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Sample records for superior reproductive success

  1. Plant fertilization: maximizing reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2012-06-19

    Sperm competition does not occur in flowering plants as typically only a single pair of sperm cells is delivered for double fertilization. Two recent reports show that plants are capable of avoiding reproductive failure when defective sperm cells are released. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Critical success factors for achieving superior m-health success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, A; Wickramasinghe, N; Bali, R K; Naguib, R N G

    2007-01-01

    Recent healthcare trends clearly show significant investment by healthcare institutions into various types of wired and wireless technologies to facilitate and support superior healthcare delivery. This trend has been spurred by the shift in the concept and growing importance of the role of health information and the influence of fields such as bio-informatics, biomedical and genetic engineering. The demand is currently for integrated healthcare information systems; however for such initiatives to be successful it is necessary to adopt a macro model and appropriate methodology with respect to wireless initiatives. The key contribution of this paper is the presentation of one such integrative model for mobile health (m-health) known as the Wi-INET Business Model, along with a detailed Adaptive Mapping to Realisation (AMR) methodology. The AMR methodology details how the Wi-INET Business Model can be implemented. Further validation on the concepts detailed in the Wi-INET Business Model and the AMR methodology is offered via a short vignette on a toolkit based on a leading UK-based healthcare information technology solution.

  3. Love Influences Reproductive Success in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Butovskaya, Marina; Karwowski, Maciej; Groyecka, Agata; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2017-01-01

    As love seems to be universal, researchers have attempted to find its biological basis. However, no studies till date have shown its direct association with reproductive success, which is broadly known to be a good measure of fitness. Here, we show links between love, as defined by the Sternberg Triangular Theory of Love, and reproductive success among the Hadza—traditional hunter-gatherer population. We found that commitment and reproductive success were positively and consistently related in both sexes, with number of children showing negative and positive associations with intimacy and passion, respectively, only among women. Our study may shed new light on the meaning of love in humans' evolutionary past, especially in traditional hunter-gatherer societies in which individuals, not their parents, were responsible for partner choice. We suggest that passion and commitment may be the key factors that increase fitness, and therefore, that selection promoted love in human evolution. However, further studies in this area are recommended. PMID:29209243

  4. Increased reproductive success of women after prenatal undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, Rebecca C.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine is associated with an increased risk of chronic degenerative disease. We now investigate whether prenatal famine exposure affected reproductive success. METHODS: We assessed reproductive success (number of children, number of twins, age at delivery,

  5. The reproduction of lake trout in southern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1955-01-01

    The principal spawning grounds of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) in United States waters of southern Lake Superior are on rocky shoals at depths of less than 20 fathoms. Most spawning occurs in October and early November. Of the mature fish collected on or near the spawning grounds, 60 to 69 percent were males. Among mature fish the average length of females was greater than that of males; few males less than 24 inches or females less than 26 inches in total length were caught. Recoveries of lake trout tagged on the spawning grounds showed that some males remained in the immediate area for a period of several weeks during the spawning season. Marked fish showed a tendency to return during later years to spawning grounds on which they had been tagged, even though many of them ranged long distances between spawning seasons.

  6. Lifetime reproductive success in the solitary endoparasitoid, Venturia canescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Harvey, I.F.; Thompson, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps have long been considered excellent organisms in studies examining the evolution of reproductive and life- history strategies. In examining the lifetime reproductive success of parasitoids in the laboratory, most investigations have provided the insects with excess hosts and food,

  7. Genetic diversity and reproductive success in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, M; Setchell, J M; Prugnolle, F; Knapp, L A; Wickings, E J; Peignot, P; Hossaert-McKey, M

    2005-11-15

    Recent studies of wild animal populations have shown that estimators of neutral genetic diversity, such as mean heterozygosity, are often correlated with various fitness traits, such as survival, disease susceptibility, or reproductive success. We used two estimators of genetic diversity to explore the relationship between heterozygosity and reproductive success in male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semifree ranging setting in Gabon. Because social rank is known to influence reproductive success in both sexes, we also examined the correlation between genetic diversity and social rank in females, and acquisition of alpha status in males, as well as length of alpha male tenure. We found that heterozygous individuals showed greater reproductive success, with both females and males producing more offspring. However, heterozygosity influenced reproductive success only in dominant males, not in subordinates. Neither the acquisition of alpha status in males, nor social rank in females, was significantly correlated with heterozygosity, although more heterozygous alpha males showed longer tenure than homozygous ones. We also tested whether the benefits of greater genetic diversity were due mainly to a genome-wide effect of inbreeding depression or to heterosis at one or a few loci. Multilocus effects best explained the correlation between heterozygosity and reproductive success and tenure, indicating the occurrence of inbreeding depression in this mandrill colony.

