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Sample records for superior temporal area

  1. Timescales of sensory- and decision-related activity in the middle temporal and medial superior temporal areas.

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    Price, Nicholas S C; Born, Richard T

    2010-10-20

    The contribution of sensory neurons to perceptual decisions about external stimulus events has received much attention, but it is less clear how sensory responses are integrated over time to produce decisions that are both rapid and reliable. To address this issue, we recorded from middle temporal area and medial superior temporal area neurons in rhesus macaques performing a task requiring the detection and discrimination of unpredictable speed changes. We examined how neuronal activity encoded the sign of the speed change and predicted the animals' behavioral judgments and reaction times, with a focus on the timescales over which neuronal activity is informative. False detection trials, on which animals reported a speed change even though none had occurred, were grouped according to the animals' discrimination judgment. By comparing the neuronal responses between the two groups of false detection trials, we were able to predict the animals' choices from the sensory activity of single neurons at levels significantly better than chance. These choice probability measurements were strongest using spike counts in an 80 ms window ending 150 ms before a choice saccade began, but significant choice probabilities were observed in windows as short as 10 ms. While the maximum deviation in spiking rate following a speed change is evident in the transient response, averaging neuronal activity in longer time windows can be more informative about both the stimulus and the animals' behavioral judgments. Thus the timescales found in this study represent a trade-off between producing rapid reactions and overcoming the noise inherent in short time windows.

  2. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

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    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  3. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets

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    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species. PMID:28367117

  4. Facial expression recognition takes longer in the posterior superior temporal sulcus than in the occipital face area.

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    Pitcher, David

    2014-07-02

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a face-selective region in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) that responds more strongly during facial expression recognition tasks than during facial identity recognition tasks, but precisely when the rpSTS begins to causally contribute to expression recognition is unclear. The present study addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In Experiment 1, repetitive TMS delivered over the rpSTS of human participants, at a frequency of 10 Hz for 500 ms, selectively impaired a facial expression task but had no effect on a matched facial identity task. In Experiment 2, participants performed the expression task only while double-pulse TMS (dTMS) was delivered over the rpSTS or over the right occipital face area (rOFA), a face-selective region in lateral occipital cortex, at different latencies up to 210 ms after stimulus onset. Task performance was selectively impaired when dTMS was delivered over the rpSTS at 60-100 ms and 100-140 ms. dTMS delivered over the rOFA impaired task performance at 60-100 ms only. These results demonstrate that the rpSTS causally contributes to expression recognition and that it does so over a longer time-scale than the rOFA. This difference in the length of the TMS induced impairment between the rpSTS and the rOFA suggests that the neural computations that contribute to facial expression recognition in each region are functionally distinct.

  5. A case of double depressor palsy followed by pursuit deficit due to sequential infarction in bilateral thalamus and right medial superior temporal area.

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    Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Myeong In; Lee, Seung Uk

    2016-12-05

    We present a unique case of a patient who suffered two rare events affecting the supranuclear control, first of the vertical and second of the horizontal eye movements. The first event involved bilateral thalamic infarcts that resulted in double depressor palsy. The second event occurred 1 year later and it involved supranuclear control of horizontal eye movements creating pursuit deficit. A 47-year-old male presented with complaints of diplopia upon awakening. He had atrial fibrillation, mitral valve regurgitation, aortic valve regurgitation, and a history of spleen infarction 1 year ago. His right eye was hypertrophic and right eye downgaze was limited unilaterally of equal degree in adduction and abduction. The patient was diagnosed with double depressor palsy of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an old infarction of the left thalamus, and diffusion MRI showed acute infarction of the right thalamus. The patient's daily warfarin dose was 2 mg and it was increased to 5 mg with cilostazol 75 mg twice a day. Seven weeks later, the patient's ocular movement revealed near normal muscle action, and subjectively, the patient was diplopia free. At follow-up 12 months later, the patient revisited the hospital because of sudden onset of blurred vision on right gaze. He was observed to have smooth pursuit deficit to the right side, and orthophoric position of the eyes in primary gaze. MRI of the brain showed an acute infarction in the right medial superior temporal area. The patient experienced very rare abnormal eyeball movements twice. This case highlights the importance of evaluating vertical movement of the eyes and vascular supplies when patients present with depressor deficit and supports the theory of a supranuclear function in patients who present with pursuit deficit.

  6. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

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    Toemme eNoesselt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  7. Preference for Audiovisual Speech Congruency in Superior Temporal Cortex.

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    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory speech perception can be altered by concurrent visual information. The superior temporal cortex is an important combining site for this integration process. This area was previously found to be sensitive to audiovisual congruency. However, the direction of this congruency effect (i.e., stronger or weaker activity for congruent compared to incongruent stimulation) has been more equivocal. Here, we used fMRI to look at the neural responses of human participants during the McGurk illusion--in which auditory /aba/ and visual /aga/ inputs are fused to perceived /ada/--in a large homogenous sample of participants who consistently experienced this illusion. This enabled us to compare the neuronal responses during congruent audiovisual stimulation with incongruent audiovisual stimulation leading to the McGurk illusion while avoiding the possible confounding factor of sensory surprise that can occur when McGurk stimuli are only occasionally perceived. We found larger activity for congruent audiovisual stimuli than for incongruent (McGurk) stimuli in bilateral superior temporal cortex, extending into the primary auditory cortex. This finding suggests that superior temporal cortex prefers when auditory and visual input support the same representation.

  8. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

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    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  9. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

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    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  10. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

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    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  11. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

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    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  12. Vowel sound extraction in anterior superior temporal cortex.

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    Obleser, Jonas; Boecker, Henning; Drzezga, Alexander; Haslinger, Bernhard; Hennenlotter, Andreas; Roettinger, Michael; Eulitz, Carsten; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2006-07-01

    We investigated the functional neuroanatomy of vowel processing. We compared attentive auditory perception of natural German vowels to perception of nonspeech band-passed noise stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). More specifically, the mapping in auditory cortex of first and second formants was considered, which spectrally characterize vowels and are linked closely to phonological features. Multiple exemplars of natural German vowels were presented in sequences alternating either mainly along the first formant (e.g., [u]-[o], [i]-[e]) or along the second formant (e.g., [u]-[i], [o]-[e]). In fixed-effects and random-effects analyses, vowel sequences elicited more activation than did nonspeech noise in the anterior superior temporal cortex (aST) bilaterally. Partial segregation of different vowel categories was observed within the activated regions, suggestive of a speech sound mapping across the cortical surface. Our results add to the growing evidence that speech sounds, as one of the behaviorally most relevant classes of auditory objects, are analyzed and categorized in aST. These findings also support the notion of an auditory "what" stream, with highly object-specialized areas anterior to primary auditory cortex. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

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    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  14. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

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    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  15. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

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    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-07-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  16. Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

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    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG. PMID:24482117

  17. Phonetic feature encoding in human superior temporal gyrus.

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    Mesgarani, Nima; Cheung, Connie; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2014-02-28

    During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG.

  18. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

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    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  19. Differential roles for left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in multimodal integration of action and language

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    Willems, R.M.; Özyürek, A.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies indicate that both posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG) and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) are involved in integrating information from different modalities. Here we investigated the respective roles of these two areas in integration of action and l

  20. Right anterior superior temporal activation predicts auditory sentence comprehension following aphasic stroke.

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    Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that recovery of speech comprehension after left hemisphere infarction may depend on a mechanism in the right hemisphere. However, the role that distinct right hemisphere regions play in speech comprehension following left hemisphere stroke has not been established. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate narrative speech activation in 18 neurologically normal subjects and 17 patients with left hemisphere stroke and a history of aphasia. Activation for listening to meaningful stories relative to meaningless reversed speech was identified in the normal subjects and in each patient. Second level analyses were then used to investigate how story activation changed with the patients' auditory sentence comprehension skills and surprise story recognition memory tests post-scanning. Irrespective of lesion site, performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was positively correlated with activation in the right lateral superior temporal region, anterior to primary auditory cortex. In addition, when the stroke spared the left temporal cortex, good performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was also correlated with the left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area). In distinct contrast to this, good story recognition memory predicted left inferior frontal and right cerebellar activation. The implication of this double dissociation in the effects of auditory sentence comprehension and story recognition memory is that left frontal and left temporal activations are dissociable. Our findings strongly support the role of the right temporal lobe in processing narrative speech and, in particular, auditory sentence comprehension following left hemisphere aphasic stroke. In addition, they highlight the importance of the right anterior superior temporal cortex where the response was dissociated from that in the left posterior temporal lobe.

  1. Morphological study of surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle approach using volume rendering.

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    Sun, Wei; Jia, Linpei; Dong, Yidian; Zhao, Hang; Liu, Haoyuan; Yang, Kerong; Li, Youqiong

    2014-03-01

    In this research, we acquired the length of the superior temporal sulcus, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, and the approach angle between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle measuring 98 specimens by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the point of the superior temporal sulcus, which is closest to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, aimed at finding out the best entrance point of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and reducing the damage to optic radiation as well as other nerve fibers during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 3/5 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point, and there is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  2. Superior Temporal Activation as a Function of Linguistic Knowledge: Insights from Deaf Native Signers Who Speechread

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    Capek, Cheryl M.; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K.; David, Anthony S.; Brammer, Michael J.; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic…

  3. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language...

  4. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

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    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  5. Formation of category representations in superior temporal sulcus

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    Linden, M. Van der; Turennout, M. van; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain contains cortical areas specialized in representing object categories. Visual experience is known to change the responses in these category-selective areas of the brain. However, little is known about how category training specifically affects cortical category selectivity. Here, we

  6. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

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    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus of aged rats.

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    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2017-09-01

    Presbyacusis reflects dysfunctions present along the central auditory pathway. Given that the topographic representation of the auditory directional spatial map is deteriorated in the superior colliculus of aged animals, therefore, are spectral and temporal auditory processes altered with aging in the rat's superior colliculus? Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats. In the spectral domain, level thresholds in aged rats were significantly increased when superior colliculus auditory neurons were stimulated with pure tones or Gaussian noise bursts. The sharpness of the frequency response tuning curve at 10 dB SPL above threshold was also significantly broader among the aged rats. Furthermore, in the temporal domain, the minimal silent gap thresholds to Gaussian noises were significantly longer in aged rats. Hence, these results highlight that spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus are impaired during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

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    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  9. [Towards an integrated approach to infantile autism: the superior temporal lobe between neurosciences and psychoanalysis].

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    Golse, Bernard; Robel, Laurence

    2009-02-01

    The superior temporal lobe is currently at the focus of intensive research in infantile autism, a psychopathologic disorder apparently representing the severest failure of access to intersubjectivity, i.e. the ability to accept that others exist independently of oneself. Access to intersubjectivity seems to involve the superior temporal lobe, which is the seat of several relevant functions such as face and voice recognition and perception of others' movements, and coordinates the different sensory inputs that identify an object as being "external". The psychoanalytic approach to infantile autism and recent cognitive data are now converging, and intersubjectivity is considered to result from "mantling" or comodalization of sensory inputs from external objects. Recent brain neuroimaging studies point to anatomic and functional abnormalities of the superior temporal lobe in autistic children. Dialogue is therefore possible between these different disciplines, opening the way to an integrated view of infantile autism in which the superior temporal lobe holds a central place--not necessarily as a primary cause of autism but rather as an intermediary or a reflection of autistic functioning

  10. The impact of vascular factors on language localization in the superior temporal sulcus.

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    Wilson, Stephen M

    2014-08-01

    The left superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been shown in numerous functional imaging studies to be a critical region for language processing, as it is reliably activated when language comprehension is compared with acoustically matched control conditions. Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated several subdivisions in the STS, yet the precise region(s) within the STS that are important for language remain unclear, in large part because the presence of draining veins in the sulcus makes it difficult to determine whether neural activity is localized to the dorsal or ventral bank of the sulcus. We used functional MRI to localize language regions, and then acquired several additional sequences in order to account for the impact of vascular factors. A breath-holding task was used to induce hypercapnia in order to normalize voxel-wise differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity, and veins were identified on susceptibility-weighted and T2*-weighted BOLD images, and masked out. We found that the precise locations of language areas in individual participants were strongly influenced by vascular factors, but that these vascular effects could be ameliorated by hypercapnic normalization and vein masking. After these corrections were applied, the majority of regions activated by language processing were localized to the dorsal bank of the STS.

  11. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language. However, the functional organization of the STS remains debated: Is this broad region composed of multiple functionally distinct modules, each specialized for a different process, or are STS subregions multifunctional, contributing to multiple processes? Is the STS spatially organized, and if so, what are the dominant features of this organization? We address these questions by measuring STS responses to a range of social and linguistic stimuli in the same set of human participants, using fMRI. We find a number of STS subregions that respond selectively to certain types of social input, organized along a posterior-to-anterior axis. We also identify regions of overlapping response to multiple contrasts, including regions responsive to both language and theory of mind, faces and voices, and faces and biological motion. Thus, the human STS contains both relatively domain-specific areas, and regions that respond to multiple types of social information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Paradoxical vocal changes in a trained singer by focally cooling the right superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlowitz, Kalman A; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W; Long, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality. However, this manipulation led to an increase in the pitch of speaking with no such change in singing. Further analysis revealed that all vocalizations exhibited a cooling-induced increase in the frequency of the first formant, raising the possibility that potential pitch offsets may have been actively avoided during singing. Our results suggest that the right pSTG plays a key role in vocal sensorimotor processing whose impact is dependent on the type of vocalization produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Superior Temporal Activity for the Retrieval Process of Auditory-Word Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimune Kambara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that learning multisensory associations involves the superior temporal regions (Tanabe et al, 2005. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retrieval of multi-sensory associations were unclear. This functional MRI (fMRI study investigated brain activations during the retrieval of multi-sensory associations. Eighteen right-handed college-aged Japanese participants learned associations between meaningless pictures and words (Vw, meaningless sounds and words (Aw, and meaningless sounds and visual words (W. During fMRI scanning, participants were presented with old and new words and were required to judge whether the words were included in the conditions of Vw, Aw, W or New. We found that the left superior temporal region showed greater activity during the retrieval of words learned in Aw than in Vw, whereas no region showed greater activity for the Vw condition versus the Aw condition (k > 10, p < .001, uncorrected. Taken together, the left superior temporal region could play an essential role in the retrieval process of auditory-word associations.

  14. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Right superior temporal gyrus volume in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A; Ramos, Lisa; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Brent, David A; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which observed differences in emotion processing and regulation neural circuitry in adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are paralleled by structural differences is unknown. We measured brain cortical thickness and grey- and white-matter volumes in 100 adolescents: 28 with a history of suicide attempt and major depressive disorder (MDD); 31 with a history of MDD but no suicide attempt; and a healthy control group (n = 41). The first group compared with controls showed reduction in grey-matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus (BA38), a region important for social emotion processing. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  16. New human-specific brain landmark: the depth asymmetry of superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, François; Cai, Qing; Bogart, Stephanie L; Dubois, Jessica; Coulon, Olivier; Monzalvo, Karla; Fischer, Clara; Glasel, Hervé; Van der Haegen, Lise; Bénézit, Audrey; Lin, Ching-Po; Kennedy, David N; Ihara, Aya S; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Poupon, Cyril; Brysbaert, Marc; Roberts, Neil; Hopkins, William D; Mangin, Jean-François; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2015-01-27

    Identifying potentially unique features of the human cerebral cortex is a first step to understanding how evolution has shaped the brain in our species. By analyzing MR images obtained from 177 humans and 73 chimpanzees, we observed a human-specific asymmetry in the superior temporal sulcus at the heart of the communication regions and which we have named the "superior temporal asymmetrical pit" (STAP). This 45-mm-long segment ventral to Heschl's gyrus is deeper in the right hemisphere than in the left in 95% of typical human subjects, from infanthood till adulthood, and is present, irrespective of handedness, language lateralization, and sex although it is greater in males than in females. The STAP also is seen in several groups of atypical subjects including persons with situs inversus, autistic spectrum disorder, Turner syndrome, and corpus callosum agenesis. It is explained in part by the larger number of sulcal interruptions in the left than in the right hemisphere. Its early presence in the infants of this study as well as in fetuses and premature infants suggests a strong genetic influence. Because this asymmetry is barely visible in chimpanzees, we recommend the STAP region during midgestation as an important phenotype to investigate asymmetrical variations of gene expression among the primate lineage. This genetic target may provide important insights regarding the evolution of the crucial cognitive abilities sustained by this sulcus in our species, namely communication and social cognition.

  17. Vowel-specific mismatch responses in the anterior superior temporal gyrus: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Alexander P; Iverson, Paul; Schofield, Thomas M; Kilner, James M; Crinion, Jennifer T; Friston, Karl J; Price, Cathy J

    2009-04-01

    There have been many functional imaging studies that have investigated the neural correlates of speech perception by contrasting neural responses to speech and "speech-like" but unintelligible control stimuli. A potential drawback of this approach is that intelligibility is necessarily conflated with a change in the acoustic parameters of the stimuli. The approach we have adopted is to take advantage of the mismatch response elicited by an oddball paradigm to probe neural responses in temporal lobe structures to a parametrically varied set of deviants in order to identify brain regions involved in vowel processing. Thirteen normal subjects were scanned using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm while they listened to continuous trains of auditory stimuli. Three classes of stimuli were used: 'vowel deviants' and two classes of control stimuli: one acoustically similar ('single formants') and the other distant (tones). The acoustic differences between the standard and deviants in both the vowel and single-formant classes were designed to match each other closely. The results revealed an effect of vowel deviance in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). This was most significant when comparing all vowel deviants to standards, irrespective of their psychoacoustic or physical deviance. We also identified a correlation between perceptual discrimination and deviant-related activity in the dominant superior temporal sulcus (STS), although this effect was not stimulus specific. The responses to vowel deviants were in brain regions implicated in the processing of intelligible or meaningful speech, part of the so-called auditory "what" processing stream. Neural components of this pathway would be expected to respond to sudden, perhaps unexpected changes in speech signal that result in a change to narrative meaning.

  18. Spectral organization of the human lateral superior temporal gyrus revealed by intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Jones, Robert D; Howard, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The place of the posterolateral superior temporal (PLST) gyrus within the hierarchical organization of the human auditory cortex is unknown. Understanding how PLST processes spectral information is imperative for its functional characterization. Pure-tone stimuli were presented to subjects undergoing invasive monitoring for refractory epilepsy. Recordings were made using high-density subdural grid electrodes. Pure tones elicited robust high gamma event-related band power responses along a portion of PLST adjacent to the transverse temporal sulcus (TTS). Responses were frequency selective, though typically broadly tuned. In several subjects, mirror-image response patterns around a low-frequency center were observed, but typically, more complex and distributed patterns were seen. Frequency selectivity was greatest early in the response. Classification analysis using a sparse logistic regression algorithm yielded above-chance accuracy in all subjects. Classifier performance typically peaked at 100-150 ms after stimulus onset, was comparable for the left and right hemisphere cases, and was stable across stimulus intensities. Results demonstrate that representations of spectral information within PLST are temporally dynamic and contain sufficient information for accurate discrimination of tone frequencies. PLST adjacent to the TTS appears to be an early stage in the hierarchy of cortical auditory processing. Pure-tone response patterns may aid auditory field identification.

  19. Dynamics of Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Activity in Human Temporal and Frontal Cortical Areas During Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-14

    REPORT Dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...information about the sound intensity of music . ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal 1. REPORT...ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening Report Title ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that brain

  20. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  1. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  2. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Moore, Christopher D; Norman, Kenneth A; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  3. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. Architectonic criteria for the core, lateral belt, and parabelt were readily adapted from monkey to human. Additionally, we found evidence for an architectonic subdivision within the parabelt, present in both species......The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...... that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used serial sets of adjacent sections processed for Nissl substance, acetylcholinesterase...

  4. Cortical inputs to the middle temporal visual area in New World owl monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerkevich CM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Cerkevich,1 Christine E Collins,2 Jon H Kaas2 1Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition and Systems Neuroscience Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: We made eight retrograde tracer injections into the middle temporal visual area (MT of three New World owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae. These injections were placed across the representation of the retina in MT to allow us to compare the locations of labeled cells in other areas in order to provide evidence for any retinotopic organization in those areas. Four regions projected to MT: 1 early visual areas, including V1, V2, V3, the dorsolateral visual area, and the dorsomedial visual area, provided topographically organized inputs to MT; 2 all areas in the MT complex (the middle temporal crescent, the middle superior temporal area, and the fundal areas of the superior temporal sulcus projected to MT. Somewhat variably across injections, neurons were labeled in other parts of the temporal lobe; 3 regions in the location of the medial visual area, the posterior parietal cortex, and the lateral sulcus provided other inputs to MT; 4 finally, projections from the frontal eye field, frontal visual field, and prefrontal cortex were also labeled by our injections. These results further establish the sources of input to MT, and provide direct evidence within and across cases for retinotopic patterns of projections from early visual areas to MT. Keywords: middle temporal area, visual cortex, parietal cortex

  5. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons' responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  6. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dahl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons’ responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  7. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine eFoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex is well known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75-200ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity towards dissonance.

  8. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: Segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, N.; Preti, M.G.; Wassermann, D.; Rathi, Y.; Papadimitriou, G. M.; Yergatian, C.; Dickerson, B. C.; Shenton, M. E.; Kubicki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:23686576

  10. Plasticity in bilateral superior temporal cortex: Effects of deafness and cochlear implantation on auditory and visual speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carly A; Lazard, Diane S; Hartley, Douglas E H

    2017-01-01

    While many individuals can benefit substantially from cochlear implantation, the ability to perceive and understand auditory speech with a cochlear implant (CI) remains highly variable amongst adult recipients. Importantly, auditory performance with a CI cannot be reliably predicted based solely on routinely obtained information regarding clinical characteristics of the CI candidate. This review argues that central factors, notably cortical function and plasticity, should also be considered as important contributors to the observed individual variability in CI outcome. Superior temporal cortex (STC), including auditory association areas, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory and visual speech information. The current review considers evidence of cortical plasticity within bilateral STC, and how these effects may explain variability in CI outcome. Furthermore, evidence of audio-visual interactions in temporal and occipital cortices is examined, and relation to CI outcome is discussed. To date, longitudinal examination of changes in cortical function and plasticity over the period of rehabilitation with a CI has been restricted by methodological challenges. The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in studying cortical function in CI users is becoming increasingly recognised as a potential solution to these problems. Here we suggest that fNIRS offers a powerful neuroimaging tool to elucidate the relationship between audio-visual interactions, cortical plasticity during deafness and following cochlear implantation, and individual variability in auditory performance with a CI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Time course of superior temporal sulcus activity in response to eye gaze: a combined fMRI and MEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2008-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to be involved in gaze processing, but temporal data regarding this issue are lacking. We investigated this topic by combining fMRI and MEG in four normal subjects. Photographs of faces with either averted or straight eye gazes were presented and subjects passively viewed the stimuli. First, we analyzed the brain areas involved using fMRI. A group analysis revealed activation of the STS for averted compared to straight gazes, which was confirmed in all subjects. We then measured brain activity using MEG, and conducted a 3D spatial filter analysis. The STS showed higher activity in response to averted versus straight gazes during the 150–200 ms period, peaking at around 170 ms, after stimulus onset. In contrast, the fusiform gyrus, which was detected by the main effect of stimulus presentations in fMRI analysis, exhibited comparable activity across straight and averted gazes at about 170 ms. These results indicate involvement of the human STS in rapid processing of the eye gaze of another individual. PMID:19015114

  12. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  13. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Francine; King-Stephens, David; Weber, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth; Parvizi, Josef; Knight, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance.

  14. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  15. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

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    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala.

  17. Deciphering phonemes from syllables in blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in human superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Luo, Huan; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Linguistic units such as phonemes and syllables are important for speech perception. How the brain encodes these units is not well understood. Many neuroimaging studies have found distinct representations of consonant-vowel syllables that shared one phoneme and differed in the other phoneme (e.g. /ba/ and /da/), but it is unclear whether this discrimination ability is due to the neural coding of phonemes or syllables. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivariate pattern analysis to explore this question. Subjects listened to nine Mandarin syllables in a consonant-vowel form. We successfully decoded phonemes from the syllables based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Specifically, a classifier trained on the cortical patterns elicited by a set of syllables, which contained two phonemes, could distinguish the cortical patterns elicited by other syllables that contained the two phonemes. The results indicated that phonemes have unique representations in the STG. In addition, there was a categorical effect, i.e. the cortical patterns of consonants were similar, and so were the cortical patterns of vowels. Further analysis showed that phonemes exhibited stronger encoding specificity in the mid-STG than in the anterior STG.

  18. Mental representations of vowel features asymmetrically modulate activity in superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Domahs, Ulrike; Klein, Elise; Domahs, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e.g. [e]) compared to its more specified counterpart in first position (e.g. [o]) should result in stronger activation in STS than in the reverse presentation. Whole-brain analyses confirmed this hypothesis in a bilateral cluster in STS. However, this effect interacted with the feature-distance between first and second vowel and was most pronounced for a minimal, one-feature distance, evidencing the benefit of phonological information for processing acoustically minimal sound differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive symptoms associate with cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E; Hibar, D P; van Erp, T G M; Potkin, S G; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Van Haren, N E M; de Zwarte, S M C; Kahn, R S; Cahn, W; Doan, N T; Jørgensen, K N; Gurholt, T P; Agartz, I; Andreassen, O A; Westlye, L T; Melle, I; Berg, A O; Mørch-Johnsen, L; Faerden, A; Flyckt, L; Fatouros-Bergman, H; Jönsson, E G; Hashimoto, R; Yamamori, H; Fukunaga, M; Preda, A; De Rossi, P; Piras, F; Banaj, N; Ciullo, V; Spalletta, G; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Wolf, D H; Satterthwaite, T D; Beard, L M; Sommer, I E; Koops, S; Gruber, O; Richter, A; Krämer, B; Kelly, S; Donohoe, G; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Gill, M; Di Giorgio, A; Bertolino, A; Lawrie, S; Nickson, T; Whalley, H C; Neilson, E; Calhoun, V D; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A; Ehrlich, S

    2017-05-01

    Based on the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in auditory processing, language comprehension and self-monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between STG cortical thickness and positive symptom severity in schizophrenia. This prospective meta-analysis includes data from 1987 individuals with schizophrenia collected at seventeen centres around the world that contribute to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. STG thickness measures were extracted from T1-weighted brain scans using FreeSurfer. The study performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes across sites generated by a model predicting left or right STG thickness with a positive symptom severity score (harmonized SAPS or PANSS-positive scores), while controlling for age, sex and site. Secondary models investigated relationships between antipsychotic medication, duration of illness, overall illness severity, handedness and STG thickness. Positive symptom severity was negatively related to STG thickness in both hemispheres (left: βstd = -0.052; P = 0.021; right: βstd = -0.073; P = 0.001) when statistically controlling for age, sex and site. This effect remained stable in models including duration of illness, antipsychotic medication or handedness. Our findings further underline the important role of the STG in hallmark symptoms in schizophrenia. These findings can assist in advancing insight into symptom-relevant pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-04-08

    During behavioral adaptation through interaction with human and nonhuman agents, marked individual differences are seen in both real-life situations and games. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a neuroimaging experiment in which subjects maximized monetary rewards by learning in a prisoner's dilemma game with two computer agents: agent A, a tit-for-tat player who repeats the subject's previous action, and agent B, a simple stochastic cooperator oblivious to the subject's action. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects (group I) learned optimally in relation to both A and B, while another 1/3 (group II) did so only for B. Post-experiment interviews indicated that group I exploited the agent strategies more often than group II. Significant differences in learning-related brain activity between the two groups were only found in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for both A and B. Furthermore, the learning performance of each group I subject was predictable based on this STS activity, but not in the group II subjects. This differential activity could not be attributed to a behavioral difference since it persisted in relation to agent B for which the two groups behaved similarly. In sharp contrast, the brain structures for reward processing were recruited similarly by both groups. These results suggest that STS provides knowledge of the other agent's strategies for association between action and reward and highlights learning competence during interactive reinforcement learning.

  1. Involvement of the superior temporal cortex and the occipital cortex in spatial hearing: evidence from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Lewald, Jörg; Meister, Ingo G; Weidemann, Jürgen; Töpper, Rudolf

    2004-06-01

    The processing of auditory spatial information in cortical areas of the human brain outside of the primary auditory cortex remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the occipital cortex (OC) in spatial hearing using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The right STG is known to be of crucial importance for visual spatial awareness, and has been suggested to be involved in auditory spatial perception. We found that rTMS of the right STG induced a systematic error in the perception of interaural time differences (a primary cue for sound localization in the azimuthal plane). This is in accordance with the recent view, based on both neurophysiological data obtained in monkeys and human neuroimaging studies, that information on sound location is processed within a dorsolateral "where" stream including the caudal STG. A similar, but opposite, auditory shift was obtained after rTMS of secondary visual areas of the right OC. Processing of auditory information in the OC has previously been shown to exist only in blind persons. Thus, the latter finding provides the first evidence of an involvement of the visual cortex in spatial hearing in sighted human subjects, and suggests a close interconnection of the neural representation of auditory and visual space. Because rTMS induced systematic shifts in auditory lateralization, but not a general deterioration, we propose that rTMS of STG or OC specifically affected neuronal circuits transforming auditory spatial coordinates in order to maintain alignment with vision.

  2. BOLD temporal dynamics of rat superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus following short duration visual stimulation.

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    Condon Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The superior colliculus (SC and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are important subcortical structures for vision. Much of our understanding of vision was obtained using invasive and small field of view (FOV techniques. In this study, we use non-invasive, large FOV blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI to measure the SC and LGN's response temporal dynamics following short duration (1 s visual stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments are performed at 7 tesla on Sprague Dawley rats stimulated in one eye with flashing light. Gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences are used to provide complementary information. An anatomical image is acquired from one rat after injection of monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION, a blood vessel contrast agent. BOLD responses are concentrated in the contralateral SC and LGN. The SC BOLD signal measured with gradient-echo rises to 50% of maximum amplitude (PEAK 0.2±0.2 s before the LGN signal (p<0.05. The LGN signal returns to 50% of PEAK 1.4±1.2 s before the SC signal (p<0.05. These results indicate the SC signal rises faster than the LGN signal but settles slower. Spin-echo results support these findings. The post-MION image shows the SC and LGN lie beneath large blood vessels. This subcortical vasculature is similar to that in the cortex, which also lies beneath large vessels. The LGN lies closer to the large vessels than much of the SC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The differences in response timing between SC and LGN are very similar to those between deep and shallow cortical layers following electrical stimulation, which are related to depth-dependent blood vessel dilation rates. This combined with the similarities in vasculature between subcortex and cortex suggest the SC and LGN timing differences are also related to depth-dependent dilation rates. This study shows for the first time that BOLD responses in the rat SC and LGN following short duration visual stimulation are

  3. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

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    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  4. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

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    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  5. Cross-frequency power correlations reveal the right superior temporal gyrus as a hub region during working memory maintenance.

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    Park, Hyojin; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, June Sic; Jensen, Ole; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized within- and cross-frequency power correlations from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in order to understand how different brain regions cooperate as a network to maintain working memory representations with several features. The working memory items were composed of spatially arranged dots supposedly requiring both the dorsal and the ventral stream to be engaged during maintenance. Using a beamforming technique, we localized memory-dependent sources in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands. After the single-trial power values were extracted from these frequency bands with respect to each source, we calculated the correlations within- and cross-frequency bands. The following general picture emerged: gamma power in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) during working memory maintenance was correlated with numerous other sources in the alpha band in prefrontal, parietal, and posterior regions. In addition, the power correlations within the alpha band showed correlations across posterior-parietal-frontal regions. From these findings, we suggest that the STG dominated by gamma activity serves as a hub region for the network nodes responsible for the retention of the stimulus used in this study, which is likely to depend on both the "where-" and the "what-" visual system simultaneously. The present study demonstrates how oscillatory dynamics reflecting the interaction between cortical areas can be investigated by means of cross-frequency power correlations in source space. This methodological framework could be of general utility when studying functional network properties of the working brain.

  6. Virtual lesion of right posterior superior temporal sulcus modulates conscious visual perception of fearful expressions in faces and bodies.

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    Candidi, Matteo; Stienen, Bernard M C; Aglioti, Salvatore M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    The posterior Superior Temporal Suclus (pSTS) represents a central hub in the complex cerebral network for person perception and emotion recognition as also suggested by its heavy connections with face- and body-specific cortical (e.g., the fusiform face area, FFA and the extrastriate body area, EBA) and subcortical structures (e.g., amygdala). Information on whether pSTS is causatively involved in sustaining conscious visual perception of emotions expressed by faces and bodies is lacking. We explored this issue by combining a binocular rivalry procedure (where emotional and neutral face and body postures rivaled with house images) with off-line, 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We found that temporary inhibition of the right pSTS reduced perceptual dominance of fearful faces and increased perceptual dominance of fearful bodies, while leaving unaffected the perception of neutral face and body images. Inhibition of the vertex had no effect on conscious visual perception of neutral or emotional face or body stimuli. Thus, the right pSTS plays a causal role in shortening conscious vision of fearful faces and in prolonging conscious vision of fearful bodies. These results suggest that pSTS selectively modulates the activity of segregated networks involved in the conscious visual perception of emotional faces or bodies. We speculate that the opposite role of the right pSTS for conscious perception of fearful face and body may be explained by the different connections that this region entertains with face- and body-selective visual areas as well as with amygdalae and premotor regions.

  7. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

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    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  8. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

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    Yongqi He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  9. fMR-adaptation indicates selectivity to audiovisual content congruency in distributed clusters in human superior temporal cortex

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    Blomert Leo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient multisensory integration is of vital importance for adequate interaction with the environment. In addition to basic binding cues like temporal and spatial coherence, meaningful multisensory information is also bound together by content-based associations. Many functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies propose the (posterior superior temporal cortex (STC as the key structure for integrating meaningful multisensory information. However, a still unanswered question is how superior temporal cortex encodes content-based associations, especially in light of inconsistent results from studies comparing brain activation to semantically matching (congruent versus nonmatching (incongruent multisensory inputs. Here, we used fMR-adaptation (fMR-A in order to circumvent potential problems with standard fMRI approaches, including spatial averaging and amplitude saturation confounds. We presented repetitions of audiovisual stimuli (letter-speech sound pairs and manipulated the associative relation between the auditory and visual inputs (congruent/incongruent pairs. We predicted that if multisensory neuronal populations exist in STC and encode audiovisual content relatedness, adaptation should be affected by the manipulated audiovisual relation. Results The results revealed an occipital-temporal network that adapted independently of the audiovisual relation. Interestingly, several smaller clusters distributed over superior temporal cortex within that network, adapted stronger to congruent than to incongruent audiovisual repetitions, indicating sensitivity to content congruency. Conclusions These results suggest that the revealed clusters contain multisensory neuronal populations that encode content relatedness by selectively responding to congruent audiovisual inputs, since unisensory neuronal populations are assumed to be insensitive to the audiovisual relation. These findings extend our previously revealed mechanism for

  10. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

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    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  11. Structure and Function of the Superior Temporal Plane in Adult Males with Cleft Lip and Palate: Pathologic Enlargement with No Relationship to Childhood Hearing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, A. S.; Canady, J.; Richman, L.; Andreasen, N. C.; Nopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In a previous study from our lab, adult males with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) were shown to have significantly lower temporal lobe gray matter volume than matched controls. The current study was designed to begin a regional analysis of specific subregions of the temporal lobe. The superior temporal plane (STP) is a…

  12. Pantomiming tool use with an imaginary tool in hand as compared to demonstration with tool in hand specifically modulates the left middle and superior temporal gyri.

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    Lausberg, Hedda; Kazzer, Philipp; Heekeren, Hauke R; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological lesion studies evidence the necessity to differentiate between various forms of tool-related actions such as real tool use, tool use demonstration with tool in hand and without physical target object, and pantomime without tool in hand. However, thus far, neuroimaging studies have primarily focused only on investigating tool use pantomimes. The present fMRI study investigates pantomime without tool in hand as compared to tool use demonstration with tool in hand in order to explore patterns of cerebral signal modulation associated with acting with imaginary tools in hand. Fifteen participants performed with either hand (i) tool use pantomime with an imaginary tool in hand in response to visual tool presentation and (ii) tool use demonstration with tool in hand in response to visual-tactile tool presentation. In both conditions, no physical target object was present. The conjunction analysis of the right and left hands executions of tool use pantomime relative to tool use demonstration yielded significant activity in the left middle and superior temporal lobe. In contrast, demonstration relative to pantomime revealed large bihemispherically distributed homologous areas of activity. Thus far, fMRI studies have demonstrated the relevance of the left middle and superior temporal gyri in viewing, naming, and matching tools and related actions and contexts. Since in our study all these factors were equally (ir)relevant both in the tool use pantomime and the tool use demonstration conditions, the present findings enhance the knowledge about the function of these brain regions in tool-related cognitive processes. The two contrasted conditions only differ regarding the fact that the pantomime condition requires the individual to act with an imaginary tool in hand. Therefore, we suggest that the left middle and superior temporal gyri are specifically involved in integrating the projected mental image of a tool in the execution of a tool-specific movement

  13. Predicting the temporal variation of flow contributing areas using SWAT

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    Golmohammadi, Golmar; Rudra, Ramesh; Dickinson, Trevor; Goel, Pradeep; Veliz, Mari

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the capability of soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to identify areas contributing to flow in the Gully Creek Watershed in Ontario. The SWAT model predicted the streamflow at the outlet of the watershed, with monthly and daily Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies of 0.75 and 0.60 during the validation period. In addition to the daily streamflow data, the flow was also observed at 16 monitoring stations during 6 different events. The validated model was then used to simulate flow at the monitoring stations. The effect of watershed delineation on streamflow and events at 16 monitoring station were then examined by SWAT. The delineation of 99 subbasins, with highest efficiency was selected for the purpose of predicting the potential flow contributing areas with the model. Overall, the flow events were overestimated by SWAT. Temporal variations in the potential flow contributing areas during each event were then analyzed. Flow contributing areas during each event was predicted by the model first and the results showed a good agreement with available information. A current precipitation index was used to simulate the continuous change of soil water content during each rainstorm, and the modeling results of the individual events were used to explore the capability of the model to predict the temporal variation of flow contributing areas during each event. The results revealed that the SWAT model over-predicted the areas contributing flow for events with lower rainfall; while for the events with higher rainfall amount the model closely simulated the time-varying contributing area. The results of this study provide some insight into the possible capability of SWAT model to predict the temporal variations in potential contributing area, and therefore provide an important contribution to the modeling of runoff generation in watersheds, a vital aspect in the evaluation and planning of best management practices.

  14. Morphologic Study of Superior Temporal Sulcus-Amygdaloid Body and Lateral Fissure-Amygdaloid Body Surgical Approach by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume Rendering.

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    Qu, Yuan; Ren, Bichen; Chang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Youqiong; Duan, Haobo; Cheng, Kailiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, 83 patients were measured by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering technique. The authors acquired the curve length of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure on the cerebral hemisphere, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the center of amygdaloid body separately, the vertical diameter, the transversal diameter, and the anteroposterior diameter of the amygdaloid body and the 2 approach angles between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the center of amygdaloid body and the shortest segment from lateral fissure to the center of the amygdaloid body. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the 2 points of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure, which are closest to the center of amygdaloid body, aimed at finding out the best entrance points of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the amygdaloid body and reducing the damage to the nerve fibers or blood vessels during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 1/4 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point and the point at the front side 1/3 of the lateral fissure. There is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  15. Development from childhood to adulthood increases morphological and functional inter-individual variability in the right superior temporal cortex.

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    Bonte, Milene; Frost, Martin A; Rutten, Sanne; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    We study the developmental trajectory of morphology and function of the superior temporal cortex (STC) in children (8-9 years), adolescents (14-15 years) and young adults. We analyze cortical surface landmarks and functional MRI (fMRI) responses to voices, other natural categories and tones and examine how hemispheric asymmetry and inter-subject variability change across age. Our results show stable morphological asymmetries across age groups, including a larger left planum temporale and a deeper right superior temporal sulcus. fMRI analyses show that a rightward lateralization for voice-selective responses is present in all groups but decreases with age. Furthermore, STC responses to voices change from being less selective and more spatially diffuse in children to highly selective and focal in adults. Interestingly, the analysis of morphological landmarks reveals that inter-subject variability increases during development in the right--but not in the left--STC. Similarly, inter-subject variability of cortically-realigned functional responses to voices, other categories and tones increases with age in the right STC. Our findings reveal asymmetric developmental changes in brain regions crucial for auditory and voice perception. The age-related increase of inter-subject variability in right STC suggests that anatomy and function of this region are shaped by unique individual developmental experiences.

  16. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Dahl; Nikos K Logothetis; Christoph Kayser

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  17. Modulation of Visual Responses in the Superior Temporal Sulcus by Audio-Visual Congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Christoph D.; Nikos K Logothetis; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  18. Acetabular roof arc angles and anatomic biomechanical superior acetabular weight bearing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thossart Harnroongroj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetabular fracture involves whether superior articular weight bearing area and stability of the hip are assessed by acetabular roof arc angles comprising medial, anterior and posterior. Many previous studies, based on clinical, biomechanics and anatomic superior articular surface of acetabulum showed different degrees of the angles. Anatomic biomechanical superior acetabular weight bearing area (ABSAWBA of the femoral head can be identified as radiographic subchondral bone density at superior acetabular dome. The fracture passes through ABSAWBA creating traumatic hip arthritis. Therefore, acetabular roof arc angles of ABSAWBA were studied in order to find out that the most appropriate degrees of recommended acetabular roof arc angles in the previous studies had no ABSAWBA involvement. Materials and Methods: ABSAWBA of femoral head was identified 68 acetabular fractures and 13 isolated pelvic fractures without unstable pelvic ring injury were enrolled. Acetabular roof arc angle was measured on anteroposterior, obturator and iliac oblique view radiographs of normal contralateral acetabulum using programmatic automation controller digital system and measurement tools. Results: Average medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles of the ABSAWBA of 94 normal acetabulum were 39.09 (7.41, 42.49 (8.15 and 55.26 (10.08 degrees, respectively. Conclusions: Less than 39°, 42° and 55° of medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles involve ABSAWBA of the femoral head. Application of the study results showed that 45°, 45° and 62° from the previous studies are the most appropriate medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles without involvement of the ABSAWBA respectively.

  19. Are left fronto-temporal brain areas a prerequisite for normal music-syntactic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Koelsch, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies in music cognition research suggest that "language areas" are involved in the processing of musical syntax, but none of these studies clarified whether these areas are a prerequisite for normal syntax processing in music. The present electrophysiological experiment tested whether patients with lesions in Broca's area (N=6) or in the left anterior temporal lobe (N=7) exhibit deficits in the processing of structure in music compared to matched healthy controls (N=13). A chord sequence paradigm was applied, and the amplitude and scalp topography of the Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was examined, an electrophysiological marker of musical syntax processing that correlates with activity in Broca's area and its right hemisphere homotope. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (but not anterior superior temporal gyrus - aSTG) patients with lesions older than 4 years showed an ERAN with abnormal scalp distribution, and subtle behavioural deficits in detecting music-syntactic irregularities. In one IFG patient tested 7 months post-stroke, the ERAN was extinguished and the behavioural performance remained at chance level. These combined results suggest that the left IFG, known to be crucial for syntax processing in language, plays also a functional role in the processing of musical syntax. Hence, the present findings are consistent with the notion that Broca's area supports the processing of syntax in a rather domain-general way.

  20. Time course of the involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum in emotional prosody perception.

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    Marjolijn Hoekert

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional prosody perception. Here, we used triple-pulse repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to shed light on the precise time course of involvement of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right fronto-parietal operculum. We hypothesized that information would be processed in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus before being processed in the right fronto-parietal operculum. Right-handed healthy subjects performed an emotional prosody task. During listening to each sentence a triplet of TMS pulses was applied to one of the regions at one of six time points (400-1900 ms. Results showed a significant main effect of Time for right anterior superior temporal gyrus and right fronto-parietal operculum. The largest interference was observed half-way through the sentence. This effect was stronger for withdrawal emotions than for the approach emotion. A further experiment with the inclusion of an active control condition, TMS over the EEG site POz (midline parietal-occipital junction, revealed stronger effects at the fronto-parietal operculum and anterior superior temporal gyrus relative to the active control condition. No evidence was found for sequential processing of emotional prosodic information from right anterior superior temporal gyrus to the right fronto-parietal operculum, but the results revealed more parallel processing. Our results suggest that both right fronto-parietal operculum and right anterior superior temporal gyrus are critical for emotional prosody perception at a relatively late time period after sentence onset. This may reflect that emotional cues can still be ambiguous at the beginning of sentences, but become

  1. Investigation on large-area fabrication of vivid shark skin with superior surface functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Lingxi; Che, Da; Zhang, Deyuan; Sudarshan, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    Shark skin has attracted worldwide attention because of its superior drag reduction, antifouling performance induced from its unique surface morphology. Although the vivid shark skin has been fabricated by a bio-replicated micro-imprinting approach in previous studies and superior drag reduction effect has been validated in water tunnel, continuous large-area fabrication is still an obstacle to wide apply. In this paper, one novel bio-replication coating technology is proposed for large-area transfer of shark skin based on rapid UV curable paint. Apart from design of coating system, bio-replication accuracy of surface morphology was validated about 97% by comparison between shark skin template and coating surface morphology. Finally, the drag reduction and anti-fouling function of coating surface were tested in water tunnel and open algae pond respectively. Drag reduction rate of coating surface was validated about 12% higher and anti-fouling was proved to about hundred times ameliorate, all of which are more excellent than simple 2D riblet surface.

  2. Motion opponency and transparency in the human middle temporal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Javier O; Grossman, Emily D

    2009-09-01

    Motion transparency is the perception of multiple, moving surfaces within the same retinal location (for example, a ripple on the surface of a drifting stream), and is an interesting challenge to motion models because multiple velocities must be represented within the same region of space. When these motion vectors are in opposite directions, brief in duration and spatially constrained within a very local region, the result is little or no perceived motion (motion opponency). Both motion transparency and motion opponency inhibit the firing rate of single middle temporal area (MT) neurons as compared with the preferred direction alone, but neither generally influences the firing rate of primary visual cortex neurons. Surprisingly, neuroimaging studies of human middle temporal area (hMT+) have found less activation due only to motion opponency and an increase in neural responses for motion transparency. Here we parametrically manipulate the local balance between competing motion vectors and find an interaction between motion opponency and transparency in the population blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response. We find reduced BOLD amplitude for motion opponency throughout visual cortex, but weakened responses due to perceptual transparency that is most apparent only within the hMT+. We interpret our results as evidence for two distinct mechanisms mediating opponency and transparency.

  3. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  4. Polymodal information processing via temporal cortex Area 37 modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-04-01

    A model of biological information processing is presented that consists of auditory and visual subsystems linked to temporal cortex and limbic processing. An biologically based algorithm is presented for the fusing of information sources of fundamentally different modalities. Proof of this concept is outlined by a system which combines auditory input (musical sequences) and visual input (illustrations such as paintings) via a model of cortex processing for Area 37 of the temporal cortex. The training data can be used to construct a connectionist model whose biological relevance is suspect yet is still useful and a biologically based model which achieves the same input to output map through biologically relevant means. The constructed models are able to create from a set of auditory and visual clues a combined musical/ illustration output which shares many of the properties of the original training data. These algorithms are not dependent on these particular auditory/ visual modalities and hence are of general use in the intelligent computation of outputs that require sensor fusion.

