing images. The field in which the experiment was conducted is located in Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, China. HJ-1B images and in-situ measured data were collected from rice growing in heavy metal contaminated soils. A stress index (SI) was devised as an indicator for the degree of heavy metal stress of the rice in different growth stages, and a time-spectrum feature space (TSFS) model was used to determine rice heavy metal stress levels. The results indicate that (i) SI is a good indicator of rice damage caused by heavy metal stress. Minimum values of SI occur in rice subject to high pollution, followed by larger SI with medium pollution and maximum SI for low pollution, for the same growth stage. (ii) SI shows some variation for different growth stages of rice, and the minimum SI occurs at the flowering stage. (iii) The TSFS model is successful at identifying rice heavy metal stress, and stress levels in rice stabilized regardless of the model being applied in the two different years. This study suggests that regional heavy metal stress in crops can be accurately detected using TIR technology, if a sensitive indicator of crop physiological function impairment is used and an effective model is selected. A combination of spectrum and spatio-temporal information appears to be a very promising method for monitoring crops with various stressors.

  2. Temporal change in regional brain distribution of the technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Osamu; Ashihara, Tatsuhiko; Wake, Seiji; Tsuru, Masato; Izawa, Ichiro; Takahashi, Ryuji (Himeji Cardiovascular Center, Hyogo (Japan)); Kida, Tohru; Nakade, Takahide

    1993-09-01

    To determine the data acquisition timing on the SPECT of the brain using Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ([sup 99m]Tc-ECD), the changes in the brain distribution of the tracer were examined in 10 patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and 4 patients with neurological degenerative disease. Immediately after I.V. administration of [sup 99m]Tc-ECD with a dose of 740 MBq, the dynamic planar images (5 sec/frame x 60 frames) and consecutive early 6 SPECT images (5 sec/view x 64 views each) were obtained. The delayed SPECT images (30 sec/view x 64 views) were taken 3 hr after injection. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) the whole brain time-activity curve of [sup 99m]Tc-ECD; (2) the count of the region of interest (ROI) placed in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and cerebellum; (3) the count ratio of the lesion to the counterpart of the unaffected side, and to the ipsilateral cerebellum in CVD patients; and (4) the changes in the intra-cranial background and the extra-cranial background, where the former was expressed as the count ratio of the ventricle to gray matter and the latter as the count ratio of the peri-cranial regions to the whole brain. The whole brain time-activity curves of [sup 99m]Tc-ECD demonstrated a rapid raise in the uptake after the tracer injection and a subsequent plateau 3 min after the injection. A washout of [sup 99m]Tc-ECD was minimal in all ROIs during the period on the early 6 SPECT images. The count ratio of the lesion to the normal areas was constant on both early and delayed SPECT images. The intra-cranial background activity was unchanged during the whole periods, while the extra-cranial background activity reduced with time. These results suggested that the data acquisition of brain SPECT with [sup 99m]Tc-ECD could be initiated 5 min after the tracer injection. (author).

  3. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Hypoperfusion in the medial temporal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yu; Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Shinohara, Masao; Nadaoka, Toshihide; Totsuka, Shiro; Komatani, Akio [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-04-01

    This study examined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium 99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamineoxime and correlated the results with neuropsychological findings in 30 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AT dementia). Ten healthy persons served as controls. The group of mild AT dementia exhibited a significant decrease in rCBF in the lower part of the right lateral frontal lobe and in the right parietal lobe. In the group of moderate AT dementia, the significant decrease in rCBF was noted in the lower part of the bilateral frontal lobes, the parietal part of the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the medial temporal lobe. Factor analysis for neuropsychological test revealed three factors involved in rCBF. There was a significantly positive correlation between the factor responsible for memory and recall and rCBF in the left frontal lobe, the anterior part of the lateral temporal lobe, and the medial temporal lobe. These findings suggested that disturbance of the memory circuit may exist in the medial temporal lobe and others as pathophysiology of AT dementia. (N.K.).

  4. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R Rivera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a lo que ocurre con las estaciones 3, 4 y 5 que muestran los efectos de los afluentes: planta lácteos, curtiembre y aguas servidas respectivamente. Los resultados de la parte microbiológica señalan que las aguas de ninguna de las estaciones del río pueden emplearse como fuente de abastecimiento para consumo humano por estar sobre los límites fijados por la norma chilena (NCh 409, 1984. Se presentan limitaciones en sus comunidades así como para su uso en regadío, y recreación con contacto directo.The water quality in the upper and medium zone of Traiguén river in the Araucanía region was studied in the present work. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured at six sample stations in a zone that goes from close to the origin of the river to the limits of the city of Victoria with Traiguén. The influence of the Victoria town on the water quality of Traiguen river generates as consequence low values of studied parameters that were reported in sampling stations 1 and 2 located in the surrounding of Victoria town. A different situation was reported in stations 3, 4 and 5, that show the effects of waste dispose by milky industries, leather industries and waste water respectively. The results of microbiological parameters denoted that the water of all sampled stations can not be used for human use because the parameters are upper than regulations. Also, limitations were denoted in their ecological parameters, and for their

  5. Modelling subsurface hydrology in Mediterranean regions to investigate spatial and temporal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cristina M.; Singer, Michael B.; Dritschel, David G.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean environments have highly variable hydrologic regimes characterised by two distinct seasons: cold/wet and warm/dry. Understanding how this climate is expressed in subsurface hydrology is a basis for the effective management of water as a resource. Riparian systems are particularly complex due to the contribution of both infiltrating precipitation and subsurface hyporheic flows. Therefore a more in-depth investigation of subsurface hydrology is required to understand riparian corridors. Numerical models can be used to simulate soil-water distribution and exchange. We have built-on existing theory of flow through porous media to create a physically-based, river- and climate-driven numerical model of hyporheic flow and infiltration/evaporation that predicts the water content at any depth in a soil column and at any distance from the river channel. The model incorporates the Richards equation - describing the vertical infiltration and diffusion of water in porous media - and the Boussinesq equation, which simulates the horizontal evolution of the water-table (hyporheic flow). These equations have been fully coupled to reflect the interplay between the saturated and unsaturated zones. The model produces a daily time-series of water table elevations and vertical soil moisture patterns in the vadose zones to allow us to study the hydrological partitioning and soil-moisture distribution in a given soil profile. We apply this tool to Mediterranean regions over a number of years to explore seasonal and inter-annual hydrological patterns. Two sites along the Rhône River in France with distinct climates allow us to investigate the impact of riverine and climate functioning. In particular we assess the impact of distance from the river channel and exposure to warmer and dryer conditions. Finally, the temporal legacy of extreme events such as floods and droughts is considered within the context of the impact to riparian vegetation. These comparisons will resolve

  6. Temporal and spatial variability of frost-free seasons in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; Jeffrey A. Andresen

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and timing of frost events and the length of the growing season are critical limiting factors in many human and natural ecosystems. This study investigates the temporal and spatial variability of the date of last spring frost (LSF), the date of first fall frost (FFF), and the length of the frost-free season (FFS) in the Great Lakes region of the United...

  7. Application of MRI volume rendering in surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle%MRI容量重建技术在颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路选择中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白芃; 刘彩霞; 贾林沛; 刘浩源; 苏略; 孙维; 李幼琼

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过测量经颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路的相关数据,初步定位大脑背外侧面颞上沟进入侧脑室最短距离的点,寻找经颞上沟进入侧脑室颞角的最佳手术入路点。方法:选取120例成年人脑部 MRI扫描标本,利用容量重建技术构建大脑三维立体模型,测得颞上沟的长度 S1。沿垂直于颞叶长轴的方向以1.0 mm间距切割得到多个冠状切面,依次测量颞上沟到侧脑室颞角的距离并确定最短距离S2,同时测量颞上沟的深度S3,测量大脑颞上沟表面相对应的最短距离点到颞上沟前端起始部的距离 S4,计算 S4与 S1的比值 M,同时测量最短距离与正中矢状位方向之间的夹角α。所有样本进行双侧测量,对比两侧的测量结果。结果:120例国人的 S1左侧为(159.56±17.55)mm,右侧为(164.35±15.07)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S2左侧为(8.18±0.96)mm,右侧为(7.81±0.90)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S3左侧为(12.19±1.43)mm,右侧为(11.57±1.33)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S4左侧为(100.88±16.09)mm,右侧为(104.15±14.49)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);M左侧为(0.63±0.07),右侧为(0.63±0.06),左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);α左侧为(55.80±3.64)°,右侧为(56.46±4.17)°,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:颞上沟前端3/5处可能为理想的手术入路点,由该点进入侧脑室颞角距离最短,提示实施颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术时该入路可减少对脑组织损伤。%Objective To acquire some related data of surgical approach through brain superior temporal sulcus to temporal horn of lateral ventricle by MRI volume rendering, and to orientate the point of superior temporal sulcus on the lateral

  8. Emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between regional gray matter volume in the bilateral temporal pole and critical thinking disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaonan; Yuan, Shuge; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Wei, Dongtao; Hou, Yuling; Zhang, Lijie; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2017-03-29

    Critical thinking enables people to form sound beliefs and provides a basis for emotional life. Research has indicated that individuals with better critical thinking disposition can better recognize and regulate their emotions, though the neuroanatomical mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. Further, the influence of emotional intelligence on the relationship between brain structure and critical thinking disposition has not been examined. The present study utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the neural structures underlying critical thinking disposition in a large sample of college students (N = 296). Regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the bilateral temporal pole, which reflects an individual's ability to process social and emotional information, was negatively correlated with critical thinking disposition. In addition, rGMV in bilateral para hippocampal regions -regions involved in contextual association/emotional regulation-exhibited negative correlation with critical thinking disposition. Further analysis revealed that emotional intelligence moderated the relationship between rGMV of the temporal pole and critical thinking disposition. Specifically, critical thinking disposition was associated with decreased GMV of the temporal pole for individuals who have relatively higher emotional intelligence rather than lower emotional intelligence. The results of the present study indicate that people who have higher emotional intelligence exhibit more effective and automatic processing of emotional information and tend to be strong critical thinkers.

  9. Temporal and cerebellar brain regions that support both declarative memory formation and retrieval.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weis, S.; Klaver, P.; Reul, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Using event-related fMRI, we scanned young healthy subjects while they memorized real-world photographs and subsequently tried to recognize them within a series of new photographs. We confirmed that activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and inferior prefrontal cortex correlates with declarative

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Some of Heavy Metals in Aerosols of Lenjanat Region, Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Namazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals released from stationaryand mobile origins can be transported in water, air and soil and can be even absorbed by plants, animals and human bodies. Trace elements are currently of great environmental concern. Nowadays, one of the most important environmental problems is pollution of agricultural soils occurs by heavy metals due to human activities. Atmospheric subsidence is one of the main sources of these elements which can result from industrial activities, fertilizers, sewage sludge, compost and pesticides. Heavy metals mapping of the atmosphere dusts indicates the status of pollution and its intensity in industrial regions. This information can also be used as a guideline for better management and pollution control. This study was performed to investigate the spatial and temporal availability of heavy metals in atmospheric dusts of Lenjanat region, Isfahan where agricultural land is extensively surrounded by industrial activities like steel making factory (Esfahan, cement making factory (Sepahan and Esfahan and Bamalead mine. Materials and Methods: Sampling was done from 60 points with the same altitude(three to six meters from the groundand their location was recorded by GPS. Glass traps (1×1 m2 covered by plastic mesh (2 × 2 cmvents were used to trap the dusts for four seasons of the year. Collected dust samples were passed through a 200 mm mesh screen size and the total weight of the dusts and the heavy metals content of Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pbwere determined(with HNO3 60%. Data analysis was performed using Statistical 6.0 software. Analysis of spatial data via variogram was calculated and performed using Variowin, 2.2 software packages. After determination of the best fitting model, kriged maps of the total concentration of heavy metals were prepared by Surfer 8 software. Results and Discussion: The average concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in dust in most parts of the study area were much higher than the soil

  11. The sentinel vein: an important reference point for surgery in the temporal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinei, F A; Januszkiewicz, J; Nahai, F

    1998-01-01

    An intimate knowledge of the anatomy of the face is essential to the aesthetic surgeon. It is this knowledge that ultimately improves results and minimizes complications. The major morbidity associated with brow lifts is trauma to the temporal branch of the facial nerve. The general course of this nerve has been well documented, but exact details are still lacking. This anatomic study was designed to further elucidate its path. Dissections were performed on each side of 10 fresh cadaver heads. These dissections revealed a consistent relationship between the temporal branch of the facial nerve and the sentinel vein. The sentinel vein is reliably located and preoperatively easily defines the "zone of caution", enabling the surgeon to operate rapidly and with confidence until the zone is reached, at which time the dissection is slower as the vein is approached. In the patient in whom the sentinel vein is not easily visualized externally, it may be identified through fixed skeletal landmarks.

  12. Spatial calibration and temporal validation of flow for regional scale hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physically based regional scale hydrologic modeling is gaining importance for planning and management of water resources. Calibration and validation of such regional scale model is necessary before applying it for scenario assessment. However, in most regional scale hydrologic modeling, flow validat...

  13. [Therapeutic superiority of regional retrograde venous antibiotic pressure infusion versus systemic venous infusions in diabetic patients with infected neuropathic plantar ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, C; Bühler-Singer, S; Tacke, J; Hornstein, O P

    1994-02-01

    Since systemic treatment of neuropathic plantar ulcers in diabetics (DNPU) has so far been rather ineffective, recent reports of successful management of DNPU by short-term retrograde transvenous leg perfusion (RVP) by South American angiologists encouraged us to apply this treatment method in diabetics suffering from chronic DNPU. Hence, in a prospective comparative clinical trial started in 1989 we have treated 45 male diabetics suffering from DNPU with the same daily doses of netilmycin, administered either in systemic venous infusions (SVI: n = 21, three times/day) or in RVP (n = 24, once/day). After 10 consecutive days of treatment, ulcers had closed in 8 of the 24 patients treated with RVP, as against 3 of the 21 treated with SVI. Diminution of the ulcer area by > 30% including full debridement was achieved in 10/24 of the RVP cases (SVI: 4/21). During 6 months of follow-up, amputation of toes or forefoot was necessary in only 1 patient in the RVP group, but in 4 in the SVI group. Partial restitution of osteolytic damage was observed in some cases after RVP. Our results show that regional netilmycin therapy given by the RVP procedure is clearly superior to equal netilmycin doses administered by SVI for the treatment of DNPU. RVP can be recommended in DNPU, particularly when the ulcers are complicated by infections.

  14. Spatial-temporal variability of the microbial respiration at the regional scale: comparison of field and laboratory approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Ananyeva, Nadezhda D.; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    Regional carbon assessments are increasingly important. Soil respiration is a predominant carbon efflux of terrestrial ecosystems. The total carbon efflux from soils includes autotrophic respiration of root systems and heterotrophic microbial respiration (MR). MR usually refers to 60-80% of the total efflux and thus plays a key role in regional carbon balance. Quite a few studies report high sensitivity of MR to climate conditions and land-use. Different approaches to analyze MR exist. The methods differ in the procedures to consider space and time variability. We evaluated two approaches to assess MR variability. One approach uses field measurements on a limited number of locations with chambers. The other approach samples more intensively and derives basal respiration (BR) from measurements under standard conditions in the laboratory. The chamber approach includes periodic measurements at a limited number of sites. As such, the methodology provides appropriate information on temporal dynamics. Spatial variability although, is underrepresented .. In our case chambers were mounted in forest, cropland and urban sites (n=48) located in the north of Moscow city. Roots were removed and geotextile (1 micron mesh) bags were inserted in soil to segregate MR. The flux was measured weekly by Li-6400-XT from July till September 2012. In contrast, standardized BR techniques minimize the diversity of initial conditions. This allows to increase the number of observations considerably. However, the temporal variance is avoided. BR was analyzed in mixed topsoil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-150 cm) samples (n=182) collected in forest, cropland and urban sites from different bioclimatic zones of Moscow region. After preincubation (T=22°C, 55% water content, 7 days) soil MR (in μg ?O2-? g-1) was measured after incubating 2g soil with 0.2 μl distilled water as the rate of ?O2 production (22° ?, 24 h) by gas chromatography. Both approaches can be used to describe MR variability in

  15. Geographical Patterns and Temporal Variations of Regional Dry and Wet Heatwave Events in China during 1960-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ting; QIAN Weihong

    2011-01-01

    Daily maximum/minimum temperatures and relative humidity records from 510 stations in China for the period 1960-2008 were used to investigate geographical patterns and temporal variations of heatwave (HW) events. Dry and wet HW events were compared by different definitions. Regionally, both dry and wetHW events are commonly located in southeastern China in the monsoon area, with neither type occurring in the northeast part of Northeast China and Southwest China, while the north-northwest region of the country experiences dry HW events and a few wet HW events. In the southeast of the country, site dryHW events occurred from April to September and mostly in June, while site wet HW events occurred from April to October and mostly in September. In total, 163 regional wet HW events were identified. The ten longest regional wet HW events lasted for more than 20 days, while the mean duration for 163 events was about 11 days. For the top ten events, six occurred after the 1990s, compared with four before this time.Global surface warming was clear since 1979, but the frequency and severity of regional wet HW events were relatively low in the 1980s, increasing remarkably since the 1990s. Possible reasons for this might be the strong interdecadal and interannual variations in regional atmospheric circulations, as well as water transport related directly to temperature contrasts in different regions, rather than global-mean temperature changes.

  16. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  17. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J; Manning, Douglas R; Callahan, Kristina K; Marshall, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year(-1) for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year(-1) in most indicators.

  18. Congenital pial arteriovenous fistula in the temporal region draining into cavernous sinus: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ziyin; Wang, Chaohua; Zhang, Changwei; Xie, Xiaodong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Wang, Kun; Tang, Jianjian [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2013-06-15

    This report concerns a 4-month-old infant with progressive prominent and redness of his left eye since birth. This report concerns a 4-month-old infant with progressive prominent redness of his left eye since birth. Angiography revealed a congenital pial arteriovenous fistula between the temporal branch of the left posterior cerebral artery and left cavernous sinus through the sphenoparietal sinus, a condition not reported in the literature. The fistula was successfully occluded with two micro-coils by vertebrobasilar approach.

  19. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  20. Estimates of spatially and temporally resolved constrained black carbon emission over the Indian region using a strategic integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Reddy, D. Manigopal; Ghosh, S.; Kumar, D. Bharath; Chowdhury, A. Kundu

    2017-10-01

    We estimated the latest spatially and temporally resolved gridded constrained black carbon (BC) emissions over the Indian region using a strategic integrated modelling approach. This was done extracting information on initial bottom-up emissions and atmospheric BC concentration from a general circulation model (GCM) simulation in conjunction with the receptor modelling approach. Monthly BC emission (83-364 Gg) obtained from the present study exhibited a spatial and temporal variability with this being the highest (lowest) during February (July). Monthly BC emission flux was considerably high (> 100 kg km- 2) over the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), east and the west coast during winter months. This was relatively higher over the central and western India than over the IGP during summer months. Annual BC emission rate was 2534 Gg y- 1 with that over the IGP and central India respectively comprising 50% and 40% of the total annual BC emissions over India. A high relative increase was observed in modified BC emissions (more than five times the initial emissions) over the most part of the IGP, east coast, central/northwestern India. The relative predominance of monthly BC emission flux over a region (as depicted from z-score distribution maps) was inferred being consistent with the prevalence of region- and season-specific anthropogenic activity.

  1. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  2. Modelling spatial, altitudinal and temporal variability of annual precipitation in mountainous regions: The case of the Middle Zagros, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidabadi, Rashid; Najafi, Mohammed S.; Roshan, GholamReza; Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Abkharabat, Shoaieb

    2016-11-01

    Relationships between precipitation and elevation are difficult to model for mountainous regions, due to complexities in topography and moisture sources. Attempts to model these relationships need to be tested against long-term location specific meteorological data, and hence require a case-study approach. This study uses artificial neural networks to model these relationships for the Middle of Zagros region, in semi-arid western Iran. Precipitation data for the region were collected for 1995-2007. Annual precipitation was designated as the target variable for the network, which additionally included variables significantly related to precipitation for the region, including longitude, latitude, elevation, slope, distance from the ridge, and relative distance from moisture. Long-term changes in annual precipitation for the region are investigated for 1961-2010. The artificial neural network (ANN) model explains 76% of the spatial variability of precipitation in the Middle Zagros. Precipitation predominantly increases with elevation on the windward slope, to a maximum height of 2500 m.asl, and thereafter either remains constant or decreases slowly to the ridge. Precipitation in the region has decreased significantly over the study period, with fluctuations driven by AO, NAO, ENSO and variability in the strength of pressure centers. Spectral analysis reveals significant oscillations of 2-4 and 5 yr periods, which correspond temporally with cycles in macro-scale circulation, ENSO and the Mediterranean Low pressure.

  3. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  4. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  5. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson R Rivera; Francisco Encina; Rodrigo Palma; Patricia Mejias

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a...

  6. RESRO: A spatio-temporal model to optimise regional energy systems emphasising renewable energies

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    RESRO (Reference Energy System Regional Optimization) optimises the simultaneous fulfilment of the heat and power demand in regional energy systems. It is a mixed-integer program realised in the modelling language GAMS. The model handles information on geographically disaggregated data describing heat demand and renewable energy potentials (e.g. biomass, solar energy, ambient heat). Power demand is handled spatially aggregated in an hourly time resolution within 8 type days. The major idea is...

  7. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The ORCA West Coast Regional Project - Atmospheric Top-Down Modeling to constrain Regional Carbon Budgets at high Temporal and Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeckede, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Vickers, D.; Turner, D.; Law, B.

    2008-12-01

    The ORCA project aims at determining the regional carbon balance of Oregon, California and Washington, with a special focus on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability on carbon sources and sinks. ORCA provides a regional test of the overall NACP strategy by demonstrating bottom-up and top-down modeling approaches to derive carbon balances at subregional to regional scales. The ORCA top-down modeling component has been set up to capture flux variability on the regional scale at high temporal and spatial resolution. Atmospheric transport is simulated coupling the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) with the STILT (Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport) footprint model. This setup allows identifying sources and sinks that influence atmospheric observations with highly resolved mass transport fields and realistic turbulent mixing. High-precision atmospheric CO2 concentrations are monitored as continuous time series in hourly timesteps at 5 locations within the model domain, west to east from the Pacific Coast to the Great Basin, and include two flux sites for evaluation of computed fluxes. Terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes are simulated at an effective spatial resolution of smaller than 1km and subdaily timesteps, considering effects of ecoregion, land cover type and disturbance regime on the carbon budgets. Flux computation assimilates high-resolution remote sensing products (e.g. LandSat, MODIS) and interpolated surface meteorology (DayMet, SOGS, PRISM). We present results on regional carbon budgets for the ORCA modeling domain that have been optimized using Bayesian inversion and the information provided by the network of high-precision CO2 observations. We address the influence of spatial and temporal resolution in the general modeling setup on the findings, and test the level of detail that can be resolved by top-down modeling on the regional scale, given the uncertainties introduced by various sources for model

  9. Regional and temporal variations in coding of hospital diagnoses referring to upper gastrointestinal and oesophageal bleeding in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbe Edeltraut

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health insurance claims data are increasingly used for health services research in Germany. Hospital diagnoses in these data are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, German modification (ICD-10-GM. Due to the historical division into West and East Germany, different coding practices might persist in both former parts. Additionally, the introduction of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany in 2003/2004 might have changed the coding. The aim of this study was to investigate regional and temporal variations in coding of hospitalisation diagnoses in Germany. Methods We analysed hospitalisation diagnoses for oesophageal bleeding (OB and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB from the official German Hospital Statistics provided by the Federal Statistical Office. Bleeding diagnoses were classified as "specific" (origin of bleeding provided or "unspecific" (origin of bleeding not provided coding. We studied regional (former East versus West Germany differences in incidence of hospitalisations with specific or unspecific coding for OB and UGIB and temporal variations between 2000 and 2005. For each year, incidence ratios of hospitalisations for former East versus West Germany were estimated with log-linear regression models adjusting for age, gender and population density. Results Significant differences in specific and unspecific coding between East and West Germany and over time were found for both, OB and UGIB hospitalisation diagnoses, respectively. For example in 2002, incidence ratios of hospitalisations for East versus West Germany were 1.24 (95% CI 1.16-1.32 for specific and 0.67 (95% CI 0.60-0.74 for unspecific OB diagnoses and 1.43 (95% CI 1.36-1.51 for specific and 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.87 for unspecific UGIB. Regional differences nearly disappeared and time trends were less marked when using combined specific and unspecific diagnoses of OB or UGIB, respectively. Conclusions During the study

  10. Primary (Poorly Differentiated Sclerosing Liposarcoma of Temporal Region. An Uncommon Tumor in a Rare Site: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha CK Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma (LS in the head and neck region is a rare tumor. The sclerosing variant of LS is a subtype of well-differentiated LS characterized by areas of conventional LS admixed with hypocellular areas of stromal sclerosis that show atypical lipomatous cells. The (poorly differentiated sclerosing LS, on the other hand, is more cellular with atypical, pleomorphic and often bizarre giant tumor cells admixed with atypical lipoblasts. We report a case of poorly differentiated sclerosing LS of temporal region in a 49-year-old man. Radiologically, the tumor was dumbbell shaped with intra and extra cranial extension. In this case, we discuss the clinico-radiological and pathological findings of an unusual tumor in a rare location. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 33-35

  11. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Rice Potential Productivity and Potential Yield Increment in Main Production Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-jian; TANG Liang; LIU Xiao-jun; CAO Wei-xing; ZHU Yan

    2013-01-01

    The vast area and marked variation of China make it difficult to predict the impact of climate changes on rice productivity in different regions. Therefore, analyzing the spatial and temporal characteristics of rice potential productivity and predicting the possible yield increment in main rice production regions of China is important for guiding rice production and ensuring food security. Using meteorological data of main rice production regions from 1961 to 1970 (the 1960s) and from 1996 to 2005 (the 2000s) provided by 333 stations, the potential photosynthetic, photo-thermal and climatic productivities in rice crop of the 1960s and 2000s in main rice production regions of China were predicted, and differences in the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics between two decades were analyzed. Additionally, the potential yield increment based on the high yield target and actual yield of rice in the 2000s were predicted. Compared with the 1960s, the potential photosynthetic productivity of the 2000s was seen to have decreased by 5.40%, with rates in northeastern and southwestern China found to be lower than those in central and southern China. The potential photo-thermal productivity was generally seen to decrease (2.56%) throughout main rice production regions, decreasing most in central and southern China. However, an increase was seen in northeastern and southwestern China. The potential climatic productivity was observed to be lower (7.44%) in the 2000s compared to the 1960s, but increased in parts of central and southern China. The potential yield increment from the actual yield to high yield target in the 2000s were no more than 6×103 kg ha-1 and ranged from 6×103 to 12×103 kg ha-1 in most of the single-and double-cropping rice growing regions, respectively. The yield increasing potential from the high yield target to the potential photo-thermal productivity in 2000s were less than 10×103 kg ha-1 and ranged from 10×103 to 30×103 kg ha-1 in most

  12. Spatial and temporal epidemiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in the Midwest and Southeast regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Julio; Goede, Dane; Morrison, Robert; Perez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the US in 2013 caused a major impact in the swine industry due to its high mortality and rapid spread through the country. Even though the role of potential sources of infection in the epidemiology of the disease at the farm level (feed, fomites) has been extensively investigated, there is a lack of knowledge about the dynamics of disease spread at the regional level. Here, we investigated the dissemination of PEDV infection in two areas located in the regions with the highest swine density in the country (Southeast and Midwest) including more than 2400 farms. Location and date of outbreaks were used to assess the spatial and temporal clustering of cases using global (Cuzick-Edwards, Knox and directional tests) and local (Bernouilli model of the spatial scan statistic) techniques in the first 10 months of the epidemic. A strong spatio-temporal pattern was detected in both areas of study, with an increased risk of disease at transmission from infected farms into neighboring PEDV-free sites is a likely explanation for a substantial proportion of the reported PEDV-positive farms and consistent with the rapid spread of a highly infectious disease in the absence of immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The acute phase response and soman-induced status epilepticus: temporal, regional and cellular changes in rat brain cytokine concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Robert K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation occurs following brain injury, including soman (GD induced status epilepticus (SE, and may contribute to loss of neural tissue and declined behavioral function. However, little is known about this important pathological process following GD exposure. Limited transcriptional information on a small number of brain-expressed inflammatory mediators has been shown following GD-induced SE and even less information on protein upregulation has been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to further characterize the regional and temporal progression of the neuroinflammatory process following acute GD-induced SE. Methods The protein levels of 10 cytokines was quantified using bead multiplex immunoassays in damaged brain regions (i.e., piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus up to 72 hours following seizure onset. Those factors showing significant changes were then localized to neural cells using fluorescent IHC. Results A significant concentration increase was observed in all injured brain regions for four acute phase response (APR induction cytokines: interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Increases in these APR cytokines corresponded both temporally and regionally to areas of known seizure damage and neuronal death. Neurotoxic cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β were primarily expressed by activated microglia whereas the potentially neuroprotective cytokine IL-6 was expressed by neurons and hypertrophic astrocytes. Conclusions Increases in neurotoxic cytokines likely play an active role in the progression of GD-induced SE neuropathology though the exact role that these and other cytokines play in this process require further study.

  14. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of regional lung ventilation determined by electrical impedance tomography during pulmonary function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Barbara; Pulletz, Sven; Elke, Gunnar; Zhao, Zhanqi; Zabel, Peter; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz

    2012-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a functional imaging modality capable of tracing continuously regional pulmonary gas volume changes. The aim of our study was to determine if EIT was able to assess spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ventilation during pulmonary function testing in 14 young (37 ± 10 yr, mean age ± SD) and 12 elderly (71 ± 9 yr) subjects without lung disease and in 33 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (71 ± 9 yr). EIT and spirometry examinations were performed during tidal breathing and a forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver preceded by full inspiration to total lung capacity. Regional inspiratory vital capacity (IVC); FVC; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)); FEV(1)/FVC; times required to expire 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% of FVC (t(25), t(50), t(75), t(90)); and tidal volume (V(T)) were determined in 912 EIT image pixels in the chest cross section. Coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated from all pixel values of IVC, FVC, FEV(1), and V(T) to characterize the ventilation heterogeneity. The highest values were found in patients, and no differences existed between the healthy young and elderly subjects. Receiver-operating characteristics curves showed that CV of regional IVC, FVC, FEV(1), and V(T) discriminated the young and elderly subjects from the patients. Frequency distributions of pixel FEV(1)/FVC, t(25), t(50), t(75), and t(90) identified the highest ventilation heterogeneity in patients but distinguished also the healthy young from the elderly subjects. These results indicate that EIT may provide additional information during pulmonary function testing and identify pathologic and age-related spatial and temporal heterogeneity of regional lung function.

  15. Understanding temporal patterns and characteristics of air quality in Beijing: A local and regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Cai, Jun; Gao, Bingbo

    2016-02-01

    Sources, characteristics and seasonal variation of airborne pollutants in China, especially in Beijing, have been massively examined. However, most studies analyze local air quality from an isolated perspective and interactions between local and regional air quality have not been fully considered. This research attempts to evaluate Beijing air quality at the local and regional scale. The weighted cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) and convergent cross mapping (CCM) method are employed for similarity and causality analysis respectively. At the local scale, the air quality in Beijing experiences frequent and sudden change, yet changes smoothly across a day's time. At the regional scale, the air quality in Beijing and four neighboring cities is compared. The result suggests that although air quality in Beijing and neighboring cities is of some differences, strong bidirectional coupling exists between the local and regional air quality. The research indicates that air quality in Beijing is better than the general situation in this region, and Tianjin should be a good comparative site for monitoring and evaluating air quality in Beijing. This research provides a feasible methodology for comprehensive analysis of local air quality at multiple scales, which may shed some lights on the forthcoming implementation of local air quality evaluation.

  16. Temporal variation and regional transfer of heavy metals in the Pearl (Zhujiang) River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Gengchong; Li, Ying; Tong, Yindong; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals are highly persistent in water and have a particular significance in ecotoxicology. Heavy metals loading from the Pearl River are likely to cause significant impacts on the environment in the South China Sea and the West Pacific. In this study, using monthly monitoring data from a water quality monitoring campaign during 2006-2012, the temporal variation and spatial transfer of six heavy metals (lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)) in the Pearl River were analyzed, and the heavy metal fluxes into the sea were calculated. During this period, the annual heavy metal loads discharged from the Pearl River into the South China Sea were 5.8 (Hg), 471.7 (Pb), 1524.6 (Cu), 3819.6 (Zn), 43.9 (Cd), and 621.9 (As) tons, respectively. The metal fluxes showed a seasonal variation with the maximum fluxes occurring from June to July. There is a close association between metal fluxes and runoff. The analysis of the heavy metal transfer from the upstream to the downstream revealed that the transfer from the upstream accounted for a major portion of the heavy metals in the Pearl River Delta. Therefore, earlier industry relocation efforts in the Pearl River watershed may have limited effect on the water quality improvement in surrounding areas. It is suggested that watershed-based pollution control measures focusing on wastewater discharge in both upstream and downstream areas should be developed and implemented in the future.

  17. Short-Term Memory Depends on Dissociable Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sandhitsu R; Mancuso, Lauren; Olson, Ingrid R; Arnold, Steven E; Wolk, David A

    2016-05-01

    Short-term memory (STM) has generally been thought to be independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in contrast to long-term memory (LTM). Prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a condition in which the MTL is a major early focus of pathology and LTM is thought disproportionately affected relative to STM. However, recent studies have suggested a role for the MTL in STM, particularly hippocampus, when binding of different elements is required. Other work has suggested involvement of extrahippocampal MTL structures, particularly in STM tasks that involve item-level memory. We examined STM for individual objects, locations, and object-location conjunctions in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), often associated with prodromal AD. Relative to age-matched, cognitively normal controls, MCI patients not only displayed impairment on object-location conjunctions but were similarly impaired for non-bound objects and locations. Moreover, across all participants, these conditions displayed dissociable correlations of cortical thinning along the long axis of the MTL and associated cortical nodes of anterior and posterior MTL networks. These findings support the role of the MTL in visual STM tasks and the division of labor of MTL in support of different types of memory representations, overlapping with findings in LTM.