  8. Determinants of distribution, abundance and reproductive success ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... while local vegetation structure determines the abundance of locally established populations. The abundance of trees affects nest site availability and breeding success, based on observations at two oases. Blackbird nests were usually situated on pomegranate trees and olive trees. The Common Blackbird is a successful ...

  9. Wenatchee River steelhead reproductive success - Estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead in the Wenatchee River, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project uses genetic parentage analysis to estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead spawning in the Wenatchee River, WA. The...

  10. Reproductive success and failure: the role of winter body mass in reproductive allocation in Norwegian moose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jos M; van Beest, Floris M; Solberg, Erling J; Storaas, Torstein

    2013-08-01

    A life history strategy that favours somatic growth over reproduction is well known for long-lived iteroparous species, especially in unpredictable environments. Risk-sensitive female reproductive allocation can be achieved by a reduced reproductive effort at conception, or the subsequent adjustment of investment during gestation or lactation in response to unexpected environmental conditions or resource availability. We investigated the relative importance of reduced investment at conception compared with later in the reproductive cycle (i.e. prenatal, perinatal or neonatal mortality) in explaining reproductive failure in two high-density moose (Alces alces) populations in southern Norway. We followed 65 multiparous, global positioning system (GPS)-collared females throughout the reproductive cycle and focused on the role of maternal nutrition during gestation in determining reproductive success using a quasi-experimental approach to manipulate winter forage availability. Pregnancy rates in early winter were normal (≥0.8) in all years while spring calving rates ranged from 0.4 to 0.83, with prenatal mortality accounting for most of the difference. Further losses over summer reduced autumn recruitment rates to 0.23-0.69, despite negligible predation. Over-winter mass loss explained variation in both spring calving and autumn recruitment success better than absolute body mass in early or late winter. Although pregnancy was related to body mass in early winter, overall reproductive success was unrelated to pre-winter body condition. We therefore concluded that reproductive success was limited by winter nutritional conditions. However, we could not determine whether the observed reproductive allocation adjustment was a bet-hedging strategy to maximise reproduction without compromising survival or whether females were simply unable to invest more resources in their offspring.

  11. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia...... nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males...... success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own...

  12. Effect of floral display on reproductive success in terrestrial orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 47-60 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6141302; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/1124 Keywords : deceptivity * floral display * orchid * reproductive success * reward Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2005

  13. Impact of supplementary feeding on reproductive success of white storks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Hilgartner

    Full Text Available European white stork (Ciconia ciconia populations have been object to several conservation measures such as reintroduction programs, habitat improvement or supplementary feeding in the last decades. Although recent white stork censuses revealed an upward trend of most of the western populations, evaluations of the relative importance of certain conservation measures are still scarce or even lacking. In our study we analyzed the effect of supplementary feeding on the reproductive success of white storks in conjunction with other factors such as weather or nest site characteristics. We present data of 569 breeding events at 80 different nest sites located in variable distances to an artificial feeding site at Affenberg Salem (south-western Germany collected from 1990-2012. A multilevel Poisson regression revealed that in our study population (1 reproductive success was negatively affected by monthly precipitation in April, May and June, (2 pairs breeding on power poles had a lower reproductive success than pairs breeding on platforms or trees and (3 reproductive success was significantly higher in pairs breeding in close distance to the feeding site. The number of fledglings per nest decreased by 8% per kilometer distance to the feeding site. Our data suggest that supplementary feeding increases fledgling populations which may be a tool to attenuate population losses caused by factors such as habitat deterioration or unfavorable conditions in wintering habitats.

  14. Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR): An Assessment of Success1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Mario; Mebane, Dorianne; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2016-01-01

    The Frontiers in Reproduction (FIR) course has been held annually since 1998 at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, MA. The primary purpose of the course is to train young reproductive biologists in cutting-edge techniques that would strengthen their career opportunities. An initial evaluation of the FIR course was conducted by surveying the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2002. The findings of this survey were published in Biology of Reproduction in 2006, which highlighted the overall positive impact the course had on the training and upward career trajectory of the participants during the first 5 yr. The current study was designed to access the continued impact of FIR at the 10-yr mark by evaluating the participants who took the course between 1998 and 2008 using two different survey mechanisms. Based on these evaluations and feedback from the participants, it was evident that 1) FIR continues to have a significant positive impact on the careers of the participants, 2) the majority of the participants continue to be involved in research or administration related to the reproductive sciences, 3) nearly 90% of the attendees have been successful in obtaining funding for their research, and 4) most alumni have published at least five manuscripts in higher impact journals since they took the course. Therefore, it is evident that FIR participants are highly successful and continue to significantly impact the advances in the reproductive sciences worldwide. PMID:27335071