  5. Naturalistic fMRI Mapping Reveals Superior Temporal Sulcus as the Hub for the Distributed Brain Network for Social Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life. PMID:22905026

  6. Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  7. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  8. 36 CFR 293.16 - Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. 293.16 Section 293.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS...

  9. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo [Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China); He, Hongjian [Bio-X lab, Dept. of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  10. Responses in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus show a feature-based response to facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tessa R; Andrews, Timothy J; Hymers, Mark; Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Marsden, Samuel P; Strachan, James W A; Trakulpipat, Chayanit; Wang, Liang; Wu, Tian; Young, Andrew W

    2015-08-01

    The face-selective region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in analysing facial expressions. However, it is less clear how facial expressions are represented in this region. In this study, we used the face composite effect to explore whether the pSTS contains a holistic or feature-based representation of facial expression. Aligned and misaligned composite images were created from the top and bottom halves of faces posing different expressions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a behavioural matching task in which they judged whether the top half of two images was the same or different. The ability to discriminate the top half of the face was affected by changes in the bottom half of the face when the images were aligned, but not when they were misaligned. This shows a holistic behavioural response to expression. In Experiment 2, we used fMR-adaptation to ask whether the pSTS has a corresponding holistic neural representation of expression. Aligned or misaligned images were presented in blocks that involved repeating the same image or in which the top or bottom half of the images changed. Increased neural responses were found in the right pSTS regardless of whether the change occurred in the top or bottom of the image, showing that changes in expression were detected across all parts of the face. However, in contrast to the behavioural data, the pattern did not differ between aligned and misaligned stimuli. This suggests that the pSTS does not encode facial expressions holistically. In contrast to the pSTS, a holistic pattern of response to facial expression was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Together, these results suggest that pSTS reflects an early stage in the processing of facial expression in which facial features are represented independently.

  11. Coding for stimulus velocity by temporal patterning of spike discharges in visual cells of cat superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, G

    1993-07-01

    Statistical analyses, performed on extracellularly recorded spike trains generated by 69 single motion sensitive visual cells in the intermediate layers of superior colliculi of pretrigeminal cat preparations, revealed that--even in the unstimulated condition (38/69)--most neuronal spike discharge patterns tended to switch between two stochastically distinct states, in the form of rapidly alternating "bursting" (high frequency) and "resting" (low frequency) episodes. The numbers of consecutive interspike intervals within a given state were, as a rule, independent integer-valued random variables with discrete probability distributions, in essential agreement with the semi-Markov model proposed by Ekholm and Hyvärinen [(1970) Biophysical Journal, 10, 773-796]. The introduction of visual stimuli (47/69) moving with velocities of 2-160 deg/sec caused systematic and reproducible changes in the ratio of bursting to resting activities, decreases in overall discharge variability, and increases in signal transinformation flow. Moreover, with one group of stimulated cells (28/47), increasing stimulus velocity caused increasingly precise ("stimulus-forced") synchronization of bursting episodes with specific phases of stimulus movement; while for a smaller group (12/47), stimulus-related alternations between bursting and resting states assumed the form of semi-rhythmical burst discharges within the characteristic 60-80 Hz "gamma oscillation" range ("stimulus-induced" synchronization). For a minority of cells (7/47), switching between bursting and resting states--although characteristically modified by stimulus velocity--remained largely desynchronized with all phases of stimulus transit. It was argued that such temporal patterns of discharge may constitute elements of a candidate "distribution" code for movement detection by the cat visual system.

  12. Central and peripheral components of writing critically depend on a defined area of the dominant superior parietal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Bongetta, Daniele; Bianchini, Simonetta; Berardesca, Marta; Arienta, Cesare

    2010-07-30

    Classical neuropsychological models of writing separate central (linguistic) processes common to oral spelling, writing and typing from peripheral (motor) processes that are modality specific. Damage to the left superior parietal gyrus, an area of the cortex involved in peripheral processes specific to handwriting, should generate distorted graphemes but not misspelled words, while damage to other areas of the cortex like the frontal lobe should produce alterations in written and oral spelling without distorted graphemes. We describe the clinical and neuropsychological features of a patient with combined agraphia for handwriting and typewriting bearing a small glioblastoma in the left parietal lobe. His agraphia resolved after antiedema therapy and we tested by bipolar cortical stimulation his handwriting abilities during an awake neurosurgical procedure. We found that we could reversibly re-induce the same defects of writing by stimulating during surgery a limited area of the superior parietal gyrus in the same patient and in an independent patient that was never agraphic before the operation. In those patients stimulation caused spelling errors, poorly formed letters and in some cases a complete cessation of writing with minimal or no effects on oral spelling. Our results suggest that stimulating a specific area in the superior parietal gyrus we can generate different patterns of agraphia. Moreover, our findings also suggest that some of the central processes specific for typing and handwriting converge with motor processes at least in the limited portion of the superior parietal gyrus we mapped in our patients.

  13. MULTI-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPES AND URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nocerino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a 4D modelling approach that employs multi-temporal and historical aerial images to derive spatio-temporal information for scenes and landscapes. Such imagery represent a unique data source, which combined with photo interpretation and reality-based 3D reconstruction techniques, can offer a more complete modelling procedure because it adds the fourth dimension of time to 3D geometrical representation and thus, allows urban planners, historians, and others to identify, describe, and analyse changes in individual scenes and buildings as well as across landscapes. Particularly important to this approach are historical aerial photos, which provide data about the past that can be collected, processed, and then integrated as a database. The proposed methodology employs both historical (1945 and more recent (1973 and 2000s aerial images from the Trentino region in North-eastern Italy in order to create a multi-temporal database of information to assist researchers in many disciplines such as topographic mapping, geology, geography, architecture, and archaeology as they work to reconstruct building phases and to understand landscape transformations (Fig. 1.

  14. Poor Receptive Joint Attention Skills Are Associated with Atypical Grey Matter Asymmetry in the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eHopkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental data have implicated the posterior superior temporal gyrus as an important cortical region in the processing of socially relevant stimuli such as gaze following, eye direction, and head orientation. Gaze following and responding to different socio-communicative signals is an important and highly adaptive skill in primates, including humans. Here, we examined whether individual differences in responding to socio-communicative cues was associated with variation in either grey matter volume and asymmetry in a sample of chimpanzees. MRI scans and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had more rightward asymmetries in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less grey matter than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information.

  15. Temporal summation in muscles and referred pain areas: an experimental human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt-Nielsen, L; Graven-Nielsen, T; Svensson, P; Jensen, T S

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess temporal summation within saline-induced, localized and referred muscle pain areas. The sensibility to single and repeated electrical stimuli were assessed in the muscle by means of needle electrodes and in the referred pain area by surface stimulation. The study demonstrates that temporal summation of nociceptive input from muscles exists and that the responses to single and repeated nociceptive stimuli of the referred pain area are facilitated.

  16. Tourism Development in the Dutch Wadden Area : Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Monitoring Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Frans J; Broersma, Lourens; Daams, Michiel N; Hoekstra, H; Werner, Gelijn

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a spatial and temporal analysis of tourism in the Dutch Wadden area and identifies policy dilemmas and monitoring needs. The analysis is temporal because historical, current and future aspects of tourism development are addressed; it is spatial because the spatial differentiaton

  17. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  18. Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexicosemantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2012-07-11

    Congenitally deaf individuals receive little or no auditory input, and when raised by deaf parents, they acquire sign as their native and primary language. We asked two questions regarding how the deaf brain in humans adapts to sensory deprivation: (1) is meaning extracted and integrated from signs using the same classical left hemisphere frontotemporal network used for speech in hearing individuals, and (2) in deafness, is superior temporal cortex encompassing primary and secondary auditory regions reorganized to receive and process visual sensory information at short latencies? Using MEG constrained by individual cortical anatomy obtained with MRI, we examined an early time window associated with sensory processing and a late time window associated with lexicosemantic integration. We found that sign in deaf individuals and speech in hearing individuals activate a highly similar left frontotemporal network (including superior temporal regions surrounding auditory cortex) during lexicosemantic processing, but only speech in hearing individuals activates auditory regions during sensory processing. Thus, neural systems dedicated to processing high-level linguistic information are used for processing language regardless of modality or hearing status, and we do not find evidence for rewiring of afferent connections from visual systems to auditory cortex.

  19. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  20. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo

    2017-05-08

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  1. Human arachnoid granulations Part I: a technique for quantifying area and distribution on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman David W

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are herniations of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses on the surface of the brain. Previous morphological studies of AGs have been limited in scope and only one has mentioned surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topographic distribution of AGs on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex. Methods En face images were taken of the superior surface of 35 formalin-fixed human brains. AGs were manually identified using Adobe Photoshop, with a pixel location containing an AG defined as 'positive'. A set of 25 standard fiducial points was marked on each hemisphere for a total of 50 points on each image. The points were connected on each hemisphere to create a segmented image. A standard template was created for each hemisphere by calculating the average position of the 25 fiducial points from all brains. Each segmented image was mapped to the standard template using a linear transformation. A topographic distribution map was produced by calculating the proportion of AG positive images at each pixel in the standard template. The AG surface area was calculated for each hemisphere and for the total brain superior surface. To adjust for different brain sizes, the proportional involvement of AGs was calculated by dividing the AG area by the total area. Results The total brain average surface area of AGs was 78.53 ± 13.13 mm2 (n = 35 and average AG proportional involvement was 57.71 × 10-4 ± 7.65 × 10-4. Regression analysis confirmed the reproducibility of AG identification between independent researchers with r2 = 0.97. The surface AGs were localized in the parasagittal planes that coincide with the region of the lateral lacunae. Conclusion The data obtained on the spatial distribution and en face surface area of AGs will be used in an in vitro model of CSF outflow. With an increase in the number of samples, this analysis technique can be used

  2. Role of fusiform and anterior temporal cortical areas in facial recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Shahin; Tootell, Roger B H

    2012-11-15

    Recent fMRI studies suggest that cortical face processing extends well beyond the fusiform face area (FFA), including unspecified portions of the anterior temporal lobe. However, the exact location of such anterior temporal region(s), and their role during active face recognition, remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that (in addition to FFA) a small bilateral site in the anterior tip of the collateral sulcus ('AT'; the anterior temporal face patch) is selectively activated during recognition of faces but not houses (a non-face object). In contrast to the psychophysical prediction that inverted and contrast reversed faces are processed like other non-face objects, both FFA and AT (but not other visual areas) were also activated during recognition of inverted and contrast reversed faces. However, response accuracy was better correlated to recognition-driven activity in AT, compared to FFA. These data support a segregated, hierarchical model of face recognition processing, extending to the anterior temporal cortex.

  3. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon with an ultrahigh specific surface area for superior performance supercapacitors

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    Long, Chao; Zhuang, Jianle; Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Mingtao; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Lei, Bingfu; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-04-01

    Owing to its abundant nitrogen content, silk cocoon is a promising precursor for the synthesis of Nitrogen-doped porous carbon (N-PC). Using a simple staged KOH activation, the prepared sample displays particular nanostructure with ultrahigh specific surface area (3841 m2 g-1) and appropriate pore size, providing favorable pathways for transportation and penetration of electrolyte ions. Additionally, the doped nitrogen atoms ensure the samples with pseudocapacitive behavior. Those special characteristics endow N-PCs with high capacity, low resistance, and long-term stability, indicating a wonderful potential for application in energy-storage devices.

  4. Correlation of Superior Canal Dehiscence Surface Area With Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials, Audiometric Thresholds, and Dizziness Handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jacob B; O'Connell, Brendan P; Wang, Jianing; Chakravorti, Srijata; Makowiec, Katie; Carlson, Matthew L; Dawant, Benoit; McCaslin, Devin L; Noble, Jack H; Wanna, George B

    2016-09-01

    To correlate objective measures of vestibular and audiometric function as well as subjective measures of dizziness handicap with the surface area of the superior canal dehiscence (SCD). Retrospective chart review and radiological analysis. Single tertiary academic referral center. Preoperative computed tomography imaging, patient survey, audiometric thresholds, and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing in patients with confirmed SCD. Image analysis techniques were developed to measure the surface area of each SCD in computed tomography imaging. Preoperative ocular and cervical VEMPs, air and bone conduction thresholds, air-bone gap, dizziness handicap inventory scores, and surface area of the SCD. Fifty-three patients (mean age 52.7 yr) with 84 SCD were analyzed. The median surface area of dehiscence was 1.44 mm (0.068-8.23 mm). Ocular VEMP amplitudes (r = 0.61, p cervical VEMP amplitudes (r = 0.62, p cervical VEMP thresholds (r = -0.56, p ocular and cervical VEMP amplitudes, cervical VEMP thresholds, and air conduction thresholds at 250 Hz are significantly correlated with the surface area of the dehiscence.

  5. High temporal resolution photography for observing riparian area use and grazing behavior

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    In 2014, a 2.4 hectare site within the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in northeastern Arizona, USA was selected to characterize temporal and spatial patterns of riparian area use. Three consecutive 30, 8, and 46 day time periods representing 1) unrestricted access, 2) prescribed cattle use, and 3...

  6. Endoscopic facelift of the frontal and temporal areas in multiple planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogen; Ma, Haihuan; Xue, Zhiqiang; Qi, Huijie; Chen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The detachment planes used in endoscopic facelifts play an important role in determining the results of facial rejuvenation. In this study, we introduced the use of multiple detachment planes for endoscopic facelifts of the frontal and temporal areas, and examined its outcome. METHODS This study included 47 patients (38 female, 9 male) who requested frontal and temporal facelifts from January 2009 to January 2014. The technique of dissection in multiple planes was used for all 47 patients. In this technique, the frontal dissection was first carried out in the subgaleal plane, before being changed to the subperiosteal plane about 2 cm above the eyebrow line. Temporal dissection was carried out in both the subcutaneous and subgaleal planes. After detachment, frontal and temporal fixations were achieved using nonabsorbable sutures, and the incisions were closed. During follow-up (ranging from 6–24 months after surgery), the patients were shown their pre- and postoperative images, and asked to rate their satisfaction with the procedure. Complications encountered were documented. RESULTS All 47 patients had complete recovery without any serious complications. The patient satisfaction rate was 93.6%. Minor complications included dimpling at the suture site, asymmetry, overcorrection, transitory paralysis, late oedema, haematoma, infection, scarring and hair loss. These complications resolved spontaneously and were negligible after complete recovery. CONCLUSION Dissection in multiple planes is valuable in frontal and temporal endoscopic facelifts. It may be worthwhile to introduce the use of this technique in frontal and temporal facelifts, as it may lead to improved outcomes. PMID:26891744

  7. FMRI study relevant to the Mozart effect: brain areas involved in spatial-temporal reasoning.

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    Bodner, M; Muftuler, L T; Nalcioglu, O; Shaw, G L

    2001-10-01

    Behavioral studies, motivated by columnar cortical model predictions, have given evidence for music causally enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. A wide range of behavioral experiments showed that listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) gave subsequent enhancements. An EEG coherence study gave evidence for a carryover from that Mozart Sonata listening condition to the subsequent spatial-temporal task in specific cortical regions. Here we present fMRI studies comparing cortical blood flow activation by the Mozart Sonata vs. other music. In addition to expected temporal cortex activation, we report dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 1930s piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatial-temporal reasoning. It would be of great interest to explicitly test this expectation. We propose an fMRI study comparing (subject by subject) brain areas activated in music listening conditions and in spatial-temporal tasks.

  8. The Impact of Single Session Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Hsing-Chang Ni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation in a randomized order with a 1-week interval. Neuropsychological functions were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Behavioral outcomes were measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. In comparison to that in the sham stimulation, the reaction time in the CCPT significantly decreased following single DLPFC session (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.71 while there were no significant differences in the CCPT and WCST following single pSTS session. Besides, the results in behavioral outcomes were inconsistent and had discrepancy between reports of parents and patients. In conclusion, a single session of iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC may alter the neuropsychological function in adults with ASD. The impacts of multiple-sessions iTBS over the DLPFC or pSTS deserve further investigations.

  9. Activity changes in the left superior temporal sulcus reflect the effects of childcare training on young female students' perceptions of infants' negative facial expressions.

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    Ito, Ayahito; Niwano, Katsuko; Tanabe, Motoko; Sato, Yosuke; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2017-09-12

    In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers. Twenty-seven subjects who attended a childcare training session (i.e., the experimental group) and 28 subjects who did not attend the training (i.e., the control group) participated in this study. The participants went through fMRI scanning twice: before and after the childcare training session. They were presented with happy, neutral, and sad infant faces one by one during fMRI scanning. The present neuroimaging results revealed that the activity patterns of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) for sad faces were modulated by the interaction between the time point of the data collection and group differences. The present results are the first to highlight the effects of childcare training on the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Object-based illumination normalization for multi-temporal satellite images in urban area

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    Su, Nan; Zhang, Ye; Tian, Shu; Yan, Yiming

    2016-09-01

    Multi-temporal satellite images acquisition with different illumination conditions cause radiometric difference to have a huge effect on image quality during remote sensing image processing. In particular, image matching of satellite stereo images with great difference between acquisition dates is very difficult for the high-precision DSM generation in the field of satellite photogrammetry. Therefore, illumination normalization is one of the greatest application technology to eliminate radiometric difference for image matching and other image applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel method of object-based illumination normalization to improve image matching of different temporal satellite stereo images in urban area. Our proposed method include two main steps: 1) the object extraction 2) multi-level illumination normalization. Firstly, we proposed a object extraction method for the same objects extraction among the multi-temporal satellite images, which can keep the object structural attribute. Moreover, the multi-level illumination normalization is proposed by combining gradient domain method and singular value decomposition (SVD) according to characteristic information of relevant objects. Our proposed method has great improvement for the illumination of object area to be benefit for image matching in urban area with multiple objects. And the histogram similarity parameter and matching rate are used for illumination consistency quantitative evaluation. The experiments have been conducted on different satellite images with different acquisition dates in the same urban area to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate a good performance by comparing other methods.

  11. Temporal envelope processing in the human auditory cortex: response and interconnections of auditory cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourévitch, Boris; Le Bouquin Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2008-03-01

    Temporal envelope processing in the human auditory cortex has an important role in language analysis. In this paper, depth recordings of local field potentials in response to amplitude modulated white noises were used to design maps of activation in primary, secondary and associative auditory areas and to study the propagation of the cortical activity between them. The comparison of activations between auditory areas was based on a signal-to-noise ratio associated with the response to amplitude modulation (AM). The functional connectivity between cortical areas was quantified by the directed coherence (DCOH) applied to auditory evoked potentials. This study shows the following reproducible results on twenty subjects: (1) the primary auditory cortex (PAC), the secondary cortices (secondary auditory cortex (SAC) and planum temporale (PT)), the insular gyrus, the Brodmann area (BA) 22 and the posterior part of T1 gyrus (T1Post) respond to AM in both hemispheres. (2) A stronger response to AM was observed in SAC and T1Post of the left hemisphere independent of the modulation frequency (MF), and in the left BA22 for MFs 8 and 16Hz, compared to those in the right. (3) The activation and propagation features emphasized at least four different types of temporal processing. (4) A sequential activation of PAC, SAC and BA22 areas was clearly visible at all MFs, while other auditory areas may be more involved in parallel processing upon a stream originating from primary auditory area, which thus acts as a distribution hub. These results suggest that different psychological information is carried by the temporal envelope of sounds relative to the rate of amplitude modulation.

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

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    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented.

  13. Contributions to singing ability by the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of the non-language-dominant hemisphere: first evidence from subdural cortical stimulation, Wada testing, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Ralph O; Golby, Alexandra; Whalen, Stephen; Sato, Susumu; Theodore, William H; Kufta, Conrad V; Devinsky, Orrin; Balish, Marshall; Bromfield, Edward B

    2010-03-01

    Although the substrates that mediate singing abilities in the human brain are not well understood, invasive brain mapping techniques used for clinical decision making such as intracranial electro-cortical testing and Wada testing offer a rare opportunity to examine music-related function in a select group of subjects, affording exceptional spatial and temporal specificity. We studied eight patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing indwelling subdural electrode seizure focus localization. All patients underwent Wada testing for language lateralization. Functional assessment of language and music tasks was done by electrode grid cortical stimulation. One patient was also tested non-invasively with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional organization of singing ability compared to language ability was determined based on four regions-of-interest (ROIs): left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and left and right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). In some subjects, electrical stimulation of dominant pSTG can interfere with speech and not singing, whereas stimulation of non-dominant pSTG area can interfere with singing and not speech. Stimulation of the dominant IFG tends to interfere with both musical and language expression, while non-dominant IFG stimulation was often observed to cause no interference with either task; and finally, that stimulation of areas adjacent to but not within non-dominant pSTG typically does not affect either ability. Functional fMRI mappings of one subject revealed similar music/language dissociation with respect to activation asymmetry within the ROIs. Despite inherent limitations with respect to strictly research objectives, invasive clinical techniques offer a rare opportunity to probe musical and language cognitive processes of the brain in a select group of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  14. Loss of nonphosphorylated neurofilament immunoreactivity in temporal cortical areas in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, R; Sahu, S K; Van Hoesen, G W; Zaheer, A

    2009-05-05

    The distribution of immunoreactive neurons with nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI32) was studied in temporal cortical areas in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). SMI32 immunopositive neurons were localized mainly in cortical layers II, III, V and VI, and were medium to large-sized pyramidal neurons. Patients with AD had prominent degeneration of SMI32 positive neurons in layers III and V of Brodmann areas 38, 36, 35 and 20; in layers II and IV of the entorhinal cortex (Brodmann area 28); and hippocampal neurons. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were stained with Thioflavin-S and with an antibody (AT8) against hyperphosphorylated tau. The NFT distribution was compared to that of the neuronal cytoskeletal marker SMI32 in these temporal cortical regions. The results showed that the loss of SMI32 immunoreactivity in temporal cortical regions of AD brain is paralleled by an increase in NFTs and AT8 immunoreactivity in neurons. The SMI32 immunoreactivity was drastically reduced in the cortical layers where tangle-bearing neurons are localized. A strong SMI32 immunoreactivity was observed in numerous neurons containing NFTs by double-immunolabeling with SMI32 and AT8. However, few neurons were labeled by AT8 and SMI32. These results suggest that the development of NFTs in some neurons results from some alteration in SMI32 expression, but does not account for all, particularly, early NFT-related changes. Also, there is a clear correlation of NFTs with selective population of pyramidal neurons in the temporal cortical areas and these pyramidal cells are specifically prone to formation of paired helical filaments. Furthermore, these pyramidal neurons might represent a significant portion of the neurons of origin of long corticocortical connection, and consequently contribute to the destruction of memory-related input to the hippocampal formation.

  15. Spatial clustering and the temporal mobility of walking school trips in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Raktim; Buliung, Ron N; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2010-07-01

    Interest in utilitarian sources of physical activity, such as walking to school, has emerged in response to the increased prevalence of sedentary behavior in children and youth. Public health practitioners and urban planners need to be able to survey and monitor walking practices in space and time, with a view to developing appropriate interventions. This study explored the prevalence of walking to and from school of 11-13 year olds in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. The Getis-Ord (G(i)(*)) local spatial statistic, Markov transition matrices, and logistic regressions were used to examine the spatial clustering of walking trips in the study area, and to document any temporal drift of places in and out of walking clusters. Findings demonstrate that walking tends to cluster within the urban and inner-suburban GTA, and in areas with low household income. Temporally persistent cluster membership was less likely within inner-suburban and outer-suburban places. The evidence suggests that interventions to increase active school transportation need to acknowledge spatial and temporal differences in walking behavior.

  16. Gradient analysis of landscape spatial and temporal pattern changes in Beijing metropolitan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gradient based landscape metrics analysis is now widely used to study the landscape pattern changes in respond to the urbanization.In order to discover the trend of spatio-temporal changes in Beijing metropolitan area during the past 15 years,several landscape metrics are computed using a moving window along a 96 km long transect across Beijing metropolitan area from west to east.Specially,the spatial extent of sub-landscape,which is determined by the moving window’s size,is profoundly examined.The results show that the metrics varies smoothly and regularly along the selected transect when the window size is greater than 6 km×6 km,and irregularly fluctuated for the smaller window size,that the spatial and temporal landscape characteristics of Beijing city match the hypothetical framework of spatio-temporal urban sprawl in the form of alternating processes of diffusion and coalescence well,and that some new trends of the urban sprawl style in Beijing metropolitan area,such as leap-frog manner,are also detected by the gradient landscape analysis.

  17. Determination of Destructed and Infracted Forest Areas with Multi-temporal High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Unal, A.; Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.

    2015-12-01

    Migration from rural areas to city centers and their surroundings is an important problem of not only our country but also the countries that under development stage. This uncontrolled and huge amount of migration brings out urbanization and socio - economic problems. The demand on settling the industrial areas and commercial activities nearby the city centers results with a negative change in natural land cover on cities. Negative impacts of human induced activities on natural resources and land cover has been continuously increasing for decades. The main human activities that resulted with destruction and infraction of forest areas can be defined as mining activities, agricultural activities, industrial / commercial activities and urbanization. Temporal monitoring of the changes in spatial distribution of forest areas is significantly important for effective management and planning progress. Changes can occur as spatially large destructions or small infractions. Therefore there is a need for reliable, fast and accurate data sources. At this point, satellite images proved to be a good data source for determination of the land use /cover changes with their capability of monitoring large areas with reasonable temporal resolutions. Spectral information derived from images provides discrimination of land use/cover types from each other. Developments in remote sensing technology in the last decade improved the spatial resolution of satellites and high resolution images were started to be used to detect even small changes in the land surface. As being the megacity of Turkey, Istanbul has been facing a huge migration for the last 20 years and effects of urbanization and other human based activities over forest areas are significant. Main focus of this study is to determine the destructions and infractions in forest areas of Istanbul, Turkey with 2.5m resolution SPOT 5 multi-temporal satellite imagery. Analysis was mainly constructed on threshold based classification of

  18. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

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    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  19. RELN-expressing neuron density in layer I of the superior temporal lobe is similar in human brains with autism and in age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-09-05

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential metabolic rates in prefrontal and temporal Brodmann areas in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Monte S; Nenadic, Igor; Hazlett, Erin A; Spiegel-Cohen, Jacqueline; Fleischman, Michael B; Akhavan, Arash; Silverman, Jeremy M; Siever, Larry J

    2002-03-01

    In an exploration of the schizophrenia spectrum, we compared cortical metabolic rates in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) with findings in age- and sex-matched normal volunteers. Coregistered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans were obtained in 27 schizophrenic, 13 SPD, and 32 normal volunteers who performed a serial verbal learning test during tracer uptake. A template of Brodmann areas derived from a whole brain histological section atlas was used to analyze PET findings. Significantly lower metabolic rates were found in prefrontal areas 44-46 in schizophrenic patients than in normal volunteers. SPD patients did not differ from normal volunteers in most lateral frontal regions, but they had values intermediate between those of normal volunteers and schizophrenic patients in lateral temporal regions. SPD patients showed higher than normal metabolic rates in both medial frontal and medial temporal areas. Metabolic rates in Brodmann area 10 were distinctly higher in SPD patients than in either normal volunteers or schizophrenic patients.

  1. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species.

  2. Visual Field Map Clusters in High-Order Visual Processing: Organization of V3A/V3B and a New Cloverleaf Cluster in the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa A

    2017-01-01

    The cortical hierarchy of the human visual system has been shown to be organized around retinal spatial coordinates throughout much of low- and mid-level visual processing. These regions contain visual field maps (VFMs) that each follows the organization of the retina, with neighboring aspects of the visual field processed in neighboring cortical locations. On a larger, macrostructural scale, groups of such sensory cortical field maps (CFMs) in both the visual and auditory systems are organized into roughly circular cloverleaf clusters. CFMs within clusters tend to share properties such as receptive field distribution, cortical magnification, and processing specialization. Here we use fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) modeling to investigate the extent of VFM and cluster organization with an examination of higher-level visual processing in temporal cortex and compare these measurements to mid-level visual processing in dorsal occipital cortex. In human temporal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) has been implicated in various neuroimaging studies as subserving higher-order vision, including face processing, biological motion perception, and multimodal audiovisual integration. In human dorsal occipital cortex, the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS) contains the V3A/B cluster, which comprises two VFMs subserving mid-level motion perception and visuospatial attention. For the first time, we present the organization of VFMs in pSTS in a cloverleaf cluster. This pSTS cluster contains four VFMs bilaterally: pSTS-1:4. We characterize these pSTS VFMs as relatively small at ∼125 mm(2) with relatively large pRF sizes of ∼2-8° of visual angle across the central 10° of the visual field. V3A and V3B are ∼230 mm(2) in surface area, with pRF sizes here similarly ∼1-8° of visual angle across the same region. In addition, cortical magnification measurements show that a larger extent of the pSTS VFM surface areas are devoted to the peripheral

  3. Protected Area Monitoring in the Niger Delta Using Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Okiemute Onojeghuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their importance, available information on the dynamics of forest protected areas and their management in the Niger delta are insufficient. We present results showing the distribution and structure of forest landscapes across protected areas in two states (Cross River and Delta within the Niger Delta using multi-temporal remote sensing. Satellite images were classified and validated using ground data, existing maps, Google Earth, and historic aerial photographs over 1986, 2000 and 2014. The total area of forest landscape for 1986, 2000 and 2014 across the identified protected areas were 535,671 ha, 494,009 ha and 469,684 ha (Cross River and 74,631 ha, 68,470 ha and 58,824 ha (Delta respectively. The study showed annual deforestation rates for protected areas across both states from 1986 to 2000 were 0.8%. However, the overall annual deforestation rate between 2000 and 2014 was higher in Delta (1.9% compared to Cross River (0.7%. This study shows accelerated levels of forest fragmentation across protected areas in both states as a side effect of the prevalence of agricultural practices and unsupervised urbanisation. The results show the need for government intervention and policy implementation, in addition to efforts by local communities and conservation organisations in protected area management across ecologically fragile areas of Nigeria.

  4. Mapping Spatial and Temporal Variations of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Peng; WU Wen-bin; TANG Hua-jun; ZHOU Qing-bo; ZOU Jin-qiu; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Leaf area index(LAI)is an important parameter in a number of models related to ecosystem functioning,carbon budgets,climate,hydrology,and crop growth simulation.Mapping and monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of LAI are necessary for understanding crop growth and development at regional level.In this study.the relationships between LAI of winter wheat and Landsat TM spectral vegetation indices(SVIs)were analyzed by using the curve estimation procedure in North China Plain.The series of LAI maps retrieved by the best regression model were used to assess the spatial and temporal Variations of winter wheat LAI.The results indicated that the general relationships between LAI and SVIs were curvilinear,and that the exponential model gave a better fit than the linear model or other nonlinear models for most SVIs.The best regression model was constructed using an exponential model between surface-reflectance-derived difference vegetation index(DVI)and LAI,with the adjusted R2(0.82)and the RMSE(0.77).The TM LAI maps retrieved from DVILAI model showed the significant spatial and temporal variations.The mean TMLAI value(30m)for winter wheat of the study area increased from 1.29(March 7,2004)to 3.43(April 8,2004),with standard deviations of 0.22 and 1.17,respectively.In conclusion,spectral vegetation indices from multi-temporal Landsat TM images can be used to produce fine-resolution LAI maps for winter wheat in North China Plain.

  5. The role of areas MT+/V5 and SPOC in spatial and temporal control of manual interception: an rTMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C. Dessing

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Manual interception, such as catching or hitting an approaching ball, requires the hand to contact a moving object at the right location and at the right time. Many studies have examined the neural mechanisms underlying the spatial aspects of goal-directed reaching, but the neural basis of the spatial and temporal aspects of manual interception are largely unknown. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to investigate the role of the human middle temporal visual motion area (MT+/V5 and superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC in the spatial and temporal control of manual interception. Participants were required to reach-to-intercept a downward moving visual target that followed an unpredictably curved trajectory, presented on a screen in the vertical plane. We found that rTMS to MT+/V5 influenced interceptive timing and positioning, whereas rTMS to SPOC only tended to increase the spatial variance in reach end points for selected target trajectories. These findings are consistent with theories arguing that distinct neural mechanisms contribute to spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal control of manual interception.

  6. The role of areas MT+/V5 and SPOC in spatial and temporal control of manual interception: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Joost C; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Manual interception, such as catching or hitting an approaching ball, requires the hand to contact a moving object at the right location and at the right time. Many studies have examined the neural mechanisms underlying the spatial aspects of goal-directed reaching, but the neural basis of the spatial and temporal aspects of manual interception are largely unknown. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of the human middle temporal visual motion area (MT+/V5) and superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) in the spatial and temporal control of manual interception. Participants were required to reach-to-intercept a downward moving visual target that followed an unpredictably curved trajectory, presented on a screen in the vertical plane. We found that rTMS to MT+/V5 influenced interceptive timing and positioning, whereas rTMS to SPOC only tended to increase the spatial variance in reach end points for selected target trajectories. These findings are consistent with theories arguing that distinct neural mechanisms contribute to spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal control of manual interception.

  7. The role of areas MT+/V5 and SPOC in spatial and temporal control of manual interception: an rTMS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessing, Joost C.; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Manual interception, such as catching or hitting an approaching ball, requires the hand to contact a moving object at the right location and at the right time. Many studies have examined the neural mechanisms underlying the spatial aspects of goal-directed reaching, but the neural basis of the spatial and temporal aspects of manual interception are largely unknown. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of the human middle temporal visual motion area (MT+/V5) and superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) in the spatial and temporal control of manual interception. Participants were required to reach-to-intercept a downward moving visual target that followed an unpredictably curved trajectory, presented on a screen in the vertical plane. We found that rTMS to MT+/V5 influenced interceptive timing and positioning, whereas rTMS to SPOC only tended to increase the spatial variance in reach end points for selected target trajectories. These findings are consistent with theories arguing that distinct neural mechanisms contribute to spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal control of manual interception. PMID:23468002

  8. On the analysis of temporal geoid height variations obtained from GRACE-based GGMs over the area of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godah, Walyeldeen; Szelachowska, Malgorzata; Krynski, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Temporal mass variations in the Earth system, which can be detected from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission data, cause temporal variations of geoid heights. The main objective of this contribution is to analyze temporal variations of geoid heights over the area of Poland using global geopotential models (GGMs) developed on the basis of GRACE mission data. Time series of geoid height variations were calculated for the chosen subareas of the aforementioned area using those GGMs. Thereafter, these variations were analyzed using two different methods. On the basis of the analysis results, models of temporal geoid height variations were developed and discussed. The possibility of prediction of geoid height variations using GRACE mission data over the area of Poland was also investigated. The main findings reveal that the geoid height over the area of Poland vary within 1.1 cm which should be considered when defining the geoid model of 1 cm accuracy for this area.

  9. Temporal voice areas exist in autism spectrum disorder but are dysfunctional for voice identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Kamila; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognise the identity of others is a key requirement for successful communication. Brain regions that respond selectively to voices exist in humans from early infancy on. Currently, it is unclear whether dysfunction of these voice-sensitive regions can explain voice identity recognition impairments. Here, we used two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate voice processing in a population that has been reported to have no voice-sensitive regions: autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our results refute the earlier report that individuals with ASD have no responses in voice-sensitive regions: Passive listening to vocal, compared to non-vocal, sounds elicited typical responses in voice-sensitive regions in the high-functioning ASD group and controls. In contrast, the ASD group had a dysfunction in voice-sensitive regions during voice identity but not speech recognition in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG)—a region implicated in processing complex spectrotemporal voice features and unfamiliar voices. The right anterior STS/STG correlated with voice identity recognition performance in controls but not in the ASD group. The findings suggest that right STS/STG dysfunction is critical for explaining voice recognition impairments in high-functioning ASD and show that ASD is not characterised by a general lack of voice-sensitive responses. PMID:27369067

  10. Analysis and Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Burned Areas in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle da Silva Cardozo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of burned areas in Rondônia State, Brazil during the years 2000 to 2011 and evaluate the burned area maps. A Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM was applied to MODIS surface reflectance images to originate the burned areas maps, which were validated with TM/Landsat 5 and ETM+/Landsat 7 images and field data acquired in August 2013. The validation presented a correlation ranging from 67% to 96% with an average value of 86%. The lower correlation values are related to the distinct spatial resolutions of the MODIS and TM/ETM+ sensors because small burn scars are not detected in MODIS images and higher spatial correlations are related to the presence of large fires, which are better identified in MODIS, increasing the accuracy of the mapping methodology. In addition, the 12-year burned area maps of Rondônia indicate that fires, as a general pattern, occur in areas that have already been converted to some land use, such as vegetal extraction, large animal livestock areas or diversified permanent crops. Furthermore, during the analyzed period, land use conversion associated with climatic events significantly influenced the occurrence of fire in Rondônia and amplified its impacts.

  11. Absent activation in medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction but not superior temporal sulcus during the perception of biological motion in schizophrenia: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Hashimoto,1,2 Atsuhito Toyomaki,1 Masahiro Hirai,3 Tamaki Miyamoto,1 Hisashi Narita,1 Ryo Okubo,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan Background: Patients with schizophrenia show disturbances in both visual perception and social cognition. Perception of biological motion (BM is a higher-level visual process, and is known to be associated with social cognition. BM induces activation in the “social brain network”, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS. Although deficits in the detection of BM and atypical activation in the STS have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether other nodes of the “social brain network” are also atypical in patients with schizophrenia.Purpose: We aimed to explore whether brain regions other than STS were involved during BM perception in patients with schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods and patients: Seventeen patients with schizophrenia, and 17 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, underwent fMRI scanning during a one-back visual task, containing three experimental conditions: (1 BM, (2 scrambled motion (SM, and (3 static condition. We used one-sample t-tests to examine neural responses selective to BM versus SM within each group, and two-sample t-tests to directly compare neural patterns to BM versus SM in schizophrenics versus controls.Results: We found significant activation in the STS region when BM was contrasted with SM in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. On the contrary, significant activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ was found only in the

  12. Investigation of Temporal Changes in the Suburban Areas Using V-I-S Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Seker, D. Z.; Tanik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Most studies and applications need data on the changes and percent distribution of land use/cover changes in a short period of time. Thus, satellite sensor data is used by different disciplines for determination of the dynamic temporal changes on the earth. Currently, Istanbul is ranked among the first 20 crowded cities of the world. Beyond its current population of around 13 million, this old and ancient city that has hosted many different civilizations during history, has gained an attraction for human settlement due to its geographical location. Today, most of the environmental problems have been overcome by accelerating the realization of infrastructural works; however, such improvement efforts caused a significant decline in the forest areas. Loss of forests has become even more important in the past few years. Forests of the city, particularly those existing in the northern part of the city that has been accepted as the main oxygen source of the city, are highly damaged. This study aims to examine the temporal impact of rapid urban growth on forest cover in the mega city of Istanbul between the years of 1987- 2007. Spatial distribution of forests and their temporal changes were analyzed and presented by using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in the 6 different districts of Istanbul selected from both sides of the Bosphorus. While Fatih District was selected as the historical section of the European side of Istanbul, Bagcilar and Büyükcekmece Districts were chosen as the newly urbanized areas. In the Asian side of the city, Kadikoy District was chosen as an example for the old settlement of the city and the Maltepe and Sultanbeyli Districts were selected as the rapidly urbanized districts for the study. VIS model is applied to differentiate urban land from rural land and to conduct urban morphology of the developed areas under three basic components of Vegetation-Impervious land and Soil. In this study, Vegetation, Impervious

  13. Spatial and temporal seasonal trends in the major global upwelling areas during the last 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Varela Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Winds at the ocean surface are a key element in the Earth system having a great impact on many economic activities and becoming really important to several oceanographic and atmospheric applications. Thus, wind above sea surface constitutes a critical parameter to analyze coastal phenomena as upwelling events. Upwelling regions are areas of high productivity compared to other areas of the ocean. In fact, over 20% of global fish catches occur in upwelling areas, although these areas occupy less than 1% of the surface of the world's oceans. Therefore, accurate surface wind datasets are needed to better analyze these processes. In this study wind data obtained from NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR database was used to analyse the four most important upwelling systems (Benguela, Canarias, Peru and California. Wind data are available for the whole world at a spatial resolution of 0.3 x 0.3 degrees and a temporal resolution of 6h from January 1982 to December 2010. Alongshore wind stress was considered to analyse variations in upwelling intensity and trends were analysed on these upwelling regions. Comparison with previous studies showed the highly dependence of the results of the length of the time series, the selected areas, the season considered for the analysis and the resolution of the used database.

  14. Early Local Activity in Temporal Areas Reflects Graded Content of Visual Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Francesca Tagliabue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In visual cognitive neuroscience the debate on consciousness is focused on two major topics: the search for the neural correlates of the different properties of visual awareness and the controversy on the graded versus dichotomous nature of visual conscious experience. The aim of this study is to search for the possible neural correlates of different grades of visual awareness investigating the Event Related Potentials (ERPs to reduced contrast visual stimuli whose perceptual clarity was rated on the four-point Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS. Results revealed a left centro-parietal negative deflection (Visual Awareness Negativity; VAN peaking at 280-320 ms from stimulus onset, related to the perceptual content of the stimulus, followed by a bilateral positive deflection (Late Positivity; LP peaking at 510-550 ms over almost all electrodes, reflecting post-perceptual processes performed on such content. Interestingly, the amplitude of both deflections gradually increased as a function of visual awareness. Moreover, the intracranial generators of the phenomenal content (VAN were found to be located in the left temporal lobe. The present data thus seem to suggest 1 that visual conscious experience is characterized by a gradual increase of perceived clarity at both behavioral and neural level and 2 that the actual content of perceptual experiences emerges from early local activation in temporal areas, without the need of later widespread frontal engagement.

  15. Combining MRI and VEP imaging to isolate the temporal response of visual cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Thom; Ales, Justin; Klein, Stanley A.

    2008-02-01

    The human brain has well over 30 cortical areas devoted to visual processing. Classical neuro-anatomical as well as fMRI studies have demonstrated that early visual areas have a retinotopic organization whereby adjacent locations in visual space are represented in adjacent areas of cortex within a visual area. At the 2006 Electronic Imaging meeting we presented a method using sprite graphics to obtain high resolution retinotopic visual evoked potential responses using multi-focal m-sequence technology (mfVEP). We have used this method to record mfVEPs from up to 192 non overlapping checkerboard stimulus patches scaled such that each patch activates about 12 mm2 of cortex in area V1 and even less in V2. This dense coverage enables us to incorporate cortical folding constraints, given by anatomical MRI and fMRI results from the same subject, to isolate the V1 and V2 temporal responses. Moreover, the method offers a simple means of validating the accuracy of the extracted V1 and V2 time functions by comparing the results between left and right hemispheres that have unique folding patterns and are processed independently. Previous VEP studies have been contradictory as to which area responds first to visual stimuli. This new method accurately separates the signals from the two areas and demonstrates that both respond with essentially the same latency. A new method is introduced which describes better ways to isolate cortical areas using an empirically determined forward model. The method includes a novel steady state mfVEP and complex SVD techniques. In addition, this evolving technology is put to use examining how stimulus attributes differentially impact the response in different cortical areas, in particular how fast nonlinear contrast processing occurs. This question is examined using both state triggered kernel estimation (STKE) and m-sequence "conditioned kernels". The analysis indicates different contrast gain control processes in areas V1 and V2. Finally we

  16. Dissociating Effects of Scrambling and Topicalization within the Left Frontal and Temporal Language Areas: An fMRI Study in Kaqchikel Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinri; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-01-01

    Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. In Kaqchikel, the syntactically canonical word order is verb-object-subject (VOS), but at least three non-canonical word orders (i.e., SVO, VSO, and OVS) are also grammatically allowed. We used a sentence-picture matching task, in which the participants listened to a short Kaqchikel sentence and judged whether a picture matched the meaning of the sentence. The advantage of applying this experimental paradigm to an understudied language such as Kaqchikel is that it will allow us to validate the universality of linguistic computation in the brain. We found that the conditions with scrambled sentences [+scrambling] elicited significant activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and lateral premotor cortex, both of which have been proposed as grammar centers, indicating the effects of syntactic loads. In contrast, the conditions without topicalization [-topicalization] resulted in significant activation in bilateral Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, demonstrating that the syntactic and phonological processes were clearly dissociated within the language areas. Moreover, the pre-supplementary motor area and left superior/middle temporal gyri were activated under relatively demanding conditions, suggesting their supportive roles in syntactic or semantic processing. To exclude any semantic/phonological effects of the object-subject word orders, we performed direct comparisons while making the factor of topicalization constant, and

  17. Temporal genetic structure of a drone congregation area of the giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, F B; Koeniger, N; Tingek, S; Moritz, R F A

    2005-12-01

    The giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata), like all other members of the genus Apis, has a complex mating system in which the queens and males (drones) mate at spatially defined drone congregation areas (DCAs). Here, we studied the temporal genetic structure of a DCA of A. dorsata over an 8-day time window by the genotyping of sampled drones with microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genotypic data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between 3 sampling days and indicated that the DCA was used by at least two subpopulations at all days in varying proportions. The estimation of the number of colonies which used the DCA ranged between 20 and 40 colonies per subpopulation, depending on the estimation procedure and population. The overall effective population size was estimated as high as N (e)=140. The DCA seems to counteract known tendencies of A. dorsata for inbreeding within colony aggregations by facilitating gene flow among subpopulations and increasing the effective population size.

  18. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Dewitz, B. von; Lehmann, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971–2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery...... areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically...... in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat...

  19. AREA-BASED SNOW DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST CANOPIES USING BI- TEMPORAL LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vastaranta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal LiDAR data provide means for mapping structural changes in forest canopies. We demonstrate the use of area-based estimation method for snow damage assessment. Change features of bi-temporal LiDAR point height distributions were used as predictors in combination with in situ training data. In the winter 2009–2010, snow damages occurred in Hyytiälä (62°N, 24°E, southern Finland. Snow load resulted in broken, bent and fallen trees changing the canopy structure. The damages were documented at the tree level at permanent field plots and dense LiDAR data from 2007 and 2010 were used in the analyses. A 5 × 5-m grid was established in one pine%ndash;spruce stand and change metrics from the LiDAR point height distribution were extracted for the cells. Cells were classified as damaged (n = 43 or undamaged (n = 42 based on the field data. Stepwise logistic regression detected the damaged cells with an overall accuracy of 78.6% (Kappa = 0.57. The best predictors were differences in h-distribution percentage points 5, 35, 40, 50 and 70 of first-or-single return data. The tentative results from the single stand suggest that dense bi-temporal LiDAR data and an area-based approach could be feasible in mapping canopy changes. The accuracy of the point h-distribution is dependent on the pulse density per grid cell. Depending on the time span between LiDAR acquisitions, the natural changes of the h- distributions due to tree growth need to be accounted for as well as differences in the scanning geometry, which can substantially affect the LiDAR h-metrics.