  18. DR Tau: Temporal variability of the brightness distribution in the potential planet-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Brunngräber, Robert; Ratzka, Thorsten; Ober, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the variability of the brightness distribution and the changing density structure of the protoplanetary disk around DR Tau, a classical T Tauri star. DR Tau is known for its peculiar variations from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared (MIR). Our goal is to constrain the temporal variation of the disk structure based on photometric and MIR interferometric data. We observed DR Tau with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at three epochs separated by about nine years, two months, respectively. We fit the spectral energy distribution and the MIR visibilities with radiative transfer simulations. We are able to reproduce the spectral energy distribution as well as the MIR visibility for one of the three epochs (third epoch) with a basic disk model. We were able to reproduce the very different visibility curve obtained nine years earlier with a very similar baseline (first epoch), using the same disk model with a smaller scale heigh...

  19. [Landscape ecological risk assessment and its spatio-temporal variations in Ebinur Lake region of inland arid area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Fei; Zhou, Mei; Li, Xiao-hang; Ren, Yan; Wang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The typical region of the Ebinur Lake Basin was chosen as study area. Landsat TM/OLI images for 1998, 2011 and 2013 were obtained. In the study area, landscape was classified into six types, including cropland, woodland, grassland, water body, bare lake bed, salinized land and unutilized land. Landscape indices and ecological risk index were calculated and spatially interpolated for the whole region, which was divided into five different risk zones: extremely low, low, moderate, high and extremely high ecological risk. They were carried out for assessing the spatio-temporal changes in ecological risk for each landscape pattern. The results showed that the regional landscape patterns had experienced significant changes, and the increase in the area of croplands was the main trend in landscape evolution from 1998-2013. The main part of the regional ecosystem faced extremely high risk in 1998, high risk in 2011 and low risk in 2013. The ecological risk level of the study area was significantly decreased in the overall period, and the total area of change from high to low risk was much greater than those from low to high risk.

  20. Characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of surface water in the Soudan-Sahel region of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptué, Armel T.; Hanan, Niall P.; Prihodko, Lara

    2013-12-01

    is a precious resource since the lives and livelihoods of human societies depend on their ability to access this resource. This is particularly true in arid and semiarid regions like the Sahel where permanent surface waters are rare and hydrological solutions (e.g., accessing deep aquifers) are often not feasible. This work is devoted to the determination of the spatial and temporal variations of surface water extent at 250 m over 9 years (2003-2011) for the Soudan-Sahel region using visible and infrared imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from both Terra and Aqua platforms. The methodology is automatic and could be applied to other regions and sensors. We utilized a combination of two MODIS spectral indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index. Accuracy assessments carried out on 743 lakes across 37 Landsat images selected in Sahelian Africa on the basis of a stratified sampling show that the new product is (i) reliably able to detect surface water bodies of approximately 50 ha and larger, (ii) improves on existing surface water body products, and (iii) can be used to monitor the seasonal distribution of surface water in semiarid regions.

  1. Long-term spatial and temporal variations of soil organic carbon in the Handan region in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling an NIU; Jinmin HAO; Baozhong ZHANG; Xinsheng NIU; Zhenyu LU

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a long-term study and a system-atic analysis on the spatial and temporal variations of the soil organic carbon contents in the counties of Handan Prefecture in Hebei Province, on the North China Plains. The analysis was based on the data collected in soil sur-veys conducted in 1980, 1993 and 2003, as well as the data from specific investigations using GIS and GPS receivers.The soil organic carbon content was higher in the west-ern mountainous region than in the eastern plain region in 1980, and the difference in the average values was enced by natural factors, such as climate and rainfall. In 1993, the soil organic carbon content showed an upward trend in the eastern plain region and a downward trend in the western mountainous region. The difference in the reflected the changes in farming practices where tra-ditional farming was changed into modern farming gradu-ally by increasing farming investment and output of grains. In 2003, the soil organic carbon content was high on the whole, and the difference in the average values was played an important role. In Cixian, Linzhang, Wuan and Handan counties, the increased value of soil organic to the advocated application of straw and farmyard man-ure in these counties, but in Weixian, Jize and Quzhou counties, the soil organic carbon content was maintained increase carbon sequestration in soil, adoption of conser-vation tillage to increase soil organic carbon storage in the soil is recommended.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Remotely Sensed Ocean Color Parameters in Coral Reef Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Daniel Brooks

    The variability of water-column absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and phytoplankton in coral reef regions is the focus of this study. Hydrographic and CDOM absorption measurements made on the Bahamas Banks and in Exuma Sound during the spring of 1999 and 2000 showed that values of salinity and CDOM absorption at 440nm were higher on the banks (37.18 psu, 0.06 m. -1), compared to Exuma Sound (37.04 psu, 0.03 m. -1). Spatial patternsof CDOM absorption in Exuma Sound revealed that plumes of CDOM-rich water flow into Exuma Sound from the surrounding banks. To examine absorption variability in reef regions throughout the world, a thirteen-year time series of satellite-derived estimates of water-column absorption due to CDOM and phytoplankton were created from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Time series data extracted adjacent to coral reef regions showed that variability in absorption depends on oceanographic conditions such as circulation patterns and winds as well as proximity to sources of light-absorbing materials that enter the water column, such as from terrestrial runoff. Waters near reef regions are generally clear, exhibiting a lower "baseline" level of CDOM absorption of approximately 0.01 m. -1 at 443nm. The main differences between regions lie in the periodsduring the year when increased levels of absorption are observed, which can be triggered by inputs of terrestrially-derived material, as in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, or wind-driven upwelling as in the Andaman Sea and eastern Pacific Ocean near Panama. The lowest CDOM absorption levels found were approximately 0.003 m. -1 at 443nm near the islands of Palau and Yap, which are removed fromsources of colored materials. The highest absorption levels near reefs were associated with wind-driven upwelling during the northeast monsoon on the Andaman coast of Thailand where values of CDOM absorption at 443nm

  3. Periodicity in the spatial-temporal earthquake distributions for the Pacific region: observation and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasorova, Elena; Levin, Boris

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the last century a cyclic increasing and decreasing of the Earth's seismic activity (SA) was marked. The variations of the SA for the events with M>=7.0 from 1900 up to date were under study. The two subsets of the worldwide NEIC (USGS) catalog were used: USGS/NEIC from 1973 to 2012 and catalog of the significant worldwide earthquakes (2150 B.C. - 1994 A.D.), compiled by USGS/NEIC from the NOAA agency. The preliminary standardization of magnitudes and elimination of aftershocks from list of events was performed. The entire period of observations was subdivided into 5-year intervals. The temporal distributions of the earthquake (EQ) density and released energy density were calculated separately for the Southern hemisphere (SH), and for the Northern hemisphere (NH) and for eighteen latitudinal belts: 90°-80°N, 80°-70°N, 70°-60°N, 60°-50°N and so on (the size of each belt is equal to 10°). The periods of the SA was compared for different latitudinal belts of the Earth. The peaks and decays of the seismicity do not coincide in time for different latitudinal belts and especially for the belts located in NH and SH. The peaks and decays of the SA for the events (with M>=8) were marked in the temporal distributions of the EQ for all studied latitudinal belts. The two-dimension distributions (over latitudes and over time) of the EQ density and released energy density highlighted that the periods of amplification of the SA are equal to 30-35 years approximately. Next, we check the existence of a non-random component in the EQ occurrence between the NH and the SH. All events were related to the time axis according to their origin time. We take into consideration the set of the EQs in the studied catalog as the sequence of events if each event may have only one of two possible outcome (occurrence in the NH or in the SH). A nonparametric run test was used for testing of hypothesis about an existence the nonrandom component in the examined sequence of

  4. Effect of irrigation systems on temporal distribution of malaria vectors in semi-arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shunji; Kaga, Takumi

    2014-04-01

    Previous research models have used climate data to explain habitat conditions of Anopheles mosquitoes transmitting malaria parasites. Although they can estimate mosquito populations with sufficient accuracy in many areas, observational data show that there is a tendency to underestimate the active growth and reproduction period of mosquitoes in semi-arid agricultural regions. In this study, a new, modified model that includes irrigation as a factor was developed to predict the active growing period of mosquitoes more precisely than the base model for ecophysiological and climatological distribution of mosquito generations (ECD-mg). Five sites with complete sets of observational data were selected in semi-arid regions of India for the comparison. The active growing period of mosquitoes determined from the modified ECD-mg model that incorporated the irrigation factor was in agreement with the observational data, whereas the active growing period was underestimated by the previous ECD-mg model that did not incorporate irrigation. This suggests that anthropogenic changes in the water supply due to extensive irrigation can encourage the growth of Anopheles mosquitoes through the alteration of the natural water balance in their habitat. In addition, it was found that the irrigation systems not only enable the active growth of mosquitoes in dry seasons but also play an important role in stabilizing the growth in rainy seasons. Consequently, the irrigation systems could lengthen the annual growing period of Anopheles mosquitoes and increase the maximum generation number of mosquitoes in semi-arid subtropical regions.

  5. Temporal variability in emission category influence on organic matter aerosols in the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, R.; Venkataraman, C.; Ramachandran, S.

    2009-03-01

    The dependence of carbonaceous aerosol properties, like radiation absorption and hygroscopicity, on the emission source of origin motivate this work. The influence of emission categories, including crop residue and forest burning, biofuel combustion, brick kilns, thermal power plants, diesel transport and ``other industry'', is estimated on organic matter (OM) surface concentrations in the Indian ocean region. The approach uses general circulation model predicted OM surface concentrations during a ship cruise, identifies probable source regions for high concentration episodes using the potential source contribution function, and estimates collocated OM emissions resolved by category. Distinct source regions identified, are the Indo-Gangetic Plain during 20-30th January, 1999, and central/south India during 1-11th March, 1999. Contributing emission categories are primarily biofuel combustion (18 Gg) during 20-30th January, but a combination of forest burning (8 Gg), biofuel combustion (7 Gg) and crop residue (5 Gg) during 1-11th March. The magnitude of emission flux rather than spatial extent of an emission category, was seen to increase its influence on the receptor. This approach can be used to investigate seasonal and inter-annual variability in emission category influence on atmospheric pollutants.

  6. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  7. Temporal trends and regional variations in gastrointestinal cancer mortality in Peru, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Azañedo, Diego; Huarez, Bertha; Rodríguez-Lema, Belén

    2016-01-01

    To estimate and analyze the evolution of mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in Peru and its regions between 2005-2014. We performed a nationwide secondary analysis of Peru's Health Ministry registry of deaths during the period 2005-2014, with a focus on regional differences. Deaths registered with codes C15 to C25 (malignant neoplasms of digestive organs) from the ICD-10 were included. Calculation of age-standarized mortality rates and years of life lost (YLL) due to GI cancer per 100,000 habitants were also performed. Data of 67,527 deaths from GI cancers was analyzed, 35,055 (51.91%) were women. In 2005, the number of GI cancer deaths was 6,484, for 2014, 7,532 cases were recorded. The GI cancer age-standarized mortality rates at the country level showed a decrease of 12.70% between 2005-2014. Stomach cancer presented the highest age-standarized mortality rate despite showing a downward trend in the last years, equal for gallbladder, liver and biliary tract, and esophagus cancer. Colorectal, small intestine and anus cancer show a progressive increase. In 2014, Callao (48.8), Huancavelica (48.5), La Libertad (39.6), Lambayeque (40.5) and Huanuco (38.9) had the highest rates. The three types of GI cancers with the highest rates of YLL in 2014 were stomach cancer (118.51), followed by liver and biliary tract cancer (58.68) and colorectal (44.86). GI cancer mortality in Peru is high and a priority issue in regions like Huancavelica, Huanuco, Callao, La Libertad and Lambayeque. Stomach cancer remains the most frequent GI cancer, but with a downward trend in the study period.

  8. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollio Antonino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.

  9. Temporal Assemblage Turnovers of Foraminiferal Communities from the Caribbean, United Kingdom and Mediterranean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent

    2016-04-01

    Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities were quantitatively determined using the assemblage turnover index (ATI), and contributing species were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). The live foraminiferal communities were examined as metacommunities (all stations) and assemblages (groups of stations defined by cluster analysis) over one and two year periods at Caroni Swamp, Claxton Bay (E Trinidad), Cowpen Marsh (NE England) and Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). Major assemblage turnovers (when ATI > x + σ) of the Caroni Swamp metacommunity and assemblages coincided with seasonal changes from dry to wet conditions in 2011 and 2012. The abundant species (Ammonia tepida, Ammotium salsum, Arenoparella mexicana, Trochammina advena, Trochammina laevigata and Trochammina inflata) contributed the most to assemblage turnovers but showed no preference to either dry or wet conditions. At Claxton Bay major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity and mid assemblage coincided with seasonal change and calcareous species (A. tepida and Triloculina oblonga) increased during wet conditions and decreased during dry conditions, while agglutinated species (T. advena and A. salsum) fluctuated oppositely. At Cowpen Marsh major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity coincided with the start of summer and winter. Assemblages at higher elevations (mainly Jadammina macrescens and Haplophragmoides spp.) were responsible for the summer turnover, while the winter turnover was led by the assemblage at lower elevations (mainly Haynesina germanica, Elphidium earlandi, Elphidium williamsoni, Elphidium excavatum and Quinqueloculina spp.). At Bay of Cádiz, the foraminiferal assemblage at a tidal height of 1.5 to 1.7 m above the hydrographic zero was examined within three separate plots, and the seasonal occurrence of assemblage turnovers differed between plots. Thus, replicate samples and multiple plots may be necessary to overcome spatial

  10. Temporal and spatial distributions of PBDEs in atmosphere at Shanghai rural regions, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun-Juan; Sun, Dan; Yang, Nuo-Er; Ding, Yong-Sheng; Feng, Wei-Bing; Hong, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Shi-Mao; Li, Yi-Fan

    2017-03-14

    Atmospheric samples were collected using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air sampling device for every 3 months from June 2012 to May 2013 in Shanghai rural regions in order to investigate the concentrations, profiles, spatial distributions, and seasonal variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Twelve PBDE congeners (BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-66, BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-138, BDE-153, BDE-154, and BDE-183) were measured and analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable PBDEs were examined in all air samples, which indicated that these pollutants are widespread in the research areas. The ∑12PBDE concentrations in Shanghai rural air ranged from 4.49 to 77.5 pg m(-3), with mean value up to 26.7 pg m(-3). The highest concentration was found at Jinshan sampling site in summer (from June to August in 2012). Furthermore, among the PBDE compounds investigated, the most frequently detected and the major congeners were BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99. And the lower brominated diphenyl ethers (accounting for 75.0%) were the majority of the PBDE congeners. Finally, the result of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the lower and higher brominated diphenyl ethers in Shanghai rural regions were emitted from different pollutant sources.

  11. Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality.

  12. Quantifying Land Use Change in Zhejiang Coastal Region, China Using Multi-Temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images in 1985, 1986, 1993, 1994and 2001 were used to quantify the land use and land cover changes (LUCC) in the Zhejiang coastal region with a stratified unsupervised classification technique in conjunction with visual interpretation and to attempt an identification of the socioeconomic driving forces. In level Ⅰ an overall accurate classification was achieved using a modified Anderson's Ⅰ/Ⅱ/Ⅲ-level classification scheme. The overall accuracy of the land use classification at Anderson level I were 89.7%(1985), 91.6% (1993), and 90.4% (2001). The most rapid land use change was a dramatic increase in urban or built-up areas, which quadrupled from 1985 to 2001. Over 90% of this newly expanded built-up area was originally paddy fields or other croplands. In different parts of the Zhejiang coastal region, urban land expansion was spatially uneven. Temporally,land use development did not stabilized, and the two study periods of time (1985-1993 and 1993-2001) had different transition styles. Socioeconomic factors, such as gross domestic product, total population, and financial expenditure, were all highly correlated with the expansion of urban or built-up areas. Based on the degree of urban sprawl and socioeconomic factors, cities and towns were further divided into six subgroups, which may help decision makers improve land use for the region.

  13. Effects of steep high-frequency hearing loss on speech recognition using temporal fine structure in low-frequency region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Hou, Limin; Xu, Li; Wang, Hui; Yang, Guang; Yin, Shankai; Feng, Yanmei

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of steep high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SHF-SNHL) on speech recognition using acoustic temporal fine structure (TFS) in the low-frequency region where the absolute thresholds appeared to be normal. In total, 28 participants with SHF-SNHL were assigned to 3 groups according to the cut-off frequency (1, 2, and 4 kHz, respectively) of their pure-tone absolute thresholds. Fourteen age-matched normal-hearing (NH) individuals were enrolled as controls. For each Mandarin sentence, the acoustic TFS in 10 frequency bands (each 3-ERB wide) was extracted using the Hilbert transform and was further lowpass filtered at 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Speech recognition scores were compared among the NH and 1-, 2-, and 4-kHz SHF-SNHL groups using stimuli with varying bandwidths. Results showed that speech recognition with the same TFS-speech stimulus bandwidth differed significantly in groups and filtering conditions. Sentence recognition in quiet conditions was better than that in noise. Compared with the NH participants, nearly all the SHF-SNHL participants showed significantly poorer sentence recognition within their frequency regions with "normal hearing" (defined clinically by normal absolute thresholds) in both quiet and noisy conditions. These may result from disrupted auditory nerve function in the "normal hearing" low-frequency regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  15. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-12-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  16. Airborne mineral components and trace metals in Paris region: spatial and temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakis, E; Theodosi, C; Bressi, M; Sciare, J; Ghersi, V; Mihalopoulos, N

    2015-10-01

    A variety of mineral components (Al, Fe) and trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were simultaneously measured in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions at three different locations (traffic, urban, and suburban) in the Greater Paris Area (GPA) on a daily basis throughout a year. Mineral species and trace metal levels measured in both fractions are in agreement with those reported in the literature and below the thresholds defined by the European guidelines for toxic metals (Cd, Ni, Pb). Size distribution between PM2.5 and PM10 fractions revealed that mineral components prevail in the coarse mode, while trace metals are mainly confined in the fine one. Enrichment factor analysis, statistical analysis, and seasonal variability suggest that elements such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, and Cu are attributed to traffic, V and Ni to oil combustion while Cd and Pb to industrial activities with regional origin. Meteorological parameters such as rain, boundary layer height (BLH), and air mass origin were found to significantly influence element concentrations. Periods with high frequency of northern and eastern air masses (from high populated and industrialized areas) are characterized by high metal concentrations. Finally, inner city and traffic emissions were also evaluated in PM2.5 fraction. Significant contributions (>50 %) were measured in the traffic site for Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu, confirming that vehicle emissions contribute significantly to their levels, while in the urban site, the lower contributions (18 to 33 %) for all measured metals highlight the influence of regional sources on their levels.

  17. Improved quantification of brain perfusion using FAIR with active suppression of superior tagging (FAIR ASST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N; Purdy, David E; Haley, Robert W; Briggs, Richard W

    2011-11-01

    To address two problems for perfusion studies in the middle or inferior brain regions: (1) to reduce venous artifacts due to the intrinsic superior labeling of FAIR; (2) to alleviate the discrepancy of the existence of both superior and inferior boluses, but with only the inferior bolus having a temporally defined bolus width with Q2TIPs or QUIPSS. Superior tagging suppression methods for FAIR with different combinations of pre- and postinversion superior saturation pulses were evaluated and compared with FAIR with Q2TIPS for producing perfusion maps of superior, middle, and inferior brain regions. One preinversion plus two postinversion superior saturation radio frequency pulses effectively suppressed the superior tagging of FAIR and sufficiently eliminated venous artifacts without negative effects, avoiding the overestimations of cerebral blood flow that can occur in FAIR. FAIR ASST improves FAIR with Q2TIPS and provides more reliable and accurate blood flow estimations for perfusion studies of middle and lower brain regions. FAIR ASST confers the advantages of asymmetric PASL techniques, such as PICORE, in which only the inferiorly labeled blood is used for perfusion quantification, to the symmetric PASL technique FAIR, while preserving the robustness of FAIR against MT effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The regional neuronal activity in left posterior middle temporal gyrus is correlated with the severity of chronic aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jianlin Li,1,* Dunren Du,2,* Wei Gao,1 Xichun Sun,3 Haizhu Xie,1 Gang Zhang,1 Jian Li,1 Honglun Li,1 Kefeng Li4 1Department of Radiology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Yantai Laishan Branch Hospital of Yuhuangding Hospital, Medical College of Qingdao University, 3Department of Radiology, Yantai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yantai, China; 4School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Aphasia is one of the most disabling cognitive deficits affecting >2 million people in the USA. The neuroimaging characteristics of chronic aphasic patients (>6 months post onset remain largely unknown.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the regional signal changes of spontaneous neuronal activity of brain and the inter-regional connectivity in chronic aphasia. Materials and methods: Resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to obtain fMRI data from 17 chronic aphasic patients and 20 healthy control subjects in a Siemens Verio 3.0T MR Scanner. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF was determined, which directly reflects the regional neuronal activity. The functional connectivity (FC of fMRI was assessed using a seed voxel linear correlation approach. The severity of aphasia was evaluated by aphasia quotient (AQ scores obtained from Western Aphasia Battery test.Results: Compared with normal subjects, aphasic patients showed decreased ALFF values in the regions of left posterior middle temporal gyrus (PMTG, left medial prefrontal gyrus, and right cerebellum. The ALFF values in left PMTG showed strong positive correlation with the AQ score (coefficient r=0.79, P<0.05. There was a positive FC in chronic aphasia between left PMTG and left inferior temporal gyrus (BA20, fusiform gyrus (BA37, and inferior frontal gyrus (BA47\\45\\44. Conclusion: Left PMTG might play

  19. Diversity of Fusarium head blight populations and trichothecene toxin types reveals regional differences in pathogen composition and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy C; Clear, Randall M; O'Donnell, Kerry; McCormick, Susan; Turkington, T Kelly; Tekauz, Andy; Gilbert, Jeannie; Kistler, H Corby; Busman, Mark; Ward, Todd J

    2015-09-01

    Analyses of genetic diversity, trichothecene genotype composition, and population structure were conducted using 4086 Fusarium graminearum isolates collected from wheat in eight Canadian provinces over a three year period between 2005 and 2007. The results revealed substantial regional differences in Fusarium head blight pathogen composition and temporal population dynamics. The 3ADON trichothecene type consistently predominated in Maritime provinces (91%) over the sampled years, and increased significantly (P<0.05) between 2005 and 2007 in western Canada, accounting for 66% of the isolates in Manitoba by the end of the sampling period. In contrast, 3ADON frequency was lower (22%, P<0.001) in the eastern Canadian provinces of Ontario and Québec and did not change significantly between 2005 and 2007, resulting in two distinct longitudinal clines in 3ADON frequency across Canada. Overall, genetic structure was correlated with toxin type, as the endemic population (NA1) was dominated by 15ADON isolates (86%), whereas a second population (NA2) consisted largely of 3ADON isolates (88%). However, the percentage of isolates with trichothecene genotypes that were not predictive of their genetic population assignment (recombinant genotypes) increased from 10% in 2005 to 17% in 2007, indicating that trichothecene type became an increasingly unreliable marker of population identity over time. In addition, there were substantial regional differences in the composition of recombinant genotypes. In western and maritime provinces, NA2 isolates with 15ADON genotypes were significantly more common than NA1 isolates with 3ADON genotypes (P<0.001), and the reverse was true in the eastern provinces of Québec and Ontario. Temporal trends in recombinant genotype composition also varied regionally, as the percentage of 15ADON isolates with NA2 genetic backgrounds increased approximately three fold in western and Maritime provinces, while the opposite trends were observed in Québec and

  20. Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Holt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: the population of S. Typhi circulating during the study was highly clonal, with 91% of isolates belonging to a single clonal complex of the S. Typhi H58 haplogroup. The patterns of disease were consistent with the presence of an endemic haplotype H58-C and a localised outbreak of S. Typhi haplotype H58-E2 in 2004. H58-E2-associated typhoid fever cases exhibited evidence of significant geo-spatial clustering along the Sông H u branch of the Mekong River. Multidrug resistance was common in the established clone H58-C but not in the outbreak clone H58-E2, however all H58 S. Typhi were nalidixic acid resistant and carried a Ser83Phe amino acid substitution in the gyrA gene. SIGNIFICANCE: the H58 haplogroup dominates S. Typhi populations in other endemic areas, but the population described here was more homogeneous than previously examined populations, and the dominant clonal complex (H58-C, -E1, -E2 observed in this study has not been detected outside Vietnam. IncHI1 plasmid-bearing S. Typhi H58-C was endemic during the study period whilst H58-E2, which rarely carried the plasmid, was only transient, suggesting a selective advantage for the plasmid. These data add insight into the outbreak dynamics and local molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi in southern Vietnam.

  1. The grounding of temporal metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (Her seminar stretches across the afternoon) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (Her backyard stretches across the desert) and literal motion (Her arm stretches across the table), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus. These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. PMID:26854961

  2. Temporal Evolution of Chromospheric Oscillations in Flaring Regions: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsue, T.; Hill, F.; Stassun, K. G.

    2016-10-01

    We have analyzed Hα intensity images obtained at a 1 minute cadence with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) system to investigate the properties of oscillations in the 0-8 mHz frequency band at the location and time of strong M- and X-class flares. For each of three subregions within two flaring active regions, we extracted time series from multiple distinct positions, including the flare core and quieter surrounding areas. The time series were analyzed with a moving power-map analysis to examine power as a function of frequency and time. We find that, in the flare core of all three subregions, the low-frequency power (˜1-2 mHz) is substantially enhanced immediately prior to and after the flare, and that power at all frequencies up to 8 mHz is depleted at flare maximum. This depletion is both frequency- and time-dependent, which probably reflects the changing depths visible during the flare in the bandpass of the filter. These variations are not observed outside the flare cores. The depletion may indicate that acoustic energy is being converted into thermal energy at flare maximum, while the low-frequency enhancement may arise from an instability in the chromosphere and provide an early warning of the flare onset. Dark lanes of reduced wave power are also visible in the power maps, which may arise from the interaction of the acoustic waves and the magnetic field.

  3. The relationship between regional transport superiority and regional economic performance in Hainan%海南省区域交通优势度与经济发展关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓燕; 曹小曙; 李涛

    2011-01-01

    This study takes Hainan as a case and its 18 counties as basic unit for analysis.Choosing 3 indexes, including transport network density, proximity and accessibility, this paper constituted the spatial mathematical model to evaluate transport superiority degree firstly. Then, by utilizing GIS and IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted) technology, this paper studied spatial characteristic of transport network in Hainan. Moreover, we selected 4 aspects, i. e., total economic output and industrial structure, population and urbanization,living standards, transportation and the urban construction, 20 indexes all together and uses SPSS16.0 software with principal component analysis to quantitatively evaluate the level of economic development. By analysing spatial characteristic and summarizing spatial disciplinarian, this paper studied the relationship between regional transport superiority and economic performance in Hainan. The results showed that there were great differences in spatial distribution patterns between accessibility and economic development. But the spatial distribution patterns of transport superiority and regional economic performance are coherent, and there are positive relations between them, which showed an opposite spatial arrangement with geographic characteristics in Hainan.%以海南省为例,选取县级及以上城市为研究节点,采用交通网络密度、邻近度、通达性等指标,构建区域交通优势度综合评价的数理模型,运用GIS网络分析技术及IDW空间插值法定量分析海南省交通网络的地域空间特征.选取了经济总量和产业结构、人口与城市化、人民生活水平、交通与城市建设等4方面共20项主要的经济指标,运用SPSS软件用主成分分析法定量分析海南省区域经济差异及空间格局.通过对海南省各县市交通优势度及经济发展水平的特点及空问结构性规律进行分析,并比较二者间的联系,结果表明:海南省通达性空间格

  4. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of annual greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetland in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J.; Chapman, E. J.; Childers, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands support ecological functions that result in valuable services to society, including the purification of water through processes such as denitrification, plant uptake, and soil retention. Wetlands are also sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Many free-water surface constructed treatment wetland systems (CW) in North America have been developed to remove nutrients from secondarily-treated water, but little is known about the contributions of CWS on greenhouse gas emissions, especially in arid regions. Since 2011, the 42-ha cell-1 of the Tres Rios CW in Phoenix, AZ has removed approximately 30-40% of excess nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) from the surface water entering the CW; with most of the nitrogen uptake occurring within the 21-ha vegetated-marsh area of the CW. To increase our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics of CW in arid regions, we investigated the GHG fluxes of N2O, CH4, and CO2 from a whole-system perspective and from a vegetated-marsh to open-water gradient within the CW. Since the spring of 2012, we have been utilizing the floating chamber technique to collect and measure gas samples from two transects in the vegetated-marsh area of the CW (nearest to inflow and nearest to outflow) and along three gradient subsites within the transects (shoreline, midmarsh, and open-water). From March 2012 to March 2013, we found seasonal significant differences in CO2 and CH4 fluxes (p<0.001), but not in N2O fluxes. CO2 fluxes were higher in the spring months compared to summer and winter months however, CH4 fluxes were higher in late spring and summer compared to the fall, winter, and early spring months. We found two significant spatial patterns in GHG fluxes in the CW, between the inflow and outflow transects and along the transect gradient subsites. Between the transects, we found significantly larger CO2 and N2O fluxes at the inflow compared to the outflow (p<0.001) but not CH4, possibly as a

  6. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  7. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  8. Multi-temporal Soil Erosion Modelling over the Mt Kenya Region with Multi-Sensor Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Higginbottom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is the principal cause of soil degradation across the world. In Africa, it is seen as a serious problem creating negative impacts on agricultural production, infrastructure and water quality. Regarding the Mt Kenya region, specifically, soil erosion is a serious threat mainly due to unplanned and unsustainable practices linked to tourism, agriculture and rapid population growth. The soil types roughly correspond with different altitudinal zones and are generally very fertile due to their volcanic origin. Some of them have been created by eroding glaciers while others are due to millions of years of fluvial erosion. The soils on the mountain are easily eroded once exposed: when vegetation is removed, the soil quickly erodes down to bedrock by either animals or humans, as tourists erode paths and local people clear large swaths of forested land for agriculture, mostly illegally. It is imperative, therefore, that a soil erosion monitoring system for the Mt Kenya region is in place in order to understand the magnitude of, and be able to respond to, the increasing number of demands on this renewable resource. In this paper, we employ a simple regional-scale soil erosion modelling framework based on the Thornes model and suggest an operational methodology for quantifying and monitoring water runoff and soil erosion using multi-sensor and multi-temporal remote sensing data in a GIS framework. We compare the estimates of this study with general data on the severity of soil erosion over Kenya and with measured rates of soil loss at different locations over the area of study. The results show that the measured and estimated rates of erosion are generally similar and within the same order of magnitude. They also show that, over the last years, erosion rates are increasing in large parts of the region at an alarming rate, and that mitigation measures are needed to reverse the negative effects of uncontrolled socio-economic practices.

  9. Temporal variation, regional sources, and removal processes of volatile organic compounds in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rachel S.

    technique based on the lifetime-variability relationship of NMHCs and using the traditional NMHC ratio method. Furthermore, the daytime loss of DMS and ethane in the marine sector of AI was reproduced when reaction with both OH and Cl were considered providing supporting evidence for Cl chemistry occurring in this region.

  10. Spatio-temporal characteristics of gaseous and particulate pollutants in an urban region of Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. K.; Karar, Kakoli; Ayoob, S.; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with air quality monitoring in an urban region of Kolkata, consisting of residential, commercial and industrial sites having high population density and pollution. Concentrations of ambient SO 2 (sulfur dioxide), NO 2, (nitrogen dioxide), NH 3 (ammonia) and PM 10 (particulate matter passing through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) were measured once in a week for 24 h at selected residential and industrial sites and 8 h at a commercial site. The meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) were collected simultaneously from the Indian Meteorological Department, Kolkata. The daily average concentrations of SO 2, NO 2, NH 3 and PM 10 were observed to be 12.3 ± 9.2, 32.5 ± 14.2, 36.3 ± 19.7 and 140.1 ± 43.1 μg/m 3 at the residential site, with 21.3 ± 15.7, 49.9 ± 9.8, 34.7 ± 13.5 and 196.6 ± 88.2 μg/m 3 at the industrial site, respectively. The corresponding (8 h average) values at the commercial site were 15.5 ± 11.9, 39.9 ± 17.3, 33.9 ± 13.3 and 276.1 ± 71.4 μg/m 3. Winter concentrations of ambient SO 2, NO 2, NH 3 and PM 10 were observed to be higher irrespective of the monitoring sites and duration of sampling, suggesting longer residence times of these pollutants in the atmosphere during winter due to stagnant conditions and low mixing heights. The SO 2/NO 2 ratios at the residential, commercial and industrial sites were found to be 0.38, 0.42 and 0.43, respectively. These low SO 2/NO 2 ratios are indicative of major emissions from mobile sources within the city. Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed an inverse relationship between the measured gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations with the observed wind speed, rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The data were analyzed using varimax-rotated principal component analysis for the residential and industrial sites. In principal component analysis

  11. Temporal and spatial changes of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province in recent 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangsheng YI; Yanyu YIN; Yaojie YUE

    2012-01-01

    It is very important to understand the temporal and spatial changes of residential land for the improvement of human settlement environment.Based on the three TM images of 1986,1996 and 2005 and other assistant maps,the temporal and spatial characteristics of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province of China were analyzed by using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology.Some important conclusions were obtained,which mainly contained four aspects as follows.1) The area of residential land in the Yuyang desert region increased 956.07 hm2 in total,and the changes of residential land among the townships were different with four various change trends.The expansion speeds in the Yuyang Township and Qinhe Township were the biggest from 1986 to 1996 and from 1996 to 2005,respectively.The expansion intensifies in other townships were below 0.1%,except the Yuyang Township.2) The number of residential land patches increased 2847,while the average area and perimeter of residential land patches decreased 0.304 hm2 and 60.78 m during 1986-2005,respectively.The residential land patches also displayed four different changes from 1986 to 2005 among the townships.3) The residential land mainly distributed in the middle of Yuyang Township and Mahe Township,and the interface of Jinjitan Township and Mengjiawan Township.The total spatial pattern of residential land was relative stability,but the significant changes of residential land were found in the Yuyang Township and its vicinities during 1986-2005.4) Three distribution patterns of residential land at the micro scale were categorized from the 100 typical villages in the study area.The number of villages in the pattern 1 increased,while the pattern 2 and pattern 3 decreased in recent 20 years,which implicated the adaptation of humans to the habitation environment.This research would provide scientific references for harmonizing the human-land relationship

  12. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Muñoz Sobrino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de carácter local y regional, que afectan tanto al clima como a la composición y distribución de los ecosistemas terrestres ; y por tanto a los recursos naturales renovables que el hombre pudo haber aprovechado en cada momento. A su vez, las configuraciones locales y regionales se intregran en los modelos climáticos globales, elaborados a patir del estudio de isótopos y elementos traza obtenidos en depósitos con gran amplitud cronológica y un ritmo de deposición conocido. La integracion de la información paleoambiental a diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales obliga a rechazar, o en su caso limitar, la información paleoambiental que muestre un elevado grado de incertidumbre en relación al origen geográfico de sus componentes, o bien derivado de una tafocenosis heterogénea, o vinculado con una deposición intermitente o con mezclas de los distintos niveles.