  15. Redefining reproductive success in songbirds: Moving beyond the nest success paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Refsnider, Jeanine M.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most commonly estimated parameters in studies of songbird ecology is reproductive success, as a measure of either individual fitness or population productivity. Traditionally, the “success” in reproductive success refers to whether, or how many, nestlings leave nests. Here, we advocate that “reproductive success” in songbirds be redefined as full-season productivity, or the number of young raised to independence from adult care in a breeding season. A growing body of evidence demonstrates interdependence between nest success and fledgling survival, and emphasizes that data from either life stage alone can produce misleading measures of individual fitness and population productivity. Nest success, therefore, is an insufficient measure of reproductive success, and songbird ecology needs to progress beyond this long-standing paradigm. Full-season productivity, an evolutionarily rational measure of reproductive success, provides the framework for appropriately addressing unresolved questions about the adaptive significance of many breeding behaviors and within which effective breeding-grounds conservation and management can be designed.

  16. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  18. Accumulation of Cs-137 by vegetative and reproductive parts of superior water plants in Kanev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'kov, I.V.; Prityka, T.P.; Ivanova, I.Yu.; Zarubin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The generative part of superior water plants of some ecological groups cumulates Cs-137 in such quantity than considerably exceeds its contain in others parts of the plant, that leads to the dose increase in the reproductive organs

  19. Problem-solving performance and reproductive success of great tits in urban and forest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiszner, Bálint; Papp, Sándor; Pipoly, Ivett; Seress, Gábor; Vincze, Ernő; Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Success in problem solving, a form of innovativeness, can help animals exploit their environments, and recent research suggests that it may correlate with reproductive success. Innovativeness has been proposed to be especially beneficial in urbanized habitats, as suggested by superior problem-solving performance of urban individuals in some species. If there is stronger selection for innovativeness in cities than in natural habitats, we expect problem-solving performance to have a greater positive effect on fitness in more urbanized habitats. We tested this idea in great tits (Parus major) breeding at two urban sites and two forests by measuring their problem-solving performance in an obstacle-removal task and a food-acquisition task. Urban pairs were significantly faster problem-solvers in both tasks. Solving speed in the obstacle-removal task was positively correlated with hatching success and the number of fledglings, whereas performance in the food-acquisition task did not correlate with reproductive success. These relationships did not differ between urban and forest habitats. Neophobia, sensitivity to human disturbance, and risk taking in the presence of a predator did not explain the relationships of problem-solving performance either with habitat type or with reproductive success. Our results suggest that the benefit of innovativeness in terms of reproductive success is similar in urban and natural habitats, implying that problem-solving skills may be enhanced in urban populations by some other benefits (e.g. increased survival) or reduced costs (e.g. more opportunities to gain practice with challenging tasks).

  20. Evaluation of a reproductive index to estimate grasshopper sparrow and eastern meadowlark reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Donald P.; Gipson, P.S.; Pontius, J.S.; Japuntich, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We compared an index of reproductive success based on breeding behavior to actual nest fates of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) on 12 plots (4-ha). Concordance of results between the two methods was 58% for grasshopper sparrows and 42% for eastern meadowlarks on a plot-by-plot basis. The indirect method yielded higher estimates of reproductive activity than nest monitoring for the balance of the plots,. There was little evidence that brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism influenced the estimates of reproductive success using the indirect method. We concluded that nests and about-to-fledge nestlings were missed during searches on some plots. It may be appropriate to use an indirect method to more efficiently survey territories and/or plots for species with hard-to-find nests or when monitoring large areas. Use of a reproductive index may be appropriate and more time-efficient than nest searching and monitoring for comparing management effects such as burning, grazing, haying, military training, and other localized disturbances that are likely to affect reproductive success of grasshopper sparrows and eastern meadowlarks. However, nest monitoring may be necessary for more precise estimates of productivity necessary for long-term monitoring. Nest monitoring results are also likely to allow for direct comparisons to results from other studies because the index method requires intimate knowledge of the species being evaluated - a factor that could lead to reduced precision because the experience level of technicians relying only on behavioral cues from study-to-study is likely to vary considerably.