  20. Temporal Geobiotic Mapping: a conceptual mapping technique toward visualising geobiotic areas in cross-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte C. Ebach

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geobiota are defined by taxic assemblages (i.e., biota and their defining abiotic breaks, which are mapped in cross-section to reveal past and future biotic boundaries. We term this conceptual approach Temporal Geobiotic Mapping (TGM and offer it as a conceptual approach for biogeography. TGM is based on geological cross-sectioning, which creates maps based on the distribution of biota and known abiotic factors that drive their distribution, such as climate, topography, soil chemistry and underlying geology. However, the availability of abiotic data is limited for many areas. Unlike other approaches, TGM can be used when there is minimal data available. In order to demonstrate TGM, we use the well-known area in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales (NSW, south-eastern Australia and show how surface processes such as weathering and erosion affect the future distribution of a Moist Basalt Forest taxic assemblage. Biotic areas are best represented visually as maps, which can show transgressions and regressions of biota and abiota over time. Using such maps, a biogeographer can directly compare animal and plant distributions with features in the abiotic environment and may identify significant geographical barriers or pathways that explain biotic distributions.

  1. [The medial temporal area and parietal lobe are involved in epileptic polyopia and palinopsia: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Keiichiro; Taguchi, Keiko; Ikeda, Akio; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Udaka, Fukashi; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the case of an 83-year-old female with a tumor in the right temporal lobe. She experienced various epileptic visual auras including visual perseveration. Visual perseveration is classified into polyopia and palinopsia. Epileptic visual perseveration is a rare phenomenon, and the mechanism has not been fully explained. MRI revealed a tumor in the right temporal lobe with edema in the occipital white matter. To reveal mechanisms of epileptic polyopia and palinopsia, we recorded EEG and (123)I-IMP-SPECT when she experienced epileptic attacks. EEG showed epileptic discharges beginning at the occipital area, which spread to the temporal and parietal areas. During the EEG recording, the main symptom was an unformed hallucination. SPECT showed that blood flow increased in the right medial temporal and parietal lobes and, to a slightly lesser extent, in the right occipito-temporal area when the polyopia and palinopsia frequently appeared. Involvement of the multiple foci may have caused the different kinds of visual symptoms. The medial temporal and parietal areas were likely responsible for polyopia and palinopsia at least for this patient.

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the frontal-parietal-temporal area attenuates smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chang; Yu, Chengyang; Ma, Yuanye

    2014-07-01

    Many brain regions are involved in smoking addiction (e.g. insula, ventral tegmental area, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus), and the manipulation of the activity of these brain regions can show a modification of smoking behavior. Low current transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive way to manipulate cortical excitability, and thus brain function and associated behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of inhibiting the frontal-parietal-temporal association area (FPT) on attention bias to smoking-related cues and smoking behavior in tobacco users. This inhibition is induced by cathodal tDCS stimulation. We tested three stimulation conditions: 1) bilateral cathodal over both sides of FPT; 2) cathodal over right FPT; and 3) sham-tDCS. Visual attention bias to smoking-related cues was evaluated using an eye tracking system. The measurement for smoking behavior was the number of daily cigarettes consumed before and after tDCS treatment. We found that, after bilateral cathodal stimulation of the FPT area, while the attention to smoking-related cues showed a decreased trend, the effects were not significantly different from sham stimulation. The daily cigarette consumption was reduced to a significant level. These effects were not seen under single cathodal tDCS or sham-tDCS. Our results show that low current tDCS of FPT area attenuates smoking cue-related attention and smoking behavior. This non-invasive brain stimulation technique, targeted at FPT areas, might be a promising method for treating smoking behavior.

  3. C2 (2-h) levels are not superior to trough levels as estimates of the area under the curve in tacrolimus-treated renal-transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Povlsen, Johan; Madsen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, 2-h samples (C2) have been found superior to trough levels for therapeutic monitoring of transplanted patients receiving cyclosporin. The present study was undertaken to see if the same was the case for tacrolimus. METHODS: Blood tacrolimus levels were determined in 21...... consecutive patients at 3 and 14 days after renal transplantation, and before and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral intake of 0.1 mg/kg tacrolimus. The area under the blood concentration/time curve (AUC) was determined by the trapezoidal method, association between blood concentration at each sampling time...... with the highest AUC developed nephrotoxicity despite trough levels in the desired range. CONCLUSIONS: Two-hour levels are not superior to trough levels in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients. Despite good correlation between trough level and AUC, some patients may still receive nephrotoxic doses despite...

  4. Spatial Patterns and Temporal Variability of Drought in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyuan Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought identification and assessment are essential for regional water resources management. In this paper, the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought were evaluated based on monthly precipitation data from 33 synoptic stations during the period of 1960–2010. The percent of normal precipitation was applied to illustrate the driest years in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan areas (BTHMA (1965, 1997, and 2002. The modified Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI was applied to capture the drought patterns and to estimate the drought severity at 33 meteorological stations. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to identify three different drought subregions R1, R2, and R3 based on the monthly precipitation values in BTHMA, which is located in southeast, north, and south of BTHMA, respectively. The year 1965 was the driest and 1964 was the wettest during the observed period. The characteristics of drought were analyzed in terms of the temporal evolution of the RDI-12 values and the frequency of drought for the three identified regions. The percentage of years characterized by drought was 13.73% for R1, 16.50% for R2, and 15.53% for R3. 66.91% of drought belongs to the near normal drought category. The obtained results can aid to improve water resources management in the area.

  5. The complex structure of receptive fields in the middle temporal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah eRichert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the middle temporal area (MT are often viewed as motion detectors that prefer a single direction of motion in a single region of space. This assumption plays an important role in our understanding of visual processing, and models of motion processing in particular. We used extracellular recordings in area MT of awake, behaving monkeys (M. mulatta to test this assumption with a novel reverse correlation approach. Nearly half of the MT neurons in our sample deviated significantly from the classical view. First, in many cells, direction preference changed with the location of the stimulus within the receptive field. Second, the spatial response profile often had multiple peaks with apparent gaps in between. This shows that visual motion analysis in MT has access to motion detectors that are more complex than commonly thought. This complexity could be a mere byproduct of imperfect development, but can also be understood as the natural consequence of the nonlinear, recurrent interactions among laterally connected MT neurons. An important direction for future research is to investigate whether these inhomogeneities are advantageous, how they can be incorporated into models of motion detection, and whether they can provide quantitative insight into the underlying effective connectivity.

  6. On temporal and spatial distribution of seismic apparent stresses in Yunnan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jia-zheng; QIAN Xiao-dong

    2006-01-01

    motion is applied to a detailed study on the temporal and spatial distribution of the seismic apparent stresses (σa)for the moderate and small earthquakes and two aftershock sequences in Yunnan area. The results show that there exists an obvious non-homogeneity for the seismic apparent stresses in the spatial distribution. The concentrated regions of the high apparent stresses are related to the active places of the moderate and small earthquakes. Before the Dayao M=6.2 earthquake, there was a period in which the apparent stresses were high and the value was 5times of the average value, 0.25 MPa. The relatively high values of apparent stresses distribute around the epicentral area of the major shock and nearby. It indicates that the variation characteristics of the apparent stresses can be taken as a new kind of criterion for the earthquake-risk forecast. Usually the ratio of the apparent stresses of the aftershock sequence σaA to the ones σaM of main shock is less than 1.0.

  7. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Taku [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Branch Hospital

    1994-12-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: (1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and (2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author).

  8. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gulikova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust

  9. Vertical and temporal variability in concentration and distribution of thaumarchaeotal tetraether lipids in Lake Superior and the implications for the application of the TEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, M.; Werne, J.P.; Kish, J.L.; Hicks, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the vertical and temporal distribution of Thaumarchaeota derived core isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids through sampling and analysis of both suspended particulate matter from the water column at different times in the annual cycle and a 3 year lon

  10. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José van Tol

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  11. Time Course of the Involvement of the Right Anterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Right Fronto-Parietal Operculum in Emotional Prosody Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Bais, Leonie; Kahn, Rene S.; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In verbal communication, not only the meaning of the words convey information, but also the tone of voice (prosody) conveys crucial information about the emotional state and intentions of others. In various studies right frontal and right temporal regions have been found to play a role in emotional

  12. Spatial and temporal trends of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a rural area of northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, M.A.; Gonzalez, L.; Elustondo, D.; Garrigo, J.; Bermejo, R.; Santamaria, J.M. [Laboratorio Integrado de Calidad Ambiental (LICA), Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, Irunlarrea s/n, 31080, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 40 rural sampling points in Navarre (northern Spain). Air samples were collected by means of sorbent passive sampling and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass-selective detector (GC/MSD). A total of 140 VOCs were identified during the study, which was carried out between May to October 2004 for a total of a 10 biweekly sampling campaigns. Concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylenes, o-xylene (BTEX) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were determined in order to investigate their temporal and spatial distributions. Geostatistical analysis pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. Supporting this idea, BTEX and nitrogen oxides concentrations were found to be highly significantly correlated (r=0.495, P=0.001), whereas a strong negative correlation between BTEX and ozone was also observed (r=-0.355, P=0.025). The concentrations for the BTEX group were similar to the values that have been previously reported for other rural areas. (author)

  13. Analysis of Water Vapor spatio-temporal structure over the Madrid Area using GPS data

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, G; Cucurull, L; Flores, A; Ruffini, Giulio; Rius, Antonio; Cucurull, Lidia; Flores, Alex

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD) time series from an experiment over the Madrid (Spain) area obtained from 5 GPS receivers using two different techniques. In the first case a delay correlation analysis of the ZWD time-series has been carried out. We show that for this small network (with a spatial scale of less than 100 km) the correlation between the time series is very strong, and that using windowing techniques a reliable correlation delay time series can be produced for each pair of sites (10 such pairs are available). We use this delay time series together with a frozen flow model to estimate the velocity of a passing front, and compare the results to meteorological data and Numerical Weather Prediction output, showing good agreement. In the second approach, the data is analyzed using Empirical Orthogonal Functions. We demonstrate that the temporally demeaned and normalized analysis yields information about the passing of fronts, while the spatially demeaned data yields orographic information. A c...

  14. Person perception involves functional integration between the extrastriate body area and temporal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Inez M; Ramsey, Richard

    2017-02-01

    The majority of human neuroscience research has focussed on understanding functional organisation within segregated patches of cortex. The ventral visual stream has been associated with the detection of physical features such as faces and body parts, whereas the theory-of-mind network has been associated with making inferences about mental states and underlying character, such as whether someone is friendly, selfish, or generous. To date, however, it is largely unknown how such distinct processing components integrate neural signals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and connectivity analyses, we investigated the contribution of functional integration to social perception. During scanning, participants observed bodies that had previously been associated with trait-based or neutral information. Additionally, we independently localised the body perception and theory-of-mind networks. We demonstrate that when observing someone who cues the recall of stored social knowledge compared to non-social knowledge, a node in the ventral visual stream (extrastriate body area) shows greater coupling with part of the theory-of-mind network (temporal pole). These results show that functional connections provide an interface between perceptual and inferential processing components, thus providing neurobiological evidence that supports the view that understanding the visual environment involves interplay between conceptual knowledge and perceptual processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in recently reclaimed intertidal flats of the Saemangeum area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Yeonjung; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Son, SeungHyun; Lee, Shing Yip; Nam, Jungho; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-10-01

    Trophodynamics of intertidal mudflats are significantly driven by microphytobenthos (MPB) production but spatial and temporal dynamics of this production source is poorly known. To understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of intertidal MPB, benthic chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, and sediment properties were determined in Gyehwa (sandy) and Gwanghwal (muddy) tidal flats of Saemangeum area over a year at 97 stations. This study set out to: (i) characterize the spatial-temporal patterns in MPB biomass on a year-round basis, (ii) identify the abiotic and biotic factors associated with MPB distributions, (iii) investigate the use of satellite-derived chlorophyll a data and verify with in field measurements, and (iv) determine minimum required sample size for in situ biomass measurement. Concentrations of benthic chlorophyll a and phaeopigments were greater in winter and spring with a high magnitude of variance than in summer and fall at both areas. Benthic chlorophyll a and phaeopigments tended to decrease approaching lower tidal zone, being associated with the corresponding decrease in shore level and/or exposure duration. Compared to available data on macrozoobenthos distribution, the spatial variation of microalgal biomass seems to be attributed to distribution of deposit-feeders. A significant positive correlation (p design for spatio-temporal mapping of MPB should consider the sampling season and/or abiotic and biotic features of study area. Overall, spatio-temporal dynamics of intertidal MPB seem to be influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors.

  16. More Than Meets the Eye: The Merging of Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge in the Anterior Temporal Face Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Collins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research has supported the existence of a small face sensitive region in the ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL, referred to here as the anterior temporal face area. The contribution of this region in the greater face-processing network remains poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the relative sensitivity of this region to perceptual as well as conceptual information about people and objects. We contrasted the sensitivity of this region to that of two highly-studied face-sensitive regions, the fusiform face area and the occipital face area, as well as a control region in early visual cortex. Our findings revealed that multivoxel activity patterns in the anterior temporal face area contain information about facial identity, as well as conceptual attributes such as one’s occupation. The sensitivity of this region to the conceptual attributes of people was greater than that of posterior face processing regions. In addition, the anterior temporal face area overlaps with voxels that contain information about the conceptual attributes of concrete objects, supporting a generalized role of the ventral ATLs in the identification and conceptual processing of multiple stimulus classes.1IntroductionOver a decade of neuroimaging work has characterized the neural basis of face perception and identified several nodes that preferentially respond to faces relative to other objects (Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000; Nancy Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006. Most of this work has focused on the fusiform face area (FFA and the occipital face area (OFA (Kanwisher, McDermott, & Chun, 1997; Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006; Pitcher, Walsh, Yovel, & Duchaine, 2007, however an emerging literature has implicated an anterior temporal face area, on the ventral surface of the right anterior temporal lobes (vATLs in or near perirhinal cortex, in facial processing (Avidan et al., 2013; Pinsk et al., 2009; Rajimehr, Young, & Tootell, 2009; Tsao

  17. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Ghafarian, P.; Najafi, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Being hemmed in on two sides by high mountains, the urban area of Tehran is characterized by high levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems and environment. Using air quality measurements taken in different regions of Tehran, spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are analyzed to identify the typical climatological aspects of air pollutants. In terms of particulate matter concentrations, South Tehran is more polluted than Central to North Tehran, while West Tehran is more polluted than the East. Concentrations of particles in North Tehran are lower in the midday compared to the midnight, whereas the opposite is true in South Tehran. The observed annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in North Tehran were 37.5 and 76.3 μg m-3, respectively, which are substantially greater than the national annual mean safety limits of 10 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 20 μg m-3 for PM10. The observed high levels of particulate matter underline the essential need for a coordinated action to reduce the rapidly increasing air pollution over the growing urban area of Tehran. Noticeable monthly (seasonal) variations are evident in the observed PM10 concentrations, with a minimum of 61.5 μg m-3 in March (spring) and a maximum of 82.9 μg m-3 in July (summer), reflecting contribution of weather conditions. Analyzing daily PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations indicate that mid-week Wednesdays (Mondays) are the most polluted days. The higher mid-week concentrations reflect contribution of heavy vehicular traffic, industrial operation and increased commercial activities. Strong diurnal variations in the concentrations of particulate matter in North Tehran are detected, varying from a peak in late night to a minimum in late afternoon, indicating contribution of deeper daytime convective boundary layer and stronger winds in dispersion of particles.

  18. GIS Spatial-Temporal Modeling of Water Systems in Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Qiuming; Zhang George; Lu Cindy; Ko Connie

    2004-01-01

    Modeling landscape with high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) in a geographic information system can provide essential morphological and structural information for modeling surface processes such as geomorphologic process and water systems. This paper introduces several DEM-based spatial analysis processes applied to characterize spatial distribution and their interactions of ground and surface water systems in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. The stream networks and drainage basin systems were derived from the DEM with 30 m resolution and the regularities of the surface stream and drainage patterns were modeled from a statistical/multifractal point of view. Together with the elevation and slope of topography, other attributes defined from modeling the stream system, and drainage networks were used to associate geological, hydrological and topographical features to water flow in river systems and the spatial locations of artesian aquifers in the study area. Stream flow data derived from daily flow measurements recorded at river gauging stations for multi-year period were decomposed into "drainage-area dependent" and "drainage-area independent" flow components by two-step "frequency" and "spatial" analysis processes. The latter component was further demonstrated to relate most likely to the ground water discharge. An independent analysis was conducted to model the distribution of aquifers with information derived from the records of water wells. The focus was given on quantification of the likelihood of ground water discharge to river and ponds through flowing wells, springs and seepages. It has been shown that the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) is a unique glacial deposit that serves as a recharge layer and that the aquifers in the ORM underlain by Hilton Tills and later deposits exposed near the steep slope zone of the ridges of ORM provide significant discharge to the surface water systems (river flow and ponds) through flowing wells, springs and

  19. High surface area bio-waste based carbon as a superior electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Makhan; Bhattarai, Arjun; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe Ohnmar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon (AC) with high surface area (1901 m2 g-1) is synthesized from low cost bio-waste orange (Citrus sinensis) peel for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The composition, structure and electrochemical properties of orange peel derived AC (OP-AC) are characterized by elemental analyzer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. CV results show that OP-AC coated bipolar plate demonstrates improved electro-catalytic activity in both positive and negative side redox couples than the pristine bipolar plate electrode and this is ascribed to the high surface area of OP-AC which provides effective electrode area and better contact between the porous electrode and bipolar plate. Consequently, the performance of VRB in a static cell shows higher energy efficiency for OP-AC electrode than the pristine electrode at all current densities tested. The results suggest the OP-AC to be a promising electrode for VRB applications and can be incorporated into making conducting plastics electrode to lower the VRB cell stack weight and cost.

  20. More Than Meets the Eye: The Merging of Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge in the Anterior Temporal Face Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessica A.; Koski, Jessica E.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research has supported the existence of a small face sensitive region in the ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL), referred to here as the “anterior temporal face area”. The contribution of this region in the greater face-processing network remains poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the relative sensitivity of this region to perceptual as well as conceptual information about people and objects. We contrasted the sensitivity of this region to that of two highly-studied face-sensitive regions, the fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA), as well as a control region in early visual cortex (EVC). Our findings revealed that multivoxel activity patterns in the anterior temporal face area contain information about facial identity, as well as conceptual attributes such as one’s occupation. The sensitivity of this region to the conceptual attributes of people was greater than that of posterior face processing regions. In addition, the anterior temporal face area overlaps with voxels that contain information about the conceptual attributes of concrete objects, supporting a generalized role of the ventral ATLs in the identification and conceptual processing of multiple stimulus classes. PMID:27199711

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  2. Spatial and temporal trends in groundwater quantity and quality in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes, I.; Farsang, A.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays one of the most important environmental problems in urban areas is groundwater contamination, since it takes effect on all parts of the urban environment. Therefore in this research the groundwater-system of Szeged (SE Hungary) was monitored and the temporal and spatial changes of heavy metals and other inorganic contaminants were examined. Water quantity and quality investigations twenty-eight sampling wells from the groundwater monitoring network of Szeged were carried out. In the course of well selection, we were about to cover complete area of the city. The water samples were collected every month from October of 2010 to September of 2011 and every second month from November 2011. Temperature, pH, total salt content, electrical conductivity, water levels and the concentrations of 12 components (copper, cadmium, cobalt, chrome, lead, nickel, zinc, arsenic, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, orthophosphate) were measured. The water levels were strongly influenced by the extreme precipitation of the investigated period, so the maximum and minimum of groundwater levels have differed from the average. Changes of water levels followed the changes of precipitation in autumn and winter, but in spring and summer other factors, like evaporation and effects of the vegetation influenced the water regime. The relationship of different pollutants and their distribution were determined in the city. As the results show, the amount of toxic materials in the groundwater in Szeged has exceeded the limit values (according to the joint decree) in many cases. The groundwater is contaminated with lead, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate mainly in the downtown, close to the river Tisza, which can cause ecological and human-health risk as well. In outskirts lowest concentrations were detected. Significant statistical relationship, used Spearman's rank correlation, was determined among the siderophile (namely chrome and nickel), chalcophile elements

  3. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface air temperature variations over the Antarctic and its surrounding area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙骅; 卞林根; 贾朋群

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the spatial distribution, temporal variations trend and oscillation for the surface air temperature variations during 1957-1993 in the Antarctic and its surrounding area were analyzed. The results show that the short-time climate change in the Antarctic is complex both temporally and spatially. The Antarctic is by no means the strongest responding region to the global greenhouse effect. There is a distinguished difference in the trends of the temperature changes for the Antarctic and global mean, which could not be explained simply by the global greenhouse effect.

  4. Formation of nickel-doped magnetite hollow nanospheres with high specific surface area and superior removal capability for organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhu; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2016-12-01

    A strategy for the formation of magnetic Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres with very high specific surface areas was designed through a facile solvothermal method in mixed solvents of ethylene glycol and water in this work. The Ni/Fe ratios and the crystal phases of the Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanocrystals can be readily tuned by changing the molar ratios of Ni to Fe in the precursors. An inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism was proposed for the formation of uniform Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres. Moreover, the obtained Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres exhibited excellent adsorption capacity towards organic molecules such as Congo red in water. The maximum adsorption capacities of Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres for Congo red increase dramatically from 263 to 500 mg g-1 with the increase of the Ni contents (x) in Ni x Fe3-x O4 hollow nanospheres from 0.2 to 0.85. The synthesized Ni x Fe3-x O4 nanoparticles can be potentially applied for waste water treatment.

  5. Analysis on Temporal and Spatial Changes and Driving Forces of Poverty-Stricken Areas in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xiaoli; Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes poverty-stricken county as the basic unit, and selects net income per peasant to study the poverty status in Hebei Province during 1986~2000.Temporal and spatial changes of povertystricken areas are analyzed. The result shows that poverty-stricken areas in Hebei Province distributed concentratedly and the areas decreased during 1986~2000, the net income per peasant was on the rise with an increasing speed in off-poverty counties being slightly higher than that in poverty-stricken counties, but the growth rate was extremely unstable,rising slowly in off-poverty counties while dropping in poverty-stricken counties. The main driving forces that influenced temporal and spatial changes were economic development of the whole province,ecological environment quality, infrastructure conditions and radiation of the key city. On this basis, some anti-poverty countermeasures suitable to local conditions are proposed.

  6. Detection of lymph node in the neck and superior mediastinal area in the cases of esophageal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yoshimasa [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    We devised the following three imaging plane of MRI for detection of lymph nodes in the neck and superior mediastinal area. Those are carotid artery plane, trachea-bronchus plane and trachea-axial plane. MRI was performed in 42 patients of esophageal cancer. This method was useful for a classification of lymph nodes on the basis of ``Guide Lines for the Clinical and Pathologic Studies on Carcinoma of Esophagus`` by Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases, because the structure which became a border line was visualized distinctly. The detectability of lymph nodes according to size was 22.5% (less than 5 mm), 70.0% (more than 5 mm and less than 10 mm) and 80.1% (more than 10 mm). The highly detectable locations were cervical paraesophageal, deep cervical, supraclavicular, thoracic paraesophageal and thoracheal bifurcational lymph nodes. Compared with EUS and Dynamic CT, the detectability of lymph nodes by this method (MRI) was statistically significantly higher, and that of metastatic ones was superior, too. Thus, it was found that identification of lymph nodes by the location and the size can be easy using three planes of MRI, and that we can reveal the positional relationship between lymph nodes and the adjacent organs such as the trachea or large vessels. (author)

  7. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  8. The Left Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus within the Primary Sensory Area of Inferior Parietal Lobe Plays a Role in Dysgraphia of Kana Omission within Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobusada Shinoura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurological changes after surgery combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI tractography can directly provide evidence of anatomical localization of brain function. Using these techniques, a patient with dysgraphia before surgery was analyzed at our hospital in 2011. The patient showed omission of kana within sentences before surgery, which improved after surgery. The brain tumor was relatively small and was located within the primary sensory area (S1 of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL. DTI tractography before surgery revealed compression of the branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF by the brain tumor. These results suggest that the left SLF within the S1 of IPL plays a role in the development of dysgraphia of kana omission within sentences.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  10. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of the Leaf Area Index of the Caatinga Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro, Everton; de Jong van Lier, Quirijn; Metselaar, Klaas

    2015-04-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important characteristic of ecosystems with a prominent role in processes such as transpiration, photosynthesis and interception. The Caatinga biome is a unique semiarid ecosystem ocurring in a specific region of Brazil. An important main feature of this biome is the leaf shedding and regenerative capacity of its species. The aim of this study was to quantify both spatial and temporal dynamics of the LAI of the Caatinga biome in the Aiuaba Experimental Basin, an integrally-preserved Caatinga reserve, coordinates 6°42'S; 40°17'W. The research site (12 km2) was divided into three main Soil and Vegatation Associations (SVA). For each SVA the soil type and root depth are respectively, Acrisol -0.8 m, Luvisol - 0.6 m and Regosol - 0.4 m. The LAI was estimated by SEBAL algorithm applied to eleven satellite images from Landsat 5. The values of LAI estimated by SEBAL were correlated to the mean soil water content of the 15 days previous to the satellite image date. Eight images were used to generate a simple regression model, yielding a range of coefficient of determination from 0.89 to 0.92. Three other images were used to validate the equations. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient ranged from 0.76 to 0.94. Using the validated correlations, the LAI was calculated over the time for each of the three SVA, from 2004 to 2012. For SVA1, SVA2 and SVA3, the avarage values of LAI during the rainy season were 0.97, 1.12 and 1.07, respectively. During the dry season, the mean values were 0.15 for SVA1 and 0.11 for SVA2 and SVA3. The vegetation showed abrupt LAI changes, and the average previous 15 days soil water content was a good indicator for this. The study has shown that the maximum LAI was relatively stable over the years, occurring between March and April. The spatial behavior of LAI appeared to be similar, independently of the soil type and root depth.

  11. The spatial—temporal changes of the land use/cover in the Dongting Lake area during the last decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRendong; LIUJiyuan; ZHUANGDafang; WANGHongzhi

    2003-01-01

    The research on the land use/cover change is one of the frontiers and the hot spots in the global change research. Based on the Chinese resource and environment spatial-temporal database,and using the Landsat TM and ETM data of 1990 and 2000 respectively, we analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics of land use/cover changes in the Dongting Lake area during the last decade. The result shows that during the last ten years there were three land-use types that had changed remarkably. The cultivated land decreased by 0.57% of the total cultivated land. The built-up land and water area expanded, with an increase of 8.97% and 0.43% respectively. The conversion between land use types mostly happened among these three land-use types, especially frequently between cultivated land and water area. The land-use change speed of land-use type is different. Three cities experienced the greatest degree of land-use change among all the administrative districts, which means that the land use in these cities changed much quickly. The following changed area was the west and south of the Dongting Lake area. The slowest changed area is the north and east area.

  12. Plexiform neurofibroma of the temporal area in a patient with von Recklinghausen disease. A case report.

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    Panayotis DAIS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: A 25-year-old Caucasian gentleman was referred to the maxillofacial department regarding a 6-month history of diffuse swelling in the left temporal region. The patient first noticed the swelling after a sustained trauma on a roller-coaster, and is a known Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-I or von Recklinghausen’s disease carrier. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scan revealed a superficial neurofibromatous lesion, believed to be plexiform neurofibroma. The lesion was treated by surgical decompression. Incisional biopsy of the temporal muscle confirmed a diagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma. The patient has healed excellently with a good cosmetic result and no evidence of recurrence thus far.

  13. Temporal and spatial analysis of vegetation coverage changes in Ordos area based on time series GIMMS-NDVI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruimei; Zou, Youfeng; Ma, Chao; Liu, Pei

    2014-11-01

    Ordos area is the desert-wind erosion desertification steppe transition zone and the complex ecological zone. As the research area, Ordos City has the similar natural geographic environment to ShenDong coalfield. To research its ecological patterns and natural evolution law, it has instructive to reveal temporal and spatial changes of ecological environment with artificial disturbance in western mining. In this paper, a time series of AVHRR-NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data was used to monitor the change of vegetation temporal and spatial dynamics from 1981 to 2006 in Ordos City and ShenDong coalfield, where were as the research area. The MVC (Maximum Value Composites) method, average operation, linear regression, and gradation for NDVI change trend were used to obtained some results, as follows: ¬vegetation coverage had obvious characteristics with periodic change in research area for 26 years, and vegetation growth peak appeared on August, while the lowest appeared on January. The extreme values in Ordos City were 0.2351 and 0.1176, while they were 0.2657 and 0.1272 in ShenDong coalfield. The NDVI value fluctuation was a modest rise trend overall in research area. The extreme values were 0.3071 and 0.1861 in Ordos City, while they were 0.3454 and 0.1904 in ShenDong coalfield. In spatial distribution, slight improvement area and slight degradation area were accounting for 42.49% and 8.37% in Ordos City, while slight improvement area moderate improvement area were accounting for 70.59% and 29.41% in ShenDong coalfield. Above of results indicated there was less vegetation coverage in research area, which reflected the characteristics of fragile natural geographical environment. In addition, vegetation coverage was with a modest rise on the whole, which reflected the natural environment change.

  14. O espaço europeu de ensino superior para uma nova ordem educacional?/The european higher education area toward a new educational order?

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    Fátima Antunes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Processo de Bolonha constitui um método de acção política em direcção ao Espaço Europeu do Ensino Superior que representa uma nova ordem das relações sociais em educação. A governação multi-escalar, a acção transnacional, a agenda globalmente estruturada para a educação e modelo(s educativo(s de ambição mundial perfilam o terreno em que se confrontam programas e protagonistas em torno da constitucionalização do projecto neoliberal e da construção da educação como direito humano ou mercadoria. Neste contexto, o Processo de Bolonha está a configurar um novo quadro regulatório para o ensino superior na Europa em que o mercado ou o cosmopolitismo são sentidos possíveis da mudança com desiguais probabilidades de desenhar o futuro. Bologna Process constitutes a method of political action toward the European Higher Education Area that represents a new ordering of social relationships in education. Multi-scalar governance, transnational action, a globally structured educational agenda and world ambitious educational models fabricate the terrain where programs and protagonist around the constitutionalization of the neoliberal project and the construction of education as a human right or as a merchandise. In this context, Bologna Process delineates a new regulatory framework for Higher Education in Europe where the market or cosmopolitanism are possible meanings and directions of change with unbalanced probabilities of benchmarking future.

  15. Retinal afferents synapse with relay cells targeting the middle temporal area in the pulvinar and lateral geniculate nuclei

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    Claire E Warner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable debate continues regarding thalamic inputs to the middle temporal area (MT of the visual cortex that bypass the primary visual cortex (V1 and the role they might have in the residual visual capability following a lesion of V1. Two specific retinothalamic projections to area MT have been speculated to relay through the medial portion of the inferior pulvinar nucleus (PIm and the koniocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN. Although a number of studies have demonstrated retinal inputs to regions of the thalamus where relays to area MT have been observed, the relationship between the retinal terminals and area MT relay cells has not been established. Here we examined direct retino-recipient regions of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus pulvinar nucleus and the LGN following binocular injections of anterograde tracer, as well as area MT relay cells in these nuclei by injection of retrograde tracer into area MT. Retinal afferents were shown to synapse with area MT relay cells as demonstrated by colocalization with the presynaptic vesicle membrane protein synaptophysin. We also established the presence of direct synapes of retinal afferents on area MT relay cells within the PIm, as well as the koniocellular K1 and K3 layers of the LGN, thereby corroborating the existence of two disynaptic pathways from the retina to area MT that bypass V1.

  16. Ethnicity, Education, and the Temporal Stability of Personality Traits In the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Terracciano, Antonio; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Patriciu, Nicholas S; Nestadt, Gerald; McCrae, Robert R; Eaton, William W; Costa, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of age, gender, Black vs. White ethnicity, and education on five indices of personality stability and change across an average interval of 8 years in the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. In the full sample (n = 505, aged 30-88), examination of structural, rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability, as well as indices of reliable change suggested that NEO-PI-R personality traits showed moderate to high levels of stability over time. There were few age and gender effects on temporal stability but rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability were lower among Blacks and individuals with lower education. Future research should explore additional demographic predictors of temporal plasticity in a diverse range of samples, and employ observer ratings to assess personality.

  17. Spatio-temporal Evolution on Geographic Boundaries of HFRS Endemic Areas in Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan Xun; WANG Zhi Qiang; GUO Jing; TANG Fang; SUN Xiu Bin; XUE Fu Zhong; KANG Dian Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. Methods The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. Results The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. Conclusion The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled.

  18. Application of MRI volume rendering in surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle%MRI容量重建技术在颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路选择中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白芃; 刘彩霞; 贾林沛; 刘浩源; 苏略; 孙维; 李幼琼

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过测量经颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路的相关数据,初步定位大脑背外侧面颞上沟进入侧脑室最短距离的点,寻找经颞上沟进入侧脑室颞角的最佳手术入路点。方法:选取120例成年人脑部 MRI扫描标本,利用容量重建技术构建大脑三维立体模型,测得颞上沟的长度 S1。沿垂直于颞叶长轴的方向以1.0 mm间距切割得到多个冠状切面,依次测量颞上沟到侧脑室颞角的距离并确定最短距离S2,同时测量颞上沟的深度S3,测量大脑颞上沟表面相对应的最短距离点到颞上沟前端起始部的距离 S4,计算 S4与 S1的比值 M,同时测量最短距离与正中矢状位方向之间的夹角α。所有样本进行双侧测量,对比两侧的测量结果。结果:120例国人的 S1左侧为(159.56±17.55)mm,右侧为(164.35±15.07)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S2左侧为(8.18±0.96)mm,右侧为(7.81±0.90)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S3左侧为(12.19±1.43)mm,右侧为(11.57±1.33)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S4左侧为(100.88±16.09)mm,右侧为(104.15±14.49)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);M左侧为(0.63±0.07),右侧为(0.63±0.06),左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);α左侧为(55.80±3.64)°,右侧为(56.46±4.17)°,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:颞上沟前端3/5处可能为理想的手术入路点,由该点进入侧脑室颞角距离最短,提示实施颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术时该入路可减少对脑组织损伤。%Objective To acquire some related data of surgical approach through brain superior temporal sulcus to temporal horn of lateral ventricle by MRI volume rendering, and to orientate the point of superior temporal sulcus on the lateral

  19. Quantifying Spatial and Temporal Variability of Methane Emissions from a Complex Area Source: Case Study of a Central Indiana Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Bogner, J. E.; Green, R. B.; Shepson, P. B.; Thoma, E. D.; Foster-wittig, T. A.; Spokas, K.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that is responsible for about 17% of the total direct radiative forcing from long-lived greenhouse gases (IPCC 2013). While the global emission of methane is relatively well quantified, the temporal and spatial variability of methane emissions from individual area or point sources are still poorly understood. Using 4 field methods (aircraft-based mass balance, tracer correlation, vertical radial plume mapping, and static chambers) and a new field-validated process-based model (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model, CALMIM 5.4), we investigated both the total emissions from a central Indiana landfill as well as the partitioned emissions inclusive of methanotrophic oxidation for the various cover soils. This landfill is an upwind source for the city of Indianapolis, so the resolution of m2 to km2 scale emissions, as well as understanding the temporal variability for this complex area source, contributes to improved regional inventory calculations. Emissions for the site as a whole were measured using both an aircraft-based mass balance approach as well as a ground-based tracer correlation method, permitting direct comparison of the strengths, limitations, and uncertainties of these two approaches. Because US landfills are highly-engineered and composed of daily, intermediate, and final cover areas with differing thicknesses, composition, and implementation of gas recovery, we also expected different emission signatures and strengths from the various cover areas. Thus we also deployed static chambers and vertical radial plume mapping to quantify the spatial variability of emissions from the thinner daily and intermediate cover areas. Understanding the daily, seasonal and annual emission rates from a landfill is not trivial, and usually requires a combination of measurement and modeling approaches. Thus, our unique data set provides an opportunity to gain an improved understanding of the emissions from a complex

  20. Musical structure is processed in "language" areas of the brain: a possible role for Brodmann Area 47 in temporal coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2003-12-01

    The neuroanatomical correlates of musical structure were investigated using functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) and a unique stimulus manipulation involving scrambled music. The experiment compared brain responses while participants listened to classical music and scrambled versions of that same music. Specifically, the scrambled versions disrupted musical structure while holding low-level musical attributes constant, including the psychoacoustic features of the music such as pitch, loudness, and timbre. Comparing music to its scrambled counterpart, we found focal activation in the pars orbitalis region (Brodmann Area 47) of the left inferior frontal cortex, a region that has been previously closely associated with the processing of linguistic structure in spoken and signed language, and its right hemisphere homologue. We speculate that this particular region of inferior frontal cortex may be more generally responsible for processing fine-structured stimuli that evolve over time, not merely those that are linguistic.

  1. Monitoring land subsidence process in the urban area of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using multi-temporal SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Le, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence has become the most common hazard in urban area that could led to cracking buildings and infrastructures, extending the flooding area or even change the river path. Despite deriving precise information, conventional subsidence monitoring techniques are considered as costly, man-power consuming and lack of comprehensive information. Recently, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has become a widely used geodetic technique for monitoring the deformation of the Earth's surface, especially methods based on the use of a multi-temporal dataset. In this study, we use a stack of 18 SAR images acquired from L-band PALSAR sensor onboard the ALOS satellite to derive the subsidence information of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam over the period of December 2006 to December 2010. The Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI) approach is chosen to take advantages of both the persistent scatterers and the distributed scatterers, which could be used as monitoring points to measure the subsidence process. Assume the subsidence in this area mostly corresponds to vertical components, we found subsidence patterns along Saigon river and in the South of the city. Maximum subsidence rate reaches up to -66 mm/year in vertical direction. Finally, InSAR derived result and previous levelling data are taken into comparison to find the correlation between the two results.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall and their effects on hydrological response in urban areas – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cristiano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas, hydrological processes are characterized by high variability in space and time, making them sensitive to small-scale temporal and spatial rainfall variability. In the last decades new instruments, techniques, and methods have been developed to capture rainfall and hydrological processes at high resolution. Weather radars have been introduced to estimate high spatial and temporal rainfall variability. At the same time, new models have been proposed to reproduce hydrological response, based on small-scale representation of urban catchment spatial variability. Despite these efforts, interactions between rainfall variability, catchment heterogeneity, and hydrological response remain poorly understood. This paper presents a review of our current understanding of hydrological processes in urban environments as reported in the literature, focusing on their spatial and temporal variability aspects. We review recent findings on the effects of rainfall variability on hydrological response and identify gaps where knowledge needs to be further developed to improve our understanding of and capability to predict urban hydrological response.

  3. An Optimal Sampling Design for Observing and Validating Long-Term Leaf Area Index with Temporal Variations in Spatial Heterogeneities

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    Yelu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sampling strategy to define elementary sampling units (ESUs for an entire site at the kilometer scale is an important step in the validation process for moderate-resolution leaf area index (LAI products. Current LAI-sampling strategies are unable to consider the vegetation seasonal changes and are better suited for single-day LAI product validation, whereas the increasingly used wireless sensor network for LAI measurement (LAINet requires an optimal sampling strategy across both spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we developed an efficient and robust LAI Sampling strategy based on Multi-temporal Prior knowledge (SMP for long-term, fixed-position LAI observations. The SMP approach employed multi-temporal vegetation index (VI maps and the vegetation classification map as a priori knowledge. The SMP approach minimized the multi-temporal bias of the VI frequency histogram between the ESUs and the entire site and maximized the nearest-neighbor index to ensure that ESUs were dispersed in the geographical space. The SMP approach was compared with four sampling strategies including random sampling, systematic sampling, sampling based on the land-cover map and a sampling strategy based on vegetation index prior knowledge using the PROSAIL model-based simulation analysis in the Heihe River basin. The results indicate that the ESUs selected using the SMP method spread more evenly in both the multi-temporal feature space and geographical space over the vegetation cycle. By considering the temporal changes in heterogeneity, the average root-mean-square error (RMSE of the LAI reference maps can be reduced from 0.12 to 0.05, and the relative error can be reduced from 6.1% to 2.2%. The SMP technique was applied to assign the LAINet ESU locations at the Huailai Remote Sensing Experimental Station in Beijing, China, from 4 July to 28 August 2013, to validate three MODIS C5 LAI products. The results suggest that the average R2, RMSE, bias and relative

  4. Quality of Life Assessment Based on Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Vegetation Area Derived from Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life in urban areas is a function of many parameters among which, one highly important is the number and quality of green areas for people and wildlife to thrive. The quality of life is also a political concept often used to describe citizen satisfaction within different residential locations. Only in the last decades green areas have suffered a progressive decrease in quality, pointing out the ecological urban risk with a negative impact on the standard of living and population health status. This paper presents the evolution of green areas in the cities of South-Eastern Romania within the last 20 years and sets forth the current state of quality of life from the perspective of vegetation reference. By using state-of-the-art processing tools applied on high-resolution satellite images, we have derived knowledge about the spatial and temporal expansion of urbanized regions. Our semi-automatic technologies for analysis of remote sensing data such as Landsat 7 ETM+, correlated with statistical information inferred from urban charts, demonstrate a negative trend in the distribution of green areas within the analyzed cities, with long-term implications on multiple areas in our lives.

  5. [Spatio-temporal variability of habitat quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area based on land use change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-sheng; Cao, Qi-wen; Shi, Shu-qin; Huang, Xiu-lan; Lu, Zhi-qiang

    2015-11-01

    Land use change is the core content of global change. To achieve sustainable land use planning, it is necessary to evaluate the habitat quality pattern and its spatio-temporal variation resulted from land use change, which can provide basis for the formulation of land management policy. Based on the analysis of land use change from 2000 to 2010, this study investigated the spatio-temporal variation of habitat quality pattern of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area. We used the watershed profile sampling points and spatial autocorrelation analysis based on watershed subdivision. The results showed that the main land use change types from 2000 to 2010 in this area included the transition from cultivated land to construction land, the transition between forest and grassland, and the transition from water bodies to cultivated land. This land use/cover change process led to the decrease of heterogeneity of landscape structure and increase of fragmentation. The overall spatial pattern of habitat quality was that southeast and south areas were relatively lower, while north and west areas were relatively higher. The analysis based on watershed profile showed that the habitat quality of each watershed presented significant difference in each part. Habitat quality of most sampling points degraded in a way, while some improved compared with 2000. In general, the habitat quality of the bottom part of Luanhe River basin, the medium part of Bai-Chaobai-Chaobaixin River basin, the medium and the bottom part of Yongding River basin and medium part of Laozhang-Fudongpai- Beipai River basin were poor and volatile, while other parts were relatively good. There was a decreasing agglomeration characteristic of distribution of habitat quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area under the disturbance of human activities. Areas of high habitat quality in 2000 were mainly located in Luanhe River basin and top part of Baihe basin. Areas of low habitat quality were mainly located in medium and bottom part

  6. Spatial and temporal effects of port facilities expansion on the surface area of shallow coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Rocha, V; Ortiz-Lozano, L

    2013-07-01

    There is a close relationship between ports and reef areas, mainly because reefs provide protection to vessels against extreme weather events like storms and hurricanes. This historical relationship has generated severe impacts on reef ecosystems. In order to identify the main impacts from the construction of port facilities in shallow coral reef areas, we analyzed and described the effects of land reclamation and coastal structure construction associated to port growth throughout a century in the Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano National Park, Mexico. We used aerial photographs and maps of the nineteenth and early twentieth century to assess the impacts caused by port expansion activities on shallow coral reefs. Three types of impacts were identified: (a) direct reef area loss caused by landfills and perpendicular coastal structures construction leading to the loss of nearly 50 % of the fringing reef near to the port; (b) fragmentation in short- and medium-term scale, which affects two fringing reefs, and (c) long-term modification of coastal dynamics leading to sedimentation and loss of a complete reef area. On the eve of a new expansion of Veracruz Port, we used the New Port Project Plan, long-shore net drift geomorphic indicators and the port impact typology from the 100-year period assessment to evaluate a possible future scenario. The scenario describes how the new expansion project will repeat the three types of impacts affecting a whole reef area, which is currently part of the National Park.

  7. High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity in Left Temporal Area Is Associated with Pleasant Emotion Induced by Video Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Kortelainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that specific neural correlates for the key elements of basic emotions do exist and can be identified by neuroimaging techniques. In this paper, electroencephalogram (EEG is used to explore the markers for video-induced emotions. The problem is approached from a classifier perspective: the features that perform best in classifying person’s valence and arousal while watching video clips with audiovisual emotional content are searched from a large feature set constructed from the EEG spectral powers of single channels as well as power differences between specific channel pairs. The feature selection is carried out using a sequential forward floating search method and is done separately for the classification of valence and arousal, both derived from the emotional keyword that the subject had chosen after seeing the clips. The proposed classifier-based approach reveals a clear association between the increased high-frequency (15–32 Hz activity in the left temporal area and the clips described as “pleasant” in the valence and “medium arousal” in the arousal scale. These clips represent the emotional keywords amusement and joy/happiness. The finding suggests the occurrence of a specific neural activation during video-induced pleasant emotion and the possibility to detect this from the left temporal area using EEG.

  8. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  9. Temporal-spatial distribution and variability of cadmium contamination in soils in Shenyang Zhangshi irrigation area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-na; ZHANG Yao-hua; SUN Tie-heng; GONG Zong-qiang; LIN Xin; LI Hai-bo

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in soils has been of wide concern in China in the last several decades. The heavy metal contamination was caused by sewage irrigation, mining and inappropriate utilization of various agrochemicals and pesticides and so on. The Shenyang Zhangshi irrigation area (SZIA) in China is a representative area of heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from sewage irrigation for about 30 years duration. This study investigated the spatial distribution and temporal variation of soil cadmium contamination in the SZIA. The soil samples were collected from the SZIA in 1990 and 2004; Cd of soils was analyzed and then the spatial distribution and temporal variation of Cd in soils was modelled using kriging methods. The kriging map showed that long-term sewage irrigation had caused serious Cd contamination in topsoil and subsoil. In 2004, the Cd mean concentrations were 1.698 and 0.741 mg/kg, and the maxima 10.150 and 7.567 mg/kg in topsoils (0-20 cm) and subsoils (20-40 cm) respectively. These values are markedly more than the Cd levels in the second grade soil standard in China. In 1990, the Cd means were 1.023 and 0.331mg/kg, and the maxima 9.400 and 3.156 mg/kg, in topsoils and subsoils respectively. The soil area in 1990 with Cd more than 1.5mg/kg was 2701 and 206.4 hm2 in topsoils and subsoils respectively; and in 2004, it was 7592 and 1583 hm2, respectively. Compared with that in 1990, the mean and maximum concentration of Cd, as well as the soil area with Cd more than 1.5 mg/kg had all increased in 2004, both in topsoils and subsoils.

  10. [Landscape ecological risk assessment and its spatio-temporal variations in Ebinur Lake region of inland arid area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Fei; Zhou, Mei; Li, Xiao-hang; Ren, Yan; Wang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The typical region of the Ebinur Lake Basin was chosen as study area. Landsat TM/OLI images for 1998, 2011 and 2013 were obtained. In the study area, landscape was classified into six types, including cropland, woodland, grassland, water body, bare lake bed, salinized land and unutilized land. Landscape indices and ecological risk index were calculated and spatially interpolated for the whole region, which was divided into five different risk zones: extremely low, low, moderate, high and extremely high ecological risk. They were carried out for assessing the spatio-temporal changes in ecological risk for each landscape pattern. The results showed that the regional landscape patterns had experienced significant changes, and the increase in the area of croplands was the main trend in landscape evolution from 1998-2013. The main part of the regional ecosystem faced extremely high risk in 1998, high risk in 2011 and low risk in 2013. The ecological risk level of the study area was significantly decreased in the overall period, and the total area of change from high to low risk was much greater than those from low to high risk.