  13. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  14. Automated volumetry and regional thickness analysis of hippocampal subfields and medial temporal cortical structures in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkevich, Paul A; Pluta, John B; Wang, Hongzhi; Xie, Long; Ding, Song-Lin; Gertje, Eske C; Mancuso, Lauren; Kliot, Daria; Das, Sandhitsu R; Wolk, David A

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate a fully automatic technique for labeling hippocampal subfields and cortical subregions in the medial temporal lobe in in vivo 3 Tesla MRI. The method performs segmentation on a T2-weighted MRI scan with 0.4 × 0.4 × 2.0 mm(3) resolution, partial brain coverage, and oblique orientation. Hippocampal subfields, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are labeled using a pipeline that combines multi-atlas label fusion and learning-based error correction. In contrast to earlier work on automatic subfield segmentation in T2-weighted MRI [Yushkevich et al., 2010], our approach requires no manual initialization, labels hippocampal subfields over a greater anterior-posterior extent, and labels the perirhinal cortex, which is further subdivided into Brodmann areas 35 and 36. The accuracy of the automatic segmentation relative to manual segmentation is measured using cross-validation in 29 subjects from a study of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and is highest for the dentate gyrus (Dice coefficient is 0.823), CA1 (0.803), perirhinal cortex (0.797), and entorhinal cortex (0.786) labels. A larger cohort of 83 subjects is used to examine the effects of aMCI in the hippocampal region using both subfield volume and regional subfield thickness maps. Most significant differences between aMCI and healthy aging are observed bilaterally in the CA1 subfield and in the left Brodmann area 35. Thickness analysis results are consistent with volumetry, but provide additional regional specificity and suggest nonuniformity in the effects of aMCI on hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Temporal-spatial variations of euphotic depth of typical lake regions in Lake Taihu and its ecological environmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yunlin; QIN; Boqiang; HU; Weiping; WANG; Sumin; CHEN; Yuwei

    2006-01-01

    By using the data of underwater irradiance measured in the different lake regions of Lake Taihu during 1998-2004 and total suspended solids (TSS), wind speeds of the total 13 stations in typical lake regions during 1993-2003, this paper analyzes the factors of influencing on PAR (photosynthetically available radiation) attenuation, euphotic depth, and presents the temporal and spatial variations of euphotic depth of typical lake regions in Lake Taihu, and the spectral distributions of euphotic depth at station 2. The results show that the concentration of TSS is the most important factor impacting PAR attenuation, followed by chlorophyll a; chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has little impact on the PAR euphotic depth. During 1993-2003, the mean yearly PAR euphotic depths of the typical lake regions ranged from 1.04 to 1.95 m with a mean value of 1.35±0.23 m. The PAR euphotic depth fell into 3 spatial zone types: Type I, the lowest, including the lake center and the inflows of rivers; Type II, intermediate, including Meiliang Bay, Wulihu Lake and Gonghu Bay; Type III, the greatest, including the East Lake Taihu; corresponding mean depths were approximately 1.1, 1.4, 2.0 m, respectively. The seasonal variations of euphotic depths were not quite the same in different lake regions. In the lake center, the mean values of PAR euphotic depth in summer and autumn were significantly greater than those in winter and spring; in the Meiliang Bay, winter means were significantly greater than in the other three seasons; in the East Lake Taihu, winter means were significantly less than in the other three seasons. However, no distinct seasonal change was recorded in the Wulihu Lake, Gonghu Bay and the inflows of rivers. The spectral distributions of euphotic depth present a minimal value at the blue light wave band of 400 nm, and a peak at the green light wave band of around 580 nm. In 1998 and 1999, based on the seasonal many-day continuous measurements, the PAR

  16. 精神分裂症患者颞上回的大麻素受体密度没有显著性变化%No changes in densities of cannabinoid receptors in the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 韩玫; 黄旭枫

    2007-01-01

    目的 近年来研究发现,在精神分裂症患者的内源性大麻素递质系统会出现异常变化,而颞上回在精神分裂症的病理生理机制中和幻听症状密切相关.因此,对照正常人群,我们研究了精神分裂症患者颞上回大麻素CB-1受体的密度变化.方法 采用定量放射自显影技术,通过[3H]SR141716A(CB-1受体选择性拮抗剂)和[3H]CP-55940(CB-1受体激动剂)检测颞上回CB-1受体密度水平.死后脑组织由澳大利亚新南威尔士州组织资源中心提供.结果 先前研究发现,精神分裂症患者与认知功能失常相关的额前叶,前、后扣带回皮质的CB-1受体密度水平有异常改变.与此相反,本研究发现在精神分裂症患者的由[3H]SR141716A和[3H]CP-55940检测的颞上回大麻素受体密度水平和对照组比较没有显著变化.结论 我们认为颞上回大麻素CB-1受体和精神分裂症患者的发病及幻听症状无关.%Objective In recent years, abnormal changes in the endocannabinoid system have been found in schizophrenia.The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly with regards to auditory hallucinations. In this study, we investigated the binding density of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the STG of schizophrenia patients compared to control subjects. Methods Quantitative autoradiography was used to investigate the binding densities of [3H]SR141716A (a selective antagonist) and [3H]CP-55940 (an agonist) to the CB1 receptors in the STG. Post-mortem brain tissue was obtained from the NSW Tissue Resource Centre (Australia). Results Contrasting to previous findings in the alterations of CB1 receptor densities in the prefrontal, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia, which were suggested to be associated to impairment of cognition function, no significant difference was found between the schizophrenia and control cases in both [3H]SR141716A and [3H]CP-55940

  17. Exploring the potential of Sentinel-1 data for regional scale slope instability detection using multi-temporal interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, Janusz; Bovenga, Fabio; Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa; Refice, Alberto; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Launched in 2014, the European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 satellite carrying a medium resolution (20 m) C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor holds much promise for new applications of multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) in landslide assessment. Specifically, the regularity of acquisitions, timeliness of data delivery, shorter repeat cycle (currently 12 days with Sentinel-1A sensor), and flexible incidence angle geometry, all imply better practical utility of MTI relying on Sentinel-1 with respect to MTI based on data from earlier ESA's satellite radar C-band sensors (ERS1/2, ENVISAT). Furthermore, the upcoming launch of Sentinel-1B will cut down the repeat cycle to 6 days, thereby further improving temporal coherence and quality and coverage of MTI products. Taking advantage of the Interferometric Wide (IW) Swath acquisition mode of Sentinel-1 (images covering a 250 km swath on the ground), in this work we test the potential of such data for regional scale slope instability detection through MTI. Our test area includes the landslide-prone Apennine Mountains of Southern Italy. We rely on over 30 Sentinel-1 images, most of which acquired in 2015, and MTI processing through the SPINUA algorithm (Stable Points INterferometry in Un-urbanized Areas). The potential of MTI results based on Sentinel-1 data is assessed by comparing the detected ground surface displacements with the MTI results obtained for the same test area using the C-Band data acquired by ERS1/2 and ENVISAT in 1990s and 2000s. Although the initial results are encouraging, it seems evident that longer-term (few years) acquisitions of Sentinel-1 are necessary to reliably detect some extremely slow movements, which were observed in the last two decades and are likely to be still present in peri-urban areas of many hilltop towns in the Apennine Mts. The MTI results obtained from Sentinel-1 data are also locally compared with the MTI outcomes based on the high resolution (3 m) TerraSAR-X imagery

  18. Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J R; Frost, J A; Hammeke, T A; Bellgowan, P S; Springer, J A; Kaufman, J N; Possing, E T

    2000-05-01

    Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions, subjects performed a material-nonspecific detection response when a train of stimuli began or ceased. Dorsal areas surrounding Heschl's gyrus bilaterally, particularly the planum temporale and dorsolateral superior temporal gyrus, were more strongly activated by FM tones than by noise, suggesting a role in processing simple temporally encoded auditory information. Distinct from these dorsolateral areas, regions centered in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally were more activated by speech stimuli than by FM tones. Identical results were obtained in this region using words, pseudowords and reversed speech, suggesting that the speech-tones activation difference is due to acoustic rather than linguistic factors. In contrast, previous comparisons between word and nonword speech sounds showed left-lateralized activation differences in more ventral temporal and temporoparietal regions that are likely involved in processing lexical-semantic or syntactic information associated with words. The results indicate functional subdivision of the human lateral temporal cortex and provide a preliminary framework for understanding the cortical processing of speech sounds.

  19. Regional-Scale Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in the Citrus Region of Santa Engracia, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoye-Eligio, Venancio; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Pérez-Castañeda, Roberto; Gaona-García, Griselda; Lara-Villalon, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Large citrus areas in Tamaulipas are affected by Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations. Here we report the findings of a spatio-temporal analysis of A. ludens on an extended citrus area from 2008-2011 aimed at analyzing the probabilities of A. ludens infestation and developing an infestation risk classification for citrus production. A Geographic Information System combined with the indicator kriging geostatistics technique was used to assess A. ludens adult densities in the spring and fall. During the spring, our models predicted higher probabilities of infestation in the western region, close to the Sierra Madre Oriental, than in the east. Although a patchy distribution of probabilities was observed in the fall, there was a trend toward higher probabilities of infestation in the west than east. The final raster models summarized the probability maps using a three-tiered infestation risk classification (low-, medium-, and high risk). These models confirmed the greater infestation risk in the west in both seasons. These risk classification data support arguments for the use of the sterile insect technique and biological control in this extended citrus area and will have practical implications for the area-wide integrated pest management carried out by the National Program Against Fruit Flies in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

  20. Temporal changes of eroded soils depending on their agricultural use in the southern Cis-Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleimanov, R. R.; Khabirov, I. K.; Komissarov, M. A.; Fruehauf, M.; Liebelt, P.; Garipov, T. T.; Sidorova, L. V.; Khaziev, F. Kh.

    2016-10-01

    Temporal changes of eroded soils in the southern Cis-Ural region (Republic of Bashkortostan) depending on their agricultural use during the period from 1975 to 2011 were studied. In the northern foreststeppe zone, the development of erosion processes was retarded upon the use of soil-saving management practices and grain-fallow-grass crop rotations. In slightly eroded light gray forest soils (Eutric Retisols (Cutanic)), the thickness of humus-accumulative horizons and the content of humus increased; the conversion of cropland into permanent fallow was found to be the most efficient measure to control soil erosion. In podzolized chernozems (Luvic Greyzemic Chernic Phaeozems) and typical chernozems (Haplic Chernozems) of the Cis-Ural steppe, the content of humus in the plow layer under grain-row crop rotation and classical soil management decreased, especially in moderately eroded soils. The development of water and wind erosion on slopes depended on the slope shape: the texture of soils at different degrees of erosion on slopes with free runoff became coarser by one gradation after 35 years; in the presence of linear obstacles in the lower part of slopes, the content of fine fractions in moderately and strongly eroded soils increased.

  1. Quantifying the effects of different post-processing quality filters on regionally and temporally averaged ACOS XCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.; O'Dell, C.; Mandrake, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) group has been producing and distributing total column CO2 (XCO2) products using JAXA/NIES/MOE Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) spectra and has accumulated almost 4 years of data with version 3.3. While the ACOS team strives to only process soundings that the retrieval algorithm can handle well, we are conservative in what we reject from processing. Consequently, some soundings get processed which do not yield reliable results. We have developed post-processing filters based on comparisons to a few truth proxies (model means, TCCON, and the southern hemisphere approximation) to flag the less reliable soundings. Here we compare regionally (using TRANSCOM spatial bins) and monthly averaged XCO2 that have been filtered by our normal method (described in the ACOS Level 2 Data User's Guide) and a newer method, which we have named warn levels. Mean XCO2 differences are quantified spatially and temporally to inform possible biases in carbon cycle studies that could potentially be introduced by the application of differing post-processing screening methodologies to the ACOS products.

  2. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-08-15

    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity.

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of medial temporal lobe visual ratings and multivariate regional MRI classification in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Westman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual assessment rating scales for medial temporal lobe (MTL atrophy have been used by neuroradiologists in clinical practice to aid the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recently multivariate classification methods for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data have been suggested as alternative tools. If computerized methods are to be implemented in clinical practice they need to be as good as, or better than experienced neuroradiologists and carefully validated. The aims of this study were: (1 To compare the ability of MTL atrophy visual assessment rating scales, a multivariate MRI classification method and manually measured hippocampal volumes to distinguish between subjects with AD and healthy elderly controls (CTL. (2 To assess how well the three techniques perform when predicting future conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to AD. METHODS: High resolution sagittal 3D T1w MP-RAGE datasets were acquired from 75 AD patients, 101 subjects with MCI and 81 CTL from the multi-centre AddNeuroMed study. An automated analysis method was used to generate regional volume and regional cortical thickness measures, providing 57 variables for multivariate analysis (orthogonal partial least squares to latent structures using seven-fold cross-validation. Manual hippocampal measurements were also determined for each subject. Visual rating assessment of MTL atrophy was performed by an experienced neuroradiologist according to the approach of Scheltens et al. RESULTS: We found prediction accuracies for distinguishing between AD and CTL of 83% for multivariate classification, 81% for the visual rating assessments and 89% for manual measurements of total hippocampal volume. The three different techniques showed similar accuracy in predicting conversion from MCI to AD at one year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Visual rating assessment of the MTL gave similar prediction accuracy to multivariate classification and manual hippocampal volumes. This

  4. Assessing the regional spatio-temporal pattern of water stress: A case study in Zhangye City of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Weige; Jin, Gui; Li, Zhaohua

    Water scarcity and stress have attracted increasing attention as water has become increasingly regarded as one of the most critical resources in the world's sustainable development. The Water Poverty Index (WPI), an interdisciplinary but straightforward measure that considers water availability from both the bio-geophysical perspective and the socio-economic perspective of people's capacity to access water, has been successfully applied at national, regional, and local levels around the world. However, the general assessment of water stress at a macro level over only a snapshot limits the understanding of the geographic differences in and dynamics of water stress; this will, in turn, mislead decision-makers and may result in improper water strategies being implemented. In addition, to date, the typologies and trajectories of water stress have been underexplored. To fill this knowledge gap, we examine the spatio-temporal patterns, trajectories, and typologies of water stress using an adapted WPI for six counties in Zhangye City, which lies within an arid region of China, in order to provide policy priorities for each county. The results of our assessment indicate that water stress has become more severe over time (2005-2011) in most of the counties in Zhangye City. The results also show a distinct spatial variation in water scarcity and stress. Specifically, the results for Shandan county reflect its progressive policies on water access and management, and this county is regarded as engaging in good water governance. In contrast, Ganzhou district has faced more severe water pressure and is regarded as practicing poor water governance. Typology results show that each county faces its own particular challenges and opportunities in the context of water scarcity and stress. In addition, the trajectory map reveals that none of the counties has shown substantial improvement in both water access and management, a finding that should draw decision-makers' close attention.

  5. Dose reduction technique using a combination of a region of interest (ROI) material x-ray attenuator and spatially different temporal filtering for fluoroscopic interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Panse, A.; Jain, A.; Sharma, P.; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Titus, A. H.; Cartwright, A. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach for achieving patient dose savings during image-guided neurovascular interventions, involving a combination of a material x-ray region of interest (ROI) attenuator and a spatially different ROI temporal filtering technique. The part of the image under the attenuator is reduced in dose but noisy and less bright due to fewer x-ray quanta reaching the detector, as compared to the non-attenuating (or less attenuating) region. First the brightness is equalized throughout the image by post processing and then a temporal filter with higher weights is applied to the high attenuating region to reduce the noise, at the cost of increased lag; however, in the regions where less attenuation is present, a lower temporal weight is needed and is applied to preserve temporal resolution. A simulation of the technique is first presented on an actual image sequence obtained from an endovascular image guided interventional (EIGI) procedure. Then the actual implementation of the technique with a physical ROI attenuator is presented. Quantitative analysis including noise analysis and integral dose calculations are presented to validate the proposed technique.

  6. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  7. Identification of temporal and region-specific myocardial gene expression patterns in response to infarction in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Prat-Vidal

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms associated with pathophysiological changes in ventricular remodelling due to myocardial infarction (MI remain poorly understood. We analyzed changes in gene expression by microarray technology in porcine myocardial tissue at 1, 4, and 6 weeks post-MI.MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in 9 female pigs (30-40 kg. Animals were randomly sacrificed at 1, 4, or 6 weeks post-MI (n = 3 per group and 3 healthy animals were also included as control group. Total RNA from myocardial samples was hybridized to GeneChip® Porcine Genome Arrays. Functional analysis was obtained with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA online tool. Validation of microarray data was performed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR.More than 8,000 different probe sets showed altered expression in the remodelling myocardium at 1, 4, or 6 weeks post-MI. Ninety-seven percent of altered transcripts were detected in the infarct core and 255 probe sets were differentially expressed in the remote myocardium. Functional analysis revealed 28 genes de-regulated in the remote myocardial region in at least one of the three temporal analyzed stages, including genes associated with heart failure (HF, systemic sclerosis and coronary artery disease. In the infarct core tissue, eight major time-dependent gene expression patterns were recognized among 4,221 probe sets commonly altered over time. Altered gene expression of ACVR2B, BID, BMP2, BMPR1A, LMNA, NFKBIA, SMAD1, TGFB3, TNFRSF1A, and TP53 were further validated.The clustering of similar expression patterns for gene products with related function revealed molecular footprints, some of them described for the first time, which elucidate changes in biological processes at different stages after MI.

  8. Temporal and regional regulation of gene expression by calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity during fear memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Wieczorek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs, AC1 and AC8, are key components of long-term memory processing. AC1 and AC8 double knockout mice (Adcy1(-/-Adcy8(-/-; DKO display impaired fear memory processing; the mechanism of this impairment is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesize that the Ca2+-stimulated ACs modulate long-lasting transcriptional changes essential for fear memory consolidation and maintenance. Here, we report a genome-wide study of gene expression changes associated with conditioned fear (CF memory in wild-type and DKO mice to identify AC-dependent gene regulatory changes that occur in the amygdala and hippocampus at baseline and different time points after CF learning. We observed an overall decrease in transcriptional changes in DKO mice across all time points, but most strikingly, at periods when memory consolidation and retention should be occurring. Further, we identified a shared set of transcription factor binding sites in genes upregulated in wild-type mice that were associated with downregulated genes in DKO mice. To prove the temporal and regional importance of AC activity on different stages of memory processing, the tetracycline-off system was used to produce mice with forebrain-specific inducible expression of AC8 on a DKO background. CF behavioral results reveal that adult restoration of AC8 activity in the forebrain is sufficient for intact learning, while cessation of this expression at any time point across learning causes memory deficits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these studies demonstrate that the Ca2+-stimulated ACs contribute to the formation and maintenance of fear memory by a network of long-term transcriptional changes.

  9. Landslide inventory development in a data sparse region: spatial and temporal characteristics of landslides in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Robbins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Papua New Guinea (PNG earthquakes and rainfall events form the dominant trigger mechanisms capable of generating many landslides. Large volume and high density landsliding can result in significant socio-economic impacts, which are felt particularly strongly in the largely subsistence-orientated communities which reside in the most susceptible areas of the country. As PNG has undergone rapid development and increased external investment from mining and other companies, population and settled areas have increased, hence the potential for damage from landslides has also increased. Information on the spatial and temporal distribution of landslides, at a regional-scale, is critical for developing landslide hazard maps and for planning, sustainable development and decision making. This study describes the methods used to produce the first, country-wide landslide inventory for PNG and analyses of landslide events which occurred between 1970 and 2013. The findings illustrate that there is a strong climatic control on landslide-triggering events and that the majority (~ 61 % of landslides in the PNG landslide inventory are initiated by rainfall related triggers. There is also large year to year variability in the annual occurrence of landslide events and this is related to the phase of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and mesoscale rainfall variability. Landslide-triggering events occur during the north-westerly monsoon season during all phases of ENSO, but less landslide-triggering events are observed during drier season months (May to October during El Niño phases, than either La Niña or ENSO neutral periods. This analysis has identified landslide hazard hotspots and relationships between landslide occurrence and rainfall climatology and this information can prove to be very valuable in the assessment of trends and future behaviour, which can be useful for policy makers and planners.

  10. Landslide inventory development in a data sparse region: spatial and temporal characteristics of landslides in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J. C.; Petterson, M. G.

    2015-08-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG) earthquakes and rainfall events form the dominant trigger mechanisms capable of generating many landslides. Large volume and high density landsliding can result in significant socio-economic impacts, which are felt particularly strongly in the largely subsistence-orientated communities which reside in the most susceptible areas of the country. As PNG has undergone rapid development and increased external investment from mining and other companies, population and settled areas have increased, hence the potential for damage from landslides has also increased. Information on the spatial and temporal distribution of landslides, at a regional-scale, is critical for developing landslide hazard maps and for planning, sustainable development and decision making. This study describes the methods used to produce the first, country-wide landslide inventory for PNG and analyses of landslide events which occurred between 1970 and 2013. The findings illustrate that there is a strong climatic control on landslide-triggering events and that the majority (~ 61 %) of landslides in the PNG landslide inventory are initiated by rainfall related triggers. There is also large year to year variability in the annual occurrence of landslide events and this is related to the phase of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and mesoscale rainfall variability. Landslide-triggering events occur during the north-westerly monsoon season during all phases of ENSO, but less landslide-triggering events are observed during drier season months (May to October) during El Niño phases, than either La Niña or ENSO neutral periods. This analysis has identified landslide hazard hotspots and relationships between landslide occurrence and rainfall climatology and this information can prove to be very valuable in the assessment of trends and future behaviour, which can be useful for policy makers and planners.

  11. Regional, Seasonal, and Temporal Variations in the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs at Slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær;

    2009-01-01

    and explanatory variables region, season, and the year of isolate sampling were analyzed using a logistic regression model. The Cochran-Armitage test provided evidence of significant temporal trends for ampicillin-resistant E. coli (an increasing trend, p ...The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated...... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance...

  12. The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to regional synoptic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, S.; Saaroni, H.; Izsak, T.; Yair, Y.; Ziv, B.

    2011-08-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning flashes over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to the regional synoptic systems has been studied, based on data obtained from the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) operated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC). The system detects cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in a range of ~500 km around central Israel (32.5° N, 35° E). The study period was defined for annual activity from August through July, for 5 seasons in the period 2004-2010. The spatial distribution of lightning flash density indicates the highest concentration over the Mediterranean Sea, attributed to the contribution of moisture as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes from the sea surface. Other centers of high density appear along the coastal plain, orographic barriers, especially in northern Israel, and downwind from the metropolitan area of Tel Aviv, Israel. The intra-annual distribution shows an absence of lightning during the summer months (JJA) due to the persistent subsidence over the region. The vast majority of lightning activity occurs during 7 months, October to April. Although over 65 % of the rainfall in Israel is obtained during the winter months (DJF), only 35 % of lightning flashes occur in these months. October is the richest month, with 40 % of total annual flashes. This is attributed both to tropical intrusions, i.e., Red Sea Troughs (RST), which are characterized by intense static instability and convection, and to Cyprus Lows (CLs) arriving from the west. Based on daily study of the spatial distribution of lightning, three patterns have been defined; "land", "maritime" and "hybrid". CLs cause high flash density over the Mediterranean Sea, whereas some of the RST days are typified by flashes over land. The pattern defined "hybrid" is a combination of the other 2 patterns. On CL days, only the maritime pattern was noted, whereas in RST days all 3 patterns were found, including the maritime pattern. It is

  13. The saptio-temporal distribution of lightning over the southern Levant and its relation to the regional synoptic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, S.; Izsak, T.; Saaroni, H.; Yair, Y.; Ziv, B.

    2010-09-01

    The saptio-temporal distribution of lightning flashes over the southern Levant is derived from data obtained from the Lightning Positioning and Tracking System (LPATS) operated by the Israeli Electrical Company (IEC). The system has an aerial coverage in a range of ~ 500 Km around central Israel, including the southeastern Mediterranean Sea, Israel, Lebanon, western Syria and Jordan and the eastern part of Sinai Peninsula and the Red Sea. The study period includes 4 years. The spatial distribution of lightning flash density indicated the highest concentration over the sea, and is attributed to the contribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes. Other centers of high flash density appear along the coastal plain, expressing the friction effect of the coastline, and along orographic barriers, especially in northern Israel. The intra-annual distribution shows a complete absence of lightning in the eastern Mediterranean during the summer (JJA) which is due to the persistent existence of the subtropical high above the region. The vast majority of the lightning activity occurs during 7 months between October and April. Even though over 65% of the rainfall is obtained in the winter months (DJF) only 35% of the lightning is obtained in the winter and October is the richest month, with 40% of total annual number of lightning flashes. This is attributed mostly to tropical intrusions, i.e., Red Sea Trough (RST), which is characterized by high static instability. Cyprus lows are the synoptic system contributing the vast majority, >80%, of the rainfall in Israel, but only 42% of the lightning, whereas the RST, a minor contributor of rainfall, shares 48% of the lightning. However, during the winter 66% of the lightning flashes are associated with Cyprus lows and 25% with RST while during the autumn months the ratio is reversed: only 27% are associated with Cyprus lows and the majority (63%) occurs during RST. It was found that over 80% of the days defined as Cyprus lows were

  14. Characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of surface water in the Soudan‐Sahel region of Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaptué, Armel T; Hanan, Niall P; Prihodko, Lara

    2013-01-01

    ...., accessing deep aquifers) are often not feasible. This work is devoted to the determination of the spatial and temporal variations of surface water extent at 250 m over 9 years (2003–2011) for the Soudan...

  15. Overview and regional and temporal differences of heavy metals in Arctic whales and ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, R; Innes, S; Richard, P R

    1996-07-16

    Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals in tissues of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from across the Canadian Arctic are reported. Published and new information is used to provide an overview of metals in tissues of these animals, to delineate the existence of a spatial trend of mercury and cadmium in belugas and ringed seals, and to show a temporal trend is superimposed on the geochemical trend. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Arctic whales and ringed seals were high relative to the Canadian guideline of 0.5 micrograms/g wet wt., for mercury in fish, except in the skin of belugas (0.59-0.78 micrograms/g wet wt.) and flesh of ringed seals (0.39-0.41 micrograms/g wet wt.). In the flesh of belugas (0.94-1.34 micrograms/g wet wt.), and in the liver of ringed seals, tissues that are also consumed by Native people in the Arctic (8.34-27.5 micrograms/g wet wt.), the guideline value was significantly exceeded. Mean lead concentrations in tissues of belugas, narwhal and ringed seals were generally low (0.002-0.028 micrograms/g wet wt.), except in tissues of belugas in the St. Lawrence River (0.10-0.15 micrograms/g wet wt.). The concentration of zinc in the skin of whales was two to three times higher than in other tissues. The concentration of cadmium in organs was highest in narwhal. There was a positive correlation between mercury and selenium in the liver of all three species. The concentration of mercury in tissues of belugas and ringed seals was higher in the western than the eastern Arctic. This was attributed to different natural background concentrations in the western and eastern Arctic of Canada dictated by different geological formations in the two regions. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of belugas and ringed seals were higher in the eastern than the western Arctic. Zinc and copper in some tissues of belugas and ringed seals were also higher in the eastern than the western

  16. Alterations of neurochemical expression of the coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach following partial stomach resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Katarzyna; Całka, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the response of the porcine coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons projecting to the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach to peripheral neuronal damage following partial stomach resection. To identify the sympathetic neurons innervating the studied area of stomach, the neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to control and partial stomach resection (RES) groups. On the 22nd day after FB injection, following laparotomy, the partial resection of the previously FB-injected stomach prepyloric area was performed in animals of RES group. On the 28th day, all animals were re-anaesthetized and euthanized. The CSMG complex was then collected and processed for double-labeling immunofluorescence. In control animals, retrograde-labelled perikarya were immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL). Partial stomach resection decreased the numbers of FB-positive neurons immunopositive for TH and DβH. However, the strong increase of NPY and GAL expression, as well as de novo-synthesis of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and leu5-Enkephalin (LENK) was noted in studied neurons. Furthermore, FB-positive neurons in all pigs were surrounded by a network of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, and substance P (SP)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-, LENK- and nNOS- immunoreactive nerve fibers. This may suggest neuroprotective contribution of these neurotransmitters in traumatic responses of sympathetic neurons to peripheral axonal damage.

  17. Frequent globular neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the medial temporal region as a possible characteristic feature in multiple system atrophy with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Taku; Mochizuki, Yoko; Komori, Takashi; Isozaki, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and pathologically by alpha-synuclein-related multisystem neurodegeneration, so-called alpha-synucleinopathy, which particularly involves the striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar systems, with glial cytoplasmic inclusions and neuronal cytoplasmic/nuclear inclusions (NCIs/NNIs). In the recent consensus criteria for the diagnosis of MSA, dementia is described as one of the features not supporting a diagnosis of MSA. However, MSA with dementia has been reported, although the location of the lesion responsible for the dementia remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate where this lesion may be found, by analyzing 12 autopsy-proven MSA cases, with a particular focus on the medial temporal region. Three of 12 cases with MSA had dementia (MSA-D). Compared with MSA cases without dementia, MSA-D cases had frequent globular NCIs (G-NCIs) in the medial temporal region, especially in their subiculum. In addition, MSA-D cases could be divided into two types; MSA-D with distinct fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD type) and without distinct fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (non-FTLD type). There was no association between dementia and Alzheimer pathologies, such as neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. We suggest that frequent G-NCIs in the medial temporal region, and particularly the subiculum, is one of the important pathological findings of MSA-D, even when a case with MSA-D reveals no significant cerebral atrophy.

  18. PLANIFICACIÓN Y DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES: el rol del consejo de planificación regional de educación superior en la implementación de políticas educativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo describe y analiza la actuación del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Educación Superior (CPRES desde la sanción de la Ley 24.521/95 hasta 2011 en base a una indagación de su diseño institucional y el desempeño de sus actores relevantes. Del universo, compuesto a nivel nacional por siete regiones CPRES, se seleccionó el caso de la región bonaerense. Ésta representa, junto con el área metropolitana, uno de los territorios con mayor población y actividad económica de la Argentina. Además, concentra a más de un tercio de las instituciones de educación superior que integran la oferta total del país. El trabajo analizó, en profundidad, fuentes documentales y entrevistas a informantes clave del ámbito académico, técnico y político que participaron del Programa de Reforma de la Educación Superior, iniciado en 1995. Los resultados evidencian que el CPRES se constituye como una estructura de autoridad de nivel intermedio con atribuciones jurídico-institucionales para planificar, coordinar, y regular los procesos de elaboración e implementación de políticas públicas en el marco de un contexto sistémico complejo y de alta diferenciación institucional. Sin embargo, aún no logran constituirse en efectivas autoridades de implementación.

  19. PLANIFICACIÓN Y DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES: el rol del consejo de planificación regional de educación superior en la implementación de políticas educativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo describe y analiza la actuación del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Edu- cación Superior (CPRES desde la sanción de la Ley 24.521/95 hasta 2011 en base a una indaga- ción de su diseño institucional y el desempeño de sus actores relevantes. Del universo, compuesto a nivel nacional por siete regiones CPRES, se seleccionó el caso de la región bonaerense. Ésta representa, junto con el área metropolitana, uno de los territorios con mayor población y actividad económica de la Argentina. Además, concentra a más de un tercio de las instituciones de educación superior que integran la oferta total del país. El trabajo analizó, en profundidad, fuentes documen- tales y entrevistas a informantes clave del ámbito académico, técnico y político que participaron del Programa de Reforma de la Educación Superior, iniciado en 1995. Los resultados evidencian que el CPRES se constituye como una estructura de autoridad de nivel intermedio con atribuciones jurídico-institucionales para planificar, coordinar, y regular los procesos de elaboración e implemen- tación de políticas públicas en el marco de un contexto sistémico complejo y de alta diferenciación institucional. Sin embargo, aún no logran constituirse en efectivas autoridades de implementación.

  20. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Sobrino, C.; Iriarte, M. J.; Ramil-Rego, P.; L. Gómez-Orellana

    2005-01-01

    En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de...

  1. Intervenção em fisioterapia, baseada no conceito de Bobath, consegue influenciar a relação neural entre o membro superior e o membro inferior, na linha temporal dos APAS's?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A atividade de músculos e /ou grupos musculares que se ativam de forma estereotipada no decorrer de tarefas funcionais continua pouco compreendida nos indivíduos pós acidente vascular encefálico (AVE). A relação neural atípica entre o membro inferior (MI) e o membro superior (MS) expressa-se frequentemente através de um predomínio da atividade extensora no MI associada a componentes flexores no MS. Objectivo(s): Face ao exposto, importa perceber se em sujeitos com componente flexo...