  1. Reproduction of superior sagittal sinus animal model by bypass transplantation of biomaterial graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yong LUO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the beagles model of superior sagittal sinus bypass graft,and explore the feasibility of reconstruction of superior sagittal sinus with biomaterials using this model.Methods Eight adult male beagles(weight: 12.5-22.0kg were involved in the present study.The superior sagittal sinus was exposed and blocked via bone window,and then anastomosed side-to-end to the biomaterial graft under the dedicated microscope of neurosurgery surgery,expectant treatment such as anti-inflammatory was given for the animals.The digital subtraction venography(DSV and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI of superior sagittal sinus were performed in 1,2,4 and 8 weeks after the operation.Eight weeks after the operation,all the animals were sacrificed and the material graft was examined histologically.Results The DSV and CDFI of superior sagittal sinus showed that the stomas of 2 beagles were with slight stenosis and high flow velocity,of 1 beagle with small leakage and low flow velocity,while of other 5 beagles were normal.The histological examination showed endothelial cells were growing on the graft and superior sagittal sinus,and crawling toward the lumen of graft 8 weeks after the operation.Conclusion The beagles model of superior sagittal sinus bypass graft was established successfully.The short-term effect of the model was satisfactory,while further work should be performed to determine the long-term effects.

  2. Tributyltin impaired reproductive success in female zebrafish through disrupting oogenesis, reproductive behaviors and serotonin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Chen, Qi-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hao

    2018-07-01

    study demonstrated that TBT may impair the reproductive success of zebrafish females probably through disrupting oogenesis, disturbing reproductive behaviors and altering serotonin synthesis. The present study greatly extends our understanding on the reproductive toxicity of TBT on fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prey selectivity affects reproductive success of a corallivorous reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Most animals consume a narrower range of food resources than is potentially available in the environment, but the underlying basis for these preferences is often poorly understood. Foraging theory predicts that prey selection should represent a trade-off between prey preferences based on nutritional value and prey availability. That is, species should consume preferred prey when available, but select less preferred prey when preferred prey is rare. We employed both field observation and laboratory experiments to examine the relationship between prey selection and preferences in the obligate coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. To determine the drivers of prey selection, we experimentally established prey preferences in choice arenas and tested the consequences of prey preferences for key fitness-related parameters. Field studies showed that individuals fed almost exclusively on live corals from the genus Acropora. While diet was dominated by the most abundant species, Acropora nobilis, fish appeared to preferentially select rarer acroporids, such as A. millepora and A. hyacinthus. Prey choice experiments confirmed strong preferences for these corals, suggesting that field consumption is constrained by availability. In a longer-term feeding experiment, reproductive pairs fed on non-preferred corals exhibited dramatic reductions to body weight, and in hepatic and gonad condition, compared with those fed preferred corals. The majority of pairs fed preferred corals spawned frequently, while no spawning was observed for any pairs fed a non-preferred species of coral. These experiments suggest that fish distinguish between available corals based on their intrinsic value as prey, that reproductive success is dependent on the presence of particular coral species, and that differential loss of preferred corals could have serious consequences for the population success of these dietary specialists.

  4. A model for estimating the minimum number of offspring to sample in studies of reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph H; Ward, Eric J; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular parentage permits studies of selection and evolution in fecund species with cryptic mating systems, such as fish, amphibians, and insects. However, there exists no method for estimating the number of offspring that must be assigned parentage to achieve robust estimates of reproductive success when only a fraction of offspring can be sampled. We constructed a 2-stage model that first estimated the mean (μ) and variance (v) in reproductive success from published studies on salmonid fishes and then sampled offspring from reproductive success distributions simulated from the μ and v estimates. Results provided strong support for modeling salmonid reproductive success via the negative binomial distribution and suggested that few offspring samples are needed to reject the null hypothesis of uniform offspring production. However, the sampled reproductive success distributions deviated significantly (χ(2) goodness-of-fit test p value reproductive success distribution at rates often >0.05 and as high as 0.24, even when hundreds of offspring were assigned parentage. In general, reproductive success patterns were less accurate when offspring were sampled from cohorts with larger numbers of parents and greater variance in reproductive success. Our model can be reparameterized with data from other species and will aid researchers in planning reproductive success studies by providing explicit sampling targets required to accurately assess reproductive success.