  11. Characteristics of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of China’s Superiority Olympic Events%我国奥运优势项目时空演变发展特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓林; 任德利; 袁锋

    2015-01-01

    In the present project,we looked at the number of gold medals that China has won at the Olympic Sum-mer and Winter Games,the places of origin of the gold medalists,and the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of the gold-winning sports events. Temporally,we found a wave-like upward pattern in the number of gold medals,and that superiority events are mainly distributed among six events,i. e. ,weightlifting,gymnastics div-ing,shooting,table tennis and badminton, in four major subgroups of events:the speed-and-power-demanding, the difficulty-and-beauty-demanding,the accuracy-demanding,and the net events,the first subgroup being based on fit-ness and the latter three on skill. The superiority Olympic events have contributed 74. 6%of all gold medals won by China at the Olympic Games,with an uneven regional distribution,showing a difference in quality longitudinally and one in quantity latitudinally. These events are distributed over three regions,which are rated as strong,fairly strong and weak respectively. For the comprehensive upgrade of China’s competitiveness in the Olympic events,we suggest deepening the priority development strategy,seizing the opportunity for national coordinated regional development to promote coordinated regional development of competitive sports,working for an even distribution and development of the superiority Olympic events,and broadening development paths.%利用文献资料法、数理统计法与比较研究法等,对我国所参加的历届夏季奥运会与冬季奥运会所获金牌数量、金牌运动员籍贯以及金牌项目的时空分布特征进行研究。结果表明:我国奥运会金牌总数在时间分布上呈现波浪式前进态势;我国奥运优势项目主要分布在体能主导类的快速力量性,技能主导类的表现难美性、表现准确性、隔网对抗性四大亚项群的举重、体操与跳水、射击、乒乓球与羽毛球六个项目;奥运优势

  12. Temporal sequence of visuo-auditory interaction in multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Nishimura

    Full Text Available Recent studies in humans and monkeys have reported that acoustic stimulation influences visual responses in the primary visual cortex (V1. Such influences can be generated in V1, either by direct auditory projections or by feedback projections from extrastriate cortices. To test these hypotheses, cortical activities were recorded using optical imaging at a high spatiotemporal resolution from multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex, to visual and/or acoustic stimulations. Visuo-auditory interactions were evaluated according to differences between responses evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation, and the sum of responses evoked by separate visual and auditory stimulations. Simultaneous presentation of visual and acoustic stimulations resulted in significant interactions in V1, which occurred earlier than in other visual areas. When acoustic stimulation preceded visual stimulation, significant visuo-auditory interactions were detected only in V1. These results suggest that V1 is a cortical origin of visuo-auditory interaction.

  13. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Furtado da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA, 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI, and 10 non-autistics (GCN had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons.

  14. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  15. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  16. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  17. Landuse change detection in a surface coal mine area using multi-temporal high resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, N.; Duzgun, S.; Kemal Emil, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the landcover and landuse of a mine area can be caused by surface mining activities, exploitation of ore and stripping and dumping overburden. In order to identify the long-term impacts of mining on the environment and land cover, these changes must be continuously monitored. A facility to regularly observe the progress of surface mining and reclamation is important for effective enforcement of mining and environmental regulations. Remote sensing provides a powerful tool to obtain rigorous data and reduce the need for time-consuming and expensive field measurements. The purpose of this study was to conduct post classification change detection for identifying, quantifying, and analyzing the spatial response of landscape due to surface lignite coal mining activities in Goynuk, Bolu, Turkey, from 2004 to 2008. The paper presented the research algorithm which involved acquiring multi temporal high resolution satellite data; preprocessing the data; performing image classification using maximum likelihood classification algorithm and performing accuracy assessment on the classification results; performing post classification change detection algorithm; and analyzing the results. Specifically, the paper discussed the study area, data and methodology, and image preprocessing using radiometric correction. Image classification and change detection were also discussed. It was concluded that the mine and dump area decreased by 192.5 ha from 2004 to 2008 and was caused by the diminishing reserves in the area and decline in the required production. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Unsupervised Spatio-Temporal Data Mining Framework for Burned Area Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriah, Shyam (Inventor); Kumar, Vipin (Inventor); Mithal, Varun (Inventor); Khandelwal, Ankush (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method reduces processing time required to identify locations burned by fire by receiving a feature value for each pixel in an image, each pixel representing a sub-area of a location. Pixels are then grouped based on similarities of the feature values to form candidate burn events. For each candidate burn event, a probability that the candidate burn event is a true burn event is determined based on at least one further feature value for each pixel in the candidate burn event. Candidate burn events that have a probability below a threshold are removed from further consideration as burn events to produce a set of remaining candidate burn events.

  19. An unusual presentation of inflammatory pseudotumor in mastoid area of temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip K Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a rare case of inflammatory pseudotumor in the mastoid area. A young female presented with left-sided dull otalgia with hearing loss. Otoscopy revealed normal tympanic membrane with left-sided sensori-neural hearing loss. Imaging showed a mildly enhancing lytic region in the left mastoid. Canal-wall-down mastoidectomy done and the granular tissue from the mastoid was sent for the histopathological examination (HPE. The HPE report was suggestive of inflammatory pseudotumor. No recurrence of the disease was noticed in the 3 years follow-up period.

  20. Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi; Penuelas, Josep

    2016-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977–2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent—in accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries—and by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future.

  1. Expertise with characters in alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems engage overlapping occipito-temporal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan C-N; Jobard, Gael; James, Karin H; James, Thomas W; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-02-01

    Parts of the left ventral visual pathway are engaged selectively during the perception of words, letter strings, and even single letters. While studies have shown overlap between activations for letters and characters across writing systems, they adopted group analyses with very limited spatial resolution, or used words and letter strings that have been shown to activate different regions from those activated by single characters. The current study compared activity within individual participants for the perception of single characters from different writing systems. Roman letters, Chinese characters, objects, and faces were presented to Chinese-English bilinguals and English readers with no Chinese reading experience. Individual subject analyses revealed a large overlap between Roman- and Chinese-selective areas in the bilinguals. In general, the activity in the Roman-selective area of the left hemisphere is associated with experience with the script, as non-Chinese readers showed lower activations to Chinese characters than to Roman letters. Further analyses found considerable variation within non-Chinese readers in the activation for Chinese characters: while the majority had no selectivity for Chinese characters at all, some showed activations for Chinese characters at locations similar to those selective for Roman letters. The results suggest that both stimulus properties and experience are important factors in determining the response to single characters across writing systems.

  2. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Hecky, R. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Katsev, S.; Reavie, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  3. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  4. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  5. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS CONTENT IN COVERING SOIL OF RECLAMATION AREA IN FUSHUN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Grid method is employed for sampling covering soil at the test field, which is reclamation area filled bycoal mining wastes for cropland in the Fushun coal mine, Liaoning Province, the Northeast China. The soil samples aretaken at different locations, including three kinds of covering soil, three different depths of soil layers and four differentcovering ages of covering soil. The spatial-temporal variation of heavy metal element content in reclamation soil is studied. The results indicate that the content of heavy metal elements is decreasing year after year; the determinant reasonwhy the content of heavy metal elements at 60cm depth layer is higher than that at 30em depth layer and surface is fertilizer and manure apphcation; the metal elements mainly come from external environment; there is no metal pollution comingfrom mother material (coal mining wastes) in plough layer of covering soil.

  6. SPATIAL—TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS CONTENT IN COVERING SPIL OF RECLAMATION AREA IN FUSHUN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUJun-bao; LIUJing-shuang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Grid method is employed for sampling covering soil at the test field,which is reclamation area filled by coal mining wastes for cropland in the Fushun coal mine,Liaoning Province,the Northeast China.The soil samples are taken at different locations,including three kinds of covering soil,three different depths of soil layers and four different covering ages of covering soil.The spatial-temporal variation of heavy metal element content in reclamation soil is stud-ied.The results indicate that the content of heavy metal elements is decreasing year after year,the determinant reason why the content of heavy metal elements at 60cm depth layer is higher than that at 30cm depth layer and surface is fertiliz-er and manure application;the metal elements mainly come from external environment;there is no metal pollution coming from mother material (coal mining wastes)in plough layer of covering soil.

  7. Aerosol particulate matter in the Baltimore metropolitan area: Temporal variation over a six-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Daniel; Delgado, Ruben; Wesloh, Daniel; Powers, Richard J; Hoff, Raymond

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the sources of fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM(2.5)) composition for the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area, covering a 6-year period (2008-2013). Data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) were used for the identification of eight chemical speciation clusters (factors), which, as a percentage of the average concentration, were identified as secondary sulfate (31.9%), secondary nitrate (14.3%), gasoline (17.4%), diesel (10.1%), soil (4.0%), biomass burning (11%), marine aerosol (4.1%), and industrial processing (7.2%). The results show predominant influence from vehicle emissions transiting major highways I-695 and I-95 located in the vicinity of the sampling site. Strong influence on PM2.5 mass from biomass burning was found in the first 2 years (2008-2009) due to particulate matter remnants from forest fire events in North Carolina and a strong contribution in 2013 that was due mainly to wood burning during winter. Sulfate, nitrate, soil, and marine aerosol fractions registered very low variability over the 6-year period analyzed. In addition, this study shows a significant reduction in particulate matter from industrial origins after a major industrial source in Baltimore shut down. The results obtained from Baltimore were compared with those from the Beltsville, Maryland, sampling station located 25 miles south of Baltimore for 2011 and 2012, where good agreement was found for most of the factors. This paper presents the first long-term aerosol speciation analysis in a Mid-Atlantic United States metropolitan area, which is essential for the air quality management agencies in order to revise regulations and reduce human exposure to adverse air quality conditions. The results suggest that although a declining trend in the overall PM2.5 was observed, no significant tendency was observed in the identified sources besides exceptional events such as the impact of

  8. Temporal dynamic of reef benthic communities in two marine protected areas in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera-Valderrama, Susana; Hernández-Arana, Héctor; Ruiz-Zárate, Miguel-Ángel; Alcolado, Pedro M.; Caballero-Aragón, Hansel; González-Cano, Jaime; Vega-Zepeda, Alejandro; Victoria-Salazar, Isael; Cobián-Rojas, Dorka; González-Méndez, Juliett; Hernández-González, Zaimiuri; de la Guardia-Llansó, Elena

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the coral reef condition of two marine protected areas in the Caribbean: Guanahacabibes National Park, Cuba, and Costa Occidental de Isla Mujeres-Punta Cancun-Punta Nizuc National Park, Mexico, in a two-year period. The analyzed indicators for corals were live coral cover, diameter and height of the colonies, ancient and recent mortalities and abundance of recruits, which were evaluated in quadrats of 1 m2. In addition, it was estimated the coverage by morphofunctional groups of macroalgae in 25 × 25 cm quadrats and the density of the Diadema antillarum urchin in 1 m2 quadrats. The results showed differences between countries at broad spatial scales (hundreds of kilometers). Reefs of both MPAs seem to be in different stages of changes, which have been associated with deterioration of Caribbean reefs, toward the dominance of more resistant, non-tridimensional coral species, causing a decrease of the reef complexity that may leads to the reefs to collapse. At scales of kilometers (within MPAs), a similar pattern was found in reefs of GNP-Cuba and different trends were observed in reefs of CNP-Mexico. The observed differences between CNP-Mexico sites appear to be associated with the current tourism use patterns.

  9. Temporal patterns in the soundscape of the shallow waters of a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaino, Giuseppa; Ceraulo, Maria; Pieretti, Nadia; Corrias, Valentina; Farina, Almo; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Grammauta, Rosario; Caruso, Francesco; Giuseppe, Alonge; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is an emerging field of research that contributes important information about biological compositions and environmental conditions. The seasonal and circadian soundscape trends of a marine protected area (MPA) in the Mediterranean Sea have been studied for one year using an autonomous acoustic recorder. Frequencies less than 1 kHz are dominated by noise generated by waves and are louder during the winter; conversely, higher frequencies (4–96 kHz) are dominated by snapping shrimp, which increase their acoustic activity at night during the summer. Fish choruses, below 2 kHz, characterize the soundscape at sunset during the summer. Because there are 13 vessel passages per hour on average, causing acoustic interference with fish choruses 46% of the time, this MPA cannot be considered to be protected from noise. On the basis of the high seasonal variability of the soundscape components, this study proposes a one-year acoustic monitoring protocol using the soundscape methodology approach and discusses the concept of MPA size.

  10. Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of small pelagic fish body condition from contrasted Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosset, Pablo; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Lloret, Josep; Marques, Virginie; Basilone, Gualtiero; Bonanno, Angelo; Carpi, Piera; Donato, Fortunata; Čikeš Keč, Vanja; De Felice, Andrea; Ferreri, Rosalia; Gašparević, Denis; Giráldez, Ana; Gücü, Ali; Iglesias, Magdalena; Leonori, Iole; Palomera, Isabel; Somarakis, Stylianos; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Torres, Pedro; Ventero, Ana; Zorica, Barbara; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Small pelagic fish are among the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species and are characterized by large fluctuations all over the world. In the Mediterranean Sea, low catches and biomass of anchovies and sardines have been described in some areas during the last decade, resulting in important fisheries crises. Therefore, we studied anchovy and sardine body condition variability, a key index of population health and its response to environmental and anthropogenic changes. Wide temporal and spatial patterns were investigated by analyzing separately data from scientific surveys and fisheries in eight Mediterranean areas between 1975 and 2015. Results showed that anchovy and sardine body condition as well as maximum size in some areas sharply decreased in most Mediterranean areas along years (except in the Northern Alboran Sea). Despite this general pattern, well-marked environmental differences between sub-regions were highlighted by several analyses and variations in body condition were not found to be homogeneous over all the Mediterranean Sea. Further, other analyses revealed that except for the Adriatic where major changes towards a lower body condition were concomitant with a decrease in river runoffs and chl-a concentration, no concomitant environmental regime shift was detected in other areas. Together, these analyses highlighted the current poor body condition of almost all small pelagic fish populations in the Mediterranean. Yet, global environmental indices could not explain the observed changes and the general decrease in condition might more likely come from regional environmental and/or anthropogenic (fishing) effects. A prolonged state of poor fish body condition, together with an observed reduced size and early age-at-maturity may have strong ecological, economic and social consequences all around the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of burned area over Brazilian Cerrado from 2005 to 2015 using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Although Cerrado is a fire-dependent biome, current agriculture practices have significantly modified the native fire regime. Moreover, over the last decades, climate conditions, such as intensive droughts, have contributed to enhance the effects of anthropogenic activities, and consequently fire, over the region. For instance, during the 2010 extreme drought there was an increase of 100% in the number of fire pixels detected by just one polar orbiting satellite (information online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas). A better characterization of spatial and temporal fire patterns over Cerrado is therefore crucial to uncover both climate and anthropogenic influences in this ecosystem. Additionally, information about the extent, location and time of burned areas (BA) over Cerrado is especially useful to a wide range of users, from government agencies, research groups and ecologists, to fire managers and NGOs. Instruments on-board satellites are the only available operational means to collect BA data at appropriated spatial and temporal scales and in a cost-effective way. Several global BA products derived from remote sensed information have been developed over the last years using a variety of techniques based on different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Although presenting similar inter-annual variability, there are marked differences among the products both in magnitude and location of the area burnt. The development of regional algorithms which take into account local characteristics such as vegetation type, soil and climate is therefore an added value to the existing information. We present a monthly BA product (AQM) for Brazil based on information from MODIS 1km. The algorithm was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil and the procedure represents the first initiative of an automated method for BA monitoring using remote sensing information in the country. The product relies on an algorithm that takes advantage of the ability of MIR

  12. The grounding of temporal metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (Her seminar stretches across the afternoon) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (Her backyard stretches across the desert) and literal motion (Her arm stretches across the table), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus. These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. PMID:26854961

  13. Monitoring Landslides in Western Mountainous Areas of China Using Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Gong, Jianya

    2016-08-01

    Disasters, caused by landslide, rock fall, debris flow, ground fissure, etc., are one of the significant natural catastrophes, threatening and influencing the socio-economic conditions around the world. China is one of the countries that suffer heavily from such geo-hazards. And most landslides take place in the mountainous valley areas of western China. With its wide coverage and sub-centimeter accuracy, radar remote sensing has already proven its potential for remotely measuring unstable slopes. Differential InSAR (D-InSAR) is used to recognize known landslides and find potential unstable slopes in a region scale. Then, for a specific landslide, advanced multi-temporal InSAR method is exploited to characterize its surface deformation by obtaining time-series displacement on coherent targets. Among them, the PSI technique exploits only PSs exhibiting high phase stability in a stack of interferograms, which generally exist in urban areas. But, in the case of rural environment characterized by vegetated or low reflectivity homogeneous regions, few PSs could be identified. As a complement of persistent scatterers, distributed scatterers widely existing in rural areas can be exploited. DSs decorrelate slowly and can be found from homogeneous ground, scattered outcrops, debris flows, non-cultivated lands and desert areas. In this poster, a distributed scatterers-based InSAR technique, making use of PSs and DSs, is proposed. At first, we will use D-InSAR technique to detect landslides. Then, both PSI and DS-InSAR will be implemented to monitor interested landslides. And a comparison study of these two methods are conducted.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Unburned Areas within Fire Perimeters in the Northwestern United States from 1984 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, A. J.; Kolden, C.; Lutz, J. A.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Hudak, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been concern about increasing extent and severity of wildfires across the globe given rapid climate change. Areas that do not burn within fire perimeters can act as fire refugia, providing (1) protection from the detrimental effects of the fire, (2) seed sources, and (3) post-fire habitat on the landscape. However, recent studies have mainly focused on the higher end of the burn severity spectrum whereas the lower end of the burn severity spectrum has been largely ignored. We developed a spatially explicit database for 2,200 fires across the inland northwestern USA, delineating unburned areas within fire perimeters from 1984 to 2014. We used 1,600 Landsat scenes with one or two scenes before and one or two scenes after the fires to capture the unburned proportion of the fire. Subsequently, we characterized the spatial and temporal patterns of unburned areas and related the unburned proportion to interannual climate variability. The overall classification accuracy detecting unburned locations was 89.2% using a 10-fold cross-validation classification tree approach in combination with 719 randomly located field plots. The unburned proportion ranged from 2% to 58% with an average of 19% for a select number of fires. We find that using both an immediate post-fire image and a one-year post fire image improves classification accuracy of unburned islands over using just a single post-fire image. The spatial characteristics of the unburned islands differ between forested and non-forested regions with a larger amount of unburned area within non-forest. In addition, we show trends of unburned proportion related primarily to concurrent climatic drought conditions across the entire region. This database is important for subsequent analyses of fire refugia prioritization, vegetation recovery studies, ecosystem resilience, and forest management to facilitate unburned islands through fuels breaks, prescribed burning, and fire suppression strategies.

  15. Visual motion integration by neurons in the middle temporal area of a New World monkey, the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Selina S; Tailby, Chris; Gharaei, Saba; Camp, Aaron J; Bourne, James A; Solomon, Samuel G

    2011-12-01

    The middle temporal area (MT/V5) is an anatomically distinct region of primate visual cortex that is specialized for the processing of image motion. It is generally thought that some neurons in area MT are capable of signalling the motion of complex patterns, but this has only been established in the macaque monkey. We made extracellular recordings from single units in area MT of anaesthetized marmosets, a New World monkey. We show through quantitative analyses that some neurons (35 of 185; 19%) are capable of signalling pattern motion ('pattern cells'). Across several dimensions, the visual response of pattern cells in marmosets is indistinguishable from that of pattern cells in macaques. Other neurons respond to the motion of oriented contours in a pattern ('component cells') or show intermediate properties. In addition, we encountered a subset of neurons (22 of 185; 12%) insensitive to sinusoidal gratings but very responsive to plaids and other two-dimensional patterns and otherwise indistinguishable from pattern cells. We compared the response of each cell class to drifting gratings and dot fields. In pattern cells, directional selectivity was similar for gratings and dot fields; in component cells, directional selectivity was weaker for dot fields than gratings. Pattern cells were more likely to have stronger suppressive surrounds, prefer lower spatial frequencies and prefer higher speeds than component cells. We conclude that pattern motion sensitivity is a feature of some neurons in area MT of both New and Old World monkeys, suggesting that this functional property is an important stage in motion analysis and is likely to be conserved in humans.

  16. Spatial/temporal variations and source apportionment of VOCs monitored at community scale in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Zhu, Xianlei; Fan, Zhi-hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize spatial/temporal variations of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a community-scale monitoring approach and identify the main sources of concern in Paterson, NJ, an urban area with mixed sources of VOCs. VOC samples were simultaneously collected from three local source-dominated (i.e., commercial, industrial, and mobile) sites in Paterson and one background site in Chester, NJ (located ∼58 km southwest of Paterson). Samples were collected using the EPA TO-15 method from midnight to midnight, one in every sixth day over one year. Among the 60 analyzed VOCs, ten VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene) were selected to examine their spatial/temporal variations. All of the 10 VOCs in Paterson were significantly higher than the background site (pp-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene measured at the commercial site were significantly higher than the industrial/mobile sites (pp-dichlorobenzene) were significantly different by season (pp<0.05). These results are consistent with literature data, indicating the impact of anthropogenic VOC sources on air pollution in Paterson. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was applied for 24-hour integrated VOC measurements in Paterson over one year and identified six contributing factors, including motor vehicle exhausts (20%), solvents uses (19%), industrial emissions (16%), mobile+stationery sources (12%), small shop emissions (11%), and others (22%). Additional locational analysis confirmed the identified sources were well matched with point sources located upwind in Paterson. The study demonstrated the community-scale monitoring approach can capture spatial variation of VOCs in an urban community with mixed VOC sources. It also provided robust data to identify major sources of concern in the community.

  17. Hypometabolism in Posterior and Temporal Areas of the Brain is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tard, Céline; Demailly, Franck; Delval, Arnaud; Semah, Franck; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy; Moreau, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Brain metabolic profiles of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and cognitive impairment or dementia are now available. It would be useful if data on brain metabolism were also predictive of the risk of a pejorative cognitive evolution - especially in the multidisciplinary management of advanced PD patients. The primary objective was to determine whether a specific brain metabolic pattern is associated with cognitive decline in PD. Sixteen advanced PD patients were screened for the absence of cognitive impairment (according to the Mattis dementia rating scale, MDRS) and underwent [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain imaging in the "off drug" state. The MDRS was scored again about two years later, categorizing patients as having significant cognitive decline (decliners) or not (stables). The two groups were then compared in terms of their brain metabolism at inclusion. There were six decliners and ten stables. Significant hypometabolism in the two precunei (Brodmann area (BA) 31), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA21) and the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) was found in the decliner group compared withthe stables. In advanced PD, a particular metabolic pattern may be associated with the onset of significant cognitive decline.

  18. Spatial and temporal distributions of total and methyl mercury in precipitation in core urban areas, Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of mercury (Hg in precipitation were investigated in the core urban areas of Chongqing, China. During the period form July 2010 to June 2011, total mercury (THg and methyl mercury (MeHg concentrations in precipitation were analyzed from three sampling sites. Our results suggest that the volume-weight mean THg and MeHg concentrations in precipitation were 30.67 ng l−1 and 0.31 ng l−1, respectively. The proportion of MeHg in THg ranged from 0.1% to 7.6% with a mean value of 1.3%. THg and MeHg concentrations showed seasonal variations, while the highest THg value was measured in winter. Contrarily, the highest MeHg concentration was observed in autumn. Additionally, a geographically gradual decline of THg concentration in precipitation was observed from the city center to the suburb, then to the exurb. 5 mm rainfall might be a threshold for the full wash-out capability. Rainfall above 5 mm may have a diluting effect for the concentrations of Hg. Moreover, the current research implies that the coal combustion and motor vehicles could be the dominant sources for Hg in the precipitation.

  19. Spatial and temporal image characteristics of a real-time large area a-Se x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Olivier; Demers, Yves; Laperriere, Luc; Mani, Habib; Gauthier, Philippe; Leboeuf, Jonathan

    2005-04-01

    Large area, real-time, amorphous selenium (a-Se) based Flat Panel Detectors (FPD) were recently equipped with low noise front end electronics. In full resolution, 14"x14" detectors (FPD14) and 9"x9" detectors (FPD9) show an electronic noise of 1400 electrons. To evaluate the positive impact of such low noise on image quality, a dedicated report on spatial characteristics (MTF, NPS and DQE) covering the low dose range from 0.6 μR to 12 μR per frame, will be presented in the first section of this paper. For one RQA5 beam quality, DQE corrected for lag extrapolated at zero spatial frequency was equal to 0.6 for quantum noise limited exposure and equal to 0.4 for 0.6 μR. Almost no difference was found between 1x1 and 2x2 resolution mode giving the opportunity to 1x1 fluoroscopy. Recent advances to reduce image temporal artifacts such as lag and ghost will make the second part of this paper. It is demonstrated that the most significant contribution to detector lag is coming from the PIN selenium structure. Above electric field of 10 V/μm charges release from traps following one x-ray exposure could not explain selenium lag. Active ghost correction based on deep trapped charge recombination was developed giving good preliminary results in showing no residual ghost for a high dose rate of 33 mR/min.

  20. Spatial/temporal variations and source apportionment of VOCs monitored at community scale in an urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Yu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize spatial/temporal variations of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs using a community-scale monitoring approach and identify the main sources of concern in Paterson, NJ, an urban area with mixed sources of VOCs. VOC samples were simultaneously collected from three local source-dominated (i.e., commercial, industrial, and mobile sites in Paterson and one background site in Chester, NJ (located ∼58 km southwest of Paterson. Samples were collected using the EPA TO-15 method from midnight to midnight, one in every sixth day over one year. Among the 60 analyzed VOCs, ten VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene were selected to examine their spatial/temporal variations. All of the 10 VOCs in Paterson were significantly higher than the background site (p<0.01. Ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene measured at the commercial site were significantly higher than the industrial/mobile sites (p<0.01. Seven VOCs (acetylene, benzene, dichloromethane, methyl ethyl ketone, styrene, toluene, and p-dichlorobenzene were significantly different by season (p<0.05, that is, higher in cold seasons than in warm seasons. In addition, dichloromethane, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene were significantly higher on weekdays than weekend days (p<0.05. These results are consistent with literature data, indicating the impact of anthropogenic VOC sources on air pollution in Paterson. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis was applied for 24-hour integrated VOC measurements in Paterson over one year and identified six contributing factors, including motor vehicle exhausts (20%, solvents uses (19%, industrial emissions (16%, mobile+stationery sources (12%, small shop emissions (11%, and others (22%. Additional locational analysis confirmed the identified sources were well matched with point sources located upwind in

  1. Implied Motion Activation in Cortical Area MT Can Be Explained by Visual Low-level Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Barraclough, Nick E.; Jellema, Tjeerd; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Duijnhouwer, Jacob; Xiao, Dengke; Oram, Mike W.; Lankheet, Martin J.M.; Perrett, David I.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    To investigate form-related activity in motion-sensitive cortical areas, we recorded cell responses to animate implied motion in macaque middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) cortex and investigated these areas using fMRI in humans. In the single-cell studies, we compared responses

  2. Temporal dynamics of plant succession in abandoned field in Mediterranean mountain areas: farming terraces and sloping fields (Iberian System, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2017-04-01

    Cropland abandonment is an important problem in mountain areas worldwide. This process represents the change from an agricultural management to an abandoned land in which a complex plant succession process occurs, with important hydromorphological effects, and consequences in water resources availability and soil erosion. Literature indicates that plant succession depends on multiple natural factors (soil properties, topography, climate, lithology, and distance to natural covers…) and anthropogenic factors (age of abandonment, management of each field during the cultivation period and after the abandonment…). Despite the advances, much is unknown about the vegetation succession, due to the complexity of ecological and social conditions in which land abandonment occurs. Recently, it is shown that only local factors can explain the heterogeneity of the process (Burel and Baudry, 2002; Jouba and Alados, 2012). In this work, we analyze the diversity of vegetation cover in abandonment fields in Cameros Viejo (Iberian System, Spain), related to the different field patterns (terraces and sloping fields) and the age of abandonment. Agricultural lands were delimited using aerial photographs from 1956 and 1978. The current land cover was obtained from SIOSE (Information System of Land Occupation in Spain). According to our cartography, cultivated land occupied as much as 15,491 ha (39% of the area), remaining abandoned 14,505 ha by 1978. Farming terraces occupied 55.9% of the abandoned area, and 44.1% as sloping fields. On the other hand, our cartography highlights the complexity of current land cover of abandoned fields in a landscape matrix of scrubland. Our results suggest that ecological succession is faster in farming terraces than in sloping fields, mostly until scrubland phase is attained. They also suggest that current land cover is better explained by the physical conditions of each field than by the abandonment age. Acknowledgement This research was supported

  3. Two recent but temporally distinct outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis among foreign workers in the Dead-Sea area of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, I M; Geith, E; Schönian, G; Kanani, K A

    2009-07-01

    Two temporally distinct outbreaks of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), as well as scattered cases of the disease, have recently been observed close to the Dead Sea, in Jordan. Each of the two outbreaks, which occurred in 2004/2005 and 2007/2008, involved a group of foreign workers who were deployed within otherwise uninhabited locations. During each outbreak, about 20% of the workers were found infected with the causative parasite. In the earlier outbreak, 61 workers were found to have skin lesions like those of CL and all but three were confirmed by culture and/or the examination of smears (40 cases) or, in the case of 18 (86%) of the 21 suspected cases found smear- and culture-negative, by PCR. In the second outbreak, the cases were only identified from their clinical manifestations and their response to antileishmanial treatment (cryotherapy). Leishmania major was identified as the cause of the 2004/2005 outbreak and some sporadic cases that occurred, in 2004, along the shores of the Dead Sea. The burrows of potential reservoir hosts were found close to the outbreak locations, frequently under the chenopod Seidlitzia rosmarinus. The two outbreaks emphasise the continuing problem posed by the CL focus in the Mid Jordan Valley and its impact on humans who move into the area. Curiously, an investigation on the socio-economic conditions of the workers during the outbreaks identified a group of 48 workers who were living in air-conditioned rooms during the 2007/2008 outbreak, among whom no CL cases were found. In contrast, 26 of a neighbouring group of 124 workers, who were all living in non-air-conditioned rooms, developed CL lesions. The role of air conditioning, and of other factors and measures, in the prevention of the transmission of the causative parasites of CL merits further investigation and the attention of the local health authorities.

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites.

  5. 精神分裂症患者颞上回的大麻素受体密度没有显著性变化%No changes in densities of cannabinoid receptors in the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 韩玫; 黄旭枫

    2007-01-01

    目的 近年来研究发现,在精神分裂症患者的内源性大麻素递质系统会出现异常变化,而颞上回在精神分裂症的病理生理机制中和幻听症状密切相关.因此,对照正常人群,我们研究了精神分裂症患者颞上回大麻素CB-1受体的密度变化.方法 采用定量放射自显影技术,通过[3H]SR141716A(CB-1受体选择性拮抗剂)和[3H]CP-55940(CB-1受体激动剂)检测颞上回CB-1受体密度水平.死后脑组织由澳大利亚新南威尔士州组织资源中心提供.结果 先前研究发现,精神分裂症患者与认知功能失常相关的额前叶,前、后扣带回皮质的CB-1受体密度水平有异常改变.与此相反,本研究发现在精神分裂症患者的由[3H]SR141716A和[3H]CP-55940检测的颞上回大麻素受体密度水平和对照组比较没有显著变化.结论 我们认为颞上回大麻素CB-1受体和精神分裂症患者的发病及幻听症状无关.%Objective In recent years, abnormal changes in the endocannabinoid system have been found in schizophrenia.The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly with regards to auditory hallucinations. In this study, we investigated the binding density of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the STG of schizophrenia patients compared to control subjects. Methods Quantitative autoradiography was used to investigate the binding densities of [3H]SR141716A (a selective antagonist) and [3H]CP-55940 (an agonist) to the CB1 receptors in the STG. Post-mortem brain tissue was obtained from the NSW Tissue Resource Centre (Australia). Results Contrasting to previous findings in the alterations of CB1 receptor densities in the prefrontal, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia, which were suggested to be associated to impairment of cognition function, no significant difference was found between the schizophrenia and control cases in both [3H]SR141716A and [3H]CP-55940

  6. The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to regional synoptic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, S.; Saaroni, H.; Izsak, T.; Yair, Y.; Ziv, B.

    2011-08-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning flashes over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to the regional synoptic systems has been studied, based on data obtained from the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) operated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC). The system detects cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in a range of ~500 km around central Israel (32.5° N, 35° E). The study period was defined for annual activity from August through July, for 5 seasons in the period 2004-2010. The spatial distribution of lightning flash density indicates the highest concentration over the Mediterranean Sea, attributed to the contribution of moisture as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes from the sea surface. Other centers of high density appear along the coastal plain, orographic barriers, especially in northern Israel, and downwind from the metropolitan area of Tel Aviv, Israel. The intra-annual distribution shows an absence of lightning during the summer months (JJA) due to the persistent subsidence over the region. The vast majority of lightning activity occurs during 7 months, October to April. Although over 65 % of the rainfall in Israel is obtained during the winter months (DJF), only 35 % of lightning flashes occur in these months. October is the richest month, with 40 % of total annual flashes. This is attributed both to tropical intrusions, i.e., Red Sea Troughs (RST), which are characterized by intense static instability and convection, and to Cyprus Lows (CLs) arriving from the west. Based on daily study of the spatial distribution of lightning, three patterns have been defined; "land", "maritime" and "hybrid". CLs cause high flash density over the Mediterranean Sea, whereas some of the RST days are typified by flashes over land. The pattern defined "hybrid" is a combination of the other 2 patterns. On CL days, only the maritime pattern was noted, whereas in RST days all 3 patterns were found, including the maritime pattern. It is

  7. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months.

  8. Spatial Heterogeneity of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Its Temporal Course on Arable Land: Combining Field Measurements, Remote Sensing and Simulation in a Comprehensive Data Analysis Approach (CDAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenau, Tim G; Korres, Wolfgang; Montzka, Carsten; Fiener, Peter; Wilken, Florian; Stadler, Anja; Waldhoff, Guido; Schneider, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of leaf area to ground area (leaf area index, LAI) is an important state variable in ecosystem studies since it influences fluxes of matter and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. As a basis for generating temporally continuous and spatially distributed datasets of LAI, the current study contributes an analysis of its spatial variability and spatial structure. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes of water, carbon and energy are nonlinearly related to LAI. Therefore, its spatial heterogeneity, i.e., the combination of spatial variability and structure, has an effect on simulations of these fluxes. To assess LAI spatial heterogeneity, we apply a Comprehensive Data Analysis Approach that combines data from remote sensing (5 m resolution) and simulation (150 m resolution) with field measurements and a detailed land use map. Test area is the arable land in the fertile loess plain of the Rur catchment on the Germany-Belgium-Netherlands border. LAI from remote sensing and simulation compares well with field measurements. Based on the simulation results, we describe characteristic crop-specific temporal patterns of LAI spatial variability. By means of these patterns, we explain the complex multimodal frequency distributions of LAI in the remote sensing data. In the test area, variability between agricultural fields is higher than within fields. Therefore, spatial resolutions less than the 5 m of the remote sensing scenes are sufficient to infer LAI spatial variability. Frequency distributions from the simulation agree better with the multimodal distributions from remote sensing than normal distributions do. The spatial structure of LAI in the test area is dominated by a short distance referring to field sizes. Longer distances that refer to soil and weather can only be derived from remote sensing data. Therefore, simulations alone are not sufficient to characterize LAI spatial structure. It can be concluded that a comprehensive picture of LAI spatial

  9. The Anterior Temporal Face Area Contains Invariant Representations of Face Identity That Can Persist Despite the Loss of Right FFA and OFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Susilo, Tirta; Duchaine, Bradley

    2016-03-01

    Macaque neurophysiology found image-invariant representations of face identity in a face-selective patch in anterior temporal cortex. A face-selective area in human anterior temporal lobe (fATL) has been reported, but has not been reliably identified, and its function and relationship with posterior face areas is poorly understood. Here, we used fMRI adaptation and neuropsychology to ask whether fATL contains image-invariant representations of face identity, and if so, whether these representations require normal functioning of fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA). We first used a dynamic localizer to demonstrate that 14 of 16 normal subjects exhibit a highly selective right fATL. Next, we found evidence that this area subserves image-invariant representation of identity: Right fATL showed repetition suppression to the same identity across different images, while other areas did not. Finally, to examine fATL's relationship with posterior areas, we used the same procedures with Galen, an acquired prosopagnosic who lost right FFA and OFA. Despite the absence of posterior face areas, Galen's right fATL preserved its face selectivity and showed repetition suppression comparable to that in controls. Our findings suggest that right fATL contains image-invariant face representations that can persist despite the absence of right FFA and OFA, but these representations are not sufficient for normal face recognition.

  10. From ionic-liquid@metal-organic framework composites to heteroatom-decorated large-surface area carbons: superior CO2 and H2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijaz, Arshad; Akita, Tomoki; Yang, Hui; Xu, Qiang

    2014-06-21

    For the first time, high surface area uniformly nitrogen (N)- and boron-nitrogen (BN)-decorated nanoporous carbons have been successfully fabricated by impregnation of ionic liquids (ILs) within a metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-100(Al), followed by carbonization, which exhibit remarkable CO2 and H2 adsorption capacities.

  11. Temporal variations of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in the mangrove creek area along the Karachi coast, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Naz; Naureen Aziz Qureshi; Noor Us Saher

    2014-01-01

    The temporal variations of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (1-Volumetric method by settling volume and displacement volume and 2- Gravimetric method through wet weight, dry weight and ash-free dry weight) with relation to environmental parameters were studied in the mangrove creek area of Karachi coast, Pakistan. The data of mesozooplankton samples along with environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, etc.) were collected during January 1998 to December 1998 from two creek stations. The abun-dance of mesozooplankton also exhibited seasonal trends at both stations. At Sta. S2, the highest and low-est abundance values were observed during post-monsoon and southwest monsoon respectively whereas, at Sta. S1, a clear trend of high abundance in pre-monsoon to low abundance in southwest monsoon was observed. Mesozooplankton abundance was also positively correlated with settling volume, displacement volume, wet weight and dry weight. The highest biomass value was observed in the northeast monsoon and pre-monsoon periods. The results of the canonical analysis of the output from the discriminate function was tested. Out of fifteen variables, only one was significantly different in single character ratios dry weight/ash free-dry weight (F3,23=4.78,P<0.005). The mesozooplankton community was collectively composed of 28 taxa. Among these groups, copepoda (66.3%), gastropod larvae (9.94%), evadne (4.60%), zoea (3.60%), cypris nauplii (2.56%), lemellibranch larvae (1.87%), chaetognaths (1.81%), ostracods (1.73%), lucifer (1.15%) and barnacles nauplii (1.35%) contributed the most to the similarities within Sta. S1, while copepoda (74.68%), cypris nauplii (5.29%), gastropods (4.87%), barnacles nauplii (4.81%), evadne (1.72%), zoea (1.53%) and ca-ridean larvae (1.18%) at Sta. S2. The remaining mesozooplanktonic group were accounted for less than 5% and 6% at Sta. S1 and Sta. S2 respectively, of the total organisms. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed

  12. Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR, under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 22 sites. Long-term trends will also be evaluated for the sampling sites with the longest time series. The sampling of open field bulk deposition was performed in a clearance close to the CONECOFOR permanent plots, while throughfall deposition and stemflow (in beech stand, only were sampled in the plot. Deposition samples were collected weekly and sent to the laboratories, where they were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ions, and total carbon and nitrogen. Most measured variables showed a strong geographical gradient. For example, nitrogen deposition was relatively high in the Po plain (where the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are the highest and surrounding hills, reaching 10-20 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the open field and 13-25 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the throughfall. Sulphate deposition also showed a marked geographical gradient. Deposition of marine aerosol also had an important impact on the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition in Italy, together with the episodic deposition of Saharan dust, which showed a marked gradient, with highest values in the southernmost plots. Trend analysis was carried out on 10 sites running since the beginning of the program. A general negative trend in sulphate concentration was detected, paralleled in most plots by a positive trend in deposition pH, in good agreement with the strong reduction in the emission of sulphur dioxide recorded in the last decades. Nitrogen concentration also showed a significant decrease

  13. The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to regional synoptic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shalev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal distribution of lightning flashes over Israel and the neighboring area and its relation to the regional synoptic systems has been studied, based on data obtained from the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS operated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC. The system detects cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in a range of ~500 km around central Israel (32.5° N, 35° E. The study period was defined for annual activity from August through July, for 5 seasons in the period 2004–2010.

    The spatial distribution of lightning flash density indicates the highest concentration over the Mediterranean Sea, attributed to the contribution of moisture as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes from the sea surface. Other centers of high density appear along the coastal plain, orographic barriers, especially in northern Israel, and downwind from the metropolitan area of Tel Aviv, Israel. The intra-annual distribution shows an absence of lightning during the summer months (JJA due to the persistent subsidence over the region. The vast majority of lightning activity occurs during 7 months, October to April. Although over 65 % of the rainfall in Israel is obtained during the winter months (DJF, only 35 % of lightning flashes occur in these months. October is the richest month, with 40 % of total annual flashes. This is attributed both to tropical intrusions, i.e., Red Sea Troughs (RST, which are characterized by intense static instability and convection, and to Cyprus Lows (CLs arriving from the west.

    Based on daily study of the spatial distribution of lightning, three patterns have been defined; "land", "maritime" and "hybrid". CLs cause high flash density over the Mediterranean Sea, whereas some of the RST days are typified by flashes over land. The pattern defined "hybrid" is a combination of the other 2 patterns. On CL days, only the maritime pattern was noted, whereas in RST days all 3 patterns were found

  14. Delay Discounting Rates Are Temporally Stable in an Equivalent Present Value Procedure Using Theoretical and Area under the Curve Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Justin; McKay, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Temporal discounting rates have become a popular dependent variable in social science research. While choice procedures are commonly employed to measure discounting rates, equivalent present value (EPV) procedures may be more sensitive to experimental manipulation. However, their use has been impeded by the absence of test-retest reliability data.…

  15. Nanoimprint-defined, large-area meta-surfaces for unidirectional optical transmission with superior extinction in the visible-to-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wang, Yifei; Li, Yuanrui; Song, Boxiang; Wang, Richard P; Povinelli, Michelle L; Wu, Wei

    2016-07-11

    Optical devices with asymmetric transmission have important applications in optical systems, but optical isolators with the modal asymmetry can only be built using magneto-optical or nonlinear materials, as dictated by the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. However, optical devices with the power asymmetry can be achieved by linear materials such as metals and dielectrics. In this paper, we report a large-area, nanoimprint-defined meta-surface (stacked subwavelength gratings) with high-contrast asymmetric transmittance in the visible-to-infrared wavelength range for TM-polarized light. The physical origin of asymmetric transmission through the meta-surface is studied by analyzing the scattering matrix.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Changes in the Rice Planting Area and Their Relationship to Climate Change in Northeast China:A Model-Based Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Tian; WU Wen-bin; ZHOU Qing-bo; YU Qiang-yi; Peter H Verburg; YANG Peng; LU Zhong-jun; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important grain crops in Northeast China (NEC) and its cultivation is sensitive to climate change. This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal changes in the NEC rice planting area over the period of 1980-2010 and to analyze their relationship to climate change. To do so, the CLUE-S (conversion of land use and its effects at small region extent) model was ifrst updated and used to simulate dynamic changes in the rice planting area in NEC to understand spatio-temporal change trends during three periods: 1980-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. The changing results in individual periods were then linked to climatic variables to investigate the climatic drivers of these changes. Results showed that the NEC rice planting area expanded quickly and increased by nearly 4.5 times during 1980-2010. The concentration of newly planted rice areas in NEC constantly moved northward and the changes were strongly dependent on latitude. This conifrmed that climate change, increases in temperature in particular, greatly inlfuenced the shift in the rice planting area. The shift in the north limit of the NEC rice planting area generally followed a 1°C isoline migration pattern, but with an obvious time-lag effect. These ifndings can help policy makers and crop producers take proper adaptation measures even when exposed to the global warming situation in NEC.

  17. Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J R; Frost, J A; Hammeke, T A; Bellgowan, P S; Springer, J A; Kaufman, J N; Possing, E T

    2000-05-01

    Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions, subjects performed a material-nonspecific detection response when a train of stimuli began or ceased. Dorsal areas surrounding Heschl's gyrus bilaterally, particularly the planum temporale and dorsolateral superior temporal gyrus, were more strongly activated by FM tones than by noise, suggesting a role in processing simple temporally encoded auditory information. Distinct from these dorsolateral areas, regions centered in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally were more activated by speech stimuli than by FM tones. Identical results were obtained in this region using words, pseudowords and reversed speech, suggesting that the speech-tones activation difference is due to acoustic rather than linguistic factors. In contrast, previous comparisons between word and nonword speech sounds showed left-lateralized activation differences in more ventral temporal and temporoparietal regions that are likely involved in processing lexical-semantic or syntactic information associated with words. The results indicate functional subdivision of the human lateral temporal cortex and provide a preliminary framework for understanding the cortical processing of speech sounds.

  18. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  19. Spatial distribution of tree species governs the spatio-temporal interaction of leaf area index and soil moisture across a forested landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum J Naithani

    Full Text Available Quantifying coupled spatio-temporal dynamics of phenology and hydrology and understanding underlying processes is a fundamental challenge in ecohydrology. While variation in phenology and factors influencing it have attracted the attention of ecologists for a long time, the influence of biodiversity on coupled dynamics of phenology and hydrology across a landscape is largely untested. We measured leaf area index (L and volumetric soil water content (θ on a co-located spatial grid to characterize forest phenology and hydrology across a forested catchment in central Pennsylvania during 2010. We used hierarchical Bayesian modeling to quantify spatio-temporal patterns of L and θ. Our results suggest that the spatial distribution of tree species across the landscape created unique spatio-temporal patterns of L, which created patterns of water demand reflected in variable soil moisture across space and time. We found a lag of about 11 days between increase in L and decline in θ. Vegetation and soil moisture become increasingly homogenized and coupled from leaf-onset to maturity but heterogeneous and uncoupled from leaf maturity to senescence. Our results provide insight into spatio-temporal coupling between biodiversity and soil hydrology that is useful to enhance ecohydrological modeling in humid temperate forests.