  2. The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to regional synoptic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shalev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning flashes over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to the regional synoptic systems has been studied, based on data obtained from the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS operated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC. The system detects cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in a range of ~500 km around central Israel (32.5° N, 35° E. The study period was defined for annual activity from August through July, for 5 seasons in the period 2004–2010.

    The spatial distribution of lightning flash density indicates the highest concentration over the Mediterranean Sea, attributed to the contribution of moisture as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes from the sea surface. Other centers of high density appear along the coastal plain, orographic barriers, especially in northern Israel, and downwind from the metropolitan area of Tel Aviv, Israel. The intra-annual distribution shows an absence of lightning during the summer months (JJA due to the persistent subsidence over the region. The vast majority of lightning activity occurs during 7 months, October to April. Although over 65 % of the rainfall in Israel is obtained during the winter months (DJF, only 35 % of lightning flashes occur in these months. October is the richest month, with 40 % of total annual flashes. This is attributed both to tropical intrusions, i.e., Red Sea Troughs (RST, which are characterized by intense static instability and convection, and to Cyprus Lows (CLs arriving from the west.

    Based on daily study of the spatial distribution of lightning, three patterns have been defined; "land", "maritime" and "hybrid". CLs cause high flash density over the Mediterranean Sea, whereas some of the RST days are typified by flashes over land. The pattern defined "hybrid" is a combination of the other 2 patterns. On CL days, only the maritime pattern was noted, whereas in RST days all 3 patterns were found

  3. Linking spatio-temporal patterns in land cover dynamics with regional climate factors and recent weather: Application to the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henebry, G.M.; Goodin, D.G. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Su, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    A key obstacle to developing regional models of ecosystem dynamics is representation of spatio-temporal variation in constituent patterns and processes. Simple resealing of site-specific ecological data or simulations to broader spatial scales is unlikely to capture regional spatio-temporal dynamics. Yet logistical constraints usually require synoptic weather data to be synthesized from sparse data networks. We seek a simple top-down model that links remotely-sensed vegetation cover with antecedent meteorological forcings to generate boundary conditions for site-specific fine-resolution data and simulations of tallgrass prairie. We developed several candidate models using AVHRR NDVI maximum biweekly composites of the Flint Hills from 1990-1993 and data from a network of more than 60 weather stations across the 40,000 km2 region. Models combined parameters derived from exemplary land cover trajectories, spatial structure (lacunarity and correlation length), and running weighted sums of weather data. Spectral-temporal models were easier to fit; lacunarity was more sensitive than correlation length; compositing effects were strong.

  4. Downscaling of coarse resolution LAI products to achieve both high spatial and temporal resolution for regions of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-11-12

    This paper presents a flexible tool for spatio-temporal enhancement of coarse resolution leaf area index (LAI) products, which is readily adaptable to different land cover types, landscape heterogeneities and cloud cover conditions. The framework integrates a rule-based regression tree approach for estimating Landsat-scale LAI from existing 1 km resolution LAI products, and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to intelligently interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisitions. Comparisons against in-situ records of LAI measured over corn and soybean highlights its utility for resolving sub-field LAI dynamics occurring over a range of plant development stages.

  5. Prospectiva para la internacionalización de los estudiantes de la educación superior como factor de integracion regional en el Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Yuyil Cantero Lusardi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the internationalization of students of higher education as a factor of regional integration in Paraguay, based on the importance of internationalization in higher education we are convinced that it is paramount to our institution for several reasons. Fundamentally, a university that facilitates and supports national and international collaboration, at the same time the mobility of its staff, students and their teachers. Academic mobility is one of the main references of the processes and strategies of educational cooperation and, in addition to direct expression of the collaboration between institutions and governmental structures. Internationalization, regionalization and globalization of higher education should be based on solidarity and mutual respect and promote the values of humanism and intercultural dialogue. The internationalization of higher education at the National University of Caaguazú, started in 2012, with the creation of a directorate in the Rector of the University, its main purpose is to seek strategic agreements for the development of different academic units cooperation agreements are supported by strategic partnerships with various ministries of the Paraguayan Government.

  6. Exploring the spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A; Pyles, John A; Kass, Robert E; Tarr, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150-250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150-250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces.

  7. Spatio-temporal variability in accretion and erosion of coastal foredunes in the Netherlands: regional climate and local topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, J.G.S.; Poortinga, A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Maroulis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal

  8. Probing on suitability of TRMM data to explain spatio-temporal pattern of severe storms in tropic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal pattern of rainfall play an important role in runoff generation. Raingauge density influences the accuracy of spatial pattern and time interval influence the accuracy of temporal pattern of storms. Usually due to practical and financial limitation the perfect distribution is not achievable. Several sources of data are used to define the behavior of rainfall over a watershed. Raingauges station, radar operation and satellite sensor are the main source of rainfall estimation over the space and time. Recording raingauges are the most common source of rainfall data in many countries. However raingauge network has not adequate coverage in many watersheds spatially in developing countries. Therefore other global source of rainfall data may be useful for hydrological analysis such as flood modeling. This research assessed the ability of TRMM rainfall estimates for explain the Spatio-temporal pattern of severe storm over Klang watershed which is a hydrologically well instrumented watershed. It was experienced that TRMM rainfall estimates are 35% less than actual data for the investigated events. Due to coarse temporal resolution of TRMM (3 h compare to gauge rainfall (15 min, significant uncertainty influences identifying the start and end of storm event and consequently their resultant time to peak of flood hydrograph which is extremely important in flood forecasting systems. Due to coarse pixel size of TRMM data, watershed scale is important issue.

  9. Regional Innovativeness Strategies And Their Impact On Innovativeness Of Provinces In Poland. A Spatio-temporal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik Jan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional Innovation Strategies (RIS have existed in Poland for almost ten years and in this period they have been developed, accepted and implemented in all provinces. The basic aim of Regional Innovativeness Strategies is to support regional or local authorities and other regional development organizations in defining and implementing an effective system of supporting innovativeness in the region. The current scope of realizing projects connected with RIS is different in particular provinces. The author of the paper attempts to evaluate the effects of implementation of pro-innovativeness solution included in Regional Innovation Strategies with particular consideration of their influence on the growth of region innovativeness level in Poland.

  10. The bifunctional μ opioid agonist/antioxidant [Dmt(1)]DALDA is a superior analgesic in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Peter W; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Saray, Amy; Poon, Annie Wing Hoi; Laferrière, André; Coderre, Terence J

    2015-11-18

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of complex regional pain syndrome-Type I (CRPS-I), as also demonstrated with the chronic post ischemia pain (CPIP) animal model of CRPS-I. We show that morphine and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) act synergistically to reduce mechanical allodynia in CPIP rats. The tetrapeptide amide [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) is a potent and selective μ opioid receptor (MOR) agonist with favorable pharmacokinetic properties and with antioxidant activity due to its N-terminal Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) residue. In the CPIP model, [Dmt(1)]DALDA was 15-fold more potent than morphine in reversing mechanical allodynia and 4.5-fold more potent as analgesic in the heat algesia test. The results indicate that bifunctional compounds with MOR agonist/antioxidant activity have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CRPS-I.

  11. El gobierno territorial en la Provincia de Buenos Aires: el desempeño del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Educación Superior en la implementación de políticas educativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es describir y analizar el funcionamiento del Consejo de Planificación Regional de Educación Superior (CPRES a partir de su creación con la Ley 24.521/95 (LES hasta el 2011. Parte de una perspectiva sociopolítica e institucional de las políticas públicas, integra dos enfoques y aplica esta mirada al examen de la región bonaerense en la Provincia de Buenos Aires. La región bonaerense representa uno de los territorios con mayor población y actividad económica de la Argentina. Además, concentra más de un tercio de las instituciones de educación superior que integran la oferta total del país. Se analizaron fuentes documentales y entrevistas a informantes clave del ámbito académico, técnico y político que participaron del Programa de Reforma de la Educación Superior iniciado en 1995. Se concluyó que el CPRES se instituye como una estructura de autoridad de nivel intermedio con atribuciones jurídico-institucionales para planificar, coordinar y regular los procesos de elaboración e implementación de políticas públicas en el marco de un contexto sistémico complejo y de alta diferenciación institucional. Sin embargo, aún no logran constituirse en efectivas autoridades de implementación.

  12. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  13. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  14. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  16. Spatio-temporal variability in accretion and erosion of coastal foredunes in the Netherlands: regional climate and local topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Joep G S; Poortinga, Ate; Riksen, Michel J P M; Maroulis, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal variations in foredune erosion and accretion were studied in relation to proxies for aeolian transport potential and storminess using yearly elevation measurements from 1965 to 2012 for six sections of the Dutch coast. Longshore differences in the relative impacts of erosion and accretion were examined in relation to local beach width. The results show that temporal variability in foredune accretion and erosion is highest in narrow beach sections. Here, dune erosion alternates with accretion, with variability displaying strong correlations with yearly values of storminess (maximum sea levels). In wider beach sections, dune erosion is less frequent, with lower temporal variability and stronger correlations with time series of transport potential. In erosion dominated years, eroded volumes decrease from narrow to wider beaches. When accretion dominates, dune-volume changes are relatively constant alongshore. Dune erosion is therefore suggested to control spatial variability in dune-volume changes. On a scale of decades, the volume of foredunes tends to increase more on wider beaches. However, where widths exceed 200 to 300 m, this trend is no longer observed.

  17. Relationship between temporal abundance of ticks and incidence of Lyme borreliosis in Lower Silesia regions of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, D; Zaleśny, G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors determining the incidence of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in south-western Poland by estimating the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s. l. in I. ricinus, and to analyze the temporal abundance of ticks in relation to epidemiological data on LB incidence. Host-seeking ticks collected in 2011 in four districts in southwestern Poland were examined by nested PCR for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. In total, 2,507 host-seeking I. ricinus were collected. The temporal abundance of ticks varied between districts. The minimal infection rates with B. burgdorferi s.l. were 11.5% for nymphs and 37.7% for adults. There were no statistical differences in the level of infection between districts either for nymphs or for adults. Five different genospecies were identified within the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex: B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. lusitaniae, B. valasiana, and B. burgdorferi s.s., and additionally B. miyamotoi. Our results point to a relationship between tick temporal abundance and LB incidence both for adults and nymphs. The high abundance of ticks is positively correlated with the number of LB cases in humans. The tick's abundance may be considered as a major factor in determining the LB risk in southwestern Poland.

  18. Applying spatio-temporal models to assess variations across health care areas and regions: Lessons from the decentralized Spanish National Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Julián; Martínez-Lizaga, Natalia; Peiró, Salvador; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the ability of hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal models in capturing different geo-temporal structures in order to explain hospital risk variations using three different conditions: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), Colectomy in Colorectal Cancer (CCC) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Research design This is an observational population-based spatio-temporal study, from 2002 to 2013, with a two-level geographical structure, Autonomous Communities (AC) and Health Care Areas (HA). Setting The Spanish National Health System, a quasi-federal structure with 17 regional governments (AC) with full responsibility in planning and financing, and 203 HA providing hospital and primary care to a defined population. Methods A poisson-log normal mixed model in the Bayesian framework was fitted using the INLA efficient estimation procedure. Measures The spatio-temporal hospitalization relative risks, the evolution of their variation, and the relative contribution (fraction of variation) of each of the model components (AC, HA, year and interaction AC-year). Results Following PCI-CCC-CODP order, the three conditions show differences in the initial hospitalization rates (from 4 to 21 per 10,000 person-years) and in their trends (upward, inverted V shape, downward). Most of the risk variation is captured by phenomena occurring at the HA level (fraction variance: 51.6, 54.7 and 56.9%). At AC level, the risk of PCI hospitalization follow a heterogeneous ascending dynamic (interaction AC-year: 17.7%), whereas in COPD the AC role is more homogenous and important (37%). Conclusions In a system where the decisions loci are differentiated, the spatio-temporal modeling allows to assess the dynamic relative role of different levels of decision and their influence on health outcomes. PMID:28166233

  19. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years......) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were...

  20. Spatio-temporal evolution of female lung cancer mortality in a region of Spain, is it worth taking migration into account?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botella-Rocamora Paloma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comunitat Valenciana (CV is a tourist region on the Mediterranean coast of Spain with a high rate of retirement migration. Lung cancer in women is the cancer mortality cause that has increased most in the CV during the period 1991 to 2000. Moreover, the geographical distribution of risk from this cause in the CV has been previously described and a non-homogenous pattern was determined. The present paper studies the spatio-temporal distribution of lung cancer mortality for women in the CV during the period 1987–2004, in order to gain some insight into the factors, such as migration, that have had an influence on these changes. Methods A novel methodology, consisting of a Bayesian hierarchical model, is used in this paper. Such a model allows the handling of data with a very high disaggregation, while at the same time taking advantage of its spatial and temporal structure. Results The spatio-temporal pattern which was found points to geographical differences in the time trends of risk. In fact, the southern coastal side of the CV has had a higher increase in risk, coinciding with the settlement of a large foreign community in that area, mainly comprised of elderly people from the European Union. Conclusion Migration has frequently been ignored as a risk factor in the description of the geographical risk of lung cancer and it is suggested that this factor should be considered, especially in tourist regions. The temporal component in disease mapping provides a more accurate depiction of risk factors acting on the population.

  1. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  2. Spatio-temporal changes of NDVI and its relation with climatic variables in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoping; GAO Jixi; ZHOU Caiping; SHI Peili; ZHAO Lin; SHEN Wenshou; OUYANG Hua

    2011-01-01

    The source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers are important water conservation areas of China.In recent years,ecological deterioration trend of the source regions caused by global climate change and unreasonable resource development increased gradually.In this paper,the spatial distribution and dynamic change of vegetation cover in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers are analyzed in recent 10 years based on 1-km resolution multi-temporal SPOTVGT-DN data from 1998 to 2007.Meanwhile,the correlation relationships between air temperature,precipitation,shallow ground temperature and NDVl,which is 3×3 pixel at the center of Wudaoliang,Tuotuohe,Qumalai,Maduo,and Dari meteorological stations were analyzed.The results show that the NDVI values in these two source regions are increasing in recent 10 years.Spatial distribution of NDVl which was consistent with hydrothermal condition decreased from southeast to northwest of the source regions.NDVl with a value over 0.54 was mainly distributed in the southeastern source region of the Yellow River,and most NDVI values in the northwestern source region of the Yangtze River were less than 0.22.Spatial changing trend of NDVI has great difference and most parts in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers witnessed indistinct change.The regions with marked increasing trend were mainly distributed on the south side of the Tongtian River,some part of Keqianqu,Tongtian,Chumaer,and Tuotuo rivers in the source region of the Yangtze River and Xingsuhai,and southern Dari county in the source region of the Yellow River.The regions with very marked increasing tendency were mainly distributed on the south side of Tongtian Rriver and sporadically distributed in hinterland of the source region of the Yangtze River.The north side of Tangula Range in the source region of the Yangtze River and Dari and Maduo counties in the source region of the Yellow River were areas in which NDVI changed with marked decreasing

  3. Evaluation of soil moisture data products over Indian region and analysis of spatio-temporal characteristics with respect to monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Karipot, Anandakumar; Ranalkar, Manish; Prabhakaran, Thara

    2016-11-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is an essential climate variable of greater relevance in the monsoon scenario, hence validation and understanding of its spatio-temporal variability over the Indian region is of high significance. In the present study, five SM products are evaluated against in situ SM measurements conducted by India Meteorological Department and the selected data product is used for spatio-temporal characterization of SM in relation to monsoon rainfall. The data products evaluated are: European Space Agency's merged satellite SM, Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Land SM, ECMWF's ERA interim SM, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis SM, and Global Land Data Assimilation System Noah Land Surface Model SM. Comparisons show that seasonal SM patterns in all products generally follow the characteristics of rainfall, even though there are certain differences in details. The statistical estimates indicate fairly good agreement between in situ and the five products, with some variations among them and over the homogeneous rainfall regions. On comparison, MERRA SM is found appropriate for further analyses on spatio-temporal characteristics, which are then carried out with the 20 year (1993-2012) SM data. Stability analyses revealed SM patterns indicative of relative SM variability as well as persistence. The spatial stability analysis depicts dry and wet patterns and their seasonal variations over different geographical locations in relation to all India spatial average. Large temporal variations are found over central, western and northern Indian regions caused by large intraseasonal variability in rainfall. In brief, intraseasonal and interannual soil moisture variations broadly follow the rainfall pattern, with long-term influences attributed to SM memory effects. The soil moisture persistence and dominant scales of variability are explored with autocorrelation and wavelet transform techniques. Seasonal persistence is large over

  4. Temporal bird community dynamics are strongly affected by landscape fragmentation in a Central American tropical forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandón, A.C.; Perelman, S.B.; Ramírez, M.; López, A.; Javier, O.; Robbins, Chandler S.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered the main causes of species extinctions, particularly in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of tropical bird communities in landscapes with different levels of fragmentation in eastern Guatemala. We evaluated five bird community dynamic parameters for forest specialists and generalists: (1) species extinction, (2) species turnover, (3) number of colonizing species, (4) relative species richness, and (5) a homogeneity index. For each of 24 landscapes, community dynamic parameters were estimated from bird point count data, for the 1998–1999 and 2008–2009 periods, accounting for species’ detection probability. Forest specialists had higher extinction rates and a smaller number of colonizing species in landscapes with higher fragmentation, thus having lower species richness in both time periods. Alternatively, forest generalists elicited a completely different pattern, showing a curvilinear association to forest fragmentation for most parameters. Thus, greater community dynamism for forest generalists was shown in landscapes with intermediate levels of fragmentation. Our study supports general theory regarding the expected negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the temporal dynamics of biotic communities, particularly for forest specialists, providing strong evidence from understudied tropical bird communities.

  5. Monitoring tropical peatland ecosystem in regional scale using multi-temporal MODIS data: Present possibilities and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Y.; Pawitan, H.; Prasetyo, L. B.; Permatasari, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies on peatland ecosystem have been focused on forest conversion or forest degradation as a single pathway, meanwhile; in the context of peatland ecosystem, the change in land surface is more complicated since it can be categorized into two types and mechanisms: 1) gradual change, caused by interannual climate variability and forestland degradation, and 2) abrupt change, caused by disturbances such as deforestation and wildfires. Understanding this change types is needed for conservation and management, particularly to improve understanding of terrestrial environmental change in peatland ecosystem. In such situation, simultaneous analysis of land surface attributes from long-term datasets and seasonal variation seems to be a way to monitor the tropical peatland ecosystem. This analysis provides information about how the changes occurred accurately as well as how big are these affected areas. In this article, the feasibility of using long-term MODIS data for monitoring the dynamics change in peatland ecosystem is examined. The temporal vegetation dynamics of long-term MODIS datasets offer great promise for characterizing gradual change as well as abrupt change at large scale, however, the mixed pixel issue and some residual noises in temporal sequences are quite problematic when using MODIS data.

  6. Three-dimensional macro-scale assessment of regional and temporal wall shear stress characteristics on aortic valve leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, K; Bukač, M; Sucosky, P

    2016-01-01

    The aortic valve (AV) achieves unidirectional blood flow between the left ventricle and the aorta. Although hemodynamic stresses have been shown to regulate valvular biology, the native wall shear stress (WSS) experienced by AV leaflets remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify computationally the macro-scale leaflet WSS environment using fluid-structure interaction modeling. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was implemented to predict valvular flow and leaflet dynamics in a three-dimensional AV geometry subjected to physiologic transvalvular pressure. Local WSS characteristics were quantified in terms of temporal shear magnitude (TSM), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and temporal shear gradient (TSG). The dominant radial WSS predicted on the leaflets exhibited high amplitude and unidirectionality on the ventricularis (TSM>7.50 dyn/cm(2), OSI 325.54 dyn/cm(2) s) but low amplitude and bidirectionality on the fibrosa (TSM 0.38, TSG 0.25). This study provides new insights into the role played by leaflet-blood flow interactions in valvular function and critical hemodynamic stress data for the assessment of the hemodynamic theory of AV disease.

  7. Integrating temporal and spatial scales: Human structural network motifs across age and region-of-interest size

    CERN Document Server

    Echtermeyer, Christoph; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Mohr, Harald; Uhlhaas, Peter J; Kaiser, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Human brain networks can be characterized at different temporal or spatial scales given by the age of the subject or the spatial resolution of the neuroimaging method. Integration of data across scales can only be successful if the combined networks show a similar architecture. One way to compare networks is to look at spatial features, based on fibre length, and topological features of individual nodes where outlier nodes form single node motifs whose frequency yields a fingerprint of the network. Here, we observe how characteristic single node motifs change over age (12-23 years) and network size (414, 813, and 1615 nodes) for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) structural connectivity in healthy human subjects. First, we find the number and diversity of motifs in a network to be strongly correlated. Second, comparing different scales, the number and diversity of motifs varied across the temporal (subject age) and spatial (network resolution) scale: certain motifs might only occur at one spatial scale or for a c...

  8. Data sets used in the analysis presented in the manuscript “Regional and Hemispheric Influences on Temporal Variability in Baseline Carbon Monoxide and Ozone over the Northeast US”

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset documents that all of the data analyzed in the manuscript "Regional and Hemispheric Influences on Temporal Variability in Baseline Carbon Monoxide and...

  9. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region--Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armién, Blas; Ortiz, Paulo Lazaro; Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km(2) and the total study area was 6.43 km(2) (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the study. Spatial

  10. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region - Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G.; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Background Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Methods Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km2 and the total study area was 6.43 km2 (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). Results There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the

  11. The Acute Phase Response and Soman-Induced Status Epilepticus: Temporal, Regional and Cellular Changes in Rat Brain Cytokine Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    Methods: The protein levels of 10 cytokines was quantified using bead multiplex immunoassays in damaged brain regions (i.e., piriform cortex...in the piriform cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus [5,6]. Excitotoxic neural damage following GD exposure activates a neuroinflammatory...quantified using a multiplex bead immunoassay in brain tissue lysates of SE- injury susceptible regions (i.e., piriform cortex, thalamus and hippocampus

  12. Differential temporal neural responses of pain-related regions by acupuncture at acupoint ST36: a magnetoencephalography study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hao; ZHANG Xiao-tong; YAN HAO; BAI Li-jun; AI Lin; WANG Feng-bin; YOU You-bo; CHEN Peng; WANG Bao-guo

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous neuroimaging studies primarily focused on the spatial distribution of acupuncture needling stimulation. However, a salient feature of acupuncture was its long-lasting effect. This study attempted to detect the spatial-temporal neural responses evoked by acupuncture at an analgesia acupoint ST36 by using magnetoencephalography. To further verify its functional specificity, we also adopted acupuncture at Pericardium 6 and nonacupoint as separated controls.Methods Forty-two college students, all right-handed and acupuncture naive, participated in this study. Every participant received only one acupoint stimulation, resulting in 14 subjects in one group. Both magnetoencephalography data (151-channel whole-head system) and structural functional magnetic resonance imaging data (3D sequence with a voxel size of 1 mm3 for anatomical localization) were collected for each subject. All processing procedures were performed in BrainStorm Toolbox.Results Acupuncture at ST36 showed a significantly time-varied brain activities with different onset time. Our results presented that acupuncture at different acupoints (or comparing with nonacupoint) can specifically induce neural responses in different brain areas-acupuncture at ST36 can specifically induce the neural responses of pain-inhibition areas, while acupuncture at PC6 can specifically induce the activities of the insula and amygdala.Conclusions In the present study, we attempted to detect the temporal neural responses underlying the functional specificity of acupuncture at ST36, using acupoint belonging to different meridians and non-acupoint with efficacy-irreverent as separate controls. The specific neural substrates involving acupuncture at different acupoints may be related to its functional specificity in clinical settings.

  13. Spatial-Temporal Hotspot Pattern Analysis of Provincial Environmental Pollution Incidents and Related Regional Sustainable Management in China in the Period 1995–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial-temporal hotspot pattern analysis of environmental pollution incidents provides an indispensable source of information for the further development of incident prevention measures. In this study, the spatial-temporal patterns of environmental pollution incidents in China in the period of 1995–2012 were analyzed, using the Spatial Getis-Ord statistic and an Improved Prediction Accuracy Index (IAPI. The results show that, in this period, the occurrence of environmental incidents exhibited a dynamic growth pattern but then dropped and continued to drop after the year 2006, which was considered a crucial turning point. Not coincidentally, this corresponds to the year when the State Council issued its National Environmental Emergency Plan, and following the examination of major incidents, special actions were taken to strengthen the control of incidents and emergency responses. The results from Getis-Ord General G statistical analysis show that the spatial agglomeration phenomenon was statistically significant after 1999 and that the level of spatial agglomeration was rising, while the Getis-Ord Gi* statistical analysis reveals that environmental pollution incidents were mainly agglomerated in the Pan Yangtze River Delta and Pan Pearl River Delta regions. Accordingly, the spatial-temporal hotspot pattern based on the IAPI values at the provincial scale could be categorized into: stable hotspots, unstable hotspots, and cold-spot areas. The stable hotspots category was further divided into three subtypes: industrial distribution type, industrial transfer type, and extensive economic growth type. Finally, the corresponding measures for sustainable management were proposed: stable hotspots were classified as essential regions requiring the immediate prevention and control of environmental pollution incidents; unstable hotspots were characterized by their need for ongoing and continual prevention measures, and cold-spots were those areas that

  14. Retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from inhabitants of the Minamata area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Miyamoto, Kenichiro; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the historical time-course changes and regional distribution of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from Minamata-area inhabitants born between 1947 and 1989. The data from Miyazaki, Tottori, Akita, Tsushima (Nagasaki), Fukuoka and Tokyo were used as controls. A total of 325 data were analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of methylmercury among inhabitants born in the Minamata area. Elevated methylmercury concentrations (>or=1 microg/g) were mainly observed in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968. That peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. The methylmercury concentrations started to decrease in keeping with the decline of acetaldehyde production, which ceased in 1968, and thereafter the methylmercury levels gradually decreased to the control levels. Elevated methylmercury concentrations were first observed in the districts of Minamata, followed by Izumi, Tsunagi and Ashikita, indicating the time-course-dependent regional distributions of methylmercury pollution.

  15. Temporal and elevation trends in rainfall erosivity on a 149 km2 watershed in a semi-arid region of the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Nearing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal changes in rainfall erosivity can be expected to occur with changing climate, and because rainfall amounts are known to be in part of a function of elevation, erosivity can be expected to be influenced by elevation as well. This is particularly true in mountainous regions such as are found over much of the western United States. The objective of this study was to identify temporal and elevation trends in rainfall erosivity on a 149 km2 (58 miles2 watershed in a semi-arid region of southeastern Arizona. Data from 84 rain gages for the years 1960–2012 at elevations ranging from 1231 to 1644 m (4038–5394 ft were used in the analyses. The average annual erosivity over the watershed as a whole was 1104 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 (65 hundreds of foot ton inch acre−1 h−1 yr−1, and ranged from approximately 950 to 1225 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 (56–72 hundreds of foot ton inch acre−1 h−1 yr−1, with a statistical trend showing greater erosivity at the higher elevations. No statistically significant temporal changes in annual or summer erosivities were found. This result stands in contrast to recent modeling studies of runoff and erosion in the area based on downscaled GCM information that project significant levels of erosivity changes over coming decades. These results are consistent with known orographic rainfall effects, but contrast with recent studies that presented projections of significant trends of increasing erosivity in the future based on downscaled GCM outputs for the area. The results illustrate the need for testing and developing improved techniques to evaluate future erosion scenarios for purposes of making targeted soil conservation decisions.

  16. Multi-Temporal Land-Cover Classification of Agricultural Areas in Two European Regions with High Resolution Spotlight TerraSAR-X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Herrmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Functioning ecosystems offer multiple services for human well-being (e.g., food, freshwater, fiber. Agriculture provides several of these services but also can cause negative impacts. Thus, it is essential to derive up-to-date information about agricultural land use and its change. This paper describes the multi-temporal classification of agricultural land use based on high resolution spotlight TerraSAR-X images. A stack of l4 dual-polarized radar images taken during the vegetation season have been used for two different study areas (North of Germany and Southeast Poland. They represent extremely diverse regions with regard to their population density, agricultural management, as well as geological and geomorphological conditions. Thereby, the transferability of the classification method for different regions is tested. The Maximum Likelihood classification is based on a high amount of ground truth samples. Classification accuracies differ in both regions. Overall accuracy for all classes for the German area is 61.78% and 39.25% for the Polish region. Accuracies improved notably for both regions (about 90% when single vegetation classes were merged into groups of classes. Such regular land use classifications, applicable for different European agricultural sites, can serve as basis for monitoring systems for agricultural land use and its related ecosystems.

  17. Temporal and spatial variability of aerosol optical depth in the Sahel region in relation to vegetation remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Fraser, R. S.; Eck, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    In order to monitor the aerosol characteristics needed for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed data, a network of sun photometers was established in the Sahel region of Senegal, Mali, and Niger. Data analysis suggests that there is a high spatial variability of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) in the western Sahel region. At a 67 percent confidence level the instantaneous values of tau(a) can be extrapolated approximately 270-400 km with an error tolerance of 50 percent. Spatial variability in the dry season is found to be of a similar magnitude. The ranges of variations in the NDVI in the Sahel region are shown to be approximately 0.02 and 0.01, respectively, due to commonly observed fluctuations in the aerosol optical thickness and aerosol size distribution.

  18. Spatio-temporal modelling of heat stress and climate change implications for the Murray dairy region, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidumolu, Uday; Crimp, Steven; Gobbett, David; Laing, Alison; Howden, Mark; Little, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    The Murray dairy region produces approximately 1.85 billion litres of milk each year, representing about 20 % of Australia's total annual milk production. An ongoing production challenge in this region is the management of the impacts of heat stress during spring and summer. An increase in the frequency and severity of extreme temperature events due to climate change may result in additional heat stress and production losses. This paper assesses the changing nature of heat stress now, and into the future, using historical data and climate change projections for the region using the temperature humidity index (THI). Projected temperature and relative humidity changes from two global climate models (GCMs), CSIRO MK3.5 and CCR-MIROC-H, have been used to calculate THI values for 2025 and 2050, and summarized as mean occurrence of, and mean length of consecutive high heat stress periods. The future climate scenarios explored show that by 2025 an additional 12-15 days (compared to 1971 to 2000 baseline data) of moderate to severe heat stress are likely across much of the study region. By 2050, larger increases in severity and occurrence of heat stress are likely (i.e. an additional 31-42 moderate to severe heat stress days compared with baseline data). This increasing trend will have a negative impact on milk production among dairy cattle in the region. The results from this study provide useful insights on the trends in THI in the region. Dairy farmers and the dairy industry could use these results to devise and prioritise adaptation options to deal with projected increases in heat stress frequency and severity.

  19. Spatio-temporal modelling of heat stress and climate change implications for the Murray dairy region, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidumolu, Uday; Crimp, Steven; Gobbett, David; Laing, Alison; Howden, Mark; Little, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    The Murray dairy region produces approximately 1.85 billion litres of milk each year, representing about 20 % of Australia's total annual milk production. An ongoing production challenge in this region is the management of the impacts of heat stress during spring and summer. An increase in the frequency and severity of extreme temperature events due to climate change may result in additional heat stress and production losses. This paper assesses the changing nature of heat stress now, and into the future, using historical data and climate change projections for the region using the temperature humidity index (THI). Projected temperature and relative humidity changes from two global climate models (GCMs), CSIRO MK3.5 and CCR-MIROC-H, have been used to calculate THI values for 2025 and 2050, and summarized as mean occurrence of, and mean length of consecutive high heat stress periods. The future climate scenarios explored show that by 2025 an additional 12-15 days (compared to 1971 to 2000 baseline data) of moderate to severe heat stress are likely across much of the study region. By 2050, larger increases in severity and occurrence of heat stress are likely (i.e. an additional 31-42 moderate to severe heat stress days compared with baseline data). This increasing trend will have a negative impact on milk production among dairy cattle in the region. The results from this study provide useful insights on the trends in THI in the region. Dairy farmers and the dairy industry could use these results to devise and prioritise adaptation options to deal with projected increases in heat stress frequency and severity.

  20. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of ambient nitric acid and ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Bytnerowicz; W. Fraczek; S. Schilling; D. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Monthly average ambient concentrations of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) were monitored at the Athabasca Oils Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, between May 2005 and September 2008. Generally, concentrations of both pollutants were elevated and highly variable in space and time. The highest atmospheric...

  2. Spatio-temporal analysis of multi-year Landsat 7 data for regional scale soil salinity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite decades of research in soil mapping, characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity across broad regions remains a crucial challenge. This work explores the potential benefits of employing reflectance data from the six spectral bands (blue, 450-520 nrn; green, 520-600 nrn; red, 630-...

  3. Temporal transcription of the lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1 and DNA sequence of the early promoter region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Hans Peter Lynge; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    to a phage repressor, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a topoisomerase, a Cro-like protein and two other phage proteins of unknown function were detected. The gene arrangement in the early transcribed region of TP901-1 thus consists of two transcriptional units: one from PR containing four genes...

  4. Spatial-temporal Pattern and Population Driving Force of Land Use Change in Liupan Mountains Region, Southern Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Bin; M J M R(O)MKENS; LI Bichen; TAO Jianjun; LI Chaokui; YU Guanghui; CHEN Qichun

    2008-01-01

    The Liupan Mountains is located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between iandforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population pressure, excessive demand and inap-propriate use of agricultural land resources. In this paper, datasets of land use between 1990 and 2000 were obtained from Landsat TM imagery, and then spatial models were used to characterize landscape conditions. Also, the relation-ship between the population density and land use/cover change (LUCC) was analyzed. Results indicate that cropland, forestland, and urban areas have increased by 44,186ha, 9001ha and 1550ha, respectively while the grassland area has appreciably decreased by 54,025ha in the study period. The decrease in grassland was most notable. Of the grassland lost, 49.4% was converted into cropland. The largest annual land conversion rate in the study area was less than 2%. These changes are attributed to industrial and agricultural development and population growth. To improve the eco-economic conditions in the study region, population control, urbanization and development of an ecological friendly agriculture were suggested.