  20. Spatial distribution of tree species governs the spatio-temporal interaction of leaf area index and soil moisture across a forested landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Kusum J; Baldwin, Doug C; Gaines, Katie P; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying coupled spatio-temporal dynamics of phenology and hydrology and understanding underlying processes is a fundamental challenge in ecohydrology. While variation in phenology and factors influencing it have attracted the attention of ecologists for a long time, the influence of biodiversity on coupled dynamics of phenology and hydrology across a landscape is largely untested. We measured leaf area index (L) and volumetric soil water content (θ) on a co-located spatial grid to characterize forest phenology and hydrology across a forested catchment in central Pennsylvania during 2010. We used hierarchical Bayesian modeling to quantify spatio-temporal patterns of L and θ. Our results suggest that the spatial distribution of tree species across the landscape created unique spatio-temporal patterns of L, which created patterns of water demand reflected in variable soil moisture across space and time. We found a lag of about 11 days between increase in L and decline in θ. Vegetation and soil moisture become increasingly homogenized and coupled from leaf-onset to maturity but heterogeneous and uncoupled from leaf maturity to senescence. Our results provide insight into spatio-temporal coupling between biodiversity and soil hydrology that is useful to enhance ecohydrological modeling in humid temperate forests.

  1. Temporal and spatial variability response of groundwater level to land use/land cover change in oases of arid areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jinfeng; CHEN Xi; LUO Geping; GUO Quanjun

    2006-01-01

    This paper conducts a case study on the impacts of land use/cover change (LUCC) on the temporal and spatial variability of the groundwater level in an arid oasis in the Sangong River Watershed by using the geographical information system (GIS),remote sensing (RS) and geostatistical methods. The temporal and spatial variability of the groundwater level in the watershed in 1978, 1987 and 1998 is regressed by using thesemivariogram model and Kriging interpolation. The LUCC classification maps derived from the aerial images in 1978, Landsat TM image in 1987 and Landsat ETM image in 1998 are used to superpose and analyze the conversion relationship of LUCC types in the regions with different isograms of the groundwater depth. The results show that the change of groundwater recharge was not so significant in the whole oasis, but the temporal and spatial LUCC was significant either in the normal flow periods or in the high flow periods during the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, and there was a close correlation between them. There is generally a moderate spatial correlation of groundwater level (33.4%),and the spatial autocorrelation distance is 17.78 km.The regions where the groundwater level is sharply changed are also the regions where the land resources are increasingly exploited, which include mainly the exploitation of farmlands, woodlands, and building, industrial and mining lands. The study reveals that the LUCC affects strongly the temporal and spatial variability of the groundwater level in the arid oasis. The study results are of direct and practical significance for rationally utilizing shallow groundwater resources and maintaining the stability of the arid oasis.

  2. Temporal and spatial changes of land use and landscape in a coal mining area in Xilingol grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunzhu; Zhang, Baolin; Li, Jiannan; Zhao, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining, particularly surface mining, inevitably disturbs land. According to Landsat images acquired over Xilingol grassland in 2005, 2009 and 2015, land uses were divided into seven classes, i. e., open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial area, farmland, urban area and the original landscape (grassland), using supervised classification and human-computer interactive interpretation. The overall classification accuracies were 97.72 %, 98.43 % and 96.73 %, respectively; the Kappa coefficients were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.95, respectively. Analysis on LUCC (Land Use and Cover Change) showed that surface coal mining disturbed grassland ecosystem: grassland decreased by 8661.15 hm2 in 2005-2015. The area and proportion of mining operation areas (open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial field) increased, but those of grassland decreased continuously. Transfer matrix of land use changes showed that waste-dump had the largest impacts in mining disturbance, and that effective reclamation of waste-dump areas would mitigate eco-environment destruction, as would be of great significance to protect fragile grassland eco-system. Six landscape index showed that landscape fragmentation increased, and the influences of human activity on landscape was mainly reflected in the expansion of mining area and urban area. Remote sensing monitoring of coal surface mining in grassland would accurately demonstrate the dynamics and trend of LUCC, providing scientific supports for ecological reconstruction in surface mining area.

  3. Applying spatio-temporal models to assess variations across health care areas and regions: Lessons from the decentralized Spanish National Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Julián; Martínez-Lizaga, Natalia; Peiró, Salvador; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the ability of hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal models in capturing different geo-temporal structures in order to explain hospital risk variations using three different conditions: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), Colectomy in Colorectal Cancer (CCC) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Research design This is an observational population-based spatio-temporal study, from 2002 to 2013, with a two-level geographical structure, Autonomous Communities (AC) and Health Care Areas (HA). Setting The Spanish National Health System, a quasi-federal structure with 17 regional governments (AC) with full responsibility in planning and financing, and 203 HA providing hospital and primary care to a defined population. Methods A poisson-log normal mixed model in the Bayesian framework was fitted using the INLA efficient estimation procedure. Measures The spatio-temporal hospitalization relative risks, the evolution of their variation, and the relative contribution (fraction of variation) of each of the model components (AC, HA, year and interaction AC-year). Results Following PCI-CCC-CODP order, the three conditions show differences in the initial hospitalization rates (from 4 to 21 per 10,000 person-years) and in their trends (upward, inverted V shape, downward). Most of the risk variation is captured by phenomena occurring at the HA level (fraction variance: 51.6, 54.7 and 56.9%). At AC level, the risk of PCI hospitalization follow a heterogeneous ascending dynamic (interaction AC-year: 17.7%), whereas in COPD the AC role is more homogenous and important (37%). Conclusions In a system where the decisions loci are differentiated, the spatio-temporal modeling allows to assess the dynamic relative role of different levels of decision and their influence on health outcomes. PMID:28166233

  4. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Sobrino, C.; Iriarte, M. J.; Ramil-Rego, P.; L. Gómez-Orellana

    2005-01-01

    En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de...

  5. Intervenção em fisioterapia, baseada no conceito de Bobath, consegue influenciar a relação neural entre o membro superior e o membro inferior, na linha temporal dos APAS's?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A atividade de músculos e /ou grupos musculares que se ativam de forma estereotipada no decorrer de tarefas funcionais continua pouco compreendida nos indivíduos pós acidente vascular encefálico (AVE). A relação neural atípica entre o membro inferior (MI) e o membro superior (MS) expressa-se frequentemente através de um predomínio da atividade extensora no MI associada a componentes flexores no MS. Objectivo(s): Face ao exposto, importa perceber se em sujeitos com componente flexo...

  6. Distribution and network of basal temporal language areas: a study of the combination of electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ookawa, Satoshi; Ochi, Satoko; Ishiai, Sumio; Nagamine, Takashi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-06-21

    The basal temporal language area (BTLA) is considered to have several functions in language processing; however, its brain network is still unknown. This study investigated the distribution and networks of the BTLA using a combination of electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Ten patients with intractable focal epilepsy who underwent presurgical evaluation with subdural electrodes were enrolled in this study (language dominant side: six patients, language non-dominant side: four patients). Electric stimulation at 50 Hz was applied to the electrodes during Japanese sentence reading, morphograms (kanji) reading, and syllabograms (kana) reading tasks to identify the BTLA. DTI was used to identify the subcortical fibers originating from the BTLA found by electrical stimulation. The BTLA was found in six patients who underwent implantation of the subdural electrodes in the dominant hemisphere. The BTLA was located anywhere between 20-56 mm posterior to temporal tips. In three patients, electrical stimulation of some or all areas within the BTLA induced disturbance in reading of kanji words only. DTI detected the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in all patients and the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in one patient, originating from the BTLA. ILF was detected from both kanji-specific areas and kanji-nonspecific areas. This study indicates that the network of the BTLA is a part of a ventral stream, and is mainly composed of the ILF, which acts as a critical structure for lexical retrieval. ILF is also associated with the specific process of kanji words. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining Urban Expansion Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: a Case Study of the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area from 1975 TO 2015, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingfei; Zhao, He; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Urban expansion, particularly the movement of residential and commercial land use to sub-urban areas in metropolitan areas, has been considered as a significant signal of regional economic development. In 1970s, the economic centre of Canada moved from Montreal to Toronto. Since some previous research have been focused on the urbanization process in Greater Toronto Area (GTA), it is significant to conduct research in its counterpart. This study evaluates urban expansion process in Montréal census metropolitan area (CMA), Canada, between 1975 and 2015 using satellite images and socio-economic data. Spatial and temporal dynamic information of urbanization process was quantified using Landsat imagery, supervised classification algorithms and the post-classification change detection technique. Accuracy of the Landsat-derived land use classification map ranged from 80% to 97%. The results indicated that continuous growth of built-up areas in the CMA over the study period resulted in a decrease in the area of cultivated land and vegetation. The results showed that urban areas expanded 442 km2 both along major river systems and lakeshores, as well as expanded from urban centres to surrounded areas. The analysis revealed that urban expansion has been largely driven by population growth and economic development. Consequently, the urban expansion maps produced in this research can assist decision-makers to promote sustainable urban development, and forecast potential changes in urbanization growth patterns.

  8. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  9. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  10. Temporal and vertical variation of hydraulic head in aquifers in the Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Colleen A.; Tenbus, Fredrick J.

    1998-01-01

    Water-level data and interpretations from previous hydrogeological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, were compared to determine similarities and differences among the aquifers. Because the sediments that comprise the shallow aquifers are discontinuous, the shallow ground-water-flow systems are local rather than extensive across the Edgewood Area. Hydrogeologic cross sections, hydrographs of water levels, and vertical gradients calculated from previous studies in the Canal Creek area, Graces Quarters, the O-Field area, Carroll Island, and the J-Field area, over periods of record ranging from 1 to 10 years during 1986-97, were used to determine recharge and discharge areas, connections between aquifers, and hydrologic responses of aquifers to natural and anthropogenic stress. Each of the aquifers in the study areas exhibited variation of hydraulic head that was attributed to seasonal changes in recharge. Upward hydraulic gradients and seasonal reversals of vertical hydraulic gradients between aquifers indicate the potential for local ground-water discharge from most of the aquifers that were studied in the Edgewood Area. Hydraulic head in individual aquifers in Graces Quarters and Carroll Island responded to offsite pumping during part of the period of record. Hydraulic head in most of the confined aquifers responded to tidal loading effects from nearby estuaries.

  11. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  12. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  13. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  14. Large-Area Landslides Monitoring Using Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Technique over the Giant Panda Habitat, Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The region near Dujiangyan City and Wenchuan County, Sichuan China, including significant giant panda habitats, was severely impacted by the Wenchuan earthquake. Large-area landslides occurred and seriously threatened the lives of people and giant pandas. In this paper, we report the development of an enhanced multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MTInSAR methodology to monitor potential post-seismic landslides by analyzing coherent scatterers (CS and distributed scatterers (DS points extracted from multi-temporal l-band ALOS/PALSAR data in an integrated manner. Through the integration of phase optimization and mitigation of the orbit and topography-related phase errors, surface deformations in the study area were derived: the rates in the line of sight (LOS direction ranged from −7 to 1.5 cm/a. Dozens of potential landslides, distributed mainly along the Minjiang River, Longmenshan Fault, and in other the high-altitude areas were detected. These findings matched the distribution of previous landslides. InSAR-derived results demonstrated that some previous landslides were still active; many unstable slopes have developed, and there are significant probabilities of future massive failures. The impact of landslides on the giant panda habitat, however ranged from low to moderate, would continue to be a concern for conservationists for some time in the future.

  15. Application of spatio-temporal scan statistics for the detection of areas with increased risk for American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D.M.T. Carneiro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirroring the global increase of registered cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, this infection has become a growing public health problem in Brazil during the last several years. As the traditional approach to control employed by the governmental health agencies has failed to reduce the incidence and epidemic outbreaks of this illness, we propose a re-evaluation of the national strategy of intervention and monitoring. Our thinking is based on a series of spatio-temporal scan statistics of the west-central region of the state of Bahia covering the 11-year period from 1994 to 2004. By analyzing the situation, spatially and temporally, we show that the disease is a not only a growing focal threat but that it is also appearing in the form of endemic clusters in the cities. The areas where the disease has been found have been classified according to the degree of risk of infection for humans and canines. The overall objective of this study was to identify areas of increased risk of AVL, including its seasonality, and to suggest ways and means to improve the detection of the disease. The findings presented here should not only be of interest for the efforts to control AVL in the study area but also be useful for developing control strategies in other endemic regions of Brazil.

  16. 自体脂肪颗粒移植修复颞部凹陷%Treatment of concave temporal area by fat granule auto-transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 刘毅; 张晓萍; 马丽梅; 张兰萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical experience of fat granule injection for auto-trans-plantation in the treatment of concave temporal area. Methods The fat granule was extracted with injec-tor and injected into temporal area after washing and purging, but it might be necessany for patient to be injected extra 20 % fat autograft due to his absorptive effect. Results Satisfactory results were obtained in all patients. Transplantation was carried out one time in 139 cases, two times in 9 cases, and three times in 4 cases. 6 - 28 ml fat granule was injected in one site at each time. Conclusion Fat granule injec-tion for auto-transplantation is a safe and ideal method to treat concave temporal area.%目的 探讨自体脂肪颗粒移植充填先天性颞部凹陷畸形的临床效果.方法 采用注射器法抽取自体脂肪颗粒,经清洗后植入颞部.由于脂肪颗粒移植后有部分被吸收,一般每次超量注射2O%.结果 共充填修复颞部凹陷152例,1次充填者139例,2次充填者9例,3次充填者4例;每次每侧注射脂肪颗粒6~28 ml;疗效满意.结论 自体脂肪颗粒移植是治疗先天性颞部凹陷畸形的一种安全有效的方法.

  17. Timed Up and Go test, atrophy of medial temporal areas and cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Yujiro; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Yamada, Yosuke; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Noriko; Ouma, Shinji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Kimura, Misaka; Kiyonaga, Akira; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to ascertain if performance on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with indicators of brain volume and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Participants were 80 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89years (44 men, 36 women), including 20 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed the TUG and a battery of cognitive assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Logical Memory I and II (LM-I, LM-II) subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and the Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A, TMT-B). Bilateral, right- and left-side medial temporal area atrophy as well as whole gray and white matter indices were determined with the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease. We divided participants into three groups based on TUG performance: "better" (≤6.9s); "normal" (7-10s); and "poor" (≥10.1s). Worse TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed significant independent associations with worse TUG performance (P<0.05, P<0.01 for trend, respectively). After adjusting for covariates, severe atrophy of bilateral, right-, and left-side medial temporal areas were significantly independently associated with worse TUG performance (P<0.05 for trend). However, no significant associations were found between MMSE, LM-I, LM-II, whole gray and white matter indices, and TUG performance. Worse TUG performance is related to poor performance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and is independently associated with severe medial temporal area atrophy in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  19. Investigating the temporal fluctuations in geoelectrical and geochemical signals Jointly measured in a seismic area of Southern Apennine chain (Italy

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    S. Piscitelli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous fluid emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy. In the investigated are some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. We analysed the temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools. We detected scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded, that are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve our knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.

  20. Temporal variation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and calculation of the crop coefficient (Kc from NDVI in areas cultivated with irrigated soybean

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    Thálita Carrijo de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetation indices obtained by remote sensing products have various applications in agriculture. An important application of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is obtaining the crop coefficient (Kc. The aims of this study were to analyze NDVI temporal profiles and to obtain Kc from the NDVI vegetation index product MOD13Q1. The analysis is based on the phenological stages of irrigated soybean crops in the municipality of Planura/MG during the 2010/2011 growing season. Areas planted with irrigated soybean were identified through fieldwork. Temporal series of the MOD13Q1 products were used to analyze NDVI, allowing the extraction of NDVI values for all points in the period studied. The NDVI temporal profiles showed a similar pattern to each other and corresponded to the crop cycle. The KcNDVI values for the MOD13Q1 products were well correlated to the FAO Kc values (r2=0.72. Thus, NDVI can be used as an alternative for obtaining crop coefficient (Kc.

  1. Temporal variation in the genetic structure of a drone congregation area: an insight into the population dynamics of wild African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, R; Dietemann, V; Crewe, R M; Moritz, R F A

    2009-04-01

    The mating system of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been regarded as one of the most panmictic in the animal kingdom, with thousands of males aggregating in drone congregation areas (DCAs) that virgin queens visit to mate with tens of partners. Although males from many colonies gather at such congregations, the temporal changes in the colonies contributing drones remain unknown. Yet, changes in the DCAs' genetic structure will ultimately determine population gene flow and effective population size. By repeatedly sampling drones from an African DCA over a period of 3 years, we studied the temporal changes in the genetic structure of a wild honeybee population. Using three sets of tightly linked microsatellite markers, we were able to reconstruct individual queen genotypes with a high accuracy, follow them through time and estimate their rate of replacement. The number of queens contributing drones to the DCA varied from 12 to 72 and was correlated with temperature and rainfall. We found that more than 80% of these queens were replaced by mostly unrelated ones in successive eight months sampling intervals, which resulted in a clear temporal genetic differentiation of the DCA. Our results suggest that the frequent long-range migration of colonies without nest-site fidelity is the main driver of this high queen turnover. DCAs of African honeybees should thus be regarded as extremely dynamic systems which together with migration boost the effective population size and maintain a high genetic diversity in the population.

  2. GIS and agent based spatial-temporal simulation modeling for assessing tourism social carrying capacity: a study on Mount Emei scenic area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renjun

    2007-06-01

    Each scenic area can sustain a specific level of acceptance of tourist development and use, beyond which further development can result in socio-cultural deterioration or a decline in the quality of the experience gained by visitors. This specific level is called carrying capacity. Social carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum level of use (in terms of numbers and activities) that can be absorbed by an area without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience of visitors and without an unacceptable adverse impact on the society of the area. It is difficult to assess the carrying capacity, because the carrying capacity is determined by not only the number of visitors, but also the time, the type of the recreation, the characters of each individual and the physical environment. The objective of this study is to build a spatial-temporal simulation model to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. This model is a tourist spatial behaviors simulator (TSBS). Based on TSBS, the changes of each visitor's travel patterns such as location, cost, and other states data are recoded in a state table. By analyzing this table, the intensity of the tourist use in any area can be calculated; the changes of the quality of tourism experience can be quantized and analyzed. So based on this micro simulation method the social carrying capacity can be assessed more accurately, can be monitored proactively and managed adaptively. In this paper, the carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area is analyzed as followed: The author selected the intensity of the crowd as the monitoring Indicators. it is regarded that longer waiting time means more crowded. TSBS was used to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. the average of waiting time all the visitors is calculated. And then the author assessed the social carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area, found the key factors have impacted on social carrying capacity. The results show that the TSBS

  3. Spatial-temporal Variation Characteristics of Grain Yield per Unit Area and its Balanced Increasing Potential in China

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    Liu Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide assistance decision for grain yield in China, which can provide basis for reasonable layout of grain production project. Based on the statistical data of 2301 counties in China, using spatial autocorrelation analysis method, spatial changes of grain yield per unit area at county level in China during 1990-2010 were discussed and then the increase potential of grain yield per hectare and total yield at regional scale were calculated. The results showed that: (1 Grain yield per unit area at county level showed the evident pattern “High in the northern while low in the southern” and “High in the eastern and western while low in the middle”; The average grain yield per hectare increased by 1040.74 kg/hm2 during 1990-2010 and the increment of grain yield per unit area descended from North to South at county level. (2 Grain yield per unit area at county level in China had a strong spatial autocorrelation. The counties with "High-High" and "Low-Low" correlation were the majority. Counties with significant "High-High" correlation in 2010 were mostly located in plain area, while counties with significant "Low-Low" correlation were mainly distributed in Hengduan Mountainous Area, Inner Mongolia steppe Area, etc. (3 Two thousand three hundred and one counties were divided into 41 first-grade regions and 115 sec-grade regions according to the coupled conditions of cultivation system regionalization and LISA cluster map. The total potential output of China was 1.77×108 tons.

  4. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

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    Maria Soledad Fernandez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic. These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis. PMID:24271040

  6. Retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from inhabitants of the Minamata area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Miyamoto, Kenichiro; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the historical time-course changes and regional distribution of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from Minamata-area inhabitants born between 1947 and 1989. The data from Miyazaki, Tottori, Akita, Tsushima (Nagasaki), Fukuoka and Tokyo were used as controls. A total of 325 data were analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of methylmercury among inhabitants born in the Minamata area. Elevated methylmercury concentrations (>or=1 microg/g) were mainly observed in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968. That peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. The methylmercury concentrations started to decrease in keeping with the decline of acetaldehyde production, which ceased in 1968, and thereafter the methylmercury levels gradually decreased to the control levels. Elevated methylmercury concentrations were first observed in the districts of Minamata, followed by Izumi, Tsunagi and Ashikita, indicating the time-course-dependent regional distributions of methylmercury pollution.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of tributyltin (TBT) in seawater, sediments and bivalves from coastal areas of Korea during 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyu; Choi, Hee-Gu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Gui-Young

    2009-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) concentrations were determined in seawater, sediments and bivalve samples collected from Korean coastal areas during 2001-2005, to investigate the levels and temporal variation in TBT contamination in relation to the timing of the imposition of regulations on TBT use in Korea. TBT concentrations ranged from TBT were found at locations close to intensive shipping traffic and industrial complexes, and the contamination at some hot spot areas was high enough to cause harmful effects on marine organisms. TBT concentrations and their occurrence in Korean coastal waters have been decreasing annually. In particular, TBT concentrations in seawater have dramatically decreased. This result is consistent with regulations and bans on the use of TBT in Korea.

  8. A simple daily soil-water balance model for estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in temperate humid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dripps, W.R.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of natural groundwater recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective groundwater modeling and management. As flow models become increasingly utilized for management decisions, there is an increased need for simple, practical methods to delineate recharge zones and quantify recharge rates. Existing models for estimating recharge distributions are data intensive, require extensive parameterization, and take a significant investment of time in order to establish. The Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) has developed a simple daily soil-water balance (SWB) model that uses readily available soil, land cover, topographic, and climatic data in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater recharge at the watershed scale for temperate humid areas. To demonstrate the methodology and the applicability and performance of the model, two case studies are presented: one for the forested Trout Lake watershed of north central Wisconsin, USA and the other for the urban-agricultural Pheasant Branch Creek watershed of south central Wisconsin, USA. Overall, the SWB model performs well and presents modelers and planners with a practical tool for providing recharge estimates for modeling and water resource planning purposes in humid areas. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  9. Semi-quantitative analysis of perfusion of Brodmann areas in the differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfaglia, Cristina; Palumbo, Barbara; Siepi, Donatella; Sinzinger, Helmut; Parnetti, Lucilla

    2009-01-01

    Different perfusion defects reflect neurological damage characteristics of different kinds of dementia. Our aim was to investigate the role of brain single photon emission tomography (SPET) with semiquantitative analysis of Brodmann areas in dementia, by technetium-99m - hexamethyl-propylenamine- oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET with semiquantitative analysis of Brodmann areas in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We studied 75 patients, 25 with AD (NiNCDS ADRDA criteria), 25 with FTD (Lund and Manchester criteria), 25 with MCI (EADC criteria). After i.v. injection of 740MBq of (99m)Tc-HMPAO, each patient underwent brain SPET. A software application was used able to map the SPET brain image to a stereotaxic atlas (Talairach), providing an affine co-registration by blocks of data defined in the Talairach space. A normal database calculating voxel by voxel the mean and the standard deviation of the measured values was built. Functional SPET data of 3D regions of interest (ROI) of predefined Brodmann's area templates were compared with those of a database of healthy subjects of the same age and gender. Mean values obtained in the Brodmann area ROI in the different groups of patients studied were evaluated. Our results showed that different Brodmann areas were significantly impaired in the different categories of dementia subjects. Both areas 37 (temporal gyrus) and 39 (angular gyrus) of AD patients (mean+/-SD: 37L= -1.6+/-1.0; 37R= -1.5+/-1.1; 39L= -2.3+/-1.3; 39R= -1.9+/-1.2) showed significant hypoperfusion (Pareas 40 (supramarginal gyrus) (40L= -2.6+/-1.0; 40R= -2.3+/-1.1) with respect to MCI patients (40L= -1.8+/-0.9; 40R= -1.7+/-1.2). Finally, FTD patients showed significant hypoperfusion (Pareas 47 (frontal association cortex) (47L= -1.8+/-0.8; 47R= -1.1+/-0.8) in comparison with MCI subjects (47L= -1.2+/-0.9; 47R= -0.9+/-0.9). In conclusion, our results suggest that semiquantitative

  10. Masked immediate-repetition-priming effect on the early lexical process in the bilateral anterior temporal areas assessed by neuromagnetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Norio; Hayakawa, Tomoe; Ihara, Aya; Matani, Ayumu; Wei, Qiang; Terazono, Yasushi; Murata, Tsutomu

    2010-10-01

    A masked priming paradigm has been used to measure unconscious and automatic context effects on the processing of words. However, its spatiotemporal neural basis has not yet been clarified. To test the hypothesis that masked repetition priming causes enhancement of neural activation, we conducted a magnetoencephalography experiment in which a prime was visually presented for a short duration (50 ms), preceded by a mask pattern, and followed by a target word that was represented by a Japanese katakana syllabogram. The prime, which was identical to the target, was represented by another hiragana syllabogram in the "Repeated" condition, whereas it was a string of unreadable pseudocharacters in the "Unrepeated" condition. Subjects executed a categorical decision task on the target. Activation was significantly larger for the Repeated condition than for the Unrepeated condition at a time window of 150-250 ms in the right occipital area, 200-250 ms in the bilateral ventral occipitotemporal areas, and 200-250 ms and 200-300 ms in the left and right anterior temporal areas, respectively. These areas have been reported to be related to processing of visual-form/orthography and lexico-semantics, and the enhanced activation supports the hypothesis. However, the absence of the priming effect in the areas related to phonological processing implies that automatic phonological priming effect depends on task requirements. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated Extraction of Inundated Areas from Multi-Temporal Dual-Polarization RADARSAT-2 Images of the 2011 Central Thailand Flood

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    Pisut Nakmuenwai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a novel extraction method for SAR imagery data of widespread flooding, particularly in the Chao Phraya river basin of central Thailand, where flooding occurs almost every year. Because the 2011 flood was among the largest events and of a long duration, a large number of satellites observed it, and imagery data are available. At that time, RADARSAT-2 data were mainly used to extract the affected areas by the Thai government, whereas ThaiChote-1 imagery data were also used as optical supporting data. In this study, the same data were also employed in a somewhat different and more detailed manner. Multi-temporal dual-polarized RADARSAT-2 images were used to classify water areas using a clustering-based thresholding technique, neighboring valley-emphasis, to establish an automated extraction system. The novel technique has been proposed to improve classification speed and efficiency. This technique selects specific water references throughout the study area to estimate local threshold values and then averages them by an area weight to obtain the threshold value for the entire area. The extracted results were validated using high-resolution optical images from the GeoEye-1 and ThaiChote-1 satellites and water elevation data from gaging stations.

  12. The Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Steppe Fires in Lake Elton’s Area Based on RSD

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    Shinkarenko Stanislav Sergeevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the satellite imagery for the period of 1985-2014 in order to identify the causes of wildfires in Lake Elton’s surroundings. It was found that in the early 21st century fires have the greatest impact on the landscape, which is caused by the decrease in the number of livestock grazing and reduced steppe loads in the late 1990s. The map of the fire frequency in the researched area, and t he map of areas recovering from fires in different years were developed on the basis of remote sensing data (RSD. The investigation of Landsat space imagery found that 54 % of the territory since 2004 has been subject to a prairie fire at least once. The maximum frequency of occurrence is marked for the southern area of Buluhta-Lake where eight fires were registered for the last decad. Most fires are caused by human factors: deliberate or spontaneous arson, military trials. The factors limiting the fires are: degraded pastures, roads, landforms and the elements of the hydrological network. The resulting materials allow to effectively organize further ground survey of these areas for a complete description and assessment of revegetation and their relation to the duration of pyrogenic successions.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  14. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Conte

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  15. Temporal variability in the sources and fluxes of CO2 in a residential area in an evergreen subtropical city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of CO2 fluxes in temperate climates have shown that urban areas are a net source of CO2 and that photosynthetic CO2 uptake is generally not sufficient to offset local CO2 emissions. However, little is known about the role of vegetation in cities where biogenic CO2 uptake is not limited to a 2-8 months growing season. This study used the eddy covariance technique to quantify the atmospheric CO2 fluxes over a period of 12 months in a residential area in subtropical Auckland, New Zealand, where the vegetation cover (surface cover fraction: 47%) is dominated by evergreen vegetation. Radiocarbon isotope measurements of CO2 were conducted at three different times of the day (06:00-09:00, 12:00-15:00, 01:00-04:00) for four consecutive weekdays in summer and winter to differentiate anthropogenic sources of CO2 (fossil fuel combustion) from biogenic sources (ecosystem respiration, combustion of biofuel/biomass). The results reveal previously unreported patterns for CO2 fluxes, with no seasonal variability and negative (net uptake) CO2 midday fluxes throughout the year, demonstrating photosynthetic uptake by the evergreen vegetation all year-round. The winter radiocarbon measurements showed that 85% of the CO2 during the morning rush hour was attributed to fossil fuel emissions, when wind was from residential areas. However, for all other time periods radiocarbon measurements showed that fossil fuel combustion was not a large source of CO2, suggesting that biogenic processes likely dominate CO2 fluxes at this residential site. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of vegetation in residential areas to mitigate local CO2 emissions, particularly in cities with a climate that allows evergreen vegetation to maintain high photosynthetic rates over winter. As urban areas grow, urban planners need to consider the role of urban greenspace to mitigate urban CO2 emissions.

  16. Soil erosion in the archaeological area of Aksum, Ethiopia: a multi-site, spatio-temporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Sernicola, Luisa; Billi, Paolo; Ferrari, Giovanni; Borselli, Lorenzo; Follain, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research is to synthesize previous works on soil erosion evaluation in response to soil conservation strategies practiced in the area of Aksum (Tigray, northern Ethiopia) throughout the last three millennia. This location presents favourable conditions for the implementation of a long-term approach for assessing soil conservation techniques that have been used for centuries (i.e., since the Aksumite kingdom, 2400 y BP to 1200 y BP). These techniques have been maintained until present and parts of the terraced systems of the area are still in use. The study is based on an archaeologically based reconstruction of the ancient settlement pattern of the whole area which provided significant information on the changes occurred in land occupation, exploitation and management throughout the Aksumite civilization. In such context, the rate of soil erosion was evaluated on the basis of the analyses of the presently exposed, deep scratches (plough marks) left on the rocks in the soil by the maresha, the ard-plough pulled by oxen used in agricultural practices of the area; further considerations have been done by the means of associated patinas, varnishes and weathering rinds on the boulders exposed by soil loss. Analyses for the assessment of soil erosion have been focused on three terraced areas where evidence of occupation and ploughing could be traced back since at least the beginning of the Aksumite kingdom, and where the plough marks are still well preserved. The plough marks method indicates average rates of soil erosion of 3.1, 2.8 and 1.2 tha-1 y-1, respectively. Recent changes in land-management in one of the sites, shifting from soil conservation conditions under traditional agriculture (long-term observations) to accelerated erosion after abandonment (short-term observations) occurred during the land use reorganisation in the 70s, produced a high soil erosion of about 62.6 t ha-1 y-1. These data lead up to a new survey phase able to provide a

  17. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  18. Spatio-temporal prediction of leaf area index of rubber plantation using HJ-1A/1B CCD images and recurrent neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bangqian; Wu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jikun; Dong, Jinwei; Guan, Liming; Chen, Junming; Yang, Kai; Xie, Guishui

    2015-04-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations are one of the most important economic forest in tropical area. Retrieving leaf area index (LAI) and its dynamics by remote sensing is of great significance in ecological study and production management, such as yield prediction and post-hurricane damage evaluation. Thirteen HJ-1A/1B CCD images, which possess the spatial advantage of Landsat TM/ETM+ and 2-days temporal resolution of MODIS, were introduced to predict the spatial-temporal LAI of rubber plantation on Hainan Island by Nonlinear AutoRegressive networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) model. Monthly measured LAIs at 30 stands by LAI-2000 between 2012 and 2013 were used to explore the LAI dynamics and their relationship with spectral bands and seven vegetation indices, and to develop and validate model. The NARX model, which was built base on input variables of day of year (DOY), four spectral bands and weight difference vegetation index (WDVI), possessed good accuracies during the model building for the data set of training (N = 202, R2 = 0.98, RMSE = 0.13), validation (N = 43, R2 = 0.93, RMSE = 0.24) and testing (N = 43, R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 0.31), respectively. The model performed well during field validation (N = 24, R2 = 0.88, RMSE = 0.24) and most of its mapping results showed better agreement (R2 = 0.54-0.58, RMSE = 0.47-0.71) with the field data than the results of corresponding stepwise regression models (R2 = 0.43-0.51, RMSE = 0.52-0.82). Besides, the LAI statistical values from the spatio-temporal LAI maps and their dynamics, which increased dramatically from late March (2.36 ± 0.59) to early May (3.22 ± 0.64) and then gradually slow down until reached the maximum value in early October (4.21 ± 0.87), were quite consistent with the statistical results of the field data. The study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of retrieving spatio-temporal LAI of rubber plantations by an artificial neural network (ANN) approach, and provides some insight on the

  19. Cambio climático y dinámica temporal del paisaje y de los hábitats en las ecorregiones del NW de la Península Ibérica durante el Pleistoceno superior

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    C. Muñoz Sobrino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 60 años los modelos propuestos para la interpretación de las condiciones ambientales a lo largo del Pleistoceno Superior Final han sufrido numerosos cambios determinados tanto por la adopción de nuevos conceptos científicos, como por la mejora de los métodos analíticos y sobre todo por un mayor número de registros disponibles. Del uniformismo ambiental y biogeográfico imperante a finales de la década de los ochenta, se ha pasado a incrementar el valor que las configuraciones de carácter local y regional, que afectan tanto al clima como a la composición y distribución de los ecosistemas terrestres ; y por tanto a los recursos naturales renovables que el hombre pudo haber aprovechado en cada momento. A su vez, las configuraciones locales y regionales se intregran en los modelos climáticos globales, elaborados a patir del estudio de isótopos y elementos traza obtenidos en depósitos con gran amplitud cronológica y un ritmo de deposición conocido. La integracion de la información paleoambiental a diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales obliga a rechazar, o en su caso limitar, la información paleoambiental que muestre un elevado grado de incertidumbre en relación al origen geográfico de sus componentes, o bien derivado de una tafocenosis heterogénea, o vinculado con una deposición intermitente o con mezclas de los distintos niveles.

  20. Temporal dynamics and spatial variability in the enhancement of canopy leaf area under elevated atmospheric CO2

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    Heather R. McCarthy; Ram Oren; Adrien C. Finzi; David S. Ellsworth; Hyun-Seok Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Bonnie Millar

    2007-01-01

    Increased canopy leaf area (L) may lead to higher forest productivity and alter processes such as species dynamics and ecosystem mass and energy fluxes. Few CO2enrichment studies have been conducted in closed canopy forests and none have shown a sustained enhancement of L. We reconstructed 8 years (1996–2003) of L at Duke’s Free Air CO...

  1. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

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    Mattia Manica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy, which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are

  2. Spatial‑temporal variability of water balance components in the North area of the Zailiisky Alatau Range

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    V. G. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of changes in WB components (precipitation, evaporation, glacier runoff, dynamical water resources on the Northern slope of the Zailiisky Alatau was performed for the 1946–2005 time divided into two periods: 1946–1975 and 1976–2005. The territory under investigation included basins of the following rivers: Bolshaya Almatinka, Malaya Almatinka, Talgar, Turgen, Issyk, Chemolgan, Kaskelen, Kargalinka, Prohodnaya, and Uzunkargaly. Their total area down to the closing gauge points amounts to 2644 km2. Summarized glacier areas in these basins and annual runoff were equal, respectively, to: 306.6 km2 and 39.05 km3in 1946–1975, and 253.0 km2 and 38.35 km3 in 1975–2005. In 1946–2005, typical features of regional glaciation dynamics were increasing area of the moraine cover on glaciers and reducing area of bare ice that results in decreasing of the glacial runoff volume, all other factors being the same. The method to calculate the WB components consists of the following constituents: model of seasonal runoff from melted snow and ice in the areas of accumulation and ablation of glaciers; complex of formulas to calculate precipitation, air temperature and humidity, intensity of ice melting under the moraine, bare ice and evaporation within the height intervals corresponding to the main types of surfaces on the glaciers. On the basis of our method, we could reconstruct for the 1876–2015 period long‑term series of data on a runoff, separately annual values and sums for the vegetation periods. They can be used for regional scientific and applied analyses of the river stream discharges. The data on runoff in the Malaya Almatinka River basin and observational data on the meteorological station Almaty (Hydrometeorological Observatory had been quantitatively substantiated as the representative information for modeling and calculation of water resources on the Northern slope of the Zailiisky Alatau Range.

  3. Monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas using temporal profiles of spectral signal from time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images

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    Georgopoulou, Danai; Koutsias, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus to be helpful for monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas. The aim of this study is to explore the vegetation recovery pattern of the catastrophic wildfires that occurred in Peloponnisos, southern Greece, in 2007. These fires caused the loss of 67 lives and were recognized as the most extreme natural disaster in the country's recent history. Satellite remote sensing data from MODIS and LANDSAT satellites in the period from 2000 to 2014 were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal for selected areas within the fire-affected areas. This dataset and time period analyzed together with the time that these fires occurred gave the opportunity to create temporal profiles seven years before and seven years after the fire. The different scale of the data used gave us the chance to understand how vegetation phenology and therefore the recovery patterns are influenced by the spatial resolution of the satellite data used. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been created and used to assess vegetation recovery in the fire-affected areas. Our analysis was focused in the main land cover types that were mostly affected by the 2007 wildland fires. Based on CORINE land-cover maps these were agricultural lands highly interspersed with large areas of natural vegetation followed by sclerophyllous vegetation, transitional woodland shrubs, complex cultivation patterns and olive groves. Apart of the use of the original spectral data we estimated and used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. In this study we

  4. Relationship between size summation properties, contrast sensitivity and response latency in the dorsomedial and middle temporal areas of the primate extrastriate cortex.

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    Leo L Lui

    Full Text Available Analysis of the physiological properties of single neurons in visual cortex has demonstrated that both the extent of their receptive fields and the latency of their responses depend on stimulus contrast. Here, we explore the question of whether there are also systematic relationships between these response properties across different cells in a neuronal population. Single unit recordings were obtained from the middle temporal (MT and dorsomedial (DM extrastriate areas of anaesthetized marmoset monkeys. For each cell, spatial integration properties (length and width summation, as well as the presence of end- and side-inhibition within 15° of the receptive field centre were determined using gratings of optimal direction of motion and spatial and temporal frequencies, at 60% contrast. Following this, contrast sensitivity was assessed using gratings of near-optimal length and width. In both areas, we found a relationship between spatial integration and contrast sensitivity properties: cells that summated over smaller areas of the visual field, and cells that displayed response inhibition at larger stimulus sizes, tended to show higher contrast sensitivity. In a sample of MT neurons, we found that cells showing longer latency responses also tended to summate over larger expanses of visual space in comparison with neurons that had shorter latencies. In addition, longer-latency neurons also tended to show less obvious surround inhibition. Interestingly, all of these effects were stronger and more consistent with respect to the selectivity for stimulus width and strength of side-inhibition than for length selectivity and end-inhibition. The results are partially consistent with a hierarchical model whereby more extensive receptive fields require convergence of information from larger pools of "feedforward" afferent neurons to reach near-optimal responses. They also suggest that a common gain normalization mechanism within MT and DM is involved, the

  5. Plasticity of neonatal neuronal networks in very premature infants: Source localization of temporal theta activity, the first endogenous neural biomarker, in temporoparietal areas.

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    Routier, L; Mahmoudzadeh, M; Panzani, M; Azizollahi, H; Goudjil, S; Kongolo, G; Wallois, F

    2017-01-23

    Temporal theta slow-wave activity (TTA-SW) in premature infants is a specific signature of the early development of temporal networks, as it is observed at the turning point between non-sensory driven spontaneous local processing and cortical network functioning. The role in development and the precise location of TTA-SW remain unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that preterms from 28 weeks of gestational age (wGA) are able to discriminate phonemes and voice, supporting the idea of a prior genetic structural or activity-dependent fingerprint that would prepare the auditory network to compute auditory information at the onset of thalamocortical connectivity. They recorded TTA-SW in 26-32 wGA preterms. The rate of TTA-SW in response to click stimuli was evaluated using low-density EEG in 30 preterms. The sources of TTA-SW were localized by high-density EEG using different tissues conductivities, head models and mathematical models. They observed that TTA-SW is not sensory driven. Regardless of age, conductivities, head models and mathematical models, sources of TTA-SW were located adjacent to auditory and temporal junction areas. These sources become situated closer to the surface during development. TTA-SW corresponds to spontaneous transient endogenous activities independent of sensory information at this period which might participate in the implementation of auditory, language, memory, attention and or social cognition convergent and does not simply represent a general interaction between the subplate and the cortical plate. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of reference evapotranspiration trends in Karst area: a case study in Guizhou Province, China

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    Gao, Xiaoli; Peng, Shizhang; Wang, Weiguang; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2016-10-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the essential part of hydrological cycle and crop irrigation system (watering system framework). To reveal the change pattern of annual and seasonal ET0 and its corresponding dominated factors aspects of karst regions in China, daily meteorological data of 19 meteorological stations during 1959-2011 in Guizhou Province were collected. ET0 trends in seasonal and annual time series were detected by nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The results indicated (demonstrated) that the annual ET0 for the entire Guizhou Province performed a decreasing trend by 0.4476 mm/year. The seasonal ET0 in spring and summer performed the an alike decreasing trend, while it presented an increasing trend in autumn and winter. According to the rotated empirical orthogonal function clustering method, Guizhou Province was divided into four parts. Annual ET0 performed (executed) the ascendant trend in western area, while the descendent trend occurred in middle, northwestern, and southwestern areas. The sensitivity and the attribution analysis indicated (specified) that the relative humidity was identified as the most sensitive variable to the annual ET0 and sunshine duration as the essential main thrusts for the declined annual ET0 in Guizhou Province. In addition, the more severe of karst landform development, the more obvious decreasing trend in ET0.

  7. Rice Fields Mapping in Fragmented Area Using Multi-Temporal HJ-1A/B CCD Images

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    Jing Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important crops in the world; meanwhile, the rice field is also an important contributor to greenhouse gas methane emission. Therefore, it is important to get an accurate estimation of rice acreage for both food production and climate change related studies. The eastern plain region is one of the major single-cropped rice (SCR growing areas in China. Subjected to the topography and intensified human activities, the rice fields are generally fragmented and irregular. How remote sensing can meet this challenge to accurately estimate the acreage of the rice in this region using medium-resolution imagery is the topic of this study. In this study, the applicability of the Chinese HJ-1A/B satellites and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2 was investigated. Field campaigns were carried out during the rice growing season and ground-truth data were collected for classification accuracy assessments in 2012. A stepwise classification strategy utilizing the EVI2 signatures during key phenology stages, i.e., the transplanting and the vegetative to reproductive transition phases, of the SCR was proposed, and the overall classification accuracy was 91.7%. The influence of the mixed pixel and boundary effects to classification accuracy was also investigated. This work demonstrates that the Chinese HJ-1A/B data are suitable data source to estimating SCR cropping area under complex land cover composition.

  8. Spatial and temporal gene expression differences in core and periinfarct areas in experimental stroke: a microarray analysis.

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    Jaime Ramos-Cejudo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of genes are regulated to promote brain repair following stroke. The thorough analysis of this process can help identify new markers and develop therapeutic strategies. This study analyzes gene expression following experimental stroke. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A microarray study of gene expression in the core, periinfarct and contralateral cortex was performed in adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60 after 24 hours (acute phase or 3 days (delayed stage of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion. Independent qRT-PCR validation (n = 12 was performed for 22 of the genes. Functional data were evaluated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The number of genes differentially expressed was 2,612 (24 h and 5,717 (3 d in the core; and 3,505 (24 h and 1,686 (3 d in the periinfarct area (logFC>|1|; adjP<0.05. Expression of many neurovascular unit development genes was altered at 24 h and 3 d including HES2, OLIG2, LINGO1 and NOGO-A; chemokines like CXCL1 and CXCL12, stress-response genes like HIF-1A, and trophic factors like BDNF or BMP4. Nearly half of the detected genes (43% had not been associated with stroke previously. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive study of gene regulation in the core and periinfarct areas at different times following permanent MCA occlusion provides new data that can be helpful in translational research.

  9. Perfiles docentes para el espacio europeo de educación superior (EEES en el ámbito universitario español. [Profiles of University Professors in Spain for the European Higher Education Area (EHEA].

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    Rodríguez-Gómez, Gregorio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study of professors’ profiles for the European Higher Education Area (EHEA conducted in five spanish universities. Through the application of qualitative methods of inquiry, the perceptions of several groups of university professors over the principal teaching qualifications necessary for the coordination of higher education throughout the European Union have been obtained. Data analysis indicates a significant discrepancy between actual Spanish professors and those required by EHEA. It has also made possible the detailed description of teaching competency profiles that professors believe to be fundamental for the new functions demanded of them in the present changing social and educational situation. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación llevada a cabo en cinco universidades españolas sobre los perfiles docentes que demanda el EEES. Utilizando procedimientos de corte cualitativo se han obtenido en dos momentos consecutivos las percepciones de grupos de profesores sobre las principales competencias docentes necesarias para la armonización de la educación superior en la UE. El análisis de los datos indica, por una parte, la discrepancia entre los tipos de profesores actualmente existentes y los percibidos como necesarios; por otra, ha posibilitado la descripción pormenorizada de los perfiles de competencias docentes que el profesorado percibe como fundamentales para el ejercicio de las nuevas funciones que se le demandan en estos momentos.

  10. Spatio-temporal earthquake risk assessment for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area - A contribution to improving standard methods of population exposure and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sérgio; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The recent 7.0 M earthquake that caused severe damage and destruction in parts of Haiti struck close to 5 PM (local time), at a moment when many people were not in their residences, instead being in their workplaces, schools, or churches. Community vulnerability assessment to seismic hazard relying solely on the location and density of resident-based census population, as is commonly the case, would grossly misrepresent the real situation. In particular in the context of global (climate) change, risk analysis is a research field increasingly gaining in importance whereas risk is usually defined as a function of hazard probability and vulnerability. Assessment and mapping of human vulnerability has however generally been lagging behind hazard analysis efforts. Central to the concept of vulnerability is the issue of human exposure. Analysis of exposure is often spatially tied to administrative units or reference objects such as buildings, spanning scales from the regional level to local studies for small areas. Due to human activities and mobility, the spatial distribution of population is time-dependent, especially in metropolitan areas. Accurately estimating population exposure is a key component of catastrophe loss modeling, one element of effective risk analysis and emergency management. Therefore, accounting for the spatio-temporal dynamics of human vulnerability correlates with recent recommendations to improve vulnerability analyses. Earthquakes are the prototype for a major disaster, being low-probability, rapid-onset, high-consequence events. Lisbon, Portugal, is subject to a high risk of earthquake, which can strike at any day and time, as confirmed by modern history (e.g. December 2009). The recently-approved Special Emergency and Civil Protection Plan (PEERS) is based on a Seismic Intensity map, and only contemplates resident population from the census as proxy for human exposure. In the present work we map and analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of

  11. Spatial-temporal variation of parasites in Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae) and Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Tropiduridae) from Caatinga areas in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Samuel V; Ferreira, Felipe S; Ribeiro, Samuel C; Anjos, Luciano A; Almeida, Waltécio O; Mesquita, Daniel O; Vasconcellos, Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    Parasites are natural regulators of their host populations. Despite this, little is known about variations in parasite composition (spatially or temporally) in environments subjected to water-related periodic stress such as the arid and semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial-temporal variation in endoparasite species' abundance and richness in populations of Neotropical Cnemidophorus ocellifer, Tropidurus hispidus, and Tropidurus semitaeniatus lizards in the semiarid northeast of Brazil. The location influenced the abundance of parasites in all analyzed lizard species, while season (dry and rainy) only influenced the total abundance for T. hispidus. In all seasons, males significantly showed more endoparasites than females in all lizard species, although for T. hispidus, this difference was only found in the dry season. Seasonal variations affect the abundance patterns of parasites. Likely, variables include environmental variations such as humidity and temperature, which influence the development of endoparasite eggs when outside of the host. Further, the activity of the intermediate hosts and the parasites of heteroxenous life cycles could be affected by an environmental condition. The variation in the abundance of parasites between the sampling areas could be a reflection of variations in climate and physiochemical conditions. Also, it could be due to differences in the quality of the environment in which each host population lives.

  12. The spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents during the period 2000-2005 in the Urban Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hermes U Ramírez; García, María D Andrade; Bejaran, Rubén; Guadalupe, Mario E García; Vázquez, Antonio Wallo; Toledano, Ana C Pompa; Villasenor, Odila de la Torre

    2009-06-15

    In the large cities, the disordered urban development, the industrial activities, and the transport, have caused elevated concentrations of polluting agents and possible risks to the health of the population. The metropolises located in valleys with little ventilation (such as the Urban Area of Guadalajara: UAG) present low dispersion of polluting agents can cause high risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particles smaller than 10 microns (microm) (PM(10)) and ozone (O(3)) in the UAG during the period 2000-2005. A spatial-temporal distribution analysis was made by means of graphic interpolation (Kriging method) of the statistical parameters of CO, NO(2), SO(2), PM(10) and O(3) with the collected data from eight stations of atmospheric monitoring in the UAG. The results show that the distributions of the atmospheric polluting agents are variable during the analyzed years. The polluting agent with highest concentration is PM(10) (265.42 microg/m(3)), followed by O(3) (0.11 ppm), NO(2) (0.11 ppm), CO (9.17 ppm) and SO(2) (0.05 ppm). The most affected zone is the southeast of the UAG. The results showed that an important percentage of days exceed the Mexican norms of air quality (93-199 days/year).

  13. Estimating regional wheat yield from the shape of decreasing curves of green area index temporal profiles retrieved from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Louis; Duveiller, Grégory; Djaby, Bakary; El Jarroudi, Moussa; Defourny, Pierre; Tychon, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Earth observation data, owing to their synoptic, timely and repetitive coverage, have been recognized as a valuable tool for crop monitoring at different levels. At the field level, the close correlation between green leaf area (GLA) during maturation and grain yield in wheat revealed that the onset and rate of senescence appeared to be important factors for determining wheat grain yield. Our study sought to explore a simple approach for wheat yield forecasting at the regional level, based on metrics derived from the senescence phase of the green area index (GAI) retrieved from remote sensing data. This study took advantage of recent methodological improvements in which imagery with high revisit frequency but coarse spatial resolution can be exploited to derive crop-specific GAI time series by selecting pixels whose ground-projected instantaneous field of view is dominated by the target crop: winter wheat. A logistic function was used to characterize the GAI senescence phase and derive the metrics of this phase. Four regression-based models involving these metrics (i.e., the maximum GAI value, the senescence rate and the thermal time taken to reach 50% of the green surface in the senescent phase) were related to official wheat yield data. The performances of such models at this regional scale showed that final yield could be estimated with an RMSE of 0.57 ton ha-1, representing about 7% as relative RMSE. Such an approach may be considered as a first yield estimate that could be performed in order to provide better integrated yield assessments in operational systems.

  14. Source apportionment and spatial-temporal variations in the metal content of surface dust collected from an industrial area adjoining Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Aditya Kumar; Yadav, Sudesh; Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-15

    Surface dust collected during three different seasons from Faridabad industrial area adjoining Delhi is studied for different metals, their spatial and temporal variations, and sources. Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ca and Mg show limited variations and lower abundances compared to Upper Continental Crust (UCC); Fe shows enrichment and seasonal changes. Cd, V, Co, Ba, Ti, Ni, Cu, Cr and Zn show significant spatial and temporal variations, and enrichments compared to UCC indicate their anthropogenic sources. Seasonal variability could be due to: 1) different types of industries, 2) variations in the emissions, 3) very frequent shifting of small scale industry within the region, and 4) changes in the land use pattern. The sampling sites, according to the geo-accumulation index, are: 1) least polluted for Ca, Mg, Al and Ti except for Ti in winter, 2) least to moderately polluted for Ba, Co and V but season specific, and 3) moderately to extremely polluted for other metals. Average pollution load index of 2.67-2.87 indicates consistently high level of pollution at all sites in all sampling seasons. The sites located in the residential areas near small to medium scale unorganized industry are more polluted compared to sites near large industries suggesting that the small scale unorganized industries causes more pollution. Three dominant sources of metals were identified: 1) mixed industrial, 2) crustal, and 3) vehicular, oil and battery related burnings. The third component related to Ba, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr, further splits into two components in the pre-monsoon and winter samples. Surface dust, enriched in metals, is likely to cause serious danger to public health. There is an urgent need to make a shift from unorganized to formally organized industry to reduce the metal pollution and protect human health and environment as a whole.

  15. Temporal patterns of domestic and wildlife rabies in central Namibia stock-ranching area, 1986-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, F; Carpenter, T E; Paskin, R D; Chomel, B B

    2000-01-05

    Eleven years (1986-1996) of wildlife- and domestic-rabies data from the agriculture stock-ranching area of central Namibia were studied using time-series analysis. Nine hundred and sixty three rabies cases were observed in domestic ruminants (5.4 cases/mo), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas, 1.3 cases/mo), domestic dogs (0.5 case/mo), and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis, 0.1 case/mo). The incidence of rabies for all species did not change significantly over the whole study period. However, seasonal variations with an increase in the number of cases between June and November of each year, as well as 34 yr cyclical fluctuations were identified in domestic ruminants and black-backed jackals. The black-backed jackal time-series variable was a significant predictor of the domestic-ruminant and dog time-series variables. The rainfall seasonality combined with the seasonal reproductive pattern of the black-backed jackal appeared to be plausible explanations for the seasonal variations of rabies. However, there was no overall significant correlation between the cyclical weather fluctuations and the 3-4 yr cyclical rabies variations.

  16. Bisphenol analogues in sediments from industrialized areas in the United States, Japan, and Korea: spatial and temporal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Fang; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yun, Sehun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-11-06

    Bisphenol analogues are used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Despite the widespread use of bisphenols, few studies have reported the occurrence of compounds other than bisphenol A (BPA) in sediment. In this study, concentrations and profiles of eight bisphenol analogues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in sediments collected from several industrialized areas in the United States (U.S.), Japan, and Korea. The total concentrations of bisphenols (ΣBPs; sum of eight bisphenols) in sediment ranged from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 25,300 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 201 ng/g dw. Sediment samples from Lake Shihwa, Korea, contained the highest concentrations of both individual and total bisphenols. Among individual bisphenols, BPA and bisphenol F (BPF) were the predominant compounds, accounting for 64% and 30% of the total bisphenol concentrations in sediment. We also examined vertical profiles of concentrations of bisphenol analogues in sediment cores from the U.S. and Japan. Sediment cores from the U.S. showed a gradual decline in the concentrations of bisphenols as compared to the past decade. BPA concentrations were found to decline in a sediment core from Tokyo Bay, but bisphenol S (BPS) was more frequently detected in core sections that represent the most recent decade, which is consistent with the replacement of BPA with BPS in some applications since 2001 in Japan.

  17. MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND USE ANALYSIS OF AN EPHEMERAL RIVER AREA USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH ON LANDSAT IMAGERY

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    M. Aquilino

    2014-01-01

    The historical archive of LANDSAT imagery dating back to the launch of ERTS in 1972 provides a comprehensive and permanent data source for tracking change on the planet‟s land surface. In this study case the imagery acquisition dates of 1987, 2002 and 2011 were selected to cover a time trend of 24 years. Land cover categories were based on classes outlined by the Curve Number method with the aim of characterizing land use according to the level of surface imperviousness. After comparing two land use classification methods, i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN approach was found the best reliable and efficient method in the absence of ground reference data. The ANN approach has a distinct advantage over statistical classification methods in that it is non-parametric and requires little or no a priori knowledge on the distribution model of input data. The results quantify land cover change patterns in the river basin area under study and demonstrate the potential of multitemporal LANDSAT data to provide an accurate and cost-effective means to map and analyse land cover changes over time that can be used as input in land management and policy decision-making.

  18. Spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a century-old nonferrous metal mining and smelting area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xing; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Zhaohui

    2014-12-01

    This study first presents the spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a nonferrous metal mine area in China. Unconfined groundwater was polluted by Pb, Zn, As, and Cu, in order, while confined karst water in the mines showed pollution in the following sequence: Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, and As. Pollution by Pb was widespread, while Zn, As, Cu, and Cd were found to be high in the north-central industrial region and to decrease gradually with distance from smelters and tailings. Vertically, more Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have accumulated in shallow Quaternary groundwater, while more As have migrated into the deeper fracture groundwater in the local discharge area. Zn, Cd, and Cu concentrations in groundwater along the riverside diminished owing to reduced wastewater drainage since 1977, while samples in the confluence area were found to have increasing contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cu, and Cd since industrialization began in the 1990s. Sources of heavy metals in groundwater were of anthropogenic origin except for Cr. Pb originated primarily from airborne volatile particulates, wastewater, and waste residues and deposited continuously, while Zn, Cd, and Cu were derived from the wastewater of smelters and leakage of tailings, which corresponded to the related soil and surface residue researches. Elevated As values around factories might be the result of chemical reactions. Flow patterns in different hydrogeological units and adsorption capability of from Quaternary sediments restricted their cross-border diffusion.

  19. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN RESERVED DESERTIFICATION AREA--A Case Study in Yulin City, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shu-lan; OUYANG Hua; NIU Hai-shan; WANG Lin; ZHANG Feng; GAO Jun-qin; TIAN Yu-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) was considered to be a key index in evaluation of soil degradation and soil C sequestration.To discuss the spatial-temporal dynamics of SOC in arable layer in reversed desertification area,a case study was conducted in Yulin City,Shaanxi Province,China.Data of SOC were based on general soil survey in 1982 and repeated soil sampling in 2003.Soil organic carbon content (SOCC) was determined by K2Cr3O7-FeSO4titration method,and soil organic carbon density (SOCD) was calculated by arithmetic average and area weighted average method,respectively.On average,SOCC and SOCD of the arable layer in the study area from 1982 to 2003had increased 0.5 lg/kg and 0.16kg/m2,respectively.Considering main soil types,the widest distributed Arid-Sandic Entisols had lowest values and increments of SOCC and SOCD during the study period;while the second widest Los-Orthic Entisols had higher values and increments of SOCC and SOCD,compared to the mean values of the whole region.The results indicated that reversed desertification process was due to the modification of land use and management practices,such as natural vegetation recovery,planting grass,turning arable land to grassland,and soil and water conservation etc.,which can improve SOCC and SOCD and thus enhance soil C sequestration.

  20. Assessment of temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after a nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, A Ra; Kim, Min Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Chan; Seol, Jeung Gun [Radiation Safety Team, Korea Electric Power Corporation Nuclear Fuel, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    It has been about 5 years since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, which contaminated large area with radioactive materials. It is necessary to assess radiation dose to establish evacuation areas and to set decontamination goal for the large contaminated area. In this study, we assessed temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The dose assessment was performed based on Chernobyl model and RESRAD model for two evacuation lift areas, Kawauchi and Naraha. It was reported that deposition densities in the areas were 4.3-96 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 134}Cs, 1.4-300 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. Radiation dose to the residents depended on radioactive cesium concentrations in the soil, ranging 0.11-2.4 mSv y{sup -1} at Kawauchi area and 0.69-1.1 mSv y{sup -1} at Naraha area in July 2014. The difference was less than 5% in radiation doses estimated by two different models. Radiation dose decreased with calendar time and the decreasing slope varied depending on dose assessment models. Based on the Chernobyl dosimetry model, radiation doses decreased with calendar time to about 65% level of the radiation dose in 2014 after 1 year, 11% level after 10 years, and 5.6% level after 30 years. RESRAD dosimetry model more slowly decreased radiation dose with time to about 85% level after 1 year, 40% level after 10 years, and 15% level after 30 years. The decrease of radiation dose can be mainly attributed into radioactive decays and environmental transport of the radioactive cesium. Only environmental transports of radioactive cesium without consideration of radioactive decays decreased radiation dose additionally 43% after 1 year, 72% after 3 years, 80% after 10 years, and 83% after 30 years. Radiation doses estimated with cesium concentration in the soil based on Chernobyl dosimetry model were compared with directly measured radiation doses

  1. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  2. Temporal variation in the deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds in snow in the Athabasca Oil Sands area of Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Carlos A; Muir, Derek; Kirk, Jane; Teixeira, Camilla; Siu, May; Wang, Xiaowa; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Schindler, David; Kelly, Erin

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) via and onto snow, and their releasing during spring snowmelt has been a concern in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta. This study was designed to evaluate the concentrations, loadings, and distribution of PACs in springtime snowpack and how they have changed since the first study in 2008. Snowpack samples were collected in late winters 2011-2014 at varying distances from the main developments. PAC concentration and deposition declined exponentially with distance, with pyrenes, chrysenes, and dibenzothiophenes dominating the distribution within the first 50 km. The distribution of PACs was different between sites located close to upgraders and others located close to mining facilities. Overall, PAC loadings were correlated with priority pollutant elements and water chemistry parameters, while wind direction and speed were not strong contributors to the variability observed. Total PAC mass deposition during winter months and within the first 50 km was initially estimated by integrating the exponential decay function fitted through the data using a limited number of sites from 2011 to 2014: 1236 kg (2011), 1800 kg (2012), 814 kg (2013), and 1367 (2014). Total loadings were estimated to have a twofold increase between 2008 and 2014, although the increase observed was not constant. Finally, kriging interpolation is presented as an alternative and more robust approach to estimate PAC mass deposition in the area. After a more intensive sampling campaign in 2014, the PAC mass deposition was estimated to be 1968 kg.

  3. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  4. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Futuristic Emission Scenario of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide over an Urban Area of Eastern India Using GIS and Coupled AERMOD–WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sharadia; Gupta, Srimanta; Sibanda, Precious; Chakraborty, Arun

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during June 2013 to May 2015 and its futuristic emission scenario over an urban area (Durgapur) of eastern India. The concentration of ambient NO2 shows seasonal as well as site specific characteristics. The site with high vehicular density (Muchipara) shows highest NO2 concentration followed by industrial site (DVC- DTPS Colony) and the residential site (B Zone), respectively. The seasonal variation of ambient NO2 over the study area is portrayed by means of Geographical Information System based Digital Elevation Model. Out of the total urban area under consideration (114.982 km2), the concentration of NO2 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) permissible limit over an area of 5.000 km2, 0.786 km2 and 0.653 km2 in post monsoon, winter and pre monsoon, respectively. Wind rose diagrams, correlation and regression analyses show that meteorology plays a crucial role in dilution and dispersion of NO2 near the earth’s surface. Principal component analysis identifies vehicular source as the major source of NO2 in all the seasons over the urban region. Coupled AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD)–Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for predicting the concentration of NO2. Comparison of the observed and simulated data shows that the model overestimates the concentration of NO2 in all the seasons (except winter). The results show that coupled AERMOD–WRF model can overcome the unavailability of hourly surface as well as upper air meteorological data required for predicting the pollutant concentration, but improvement of emission inventory along with better understanding of the sinks and sources of ambient NO2 is essential for capturing the more realistic scenario. PMID:28141866

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Futuristic Emission Scenario of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide over an Urban Area of Eastern India Using GIS and Coupled AERMOD-WRF Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sharadia; Gupta, Srimanta; Sibanda, Precious; Chakraborty, Arun

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during June 2013 to May 2015 and its futuristic emission scenario over an urban area (Durgapur) of eastern India. The concentration of ambient NO2 shows seasonal as well as site specific characteristics. The site with high vehicular density (Muchipara) shows highest NO2 concentration followed by industrial site (DVC- DTPS Colony) and the residential site (B Zone), respectively. The seasonal variation of ambient NO2 over the study area is portrayed by means of Geographical Information System based Digital Elevation Model. Out of the total urban area under consideration (114.982 km2), the concentration of NO2 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) permissible limit over an area of 5.000 km2, 0.786 km2 and 0.653 km2 in post monsoon, winter and pre monsoon, respectively. Wind rose diagrams, correlation and regression analyses show that meteorology plays a crucial role in dilution and dispersion of NO2 near the earth's surface. Principal component analysis identifies vehicular source as the major source of NO2 in all the seasons over the urban region. Coupled AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD)-Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for predicting the concentration of NO2. Comparison of the observed and simulated data shows that the model overestimates the concentration of NO2 in all the seasons (except winter). The results show that coupled AERMOD-WRF model can overcome the unavailability of hourly surface as well as upper air meteorological data required for predicting the pollutant concentration, but improvement of emission inventory along with better understanding of the sinks and sources of ambient NO2 is essential for capturing the more realistic scenario.

  6. Multi-Temporal Land-Cover Classification of Agricultural Areas in Two European Regions with High Resolution Spotlight TerraSAR-X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Herrmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Functioning ecosystems offer multiple services for human well-being (e.g., food, freshwater, fiber. Agriculture provides several of these services but also can cause negative impacts. Thus, it is essential to derive up-to-date information about agricultural land use and its change. This paper describes the multi-temporal classification of agricultural land use based on high resolution spotlight TerraSAR-X images. A stack of l4 dual-polarized radar images taken during the vegetation season have been used for two different study areas (North of Germany and Southeast Poland. They represent extremely diverse regions with regard to their population density, agricultural management, as well as geological and geomorphological conditions. Thereby, the transferability of the classification method for different regions is tested. The Maximum Likelihood classification is based on a high amount of ground truth samples. Classification accuracies differ in both regions. Overall accuracy for all classes for the German area is 61.78% and 39.25% for the Polish region. Accuracies improved notably for both regions (about 90% when single vegetation classes were merged into groups of classes. Such regular land use classifications, applicable for different European agricultural sites, can serve as basis for monitoring systems for agricultural land use and its related ecosystems.

  7. [Spatio-temporal change of sand-fixing function and its driving forces in desertification control ecological function area of Hunshandake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Tian, Mei-rong; Gao, Ji-xi; Qian, Jin-ping

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is an important ecological and environmental problem in Hunshandake Desert, and the sand-fixing function determines the degree of ecological security in the entire region. In order to clarify the situation of windbreak and sand fixation in Hunshandake area, and to guide the prevention and treatment of desertification on regional scale, based on the meteorological and remote sensing data, this paper quantitatively analyzed the temporal and spatial pattern of windbreak and sand fixation ability between 2000-2010 by the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) model, meanwhile, the driving forces for each county ( or banner) in the functional zone were analyzed with the method of principal component analysis. The results showed that there was a fluctuation of the sand fixing capacity in Hunshandake over time, generally rendering a decline trend. The coniferous forest and grassland had strong windbreak and sand fixation capacity in unit area among the various land categories. In terms of spatial distribution, the windbreak and sand fixation function in western and southeastern region was weak and needed to be strengthened with ecological restoration efforts. Through the study of the social driving forces of each administrative region in the function zone, there were 3 main social driving forces of soil erosion in the administrative functions: the intensity of input-output, the level of economic development and the level of agriculture-husbandry development.

  8. Metamorfosis de la política educativa en Europa: de los Programas Sectoriales al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior / Metamorphosis of the educational policy in Europe: from Sectorial Programs to the European Higher Education Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arriazu Muñoz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La educación constituye un ámbito esencial en el diseño estratégico de las decisiones económicas, políticas, sociales y culturales de la Unión Europea. Desde la aprobación del Tratado de París en 1951 hasta día de hoy, la política educativa europea ha promovido y afianzado un cúmulo de programas extensibles a distintos niveles y contextos geográficos. Uno de los más relevantes en la actualidad tiene que ver con la adaptación/armonización de las estructuras universitarias en un marco común denominado Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES. Tras casi seis décadas de progresos y avances educativos, es necesario examinar la forma en que estas actuaciones han sido planteadas e implementadas desde las instancias políticas. Para abordar esta cuestión se propone desarrollar un análisis retrospectivo que describa los aspectos más representativos de las decisiones y acuerdos aprobados en materia educativa, advirtiendo la importancia o condicionamiento que ha tenido el contexto sociológico de la Unión Europea. La intención con ello es conformar una visión interdependiente entre el pasado y el presente político, que contribuya a entender mejor los avatares y directrices generales hacia las que se encauza el modelo educativo europeo del Siglo XXI.Abstract: Education constitutes an essential aspect of the economical, political, social and cultural strategies adopted in the European Union. From the Treaty of Paris in 1951 to today, educational policy in Europe has been promoted and consolidated through a combination of programs in different levels and contexts. One of the most important areas at this moment is the result of the European Higher Education Area, which is defined as a process to harmonize European higher education. After almost six decades of educational progress, it is necessary to reflect on how the educational policy has been defined and implemented by the politicians in Europe. A retrospective analysis

  9. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  10. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  11. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  12. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne eBerthier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km² between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1 and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e. a-1 agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1 over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m. This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  13. Treatment of extra large area severe burne patient complicated with superior mesenteric artery syndrome%特大面积重度烧伤合并肠系膜上动脉综合征患者救治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹贵军; 李冬严; 孙丽莉; 李继华; 刘志军

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To summarize the treatment of extra large area severe patient complicated by superior mesenteric artery syndrome. [Methods] After aggressive anti-infection, improvement of renal dysfunction, microskin and allograft skin grafting were performed to one patient with extensive burns of 95TBSA% (Ⅲ° 85%TBSA). SMAS was diagnosed by color Doppler flow imaging, including vomiting, abdominal distension occurred on 20 days postburns. After fasting and gastrointestinal decompression, the intravenous and enteral nutrient support was applied via duodenal tube by endoscopy. [Results] Symptoms of vomiting and abdominal distension of SMAS were disappeared on 21 days postburns. The wounds healed on 38 days post burns. [Conclusions] The color Doppler flow imaging is the optimal method to diagnosis on SMAS. A systemic treatment of strategy is needed to the successful treatment of major burns complicated by SMAS, such as aggressive wound management, sound allogenic or heterogenic skin grafting, the intravenous and enteral nutrient support by duodenal tube put by endoscopy.%[目的]总结成功救治特大面积烧伤患者合并肠系膜上动脉综合征(superior mesenteric artery syndrome,SMAS)的临床经验.[方法]治疗1例95%总体表面积(Ⅲ°85%总体表面积)烧伤患者,在积极补液复苏、抗感染、纠正肾功能不全及维护机体水电解质酸碱平衡的基础上,于伤后5d行四肢Ⅲ°创面切痂自体微粒皮大张异体皮移植术,伤后3周再行背、臀、四肢部残余创面清创,分期自体邮票皮+异种(猪)皮相间移植术.患者因反复呕吐、腹胀3d,于伤后20d经彩色多普勒超声检查确诊为肠系膜上动脉综合征,立即给予禁食、胃肠减压等措施,纤维胃镜下放置鼻肠管置入空肠,行肠内营养支持及静脉高营养维持.[结果]患者于伤后21d呕吐、腹胀消失,肠系膜上动脉综合征明显好转.伤后38d创面已基本愈合.[结论]彩色多普勒超声检查是

  14. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  15. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Carbon Dioxide Using Structure Functions in Urban Areas: Insights for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Melissa; Kooi, Susan A.; Browell, Edward V.; DiGangi, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaigns during July 2011 over Washington DC/Baltimore, MD; January-February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley, CA; September 2013 over Houston, TX; and July-August 2014 over Denver, CO. Each of these campaigns have approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 kilometers) at 6-8 different sites in each of the urban areas. In this study, we used structure function analysis, which is a useful way to quantify spatial and temporal variability, by displaying differences with average observations, to evaluate the variability of CO2 in the 0-2 kilometers range (representative of the planetary boundary layer). These results can then be used to provide guidance in the development of science requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission to measure near-surface CO2 variability in different urban areas. We also compare the observed in-situ CO2 variability with the variability of the CO2 column-averaged optical depths in the 0-1 kilometer and 0-3.5 kilometers altitude ranges in the four geographically different urban areas, using vertical weighting functions for potential future ASCENDS lidar CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57 and 2.05 millimeter measurement regions. In addition to determining the natural variability of CO2 near the surface and in the column, radiocarbon method using continuous CO2 and CO measurements are used to examine the variation of emission quantification between anthropogenic and biogenic sources in the DC/Maryland urban site.

  17. Characterization of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the dengue vector population established in urban areas of Fernando de Noronha, a Brazilian oceanic island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lêda N; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; da Cunha, Mércia Cristiane Santana; Souza, Fátima; Batista, Carlos Alberto Vieira; Barbosa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Souza, Wayner Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Aedes aegypti has played a major role in the dramatic expansion of dengue worldwide. The failure of control programs in reducing the rhythm of global dengue expansion through vector control suggests the need for studies to support more appropriated control strategies. We report here the results of a longitudinal study on Ae. aegypti population dynamics through continuous egg sampling aiming to characterize the infestation of urban areas of a Brazilian oceanic island, Fernando de Noronha. The spatial and temporal distribution of the dengue vector population in urban areas of the island was described using a monitoring system (SMCP-Aedes) based on a 103-trap network for Aedes egg sampling, using GIS and spatial statistics analysis tools. Mean egg densities were estimated over a 29-month period starting in 2011 and producing monthly maps of mosquito abundance. The system detected continuous Ae. aegypti oviposition in most traps. The high global positive ovitrap index (POI=83.7% of 2815 events) indicated the frequent presence of blood-fed-egg laying females at every sampling station. Egg density (eggs/ovitrap/month) reached peak values of 297.3 (0 - 2020) in May and 295 (0 - 2140) in August 2012. The presence of a stable Ae. aegypti population established throughout the inhabited areas of the island was demonstrated. A strong association between egg abundance and rainfall with a 2-month lag was observed, which combined with a first-order autocorrelation observed in the series of egg counts can provide an important forecasting tool. This first description of the characteristics of the island infestation by the dengue vector provides baseline information to analyze relationships between the spatial distribution of the vector and dengue cases, and to the development of integrated vector control strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural correlates associated with superior tactile symmetry perception in the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Corinna; Yazzolino, Lindsay; Hirsch, Gabriella; Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2015-02-01

    Symmetry is an organizational principle that is ubiquitous throughout the visual world. However, this property can also be detected through non-visual modalities such as touch. The role of prior visual experience on detecting tactile patterns containing symmetry remains unclear. We compared the behavioral performance of early blind and sighted (blindfolded) controls on a tactile symmetry detection task. The tactile patterns used were similar in design and complexity as in previous visual perceptual studies. The neural correlates associated with this behavioral task were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In line with growing evidence demonstrating enhanced tactile processing abilities in the blind, we found that early blind individuals showed significantly superior performance in detecting tactile symmetric patterns compared to sighted controls. Furthermore, comparing patterns of activation between these two groups identified common areas of activation (e.g. superior parietal cortex) but key differences also emerged. In particular, tactile symmetry detection in the early blind was also associated with activation that included peri-calcarine cortex, lateral occipital (LO), and middle temporal (MT) cortex, as well as inferior temporal and fusiform cortex. These results contribute to the growing evidence supporting superior behavioral abilities in the blind, and the neural correlates associated with crossmodal neuroplasticity following visual deprivation.

  19. Built-up Area Change Analysis in Hanoi Using Support Vector Machine Classification of Landsat Multi-Temporal Image Stacks and Population Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong H. Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1986, the Government of Vietnam implemented free market reforms known as Doi Moi (renovation that provided private ownership of farms and companies, and encouraged deregulation and foreign investment. Since then, the economy of Vietnam has achieved rapid growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction and housing, and exports and foreign investments, each of which have resulted in momentous landscape transformations. One of the most evident changes is urbanization and an accompanying loss of agricultural lands and open spaces. These rapid changes pose enormous challenges for local populations as well as planning authorities. Accurate and timely data on changes in built-up urban environments are essential for supporting sound urban development. In this study, we applied the Support Vector Machine classification (SVM to multi-temporal stacks of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ images from 1993 to 2010 to quantify changes in built-up areas. The SVM classification algorithm produced a highly accurate map of land cover change with an overall accuracy of 95%. The study showed that most urban expansion occurred in the periods 2001–2006 and 2006–2010. The analysis was strengthened by the incorporation of population and other socio-economic data. This study provides state authorities a means to examine correlations between urban growth, spatial expansion, and other socio-economic factors in order to not only assess patterns of urban growth but also become aware of potential environmental, social, and economic problems.

  20. Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian area of southern Venezuela: spatial and temporal variations in biting and parity rates of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M E; Basáñez, M G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Villamizar, N; Frontado, H; Cortez, J; Coronel, P; Botto, C

    2001-07-01

    We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Soil Organic Matter in the Mixed Plantations of Alder and Cypress in the Hilly Areas of Central Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Pengfei; ZHU Bo; YANG Yuanli; WANG Xiaoguo

    2006-01-01

    The investigation was conducted on the spatial and temporal distributions of soil organic mater (SOM) in the mixed plantations of alder (Aluns cremastogyne) and cypress (Cupressus funebris) (MPAC),which distributed in the hilly areas of central Sichuan Basin (HACSB). The results show that:① the spatial distribution of SOM among different sites at the same age are not significant before 15-year-old, but significant at 20-year-old, and not significant again after 25-year-old; ② the SOM contents in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm layers increase sharply from 10- to 15-year-old, and decline gradually from 15- to 30-year-old; the SOM contents of the 30-year-old PCP were 80.38% and 78.42% higher than that of the 10-year-old, but 29.16% and 53.37% lower than that of 15-year-old in the 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm layers, respectively. The decrease of SOM contents would lead to the degradation of soil fertility and the decline of forest productivity.

  2. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaron 100 niños de edades entre tres y seis años. El índice específico de fluorosis para dientes temporales fue validado mediante la cuantificación de concentraciones de flúor en esmalte de dientes con y sin fluorosis. Para estimar la asociación entre las concentraciones de flúor en agua y orina y el grado de fluorosis dental se utilizó la prueba estadística Kruskal-Wallis. En el caso de la asociación entre el área de riesgo y el desarrollo de fluorosis dental se utilizó ji2 de Mantel-Haenszel. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis en dentición temporal fue de 78%, la cual tuvo patrones diferentes de presentación, siendo los dientes posteriores los más afectados en ambos maxilares y la coloración predominante fue blanco mate. Se encontró una correlación (r=0.93 entre la concentración de flúor en esmalte de dientes temporales y el índice de fluorosis para dentición temporal (IFDDT. Se encontraron asociaciones entre la concentración de flúor en el agua de consumo y orina con el grado de fluorosis dental (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.00001 y entre el área de riesgo y el grado de fluorosis (ji² de Mantel-Haenszel p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONES: El IFDDT identifica y gradúa adecuadamente la fluorosis en dentición temporal. Es importante detectar el primer efecto tóxico de exposición a flúor para ser usado como predictor de fluorosis en dentición permanente y fluorosis esquelética.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to

  3. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  4. Superior oblique surgery: when and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şekeroğlu H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu,1 Ali Sefik Sanac,1 Umut Arslan,2 Emin Cumhur Sener11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to review different types of superior oblique muscle surgeries, to describe the main areas in clinical practice where superior oblique surgery is required or preferred, and to discuss the preferred types of superior oblique surgery with respect to their clinical outcomes.Methods: A consecutive nonrandomized retrospective series of patients who had undergone superior oblique muscle surgery as a single procedure were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis, clinical features, preoperative and postoperative vertical deviations in primary position, type of surgery, complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The primary outcome measures were the type of strabismus and the type of superior oblique muscle surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the results of the surgeries.Results: The review identified 40 (20 male, 20 female patients with a median age of 6 (2–45 years. Nineteen patients (47.5% had Brown syndrome, eleven (27.5% had fourth nerve palsy, and ten (25.0% had horizontal deviations with A pattern. The most commonly performed surgery was superior oblique tenotomy in 29 (72.5% patients followed by superior oblique tuck in eleven (27.5% patients. The amount of vertical deviation in the fourth nerve palsy and Brown syndrome groups (P = 0.01 for both and the amount of A pattern in the A pattern group were significantly reduced postoperatively (P = 0.02.Conclusion: Surgery for the superior oblique muscle requires experience and appropriate preoperative evaluation in view of its challenging nature. The main indications are Brown syndrome, fourth nerve palsy, and A pattern deviations. Superior oblique surgery may be effective in terms of pattern collapse and correction of vertical deviations in primary

  5. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Flood and Water-logging Disasters in Dongting Lake Area and Control Strategies%洞庭湖区洪涝灾害的时空分布与防灾减灾对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向万胜; 李卫红

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the genesis,evolutionary tendency andspatial-temporal distribution of flood and water-logging in Dongting Lake area were discussed.Based on analysis of historical data,the occurrence of flood and water-logging disasters was divided into four different phases.In view of the causes of disaster formation,the author brought up the comprehensive countermeasures for flood and water-logging control in Dongting Lake area.

  6. The long-term spatial-temporal trends and burden of esophageal cancer in one high-risk area: A population-registered study in Feicheng, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiubin; Zhao, Deli; Liu, Yi; Liu, Yunxia; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Jialin; Xue, Fuzhong

    2017-01-01

    Background Feicheng County is a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in Shandong province, China. It is important to determine the long-term spatio-temporal trends in epidemiological characteristics and the burden of esophageal cancer, especially since the implementation of the national esophageal cancer screening program for early detection and treatment in 2005. Methods The data collected in Feicheng County from 2001 to 2012 was extracted from the whole-population cancer registry system. The incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and changing trends in esophageal cancer according to age and sex were calculated and described. Results The incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Feicheng was consistently high, and increased significantly for male, but not for female from 2001 to 2012, according to the joinpoint regression analysis. The highest and lowest yearly crude incidence rates were 160.78 and 95.97 per 100000 for males, and 81.36 and 52.17 per 100000 for females. The highest and lowest crude yearly mortality rates were 122.26 and 94.40 per 100000 for males, and 60.75 and 49.35 per 100000for females. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was the main pathology type and the tumor location changed significantly from 2001 to 2012. Overall, the DALY remained roughly stable and was estimated as 11.50 for males and 4.90 for females per 1000 people. The burden was mainly caused by premature death. There is an obvious spatial pattern in the distribution of incidence density and burden. Conclusion Esophageal cancer remains a public health issue in Feicheng County with a high incidence, mortality and disease burden. The incidence and burden have obvious spatial heterogeneity, and further studies should be conducted to identify geographical risk factors for precise local prevention and control measures. PMID:28267769

  7. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Land Use and Habitat Fragmentation within a Protected Area Dedicated to Tourism in a Sudanian Savanna of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimobe Kangbéni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazinga Game Ranch (NGR is a reserve in Burkina Faso involving local communities for securing biodiversity through sustainable management. Yet, its ecosystems are threatened by increasing number of elephants and illegal human activities. Renowned as a model of wildlife participatory management, NGR has mainly been studied for its animal wildlife only. The aim of this study was to uncover ecological effects of recent land management on savanna habitats including tourism, and to conclude on more sustainable options, land use/land cover (LULC changes and vegetation dynamics in NGR were analyzed. This was accomplished with multi-temporal change detection using Landsat images of 1984, 2002 and 2013 to map seven representative LULC classification categories, and quantitative indices of landscape metrics. The results showed that the LULC dynamics in NGR from 1984 to 2013 was mainly characterized by an expansion of gallery forest, tree savanna and agricultural area and a reduction of shrub savanna, woodland and bare soils. From 2002 to 2013, fragmentation in all land cover types increased at the landscape level, whereas at the class level, it decreased for woodland. Our findings provided evidence of habitat degradation in NGR, due to extensive agriculture, tourism and growing of elephants’ population. According to the original management goals and the purposes of the reserve, both fauna and tourism are to be maintained and sustained in a sustainable way. Adaptation of land use and targeted wildlife management are the main requirements for avoiding further degradation of vegetation and thus of the existence basis of local inhabitants, animals and tourism.

  8. La innovació docent abans i en l’Espai Europeu d’Educació Superior. Què hi ha de nou? Teaching innovation before and in the European Higher Education Area. What is new? La innovación docente antes y en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. ¿Qué hay de nuevo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Imbernón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La innovació i metodologia a la Universitat dintre de l'Espai Europeu d'Educació Superior (EEES implica un canvi en tres mirades: el paper del professorat universitari en l’ensenyament, el mitjà d’aprenentatge que es fa servir i el paper de l’alumnat a les aules. Encara que tot això no és nou, la implicació institucional que ocasiona l’EEES pot ser una oportunitat de reflexionar sobre això. Però perquè la innovació sigui una realitat no és suficient amb dir-ho sinó que s’haurien d’engegar diverses mesures: augmentar els recursos econòmics i humans; preocupar-se per la relació ensenyament-aprenentatge; modificar les relacions d’autoritat, saber i poder en els departaments; crear la possibilitat de formar-se i autoformar-se en la impartició docent de la disciplina, i especialitzar-se en l’oferta formativa. _____________________________________________ L’innovation et la méthodologie à l’Université dans le cadre de l’EEES implique un changement de trois aspects : le rôle des enseignant(es du supérieur dans l’enseignement ; le moyen d’apprentissage utilisé ; et le rôle des étudiant(es dans les salles de cours. Bien que tout cela ne soit pas nouveau, l’implication institutionnelle que crée l’EEES peut être une occasion pour réfléchir quant à tout cela. Toutefois, pour que l’innovation constitue vraiment une réalité, il n’est pas suffisant de le dire et il faudrait aussi mettre en oeuvre diverses mesures : augmenter les ressources économiques et humaines ; se préoccuper de la relation entre enseignement et apprentissage ; modifier les rapports d’autorité, de savoir et de pouvoir dans les divers départements de l’Université ; créer la possibilité de se former et de s’auto-former quant à l’enseignement de la discipline ; et se spécialiser dans l’offre de formation.University innovation and methodology within the EHEA involves a change in three areas: the role of

  9. Integration of spatial and temporal data for the definition of different landslide hazard scenarios in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A general methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of landslide hazard is applied, taking in account both the landslide susceptibility and the instability triggering factors, mainly rainfall. The method is applied in the Fanhões-Trancão test site (north of Lisbon, Portugal where 100 shallow translational slides were mapped and integrated into a GIS database. For the landslide susceptibility assessment it is assumed that future landslides can be predicted by statistical relationships between past landslides and the spatial data set of the predisposing factors (slope angle, slope aspect, transversal slope profile, lithology, superficial deposits, geomorphology, and land use. Susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Bayesian model over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. The landslide susceptibility map is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. In order to validate the results of the susceptibility ana- lysis, the landslide data set is divided in two parts, using a temporal criterion. The first subset is used for obtaining a prediction image and the second subset is compared with the prediction results for validation. The obtained prediction-rate curve is used for the quantitative interpretation of the initial susceptibility map. Landslides in the study area are triggered by rainfall. The integration of triggering information in hazard assessment includes (i the definition of thresholds of rainfall (quantity-duration responsible for past landslide events; (ii the calculation of the relevant return periods; (iii the assumption that the same rainfall patterns (quantity/duration which produced slope instability in the past will produce the same effects in the future (i.e. same types of landslides and same total affected area. The landslide hazard is present as the probability of each pixel to be affected by a slope movement

  10. The temporal evolution of exposed water ice-rich areas on the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Tosi, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Barucci, M. A.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Kappel, D.; Arnold, G.; Mottola, S.; Rousseau, B.; Rinaldi, G.; Erard, S.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.

    2016-11-01

    Water ice-rich patches have been detected on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the VIRTIS hyperspectral imager on-board the Rosetta spacecraft, since the orbital insertion in late August 2014. Among those, three icy patches have been selected, and VIRTIS data have been used to analyse their properties and temporal evolution while the comet was moving towards the Sun. We performed an extensive analysis of the spectral parameters, and we applied the Hapke radiative transfer model to retrieve the abundance and grain size of water ice, as well as the mixing modalities of water ice and the ubiquitous dark refractory terrains of the surface. Study of the spatial distribution of the spectral parameters within the ice-rich patches has revealed that water ice follows different patterns associated to a bimodal distribution of the grains: 50 μm sized and 2000 μm sized, respectively in intimate and areal mixture with the dark material. In all three cases we identified different stages of the evolution of abundance of ice in the selected patches after the first detections at about 3.5 AU heliocentric distance; the spatial extension and intensity of the water ice spectral features reached a maximum after 60-100 days at about 3.0 AU, was followed by an approximately equally timed decrease, and the features were no longer visible when observed again at about 2.2 AU, before perihelion. The exposure of deeper layers is consistent with their occurrence in "active" areas where falls or landslides could have caused the occasional exposure of water ice-rich layers. After the initial exposure of the ice, the activity of the affected area increases thus causing dust removal powered by sublimation, which provides a positive feedback on the exposure itself. The process develops as the solar flux increases, and it reaches a turning point when the exposure rate is outweighed by the sublimation rate, until the complete sublimation of the patch. It is interesting to note that

  11. Anomia for people's names after left anterior temporal lobe resection--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Masanori; Takaiwa, Akiko; Nagai, Shoichi; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Endo, Shunro

    2010-01-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with an intrinsic brain tumor in the left anterior temporal lobe. Preoperative sodium thiopental test demonstrated left hemispheric dominance. Awake craniotomy was performed for dominant-hemispheric tumor resection using language mapping to identify the stimulation-induced positive language area. The tasks of object naming and repetition were used, along with specific tests for famous people's names. The language area was detected on the superior temporal gyrus and preserved. Following surgery, this patient was unable to retrieve the names of famous individuals (i.e. anomia for people's name) despite preservation of semantic knowledge for those individuals. This anomia for people's names showed no improvement at all for a period of 15 months. This case report and other sporadic cases with this type of deficit reveal the left anterior temporal lobe is an important brain area for retrieving people's names.

  12. Correlation between air pollution and weather data in urban areas: Assessment of the city of Rome (Italy) as spatially and temporally independent regarding pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Gabriele; de Lieto Vollaro, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution represents the biggest environmental risk for health. It is so widespread and it represents one of the main problems of the worldwide, especially because it is emitted by so many different types of sources. The pollutants can originate directly by exhausted or they can be formed because of the reaction with the atmosphere. The first one includes particulate matter and gaseous pollutants such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and carbon oxides. The second one includes the ozone formed from nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, and particulate sulfate and nitrate aerosols created in the atmosphere from sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases. During the entire life course, people are exposed to the pollutants and suffer from different consequences depending on the age. The first nine month of life are generally recognized as more critical than latter time periods. The mortality associated to air pollutant exposure is main related to the concentrations of NOx , ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxides and particular matter. More than 92% of the world's population lives in places where air quality levels exceed the standards. In 2012, one out of every nine deaths was the result of air pollution-related conditions. In 2016 about 3 million deaths a year were linked to exposure to outdoor air pollution. In the last few years many epidemiological studies have shown associations between air pollutant concentrations and human health. Apart from people, even monuments and artworks can be damaged by pollution, especially in city centres. Furthermore, urbanization modified microclimate conditions of the cities, and, together with traffic and domestic heating, led to a discomfort of living conditions. For these reasons, there is the necessity to improve the research on the impact of pollutant and microclimate conditions inside urban areas. In this work different kinds of pollutants in Rome from 2006 to 2015 were analysed, and different techniques of post elaboration were used

  13. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  14. The spatial-temporal changes of the land use/cover in the Dongting Lake area during the last decade%近10年洞庭湖区土地利用变化时空特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁东; 刘纪远; 庄大方

    2003-01-01

    The research on the land use/cover change is one of the frontiers and the hot spots in theglobal change research. Based on the Chinese resource and environment spatial-temporal database,and using the Landsat TM and ETM data of 1990 and 2000 respectively, we analyzed thespatial-temporal characteristics of land use/cover changes in the Dongting Lake area during the lastdecade. The result shows that during the last ten years there were three land-use types that hadchanged remarkably. The cultivated land decreased by 0.57% of the total cultivated land. Thebuilt-up land and water area expanded, with an increase of 8.97% and 0.43% respectively. Theconversion between land use types mostly happened among these three land-use types, especiallyfrequently between cultivated land and water area. The land-use change speed of land-use type isdifferent. Three cities experienced the greatest degree of land-use change among all the administrativedistricts, which means that the land use in these cities changed much quickly. The following changedarea was the west and south of the Dongting Lake area. The slowest changed area is the north andeast area.

  15. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  16. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often......, these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient...... translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages....

  17. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages......., these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient......Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often...

  18. Exploring the spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A; Pyles, John A; Kass, Robert E; Tarr, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150-250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150-250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces.

  19. Monitoring temporal changes of the surface water area of the Burullus and Manzala lagoons using automatic techniques applied to a Landsat satellite data series of the Nile Delta coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.M. DEWIDAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the automated shoreline techniques used to monitor the temporal change of surface water area of the Burullus and Manzala lagoons. In this study, a series of Landsat image data are acquired at intermittent intervals between 1972 and 2006 for the Burullus lagoon and between 1972 and 2007 for the Manzala lagoon. All Landsat images were radiometrically calibrated and converted to reflectance values. The reflectance values of each date were atmospherically corrected using the 6S model. The automated shoreline technique was checked against field observations by using GPS over the four seasons for each lagoon during reconnaissance for the shoreline boundary. The accuracy of the extracted shoreline boundary for each lagoon was validated by calculating the area of a big aquaculture farm in the study area from satellite imagery and the available topographic maps. The resulting accuracy of this technique used was approximately 97.5%. From the spatial temporal analysis of the satellite data, the results indicate that the rate change of aquatic surface area of the Manzala lagoon is –7.3 km2/yr and for the Burullus lagoon -2.7 km2/yr during the approximately 35 year period of study. The changes which were detected in this study indicate that the surface water area of Manzala lagoon and Burullus lagoon have decreased to 62.6% and 61.9 respectively of their original size during this time.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Habitat Segregation of Mosquitoes in Urban Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms fostering coexistence between invasive and resident species is important in predicting ecological, economic, or health impacts of invasive species. The non-native mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus have been resident in the southeastern United States for over a century. They coexist at some urban sites with the more recent invasive Aedes albopictus, which is usually superior in interspecific competition. We tested predictions of temporal and spatial habitat segregation that foster coexistence of these resident species with the superior invasive competitor. We measured spatial and temporal patterns of site occupancy and abundance for all three species among standard oviposition traps in metropolitan Tampa, Florida. Consistent with the condition-specific competition hypothesis, A. albopictus and A. aegypti abundances were greater and C. quinquefasciatus abundance was lower late (September) versus early (June) in the rainy season, and the proportional increase of A. albopictus abundance was greater than that of A. aegypti. These results are postulated to result from greater dry-season egg mortality and associated greater rainy-season competitive superiority of larvae of A. albopictus, followed by A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Spatial partitioning among landscape variables was also evident among species, with A. albopictus more likely to oviposit across a range of open grass landscapes whereas A. aegypti were mostly restricted to cemeteries. Culex quinquefasciatus showed a shift in abundance from cemeteries early in the rainy season to developed areas characterized by built environments with large proportions of impervious surfaces late in the rainy season, where A. albopictus was not in its highest abundance. These results suggest that both temporal and spatial variation, and their interaction, may contribute to local coexistence between Aedes and Culex mosquito species in urban areas. PMID:24621592

  1. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...