  5. Spatio-temporal variation in a seed bank of a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Kleber A.; dos Santos, Danielle M.; dos Santos, Josiene M. F. F.; de Albuquerque, Ulysses P.; Ferraz, Elba M. N.; Araújo, Elcida de L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate variations in the seed bank within a 3-year temporal series in order to answer the following questions: 1) Does the seed bank's species richness and seed density differ among climatic seasons and between years? 2) Are there differences in the richness and density of seed banks between the litter and mineral soil? 3) Can the seed bank's species richness and seed density be explained by characteristics such as the previous year's precipitation and soil depth (litter or mineral soil)? The samples were collected from litter and mineral soil (0-5 cm), in 210 sub-plots, during the dry and rainy seasons of each year (August 2005 through February 2008). Overall, 79 species were recorded. On average, 1 168, 304 and 302 seeds.m-2 were recorded in the seed bank during years I, II and III, respectively. This study showed that the Caatinga's seed bank is rich in herbaceous species, yet species' density and richness are low in the litter. Furthermore, about 43% of the variation in species richness and density was explained by soil depth (litter and mineral soil) and previous years' rainfall.

  6. [County scale characteristics of CO2 emission's spatial-temporal evolution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Cao-Cao; Pan, Tao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Chen, Long; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    CO2 emission spatial distribution is characterized by stages. The study on regional distribution characteristics and evolution can supply important evidence for CO2 emission reduction. Based on CO2 emission data of 128 county areas in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region (BTHMR) from 1990 to 2009, the spatial pattern and spatial dependence of CO2 emission were discussed by using cartogram and spatial autocorrelation analysis methods. The results show that the total emission of CO2 increased year by year. Average annual growth of CO2 emission after 2002 was 3.7 times higher than before. Different cities have different emission growth trends which can be categorized into three types. The spatial pattern of CO2 emission appeared to be the layered cluster. The Global Moran'I decreased from 1.44 in 1990 to 0.09 in 1998 and then increased slowly to 0.10 in 2009. The spatial distribution of high CO2 emission area changed from 'Double Centers' into 'Four Centers' and the spatial distribution of low CO2 emission area changed less. There were four different change types of local spatial autocorrelation: remaining unchanged or weakening in most regions, enhancing in some regions of Tangshan, transforming in some regions of Tianjin and Xuanhua county. Since the spatial pattern and autocorrelation in low/high CO2 emission area bear different evolution process, the local conditions and interactions with perimeter zones should be considered when formulating emission reduction plan. The discussion of spatial pattern and autocorrelation is very important for understanding spatial evolution pattern of CO2 emission and developing strategic emission reduction planning, and also provides a base for the study on low carbon development in metropolitan area.

  7. INTERNACIONALIZAÇÃO DA EDUCAÇÃO SUPERIOR – A OPÇÃO GEOPOLÍTICA PELA INTEGRAÇÃO REGIONAL NOS CASOS DA UNILA E DA UNILAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available No quadro contemporâneo da globalização, derivam das agências multilaterais recomendações que buscam reproduzir, nos sistemas e políticas de educação superior das nações periféricas, a geopolítica das potências, o que se faz, entre outras estratégias, no uso de uma palavra-força: internacionalização. Neste trabalho, apresentamos os casos de duas recém-implantadas universidades federais brasileiras orientadas pela perspectiva da internacionalização, mas que adotaram como foco a integração regional, em conformidade com os objetivos da política externa brasileira de inserção mais soberana na nova (desordem mundial. Dessa forma, tomam as instituições universitárias como braços acadêmicos da política de relações exteriores e contribuem para uma outra geopolítica do conhecimento. O texto propõe análises preliminares, pela Sociologia Política, de dados coletados por meio de pesquisa documental e entrevistas com pró-reitores dessas instituições no período 2014-2015.

  8. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42......,218) and 2013 (n = 34,330) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25-79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG) 1-4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure....... Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (intake (≥ 3 times/week). The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007-2013 (p

  9. Evaluating the latest estimates of spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon emission over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Kumar, B. D.; Reddy, M.

    2016-12-01

    Among aerosol constituents, black carbon (BC) has a strong mass absorption efficiency and play an important role in modifying the climate system. Regional and global modelling studies using BC emissions as input and simulating BC distribution in general exhibit large inadequacy compared to observations especially over regions where atmosphere is observed laden with high pollution level of BC concentration (e.g. the Indo-Gangetic plain, IGP over the Indian region); thereby indicating discrepancy in emissions. In the present study, we evaluate the latest spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon (BC) emissions estimated over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach; this estimation was done extracting information on initial bottom-up monthly emissions and atmospheric BC concentration from a general circulation model (GCM) simulation in conjunction with receptor modelling approach. Monthly BC emission obtained from the present study exhibited a spatial and temporal variability with this being the highest (lowest) during February (July). Monthly BC emission flux was considerably high (> 100 Kg.Km-2) over the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the east coast during winter months with this high value, however, being persistent throughout over the northern IGP. This was relatively higher over the central and western India than over the IGP during summer months. Annual BC emission rate was 2568 Gg y-1with that over the IGP and central India respectively being 58% and 34% of the total annual BC emissions over India. The relative predominance of monthly BC emission flux over a region (as depicted from z-score distribution maps) was inferred being consistent with the prevalence of region- and season-specific anthropogenic activity. Evaluation of emissions (modified and old) through simulations in a chemical transport model showed the mean BC surface concentration simulated using modified emission resembled relatively well with the measured

  10. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42...... reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007-2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG....

  11. SPATIO-TEMPORAL SEGMENTATION AND REGIONS TRACKING OF HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO SEQUENCES USING A MARKOV RANDOM FIELD MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Brouard, Olivier; Delannay, Fabrice; Ricordel, Vincent; Barba, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we proposed a Markov Random field sequence segmentation and regions tracking model, which aims at combining color, texture, and motion features. First a motion-based segmentation is realized. The global motion of the video sequence is estimated and compensated. From the remaining motion information, the motion segmentation is achieved. Then, we use a Markovian approach to update and track over time the video objects. By video object, we mean typically, a...

  12. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2016-04-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  13. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2017-07-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  14. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results represent a valuable complementary data source for the optimisation and implementation of strategies to combat drug abuse in Croatia.

  15. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Shirer, William R; Konrad, Boris N; Müller, Nils C J; Wagner, Isabella C; Fernández, Guillén; Czisch, Michael; Greicius, Michael D

    2017-03-08

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatio-temporal evolution of Leucophyllum pringlei and allies (Scrophulariaceae): a group endemic to North American xeric regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Etelvina; Sosa, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    The taxa of the Leucophyllum pringlei clade were used to understand the influence of the Neogene orogenesis and the Quaternary climate cycles on the diversification of the flora of the xeric regions of North America. This clade includes the five southernmost species of the genus: L. ambiguum, L. flyrii, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola, which are distributed throughout the Chihuahuan Desert north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and L. pringlei in the region of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán south of this mountain range. Here we test whether these species diverged during the pluvial periods of the Pleistocene, and whether L. pringlei diverged earlier from the other species during the uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Using three plastid regions (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, trnL-F) and a nuclear (ITS) marker, phylogenetic analyses were carried out, along with a reconstruction of their ancestral area. Trees retrieved the five species in a monophyletic group with the most recent common ancestor distributed in the Sinaloan dry forest during the Late Miocene (8.08Ma), from where it dispersed to the Chihuahuan Desert during the Late Miocene (6.35Ma). The secondary uplift of the Sierra Madre Occidental during the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene influenced a vicariance event. Divergence between L. pringlei and the species from north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occurred during the second volcanic episode in the Late Miocene (7.5-3Ma). The most recent common ancestor of L. ambiguum, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola was widely distributed in the southern part of the Chihuahuan Desert during the Early to Late Pliocene (3.50Ma). The diversification of these three species occurred in the Middle Pleistocene (0.9Ma) during the pluvial and inter-pluvial cycles.

  17. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  18. Temporal transcription of the lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1 and DNA sequence of the early promoter region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Hans Peter Lynge; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    , of which at least two (the integrase gene and putative repressor) are needed for lysogeny, and the divergent and longer transcriptional unit from PL, presumably encoding functions required for the lytic life cycle. ORFs with homology to proteins involved in DNA replication were identified on the latter...... to a phage repressor, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a topoisomerase, a Cro-like protein and two other phage proteins of unknown function were detected. The gene arrangement in the early transcribed region of TP901-1 thus consists of two transcriptional units: one from PR containing four genes...

  19. Observing and predicting the spatial-temporal pattern of runoff generation processes from the watershed to the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, M.

    2012-12-01

    Runoff generation processes are the key to understand and predict watershed dynamics and behaviour under current as well as under changing conditions. A variety of approaches have been developed to observe these processes at the plot scale (e.g. infiltration and sprinkling experiments), the hillslope scale (soil moisture and piezometer networks and trenching) and the watershed scale (hydrograph separation with stable isotopes and natural tracers). However, predicting the four major runoff generation mechanisms (infiltration excess, saturation excess, subsurface flow and deep percolation) without detailed observation in ungauged watershed is still a challenge, but a prerequisite to track water flow pathways and to make adequate prediction for hydrological extremes. Methods have been developed to map dominant runoff generation processes in the field and with digital maps, however, these methods are often static and do not consider the temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes frequently observed with the various experimental approaches. The recently developed parsimonious rainfall-runoff model DROGen can bridge the gap between across spatial scales in ungauged watersheds since parameters are not calibrated. The model incorporates high-resolution GIS data (1m resolution DEM, land-use, impervious surfaces), hydro-geological and pedological data as well as information about the effect of macropores and preferential flow pathways on runoff generation processes with a comprehensive knowledge base from various field observations and experiments. The model was applied to over 6500 meso-scale watershed in the State of Baden-Württemberg in Germany and 15 gauged watersheds were selected for detailed model evaluation. The evaluation was done with field-mapping of runoff generation processes for direct comparison with the simulated pattern of runoff processes for different types of precipitation (high intensity and short duration / low intensity and long duration) and

  20. Temporal trends and regional variability of 2001-2002 multiwave DENV-3 epidemic in Havana City: did Hurricane Michelle contribute to its severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; de Arazoza, Hector; Lounes, Rachid

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the temporal and regional variability of the 2001-2002 dengue outbreak in Havana City where 12 889 cases, mostly of DENV-3 type, were reported over a period of 7 months. A simple mathematical model, the Richards model, was used to fit the weekly reported dengue case data by municipality, in order to quantify the transmissibility and temporal changes in the epidemic in each municipality via the basic reproduction number R0 . Model fits indicate either a 2-wave or 3-wave outbreak in all municipalities. Estimates for R0 varied greatly, from 1.97 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.01), for Arroyo Naranjo, to 61.06 (60.44, 61.68), for Boyeros, most likely due to heterogeneity in community structure, geographical locations and social networking. Our results illustrate the potential impact of climatological events on disease spread, further highlighting the need to be well prepared for potentially worsening disease spread in the aftermath of natural disasters such as hurricanes/typhoons. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  2. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  3. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  4. Temporal compression of soil erosion processes. A regional analysis of USLE database; La compresion temporal de los procesos de erosion del suelo. Un analisis regional de la base de datos USLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Luis, M.; Lopez-Bermudez, F.

    2009-07-01

    When John Thornes and Denis Brunsden wrote in 1977 How often one hears the researcher (and no less the undergraduate) complain that after weeks of observation nothing happened only to learn that, the day after his departure, a flood caused unprecedented erosion and channel changes (Thrones and Brunsden, 1977, p. 57), they were focussing to important problems in Geomorphology: the extreme events and time compression of geomorphological processes. Time compression is a fundamental characteristic of geomorphological processes, some times produced by extreme events. Extreme events are rare events, defined by deviation from mean values. But from magnitude-frequency analysis we know that few events, not necessarily extreme, are able to produce a high amount of geomorphological work. finally time compression of geomorphological processes can be focused by the analysis of largest events defined by ranks, not magnitude. We have analysed the effects of largest events on total soil erosion by using 594 erosion plots from USLE database. Plots are located in different climate regions of USA and have different length of records. The 10 largest daily events mean contribution value is 60% of total soil erosion. There exist a relationship between such percentage and total daily erosive events recorded. The pattern seems to be independent of climate conditions. We discuss the nature of such relationship and the implications in soil erosion research. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. Revealing Regional Deforestation Dynamics in North-Eastern Madagascar—Insights from Multi-Temporal Land Cover Change Analysis

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    Julie G. Zaehringer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The north-eastern escarpment of Madagascar harbours the island’s last remaining large-scale humid forest massifs surrounded by a small-scale agricultural mosaic. There is high deforestation, commonly thought to be caused by shifting cultivation practiced by local land users to produce upland rice. However, little is known about the dynamics between forest and shifting cultivation systems at a regional level. Our study presents a first attempt to quantify changes in the extent of forest and different agricultural land cover classes, and to identify the main dynamics of land cover change for two intervals, 1995–2005 and 2005–2011. Over the 16-year study period, the speed of forest loss increased, the total area of upland rice production remained almost stable, and the area of irrigated rice fields slightly increased. While our findings seem to confirm a general trend of land use intensification, deforestation through shifting cultivation is still on the rise. Deforestation mostly affects the small forest fragments interspersed in the agricultural mosaic and is slowly leading to a homogenization of the landscape. These findings have important implications for future interventions to slow forest loss in the region, as the processes of agricultural expansion through shifting cultivation versus intensified land use cannot per se be considered mutually exclusive.

  6. Temporal-Spatial Variation of Drought Indicated by SPI and SPEI in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

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    Chunping Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China (Ningxia is an important food production area in northwest China severely affected by drought. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI were calculated based on monthly meteorological data to explore climate change and variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency, and spatial extent in Ningxia during 1972–2011. Results show that the SPEI is more applicable than the SPI for exploring climate change and drought variation in Ningxia. The Ningxia climate experienced a significant drying tendency. Annual SPEI decreased about 0.37 decade−1 during 1972–2011. Drought was exacerbated by this drying tendency. Regional average duration, maximum duration, intensity, and frequency of drought identified by the SPEI increased by one month, three months, 0.15%, and 36.1%, respectively, during 1992–2011 compared to the period of 1972–1991. The spatial extent of drought identified by the SPEI increased about 14.4% decade−1 in the spring during 1972–2011. Spatially, drought frequency increased from north to south. Average intensity (maximum duration of drought calculated by the SPEI increased (decreased northward and southward from the central arid area.

  7. Spatio-temporal variability of the snow cover in different Mediterranean mountain regions from in situ and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, Simon; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Herrero, Javier; Sproles, Eric; Hanich, Lahoucine; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Pons, Marc; Alonso-González, Esteban; Musselman, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The snow cover is an essential water resource in many regions with a Mediterranean climate. In the mountainous areas of these regions, in situ snow measurements are often too sparse to cover the range of spatial variability due to the topography. In contrast, satellite snow products are not sufficient to understand the processes governing the snowpack evolution. The combination of both data sources is useful to understand the effects of climate variability on the snow cover. Here we gathered the data of several high-elevation, snow-observing stations in the Pyrenees (Spain, Andorra), High-Atlas (Morocco), Sierra Nevada (Spain), Sierra Nevada (USA) and the Andes of Norte Chico (Chile) to run a point-scale snowpack energy-balance model. We extracted and gapfilled the MODIS snow product over 2000-2015 around each station to determine the mean snow cover duration as a function of elevation. The results of the energy-balance model highlight the importance of the snow sublimation, which amounts from 10% to 30% of the mean annual solid precipitation in these sites. The MODIS data indicate that the relationship between the snow cover duration and the elevation is almost entirely explained by the distance from of each site to the equator, which further indicates that radiation and humidity are important drivers of the snowpack dynamics. These factors should not be overlooked in the projections of the melt water contribution to runoff under future climate conditions.

  8. Characterization of regional influenza seasonality patterns in China and implications for vaccination strategies: spatio-temporal modeling of surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complexity of influenza seasonal patterns in the inter-tropical zone impedes the establishment of effective routine immunization programs. China is a climatologically and economically diverse country, which has yet to establish a national influenza vaccination program. Here we characterize the diversity of influenza seasonality in China and make recommendations to guide future vaccination programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled weekly reports of laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections from sentinel hospitals in cities representing 30 Chinese provinces, 2005-2011, and data on population demographics, mobility patterns, socio-economic, and climate factors. We applied linear regression models with harmonic terms to estimate influenza seasonal characteristics, including the amplitude of annual and semi-annual periodicities, their ratio, and peak timing. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling and hierarchical clustering were used to identify predictors of influenza seasonal characteristics and define epidemiologically-relevant regions. The annual periodicity of influenza A epidemics increased with latitude (mean amplitude of annual cycle standardized by mean incidence, 140% [95% CI 128%-151%] in the north versus 37% [95% CI 27%-47%] in the south, p0.6 in provinces located within 27.4°N-31.3°N, slope of latitudinal gradient with latitude -0.016 [95% CI -0.025 to -0.008], p<0.001. In contrast, influenza B activity predominated in colder months throughout most of China. Climate factors were the strongest predictors of influenza seasonality, including minimum temperature, hours of sunshine, and maximum rainfall. Our main study limitations include a short surveillance period and sparse influenza sampling in some of the southern provinces. CONCLUSIONS: Regional-specific influenza vaccination strategies would be optimal in China; in particular, annual campaigns should be initiated 4-6 months apart in Northern and Southern China

  9. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  10. Frenillo labial superior doble

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    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  11. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  12. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne eBerthier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km² between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1 and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e. a-1 agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1 over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m. This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  13. Remotely Sensed Estimation of Net Primary Productivity (NPP and Its Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Greater Khingan Mountain Region, China

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    Qiang Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We improved the CASA model based on differences in the types of land use, the values of the maximum light use efficiency, and the calculation methods of solar radiation. Then, the parameters of the model were examined and recombined into 16 cases. We estimated the net primary productivity (NPP using the NDVI3g dataset, meteorological data, and vegetation classification data from the Greater Khingan Mountain region, China. We assessed the accuracy and temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region from 1982 to 2013. Based on a comparison of the results of the 16 cases, we found that different values of maximum light use efficiency affect the estimation more than differences in the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR. However, the FPARmax and the constant Tε2 values did not show marked effects. Different schemes were used to assess different model combinations. Models using a combination of parameters established by scholars from China and the United States produced different results and had large errors. These ideas are meaningful references for the estimation of NPP in other regions. The results reveal that the annual average NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region was 760 g C/m2·a in 1982–2013 and that the inter-annual fluctuations were not dramatic. The NPP estimation results of the 16 cases exhibit an increasing trend. In terms of the spatial distribution of the changes, the model indicated that the values in 75% of this area seldom or never increased. Prominent growth occurred in the areas of Taipingling, Genhe, and the Oroqen Autonomous Banner. Notably, NPP decreased in the southeastern region of the Greater Khingan Mountains, the Hulunbuir Pasture Land, and Holingol.

  14. Use of microwave remote sensing data to monitor spatio temporal characteristics of surface soil moisture at local and regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Löw

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic processes, such as runoff production or evapotranspiration, largely depend on the variation of soil moisture and its spatial pattern. The interaction of electromagnetic waves with the land surface can be dependant on the water content of the uppermost soil layer. Especially in the microwave domain of the electromagnetic spectrum, this is the case. New sensors as e.g. ENVISAT ASAR, allow for frequent, synoptically and homogeneous image acquisitions over larger areas. Parameter inversion models are therefore developed to derive bio- and geophysical parameters from the image products. The paper presents a soil moisture inversion model for ENVISAT ASAR data for local and regional scale applications. The model is validated against in situ soil moisture measurements. The various sources of uncertainties, being related to the inversion process are assessed and quantified.

  15. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine; Toft, Ulla; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42,218) and 2013 (n = 34,330) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25-79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG) 1-4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (intake (≥ 3 times/week). The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007-2013 (p intake. Compared to MSG 1, odds of an appropriate soft drink intake were significantly lower in MSG 3-4: OR = 0.87 (95%CI 0.83-0.91) and OR = 0.89 (95%CI 0.85-0.92), respectively. Compared to MSG 1, odds of a frequent soft drink intake were significantly higher in MSG 3-4: OR = 1.24 (95%CI 1.63-1.31) and 1.17 (95%CI 1.10-1.25), respectively. A significant interaction between MSG and educational level was found among individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake (p = 0.02). The results show an encouraging reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007-2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG.

  16. Estimating regional wheat yield from the shape of decreasing curves of green area index temporal profiles retrieved from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Louis; Duveiller, Grégory; Djaby, Bakary; El Jarroudi, Moussa; Defourny, Pierre; Tychon, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Earth observation data, owing to their synoptic, timely and repetitive coverage, have been recognized as a valuable tool for crop monitoring at different levels. At the field level, the close correlation between green leaf area (GLA) during maturation and grain yield in wheat revealed that the onset and rate of senescence appeared to be important factors for determining wheat grain yield. Our study sought to explore a simple approach for wheat yield forecasting at the regional level, based on metrics derived from the senescence phase of the green area index (GAI) retrieved from remote sensing data. This study took advantage of recent methodological improvements in which imagery with high revisit frequency but coarse spatial resolution can be exploited to derive crop-specific GAI time series by selecting pixels whose ground-projected instantaneous field of view is dominated by the target crop: winter wheat. A logistic function was used to characterize the GAI senescence phase and derive the metrics of this phase. Four regression-based models involving these metrics (i.e., the maximum GAI value, the senescence rate and the thermal time taken to reach 50% of the green surface in the senescent phase) were related to official wheat yield data. The performances of such models at this regional scale showed that final yield could be estimated with an RMSE of 0.57 ton ha-1, representing about 7% as relative RMSE. Such an approach may be considered as a first yield estimate that could be performed in order to provide better integrated yield assessments in operational systems.

  17. Evaluation of TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA performance in the Central Andes region and its dependency on spatial and temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. M. Scheel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate time series are of major importance for base line studies for climate change impact and adaptation projects. However, in mountain regions and in developing countries there exist significant gaps in ground based climate records in space and time. Specifically, in the Peruvian Andes spatially and temporally coherent precipitation information is a prerequisite for ongoing climate change adaptation projects in the fields of water resources, disasters and food security. The present work aims at evaluating the ability of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA to estimate precipitation rates at daily 0.25° × 0.25° scale in the Central Andes and the dependency of the estimate performance on changing spatial and temporal resolution. Comparison of the TMPA product with gauge measurements in the regions of Cuzco, Peru and La Paz, Bolivia were carried out and analysed statistically. Large biases are identified in both investigation areas in the estimation of daily precipitation amounts. The occurrence of strong precipitation events was well assessed, but their intensities were underestimated. TMPA estimates for La Paz show high false alarm ratio.

    The dependency of the TMPA estimate quality with changing resolution was analysed by comparisons of 1-, 7-, 15- and 30-day sums for Cuzco, Peru. The correlation of TMPA estimates with ground data increases strongly and almost linearly with temporal aggregation. The spatial aggregation to 0.5°, 0.75° and 1° grid box averaged precipitation and its comparison to gauge data of the same areas revealed no significant change in correlation coefficients and estimate performance.

    In order to profit from the TMPA combination product on a daily basis, a procedure to blend it with daily precipitation gauge measurements is proposed.

    Different sources of errors and uncertainties introduced by the sensors, sensor-specific algorithm aspects

  18. Migration in the Face of Unemployment and Unemployment Risk: a Case Study of Temporal and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs an elaborated model of migration decision-making and behaviour to analyse the influence of individually experienced unemployment and unemployment risk. Following a contrast group design, respondents from two cities inGermanywith different levels of economic prosperity are compared using event history data from a tailor-made panel study. According to a micro-economic approach to migration it is expected that respondents living in an economically deprived city are more likely to decide in favour of migration and actually move compared to those living in a prosperous city because they often perceive opportunities as better elsewhere than at their current place of residence. Moreover, perceiving a risk of becoming unemployed in the near future might trigger migration decision-making more in a deprived city because difficulties to find a new job at the place of residence are anticipated. On the other hand, the new household economics approach and the theory of social networks stress the importance of the meso level. Individuals seldom decide in favour or against migration solely; the family rather makes joint decisions. Former research revealed that for unemployed people social networks are a major source for social support and are therefore especially important. There is evidence that in deprived regions social networks deter individuals stronger from moving than in others. These theoretical considerations and findings lead to the expectation that once people are unemployed they seldom leave deprived regions, what is at odds with the expectations from micro-economic theory. The analyses reveal that the perceived risk of becoming unemployed indeed triggers migration decision-making, but exclusively in the deprived city, whereas people who are already unemployed do not consider or plan leaving the city more often than employed people. Nevertheless, having a partner, children and family at the place of residence might outweigh the

  19. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

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    Michael J W Stokesbury

    Full Text Available In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88. Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines.

  20. Temporal evolution, petrography and composition of dolostones in the Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage, southern Estonia and northern Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kleesment

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage in southern Estonia and northern Latvia is represented by dolostones containing interlayers of dolomitic marlstones and limestones. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe and isotope techniques were used to investigate diagenetic evolution of dolostones. The rock succession has been affected by multiple dia­genetic events. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, six dolomite textures were identified. The crystal size (5–1200 μm and morphology of dolomites are variable. Commonly, dolomites are close to the stoichiometric composition, with low iron and manganese content. Their stable isotope composition (δ13C, δ18O differs greatly from that of dolomite precipitated from Frasnian seawater. Dolomitization is more pronounced in the lower part of the studied sequence, in the Snetnaya Gora Formation and Lower Pskov unit where carbonates are completely dolomitized, whereas upwards in the section the dolomite content decreases. Voids and pores of the Lower Pskov unit are mainly open, but partly or completely occluded in the Upper Pskov unit. Void-filling dolomite has slightly and void-filling calcite notably depleted stable isotope signatures. Major dedolomitization and calcite-filling processes took place during the final uplift and emergence of the northern part of the Baltic basin, connected with the migration of karst-related meteoric waters into previously dolomitized horizons within carbonate rocks.

  1. Temporal and spatial distributions of summer-time ground-level fine particulate matters in Baltimore-DC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Greenwald, R.; Sarnat, J.; Hu, X.; Kewada, P.; Morales, Y.; Goldman, G.; Redman, J.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies have established a robust association between chronic exposure to ambient level fine particulate matters (PM2.5) and adverse health effects such as COPD, cardiorespiratory diseases, and premature death. Population exposure to PM2.5 has historically been estimated using ground measurements which are often sparse and unevenly distributed. There has been much interest as well as suspicion in both the air quality management and research communities regarding the value of satellite retrieved AOD as particle air pollution indicators. A critical step towards the future use of satellite aerosol products in air quality monitoring and management is to better understand the AOD-PM2.5 association. The existing EPA and IMPROVE networks are insufficient to validate AOD-estimated PM2.5 surface especially when higher resolution satellite products become available in the near future. As part of DISCOVER-AQ mission, we deployed 15 portable filter-based samplers alongside of ground-based sun photometers of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) in July 2011. Gravimetric analyses were conducted to estimate 24h PM2.5 mass concentrations, using Teflon filters and Personal Environmental Monitors (PEMs) operated at a flow rate of 4 LPM. Pre- and post-sampling filters were weighed at our weigh room laboratory facilities at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Our objectives are (1) to examine if AOD measured by ground-based sun-photometers with the support from ground-based lidars can provide the fine scale spatial heterogeneity observed by ground PM monitors, and (2) whether PM2.5 levels estimated by satellite AOD agree with this true PM2.5 surface. Study design, instrumentation, and preliminary results of measured PM2.5 spatial patterns in July 2011 will be presented as well as discussion of further data analysis and model development.

  2. Reabsorption atelectasis in a porcine model of ARDS: regional and temporal effects of airway closure, oxygen, and distending pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Savino; Borges, João Batista; Segelsjö, Monica; Tannoia, Angela; Pellegrini, Mariangela; Larsson, Anders; Perchiazzi, Gaetano; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the small airways dysfunction in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). By computed tomography (CT) imaging in a porcine experimental model of early ARDS, we aimed at studying the location and magnitude of peripheral airway closure and alveolar collapse under high and low distending pressures and high and low inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2). Six piglets were mechanically ventilated under anesthesia and muscle relaxation. Four animals underwent saline-washout lung injury, and two served as healthy controls. Beyond the site of assumed airway closure, gas was expected to be trapped in the injured lungs, promoting alveolar collapse. This was tested by ventilation with an FIO2 of 0.25 and 1 in sequence during low and high distending pressures. In the most dependent regions, the gas/tissue ratio of end-expiratory CT, after previous ventilation with FIO2 0.25 low-driving pressure, was significantly higher than after ventilation with FIO2 1; with high-driving pressure, this difference disappeared. Also, significant reduction in poorly aerated tissue and a correlated increase in nonaerated tissue in end-expiratory CT with FIO2 1 low-driving pressure were seen. When high-driving pressure was applied or after previous ventilation with FIO2 0.25 and low-driving pressure, this pattern disappeared. The findings suggest that low distending pressures produce widespread dependent airway closure and with high FIO2, subsequent absorption atelectasis. Low FIO2 prevented alveolar collapse during the study period because of slow absorption of gas behind closed airways.

  3. Spectroscopy of Very Hot Plasma in Non-flaring Parts of a Solar Limb Active Region: Spatial and Temporal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Susanna; del Zanna, Giulio; Petralia, Antonino; Reale, Fabio; Teriaca, Luca; Testa, Paola; Mason, Helen E.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we investigate the thermal structure of an off-limb active region (AR) in various non-flaring areas, as it provides key information on the way these structures are heated. In particular, we concentrate on the very hot component (> 3 {MK}) as it is a crucial element to distinguish between different heating mechanisms. We present an analysis using Fe and Ca emission lines from both the Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode. A data set covering all ionization stages from Fe x to Fe xix has been used for the thermal analysis (both differential emission measure and emission measure, EM). Ca xiv is used for the SUMER-EIS radiometric cross calibration. We show that the very hot plasma is present and persistent almost everywhere in the core of the limb AR. The off-limb AR is clearly structured in Fe xviii. Almost everywhere, the EM analysis reveals plasma at 10 MK (visible in Fe xix emission), which is down to 0.1% of EM of the main 3 {MK} plasma. We estimate the power-law index of the hot tail of the EM to be between ‑8.5 and ‑4.4. However, the question about the possible existence of a small minor peak at around 10 {MK} remains open. The absence in some part of the AR of the Fe xix and Fe xxiii lines (which fall into our spectral range) enables us to determine an upper limit on the EM at these temperatures. Our results include a new Ca xiv 943.59 Å atomic model.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of ambient nitric acid and ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane ALEXANDER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Monthly average ambient concentrations of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3 and ammonia (NH3 were monitored at the Athabasca Oils Sands Region (AOSR, Alberta, Canada, between May 2005 and September 2008. Generally, concentrations of both pollutants were elevated and highly variable in space and time. The highest atmospheric concentrations occurred in the vicinity of the major mining and oil extraction activities of Fort Murray and Fort McKay. Maximum monthly average concentrations of HNO3 decreased from >6 μg m–3 2005 and 2006 to <4 μg m–3 in 2007 and 2008. While the HNO3 summer seasonal averages in 2005 and 2006 approached ~2 μg m–3 at some sites, in the subsequent summers and during winter seasons it rarely exceeded 1 μg m–3 and no clear differences between summer and winter occurred. Concentrations of NH3 were elevated during the entire study and frequently reached 6 μg m–3. Generally, NH3 stayed higher in summer than in winter; the summer seasonal averages often exceeded 4 μg m–3 while those for winter only on two occasions were above 3 μg m–3. In summer 2008, an expansion of the area with elevated NH3 levels was observed extending to remote locations. Ammonia is of a much higher concern from a perspective of possible biological effects, because of its potential for direct toxic effect on lichens and its contribution to the elevated N dry deposition with possible negative consequences for forests and other ecosystems.

  5. Assessing the evolution of oases in arid regions by reconstructing their historic spatio-temporal distribution: a case study of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaowen; Wang, Guisheng; Wang, Xueqiang; Fan, Peilei

    2016-11-01

    Oasis evolution, one of the most obvious surface processes in arid regions, affects various aspects of the regional environment, such as hydrological processes, ecological conditions, and microclimates. In this paper, the historical spatio-temporal evolution of the cultivated oases in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland watershed in the northwest of China, was assessed using multidisciplinary methods and data from multiple sources, including historical literature, ancient sites, maps and remotely sensed images. The findings show that cultivated oases were first developed on a large scale during the Han Dynasty (121 BC-220) and then gradually decreased in extent from the Six Dynasties period (220-581) to the Sui-Tang period (581-907), reaching a minimum in the Song-Yuan period (960-1368). An abrupt revival occurred during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and continued through the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), and during the period of the Republic of China (1912-1949), oasis development reached its greatest peak of the entire historical period. The oasis areas during seven major historical periods, i.e., Han, Six Dynasties, Sui-Tang, Song-Yuan, Ming, Qing, and Republic of China, are estimated to have been 1703 km2, 1115 km2, 629 km2, 614 km2, 964 km2, 1205 km2, and 1917 km2, respectively. The spatial distribution generally exhibited a continuous sprawl process, with the center of the oases moving gradually from the downstream region to the middle and even upstream regions. The oases along the main river remained stable during most periods, whereas those close to the terminal reaches were subject to frequent variations and even abandonment. Socio-economic factors were the main forces driving the evolution of cultivated oases in the area; among them, political and societal stability, national defense, agricultural policy, population, and technological progress were the most important.