  2. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A proposed number system for the 107 cortical areas of Economo and Koskinas, and Brodmann area correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    In their Atlas of Cytoarchitectonics of the Adult Human Cerebral Cortex, Economo and Koskinas defined 54 'ground,' 76 'variant,' and 107 'modification' areas. The 107 modifications are topographically distributed as 35 frontal, 13 superior limbic, 6 insular, 18 parietal, 7 occipital, 14 temporal and 14 inferior limbic (or hippocampal). One way to make the Economo-Koskinas system more practical is to encode the complex symbol notations of the 107 cortical areas with numbers EK 1 through EK 107. The present study does that, and it further correlates Economo-Koskinas areas with Brodmann areas, based on an overview of the classical and modern neurohistological literature. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  5. [Temporal and spatial variation of mercury in water of agro-forestry and livestock compound watershed in the three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Ya; Mu, Zhi-jian; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of mercury (Hg) in four different sources of stream (aquaculture wastewater, bare land, forestry land and agro-forestry land) and well water of an agro-forestry and livestock compound watershed in the Three Gorge Reservoir region was studied during the period from March 2013 to March 2014. The total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged 9.95-15.26 ng x L(-1) with an average of (11.95 +/- 1.87) ng x L(-1), and the THg concentration decreased in the order of bare land > aquaculture wastewater> forestry land > agro-forestry land > well water. The total methylmercury (TMeHg) concentrations ranged 0.120-0.441 ng x L(-1) with an average of (0.232 +/- 0.099) ng x L(-1), and the TMeHg concentration decreased in the order of aquaculture wastewater > agro-forestry land > forestry land > bare land > well water. THg and TMeHg in well water were both dominated by the dissolved fraction, whereas for other sources of stream, the particulate phase accounted for the major fraction of THg and TMeHg. The THg concentrations in winter and spring were significant higher than those in summer and fall, however, no obvious seasonal trend of TMeHg distribution was observed. Comprehensive analysis showed human activities and weather conditions such as air temperature and precipitation etc. were the main reasons for the difference of temporal and spatial distribution of THg and TMeHg.

  6. Synthesis of superior fast charging-discharging nano-LiFePO4/C from nano-FePO4 generated using a confined area impinging jet reactor approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-min; Yan, Pen; Xie, Yin-Yin; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-dong; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2013-06-14

    LiFePO4/C nanocomposites with excellent electrochemical performance is synthesized from nano-FePO4, generated by a novel method using a confined area impinging jet reactor (CIJR). When discharged at 80 C (13.6 Ag(-1)), the LiFePO4/C delivers a discharge capacity of 95 mA h g(-1), an energy density of 227 W h kg(-1) and a power density of 34 kW kg(-1).

  7. On the definition and interpretation of voice selective activation in the temporal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBethmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Regions along the superior temporal sulci and in the anterior temporal lobes have been found to be involved in voice processing. It has even been argued that parts of the temporal cortices serve as voice-selective areas. Yet, evidence for voice-selective activation in the strict sense is still missing. The current fMRI study aimed at assessing the degree of voice-specific processing in different parts of the superior and middle temporal cortices. To this end, voices of famous persons were contrasted with widely different categories, which were sounds of animals and musical instruments. The argumentation was that only brain regions with statistically proven absence of activation by the control stimuli may be considered as candidates for voice-selective areas. Neural activity was found to be stronger in response to human voices in all analyzed parts of the temporal lobes except for the middle and posterior STG. More importantly, the activation differences between voices and the other environmental sounds increased continuously from the mid-posterior STG to the anterior MTG. Here, only voices but not the control stimuli excited an increase of the BOLD response above a resting baseline level. The findings are discussed with reference to the function of the anterior temporal lobes in person recognition and the general question on how to define selectivity of brain regions for a specific class of stimuli or tasks. In addition, our results corroborate recent assumptions about the hierarchical organization of auditory processing building on a processing stream from the primary auditory cortices to anterior portions of the temporal lobes.

  8. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  9. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  10. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  11. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  12. Calretinin, parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive interneurons in perirhinal cortex and temporal area Te3V of the rat brain: qualitative and quantitative analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinka, Filip; Salaj, Martin; Rybář, Jan; Krajčovičová, Eva; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav

    2012-02-03

    The perirhinal cortex (PRC) composed of areas 35 and 36 forms an important route for activity transfer between the hippocampus-entorhinal cortex and neocortex. Its function in memory formation and consolidation as well as in the initiation and spreading of epileptic activity was already partially elucidated. We studied the general pattern of calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) immunoreactivity and its corrected relative optical density (cROD) as well as morphological features and density of CR and PV immunoreactive (CR+, PV+) interneurons in the rat PRC. Neighboring neocortical association area Te3V was analyzed as well. The PRC differed from the Te3V in higher CR and lower PV overall immunoreactivity level. On CR immunostained sections, the difference between high cROD value in area 35 and low cROD value in area Te3V reached statistical significance (pinterneurons was expressed as a percentage of the total neurons counts. The percentage of CR+ interneurons was higher in area 35 by comparison with area Te3 (pinterneurons did not significantly differ among the examined areas. In conclusion, the PRC possesses specific interneuronal equipment with unusually high proportion of CR+ interneurons, what might be of importance for the presumed gating function of PRC in normal and diseased states.

  13. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco Hernández-Sierra

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  14. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco Hernández-Sierra

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  15. Teknik Cepat Identifikasi Lahan Terbuka Melalui Citra Multi Temporal dan Multi Spasial (Quick Tecniques in Indentifying Open Area by the Use of Multi Spatial and Multidate Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyar Gunawan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the use of multitemporal principal component analysis (MPCA and vegetation indexdifferencing (VIDN techniques in identifying open area on post-coal-mining sites using multi spatial and multidateof Landsat TM and SPOT 4 XS imageries. The study revealed that the synthetic images derived from stablebrightness, stable greenness,s and delta brightness of MPCA summarize information on post-coal-mining openedareas provided overall accuracy of 76.47% for the new ex mining area and 32.69% for old ex mining area. TheVIDN method provided relatively lower accuracy than those from MPCA i.e. 58.87% for new ex mining and13.25% for old ex-mining areas. The study also concluded that identifying open area on post-coal-mining sitesusing imageries was more efficient than using only ground survey, providing cost efficiency of 29%. Thisindicates that the cost required using satellite image is only 29% of the cost required for ground survey. Thestudy concluded that MPCA is better than VIDN for identifying open area on post-coal-mining sites.

  16. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  17. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  18. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  19. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  20. Temporal distribution of dengue virus serotypes in Colombian endemic area and dengue incidence: re-introduction of dengue-3 associated to mild febrile illness and primary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Elvira Ocazionez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the temporal distribution of dengue (DEN virus serotypes in the department (state of Santander, Colombia, in relation to dengue incidence, infection pattern, and severity of disease. Viral isolation was attended on a total of 1452 acute serum samples collected each week from 1998 to 2004. The infection pattern was evaluated in 596 laboratory-positive dengue cases using an IgG ELISA, and PRNT test. The dengue incidence was documented by the local health authority. Predominance of DEN-1 in 1998 and DEN-3 re-introduction and predominance in 2001-2003 coincided with outbreaks. Predominance of DEN-2 in 2000-2001 coincided with more dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. DEN-4 was isolated in 2000-2001 and 2004 but was not predominant. There was an annual increase of primary dengue infections (from 13.7 to 81.4% that correlated with frequency of DEN-3 (r = 0.83; P = 0.038. From the total number of primary dengue infections DEN-3 (81.3% was the most frequent serotype. DHF was more frequent in DEN-2 infected patients than in DEN-3 infected patients: 27.5 vs 10.9% (P < 0.05. DEN-3 viruses belonged to subtype C (restriction site-specific-polymerase chain reaction like viruses isolated in Sri-Lanka and other countries in the Americas. Our findings show the importance of continuous virological surveillance to identify the risk factors of dengue epidemics and severity.

  1. Increased Intrinsic Activity of Medial-Temporal Lobe Subregions is Associated with Decreased Cortical Thickness of Medial-Parietal Areas in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Scherr, Martin; Tahmasian, Masoud; Myers, Nicholas E; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Akhrif, Atae; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupted connectivity between medial-parietal cortices and medial-temporal lobes (MTL) is linked with increased MTL local functional connectivity, and parietal atrophy is associated with increased MTL memory activation. We hypothesized that intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal degeneration and impaired memory in AD. To test this hypothesis, resting-state-functional and structural-MRI was assessed in 22 healthy controls, 22 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 21 AD-dementia patients. Intrinsic activity was measured by power-spectrum density of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal, medial-parietal degeneration by cortical thinning. In AD-dementia patients, intrinsic activity was increased for several right MTL subregions. Raised intrinsic activity in dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 was associated with cortical thinning in posterior cingulate cortices, and at-trend with impaired delayed recall. Critically, increased intrinsic activity in the right entorhinal cortex was associated with ipsilateral posterior cingulate degeneration. Our results provide evidence that in AD, intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal atrophy. Results fit a model in which medial-parietal degeneration contributes to MTL dysconnectivity from medial-parietal cortices, potentially underpinning disinhibition-like changes in MTL activity.

  2. Spatial-temporal Patterns of Land-use Change in Typical Transect Area Along China National Highway 106 During 1996-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; LIU Yansui; GUO Liying; LU Shasha

    2011-01-01

    Based on land-use database updated with the survey of 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008, this paper analyzed the land-use changes in the typical transect area along National Highway 106 with the aid of GIS technology and quantitative models. The results showed that arable land had been continuously decreased from 1996 to 2008, with a loss of 65.85× 10^3 hm2 and an average decrement of 5.49×10^3 hm^2 per year, and the loss in northern areas was larger; garden land and woodland were gradually centralized to the predominance area with an increment of 25.73×10^3 hm2 and 22.37×10^3 hm2, respectively; residential and industrial land increased year after year, and the transportation land showed the equalized developing spatial pattern; the increment of construction land and encroachment on arable land in the area were deeply influenced by the national macroscopic land-use policies, the rapid advance of urbanization and the development level of the regional economy. Through this case study, it is suggested that differential land- use policies should be adopted to create good environmental conditions to guarantee food security and to promote the economic development.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m3 to 336.4 μg/m3. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions.

  4. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls serum levels in subjects living in a highly polluted area from 2003 to 2015: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffetti, Elena; Speziani, Fabrizio; Donato, Francesco; Leonardi, Lucia; Orizio, Grazia; Scarcella, Carmelo; Apostoli, Pietro; Magoni, Michele

    2017-04-01

    A chemical factory located in Brescia, an industrialized town in North Italy, produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) since the 1930s to the 1980s, determining a relevant pollution of soil, food and people. Since 2001, following a survey carried out in the general population living in the town, the individuals with PCB serum levels higher than the reference entered a follow-up study. We performed a prospective cohort study including subjects with at least three PCB measures during the period 2003-2015. We evaluated the temporal trends of total PCB serum levels, the most common PCB congeners (PCB 138,153, 170, 180, 194 and 209), and toxic equivalency of dioxin-like PCBs using univariate and multivariate mixed models with and without a cubic-spline term for time. A total of 128 subjects were enrolled (46.1% males, mean age at enrolment 57.7 years). The geometric mean of PCBs decreased from 35.4ng/ml at 0-3 years to 29.3ng/ml at 4-8 years and to 23.0ng/ml at 9-12 years. A 3.8% reduction of total PCB serum levels per year was estimated using both univariate and multivariate mixed models adjusted for age; a similar reduction was found for the most common PCB congeners and for toxic equivalency. Total PCB serum levels decreased over time for each age group: -3.9%, -4.0% and -3.4% for subjects aged ≤55 years, 56-65 and ≥66 years, respectively. A significant decrease of serum concentrations of PCBs was observed in subjects with high serum levels of these chemicals at enrolment over a twelve year period. The decrease was evident for each PCB congener and age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; He, Jun; Lu, Xiaowei; She, Jiangfeng; Guan, Zhongqing

    2016-01-01

    The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m3 to 336.4 μg/m3. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions. PMID:27649227

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; He, Jun; Lu, Xiaowei; She, Jiangfeng; Guan, Zhongqing

    2016-09-16

    The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m³ to 336.4 μg/m³. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions.

  7. Left temporal lobe structural and functional abnormality underlying auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review recent findings from our laboratory that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia are internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus. Such experiences are, moreover, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the voices and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented, together with a review of behavioural, structural and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus or not during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. The behavioral and neuroimaging findings are moreover hypothesized to be related to glutamate hypofunction in schizophrenia. We propose a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to uncontrolled neuronal firing in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks.

  8. The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of land cover and land use in the reclaimed areas with the application of airborne orthophotomaps and LANDSAT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Pietrzykowski, Marcin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of geoinformatics tools and generally available geodata for mapping land cover/use on the reclaimed areas. The choice of subject was dictated by the growing number of such areas and the related problem of their restoration. Modern technology, including GIS, photogrammetry and remote sensing are relevant in assessing the reclamation effects and monitoring of changes taking place on such sites. The LULC classes mapping, supported with thorough knowledge of the operator, is useful tool for the proper reclamation process evaluation. The study was performed for two post-mine sites: reclaimed external spoil heap of the sulfur mine Machów and areas after exploitation of sulfur mine Jeziórko, which are located in the Tarnobrzeski district. The research materials consisted of aerial orthophotos, which were the basis of on-screen vectorization; LANDSAT satellite images, which were used in the pixel and object based classification; and the CORINE Land Cover database as a general reference to the global maps of land cover and land use.

  9. Temporal Variation in Sap-Flux-Scaled Transpiration and Cooling Effect of a Subtropical Schima superba Plantation in the Urban Area of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-wei; ZHAO Ping

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture could suffer the water stress induced by climate change. Because climate warming affects global hydrological cycles, it is vital to explore the effect of tree transpiration, as an important component of terrestrial evapotranspiration, on the environment. Thermal dissipation probes were used to measure xylem sap flux density of a Schima superba plantation in the urban area of Guangzhou City, South China. Stand transpiration was calculated by mean sap flux density times total sapwood area. The occurrence of the maximum sap flux density on the daily scale was later in wet season than in dry season. The peak of daily sap flux density was the highest of 59 g m-2 s-1 in July and August, and the lowest of 28 g m-2 s-1 in December. In the two periods (November 2007-October 2008 and November 2008-October 2009), the stand transpiration reached 263.2 and 291.6 mm, respectively. During our study period, stand transpiration in wet season (from April to September) could account for about 58.5 and 53.8%of the annual transpiration, respectively. Heat energy absorbed by tree transpiration averaged 1.4×108 and 1.6×108 kJ per month in this Schima superba plantation with the area of 2 885 m2, and temperature was reduced by 4.3 and 4.7°C s-1 per 10 m3 air.

  10. The barred grunt Conodon nobilis (Perciformes: Haemulidae) in shallow areas of a tropical bight: spatial and temporal distribution, body growth and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flávia Borges; de Faria, Vanessa Hermann; Turra, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the population biology of Conodon nobilis (Perciformes, Haemulidae) in Caraguatatuba Bight, southeastern Brazil. Monthly trawls were performed from October 2003 through October 2004 in two areas of the bight that are similar to but distant from each other, South and North. For all specimens, the size was measured and the sex and reproductive stage identified. Abundance and size were compared over areas and months. Body growth parameters were parameterized according to the Von Bertalanffy growth function. The stomach contents were identified and quantified. C. nobilis occurred mainly in the North area and showed an erratic pattern of abundance over time. Several cohorts entered in different periods, but very few large and mature individuals were observed. The results indicate a preference for shallow, ocean-influenced habitats and some degree of segregation between young and older individuals. The species showed a distribution consistent with an r-strategist species, with high abundance and a high growth constant ( K = 0.68 year-1 and L max = 34.2 cm). Both the relative length of the digestive tube and the prey items indicated a carnivorous feeding habit; mysids were the main item of the diet throughout the study period, indicating that this grunt is a specialist feeder. Other frequently observed items were amphipods and fish fragments. Ingestion of scales is possibly intentional.

  11. Combined cataract and glaucoma procedures using temporal cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J L; Van der Karr, M A; Sanders, V

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate whether separating the procedures in a combined procedure by performing a temporal cataract incision and superior trabeculectomy induces the lower astigmatism of a temporal cataract incision without sacrificing intraocular pressure (IOP) control. EyeSight Associates, Warner Robins, Georgia. This study evaluated 50 consecutive eyes receiving a superior cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy and 65 eyes receiving a temporal cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy. After 3 months, a substantially greater proportion of temporal incision cases had controlled IOP without medication. A substantially higher proportion in the superior incision group had uncontrolled IOP at each time period. Mean surgically induced cylinder was higher in the superior incision group at every time period. The superior group had early with-the-rule mean induced cylinder that decayed to against-the-rule, with a mean induced cylinder with keratometry at the final available visit (more than 3 months) of -1.01 diopter (D). The temporal group started with a negligible induced cylinder (-0.13 D) that drifted slightly with the rule to a final mean induced cylinder of +0.49 D. At the last visit, 31% in the superior incision group and 57% in the temporal incision group had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 72% and 94%, respectively, had a best corrected acuity of 20/40 or better. Separating the cataract and glaucoma procedures frees the surgeon to use newer astigmatically neutral techniques for the cataract incision.

  12. Entidades fiscalizadoras superiores y accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS DE LA TESIS: El objetivo general del trabajo es establecer el nivel de eficacia de las Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores (EFS) como agencia asignada y herramienta de accountability horizontal, a través de la valoración de su diseño institucional y de la calidad de sus productos finales, los informes de auditoría, estableciéndose los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Relevar las nociones de accountability, actualizando el Estado del Arte de la cuestión. 2. Analizar la ...

  13. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence in East Asian women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD may cause Tullio phenomenon (sound-induced vertigo or Hennebert sign (valsalva-induced vertigo due to the absence of bone overlying the SSC. We document a case series of elderly East Asian women with atypical SSCD symptoms, radiologically confirmed dehiscence and concurrent osteoporosis. Methods A retrospective record review was performed on patients with dizziness, vertigo, and/or imbalance from a neurology clinic in a community health center serving the East Asian population in Boston. SSCD was confirmed by multi-detector, high-resolution CT of the temporal bone (with Pöschl and Stenvers reformations and osteoporosis was documented by bone mineral density (BMD scans. Results Of the 496 patients seen in the neurology clinic of a community health center from 2008 to 2010, 76 (17.3% had symptoms of dizziness, vertigo, and/or imbalance. Five (6.6% had confirmed SSCD by multi-detector, high-resolution CT of the temporal bone with longitudinal areas of dehiscence along the long axis of SSC, ranging from 0.4 to 3.0 mm, as seen on the Pöschl view. Two of the 5 patients experienced motion-induced vertigo, two fell due to disequilibrium, and one had chronic dizziness. None had a history of head trauma, otologic surgery, or active intracerebral disease. On neurological examination, two patients had inducible vertigo on Dix-Hallpike maneuver and none experienced cerebellar deficit, Tullio phenomenon, or Hennebert sign. All had documented osteoporosis or osteopenia by BMD scans. Three of them had definite osteoporosis, with T-scores  Conclusions We describe an unusual presentation of SSCD without Tullio phenomenon or Hennebert sign in a population of elderly, East Asian women. There may be an association of SSCD and osteoporosis in this population. Further research is needed to determine the incidence and prevalence of this disorder, as well as the relationship of age, race

  14. Analysing post-earthquake landslide activity using multi-temporal landslide inventories near the epicentral area of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chenxiao; Van Westen, Cees J.; Tanyas, Hakan; Jetten, Victor G.

    2016-12-01

    Large earthquakes in mountainous regions may trigger thousands of landslides, some active for years. We analysed the changes in landslide activity near the epicentre of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake by generating five landslide inventories for different years through stereoscopic digital visual image interpretation. From May 2008 to April 2015, 660 new landslides occurred outside the co-seismic landslide areas. In April 2015, the number of active landslides had gone down to 66, less than 1 % of the co-seismic landslides, but still much higher than the pre-earthquake levels. We expect that the landslide activity will continue to decay, but may be halted if extreme rainfall events occur.

  15. The zircon evidence of temporally changing sediment transport—the NW Gondwana margin during Cambrian to Devonian time (Aoucert and Smara areas, Moroccan Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Andreas; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Villeneuve, Michel; Sagawe, Anja; Hofmann, Mandy; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Linnemann, Ulf

    2017-03-01

    Detrital zircon provenance studies are an established tool to develop palaeogeographic models, mostly based on zircon of siliciclastic rocks and isotope data. But zircon is more than just istopes and features well definable morphological characteristics. The latter may indicate single grain transport histories independent of the individual grade of concordance. This additional tool for palaeogeoraphic reconstructions was tested on zircon from siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks of Palaeozoic age from the Aoucert and Smara areas of the Souttoufides, while findings of zircon in limestone generally open new archives for sedimentary provenance analysis. The morphologies—length, width, roundness, grain surfaces—of 834 detrital zircons from sediments of allochthonous Cambrian, and (par-)autochthonous Ordovician, and Devonian units were studied, while 772 of them were analysed for their U-Th-Pb isotopes by LA-ICP-MS. Mesoproterozoic zircon contents of more than 10% in the Cambrian sediments exclude the West African Craton (WAC) as exclusive source area. Thus, at least one additional external source is suggested. This is likely the western Adrar Souttouf Massif with its significant Mesoproterozoic zircon inheritance, or comparable, yet unknown sources. Decreasing Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations in Ordovician sediments are thought to be linked to the rifting of the terranes in the course of the Rheic Ocean opening and a predominant supply of WAC detritus. The Devonian sediments likely contain reworked material from the Cambrian siliciclastics, which is shown by the zircon age distribution pattern and the zircon morphologies. Therefore, multiple shifts in the direction of sedimentary transport are indicated.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (raegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions.

  17. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial and temporal analysis of the land cover in riparian buffer zones (Areas for Permanent Preservation in Sorocaba City, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fundamental role that the riparian vegetation plays in relation to maintenance of the environmental health of a watershed and the necessity of restoring sectors of the buffer zone without natural vegetation, in this paper we investigated what land cover classes occur along the riparian buffer stripes considered Area for Permanent Preservation (APP in the Sorocaba municipality, SP in three periods: 1988, 1995 and 2003. Based on GIS technology and using the drainage network map, the APP stripes (riparian buffer zones map was generated, and this map was overlaid to the land cover map (1988, 1995 and 2003 to provide a land cover map specifically of the riparian buffer zones. The results show that 58.43% of the APPs have no land cover of native vegetation and therefore, need to be reforested, representing 5,400 hectares to be restored.

  19. Temporal and spatial constraints on the evolution of a Rio Grande rift sub-basin, Guadalupe Mountain area, northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.; Hudson, M. R.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Taos Plateau volcanic field (TPVF) in the southern San Luis Valley of northern New Mexico is the most voluminous of the predominantly basaltic Neogene (6-1 Ma) volcanic fields of the Rio Grande rift. Volcanic deposits of the TPVF are intercalated with alluvial deposits of the Santa Fe Group and compose the N-S-trending San Luis Basin, the largest basin of the northern rift (13,500 km2 in area). Pliocene volcanic rocks of the Guadalupe Mountain area of northern New Mexico are underlain by the southern end of one of the larger sub-basins of the San Luis Valley, the Sunshine sub-basin (~ 450 km2 in area) juxtaposed against the down-to-west frontal fault of the Precambrian-cored Sangre de Cristo Range. The sub-basin plunges northward and extends to near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The western margin (~15 km west of the Sangre de Cristo fault) is constrained by outcrops of Oligocene to Miocene volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, interpreted here as a broad pre-Pliocene intra-rift platform underlying much of the northern TPVF. The southern sub-basin border is derived, in part, from modeling of gravity and aeromagnetic data and is interpreted as a subsurface extension of this intra-rift platform that extends southeastward to nearly the Sangre de Cristo range front. Broadly coincident with this subsurface basement high is the northwest-trending, curvilinear terminus of the down-to-northeast Red River fault zone. South of the gravity high, basin-fill alluvium and ~3.84 Ma Servilleta basalt lava flows thicken along a poorly exposed, down-to-south, basin-bounding fault of the northern Taos graben, the largest of the San Luis Valley sub-basins. The uppermost, western sub-basin fill is exposed along steep canyon walls near the confluence of the Rio Grande and the Red River. Unconformity-bound, lava flow packages are intercalated with paleo Red River fan alluvium and define six eruptive sequences in the Guadalupe Mountain area: (1) Guadalupe Mtn. lavas (dacite ~5

  20. Spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, a water source area for the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (Middle Route), China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Dacong; ZHENG Lingling; SONG Lirong

    2011-01-01

    One of the water source areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is the Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR). To understand seasonal variation in phytoplankton composition, abundance and distribution in the DJKR area before water diversion, as well as to estimate potential risks of water quality after water diversion, we conducted an investigation on phytoplankton in the DJKR from August 2008 to May 2009. The investigation included 10 sampling sites, each with four depths of 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 m. In this study, 117 taxa belonging to 76 genera were identified, consisting of diatoms (39 taxa), green algae (47 taxa), blue-green algae (19 taxa), and others (12 taxa). Annual average phytoplankton abundance was 2.01xl06 ind./L, and the highest value was 14.72 x 106 ind/L (at site 3 in August 2008). Phytoplankton abundance in front of the Danjiangkou Dam (DJKD) was higher than that of the Danjiang Reservoir Basin. Phytoplankton distribution showed a vertical declining trend from 0.5 m to 20 m at most sites in August 2008 (especially at sites of 1, 2, 4 and 10), but no distinct pattern in other sampling months. In December 2008 and March 2009, Stephanodiscus sp. was the most abundant species, amounting to 55.23% and 72.34%, respectively. We propose that high abundance of Stephanodiscus sp. may have contributed greatly to the frequent occurrence of Stephanodiscus sp. blooms in middle-low reaches of the Hanjiang River during the early spring of 2009. In comparison with previous studies conducted from 1992 to 2006, annual average phytoplankton density, green algae and blue-green algae species, as well as major nutrient concentrations increased, while phytoplankton diversity indices declined. This indicates a gradual decline in water quality. More research should be conducted and countermeasures taken to prevent further deterioration of water quality in the DJKR.

  1. Temporal evolution of ultrafine particles and of alveolar deposited surface area from main indoor combustion and non-combustion sources in a model room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo; Protano, Carmela; Avino, Pasquale

    2017-11-15

    Aerosol number size distributions, PM mass concentrations, alveolar deposited surface areas (ADSAs) and VOC concentrations were measured in a model room when aerosol was emitted by sources frequently encountered in indoor environments. Both combustion and non-combustion sources were considered. The most intense aerosol emission occurred when combustion sources were active (as high as 4.1×10(7)particlescm(-3) for two meat grilling sessions; the first with exhaust ventilation, the second without). An intense spike generation of nucleation particles occurred when appliances equipped with brush electric motors were operating (as high as 10(6)particlescm(-3) on switching on an electric drill). Average UFP increments over the background value were highest for electric appliances (5-12%) and lowest for combustion sources (as low as -24% for tobacco cigarette smoke). In contrast, average increments in ADSA were highest for combustion sources (as high as 3.2×10(3)μm(2)cm(-3) for meat grilling without exhaust ventilation) and lowest for electric appliances (20-90μm(2)cm(-3)). The health relevance of such particles is associated to their ability to penetrate cellular structures and elicit inflammatory effects mediated through oxidative stress in a way dependent on their surface area. The highest VOC concentrations were measured (PID probe) for cigarette smoke (8ppm) and spray air freshener (10ppm). The highest PM mass concentration (PM1) was measured for citronella candle burning (as high as 7.6mgm(-3)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  3. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  4. Detection of differential speech-specific processes in the temporal lobe using fMRI and a dynamic "sound morphing" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Karsten; Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2009-10-01

    Contrary to the classical view, recent neuroimaging studies claim that phonological processing, as part of auditory speech perception, is subserved by both the left and right temporal lobes and not the left temporal lobe alone. This study seeks to explore whether there are variations in the lateralization of response to verbal and nonverbal sounds by varying spectral complexity of those sounds. White noise was gradually transformed into either speech or music sounds using a "sound morphing" procedure. The stimuli were presented in an event-related design and the evoked brain responses were measured using fMRI. The results demonstrated that the left temporal lobe was predominantly sensitive to gradual manipulation of the speech sounds while the right temporal lobe responded to all sounds and manipulations. This effect was especially pronounced within the middle region of the left superior temporal sulcus (mid-STS). This area could be further subdivided into a more posterior area, which showed a linear response to the manipulation of speech sounds, and an anteriorly adjacent area which showed the strongest interaction between the speech and music sound manipulations. Such a differential and selective response was not seen in other brain areas and not when the sound "morphed" into a music stimulus. This gives further experimental evidence for the assumption of a posterior-anterior processing stream in the left temporal lobe. In addition, the present findings support the notion that the left mid STS area is more sensitive to speech signals compared to the right homologue.

  5. Consolidation of Associative and Item Memory Is Related to Post-Encoding Functional Connectivity between the Ventral Tegmental Area and Different Medial Temporal Lobe Subregions during an Unrelated Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompary, Alexa; Duncan, Katherine; Davachi, Lila

    2015-05-13

    It is well established that the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PrC) encode associative and item representations, respectively. However, less is known about how item and associative memories are consolidated. We used high-resolution fMRI in humans to measure how functional connectivity between these distinct medial temporal lobe regions with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) after a paired associate encoding task is related to both immediate and 24 h item and associative memory performance. We found that the strength of post-encoding functional connectivity between the VTA and CA1 selectively correlated with long-term associative memory, despite subjects actively engaging in an unrelated task during this period. Conversely, VTA-PrC functional connectivity during the same period correlated with long-term item memory. Critically, connectivity between VTA and these MTL regions were only related to memory tested at a 24 h delay, implicating midbrain connectivity in the consolidation of distinct forms of memory.

  6. Temporal changes of environmental impact in the coastal marine area in front of a former mining zone, detected by means of benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Maggi, Chiara; Ausili, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used to assess environmental quality of present and past marine environments. They are suitable for the study of ancient environments because their hard and small shells are preserved and abundant in sediment and an adequate number of them can be collected by small samples of sediment cores, supplying reliable data for a statistical approach. The study of foraminiferal assemblages, associated to sediment abiotic parameters, allows to define the anthropogenic impact along the time; reference conditions may be recognized in deep uncontaminated levels. The Sulcis Iglesiente Guspinese area (SW Sardinia, Italy) was affected in past times by intensive mining, which started in mid 19th century and ceased in 1990s. The marine area of Cala Domestica is located few kilometers from the mining district, where mainly galena and sphalerite were exploited. The area houses buildings for storage of minerals receives drainage material from mineral dumps determining a strong enrichment for several metals in the coastal sediments. Sediment core SI/69 was collected by means of vibrocorer in front of Cala Domestica beach, during a vast sampling survey aimed to environmental characterization of marine sediments. The core was subsampled in the laboratory, and a total of 28 levels were collected. Microfaunal, grain size and chemical (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) analyses were carried out on different aliquots of the same level. The quantitative analysis on benthic foraminifera was based on the count of at least 300 specimens per sample. Faunal parameters such as Foraminiferal Number (FN i.e. number of specimens / 1 g dry sediment) and species diversity (- index and H-index) were considered as potential indicators of environmental status. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a group of strongly correlated metals (Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn), associated to the superficial samples. These elements displayed a typical profile along

  7. Spatial and temporal variations and controlling factors of sediment accumulation in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea area in the Holocene, especially in the Early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhibing; Liu, Baohua; Zhao, Yuexia; Li, Xishuang; Jiang, Li; Si, Shaokun

    2016-08-01

    The sub-bottom and collected borehole data provide insight into the transport and accumulation processes of the Yangtze-derived sediment in the study area since ~11 kyr BP. Five seismic units were identified according to six major acoustic surfaces. The sedimentary strata consist of fluvial, estuarine and deltaic systems from the bottom up, characterized by two different trends in sediment accumulation rates, i.e., low-high-low, and high-low-high. On the inner shelf of the East China Sea, the terrain with trough and ridge was formed by the Early Holocene transgression strata (formed in ~10 to 12 kyr BP) scoured by the later rectilinear tidal current due to postglacial sea-level transgression, and the sharply protruding seismic units are interpreted to be bedrocks outcropping on the seafloor. An analysis of the sedimentary characteristics in the boreholes and such factors as difference in accumulation rates, and tectonic subsidence led us to conclude that the paleo-coastline was located not far away from and to the east of Core ZK09 at ~9 kyr BP, and the southern bank of the Yangtze River estuary was located to the south of Core ZK09. At ~9 kyr BP, the Yangtze-derived sediments were transported eastwards along the southern bank of the Yangtze River and the barrier due to the influence of the paleo-coastal current from the north, the direction of the Yangtze-derived sediment transport was split on the northeast of the Zhoushan archipelago, and the sediments covered the terrain with trough and ridge. During the high sea level period (7 kyr BP-present), the eastward migration of paleo-coastline had resulted in the increase in accumulation rate. We also conclude that the sharp increase in accumulation rate near the Yangtze River estuary after ~2 kyr BP was not primarily caused by human activities. The position shifts of the estuary caused by the paleo-coastline migration and sea level oscillations since the Holocene is the main cause controlling the Yangtze

  8. Time variations of gaseous and reactive mercury in the industrial area of Puertollano (south-central Spain). Temporal cycles with marked variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Esbrí, Jose Maria; Higueras, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Puertollano (48,086 inhabitants) is the largest industrial city in the Castilla-La Mancha region (South-Central Spain). The city is located some 250 km South of Madrid; it was an important coal mining site during the last century and today it is the location of one of the most important Spanish oil refineries and the only refinery located away from the coast. Nowadays the area (which mainly includes the Ojailen valley) has a large open pit coal mine (Encasur), two power plants (Eon and Elcogas) and a petrochemical complex (Repsol) located S and SE from the town. These industries give rise to a complex scenario in terms of mercury emissions to the atmosphere: Repsol, Elcogas and Eon act as discrete sources, while coal mine and dumps acts as a general, diffuse source. The mercury contents in Puertollano town and the related industrial area were characterized during 2010 and 2011 by acquiring stationary data of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM), Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM), meteorological parameters and other atmospheric contaminants (NO, NO2, SO2, benzene, toluene, xylene, ozone and PM10). In addition, several Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) mobile surveys were carried out covering the Ojailen valley. Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in the whole valley was in the range 0-24 ng m-3 in all surveys, while higher levels were found near to the coal mine and in the vicinity of a coal power plant that employs clean technology (Elcogas). Tekran data showed low GEM levels during 2010-2011 (1.81 ng m-3 on average), while lower GEM levels were measured during autumn and summer, and maximum levels in spring (7.32 ng m-3 on average). RGM measurements were 0.0088 ng m-3, i.e., significantly lower than background levels in the USA and Europe (0.04 ng m-3). Concentrations of these mercury species' were higher during summer (0.0117 ng m-3). Multiple regression analysis was carried out and good relationships between GEM levels, meteorological parameters and other pollutants were identified

  9. Spatial–temporal variations, sources, and transport of airborne inhalable metals (PM10 in urban and rural areas of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Luo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle pollution is a serious environmental issue in China, especially the northern regions. Ambient air loadings (ng m−3, pollution sources and apportionment, and transport pathways of trace (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn and major (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg metals associated with inhalable particulate matters (PM10 aerosols were characterized in urban, rural village, and rural field areas of seven cities (from inland in the west to the coast in the east: Wuwei, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, Beijing, Dezhou, Yantai, and Dalian across northern China by taking one 72 h sample each site within a month for a whole year (April 2010 to March 2011. Ambient PM10 pollution in northern China is especially significant in the cold season (October–March due to the combustion of coal for heating and dust storms in the winter and spring. Owing to variations in emission intensity and meteorological conditions, there is a trend of decrease in PM10 levels in cities from west to east. Both air PM10 and the associated metal loadings for urban and rural areas were comparable, showing that the current pattern of regional pollution in China differs from the decreasing urban–rural-background transect that is usual in other parts of the world. The average metal levels are Zn (276 ng m−3 ≫ Pb (93.7 ≫ Cu (54.9 ≫ Ni (9.37 > V (8.34 ≫ Cd (2.84 > Co (1.76. Judging from concentrations (mg kg−1, enrichment factors (EFs, a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA, and a receptor model (absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression analysis, APCS-MLR, the airborne trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in northern China were mainly anthropogenic, and mostly attributable to coal combustion and vehicle emissions with additional industrial sources. However, the Co was mostly of crustal origin, and the V and Ni were mainly from soil/dust in the western region and mostly from the petrochemical industry/oil combustion in the east

  10. Spatial-temporal variations, sources, and transport of airborne inhalable metals (PM10) in urban and rural areas of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. S.; Ip, C. C. M.; Li, W.; Tao, S.; Li, X. D.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particle pollution is a serious environmental issue in China, especially the northern regions. Ambient air loadings (ng m-3), pollution sources and apportionment, and transport pathways of trace (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) metals associated with inhalable particulate matters (PM10 aerosols) were characterized in urban, rural village, and rural field areas of seven cities (from inland in the west to the coast in the east: Wuwei, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, Beijing, Dezhou, Yantai, and Dalian) across northern China by taking one 72 h sample each site within a month for a whole year (April 2010 to March 2011). Ambient PM10 pollution in northern China is especially significant in the cold season (October-March) due to the combustion of coal for heating and dust storms in the winter and spring. Owing to variations in emission intensity and meteorological conditions, there is a trend of decrease in PM10 levels in cities from west to east. Both air PM10 and the associated metal loadings for urban and rural areas were comparable, showing that the current pattern of regional pollution in China differs from the decreasing urban-rural-background transect that is usual in other parts of the world. The average metal levels are Zn (276 ng m-3) ≫ Pb (93.7) ≫ Cu (54.9) ≫ Ni (9.37) > V (8.34) ≫ Cd (2.84) > Co (1.76). Judging from concentrations (mg kg-1), enrichment factors (EFs), a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA), and a receptor model (absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression analysis, APCS-MLR), the airborne trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) in northern China were mainly anthropogenic, and mostly attributable to coal combustion and vehicle emissions with additional industrial sources. However, the Co was mostly of crustal origin, and the V and Ni were mainly from soil/dust in the western region and mostly from the petrochemical industry/oil combustion in the east. The

  11. Orientation and direction-of-motion response in the middle temporal visual area (MT of New World owl monkeys as revealed by intrinsic-signal optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Kaskan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic-signal optical imaging was used to evaluate relationships of domains of neurons in visual area MT selective for stimulus orientation and direction of motion. Maps of activation were elicited in MT of owl monkeys by gratings drifting back-and-forth, flashed stationary gratings and unidirectionally drifting fields of random dots. Drifting gratings, typically used to reveal orientation preference domains, contain a motion component that may be represented in MT. Consequently, this stimulus could activate groups of cells responsive to the motion of the grating, its orientation or a combination of both. Domains elicited from either moving or static gratings were remarkably similar, indicating that these groups of cells are responding to orientation, although they may also encode information about motion. To assess the relationship between domains defined by drifting oriented gratings and those responsive to direction of motion, the response to drifting fields of random dots was measured within domains defined from thresholded maps of activation elicited by the drifting gratings. The optical response elicited by drifting fields of random dots was maximal in a direction orthogonal to the map of orientation preference. Thus, neurons in domains selective for stimulus orientation are also selective for motion orthogonal to the preferred stimulus orientation.

  12. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  13. Temporal-spatial Variations of Dynamic Source Parameters in the Capital Circle Region and Its Surrounding Areas before the 2006 Ms 5.1 Wen'an Earthquake in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuezhong; Li Yan'e; Guo Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    Source spectra, corner frequency and zero frequency amplitudes in near-source conditions were measured using waveform data from 989 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than ML2. 0 observed by the Beijing Digital Telemetry Seismic Network in the Capital Circle Region of China and its surrounding areas from January 2002 to June 2006 by the Brune model. Relevant formulas that were used for the calculation of dynamic source parameters include rupture radius, seismic moment, seismic energy, stress drop, and apparent stress. Scaling relations and characteristics of temporal-spatial variations of these dynamic parameters before the Ms5.1 Wen'an earthquake in Hebei Province that occurred on July 20, 2006 were analyzed. Results show that apparent stress, stress drop, and the ratio of seismic energy to the rupture radius had relatively high values in some areas before the Wen'an earthquake. These high-value concentration areas were mainly distributed in the North China Plain seismic zone. As is seen from the time curves, parameters, such as apparent stress, stress drop, and ratio of seismic energy to rupture radius underwent significant ascending processes before the Wen'an earthquake, but the variation in the corner frequency showed a descending trend. This result might be related to the enhancement of stress in the North China Plain seismic zone before the earthquake.

  14. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  15. Temporal Difference Updating without a Learning Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    We derive an equation for temporal difference learning from statistical principles. Specifically, we start with the variational principle and then bootstrap to produce an updating rule for discounted state value estimates. The resulting equation is similar to the standard equation for temporal difference learning with eligibility traces, so called TD(lambda), however it lacks the parameter alpha that specifies the learning rate. In the place of this free parameter there is now an equation for the learning rate that is specific to each state transition. We experimentally test this new learning rule against TD(lambda) and find that it offers superior performance in various settings. Finally, we make some preliminary investigations into how to extend our new temporal difference algorithm to reinforcement learning. To do this we combine our update equation with both Watkins' Q(lambda) and Sarsa(lambda) and find that it again offers superior performance without a learning rate parameter.

  16. Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciären, Sweden (1959–99 – Part 1: Determination of length, area, and volume changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Haeberli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Storglaciären, located in the Kebnekaise massif in northern Sweden, has a long history of glaciological research. Early photo documentations date back to the late 19th century. Measurements of front position variations and distributed mass balance have been carried out since 1910 and 1945/46, respectively. In addition to these in-situ measurements, aerial photographs have been taken at decadal intervals since the beginning of the mass balance monitoring program and were used to produce topographic glacier maps. Inaccuracies in the maps were a challenge to early attempts to derive glacier volume changes and resulted in major differences when compared to the direct glaciological mass balances. In this study, we reanalyzed dia-positives of the original aerial photographs of 1959, -69, -80, -90 and -99 based on consistent photogrammetric processing. From the resulting digital elevation models and orthophotos, changes in length, area, and volume of Storglaciären were computed between the survey years, including an assessment of related errors. Between 1959 and 1999, Storglaciären lost an ice volume of 19×106 m3, which corresponds to a cumulative ice thickness loss of 5.69 m and a mean annual loss of 0.14 m. This ice loss resulted largely from a strong volume loss during the period 1959–80 and was partly compensated during the period 1980–99. As a consequence, the glacier shows a strong retreat in the 1960s, a slowing in the 1970s, and pseudo-stationary conditions in the 1980s and 1990s.

  17. Temporal variations of dietary habits in a high-risk area for upper gastrointestinal cancers: a population-based study from northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Faezeh; Semnani, Shahryar; Aboomardani, Maryam; Roshandel, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition transition is a global health problem, especially in developing countries. It is known as an important factor for development of different types of health conditions including cancers. We aimed to assess the pattern of nutrition transition in a high-risk area for upper gastrointestinal cancers in Northern Iran during the last decade. This cross-sectional study was conducted on households of Golestan province, Iran. Data on household food consumption between 2001 and 2010 were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran. The proportions of households with medium/high consumption of main foods were calculated for each year. Joint point software was used for assessing trends. Annual percent changes (APCs) and 95%CIs were calculated. In total, 12,060 households were recruited. The APCs (95%CI) of the proportion of households medium/high consumption of cereals, vegetables, legumes, fish, dairy products and meats were -3.1 (-4.1 to -2.2), -2.9 (-3.8 to -2.1), -2.3 (-3.2 to -1.4), -2.8 (-3.3 to -2.4), -1.9 (-3.0 to -0.9) and 2.7 (1.2 to 4.3), respectively. We found significant increase in meat consumption among our population between 2001 and 2010. Our results also suggested significant decreasing trend in consumption of so-called healthy foods including, plant foods, fish, and dairy products. Regarding its correlation with health conditions including cancers, nutrition transition should be considered as a priority in health policy making in our region as well as other high-risk populations. It is recommended to conduct community level interventions to increase consumption of plant foods, fish, and dairy products.

  18. Políticas de cooperación internacional en las enseñanzas de posgrado en biblioteconomía y documentación del espacio europeo de educación superior (EEES International cooperation policy and postgraduate studies in Library Science and Documentation in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Fernández Bajón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se ubica en el contexto de las políticas de Cooperación Internacional en los estudios de Posgrado en Bibliotecología e Información. La exposición traza la amplitud de horizontes que presenta el nuevo Espacio de Educación Europea Superior a fin de internacionalizar la educación superior. A este propósito, partimos con una reflexión en torno al papel que juega la investigación en la sociedad del conocimiento y seguidamente se relata un breve diagnóstico sobre las enseñanzas del Posgrado en el EEES, incidiendo en el caso concreto de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Documentación de la UCM y, por último, abordamos medidas de Cooperación Internacional mediante convenios de cooperación académicos.Our research is situated in the context of International Cooperation policy and postgraduate studies in Library Science and Information. We set out the broad horizons that the new European Higher Education Area (EHEA offers, with the aim of internationalizing higher education studies. With this in mind, we start with a reflection on the role research plays in the knowledge society; followed by a brief diagnosis of Postgraduate Studies in the EHEA, more specifically within the Faculty of Documentation, and finally we propose several measures for International Cooperation, by means of academic cooperation agreements.

  19. Theoretical Construction on Spatio-temporal Integration of Cultural Information Flow Between Urban and Rural Areas%城乡文化信息流时空整合的理论体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱媛媛; 曾菊新; 韩勇; 罗翔

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the basic rules of cultural information flowing between rural and urban areas, the scientific questions which are how to simulate quantitatively the flowing state and how to construct the spa-tio-temporal integration model are to be answered based on the big-data thinking, Petri network theory, RS-GIS-GPS integration technology and the analysis tool of State flow. From the perspective of dynamic"field"of rural and urban cultures, the spatio-temporal integration of cultural information flow between urban and rural areas is our research object. While, the research is to explore the influences of culture information flow on the forming of rural-urban cultures in space, uncover its mechanism, construct spatio-temporal integra-tion model, initially establish spatio-temporal integration theory of rural-urban cultural information flow, and strive to promote the integrative development of multidiscipline such as culture geography and information so-ciology and create new theory list, which is to establish the theoretical foundation for accelerating the develop-ment of urban-rural cultural integration, and to provide the scientific and theoretical basis for sustainable con-struction of CIRSP between rural and urban areas in China.%为了探寻城乡文化信息流的基本规律,将综合运用大数据思维和Petri网理论,通过"3S"集成技术以及State flow分析工具,旨在解决如何测度城乡文化信息的流态关系和构建时空整合模型两个科学问题.从"动态"的城乡文化"场域"视野出发,以城乡文化信息流的时空整合为研究对象,探索文化信息流对新城乡文化空间形成的影响,并研制出驱动机理和时空整合模式,初步构建现代城乡文化信息流的时空整合理论,力图为促进新文化地理学和信息社会学等多学科的交融发展创建新的理论菜单,为加快城乡文化一体化发展奠定理论基础,为中国城乡文化信息资源共享工程的可持续建设提供科学理论支撑.