  6. Formation of category representations in superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Turennout, M. van; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain contains cortical areas specialized in representing object categories. Visual experience is known to change the responses in these category-selective areas of the brain. However, little is known about how category training specifically affects cortical category selectivity. Here, we

  7. Atmospheric aerosol compositions in China: spatial/temporal variability, chemical signature, regional haze distribution and comparisons with global aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2006 to 2007, the daily concentrations of major inorganic water-soluble constituents, mineral aerosol, organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC in ambient PM10 samples were investigated from 16 urban, rural and remote sites in various regions of China, and were compared with global aerosol measurements. A large difference between urban and rural chemical species was found, normally with 1.5 to 2.5 factors higher in urban than in rural sites. Optically-scattering aerosols, such as sulfate (~16%, OC (~15%, nitrate (~7%, ammonium (~5% and mineral aerosol (~35% in most circumstance, are majorities of the total aerosols, indicating a dominant scattering feature of aerosols in China. Of the total OC, ~55%–60% can be attributed to the formation of the secondary organic carbon (SOC. The absorbing aerosol EC only accounts for ~3.5% of the total PM10. Seasonally, maximum concentrations of most aerosol species were found in winter while mineral aerosol peaks in spring. In addition to the regular seasonal maximum, secondary peaks were found for sulfate and ammonium in summer and for OC and EC in May and June. This can be considered as a typical seasonal pattern in various aerosol components in China. Aerosol acidity was normally neutral in most of urban areas, but becomes some acidic in rural areas. Based on the surface visibility observations from 681 meteorological stations in China between 1957 and 2005, four major haze areas are identified with similar visibility changes, namely, (1 Hua Bei Plain in N. China, and the Guanzhong Plain; (2 E. China with the main body in the Yangtze River Delta area; (3 S. China with most areas of Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta area; (4 The Si Chuan Basin in S.W. China. The degradation of visibility in these areas is linked with the emission changes and high PM concentrations. Such quantitative chemical characterization of aerosols is essential in assessing their role in atmospheric

  8. [Spatio-temporal variation of drought condition during 1961 to 2012 based on composite index of meteorological drought in Altay region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-feng; Bake, Batur; Li, Wei; Wei, Xiao-qin; Wozatihan, Jiayinaguli; Rasulov, Hamid

    2015-02-01

    Based on the daily meteorological data of seven stations in Altay region, China, this study investigated the temporal ( seasonal, inter-annual and decadal) and spatial variations of drought by using composite index of meteorological drought, as well as trend analysis, M-K abrupt analysis, wavelet analysis and interpolation tools in ArcGIS. The results indicated that the composite index of meteorological drought could reflect the drought condition in Altay region well. Although the frequency and the covered area of both inter-annual and seasonal droughts presented decreasing trends in the recent 52 a, the drought was still serious when considering the annual drought. The frequencies of inter-annual and spring droughts had no abrupt changes, whereas the frequencies of inter-summer, autumn and winter droughts had abrupt changes during the past 52 a. A significant periodic trend was also observed for the frequencies of inter-annual and seasonal droughts. The distribution of frequency and covered area suggested that the conditions of drought were heavily serious in Qinghe County, moderately serious in Altay City, Fuyun County, Buerjin County and Fuhai County, and slightly serious in Habahe County and Jimunai County.

  9. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires.

  10. Spatial and temporal epidemiology of Mycobacterium leprae infection among leprosy patients and household contacts of an endemic region in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicchio, Mariana V C; Araujo, Sergio; Martins, Lorraine C; Pinheiro, Andressa V; Pereira, Daniela C; Borges, Angélica; Antunes, Douglas E; Barreto, Josafá G; Goulart, Isabela Maria B

    2016-11-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that remains a public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Household contacts of leprosy patients (HHCs) have increased risk of developing disease and are important links in the chain of transmission of Mycobacterium leprae. Based on epidemiological and operational factors, the global elimination strategy depends on the geographic stratification of endemic areas to intensify control activities. The purpose of the study was to integrate epidemiological indicators and serology into the spatial and temporal analysis of M. leprae infection, in order to understanding of the dynamics of transmission, essential information for the control of leprosy. Using location-based technologies and epidemiological data obtained from leprosy cases (N=371) and HHCs (N=53), during a 11year period (2004-2014), we explored the spatial and temporal distribution of diagnosed cases: stratified according their disease manifestation; and of subclinical infection among HHCs: determined by serology (anti-PGL-I ELISA and anti-NDO-LID rapid lateral-flow test); in order to assess the distribution pattern of the disease and the areas of greatest risk of illness, in a highly endemic municipality (Ituiutaba, MG) in the southeast region of Brazil. Seropositivity among HHCs was: 17% (9/53) for anti-PGL-I ELISA; and 42% for the NDO-LID rapid lateral-flow test. Forty-nine percent of the contacts were seropositive to at least one of the immunological tests. We observed substantial spatial heterogeneity of cases throughout the urban perimeter. Even so, four main clusters of patients and three main clusters of subclinical infection were identified. Spatio-temporal epidemiology associated to serological assessment can identify high-risk areas imbedded within the overall epidemic municipality, to prioritize active search of new cases as well support prevention strategies in these locations of greater disease burden and transmission. Such techniques should

  11. Socioeconomic, temporal and regional variation in body mass index among 188,537 Swiss male conscripts born between 1986 and 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Panczak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rising levels of overweight and obesity are important public-health concerns worldwide. The purpose of this study is to elucidate their prevalence and trends in Switzerland by analyzing variations in Body Mass Index (BMI of Swiss conscripts. METHODS: The conscription records were provided by the Swiss Army. This study focussed on conscripts 18.5-20.5 years of age from the seven one-year birth cohorts spanning the period 1986-1992. BMI across professional status, area-based socioeconomic position (abSEP, urbanicity and regions was analyzed. Two piecewise quantile regression models with linear splines for three birth-cohort groups were used to examine the association of median BMI with explanatory variables and to determine the extent to which BMI has varied over time. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 188,537 individuals. Median BMI was 22.51 kg/m2 (22.45-22.57 95% confidence interval (CI. BMI was lower among conscripts of high professional status (-0.46 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.50, -0.42, compared with low, living in areas of high abSEP (-0.11 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.07 compared to medium and from urban communities (-0.07 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.03, compared with peri-urban. Comparing with Midland, median BMI was highest in the North-West (0.25 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.19-0.30 and Central regions (0.11 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.05-0.16 and lowest in the East (-0.19 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.14 and Lake Geneva regions (-0.15 kg/m2; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.09. Trajectories of regional BMI growth varied across birth cohorts, with median BMI remaining high in the Central and North-West regions, whereas stabilization and in some cases a decline were observed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: BMI of Swiss conscripts is associated with individual and abSEP and urbanicity. Results show regional variation in the levels and temporal trajectories of BMI growth and signal their possible slowdown among recent birth cohorts.

  12. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  13. Water vapor motion signal extraction from FY-2E longwave infrared window images for cloud-free regions: The temporal difference technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chu, Yanli; Zhao, Hang; Tang, Min

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the low-level atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) in clear areas with FY-2E IR2 window (11.59-12.79 μm) channel imagery, where the traditional cloud motion wind technique fails. A new tracer selection procedure, which we call the temporal difference technique, is demonstrated in this paper. This technique makes it possible to infer low-level wind by tracking features in the moisture pattern that appear as brightness temperature ( T B) differences between consecutive sequences of 30-min-interval FY-2E IR2 images over cloud-free regions. The T B difference corresponding to a 10% change in water vapor density is computed with the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN4) radiative transfer model. The total contribution from each of the 10 layers is analyzed under four typical atmospheric conditions: tropical, midlatitude summer, U.S. standard, and midlatitude winter. The peak level of the water vapor weighting function for the four typical atmospheres is assigned as a specific height to the T B "wind". This technique is valid over cloud-free ocean areas. The proposed algorithm exhibits encouraging statistical results in terms of vector difference (VD), speed bias (BIAS), mean vector difference (MVD), standard deviation (SD), and root-mean-square error (RMSE), when compared with the wind field of NCEP reanalysis data and rawinsonde observations.

  14. Temporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow, cortical damage, apoptosis, astrocyte-vasculature interaction and astrogliosis in the pericontusional region after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eVillapol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI results in a loss of brain tissue at the moment of impact in the cerebral cortex. Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of molecular signals with dramatic consequences for the integrity of damaged tissue, leading to the evolution of a pericontusional-damaged area minutes to days after in the initial injury. The mechanisms behind the progression of tissue loss remain under investigation. In this study, we analyzed the spatial-temporal profile of blood flow, apoptotic and astrocytic-vascular events in the cortical regions around the impact site at time points ranging from 5 hours to 2 months after TBI. We performed a mild-moderate controlled cortical impact injury in young adult mice and analyzed the glial and vascular response to injury. We observed a dramatic decrease in perilesional cerebral blood flow (CBF immediately following the cortical impact that lasted until days later. CBF finally returned to baseline levels by 30 days post-injury (dpi. The initial impact also resulted in an immediate loss of tissue and cavity formation that gradually increased in size until 3 dpi. An increase in dying cells localized in the pericontusional region and a robust astrogliosis were also observed at 3 dpi. A strong vasculature interaction with astrocytes was established at 7 dpi. Glial scar formation began at 7 dpi and seemed to be compact by 60 dpi. Altogether, these results suggest that TBI results in a progression from acute neurodegeneration that precedes astrocytic activation, reformation of the neurovascular unit to glial scar formation. Understanding the multiple processes occurring after TBI is critical to the ability to develop neuroprotective therapeutics to ameliorate the short and long-term consequences of brain injury.

  15. Spatial-temporal dynamics of agricultural drought in the tallgrass prairie region of the Southern Great Plains during 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Bajgain, R.; Dong, J.; Qin, Y.; Jin, C.; Wagle, P.; Basara, J. B.; McCarthy, H. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Otkin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tallgrass prairie is an important ecosystem type and a major feed for beef cattle in the Southern Great Plains (SGP: Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas). Frequent drought in the SGP affects the production of tallgrass prairie and ultimately the beef cattle production. It is, therefore, necessary to map drought vulnerable areas to help ranchers adapt cattle industry to drought conditions. In this study, we analyzed Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) calculated from near infrared and shortwave infrared bands of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and quantified the spatial-temporal dynamics of agricultural drought in the tallgrass prairie region of the SGP during 2000-2013. The number of days with LSWI 5 °C) was defined as the duration of drought to generate drought duration maps for each year. Following the decreasing rainfall gradient from east to west in the SGP, counties in the west experienced whole growing season drought (WGSZ) more (three or more out of 14 years with WGSD), middle counties had one to two months summer drought, and eastern counties experienced less drought (mainly one year with WGSD and less than one month of summer drought). The LSWI-based drought duration map showed similar patterns with Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) and U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) in wet, summer drought, and whole growing season drought years. Our drought map has identified the vulnerability of counties to different droughts (summer drought and whole growing season drought) in the SGP. This finer resolution (500 m) drought map has the potential to show the drought condition for individual ranch, which can be used to guide drought mitigation activities and livestock production.

  16. Laser Doppler flowmeter study on regional cerebral blood flow in early stage after standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery for moyamoya disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GESANG Dun-zhu; ZHANG Dong; ZHAO Ji-zong; WANG Shuo; ZHAO Yuan-li; WANG Rong; SUN Jian-jun; MENG Ze

    2009-01-01

    Background Standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery is an effective treatment for moyamoya disease, but recent evidence suggests that postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion can occur. In this study, the trendline of changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after surgery were continually monitored near the site of anastomosis in order to investigate both the efficacy of the procedure for improving rCBF and the possible riskof hyperperfusion.Methods Standard STA-MCA bypass surgery was performed on 13 patients, rCBF was measured continually using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) until the 5th day after the operation with the LDF probe implanted adjacent to the area of the anastomosis. The trendline of rCBF changes postoperatively was recorded for the analysis performed using SPSS 13.0.Results The baseline LDF value of cortical rCBF was (84.68±14.39) perfusion unit (PU), which was linear relative to absolute perfusion volume before anastomosis and (88.90±11.26) PU immediately after anastomosis (P >0.05). The value changed significantly from before to after anastomosis (P 0.05).Conclusions STA-MCA anastomosis improves the cerebral blood supply significantly in the early stage after surgery,however, the risk of symptomatic hyperperfusion may exist, which may possibly occur on the 1st day and 5th day after surgery. A LDF is useful for postoperative monitoring for both the efficacy of bypass and possible risk of neurologic deterioration or bleeding from hyperperfusion.

  17. Estudo de lidocaína a 0,5% e combinação de lidocaína a 0,25% com fentanil e vecurônio em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias de membros superiores Estudio de la lidocaína al 0,5% y en combinación de lidocaína al 0,25% con fentanilo y vecuronio en anestesia regional intravenosa para cirugías de miembros superiores Study of 0.5% lidocaine alone and combination of 0.25% lidocaine with fentanyl and vecuronium in intravenous regional anesthesia for upper limb surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh MCB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirurgias de membros superiores com a tradicional alta dose de lidocaína pode levar a efeitos colaterais potencialmente letais. A fim de evitar esses efeitos, muitas técnicas modificadas de ARIV foram experimentadas com o uso de uma dose baixa de lidocaína, relaxante muscular e opioide. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo foi feito com 60 pacientes não medicados previamente, com classificação ASA 1-2, para comparar as características sensoriais e motoras, os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e os efeitos colaterais durante o período intraoperatório e de deflação pós-torniquete entre os pacientes que receberam 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,5% (n = 30 e aqueles que receberam uma combinação de 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,25% com 0,05 mg de fentanil e 0,5 mg de vecurônio (n = 30 em ARIV para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores. Os resultados foram analisados com o uso do teste t de Student pareado para identificar a significância estatística. RESULTADO: A diferença entre os dois grupos em relação ao tempo médio de início e completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor foi estatisticamente significante. Porém, houve completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor em ambos os grupos 15 minutos após a injeção da solução anestésica. CONCLUSÃO: Embora a pequena demora observada no início e na obtenção completa dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor possa, teoricamente, atrasar o início da cirurgia em 10-15 minutos, clinicamente esse tempo seria gasto na preparação do campo cirúrgico. Portanto, essa combinação pode ser usada com segurança e eficácia em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores com menor possibilidade de toxicidade anestésica local.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirugías de miembros superiores con la tradicional dosis alta de lidocaína, puede conllevar a efectos colaterales que

  18. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  20. On the definition and interpretation of voice selective activation in the temporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBethmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Regions along the superior temporal sulci and in the anterior temporal lobes have been found to be involved in voice processing. It has even been argued that parts of the temporal cortices serve as voice-selective areas. Yet, evidence for voice-selective activation in the strict sense is still missing. The current fMRI study aimed at assessing the degree of voice-specific processing in different parts of the superior and middle temporal cortices. To this end, voices of famous persons were contrasted with widely different categories, which were sounds of animals and musical instruments. The argumentation was that only brain regions with statistically proven absence of activation by the control stimuli may be considered as candidates for voice-selective areas. Neural activity was found to be stronger in response to human voices in all analyzed parts of the temporal lobes except for the middle and posterior STG. More importantly, the activation differences between voices and the other environmental sounds increased continuously from the mid-posterior STG to the anterior MTG. Here, only voices but not the control stimuli excited an increase of the BOLD response above a resting baseline level. The findings are discussed with reference to the function of the anterior temporal lobes in person recognition and the general question on how to define selectivity of brain regions for a specific class of stimuli or tasks. In addition, our results corroborate recent assumptions about the hierarchical organization of auditory processing building on a processing stream from the primary auditory cortices to anterior portions of the temporal lobes.

  1. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  2. Interactive 3D computer model of the human corneolimbal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvaer, Rikke Kongshaug; Andreasen, Arne; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2013-01-01

    in the superior limbal region and one LEC, six LCs and 12 FSPs in the inferior limbal region. Only few LECs, LCs and FSPs were localized nasally and temporally. CONCLUSION: Interactive 3D models are a powerful tool that may help to shed more light on the existence and spatial localization of the different stem......PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the existence of and to map the localization of different proposed stem cell niches in the corneal limbal region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One human eye was cut into 2200 consecutive sections. Every other section was stained with haematoxylin and eosin, digitized...... in the limbal region: limbal epithelial crypts (LECs), limbal crypts (LCs) and focal stromal projections (FSPs). In all, eight LECs, 25 LCs and 105 FSPs were identified in the limbal region. The LECs, LCs and FSPs were predominantly located in the superior limbal region with seven LECs, 19 LCs and 93 FSPs...

  3. The relationship between temporal phase discrimination ability and the frequency doubling illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallam, Kunjam; Metha, Andrew B

    2007-12-20

    The frequency doubling illusion (FDI) occurs when a low spatial frequency sinusoidal grating is modulated at high temporal frequencies--its apparent spatial frequency increases. A recent study suggests that this illusion is perceived due to a frequency-dependent loss of temporal phase encoding ability. We sought to elucidate the relationship between temporal phase encoding and the FDI by exploring the spatiotemporal characteristics of temporal phase discrimination (TPD) thresholds using a novel stimulus comprising three grating patches presented simultaneously in a triangular pattern. A reference grating was presented superiorly, and six degrees below two gratings (one a copy of the reference) were each randomly presented in one of two fixed positions. The odd grating had abutting regions of spatial half-cycles with alternate half-cycles locked in temporal phase. The temporal phase difference between adjoining half-cycles was varied between 0 degrees and 180 degrees via QUEST staircase--subjects had to identify which lower stimulus appeared different from the reference grating. TPD thresholds were measured for 0.25, 0.50, and 2.20 cpd stimulus at six temporal frequencies (1 to 28 Hz) at 2x, 4x, and 8x orientation identification contrast thresholds. For all subjects, thresholds were variable at low contrasts. At higher contrasts, TPD thresholds increase for 0.25 and 0.50 cpd gratings with increasing flicker rate. These data support the idea that frequency-dependent loss of temporal phase encoding ability could possibly underlie the FDI.

  4. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...

  5. Temporal Nodal Regression and Regional Control After Primary Radiation Therapy for N2-N3 Head-and-Neck Cancer Stratified by HPV Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shao Hui; O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Wei; Zhao, Helen [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Duo-duo [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ringash, Jolie; Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Razak, Albiruni [Division of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gilbert, Ralph; Irish, Jonathan [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery/Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John; Dawson, Laura A.; Bayley, Andrew; Cho, B.C. John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Goldstein, David; Gullane, Patrick [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery/Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Radiology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan [Department of Pathology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Waldron, John, E-mail: John.Waldron@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the temporal lymph node (LN) regression and regional control (RC) after primary chemoradiation therapy/radiation therapy in human papillomavirus-related [HPV(+)] versus human papillomavirus-unrelated [HPV(−)] head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: All cases of N2-N3 HNC treated with radiation therapy/chemoradiation therapy between 2003 and 2009 were reviewed. Human papillomavirus status was ascertained by p16 staining on all available oropharyngeal cancers. Larynx/hypopharynx cancers were considered HPV(−). Initial radiologic complete nodal response (CR) (≤1.0 cm 8-12 weeks after treatment), ultimate LN resolution, and RC were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(−) HNC. Multivariate analysis identified outcome predictors. Results: A total of 257 HPV(+) and 236 HPV(−) HNCs were identified. The initial LN size was larger (mean, 2.9 cm vs 2.5 cm; P<.01) with a higher proportion of cystic LNs (38% vs 6%, P<.01) in HPV(+) versus HPV(−) HNC. CR was achieved is 125 HPV(+) HNCs (49%) and 129 HPV(−) HNCs (55%) (P=.18). The mean post treatment largest LN was 36% of the original size in the HPV(+) group and 41% in the HPV(−) group (P<.01). The actuarial LN resolution was similar in the HPV(+) and HPV(−) groups at 12 weeks (42% and 43%, respectively), but it was higher in the HPV(+) group than in the HPV(−) group at 36 weeks (90% vs 77%, P<.01). The median follow-up period was 3.6 years. The 3-year RC rate was higher in the HPV(−) CR cases versus non-CR cases (92% vs 63%, P<.01) but was not different in the HPV(+) CR cases versus non-CR cases (98% vs 92%, P=.14). On multivariate analysis, HPV(+) status predicted ultimate LN resolution (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.7]; P<.01) and RC (hazard ratio, 0.3 [95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6]; P<.01). Conclusions: HPV(+) LNs involute more quickly than HPV(−) LNs but undergo a more prolonged process to eventual CR beyond the time of initial assessment at 8 to 12

  6. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A função da comunicação na autoavaliação das Instituições de Ensino Superior do ABC Paulista The role of communication in self-evaluation of Higher Education establishments of ABC Paulista region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Martins da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discorre sobre o papel que a comunicação apresenta no compartilhamento e na socialização dos resultados apurados no processo de autoavaliação junto à comunidade acadêmica de Instituições de Ensino Superior. O estudo fundamenta-se em referenciais bibliográficos que tratam da avaliação institucional e pesquisa de campo exploratória desenvolvida em quatro instituições de ensino superior localizadas na região do ABC Paulista.The article discusses the role that the communication presents in sharing and socialization of the results obtained in the process of self-evaluation along the academic community of higher education institutions. The study is based on bibliographic references which deals with the institutional evaluation and exploratory field research developed in four higher education institutions located in the region of ABC Paulista.

  8. Indexes of spatio-temporal change to reconstruct the historical evolution of a coastal region: case study: São Sebastião Island - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia S. Bertolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal regions of Brazil have lost most of their distinct characteristics due to an intense, diverse, and long history of land use. The current scenario is the result of successive changes which have taken place since the colonization of Brazil. These changes should be taken into account in environmental planning since the decisions about the future depend on the understanding of past changes. In this regard, the aim of this study was to identify and quantify the spatio-temporal changes in land use in a coastal region, using principles of landscape ecology and scenario construction. The case study was the São Sebastião Island, divided into 61 watersheds, off the northern coast of São Paulo State (Brazil. The study involved the development and application of a methodology to interpret the historical dynamics of the island. The driving forces were identified and indexes of change were calculated to define the phases of occupation of the island. Five phases of occupation of the coastal landscape were mapped: preservation, conservation, regeneration, exploitation and urbanization. These phases represent a pattern of internal heterogeneity, sometimes positive (environmental conservation, and sometimes negative (environmental degradation.As regiões costeiras brasileiras encontram-se altamente descaracterizadas devido ao intenso, diversificado e prolongado uso da terra ao longo de sua história. O cenário hoje observado é produto do acúmulo de interferências que vem ocorrendo desde a colonização. Os planejamentos ambientais devem considerar essa questão, uma vez que as decisões sobre o futuro dependem da compreensão dessas mudanças do passado. Neste caminho, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar, quantificar e indicar as variações espaços-temporais de uso da terra numa paisagem costeira a partir dos princípios da ecologia de paisagem e da modelagem para construção de cenários. O estudo de caso foi a Ilha de São Sebasti

  9. Integración regional de la Educación Superior. El espacio Iberoamericano del conocimiento y el papel pedagógico de la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ramírez Díaz

    2011-01-01

    El presente texto analiza las estrategias para la transferencia de políticas de los organismos internacionales a los países de América Latina. Se revisa el papel de la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos y las Cumbres Iberoamericanas en la producción de políticas para la integración de la educación superior en la región al relevar el circuito por el cual se generan las políticas regionales. Al final del trabajo, se hace una reflexión de la dimensión comercial implícita en el cambio educat...

  10. A combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering for noise reduction when using region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy for patient dose reduction in image guided vascular interventions with significant anatomical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Khobragade, P.; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Because x-ray based image-guided vascular interventions are minimally invasive they are currently the most preferred method of treating disorders such as stroke, arterial stenosis, and aneurysms; however, the x-ray exposure to the patient during long image-guided interventional procedures could cause harmful effects such as cancer in the long run and even tissue damage in the short term. ROI fluoroscopy reduces patient dose by differentially attenuating the incident x-rays outside the region-of-interest. To reduce the noise in the dose-reduced regions previously recursive temporal filtering was successfully demonstrated for neurovascular interventions. However, in cardiac interventions, anatomical motion is significant and excessive recursive filtering could cause blur. In this work the effects of three noise-reduction schemes, including recursive temporal filtering, spatial mean filtering, and a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering, were investigated in a simulated ROI dose-reduced cardiac intervention. First a model to simulate the aortic arch and its movement was built. A coronary stent was used to simulate a bioprosthetic valve used in TAVR procedures and was deployed under dose-reduced ROI fluoroscopy during the simulated heart motion. The images were then retrospectively processed for noise reduction in the periphery, using recursive temporal filtering, spatial filtering and a combination of both. Quantitative metrics for all three noise reduction schemes are calculated and are presented as results. From these it can be concluded that with significant anatomical motion, a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering scheme is best suited for reducing the excess quantum noise in the periphery. This new noise-reduction technique in combination with ROI fluoroscopy has the potential for substantial patient-dose savings in cardiac interventions.

  11. Temporal Lobe Structures and Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia Patients and Nonpsychotic Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions. PMID:20484523

  12. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  13. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  14. Temporal variability in groundwater and surface water quality in humid agricultural catchments; driving processes and consequences for regional water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Velde, van der Y.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the large temporal variability in surface water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. Neglecting these dynamics may easily lead to decreased effectiveness of measures to improve water quality and to inefficient water quality monitoring. The objective of

  15. Temporal variability in groundwater and surface water quality in humid agricultural catchments; driving processes and consequences for regional water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Velde, van der Y.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the large temporal variability in surface water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. Neglecting these dynamics may easily lead to decreased effectiveness of measures to improve water quality and to inefficient water quality monitoring. The objective of t

  16. Ivory Osteoma Of Temporal Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Meher

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are slow growing bony tumors common in fronto-ethmoid regions and rare in temporal bone. These are usually asymptomatic and require treatment mainly for cosmetic reasons. We describe a case of temporal bone osteoma in a female.

  17. The timing and strength of regional brain activation associated with word recognition in children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eRezaie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relative degree and timing of cortical activation across parietal, temporal, and frontal regions during performance of a continuous visual word recognition task in children who experience reading difficulties (N=44, RD and typical readers (N=40, NI. Minimum norm estimates of regional neurophysiological activity were obtained from magnetoencephalographic recordings. Children with RD showed bilaterally reduced neurophysiological activity in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and increased activity in rostral middle frontal and ventral occipitotemporal cortices, bilaterally. The temporal profile of activity in the RD group, featured near-simultaneous activity peaks in temporal, inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, in contrast to a clear temporal progression of activity among these areas in the NI group. These results replicate and extend previous MEG and fMRI results demonstrating atypical, latency-dependent attributes of the brain circuit involved in word reading in children with reading difficulties.

  18. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Hecky, R. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Katsev, S.; Reavie, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  19. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Golijeh eGolarai; Dara eGhahremani; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearr...

  20. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  1. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  2. Reabilitação funcional e analgesia com uso de toxina botulínica A na síndrome dolorosa regional complexa tipo I do membro superior: relato de casos Rehabilitación funcional y analgesia con uso de toxina botulínica A en el síndrome doloroso regional compleja tipo I del miembro superior: relato de casos Functional rehabilitation and analgesia with botulinum toxin A in upper limb complex regional pain syndrome type I: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rocha Lauretti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Freqüentemente, soma-se ao quadro de alodínia e hiperalgesia em pacientes portadores de Síndrome Dolorosa Regional Complexa (SDRC tipo I a incapacidade funcional do segmento acometido. Relatam-se dois casos de SDRC em que a aplicação de toxina botulínica-A como fármaco coadjuvante contribuiu na recuperação funcional motora do membro acometido. RELATO DOS CASOS: Duas pacientes portadoras de SDRC tipo I foram inicialmente avaliadas para controle da dor no membro superior direito. Ambas apresentavam incapacidade para abrir a mão e dor pela escala analógica numérica (EAN de 10 em repouso ou quando a mão ou os dedos eram passivamente manipulados. Iniciou-se seqüência de 5 bloqueios, do gânglio estrelado ipsilateral a intervalos semanais, com clonidina e lidocaína. Simultaneamente, durante a realização do terceiro bloqueio do gânglio estrelado, foram administrados 75 UI de toxina botulínica-A nos músculos flexores das falanges e da articulação do punho. Uma semana após a aplicação da toxina botulínica-A, as pacientes apresentavam relaxamento das falanges e punho, relatavam facilidade para execução da fisioterapia passiva e a dor classificada foi como 2 (EAN à manipulação passiva. Ao término da realização da seqüência de bloqueios do gânglio estrelado, as pacientes foram submetidas a 3 sessões semanais de administração por via venosa regional de clonidina, lidocaína e parecoxib. Após 8 meses de avaliação, as pacientes apresentaram 70% e 80% de recuperação motora e funcional do membro acometido. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação por via muscular de toxina botulínica A resultou em melhora da movimentação do membro acometido, analgesia auxiliando na sua recuperação funcional.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Frecuentemente, se suman al cuadro de alodínia e hiperalgesia en pacientes portadores de Síndrome Doloroso Regional Complejo (SDRC tipo I la incapacidad funcional del segmento

  3. Educación intercultural y la gestión de la diversidad en regiones indígenas de México: el caso de la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Guadalupe Mendoza Zuany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En México, la creación de universidades interculturales en 2000 es parte de una política pública tendiente a ofrecer edu-cación culturalmente pertinente a la población indígena. Esto como respuesta a las demandas que desde los años noventa diversas organizaciones han expresado específicamente en el ámbito educativo y a nivel de reformas estructurales que coadyuven a una menor desigualdad y reconocimiento de la diversidad. En el presente artículo se aborda primeramente la legislación y políticas públicas para la gestión de la diversidad desde el ámbito educativo en México, y después se analizan políticas públicas como respuesta desde el ámbito educativo a nivel superior: acción afirmativa y educación intercultural, centrándome fundamentalmente en la segunda.

  4. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  5. 颞区皮肤手术易损伤结构的应用解剖研究%Applied Anatomy on Vulnerable Structures of Skin Operation at the Temporal Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏含辉; 梁雪梅; 黄剑真; 郑春丽; 张海玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the data of the anatomic structure and analyze the safety of the skin tumors biopsy or operation at the temporal region. Methods: The anatomy of the temporal region was studied layer - by - layer and the main structural parameter was observed in 5 embalmed adult cadaveric heads. Results : The main structure lay in the superficial temporal fascia. In the preauricular group, from hack to front was the superficial temporal vein , the auriculotemporal nerve, the superficial temporal artery and the temporal branches of facial nerve, ( 3. 14 ±0. 21 )mm . ( 7. 04 ±1. 18 )mm. ( 7. 32 ± 1. 92 )mm, ( 28. 67 ±0. 37 )mm respectively from the tragus; the most temporal distance of the temporal branch of facial nerve at the upper edge of zygomatic arch was ( 28. 67 ±0. 37 )mm and went 45 degrees up and forward from the tragus. In the posterior auricular group, from front to back was the posterior auricular artery, the lesser occipital nerve and the posterior auricular vein, ( 6. 55 ±0. 23 )mm , ( 40. 41 ± 1. 37 )mm , ( 41. 18 ± 1. 57 )mm respectively from the middle of the posterior auricular sulcus. Conclusions : The radial incision at the center of auricular apex has minimal postoperative scar. The temporal branches of facial nerve are most likely injured as the skin tumor biopsy or operation, the nearer it is to the upper edge of zygomatic arch, the easier to be injured and the more serious consequences it has. The skin tumor biopsy or operation is relatively safe without the temporal branch of facial nerve in the range of 28mm front from tragus.%目的:获得颞区解剖结构数据,分析颞区皮肤肿瘤活检和手术治疗的安全性.方法:经10%甲醛液固定的成人尸头标本5例10侧,行颞区层次解剖,观测耳前、后组血管神经的参数.结果:主要结构分布于颞浅筋膜层,耳前组由后向前为颞浅静脉、耳颞神经、颞浅动脉及面神经颞支,分别距耳屏(3.14±0.21)mm,(7.04±1.18) mm,(7.32±1

  6. An Improved STARFM with Help of an Unmixing-Based Method to Generate High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Remote Sensing Data in Complex Heterogeneous Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dengfeng; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Xiufang; Pan, Yaozhong; Liu, Hongli; Yuan, Zhoumiqi; Yun, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role in monitoring rapid changes of the Earth's surface. However, sensors that can simultaneously provide satellite images with both high temporal and spatial resolution haven't been designed yet. This paper proposes an improved spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM) with the help of an Unmixing-based method (USTARFM) to generate the high spatial and temporal data needed for the study of heterogeneous areas. The results showed that the USTARFM had higher accuracy than STARFM methods in two aspects of analysis: individual bands and of heterogeneity analysis. Taking the predicted NIR band as an example, the correlation coefficients (r) for the USTARFM, STARFM and unmixing methods were 0.96, 0.95, 0.90, respectively (p-value < 0.001); Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values were 0.0245, 0.0300, 0.0401, respectively; and ERGAS values were 0.5416, 0.6507, 0.8737, respectively. The USTARM showed consistently higher performance than STARM when the degree of heterogeneity ranged from 2 to 10, highlighting that the use of this method provides the capacity to solve the data fusion problems faced when using STARFM. Additionally, the USTARFM method could help researchers achieve better performance than STARFM at a smaller window size from its heterogeneous land surface quantitative representation.

  7. The active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells Superior effects over original formula of Buyang Huanwu decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghui Zheng; Yi Wan; Jianhuai Chi; Dekai Shen; Tingting Wu; Weimin Li; Pengcheng Du

    2012-01-01

    The present study induced in vitro-cultured passage 4 bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural-like cells with a mixture of alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycone, glycoside, essential oils, and effective components of Buyang Huanwu decoction (active principle region of decoction for invigorating yang for recuperation). After 28 days, nestin and neuron-specific enolase were expressed in the cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that nestin and neuron-specific enolase mRNA and protein expression was greater in the active principle region group compared with the original formula group. Results demonstrated that the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced greater differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells in vitro than the original Buyang Huanwu decoction formula.

  8. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the extreme precipitation by L-moment-based index-flood method in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yixing; Chen, Haishan; Xu, Chong-Yu; Xu, Wucheng; Chen, Changchun; Sun, Shanlei

    2016-05-01

    The regionalization methods, which "trade space for time" by pooling information from different locations in the frequency analysis, are efficient tools to enhance the reliability of extreme quantile estimates. This paper aims at improving the understanding of the regional frequency of extreme precipitation by using regionalization methods, and providing scientific background and practical assistance in formulating the regional development strategies for water resources management in one of the most developed and flood-prone regions in China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. To achieve the main goals, L-moment-based index-flood (LMIF) method, one of the most popular regionalization methods, is used in the regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation with special attention paid to inter-site dependence and its influence on the accuracy of quantile estimates, which has not been considered by most of the studies using LMIF method. Extensive data screening of stationarity, serial dependence, and inter-site dependence was carried out first. The entire YRD region was then categorized into four homogeneous regions through cluster analysis and homogenous analysis. Based on goodness-of-fit statistic and L-moment ratio diagrams, generalized extreme-value (GEV) and generalized normal (GNO) distributions were identified as the best fitted distributions for most of the sub-regions, and estimated quantiles for each region were obtained. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the accuracy of the quantile estimates taking inter-site dependence into consideration. The results showed that the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) were bigger and the 90 % error bounds were wider with inter-site dependence than those without inter-site dependence for both the regional growth curve and quantile curve. The spatial patterns of extreme precipitation with a return period of 100 years were finally obtained which indicated that there are two regions with highest precipitation

  9. Representation of spatial and temporal variability of daily wind speed and of intense wind events over the Mediterranean Sea using dynamical downscaling: impact of the regional climate model configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herrmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric datasets coming from long term reanalyzes of low spatial resolution are used for different purposes. Wind over the sea is, for example, a major ingredient of oceanic simulations. However, the shortcomings of those datasets prevent them from being used without an adequate corrective preliminary treatment. Using a regional climate model (RCM to perform a dynamical downscaling of those large scale reanalyzes is one of the methods used in order to produce fields that realistically reproduce atmospheric chronology and where those shortcomings are corrected. Here we assess the influence of the configuration of the RCM used in this framework on the representation of wind speed spatial and temporal variability and intense wind events on a daily timescale. Our RCM is ALADIN-Climate, the reanalysis is ERA-40, and the studied area is the Mediterranean Sea.

    First, the dynamical downscaling significantly reduces the underestimation of daily wind speed, in average by 9 % over the whole Mediterranean. This underestimation has been corrected both globally and locally, and for the whole wind speed spectrum. The correction is the strongest for periods and regions of strong winds. The representation of spatial variability has also been significantly improved. On the other hand, the temporal correlation between the downscaled field and the observations decreases all the more that one moves eastwards, i.e. further from the atmospheric flux entry. Nonetheless, it remains ~0.7, the downscaled dataset reproduces therefore satisfactorily the real chronology.

    Second, the influence of the choice of the RCM configuration has an influence one order of magnitude smaller than the improvement induced by the initial downscaling. The use of spectral nudging or of a smaller domain helps to improve the realism of the temporal chronology. Increasing the resolution very locally (both spatially and temporally improves the representation of spatial

  10. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  11. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Trace Gas Columns Derived from WRF/Chem Regional Model Output: Planning for Geostationary Observations of Atmospheric Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K.; Crawford, J.; Duncan, B.; Loughner, C.; Diskin, G.; Fried, A.; Weinheimer, A.

    2015-01-01

    We quantify both the spatial and temporal variability of column integrated O3, NO2, CO, SO2, and HCHO over the Baltimore / Washington, DC area using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting model with on-line chemistry (WRF/Chem) for the entire month of July 2011, coinciding with the first deployment of the NASA Earth Venture program mission Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ). Using structure function analyses, we find that the model reproduces the spatial variability observed during the campaign reasonably well, especially for O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument will be the first NASA mission to make atmospheric composition observations from geostationary orbit and partially fulfills the goals of the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission. We relate the simulated variability to the precision requirements defined by the science traceability matrices of these space-borne missions. Results for O3 from 0- 2 km altitude indicate that the TEMPO instrument would be able to observe O3 air quality events over the Mid-Atlantic area, even on days when the violations of the air quality standard are not widespread. The results further indicated that horizontal gradients in CO from 0-2 km would be observable over moderate distances (= 20 km). The spatial and temporal results for tropospheric column NO2 indicate that TEMPO would be able to observe not only the large urban plumes at times of peak production, but also the weaker gradients between rush hours. This suggests that the proposed spatial and temporal resolutions for these satellites as well as their prospective precision requirements are sufficient to answer the science questions they are tasked to address.

  13. Spatio-temporal analysis of the extreme precipitation by the L-moment-based index-flood method in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yixing; Chen, Haishan; Xu, Chongyu; Xu, Wucheng; Chen, Changchun

    2014-05-01

    The regionalization methods which 'trade space for time' by including several at-site data records in the frequency analysis are an efficient tool to improve the reliability of extreme quantile estimates. With the main aims of improving the understanding of the regional frequency of extreme precipitation and providing scientific and practical background and assistance in formulating the regional development strategies for water resources management in one of the most developed and flood-prone regions in China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, in this paper, L-moment-based index-flood (LMIF) method, one of the popular regionalization methods, is used in the regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation; attention was paid to inter-site dependence and its influence on the accuracy of quantile estimates, which hasn't been considered for most of the studies using LMIF method. Extensive data screening of stationarity, serial dependence and inter-site dependence was carried out first. The entire YRD region was then categorized into four homogeneous regions through cluster analysis and homogenous analysis. Based on goodness-of-fit statistic and L-moment ratio diagrams, Generalized extreme-value (GEV) and Generalized Normal (GNO) distributions were identified as the best-fit distributions for most of the sub regions. Estimated quantiles for each region were further obtained. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the accuracy of the quantile estimates taking inter-site dependence into consideration. The results showed that the root mean square errors (RMSEs) were bigger and the 90% error bounds were wider with inter-site dependence than those with no inter-site dependence for both the regional growth curve and quantile curve. The spatial patterns of extreme precipitation with return period of 100 years were obtained which indicated that there are two regions with the highest precipitation extremes (southeastern coastal area of Zhejiang Province and the

  14. Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L

    1981-03-01

    Specimens cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa in normal primate eyes are examined by light microscopy. The density of structural elements, consisting of crosswise-oriented connective-tissue trabeculae, is examined in different regions of the nerve head. It is noted that nasal more than temporal more than superior or inferior regions of the lamina cross section contain increased connective-tissue elements. This regional variation in nerve head anatomy is contrasted with susceptibility patterns of nerve head tissue to pressure elevation in both experimental and clinical glaucoma.

  15. Cortical inputs to the middle temporal visual area in New World owl monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerkevich CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Cerkevich,1 Christine E Collins,2 Jon H Kaas2 1Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition and Systems Neuroscience Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: We made eight retrograde tracer injections into the middle temporal visual area (MT of three New World owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae. These injections were placed across the representation of the retina in MT to allow us to compare the locations of labeled cells in other areas in order to provide evidence for any retinotopic organization in those areas. Four regions projected to MT: 1 early visual areas, including V1, V2, V3, the dorsolateral visual area, and the dorsomedial visual area, provided topographically organized inputs to MT; 2 all areas in the MT complex (the middle temporal crescent, the middle superior temporal area, and the fundal areas of the superior temporal sulcus projected to MT. Somewhat variably across injections, neurons were labeled in other parts of the temporal lobe; 3 regions in the location of the medial visual area, the posterior parietal cortex, and the lateral sulcus provided other inputs to MT; 4 finally, projections from the frontal eye field, frontal visual field, and prefrontal cortex were also labeled by our injections. These results further establish the sources of input to MT, and provide direct evidence within and across cases for retinotopic patterns of projections from early visual areas to MT. Keywords: middle temporal area, visual cortex, parietal cortex

  16. Semantic retrieval during overt picture description: Left anterior temporal or the parietal lobe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Leech, Robert; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-09-01

    Retrieval of semantic representations is a central process during overt speech production. There is an increasing consensus that an amodal semantic 'hub' must exist that draws together modality-specific representations of concepts. Based on the distribution of atrophy and the behavioral deficit of patients with the semantic variant of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration, it has been proposed that this hub is localized within both anterior temporal lobes (ATL), and is functionally connected with verbal 'output' systems via the left ATL. An alternative view, dating from Geschwind's proposal in 1965, is that the angular gyrus (AG) is central to object-based semantic representations. In this fMRI study we examined the connectivity of the left ATL and parietal lobe (PL) with whole brain networks known to be activated during overt picture description. We decomposed each of these two brain volumes into 15 regions of interest (ROIs), using independent component analysis. A dual regression analysis was used to establish the connectivity of each ROI with whole brain-networks. An ROI within the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (antSTS) was functionally connected to other parts of the left ATL, including anterior ventromedial left temporal cortex (partially attenuated by signal loss due to susceptibility artifact), a large left dorsolateral prefrontal region (including 'classic' Broca's area), extensive bilateral sensory-motor cortices, and the length of both superior temporal gyri. The time-course of this functionally connected network was associated with picture description but not with non-semantic baseline tasks. This system has the distribution expected for the production of overt speech with appropriate semantic content, and the auditory monitoring of the overt speech output. In contrast, the only left PL ROI that showed connectivity with brain systems most strongly activated by the picture-description task, was in the superior parietal lobe (supPL). This region

  17. Analysis on Spatio-Temporal Evolvement of Regional Economic Disparities Characteristics in Africa%非洲区域经济发展差异时空变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋大亮; 任则沛; 张振克

    2015-01-01

    Africa is an ancient continent with wide range of latitude, where there are many emerging economics. In order to figure out the characteristics of development of African economy and give the reference for multi-party coop-eration, this paper concentrates on regional economic unequal development in Africa. Based on the data of population and GDP, using Theil index mainly, in the consideration of industrial structure,the paper studies the regulation of spatial and temporal evolvement of regional economic disparities in five dif-ferent regions in Africa. At present, its most features are :(1) The regional economic disparitie in Africa had been decreasing from 2004 to 2012;(2)It is increasingly obvious that North Africa Region and South Africa Region have been economic centers in African continent among five regions .The regional disparity has been increased little, while the inter-region disparity has in-creased tremendously, which is the most significant contribution to regional economic disparity. The inter-region disparity in South Africa Region is the largest in Africa, followed by North Africa Region and Central Africa Region;(3) The influence of economic crisis is a mirror of industrial structure of regional economy. Political environment, affect economy directly or indirect-ly. The disparities of industrial structure and political turbulence play a important role in regional economic disparities.%非洲地区社会经济发展不平衡。以空间地理区位划分的五大区域为研究对象,利用泰尔指数对南非、北非、中非、西非和东非地区的进行差异性研究,结合各地区产业结构,分析区域经济时空变化的原因,发现:1)2004年~2012年,非洲区域总体经济差异呈现下降趋势,年际变化呈现出“减—增—减”的波动;2)区域内差异是影响区域总体差异的主导因素,其中南非地区内部差异贡献最大;3)各地区国家之间产业结构的差异与政治

  18. Reabilitação funcional e analgesia com uso de toxina botulínica A na síndrome dolorosa regional complexa tipo I do membro superior: relato de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Lauretti,Gabriela Rocha; Veloso,Fabrício dos Santos; Mattos,Anita Leocádia de

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Freqüentemente, soma-se ao quadro de alodínia e hiperalgesia em pacientes portadores de Síndrome Dolorosa Regional Complexa (SDRC) tipo I a incapacidade funcional do segmento acometido. Relatam-se dois casos de SDRC em que a aplicação de toxina botulínica-A como fármaco coadjuvante contribuiu na recuperação funcional motora do membro acometido. RELATO DOS CASOS: Duas pacientes portadoras de SDRC tipo I foram inicialmente avaliadas para controle da dor no membro supe...

  19. Temporal stability of growth and yield among Hevea genotypes introduced to a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Vinod

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in India now focus onnon-traditional regions for rubber cultivation. As a prelude for selection of genotypes for commercial cultivation, many introduced genotypes are being tested in genotype adaptation experiments in these regions. Present study,reports for the first time, growth and yield adaptation of 28 genotypes in a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India viz., the coastal Karnataka region. Agroclimate of this region was found favoring growth andestablishment of all the genotypes evaluated. However, not all the genotypes grew and yielded well. Only four genotypes, RRII 203, KRS 25, PB 260 and PB 235 showed good growth and yield. On grouping, the genotypes fell into categories of moderate high yielders, moderate low yielders and low yielders. The most popular variety of the traditional region, RRII 105 did not perform well in this region. Biological stability in growth and yield of RRII 203 and PB 260 was identified as stable and these genotypes were the best adapted. KRS 25 and PB 235 had unstable yielding pattern. The best identifiedgenotypes can be considered for extensive culture as single clone plantations or as major constituent of clone blends as well as parents in future breeding programmes. Other moderate stable yielders may be used for clone blending in smaller proportions and may be subjected to yield improvement.

  20. Temporal stability of growth and yield among Hevea genotypes introduced to a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Vinod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in India now focus on non-traditional regions for rubber cultivation. As a prelude for selection of genotypes for commercial cultivation, many introduced genotypes are being tested in genotype adaptation experiments in these regions. Present study, reports for the first time, growth and yield adaptation of 28 genotypes in a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India viz., the coastal Karnataka region. Agroclimate of this region was found favoring growth and establishment of all the genotypes evaluated. However, not all the genotypes grew and yielded well. Only four genotypes, RRII 203, KRS 25, PB 260 and PB 235 showed good growth and yield. On grouping, the genotypes fell into categories of moderate high yielders, moderate low yielders and low yielders. The most popular variety of the traditional region, RRII 105 did not perform well in this region. Biological stability in growth and yield of RRII 203 and PB 260 was identified as stable and these genotypes were the best adapted. KRS 25 and PB 235 had unstable yielding pattern. The best identified genotypes can be considered for extensive culture as single clone plantations or as major constituent of clone blends as well as parents in future breeding programmes. Other moderate stable yielders may be used for clone blending in smaller proportions and may be subjected to yield improvement.

  1. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study; Dysfonctionnement bitemporal dans l'autisme infantile: etude en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, N.; Poline, J.B.; Brunelle, F.; Zilbovicius, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, ER-M INSERM 0205, DSV, DRM CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Brunelle, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, 75 - Paris (France); Chabane, N. [Hopital Robert-Debre, Service de Pedopsychiatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Barthelemy, C.; Zilbovicius, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, INSERM Unite 316, 37 - Tours (France); Bourgeois, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Dept. de Pediatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Samson, Y. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie-Salpetriere, Service des Urgences Cerebraux Vasculaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-12-01

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  2. Combined cataract and glaucoma procedures using temporal cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J L; Van der Karr, M A; Sanders, V

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate whether separating the procedures in a combined procedure by performing a temporal cataract incision and superior trabeculectomy induces the lower astigmatism of a temporal cataract incision without sacrificing intraocular pressure (IOP) control. EyeSight Associates, Warner Robins, Georgia. This study evaluated 50 consecutive eyes receiving a superior cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy and 65 eyes receiving a temporal cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy. After 3 months, a substantially greater proportion of temporal incision cases had controlled IOP without medication. A substantially higher proportion in the superior incision group had uncontrolled IOP at each time period. Mean surgically induced cylinder was higher in the superior incision group at every time period. The superior group had early with-the-rule mean induced cylinder that decayed to against-the-rule, with a mean induced cylinder with keratometry at the final available visit (more than 3 months) of -1.01 diopter (D). The temporal group started with a negligible induced cylinder (-0.13 D) that drifted slightly with the rule to a final mean induced cylinder of +0.49 D. At the last visit, 31% in the superior incision group and 57% in the temporal incision group had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 72% and 94%, respectively, had a best corrected acuity of 20/40 or better. Separating the cataract and glaucoma procedures frees the surgeon to use newer astigmatically neutral techniques for the cataract incision.

  3. Evidence for a fluid flow triggered spatio-temporal migration of seismicity in the 2001 M$^w$ 7.7 Bhuj earthquake region, Gujarat, India, during 2001–2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prantik Mandal; Manish Kumar; Koushik Biswas

    2016-08-01

    We studied the variations in spatial and temporal clustering of earthquake activity (during 2001–2013) in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, India, by precisely relocating 3478 events using a joint hypocentral determination (JHD) relocation technique, and high-quality arrival times of 21032 P- and 20870 S-waves.Temporal disposition of estimated station corrections of P- and S-waves suggests that the fluid flow in the causative fault zone of the 2001 Bhuj mainshock increased during 2001–2010, while it reduced during 2011–2013, due to the healing process associated with the perturbed Kachchh fault zone. We also estimated the isotropic seismic diffusivities from epicentral growth patterns, which are found to bemuch lower than those observed for reservoir-induced seismicity sites in the world. Finally, we analysed the spatial and temporal evolution of this earthquake sequence by solving the diffusion equation of pore-pressure relaxation caused by co- and post-seismic stress changes associated with earthquakes. The value of the isotropic diffusivity is estimated to be 100 m2/s for the Kachchh rift zone. This gives a higher permeability (after a lapse time of 14 years from the occurrence of the 2001 Bhuj mainshock) in comparison to those observed for other intraplate regions in the world. Our results suggest that the observed spatio-temporal migration of seismicity is consistent with the shallow (meteoric water circulationat 0–10 km depths) and deeper (metamorphic fluid and volatile CO2 circulation at 10–40 km depths) fluid flows in the permeable and fractured causative fault zone of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake.

  4. PCB decline in settling particles and benthic recycling of PCBs and PAHs in Lake Superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremiason, J.D. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences]|[Chesapeake Biological Lab., Solomons, MD (United States); Eisenreich, S.J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Baker, J.E. [Chesapeake Biological Lab., Solomons, MD (United States); Eadie, B.J. [NOAA, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab.

    1998-11-01

    Sediment traps were deployed at fives sites in Lake Superior at multiple depths during lake stratification in 1987 and 1991. Mass, organic carbon, PCB, and PAH fluxes were determined. PCB concentrations on settling solids declined from 1984 to 1991 with a first-order rate constant of 0.26 yr{sup {minus}1} similar to reported water column concentration decreases. Total PCB settling fluxes from the upper 35 m of water averaged 121 {+-} 40 ng/m{sup 2}{center_dot}d in 1987 and 48 {+-} 23 ng/m{sup 2}{center_dot}d in 1991. Settling fluxes are greater than reported wet and dry deposition fluxes and demonstrate the intense recycling of PCBs within the lake. A large fraction of the total Lake Superior water PCB burden is transported each year by settling particles to within 5 m of the lake bottom, but only 2--5% of settling PCBs accumulate in bottom sediments. Thus, most of the PCBs are recycled in the benthic region, possibly representing a major entry point for PCBs into higher trophic levels through the benthic food web. Benthic recycling of PAH compounds with three and four rings occurred, but a larger fraction of these settling PAHs accumulated in bottom sediments. No consistent temporal trends were observed in PAH concentrations on settling particles from 1984 to 1991.

  5. Spatio-temporal variations in biochemical composition, condition index and percentage edibility of the clam, Paphia malabarica (Chemnitz) from estuarine regions of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagvenkar, S.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Biochemical compositions, condition index (CI) and percentage edibility (PE) of an estuarine clam, Paphia malabarica, were studied from two estuarine regions of Goa during March 2009 to March 2010. Relationships between nutritive components...

  6. Entidades fiscalizadoras superiores y accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS DE LA TESIS: El objetivo general del trabajo es establecer el nivel de eficacia de las Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores (EFS) como agencia asignada y herramienta de accountability horizontal, a través de la valoración de su diseño institucional y de la calidad de sus productos finales, los informes de auditoría, estableciéndose los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Relevar las nociones de accountability, actualizando el Estado del Arte de la cuestión. 2. Analizar la ...

  7. Current status and temporal trend of heavy metals in farmland soil of the Yangtze River Delta Region: Field survey and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Diwei; Zhan, Yu; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    While the spatial distributions of heavy metals in farmland soil of China have been comprehensively delineated, their temporal trends are rarely investigated but are important for environmental risk management. In this study, the current status and temporal trends of heavy metals in the farmland soil of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were evaluated through field survey and meta-analysis. The field survey conducted in 2014 showed that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni in the farmland topsoil were 0.23 ± 0.14, 37.63 ± 15.60, 25.83 ± 41.62, 88.38 ± 43.30, and 29.21 ± 12.41 mg kg(-1) (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. The heavy metals showed relatively higher concentrations on the borders among Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. In the meta-analysis, we selected 68 published studies related to heavy metal pollution in farmland topsoil of YRD from 2000 to the year (2014) when the field survey was conducted. The results show an increasing trend for Cd (p trend for Cu (p trend for Pb (p = 0.155), Zn (p = 0.746), and Ni (p = 0.305). The increasing rate of Cd from the meta-analysis is consistent with the rate (0.0013 mg kg(-1) year(-1)) derived from the mass balance calculation for Cd, where atmospheric deposition originated from intensive coal combustion is considered as the main source of Cd in the topsoil. The decreasing trend of Cu is likely due to largely reduced application of copper-based agrochemicals. Environmental regulation and soil remediation are needed to protect food safety and ecosystem from heavy metal pollution, especially Cd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal and spatial variation of annual mean air temperature in arid and semiarid region in northwest China over a recent 46 year period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the 1961-2006 mean surface air temperature data of 138 stations in China’s northwest arid and semi-arid areas(CNASA),to measure climate change in terms of annual mean air temperature changes.We used methods of linear regression analysis,multinomial fitting,Empirical Or-thogonal Function(EOF),Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function(REOF),Mann-Kendall,Glide T-examination,wavelet analysis and power spectrum analysis.The results show that(1) the warming rate of the annual mean air temperature in CNASA was 0.35oC/10a during the 1961-2006 study period.Some places in the west part of Xinjiang and east part of the Qinghai plateau,which is impacted by the terrain of leeward slope,exhibit smaller increasing trends.However,the majority of region has shown distinct warming in line with general global warming;(2) The standard deviation of the annual mean temperature distribution is non-uniform.The south Xinjiang and east Qinghai-south Gansu areas show relatively small standard deviations,but the inter-annual variation in annual mean air temperature in the greater part of the region is high;(3) Inner Mongolia,Shaanxi,Gansu,Ningxia and Tarim Basin are the areas where the temperature changes are most sensitive to the environment.The degree of uniformity in annual mean air temperature increase is higher in the arid and semi-arid area.From the early 1970s,the trend in tempera-ture changed from a decrease to an increase,and there was a marked increase in mean temperature in 1986.After that mean temperature went through a period of rapid increase.The entire area’s 10 hottest years all occurred in or since the 1990s,and 90% of various sub-districts’ hottest years also occurred after 1990.The process of temperature change appears to have a roughly 5-year and a 10-year cycle;(4) An-nual mean air temperature variation has regional differences.In Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang and Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia-Qinghai areas,the temperature variation in their northern areas was very

  9. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  11. Multi-temporal monitoring of a regional riparian buffer network (>12,000 km) with LiDAR and photogrammetric point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lejeune, Philippe; Claessens, Hugues

    2017-02-24

    Riparian buffers are of major concern for land and water resource managers despite their relatively low spatial coverage. In Europe, this concern has been acknowledged by different environmental directives which recommend multi-scale monitoring (from local to regional scales). Remote sensing methods could be a cost-effective alternative to field-based monitoring, to build replicable "wall-to-wall" monitoring strategies of large river networks and associated riparian buffers. The main goal of our study is to extract and analyze various parameters of the riparian buffers of up to 12,000 km of river in southern Belgium (Wallonia) from three-dimensional (3D) point clouds based on LiDAR and photogrammetric surveys to i) map riparian buffers parameters on different scales, ii) interpret the regional patterns of the riparian buffers and iii) propose new riparian buffer management indicators. We propose different strategies to synthesize and visualize relevant information at different spatial scales ranging from local (12,000 km). Our results showed that the selected parameters had a clear regional pattern. The reaches of Ardenne ecoregion have channels with the highest flow widths and shallowest depths. In contrast, the reaches of the Loam ecoregion have the narrowest and deepest flow channels. Regional variability in channel width and depth is used to locate management units potentially affected by human impact. Riparian forest of the Loam ecoregion is characterized by the lowest longitudinal continuity and mean tree height, underlining significant human disturbance. As the availability of 3D point clouds at the regional scale is constantly growing, our study proposes reproducible methods which can be integrated into regional monitoring by land managers. With LiDAR still being relatively expensive to acquire, the use of photogrammetric point clouds combined with LiDAR data is a cost-effective means to update the characterization of the riparian forest conditions.

  12. Establishing temporally and spatially variable soil hydraulic data for use in a runoff simulation in a loess region of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Veerman, G.J.; Hamminga, W.

    1996-01-01

    Soil hydraulic functions for run-off simulation were collected in catchment areas in a loess region. Each soil horizon was sampled and water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics were determined. Run-off generation during standard rain events was quantified by simulation. Based on the

  13. Temporal constraints on the kinematics of the destabilization of an orogen : syn- to post-orogenic extensional collapse of the Northern Aegean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, A.L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is situated at the interface of the African and Eurasian plates and has been shaped by the Alpine Orogeny and the subsequent post-orogenic extension during the convergence and collision of the African and Eurasian plates. Numerous tectonic studies have focussed on the role o

  14. Identification of brain regions predicting epileptogenesis by serial [18F]GE-180 positron emission tomography imaging of neuroinflammation in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Russmann

    2017-01-01

    In conclusion, the data provide evidence that [18F]GE-180 PET brain imaging can serve as a biomarker of epileptogenesis. The identification of brain regions with predictive value might facilitate the development of preventive concepts as well as the early assessment of the interventional success. Future studies are necessary to further confirm the predictivity of the approach.

  15. Simultaneous in vivo synchrotron radiation computed tomography of regional ventilation and blood volume in rabbit lung using combined K-edge and temporal subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhonen, H [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Porra, L [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Bayat, S [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Faculte de Medecine, PERITOX (EA-INI RIS) and Cardiologie et Pneumo-Allerglogie Pediatriques, CHU Amiens (France); Sovijaervi, A R A [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Suortti, P [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-02-07

    In K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging with synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT), two images are taken simultaneously using energies above and below the K-absorption edge of a contrast agent. A logarithmic difference image reveals the contrast agent concentration with good accuracy. Similarly, in temporal subtraction imaging (TSI) the reference image is taken before the introduction of the contrast agent. Quantitative comparisons of in vivo images of rabbit lung indicated that similar results for concentrations of iodine in blood vessels and xenon in airways are obtained by KES and TSI, but the level of noise and artifacts was higher in the latter. A linear fit showed that in the lung parenchyma {rho}{sub TSI} = (0.97 {+-} 0.03){rho}{sub KES} + (0.00 {+-} 0.05) for xenon and {rho}{sub TSI} = (1.21 {+-} 0.15){rho}{sub KES} + (0.0 {+-} 0.1) for iodine. For xenon the calculation of time constant of ventilation gave compatible values for both of the methods. The two methods are combined for the simultaneous determination of the xenon concentration (by KES) and the iodine concentration (by TSI) in lung imaging, which will allow simultaneous in vivo determination of ventilation and perfusion.

  16. A tale of two neglected tropical infections: using GIS to assess the spatial and temporal overlap of schistosomiasis and leprosy in a region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David Alexander; Ferreira, José Antonio; Ansah, Deidra; Teixeira, Herica Sa; Kitron, Uriel; Filippis, Thelma de; Alcântara, Marcelo H de; Fairley, Jessica K

    2017-04-01

    Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. Data on new cases of Mycobacterium leprae and Schistosoma mansoni infections from 2007-2014 were retrieved from the Brazilian national notifiable diseases information system for seven municipalities in and surrounding Vespasiano, MG. A total of 139 cases of leprosy and 200 cases of schistosomiasis were mapped to a municipality level. For one municipality, cases were mapped to a neighborhood level and a stratified analysis was conducted to identify spatial associations. A relative risk of 6.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46 - 31.64] of leprosy was found in neighborhoods with schistosomiasis. Incidence rates of leprosy increased with corresponding incidence rates of schistosomiasis, and the temporal trends of both infections were similar. The associations found in this project support the hypothesis that helminth infections may influence the transmission of leprosy in co-endemic areas.

  17. A tale of two neglected tropical infections: using GIS to assess the spatial and temporal overlap of schistosomiasis and leprosy in a region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David Alexander; Ferreira, José Antonio; Ansah, Deidra; Teixeira, Herica SA; Kitron, Uriel; de Filippis, Thelma; de Alcântara, Marcelo H; Fairley, Jessica K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. METHODS Data on new cases of Mycobacterium leprae and Schistosoma mansoni infections from 2007-2014 were retrieved from the Brazilian national notifiable diseases information system for seven municipalities in and surrounding Vespasiano, MG. A total of 139 cases of leprosy and 200 cases of schistosomiasis were mapped to a municipality level. For one municipality, cases were mapped to a neighborhood level and a stratified analysis was conducted to identify spatial associations. FINDINGS A relative risk of 6.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46 - 31.64] of leprosy was found in neighborhoods with schistosomiasis. Incidence rates of leprosy increased with corresponding incidence rates of schistosomiasis, and the temporal trends of both infections were similar. CONCLUSIONS The associations found in this project support the hypothesis that helminth infections may influence the transmission of leprosy in co-endemic areas. PMID:28327791

  18. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Paludo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 is endangered in the Brazilian Atlantic coast due to indiscriminate hunting practiced in the past, and to the low reproductive rate of the species. This work studies its use of space and temporal occurrence in the coastal area of Sagi, Northeastern Brazil. Daily observations from the beach of the animals in the sea were made during daytime from 1990 through 1993. The presence of reefs covered with marine algae is a determinant factor in the occurrence of the manatee. They were sighted feeding on algae that grow over the reefs close to beaches that were of high energy during high tide. The range used by manatees shifted according to tide. They occur in depths of 0.4 to 3.8 m; the distance from the beach varies according to the tide level. They show marked seasonality of occurrence, with higher frequencies in December - January and lowest in June - July. Two possible causes of the seasonal occurrence are discussed. Sagi is important for the conservation of the species in Northeastern Brazil as feeding and reproductive grounds.

  19. Spatial-temporal variation in orchid bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in remnants of arboreal Caatinga in the Chapada Diamantina region, state of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Silva, A C R; Nemésio, A; de Oliveira, F F; Nascimento, F S

    2012-08-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of organisms is a fundamental aspect of biological communities. The present study focused on three remnants of arboreal Caatinga in northeastern Brazil between May, 2009 and April, 2010. A total of 627 euglossine males were captured in traps baited with artificial aromatic compounds. The specimens belonged to 14 species and four genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, Eufriesea Cockerell, and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (41.6), Euglossa carolina Nemésio (15.3%), Eulaema marcii Nemésio (13.6%), and Euglossa melanotricha Moure (12.8%) were the most common species sampled. The distribution of collected specimens per fragment was as follows: Braúna (280 ha)--259 individuals belonging to 14 species; Cambuí (179 ha)--161 individuals from eight species; and Pindoba (100 ha)--207 individuals represented by seven species. Braúna had the highest diversity (H' = 1.91) and estimated species richness. The largest fragment was the main source of the observed variation in species richness and abundance, indicating a non-random pattern of spatial distribution. The analysis of environmental factors indicated that seasonal variation in these factors was the principal determinant of species occurrence and abundance.

  20. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  1. BRING THE SUPERIORITY OF PROFESSION AND REGION INTO PLAY OPEN UP NEW DOMAIN OF ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT ——The Tentative Plan of Building the Mineral Network Station%发挥行业和地域优势开辟经济发展新领域 ——矿业网站的建设设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    息飏; 张明平

    2001-01-01

    Network economy has already been a new representation of social productive forces. Guangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development should been use the superiority of profession and region, participate in the network economy positively, open up the mineral market, and the tentative plan of building the mineral network station has been proposed in this paper.%网络经济已成为新的社会生产力的代表。广西地质矿产勘查开发局应该利用其行业和地域方面的固有优势,积极参与网络经济,以期打开矿业市场。文章提出了建立矿业网站的设想和框架。

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of plantation forests in the United States since the 1930s: an annual and gridded data set for regional Earth system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Hayes, Daniel J.; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-01

    Plantation forest area in the conterminous United States (CONUS) ranked second among the world's nations in the land area apportioned to forest plantation. As compared to the naturally regenerated forests, plantation forests demonstrate significant differences in biophysical characteristics, and biogeochemical and hydrological cycles as a result of more intensive management practices. Inventory data have been reported for multiple time periods on plot, state, and regional scales across the CONUS, but the requisite annual and spatially explicit plantation data set over a long-term period for analysis of the role of plantation management on regional or national scales is lacking. Through synthesis of multiple inventory data sources, this study developed methods to spatialize the time series plantation forest and tree species distribution data for the CONUS over the 1928-2012 time period. According to this new data set, plantation forest area increased from near zero in the 1930s to 268.27 thousand km2 in 2012, accounting for 8.65 % of the total forestland area in the CONUS. Regionally, the South contained the highest proportion of plantation forests, accounting for about 19.34 % of total forestland area in 2012. This time series and gridded data set developed here can be readily applied in regional Earth system modeling frameworks for assessing the impacts of plantation management practices on forest productivity, carbon and nitrogen stocks, and greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and water fluxes on regional or national scales. The gridded plantation distribution and tree species maps, and the interpolated state-level annual tree planting area and plantation area during 1928-2012, are available from https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873558.

  3. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  4. Temporal Difference Updating without a Learning Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    We derive an equation for temporal difference learning from statistical principles. Specifically, we start with the variational principle and then bootstrap to produce an updating rule for discounted state value estimates. The resulting equation is similar to the standard equation for temporal difference learning with eligibility traces, so called TD(lambda), however it lacks the parameter alpha that specifies the learning rate. In the place of this free parameter there is now an equation for the learning rate that is specific to each state transition. We experimentally test this new learning rule against TD(lambda) and find that it offers superior performance in various settings. Finally, we make some preliminary investigations into how to extend our new temporal difference algorithm to reinforcement learning. To do this we combine our update equation with both Watkins' Q(lambda) and Sarsa(lambda) and find that it again offers superior performance without a learning rate parameter.