  20. Specialized prefrontal auditory fields: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal auditory field as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  1. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm(2) , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  2. MRI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; Correlation between MRI findings and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Kazuhiro (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    The present study investigated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in temporal lobe epilepsy and correlated them with clinical variables, such as age, illness duration, past history, and the frequency of seizure. Cerebral MRI was performed in 45 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy of unknown etiology, using a 0.5 T and/or a 1.5 T MRI systems. The temporal lobe was seen as high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and/or proton density-weighted images in 6 patients, although it was missed on CT and T1-weighted images. The high intensity area seemed to reflect sclerosis of the temporal lobe. This finding was significantly associated with partial seizure. Of these patients, 3 had a history of febrile convulsions. Ten patients had slight dilatation of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. They were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those without dilatation. Furthermore, 6 patients with unilateral dilatation were significantly younger than the other 4 with bilateral dilatation. Nine patients had small multiple high signal areas in white matter, mainly in the parietal lobe, which suggested vascular origin. These patients were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those having no such findings. In depicting high signal intensity areas, a 1.5 T MRI system was not always superior to a 0.5 T MRI system. Proton density-weighted images were better than T2-weighted images in some patients. (N.K.).

  3. Integrity of medial temporal structures may predict better improvement of spatial neglect with prism adaptation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M; Shah, Priyanka; Foundas, Anne L; Barrett, A M

    2014-09-01

    Prism adaptation treatment (PAT) is a promising rehabilitative method for functional recovery in persons with spatial neglect. Previous research suggests that PAT improves motor-intentional "aiming" deficits that frequently occur with frontal lesions. To test whether presence of frontal lesions predicted better improvement of spatial neglect after PAT, the current study evaluated neglect-specific improvement in functional activities (assessment with the Catherine Bergego Scale) over time in 21 right-brain-damaged stroke survivors with left-sided spatial neglect. The results demonstrated that neglect patients' functional activities improved after two weeks of PAT and continued improving for four weeks. Such functional improvement did not occur equally in all of the participants: Neglect patients with lesions involving the frontal cortex (n = 13) experienced significantly better functional improvement than did those without frontal lesions (n = 8). More importantly, voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) revealed that in comparison to the group of patients without frontal lesions, the frontal-lesioned neglect patients had intact regions in the medial temporal areas, the superior temporal areas, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The medial cortical and subcortical areas in the temporal lobe were especially distinguished in the "frontal lesion" group. The findings suggest that the integrity of medial temporal structures may play an important role in supporting functional improvement after PAT.

  4. Temporal-spatial transformation characteristics of land use types in composite area of ore-agriculture-urban in Loess Area%黄土区矿-农-城复合区土地利用时空转换特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹银贵; 张笑然; 白中科; 周伟; 陈晓辉; 孙琦; 丁翔

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of land use type occurs frequently in the composite area of ore-agriculture-urban driven by industrialization, urbanization and urban-rural integration. This transformation is especially affected by the government policy of returning marginal cultivated land to forest and grassland, and reclamation of urban and rural construction occupied land and opencast mining site. This study aimed at revealing the process, characteristics and major causes of land use type transformation in nearly 30 years in the composite area of ore-agriculture-urban in the Loess region. With transformation maps of land use types in the periods of 1986-1996, 1996-2000, 2000-2004, 2004-2009 and 2009-2013, the important values, areas and space distribution of main transformation types were analyzed. The zoning of land use type transformation during 1986-2013 was divided, and the causes of land use type transformation were discussed. The results showed that the differences of transformation types in different periods were obvious and the number of transformation types was increased. There were 17 transformation types in the period of 1986-2013 and the sum of important values of the dominate transformation types was 94.58%, and the other transformation types were 22 and the sum of important values were 5.42%. The sum of important values in different periods presented decreasing trend. The transformation types gradually presented from the state of transformation in farmland to the coexistence of transformation in farmland, transformation between farmland and construction land, transformation between farmland and damage land. The results also showed that all transformation types presented the trends of convergence and diversity in regional distribution. In Xiangyangbao county, Jingping town, Baitang county, transformation from cultivated land into construction land was significant. In the southeast of Jingping town, the northwest of Taocun county, and the middle part of Yuling

  5. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  6. Standardization of experimental animals temporal bone sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalian Ding; Jintao Yu; Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Haiyan Jiang; Wenjuan Zhang; Hong Sun; Shankai Yin; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of the temporal bone for light microscopy is an important step in histological studies of the inner ear. Due to the complexity of structures of the inner ear, it is difficult to measure or compare structures of interest without a commonly accepted standardized measure of temporal bone sections. Therefore, standardization of temporal bone sections is very important for histological assessment of sensory hair cells and peripheral ganglion neurons in the cochlear and vestibular systems. The standardized temporal bone sectioning is oriented to a plane parallel to the outer and internal auditory canals. Sections are collected from the epitympanum to the hypotympanum to reveal layers in the order of the crista ampullaris of the superior and lateral semicircular canals, macula utriculi and macula sacculi, superior vestibular ganglion neurons, macula of saccule and inferior vestibular ganglion neurons, cochlear modiolus, endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac, and finally the crista ampullaris of the posterior semicircular canal. Moreover, technical details of preparing for temporal bone sectioning including fixation, decalcification, whole temporal bone staining, embedding penetration, and embedding orientation are also discussed.

  7. 基于需求时间特征的公共系统服务区域优化%Optimum Service Area of an Infrastructure System Based on its Temporal Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施宏伟; 王发年

    2009-01-01

    以既定系统能力为前提,运用价值工程思想和方法,探寻成本约束下公共系统的服务半径模型;进而通过服务需求特征的界定,利用时间满意度函数进行模型优化,寻求公共系统服务能力与用户需求的协同与平衡,确定最优服务半径区间;最后验证了模型的可行性和有效性.%Under deterministic service capacity of an infrastructure system,its service level is dependent on its size of service area.The service area can be measured by its radius.By using the concept and method of value engineering,and taking the temporal satisfactory into account,a model is developed to describe the relationship between the cost and service radius for infrastructure system.With this model,optimal service radius can be determined by making trade-off between service capacity and public service demands.A case problem is presented to show the application of the proposed method.

  8. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  9. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  10. Spatial-Temporal Changes of Surface Heat Island in the Central Area of Chongqing over the Past 20 Years%近20年来重庆市主城区地表热岛的时空变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贵锋; 颜文涛; 赵珂; 叶林

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the spatial-temporal changes of the urban heat island in rapidly urbanizing areas, the spatial-temporal changes of surface heat island and relative intensity of surface heat island of Chongqing were analyzed by the CIS spatial analysis functions. The land surface temperatures (LST) in the central area of Chongqing in 1988, 1993, 2001, 2007 and 2009 were retrieved using Landsat TM/ETM + thermal data. The results showed that; 1) over the past 20 years, the spatial pattern of surface urban heat island experienced as evolution from clustered pattern to less clustered pattern, and then again to clustered pattern; 2) the maximum relative heal island intensity increased initially and then decreased; 3) the relative heat island intensity decreased significantly in the old city zone, but increased significantly in the new city groups outside; the relative heat island intensities in the riverside zones near the Yangtze and Jialing Rivers increased significantly aa a result of strong construction activities; 4) the reduced magnitude of the relative heat island intensity in the old city zone was almost equal to the increased magnitude of relative heat island intensity in the new groups outside, and the relative heat island intensity showed a gentle trend in most parts of the study area. The relative heat island intensity changed consistently with the rapid expansion of the city spatially and temporally, and clearly followed the clustered urban structure.%为了揭示快速城市化地区热岛的时空变化特点,以重庆市主城区为例,利用1988-2009年共5个时期的TM/ETM+影像反演地表温度,分析了地表热岛和相对热岛强度的空间格局及其变化趋势.结果表明:近20年来地表热岛的空间格局经历了集聚→较集聚→集聚的演变过程,热岛逐渐由重庆市老城区向外围城市组团转移;最大的相对热岛强度总体呈先增大后减小的变化趋势;老城区的相对热岛强度明显减弱,外围新

  11. Evidence for superior neurobiological and behavioral inhibitory control abilities in non-offending as compared to offending pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF LARGE-SCALED THEME PARKS IN PAN-LONG TRIANGLE AREA FOR SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS%泛长三角地区大型主题公园时空分布初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹超轶; 卢松; 杨仲元

    2011-01-01

    Theme park,as one of three future directions of WTO's confirmation,which has the high speed of development,and occupied one part of China's tourism market.Pan-long triangle area,as a region which comparatively concentrate on theme parks,the speed of development and the scale are extremely great.Choosing Shanghai City,Jiangsu Province,Zhejiang Province and Anhui Province,which namely Pan-long triangle area,as the objects for study.Analysis the distribution characteristics of spatial dimension and temporal dimension for large-sized theme parks.During this study,the author achieved the following:three developing periods of large-scaled theme parks(starting developing period of static display,general developing period of interaction with visitors and intensive developing period of high-tech experiences),the characteristics of spatial-temporal distributions are obviously agglomerated and the five influence factors,there are economic developing factor,location factor,industrial convergence factor,creative factor and city developing factor.Finally,conclude the characteristics and aim at the paper,to outline some points for future intensive study.%作为世界旅游组织确定的未来旅游业发展三大趋势之一的主题公园,近年来以极为迅猛的速度发展,而作为主题公园相对较为集中的泛长三角地区,其发展速度和规模尤为突出。选取上海市、江苏省、浙江省和安徽省,即以泛长江三角洲地区为研究对象,从时间和空间两个维度上对其范围内大型主题公园的分布特征进行分析,总结出泛长三角大型主题公园的发展阶段、空间分布聚集特征明显以及影响分布的5个因素(经济发展因素、区位因素、产业融合因素、创新因素和城市发展因素)等。最后对时空分布进行总结并提出未来需要加强研究的若干方面。

  13. 近期亚洲中部高山地区湖泊变化的时空分析%Spatio-temporal Analysis of Recent Changes of Lake Area and Lake Water Level at High Mountains in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李均力; 方晖; 包安明; 杨辽

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resources in arid regions of Central Asia. They provide sparsely distributed but valuable fresh water resources for the fragile environments and human activities, which act as the essential components of the hydrological cycle and local ecosystems. Lakes in alpine regions are sensitive to natural changes, which can serve as an important indicator of global climate change and regional environment variations. Lake changes are mainly manifested by their level or area changes, which can provide evidence of spatial and temporal characteristics of regional water resource changes. Mapping these lakes and detecting their changes are therefore of great significance to understand the relevance of lake variations to climate changes, and they are also crucial to evaluating impacts of economic development on ecological balances. However, lake studies in these remote mountainous areas seem to be limited due to low accessibility and lack of observation data. Satellite remote sensing provides an efficient tool to analyze the status and variations in these lakes. In this paper, Landsat/CBERS were used to map lake area changes, and Jason, ICEsat/GLAS were employed to extract lake level information, forming a time series of level and area changes of 16 lakes over the past ten years. The spatial and temporal characteristics of lake level changes were also analyzed with information on glaciers and dams, so as to unravel the responses of level and area changes of different types of lakes to climate change and human activities. It is shown that remote sensing has a good performance of mapping lake level and area changes, and lake levels in October have good performance of describing the temporal processes of lake level changes. Glaciers are vital to alpine closed lakes, and the characteristics of level changes are classified into two modes based on glacier distribution: lakes in the northern Tibetan Plateau (the Kunlun Mountains, Karakorum

  14. Simultaneous use of several monitoring techniques to measure visitor load, spatio-temporal distribution and social characteristics of tourists - a case study of a cable car area in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowska, Karolina; Zięba, Antoni; Brandenburg, Christiane; Muhar, Andreas; Preisel, Hemma; Hibner, Joanna; Latosinska, Barbara; Benítez, Rafael; Bolós, Vicente; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Ziobrowski, Szymon

    2017-04-01

    Visitor monitoring is an integrate part of the effective management of recreational and protected areas. Comprehensive information concerning volume of tourist traffic, spatial-temporal distribution of visitors in a leisure setting as well as visitor socio-demographic characteristics may support understanding human behaviour and the ongoing natural processes (trail deterioration, erosion, impact on flora and fauna). Especially, vulnerable areas that in the same time serve as tourist attractions need to be carefully investigated. One of such areas is Kasprowy Wierch (1987 m.a.s.l.) - a popular cable car destination located in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park, Poland / Slovakia. The aim of this study was to define the overall visitor load and to understand visitor behaviour in the proximity of the upper cable car station at Kasprowy Wierch. The main focus of this presentation is the comparison of the used monitoring techniques and exposing the benefit of their simultaneous application. Visitor monitoring campaign was carried out in the study area in the summer season 2014. The following data collection techniques were simultaneously applied: 1) automatic counting (Eco-Counter pyroelectric sensors), 2) manual counting; 3) on-site interviews combined with trip diaries and visitor observation 4) GPS-tracking 5) registry of cable car tickets 6) registry of entries to the national park (TPN). Between 26.06.2014 and 30.09.2014 at 7 locations a continuous automatic counting of visitors was done using pyroelectric sensors (Eco-Counter). Additionally, on 18 sampling days at 12 locations direct observations (manual counting) of visitor flows was carried out. During the sampling days tourists were interviewed in the field using structured questionnaires (PAPI survey technique, N = 2639). Survey was combined with a documentation of visitors' trip itineraries via GPS-loggers and map sketches. Totally 1250 GPS-tracks of visitors and 1351 map sketches have been

  15. Superior digit memory of abacus experts: an event-related functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Michimata, Chikashi; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Honda, Manabu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2002-12-01

    Abacus experts exhibit superior short-term memory for digits, but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the brain activity of abacus experts and non-experts during the memory retention period of a delayed match-to-sample task using digits as stimuli. In controls, activity was greater in cortical areas related to verbal working memory, including Broca's area. In contrast, in experts, activity was greater in cortical areas related to visuo-spatial working memory, including the bilateral superior frontal sulcus and superior parietal lobule. This provides neurophysiological evidence that abacus experts utilize a visuo-spatial representation for digit memory.

  16. Net primary production and its spatial-temporal in Lu'an mining area based on MODIS data%基于MODIS数据的潞安矿区NPP时空格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝成元; 杨志茹

    2011-01-01

    基于EOS/MODIS卫星遥感数据,运用ArcGIS9.3统计与分析模块对2001—2006年潞安矿区生态系统NPP从时、空变化两个角度进行了研究分析。结果表明:时间异质性上,2001—2003年间的矿区绝大部分区域NPP大于0.2 kg/m2,而2004—2006年间NPP低于0.2 kg/m2,即研究时段内矿区NPP呈显著减少趋势;空间异质性上,NPP分布格局与海拔高程、降水量关系较为密切,但与纬向、经向地带性没有直接关系,低山丘陵区NPP数值多在0.25 kg/m2以上,平原河谷区多小于0.2 kg/m2;究其时空格局影响因素,矿区NPP时间异质性主要与煤炭开采、农业耕作等人类活动联系紧密,空间异质性多与地形地貌、植被类型、年降水量等自然因子相关。%Based on EOS/MODIS satelite remote sensing data and using spatial analysis module of ArcGIS9.3,analysed the temporal and spatial characters of vegetation NPP in Lu'an mining area from 2001 to 2006.As to temporal heterogeneity,the net primary production from 2001 to 2003 is higher than 0.2 kg/m2 in most area while it is lower than 0.2 kg/m2 from 2004 to 2006.This significant decreasing trend deserves more attention.As to spatial heterogeneity,NPP pattern are closely related with both elevation and precipitation,but no direct relationship with latitude and longitude.The NPP data are up to 0.25 kg/m2 in low mountain and hill regions while NPP are less than 0.2 kg/m2 in plain or valley regions.The temporal changes of NPP are resulted from human activities,including coal mining and agriculture farming,while the spatial changes of NPP are related with natural factors,such as topography,vegetation types and precipitation,etc.

  17. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  18. Temporal factors in resource dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, L; Poortinga, W; van der Kooij, R

    2001-01-01

    The conflict between present and future consumption lies at the heart of resource dilemmas (RDs), yet the role of time has received little attention in this research area. Emphasis was on factors related to the social rather than the temporal conflict inherent in an RD. We propose a model that deals

  19. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...

  20. Pseudodisplacements of superior vena cava catheter in the persistent left superior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, H.; Draxler, V.; Muhar, U.; Schlemmer, M.; Waneck, R.

    1983-01-01

    Pseudodisplacement of a left sided superior vena cava catheter in a persistent superior vena cava may be expected in adults in 0,37% and in a group of children with congenital heart disease in 2,5%. Embryology, anatomy and clinical implications is discussed on the basis of our own cases. The vena cava superior sinistra persitents is depending on a sufficient calibre a suitable vessel for a superior cava catheter.

  1. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in cogn

  2. Representation of spectro-temporal features of spoken words within the P1-N1-P2 and T-complex of the auditory evoked potentials (AEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monica; Roychoudhury, Arindam; Campanelli, Luca; Shafer, Valerie L; Martin, Brett; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether P1-N1-P2 and T-complex morphology reflect spectro-temporal features within spoken words that approximate the natural variation of a speaker and whether waveform morphology is reliable at group and individual levels, necessary for probing auditory deficits. The P1-N1-P2 and T-complex to the syllables /pət/ and /sət/ within 70 natural word productions each were examined. EEG was recorded while participants heard nonsense word pairs and performed a syllable identification task to the second word in the pairs. Single trial auditory evoked potentials (AEP) to the first words were analyzed. Results found P1-N1-P2 and T-complex to reflect spectral and temporal feature processing. Also, results identified preliminary benchmarks for single trial response variability for individual subjects for sensory processing between 50 and 600ms. P1-N1-P2 and T-complex, at least at group level, may serve as phenotypic signatures to identify deficits in spectro-temporal feature recognition and to determine area of deficit, the superior temporal plane or lateral superior temporal gyrus.

  3. Superior limb reimplantation. Case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovanny Ferrer Lozano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Reimplantation surgery is only performed in highly specialized medical institutions. Its success is associate to the development and improvement of microsurgical techniques and to the constant training of the medical team. We present the case of a white patient of 17 years of age, who, as a result of an accident at the working place, suffered the total detachment of his upper right limb in the shoulder area. He was admitted in the emergency unit presenting hypovolemic shock and was immediately stabilized to perform later the limb reimplantation. The postsurgical development was satisfactory, proving that reimplantation can be considered a safe and functional practice in complex wounds or amputation affecting limbs.

  4. Temporal-spatial distribution and tectonic implications of the batholiths in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, western Yunnan: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Yang, Qi-Jun; Lan, Jiang-Bo; Luo, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Long; Shi, Yu-Ruo; Xie, Lie-Wen

    2012-07-01

    Considerable progress has recently been made regarding temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism in the Lhasa Terrane. However the eastward and southeastward correlation of these Tibetan magmatic suites in western Yunnan and Burma remains poorly constrained. This paper reports zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions of granites in the Gaoligong-Tengliang-Yingjiang area, west Yunnan. It reveals three episodes of plutonism, and more importantly a southwestward magmatic migration. The Gaoligong batholiths in the northeast were mainly emplaced during early Cretaceous (126-121 Ma) and comprised predominantly S-type granites with negative zircon ɛHf values (ɛHf = -2˜-12). The Tengliang granites, situated southwest of the Gaoligong belt, were emplaced in late Cretaceous (68-76 Ma) and also displayed a strong peraluminous affinity and negative ɛHf (-5˜-14), indicating a provenance from a Proterozoic sedimentary source with little mantle contribution. The youngest phase of magmatism (52-66 Ma) occurred in Yingjiang, southwestmost of the study area. It is composed of S-type granites (ɛHf = -2˜-12) in east Yingjiang and I-type granites (ɛHf = -4˜+6) in west Yingjiang, near the China-Burma border. The late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic plutons in the Tengliang and Yingjiang area are thus considered as the northern continuation of the late Cretaceous magmatic arc (west), which comprises I-type granites and andesitic rocks, and of the belt of predominant S-type granites (east) in Burma, Thailand and Malaysia. Such a chemical polarity of the dual I-type and S-type granites is strongly reminiscent of the northern American Cordillera, indicating a Cordilleran-style continental margin during the late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic. While the magmatic arc was related to eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethys beneath the Asian continent, the S-type granites represented the melting products of thickened crust in the hinterland, in response to subduction-induced decrease in

  5. Cortical afferents of visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: possible homologies between New and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M G; Soares, J G; Fiorani, M; Gattass, R

    1993-01-01

    Cortical projections to the middle temporal (MT) visual area were studied by injecting the retrogradely transported fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into MT in adult New World monkeys (Cebus apella). Injection sites were selected based on electrophysiological recordings, and covered eccentricities from 2-70 deg, in both the upper and lower visual fields. The position and laminar distribution of labeled cell bodies were correlated with myeloarchitectonic boundaries and displayed in flat reconstructions of the neocortex. Topographically organized projections were found to arise mainly from the primary, second, third, and fourth visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4). Coarsely topographic patterns were observed in transitional V4 (V4t), in the parieto-occipital and parieto-occipital medial areas (PO and POm), and in the temporal ventral posterior area (TVP). In addition, widespread or nontopographic label was found in visual areas of the superior temporal sulcus (medial superior temporal, MST, and fundus of superior temporal, FST), annectent gyrus (dorsointermediate area, DI; and dorsomedial area, DM), intraparietal sulcus (lateral intraparietal, LIP; posterior intraparietal, PIP; and ventral intraparietal, VIP), and in the frontal eye field (FEF). Label in PO, POm, and PIP was found only after injections in the representation of the peripheral visual field (> 10 deg), and label in V4 and FST was more extensive after injections in the central representation. The projections from V1 and V2 originated predominantly from neurons in supragranular layers, whereas those from V3, V4t, DM, DI, POm, and FEF consisted of intermixed patches with either supragranular or infragranular predominance. All of the other projections were predominantly infragranular. Invasion of area MST by the injection site led to the labeling of further pathways, including substantial projections from the dorsal prelunate area (DP) and from an ensemble of areas located along the medial wall of the hemisphere

  6. Distribution of visual attention within a cued area: evidence based on temporal order judgments Distribuição da atenção visual dentro de áreas indicadas: evidência baseada em julgamentos de ordem temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Cavallet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were performed to investigate the distribution of attention across the visual field and the possibility of attentional resources to be more concentrated inside an abrupt onset frame (cue. The participants performed a temporal order judgment task of two letters presented in sequence; one letter presented inside and the other outside the frame. The results showed that the information presented inside the frame had its perceptual latency shortened in relation to the information presented outside the frame in experimental conditions where the frame orientation, the distance between the two letters and the cue onset time were manipulated. The advantage of the information presented inside the frame was attributed to the displacement of attention to the area delimited by the frame. The results contribute to the understanding of visual perception, showing that attentional resources may be redistributed inside the borders of a geometric figure.Três experimentos foram realizados para investigar a distribuição da atenção pelo campo visual e a possibilidade dos recursos de atenção serem mais concentrados no interior de uma moldura (dica de início abrupto. Os participantes realizaram uma tarefa de julgamento de ordem temporal de duas letras apresentadas em seqüência; uma letra apresentada dentro e a outra fora da moldura. Os resultados mostraram que a informação apresentada dentro da moldura teve a sua latência perceptual encurtada em relação à informação apresentada fora da moldura em condições experimentais onde a orientação da moldura, a distância entre as duas letras e o tempo de exposição da moldura foram manipulados. Esta vantagem para a informação apresentada dentro da moldura foi atribuída ao deslocamento da atenção para a área delimitada pela moldura. Os resultados contribuem para o entendimento da percepção visual, mostrando que recursos de atenção podem ser redistribuídos dentro das bordas de

  7. Improved quantification of brain perfusion using FAIR with active suppression of superior tagging (FAIR ASST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N; Purdy, David E; Haley, Robert W; Briggs, Richard W

    2011-11-01

    To address two problems for perfusion studies in the middle or inferior brain regions: (1) to reduce venous artifacts due to the intrinsic superior labeling of FAIR; (2) to alleviate the discrepancy of the existence of both superior and inferior boluses, but with only the inferior bolus having a temporally defined bolus width with Q2TIPs or QUIPSS. Superior tagging suppression methods for FAIR with different combinations of pre- and postinversion superior saturation pulses were evaluated and compared with FAIR with Q2TIPS for producing perfusion maps of superior, middle, and inferior brain regions. One preinversion plus two postinversion superior saturation radio frequency pulses effectively suppressed the superior tagging of FAIR and sufficiently eliminated venous artifacts without negative effects, avoiding the overestimations of cerebral blood flow that can occur in FAIR. FAIR ASST improves FAIR with Q2TIPS and provides more reliable and accurate blood flow estimations for perfusion studies of middle and lower brain regions. FAIR ASST confers the advantages of asymmetric PASL techniques, such as PICORE, in which only the inferiorly labeled blood is used for perfusion quantification, to the symmetric PASL technique FAIR, while preserving the robustness of FAIR against MT effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...... superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  9. Semantic retrieval during overt picture description: Left anterior temporal or the parietal lobe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Leech, Robert; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-09-01

    Retrieval of semantic representations is a central process during overt speech production. There is an increasing consensus that an amodal semantic 'hub' must exist that draws together modality-specific representations of concepts. Based on the distribution of atrophy and the behavioral deficit of patients with the semantic variant of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration, it has been proposed that this hub is localized within both anterior temporal lobes (ATL), and is functionally connected with verbal 'output' systems via the left ATL. An alternative view, dating from Geschwind's proposal in 1965, is that the angular gyrus (AG) is central to object-based semantic representations. In this fMRI study we examined the connectivity of the left ATL and parietal lobe (PL) with whole brain networks known to be activated during overt picture description. We decomposed each of these two brain volumes into 15 regions of interest (ROIs), using independent component analysis. A dual regression analysis was used to establish the connectivity of each ROI with whole brain-networks. An ROI within the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (antSTS) was functionally connected to other parts of the left ATL, including anterior ventromedial left temporal cortex (partially attenuated by signal loss due to susceptibility artifact), a large left dorsolateral prefrontal region (including 'classic' Broca's area), extensive bilateral sensory-motor cortices, and the length of both superior temporal gyri. The time-course of this functionally connected network was associated with picture description but not with non-semantic baseline tasks. This system has the distribution expected for the production of overt speech with appropriate semantic content, and the auditory monitoring of the overt speech output. In contrast, the only left PL ROI that showed connectivity with brain systems most strongly activated by the picture-description task, was in the superior parietal lobe (supPL). This region

  10. Temporal Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  11. A Predictive Risk Model for A(H7N9) Human Infections Based on Spatial-Temporal Autocorrelation and Risk Factors: China, 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-Li; Yang, Yu-Lian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution, spatial autocorrelation, temporal cluster, spatial-temporal autocorrelation and probable risk factors of H7N9 outbreaks in humans from March 2013 to December 2014 in China. The results showed that the epidemic spread with significant spatial-temporal autocorrelation. In order to describe the spatial-temporal autocorrelation of H7N9, an improved model was developed by introducing a spatial-temporal factor in this paper. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to investigate the risk factors associated with their distribution, and nine risk factors were significantly associated with the occurrence of A(H7N9) human infections: the spatial-temporal factor φ (OR = 2546669.382, p 0.70) of the predictive risk map, whereas 44.6% (45/101) of which overlaid on the high risk areas (the predictive risk > 0.70) for the traditional model, and the fitting accuracy of the improved model was 91.6% which was superior to the traditional model (86.1%). The predictive risk map generated based on the improved model revealed that the east and southeast of China were the high risk areas of A(H7N9) human infections in February 2014. These results provided baseline data for the control and prevention of future human infections. PMID:26633446

  12. Intracranially protruded bilateral posterior and superior SCCs with multiple dehiscences in a patient with positional vertigo: CT and MR imaging findings and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal G Kundaragi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of intracranially protruded posterior and superior semicircular canals beyond the margins of temporal bone with bony roof dehiscence in bilateral posterior and left superior semicircular canals in a patient with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV.

  13. Millian superiorities and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2008-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority. And in a ......James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority...... of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  14. Measuring Financial Gains from Genetically Superior Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Dutrow; Clark Row

    1976-01-01

    Planting genetically superior loblolly pines will probably yield high profits.Forest economists have made computer simulations that predict financial gains expected from a tree improvement program under actual field conditions.

  15. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  16. Spatio-temporal diffusion of dynamic PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauber, C; Chalon, S; Guilloteau, D [Inserm U930, CNRS ERL3106, Universite Francois Rabelais, Tours (France); Stute, S; Buvat, I [IMNC, IN2P3, UMR 8165 CNRS-Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, Orsay (France); Chau, M [ASA-Advanced Solutions Accelerator, Montpellier (France); Spiteri, P, E-mail: clovis.tauber@univ-tours.fr [IRIT-ENSEEIHT, UMR CNRS 5505, Toulouse (France)

    2011-10-21

    Positron emission tomography (PET) images are corrupted by noise. This is especially true in dynamic PET imaging where short frames are required to capture the peak of activity concentration after the radiotracer injection. High noise results in a possible bias in quantification, as the compartmental models used to estimate the kinetic parameters are sensitive to noise. This paper describes a new post-reconstruction filter to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic PET imaging. It consists in a spatio-temporal robust diffusion of the 4D image based on the time activity curve (TAC) in each voxel. It reduces the noise in homogeneous areas while preserving the distinct kinetics in regions of interest corresponding to different underlying physiological processes. Neither anatomical priors nor the kinetic model are required. We propose an automatic selection of the scale parameter involved in the diffusion process based on a robust statistical analysis of the distances between TACs. The method is evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations of brain activity distributions. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method and its superior performance over two other post-reconstruction spatial and temporal filters. Our simulations suggest that the proposed method can be used to significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic PET imaging.

  17. Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaumont, Arthus; Pierret, Charles; de Kerangal, Xavier; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Laborde, François

    2014-08-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava is a very rare tumor and only a few cases have been reported, with various techniques of vascular reconstruction. We describe a new case of leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava in a 61-year-old woman with extension to the brachiocephalic arterial trunk. Resection and vascular reconstruction were performed using, respectively, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene terephtalate vascular grafts.

  18. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Rocha França Neto; Rodrigo de Almeida Paiva; Antônio Lacerda Filho; Fábio Lopes de Queiroz; Teon Noronha

    2011-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible wi...

  19. Factores de riesgo asociados con anomalías de oclusión en dentición temporal: Área III Risk factors associated with occlusion anomalies in temporary dentition: Area III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia María León Caballero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos factores de riesgo se encuentran presentes durante el crecimiento del niño y ejercen su influencia en el desarrollo de los maxilares y la dentición. Con el objetivo de determinar factores de riesgo asociados con anomalías de la oclusión, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal correlacional, desde mayo del 2005 hasta mayo del 2006. El universo estuvo constituido por 635 niños de 2 a 5 años de edad pertenecientes al área III de salud del municipio Cienfuegos. Se obtuvo una muestra representativa por un método de muestreo probabilística estratificado aleatorio del que resultaron 209 niños a examinar. Se observaron resultados significativos en la presencia de los hábitos deformantes en el 76,1 % de los casos, seguido de la ausencia de diastemas interinsicivos con el 42,6 %, micrognatismo transversal en el 37,3 %, espacio del primate superior ausente (35,9 %, la herencia en el 23,8 %, así como malnutrición y escalón distal en el 3,8 % de los pacientes. Se corroboró la importancia que reviste para los estomatólogos generales integrales conocer y detectar los factores de riesgo presentes desde edades tempranas para evitar anomalías de la oclusión.Some risk factors are present during the growth of children and exert their influence on the development of the maxillaries and dentition. In order to determine the risk factors associated with occlusion anomalies, a descriptive cross-sectional correlational study was conducted from May 2005 to May 2006. The study group was made up of 635 children aged 2-5 from the health area III of Cienfuegos municipality. A representative sample was obtained by a randomized stratified probabilistic sampling method from which 209 children were examined. Significant results were observed in the presence of deforming habits in 76.1 % of the cases, followed by the absence of interincisive diastemas with 42.6 %, transversal micrognathism in 37.3 %, absence of the space of the upper primate (35

  20. Soil moisture retrieval using multi-temporal Sentinel-1 SAR data in agricultural areas%利用多时相Sentinel-1 SAR数据反演农田地表土壤水分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何连; 秦其明; 任华忠; 都骏; 孟晋杰; 杜宸

    2016-01-01

    agricultural fields. In order to retrieve soil moisture, an algorithm based on the change detection technique was utilized. This algorithm (referred to as alpha approximation approach) relies on the assumptions that the contributions of vegetation and surface roughness to the radar backscattered signal are multiplicative. Therefore, the effects of vegetation and surface roughness on radar backscattering coefficients can be decoupled from the effects of soil moisture changes by rationing multi-temporal like-polarized (HH and VV) intensities between two close acquisition dates. The ratio is expected to track changes in soil moisture only since the changes of surface roughness, canopy structure and vegetation biomass take place at longer temporal scales than soil moisture changes. The alpha approximation approach was firstly evaluated by comparing with data sets simulated by a theoretical radiative transfer (RT) scattering model. It was found that the alpha approximation approach was overall in good agreement with the RT scattering model without introducing significant errors for bare surface and low vegetation area, which confirmed that the alpha approximation approach was a simple and effective way to reduce the influences of vegetation and surface roughness. Furthermore, under the assumption of alpha approximation, the ratio of 2 consecutive backscatter measurements could be approximately represented as the squared ratio of corresponding Bragg scattering coefficients. For Sentinel-1 SAR data with only one like-polarized channel (i.e. VV),N SAR acquisitions would result inN - 1 linear equations inN unknown Bragg scattering coefficients. To solve this underdetermined system of equations, a bounded linear least-squares optimization was applied. Once the unknown Bragg scattering coefficients were retrieved, the relative dielectric constant could be analytically derived with the soil moisture being estimated by the inversion of microwave dielectric model. The alpha approximation

  1. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  2. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  3. Petrografía y geoquímica del magmatIsmo cretácico superior-eoceno en el área de PichaIhue, provincia de Neuquén Petrography and geochemistry of Upper Cretaceous-Eocene magmatism in the Pichaihue area, Neuquén Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paula Mateo Fernández Caso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hacia fines del Mesozoico, en el sector noroeste de la provincia de Neuquén se desarrolló un magmatismo asociado a la evolución y migración del arco andino desde los 36º40' hasta los 38º20' de latitud sur. En base a estudios petrológicos, se caracterizaron facies hipabisales y extrusivas que afloran en el área de Pichaihue. Las primeras están compuestas por andesitas que se emplazan como lacolitos, diques o filones capa intruyendo las secuencias sedimentarias mesozoicas. También se reconocen afloramientos de basaltos. Las facies extrusivas están constituidas principalmente por coladas brechosas, coladas masivas y pequeños domos. La geoquímica evidencia una impronta calcoalcalina, de arco volcánico, con una corteza de espesor normal y patrones de elementos traza que sugieren una misma fuente. Dentro del marco regional, se pueden distinguir tres grupos: los diques del cerro Mocho con alto contenido en Ti y mayor relación Sm/Yb, magmatismo cretácico superior-paleoceno al que pertenecen las facies extrusivas (Andesita Rivera y un evento eoceno al cual corresponden las facies hipabisales (Diques de Colipilli. Por último, la presencia de estas rocas en este segmento de los Andes evidencia una importante migración hacia el este del arco volcánico cretácico superior-eoceno indicando su posición más oriental.Magmatism related to the growth and migration of the Andean arc was developed from the 36º40'S to the 38º20'S latitude, in the northwestern sector of the Neuquén Province, by the end of the Mesozoic. Hypabyssal and extrusive facies, which outcrop in the Pichaihue area, were described based on petrologic studies. The first ones are composed of andesites that are emplaced as lacoliths, dikes or sills intruding the Mesozoic sedimentary sequences. In addition, basalts outcrops were recognized. The extrusive facies consist of breccia or massive lavas and little domes. The geochemistry reveals an arc-like calc-alkaline signature

  4. Lake Superior supports novel clusters of cyanobacterial picoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanikova, Natalia V; Popels, Linda C; McKay, R Michael L; Bullerjahn, George S

    2007-06-01

    Very little is known about the biodiversity of freshwater autotrophic picoplankton (APP) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, a system comprising 20% of the world's lacustrine freshwater. In this study, the genetic diversity of Lake Superior APP was examined by analyzing 16S rRNA gene and cpcBA PCR amplicons from water samples. By neighbor joining, the majority of 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered within the "picocyanobacterial clade" consisting of freshwater and marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. Two new groups of Synechococcus spp., the pelagic Lake Superior clusters I and II, do not group with any of the known freshwater picocyanobacterial clusters and were the most abundant species (50 to 90% of the sequences) in samples collected from offshore Lake Superior stations. Conversely, at station Portage Deep (PD), located in a nearshore urbanized area, only 4% of the sequences belonged to these clusters and the remaining clones reflected the freshwater Synechococcus diversity described previously at sites throughout the world. Supporting the 16S rRNA gene data, the cpcBA library from nearshore station PD revealed a cosmopolitan diversity, whereas the majority of the cpcBA sequences (97.6%) from pelagic station CD1 fell within a unique Lake Superior cluster. Thus far, these picocyanobacteria have not been cultured, although their phylogenetic assignment suggests that they are phycoerythrin (PE) rich, consistent with the observation that PE-rich APP dominate Lake Superior picoplankton. Lastly, flow cytometry revealed that the summertime APP can exceed 10(5) cells ml-1 and suggests that the APP shifts from a community of PE and phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria and picoeukaryotes in winter to a PE-rich community in summer.

  5. 额颞枕叶非功能区胶质瘤的手术策略%Surgical Strategies of frontal, temporal, and occipital lobe gliomas in non-functional areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晶; 张军霞; 颜伟; 曹胜武; 王颖毅; 王彬彬; 赵春生; 赵鹏; 刘宁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment strategies of frontal,temporal,and occipital lobe gliomas in non-functional areas.Methods From January 2009 to January 2013,the clinical data of 89 patients with glioma who had complete data and whose lesions located in frontal,temporal,and occipital lobe non-functional areas treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were analyzed retrospectively.The corresponding surgical strategies were selected according to preoperative imaging showed the location and size of the tumors and edema degree.The tumor tissues were maximally removed.Routine use of navigation and B-ultrasound localization during the operation,the gliomas were removed by using the yellow fluorescence microscope-assisted resection.Results In 89 patients,the lesions of 49 patients were confined to the cortices,11 were confined to the deep brain ventricles,and 29 invaded the ventricles and cortices at the same time.The lesions of 67 patients were confined to one lobe and 22 invaded a plurality of lobes.The postoperative pathology confirmed that the tumors of 12 patients were WHO grade Ⅰ,21 were WHO grade Ⅱ,29 were WHO grade Ⅲ,and 27 were WHO grade Ⅳ.The postoperative MRI confirmed that 74 patients (83.1%) had total resection,11 (12.4%) had subtotal resection,and 2 (2.2%) had near-total resection,and 2 (2.2%) had partial resection.The mean follow-up time after procedure was 30.0 + 3.6 months.The 2-year survival rate of WHO grade Ⅲ was 51.7% and that of WHO grade Ⅳ was 33.3%.Forty-one patients died during the follow-up period,including 21 (77.8%) with WHO grade Ⅳ,and their median survival time was 19.4 (11.5-30.2)months; 18 (62.1%) with WHO grade Ⅲ,and their median survival time was 26.7 (19.7-36.5) months;2 (9.5%) with WHO grade Ⅱ,and none of them with WHO grade Ⅰ died.Conclusion Under the guidance of the imaging,the surgical methods and resection range of frontal,temporal

  6. Projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Preuss, P; Jürgens, U

    1976-02-13

    , midline thalamus, dorsal hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray and parabrachial nuclei. These structures are considered to compose a functionally coherent vocalization system. The projections into Broca's area, nucleus ventralis anterior thalami, frontoopercular cortex within the lateral fissure, pontine nuclei and superior temporal gyrus are discussed in their possible relationship to vocalization processes.

  7. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Shirer, William R; Konrad, Boris N; Müller, Nils C J; Wagner, Isabella C; Fernández, Guillén; Czisch, Michael; Greicius, Michael D

    2017-03-08

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of stratabound Pb-Zn deposits in the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas%青藏高原及邻区层控型铅锌矿时空分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亮; 张智勇; 张克信; 骆满生; 安显银

    2013-01-01

    The Paleozoic-Mesozoic multi-arc basin system and the tectonic framework of Cenozoic rapid uplift in the Tibetan plateau have resulted in specific temporal and spatial distribution of the Pb-Zn deposits and zoning of mineralization and led to the phenomenon that different tectonic units have different specific ore species. The stratabound Pb-Zn deposits in the study area are characterized by multi-epoch mineralization, with the Cambrian and the Devonian strata being the main ore-hosting horizons. Moreover, lots of lithofacies containing Pb-Zn deposits were formed during that period, and the carbonate platform facies was the advantageous ore-controlling facies, with dolomites as the main ore-bearing rocks. Large to superlarge Cenozoic lead-zinc ore bodies were also discovered in the study area, which were assigned to low-temperature thermal brine migration-filling type ore deposits. The authors hold that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in the Cenozoic might be an important factor responsible for the enrichment of this type of lead-zinc deposits. It is believed that so long as detailed studies are conducted, these Cenozoic ore deposits in the study area will show tremendous ore-prospecting potential.%青藏高原古生代—中生代复杂的多岛弧盆系演化和新生代高原急剧隆升的构造格局造就了层控型铅锌矿特定的时空分布和成矿作用的分带性.在不同类型的构造单元内具有特征的成矿专属性和矿床类型.青藏高原及周缘层控型铅锌矿有多时代成矿的特点,寒武系和泥盆系是主要赋矿层位.古生代—中生代铅锌矿合矿层岩相古地理具有多样性,以台地相作为控矿优势相,尤其以白云岩作为容矿岩石的矿床居多.另外新生代地层作为主要容矿层之一,发育有大型甚至特大型的层控铅锌矿体,为低温热卤水运移充填矿床.推测青藏高原在新生代快速隆升是该类矿床富集成矿的重要控矿因素.随着研究的深

  9. Competencias y formación universitaria del documentalista en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES: estudio de su adecuación al entorno laboral Competences and University training of Documentalists in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA: study of adequacy to the job environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Oliva Marañón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las competencias del documentalista se han transformado con la implantación del Grado en Información y Documentación adaptado al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES. Los objetivos de esta investigación son analizar tanto las ofertas de empleo existentes para el área de Biblioteconomía y Documentación en el ámbito público y en la empresa privada, como los planes de estudios del Grado en Información y Documentación de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y de la Universidad de Sheffield (Reino Unido para verificar si se adecuan a las demandas de los empleadores. Se ha consultado la lista de distribución Infodoc, el Diario Oficial de la Unión Europea y las páginas Web de las Universidades citadas. Se confirma tanto la escasa adecuación entre los contenidos académicos de la titulación y las demandas de empleo en el ámbito público, como un desconocimiento de la titulación por parte de los empresarios. Se aportan algunas propuestas para mejorar la titulación de Grado en Información y Documentación con el objetivo de que los titulados se incorporen al mercado laboral con las máximas garantías.The competences of the Documentalist have undergone change with the introduction and adaptation of the Degree in Information and Documentation to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA. The aims of this research are to analyze the existing Librarianship and Documentation employment market in both the public and private sectors, and to assess the course of studies Degree in Information and Documentation offered by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Sheffield University meet the needs of employers. This research reviews the distribution list of Infodoc, the Official Diary of the European Union and the Web pages of the aforementioned Universities, confirming general inadequacy between the academic contents of these degree programs and the job requirement of the public sector. Moreover, employers appear to be completely

  10. 1961~2010年河西地区平均风速时空变化趋势分析%Spatial and Temporal Trends of Average Wind Speed in Hexi Area in 1961-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克新; 潘少明; 曹立国

    2014-01-01

    利用河西地区15个气象站点1961~2010年月平均风速和最大风速日值资料,采用M-K突变检验、ArcGIS中的IDW插值和小波分析等方法分析河西地区平均风速的时空变化趋势。结果表明:近50 a来,河西地区年平均风速呈明显下降趋势,其递减速率为0.14 m/( s•10 a)(α=0.001);该地区四季平均风速均呈减少趋势且减少趋势相同;平均风速的变化在空间分布上存在差异,具体表现为年平均风速的递减趋势是自西向东逐渐减小,瓜州和玉门是该地区减幅最大的区域,而乌鞘岭却呈现出微增的趋势;风速的长期变化具有一定的突变性,其年平均风速在1985年发生突变;该地区平均风速存在存在多尺度的周期结构特性,其变化周期为6、19和25 a。%Hexi area is characterized with a vulnerable ecological system and severe soil erosion in the north-west of China. Analyzing the trend of the average wind speed is critical for wind resources management and soil erosion control in this region. Based on the monthly average wind speed of the 15 weather stations in Hexi area from 1961 to 2010 and using the methods of climate trending rate, 5 years running mean tread, Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation, Mann-Kendall abrupt change test and wavelet analysis method, the spatial and temporal trends of the average wind speed as well as the possible influential factors were analyzed in Hexi area of Gansu Province from 1961 to 2010. The main results are as follows:1) The annual average wind speed was 2.9 m/s in Hexi area. The annual average wind speed obviously decreased at the rate of approximately 0.14m/(s·10 a) (α=0.001) in Hexi area during the period of 1961-2010. Furthermore, on the seasonal scale, the decreased rate of four seasons was similar. The mainly reason why the annual average wind speed decreased significantly was that the frequency of 5 or more than 5 levels of wind have decreased over recent

  11. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Evidence of fronto-temporal interactions for strategic inference processes during language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ho Ming; Kaup, Barbara; Raabe, Markus; Greenlee, Mark W

    2008-04-01

    We investigated how readers strategically infer context-appropriate information on the basis of the presented text and their world knowledge during passage reading. In the main experimental condition, participants were instructed to read short passages and to predict the development of the situation described in each passage during reading. To accomplish this task, we assumed that participants need to draw strategic inferences relevant to the contexts. Comparing this condition with a passage-reading condition without prediction, we found out that the left anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) in Brodmann area 9/10 and the left anterior ventral inferior frontal gyrus (vIFG) in Brodmann area 47 elicited increased hemodynamic responses. These two regions are probably critical in coherence evaluation and in drawing strategic inferences. Additionally, we used dynamic causal modelling (DCM) to investigate the fronto-temporal interactions induced by the experimental conditions. Ten models with different plausible ways to modulate the connections between frontal and temporal regions were compared. The DCM results showed a consistent conclusion: The connectivity between the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and the left dorsal lateral inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) were enhanced when participants made inferential predictions during reading. The results support the role of top-down influences mediated by the neural pathways between dIFG and pSTS in retrieving strategic inferences. With these findings we discuss functional roles of aPFC, vIFG and dIFG-pSTS connections in drawing strategic inferences.

  13. Partial closure of right superior orbit