  5. Distribuição temporal e espacial de anuros em área de Pampa, Santa Maria, RS Temporal and spatial distribution of anurans in the Pampa Region (Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Gomes dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    íodo mais quente do ano. Estes resultados revelaram que as variáveis climatológicas testadas explicaram muito pouco da ocorrência sazonal das espécies, assim a influência de outras variáveis ambientais merece ser testada em estudos futuros.The present study aimed to determine the richness, occurrence constancy, reproductive modes, standard of abundance distribution, season of vocalization and to test correlation among climatic variables and activity of vocalization of anurans in a region of the Pampa Biome, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State. During the period of November/2001 to October/2002 monthly collections were carried out utilizing the ‘survey at breeding site’ method and examination of specimens kept in the Coleção Herpetológica do Setor de Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (ZUFSM. The occurrence of 25 species of anurans was recorded. The anurofauna recorded represents 30% of the species known to occur in Rio Grande do Sul, and comprises species generally associated with grasslands in this state and neighboring countries. Four reproductive modes were recorded: mode 1 (14 species; 58.3%; mode 11 and 30 (9 species; 37.5% and mode 24 (1 species; 4.2%. The low diversification of reproductive modes is likely related to the homogeneity of the grassland habitat. Most species were constant or accessory in the study area and the species abundance distribution patterns fit in the Broken Stick and Log-normal models, characterized by homogeneity of species abundance distribution. Most species showed great plasticity in habitat, but few were plastic in vocalization sites use. There was a weak positive correlation between species richness and precipitation. There was also a weak positive correlation between the abundance of species calling activity and maximum average temperatures. These correlations indicated that, in the study area, the abundance of calling males is more affected by the temperature, and species richness is more affected by

  6. Differential involvement of the anterior temporal lobes in famous people semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Chedid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize a famous person occurs through semantic memory. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs are involved in the recognition of famous people. However, it is still a matter of debate whether the semantic processing of names or pictures of famous people has an impact on the activation of ATLs. The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of activation associated with a semantic processing of famous people based on face and written name stimuli. Fifteen healthy young individuals participated in our fMRI study, in which they were asked to perform a semantic categorization judgement task, based on profession, of visually presented pictures and names of famous people. Neuroimaging findings showed a common pattern of activation for faces and names mainly involving the inferior frontal regions, the posterior temporal lobe, the visual cortex and the anterior temporal lobes. We found that the comparison names vs. pictures lead to significant activation in the anterior superior temporal gyrus. On the other hand, faces vs. names seemed associated with increased activation in the medial ATL. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the functional connectivity network anchored to the medial ATL, compared to the anterior STG, is more connected to the bilateral occipital lobe and fusiform gyrus that are regions implicated in the visual system and visual processing of faces. This study provides critical evidence of the differential involvement of ATL regions in semantics of famous people.

  7. Is the Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique Superior to the Free Breathing Technique in Cardiac and Lung Sparing while Treating both Left-Sided Post-Mastectomy Chest Wall and Supraclavicular Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Darapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of the deep inspirational breath-hold (DIBH technique and its dosimetric advantages over the free breathing (FB technique in cardiac (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD] and ipsilateral lung sparing in left-sided post-mastectomy field-in-field conformal radiotherapy. DIBH is highly reproducible, and this study aims to find out its dosimetric benefits over FB. Materials and Methods: Nineteen left-sided mastectomy patients were immobilized using breast boards with both arms positioned above the head. All patients had 2 sets of planning CT images (one in FB and another in DIBH with a Biograph TruePoint HD CT scanner in the same setup. DIBH was performed by tracking the respiratory cycles using a Varian Real-Time Position Management system. The target (chest wall and supraclavicular region, organs at risk (OARs; ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, heart, LAD, and contralateral breast, and other organs of interests were delineated as per the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring guidelines. The single-isocenter conformal fields in the field treatment plans were generated with the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (Varian Medical Systems for both FB and DIBH images, and the doses to the target and OARs were compared. The standard fractionation regimen of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over a period of 5 weeks was used for all patients in this study. Results and Discussion: The target coverage parameters (V95, V105, V107, and Dmean were found to be 97.8 ± 0.9, 6.1 ± 3.4, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.5% in the FB plans and 98.1 ± 0.8, 6.1 ± 3.2, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.4% in the DIBH plans, respectively. The plan quality indices (conformity index and homogeneity index also showed 1.3 ± 0.2 and 0.1 for the FB plans and 1.2 ± 0.3 and 0.1 for the DIBH plans, respectively. There was a significant reduction in dose to the heart in the DIBH plans compared to the FB plans, with p values of nearly 0 for the

  8. Linking white matter integrity loss to associated cortical regions using structural connectivity information in Alzheimer's disease and fronto-temporal dementia: the Loss in Connectivity (LoCo) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Zhang, Yu; Raj, Ashish

    2012-07-16

    It is well known that gray matter changes occur in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's (AD) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), and several studies have investigated their respective patterns of atrophy progression. Recent work, however, has revealed that diffusion MRI that is able to detect white matter integrity changes may be an earlier or more sensitive biomarker in both diseases. However, studies that examine white matter changes only are limited in that they do not provide the functional specificity of GM region-based analysis. In this study, we develop a new metric called the Loss in Connectivity (LoCo) score that gives the amount of structural network disruption incurred by a gray matter region for a particular pattern of white matter integrity loss. Leveraging the relative strengths of WM and GM markers, this metric links areas of WM integrity loss to their connected GM regions as a first step in understanding their functional implications. The LoCo score is calculated for three groups: 18AD, 18 FTD, and 19 age-matched normal controls. We show significant correlations of the LoCo with the respective atrophy patterns in AD (R=0.51, p=2.2 × 10(-9)) and FTD (R=0.49, p=2.5 × 10(-8)) for a standard 116 region gray matter atlas. In addition, we demonstrate that the LoCo outperforms a measure of gray matter atrophy when classifying individuals into AD, FTD, and normal groups.

  9. Estudo de lidocaína a 0,5% e combinação de lidocaína a 0,25% com fentanil e vecurônio em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias de membros superiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh MCB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV para cirurgias de membros superiores com a tradicional alta dose de lidocaína pode levar a efeitos colaterais potencialmente letais. A fim de evitar esses efeitos, muitas técnicas modificadas de ARIV foram experimentadas com o uso de uma dose baixa de lidocaína, relaxante muscular e opioide. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo foi feito com 60 pacientes não medicados previamente, com classificação ASA 1-2, para comparar as características sensoriais e motoras, os parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e os efeitos colaterais durante o período intraoperatório e de deflação pós-torniquete entre os pacientes que receberam 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,5% (n = 30 e aqueles que receberam uma combinação de 40 mL de lidocaína a 0,25% com 0,05 mg de fentanil e 0,5 mg de vecurônio (n = 30 em ARIV para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores. Os resultados foram analisados com o uso do teste t de Student pareado para identificar a significância estatística. RESULTADO: A diferença entre os dois grupos em relação ao tempo médio de início e completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor foi estatisticamente significante. Porém, houve completo bloqueio sensitivo e motor em ambos os grupos 15 minutos após a injeção da solução anestésica. CONCLUSÃO: Embora a pequena demora observada no início e na obtenção completa dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor possa, teoricamente, atrasar o início da cirurgia em 10-15 minutos, clinicamente esse tempo seria gasto na preparação do campo cirúrgico. Portanto, essa combinação pode ser usada com segurança e eficácia em anestesia regional intravenosa para cirurgias ortopédicas de membros superiores com menor possibilidade de toxicidade anestésica local.

  10. [Medial septal region as a target for modulation of seizure discharges in the hippocampus in a model of acute temporal lobe epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichigina, V F; Butuzova, M V; Sinel'nikova, V V

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of changes in the hippocampal EEG produced by GABAergic and cholinergic substances delivered into the medial septum region was performed in awake rabbits. Changes in the threshold of seizure discharges in the hippocampus evoked by perforant path stimulation (model of acute epilepsy) were also examined. Injections of GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin or agonist of cholinergic receptors carbacholine in low doses induced an increase in the power of delta- and theta modulation and appearance of 7-12-Hz oscillations. The threshold of hippocampal seizure afterdischarges decreased. In higher doses, these substances evoked 7-15-Hz oscillations followed by seizures. GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine decreased the power of the theta rhythm and increased the seizure threshold. Picrotoxin or carbacholine injected after muscimol or scopolamine, respectively, did not evoke seizures. Thus, we have shown the possibility to control hippocampal activity by local changes in the GABAergic and cholinergic systems of the medial septum region.

  11. The Role of Lake-Dotted Landscapes in Regional Climate Change as Illustrated by Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Historic Lake-Level Change in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, C. P.; Shuman, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    The relatively young Holocene landscape of the upper Midwest contains over 37,900 lakes in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota alone. Within the state of Minnesota, the inland lakes (excluding the coast of Lake Superior) combine to cover over 9815 km2 of area. This open water surface area constitutes 4.57% of the total state area and represents a significant expression of the moisture available to the landscape. However, the physical dimensions of lakes fluctuate significantly as moisture balance changes. We use observations of temperature, precipitation, and lake area taken from the 1930's "Dust Bowl" drought in Minnesota to investigate and quantify the impact of spatially coherent changes in lake area and volume on the land- atmosphere feedbacks that perpetuate drought conditions. A hypothetical lake-level change of 1m in all lakes (based on an observed behaviour of 1 to 5m of lake level change) yields an estimated change in sensible heating of 3 °C if the energy used to warm this total volume of water to 20 °C is instead used to warm a state- wide 1km tall column of air. It is compelling that this heuristic estimate of temperature change matches well with observed summer and fall temperature anomalies of 2-3 °C on a per climate division basis. To test and refine this result we generated a state wide map of lake area change from geo-referenced aerial photos taken at the end of the 1930's drought. The aerial response of over 500 small (accounting for .89 +/- .45 °C of the observed state-wide increase (decrease) in sensible heat in summer (winter) months. This calculated value compares favourably with the state-wide temperature anomalies observed between the dry late 1930's and wet intervals of the mid-forties, late-seventies and mid-nineties. A comparison of temperature anomalies between climate divisions with high and low percentages of lake area is also consistent with the above calculation, indicating that the calculated effect of surface water loss on

  12. Hyperspectral data for assessment of temporal changes in Norway spruce forest conditions in the mountainous region of the Czech Republic affected by long-term acidic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Misurec, J.; Kopackova, V.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Edwards-Jonasova, M.; Kupkova, L.; Cervena, L.; Potuckova, M.; Cudlin, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Ore Mts. located in the western part of the Czech Republic suffered during 1950's-1990´s heavy atmospheric pollution due to the mining activities and brown coal combustion. Acidic deposition in combination with harsh climatic conditions led there to large-scale forest decline. Although the load of SO2 has significantly decreased since 1991, tree damage was still visible in 1998 in terms of high defoliation or dead trees. Nowadays Norway spruce trees do not exhibit visible symptoms of damage but the full recovery of Norway spruce forests is not complete yet due to persisting adverse soil conditions. The temporal changes in the physiological status of Norway spruce forests in the Krušné Hory Mts. were evaluated using two sets of spectral images acquired in 1998 (ASAS) and in 2013 (APEX) and ground truth data (LAI, tree crown status, photosynthetic pigment contents, leaf spectral properties measured by spectroradiometer, soil properties - pH, contents of basic cations, heavy metals, etc.). Ground truth data were evaluated by unconstrained and constrained multivariate analyses using Canoco 5. The high resolution spectral images (ASAS and APEX) enabled the identification of a gradient of forest conditions and their comparison. In 1998 the stands exhibited different physiological status corresponding to the pollution gradient with healthier trees at the western part of the mountains. Analysis of the foliar chemistry in 2013 show a slight improvement of the Norway spruce physiological status in the eastern part of the mountains while the status of the western-located stands slightly worsened. In 2013 we also studied the differences in soil geochemical conditions, which appeared to be less favorable in the western part of the mountains characterized by a low base cation contents in the top organic horizon and a very low pH (pH<3).

  13. Tracing the temporal and spatial origins of island endemics in the Mediterranean region: a case study from the citrus family (Ruta L., Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Gabriele; Ho, Simon Y W; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Ree, Richard; Conti, Elena

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the origin of island endemics is a central task of historical biogeography. Recent methodological advances provide a rigorous framework to determine the relative contribution of different biogeographic processes (e.g., vicariance, land migration, long-distance dispersal) to the origin of island endemics. With its complex but well-known history of microplate movements and climatic oscillations, the Mediterranean region (including the Mediterranean basin and Macaronesia) provides the geographic backdrop for the diversification of Ruta L., the type genus of Rutaceae (citrus family). Phylogenetic, molecular dating, and ancestral range reconstruction analyses were carried out to investigate the extent to which past geological connections and climatic history of the Mediterranean region explain the current distribution of species in Ruta, with emphasis on its island endemics. The analyses showed that Ruta invaded the region from the north well before the onset of the Mediterranean climate and diversified in situ as the climate became Mediterranean. The continental fragment island endemics of the genus originated via processes of land migration/vicariance driven by connections/disconnections between microplates, whereas the oceanic island endemics were the product of a single colonization event from the mainland followed by in situ diversification. This study emphasizes the need for an integrative, hypothesis-based approach to historical biogeography and stresses the importance of temporary land connections and colonization opportunity in the biotic assembly of continental fragment and oceanic islands, respectively.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Impact Factors for Vegetation Carbon Sequestration and Oxygen Production Based on Rocky Desertification Control in the Karst Region of Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grain to Green Program (GTGP and eco-environmental emigration have been employed to alleviate poverty and control rocky desertification in the Southwest China Karst region. Carbon sequestration and oxygen production (CSOP is used to indicate major ecological changes, because they involve complex processes of material circulation and energy flow. Using remote sensing images and weather records, the spatiotemporal variation of CSOP was analyzed in a typical karst region of northwest Guangxi, China, during 2000–2010 to determine the effects of the Chinese government’s ecological rehabilitation initiatives implemented in 1999. An increase with substantial annual change and a significant increase (20.94%, p < 0.05 in variation were found from 2000 to 2010. CSOP had a highly clustered distribution in 2010 and was correlated with precipitation and temperature (9.18% and 8.96%, respectively, p < 0.05. CSOP was significantly suppressed by human activities (p < 0.01, r = −0.102 but was consistent with the intensity of GTGP (43.80% positive. The power spectrum of CSOP was consistent with that of the gross domestic product. These results indicate that ecological services were improved by rocky desertification control in a typical karst region. The results may provide information to evaluate the efficiency of ecological reconstruction projects.

  15. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  17. Subtemporal transtentorial approach for excision of tumors in mid-superior petroclival region: a report of 43 cases%颞下经小脑幕入路手术切除中上岩斜区肿瘤(附43例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢学民; 杨文涛; 夏勋; 马原; 赵凯; 张修忠; 林龙; 曾凡俊; 顾建文; 孔滨; 匡永勤; 贺伟旗; 程敬民; 杨涛; 程林; 黄海东

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨颢下经小脑幕入路切除中上岩斜区肿瘤的手术技巧.方法 回顾性分析2003年6月- 2010年4月收治的43例中上岩斜区肿瘤,其中男19例,女24例,年龄23~64岁,平均42岁,病程2个月-3年,平均14个月,均采用颞下经小脑幕入路,对肿瘤与中上岩斜区毗邻结构关系进行评估,分离肿瘤与天幕及岩斜部脑膜的近端粘连,由近及远分块切除肿瘤,逐渐分离扩大脑干、下视丘、海绵窦与肿瘤之间的间隙,避免直接接触上述重要结构,彻底切除肿瘤.观察术后疗效和并发症.结果 43例患者中肿瘤完全切除31例(72.1%),次全切除7例(16.3%),大部切除5例(11.6%),死亡1例(2.3%).23例术后出现部分神经功能障碍.术后随访3~48个月,神经功能障碍均得到不同程度恢复.结论 颞下经小脑幕入路切除中上岩斜区肿瘤具有手术路径短、容易暴露的优点.缩小肿瘤体积、扩大操作空间是此类手术的关键.%Objective To explore the surgical technique for excision of mid-superior petroclival region tumor through subtemporal transtentorial approach. Methods Forty-three patients with tumor at superior-middle petroclival region hospitalized from Jun. 20003 to Apr. 2010 were involved in present study, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 43 patients, 19 were male and 24 were female, age ranged from 23 to 64 vears (with mean of 42 vears) , disease duration ranged from 2 months to 3 years (with average of 14 months). All the patients underwent tumor resection via subtemporal transtentorial approach. The relationship between tumors and adjacent superior-middle petroclival structures was evaluated, and then the adhesion between tumor and tentorium cerebelli or petroclival memnges was separated, the tumor was resected piecemeal from closest area to distant part. The arachnoidal planes between tumor and brain stem, hypothalamus, or cavernous was dissected to enlarge the gap between the

  18. Regional climate assessment of precipitation and temperature in Southern Punjab (Pakistan) using SimCLIM climate model for different temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Asad; Nasim, Wajid; Mubeen, Muhammad; Sarwar, Saleem; Urich, Peter; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Wajid, Aftab; Khaliq, Tasneem; Rasul, Fahd; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Rehmani, Muhammad Ishaq Asif; Mubarak, Hussani; Mirza, Nosheen; Wahid, Abdul; Ahamd, Shakeel; Fahad, Shah; Ullah, Abid; Khan, Mohammad Nauman; Ameen, Asif; Amanullah; Shahzad, Babar; Saud, Shah; Alharby, Hesham; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Adnan, Muhammad; Islam, Faisal; Ali, Qazi Shoaib

    2016-10-01

    Unbalanced climate during the last decades has created spatially alarming and destructive situations in the world. Anomalies in temperature and precipitation enhance the risks for crop production in large agricultural region (especially the Southern Punjab) of Pakistan. Detailed analysis of historic weather data (1980-2011) record helped in creating baseline data to compare with model projection (SimCLIM) for regional level. Ensemble of 40 GCMs used for climatic projections with greenhouse gas (GHG) representative concentration pathways (RCP-4.5, 6.0, 8.5) was selected on the baseline comparison and used for 2025 and 2050 climate projection. Precipitation projected by ensemble and regional weather observatory at baseline showed highly unpredictable nature while both temperature extremes showed 95 % confidence level on a monthly projection. Percentage change in precipitation projected by model with RCP-4.5, RCP-6.0, and RCP-8.5 showed uncertainty 3.3 to 5.6 %, 2.9 to 5.2 %, and 3.6 to 7.9 % for 2025 and 2050, respectively. Percentage change of minimum temperature from base temperature showed that 5.1, 4.7, and 5.8 % for 2025 and 9.0, 8.1, and 12.0 % increase for projection year 2050 with RCP-4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 and maximum temperature 2.7, 2.5, and 3.0 % for 2025 and 4.7, 4.4, and 6.4 % for 2050 will be increased with RCP-4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, respectively. Uneven increase in precipitation and asymmetric increase in temperature extremes in future would also increase the risk associated with management of climatic uncertainties. Future climate projection will enable us for better risk management decisions.

  19. Spatio-temporal variation of erosion-type non-point source pollution in a small watershed of hilly and gully region, Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Xia; Ma, Xiao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in the hilly and gully region of Chinese Loess Plateau not only decreases the utilization rate of fertilizer but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the process of erosion-type non-point source (NPS) pollution in Majiagou watershed of Loess Plateau, a distributed, dynamic, and integrated NPS pollution model was established to investigate impacts of returning farmland on erosion-type NPS pollution load from 1995 to 2012. Results indicate that (1) the integrated model proposed in this study was verified to be reasonable; the general methodology is universal and can be applicable to the hilly and gully region, Loess Plateau; (2) the erosion-type NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load showed an overall decreasing trend; the average nitrogen and phosphorus load modulus in the last four years (2009-2012) were 1.23 and 1.63 t/km(2) · a, respectively, which were both decreased by about 35.4 % compared with the initial treatment period (1995-1998); and (3) The spatial variations of NPS pollution are closely related to spatial characteristics of rainfall, topography, and soil and land use types; the peak regions of TN and TP loss mainly occurred along the main river banks of the Yanhe River watershed from northeast to southeast, and gradually decreased with the increase of distance to the left and right river banks, respectively. Results may provide scientific basis for the watershed-scale NPS pollution control of the Loess Plateau.

  20. Comparison of temporal trends from multiple soil moisture data sets and precipitation: The implication of irrigation on regional soil moisture trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianxiu; Gao, Quanzhou; Wang, Sheng; Su, Zhenrong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, soil moisture trend during 1996-2010 in China was analyzed based on three soil moisture data sets, namely microwave-based multi-satellite surface soil moisture product released from European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI), ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis, and in-situ measurements collected from the nationwide agro-meteorological network. Taking the in-situ soil moisture as reference, it is found that ESA CCI generally captured soil moisture trend more accurately than ERA-Interim/Land did. From the spatial distribution of trend analysis results, it is seen that significant decreasing trend for summer soil moisture in northwestern China and northern Inner Mongolia, as well as the significant increasing trend for autumn soil moisture in northern China were identified by both ESA CCI and ERA-Interim/Land. This is in alignment with results from gauge-based precipitation provided by Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR) and satellite-based precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, disagreements in derived trends between ESA CCI, ERA-Interim/Land and IGSNRR were observed in the southwest and north of China, especially in major irrigation regions, such as the oases in northern Xinjiang and large areas in Sichuan province. Prominent difference between soil moisture and precipitation exhibited in the extensively irrigated Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. The spatial coincidence between significantly wetting areas (identified by ESA CCI) and heavily irrigated areas, as well as the grid-based Student's t-test sampling from various irrigation levels revealed that the observed discrepancy was caused by massive anthropogenic interference in this region. Results indicate that, for regions with great magnitude of human interference, modules considering actual irrigation practice are crucial for successful modeling of soil moisture and capturing the long-term trend. Furthermore, results could

  1. Spatio-Temporal Description of the Rainfall for Colombian Andean Mountainous Region for Weather Forecasting Purposes. Case Study: Manizales - Caldas, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez Hincapie, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Manizales is a city located in west-central Colombian Andes in the Caldas province, whose spatial location coincides with one of the most threatened areas of Colombia (landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, other). As a middle Andean mountainous city and for being located in the area of influence of the ITCZ presents an equatorial mountain climate with a bimodal rainfall regime, and with an average annual rainfall around 2000 mm, it shows very significant rates of precipitation, on average, 70% of the days of the year it is rainy. This situation favors the formation of large masses of clouds and the presence of macroclimatic phenomena such as ENSO, which has historically caused large-scale impacts in both warm and cold phase. Since last decade different entities have implemented a hydro-meteorological network which measures and transmits telemetrically every five minutes hydro-climatic variables. In general, the real-time weather monitoring should be used for a better understanding of our environmental urban environment and to establish indicators of quality of life and welfare for the community. Despite the city has telemetric data on atmospheric and hydrological variables, there is still no tool or a methodology able to generate a spatio-temporal description of these variables. So, the aim of this work is to establish guidelines to sort all this information of atmospheric variables monitored in real time with the help of data mining techniques, machine learning tools to improve the knowledge of atmospheric patterns at Manizales and to serve for territorial planning and decision makers. To reach this purpose the current data warehouse available at the National University of Colombia at Manizales will be used, and it will be fed with observed variables from hydro-meteorological monitoring stations that transmit in real-time. Then, as mentioned this information will make the corresponding processing with data mining techniques to describe the rainfall patterns

  2. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  3. Impact of Water Availability on Land and Water Productivity: A Temporal and Spatial Analysis of the Case Study Region Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. A. Lamers

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since irrigation water is assumedly the predominant factor determining crop yield, the difference in irrigation water availability across the administrative sub-districts of the Khorezm region, Central Asia, also inflicts an unequal distribution of agricultural revenues. Considering the national aim of a fair distribution and efficient use of resources, here we analyze the relationships between irrigation water access and rural welfare from 2000 to 2007 by descriptive statistics. Analyses revealed not only the general dependency of agricultural revenue on irrigation water availability, but also occurrence of low land productivity during water scarce years and, irrespective of the annual water availability, in some tail end regions each year. Furthermore, apart from irrigation water availability, land productivity was also impacted by soil quality, cropping structure, and type of land ownership. Fair distribution of water and land resources should also take into consideration population density. It is argued that an anticipated equal and efficient water allocation necessitates improved irrigation water conveyance, distribution, and application efficiency via best water management practices. Liberalization of markets, development of a market infrastructure and improvement in yields also contribute to increased land and water productivity.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Tuberculosis in the Regions Super-vised by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences 2006-2012

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    Hamidreza TABATABAEE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to identify the spatial distribution of tuberculosis and determine the TB control program parameters in the regions supervised by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2012.Methods: The present ecological study was performed on 1797 TB patients in Shiraz University in 2006-2012 which were recorded by health centers using TB Register software. The study data were collected through over-counting and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19. Besides, the maps were drawn by ArcGIS, version 10.Results: The incidence rate of TB was 4.8 in 100,000 at the end of 2012. Success in treatment was adequate only in 2012 (89.7%. However, recovery of pulmonary TB was not adequate in any of the study years. In our study, the majority of the patients belonged to the 25-34 years age group that constitutes the active faction of the society.  Moreover, the maps provided by GIS showed a high incidence rate of extra pulmonary TB in Firozabad Township during 7 years (2.7 in 100000 populations.Conclusion: Incidence of TB in the regions supervised by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences follows a specific pattern, which requires exclusive studies for further evaluation of the incidence determinatives in various environmental and social conditions. 

  5. Standardization of experimental animals temporal bone sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalian Ding; Jintao Yu; Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Haiyan Jiang; Wenjuan Zhang; Hong Sun; Shankai Yin; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of the temporal bone for light microscopy is an important step in histological studies of the inner ear. Due to the complexity of structures of the inner ear, it is difficult to measure or compare structures of interest without a commonly accepted standardized measure of temporal bone sections. Therefore, standardization of temporal bone sections is very important for histological assessment of sensory hair cells and peripheral ganglion neurons in the cochlear and vestibular systems. The standardized temporal bone sectioning is oriented to a plane parallel to the outer and internal auditory canals. Sections are collected from the epitympanum to the hypotympanum to reveal layers in the order of the crista ampullaris of the superior and lateral semicircular canals, macula utriculi and macula sacculi, superior vestibular ganglion neurons, macula of saccule and inferior vestibular ganglion neurons, cochlear modiolus, endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac, and finally the crista ampullaris of the posterior semicircular canal. Moreover, technical details of preparing for temporal bone sectioning including fixation, decalcification, whole temporal bone staining, embedding penetration, and embedding orientation are also discussed.

  6. Isotopic, geochemical, and temporal characterization of Proterozoic basement rocks in the Quitovac region, northwestern Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the reconstruction of the southwestern margin of Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, A.; Premo, W.R.; Martinez-Torres, L. M.; Budahn, J.R.; Atkinson, W.W.; Siems, D.F.; Guaras-Gonzalez, B.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed geochemical characterization of 19 representative Proterozoic basement rocks in the Quitovac region in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, has identified two distinct Paleoproterozoic basement blocks that coincide spatially with the previously proposed Caborca and "North America" blocks. New U-Pb zircon geochronology revises their age ranges, the Caborca (1.78-1.69 Ga) and "North America" (1.71-1.66 Ga) blocks at Quitovac, and precludes a simple age differentiation between them. In addition, Grenvillian-age granitoids (ca. 1.1 Ga), spatially associated with the Caborca block have been identified at Quitovac. Nd isotopes and major- and trace-element geochemistry support the distinction of these Paleoproterozoic blocks. Granitoids of the "North America" block are characterized by depleted ??Nd values (3.4-3.9) and younger Nd model ages (1800-1740 Ma) and have lower K2O, Y, Rb, Ba, Th, REE, and Fe/Mg values than coeval rocks of the Caborca block. The Caborca block granitoids are likewise characterized by slightly less depleted ??Nd (0.6-2.6) and older Nd model ages (2070-1880 Ma). Despite the subtle differences, granitoids from both the Caborca and "North America" blocks exhibit island arc-like affinities. We propose that the Proterozoic basement rocks from the Quitovac region are an extension of the Proterozoic crustal provinces in the southwestern United States. Specifically, rocks of the Caborca block exhibit an affinity to rocks of either the Yavapai province or the Mojave-Yavapai transition zone, whereas rocks of the "North America" block have signatures similar to those of the Mazatzal province or possibly the Yavapai province of Arizona. The new isotopic ages and geochemical data do not support the existence of the Late Jurassic Mojave-Sonora megashear at Quitovac, as originally proposed. However, the Quitovac region accounts only for a small fraction of the Proterozoic basement in Sonora, so these findings do not eliminate the possibility of a megashear

  7. Parietal versus temporal lobe components in spatial cognition: Setting the mid-point of a horizontal line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Recent anatomo-clinical correlation studies have extended to the superior temporal gyrus, the right hemisphere lesion sites associated with the left unilateral spatial neglect, in addition to the traditional posterior-inferior-parietal localization of the responsible lesion (supramarginal gyrus, at the temporo-parietal junction). The study aimed at teasing apart, by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), the contribution of the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus versus supramarginal gyrus) and of the superior temporal gyrus of the right hemisphere, in making judgments about the mid-point of a horizontal line, a widely used task for detecting and investigating spatial neglect. rTMS trains at 25 Hz frequency were delivered over the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus), the superior temporal gyrus and the anterior parietal lobe of the right hemisphere, in 10 neurologically unimpaired participants, performing a line bisection judgment task. rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule at the level of the supramarginal gyrus brought about a rightward error in the bisection judgment, ipsilateral to the side of the rTMS, with stimulation over the other sites being ineffective. The neural correlates of computing the mid-point of a horizontal segment include the right supramarginal gyrus in the inferior parietal lobule and do not extend to the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. These rTMS data in unimpaired subjects constrain the evidence from lesion studies in brain-damaged patients, emphasizing the major role of a subset of relevant regions.

  8. DURACIÓN DE LOS EPISODIOS DE INCAPACIDAD TEMPORAL POR CONTINGENCIA COMÚN SEGÚN REGIONES SANITARIAS EN CATALUNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Torá Rocamora

    2010-01-01

    Resultados: La región de Camp de Tarragona registra la menor duración de 5 días. Por contra, los episodios ocurridos en el Alt Pirineu i Aran presentaron una mayor duración de 13 días. Para la región de Barcelona la duración fue 7 días, al igual que para Cataluña Central. En Girona fue de 8 días, y en Lleida y Terres de l'Ebre de 9 días. Conclusiones: Existen diferencias significativas en las duraciones de los episodios entre las regiones sanitarias de Cataluña, que se mantienen después de ajustar por la edad, la gestión del episodio y el régimen de Seguridad Social, tanto para hombres como para mujeres.

  9. The spatial and temporal `cost' of volcanic eruptions: assessing economic impact, business inoperability, and spatial distribution of risk in the Auckland region, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Garry W.; Smith, Nicola J.; Kim, Joon-hwan; Cronin, Shane J.; Proctor, Jon N.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanic risk assessment has historically concentrated on quantifying the frequency, magnitude, and potential diversity of physical processes of eruptions and their consequent impacts on life and property. A realistic socio-economic assessment of volcanic impact must however take into account dynamic properties of businesses and extend beyond only measuring direct infrastructure/property loss. The inoperability input-output model, heralded as one of the 10 most important accomplishments in risk analysis over the last 30 years (Kujawaski Syst Eng. 9:281-295, 2006), has become prominent over the last decade in the economic impact assessment of business disruptions. We develop a dynamic inoperability input-output model to assess the economic impacts of a hypothetical volcanic event occurring at each of 7270 unique spatial locations throughout the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand. This field of at least 53 volcanoes underlies the country's largest urban area, the Auckland region, which is home to 1.4 million people and responsible for 35.3% (NZ201481.2 billion) of the nation's GDP (Statistics New Zealand 2015). We apply volcanic event characteristics for a small-medium-scale volcanic eruption scenario and assess the economic impacts of an `average' eruption in the Auckland region. Economic losses are quantified both with, and without, business mitigation and intervention responses in place. We combine this information with a recent spatial hazard probability map (Bebbington and Cronin Bull Volcanol. 73(1):55-72, 2011) to produce novel spatial economic activity `at risk' maps. Our approach demonstrates how business inoperability losses sit alongside potential life and property damage assessment in enhancing our understanding of volcanic risk mitigation.

  10. Variabilidade espaço-temporal da condutividade elétrica da água subterrânea na região semiárida de Pernambuco Spatial temporal variability of electrical conductivity of groundwater in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafnes S. Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Quando mal-conduzida, a irrigação pode causar degradação dos solos e da água subterrânea, por potencializar o risco de salinização. Este problema é mais evidente em regiões semiáridas, nas quais as características físico-climáticas contribuem para seu agravamento. Uma das variáveis mais utilizadas para avaliar a concentração de sais solúveis na água de irrigação e no solo, é a condutividade elétrica. Neste trabalho, buscou-se avaliar a variabilidade espacial e temporal da condutividade elétrica da água subterrânea utilizada para irrigação em um assentamento rural, no semiárido pernambucano. Técnicas estatísticas descritivas e geoestatísticas foram aplicadas para identificação dos padrões de variabilidade e dependência espacial da condutividade elétrica, visando ao mapeamento da salinidade da água subterrânea. Verificou-se que a condutividade elétrica possui variabilidade média a alta, com dependência espacial moderada, em que a textura do solo e o regime pluviométrico influenciam na variação espacial e temporal da condutividade elétrica, que vem aumentando ao longo dos anos, na área estudada.ABSTRACT Irrigation, when poorly managed, can cause soil and groundwater degradation by increasing the salinization risk. This problem is evident in semiarid regions, where the physico-climatic characteristics contribute to enhance the problem. One of the main variables used to measure the soluble salts concentration in irrigation water and soil is the electrical conductivity. This work aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of electrical conductivity of groundwater for irrigation in a semiarid rural settlement in the State of Pernambuco. Descriptive statistics and geostatistical techniques have been applied to identify patterns of variability and spatial dependence of electrical conductivity aiming to map the groundwater salinity. It was found that the electrical conductivity has medium

  11. Dynamic Responses of Intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Inferior-to-Superior Loading at the Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Moore, Jason; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-11-01

    During certain events such as underbody blasts due to improvised explosive devices, occupants in military vehicles are exposed to inferior-to-superior loading from the pelvis. Injuries to the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex have been reported from these events. The mechanism of load transmission and potential variables defining the migration of injuries between pelvis and or spinal structures are not defined. This study applied inferior-to-superior impacts to the tuberosities of the ischium of supine-positioned five post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using different acceleration profiles, defined using shape, magnitude and duration parameters. Seventeen tests were conducted. Overlay temporal plots were presented for normalized (impulse momentum approach) forces and accelerations of the sacrum and spine. Scatter plots showing injury and non-injury data as a function of peak normalized forces, pulse characteristics, impulse and power, loading rate and sacrum and spine accelerations were evaluated as potential metrics related to pathological outcomes with the focus of examining the role of the pulse characteristics from inferior-to-superior loading of the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex. Interrelationships were explored between non-fracture and fracture outcomes, and fracture patterns with a focus on migr