  5. Steelhead Kelt Reconditioning and Reproductive Success, 2008 Annul Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Douglas R. [Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission

    2009-04-02

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Current rates of observed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss iteroparity rates in the Columbia River Basin are severely depressed due to anthropogenic development which includes operation of the hydropower system and other habitat degradations. Artificial reconditioning, which is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads, is evaluated in this study as method to restore depressed steelhead populations. To test the efficacy of steelhead kelt reconditioning as a management and recovery tool different scenarios were investigated ranging from very low intensity (collect and transport fish) to high intensity (collect and feed fish in captivity until rematuration). Examinations of gamete and progeny viability were performed for first-time spawners and reconditioned kelt steelhead. We have continued to examine reproductive success of reconditioned kelt steelhead in Omak Creek using microsatellite loci to perform parentage analysis on juvenile O. mykiss . The groundwork has also begun on developing a genetic analysis of the Yakima subbasin in order to determine steelhead kelt contribution by utilizing parentage analysis on a larger scale. A research and study plan has been developed cooperatively with the University of Idaho to determine the feasibility of steelhead kelt reconditioning program in the Snake River Basin. Analysis of management scenarios indicated that while no-term and short-term reconditioned kelts continue to perform well outmigrating to the ocean but returns from these groups have been low ranging from 0-12% during 2002-2008. Survival (56%) of fish in the long-term treatment in 2008 was the highest we have observed in this project. Analyzing the three different management scenarios within the Yakima River subbasin

  6. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitch D. Weegman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch years (i.e., between cohorts. In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8% of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young only once in their lifetime and 15 (2% reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4 when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7 if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to

  7. Classical Markov Chains: A Unifying Framework for Understanding Avian Reproductive Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional methods for monitoring and analysis of avian nesting success have several important shortcomings, including 1) inability to handle multiple classes of nest failure, and 2) inability to provide estimates of annual reproductive success (because birds can, and typically ...

  8. When do we eat? Ingestive behavior, survival, and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A curvilinear effect of height on reproductive success in human males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, G.; Pollet, T.V.; Verhulst, S.; Buunk, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Human male height is associated with mate choice and intra-sexual competition, and therefore potentially with reproductive success. A literature review (n = 18) on the relationship between male height and reproductive success revealed a variety of relationships ranging from negative to curvilinear

  10. A curvilinear effect of height on reproductive success in human males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Pollet, Thomas V.; Verhulst, Simon; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Human male height is associated with mate choice and intra-sexual competition, and therefore potentially with reproductive success. A literature review (n = 18) on the relationship between male height and reproductive success revealed a variety of relationships ranging from negative to curvilinear

  11. Permanent Pacemaker-Induced Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Successful Treatment by Endovascular Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanciego, Carlos; Rodriguez, Mario; Rodriguez, Adela; Carbonell, Miguel A.; Garcia, Lorenzo Garcia

    2003-01-01

    The use of metallic stents in the management of benign and malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is well documented. Symptomatic stenosis or occlusion of the SVC is a rare complication of a transvenous permanent pacemaker implant. Suggested treatments have included anticoagulation therapy, thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty and surgery. More recently, endovascular stenting has evolved as an attractive alternative but the data available in the literature are limited. We describe a case in which venous stenting with a Wallstent endoprosthesis was used successfully. The patient remains symptom free and with normal pacemaker function 36 months later

  12. Successful Venous Angioplasty of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome after Heart Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Strecker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For patients with terminal heart failure, heart transplantation (HTX has become an established therapy. Before transplantation there are many repeated measurements with a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC via the superior vena cava (SVC necessary. After transplantation, endomyocardial biopsy (EMB is recommended for routine surveillance of heart transplant rejection again through the SVC. Case Presentation. In this report, we present a HTX patient who developed a SVC syndrome as a possible complication of all these procedures via the SVC. This 35-year-old Caucasian male could be successfully treated by balloon dilatation/angioplasty. Conclusion. The SVC syndrome can lead to pressure increase in the venous system such as edema in the head and the upper part of the body and further serious complications like cerebral bleeding and ischemia, or respiratory problems. Balloon angioplasty and stent implantation are valid methods to treat stenoses of the SVC successfully.

  13. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  14. Local anthropogenic contamination affects the fecundity and reproductive success of an Arctic amphipod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lis; Fischer, Astrid; Strand, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    to clean site individuals. These results indicated a cost of living in highly contaminated environments in terms of reduced reproductive success. This study confirms the potential of the benthic amphipod O. pinguis as a bioindicator for assessments of reproductive effects of contaminants in the Arctic...

  15. Successful Oocyte Cryopreservation in Reproductive-Aged Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, Sarah; Goldman, Kara N; Labella, Patty A; Fino, M Elizabeth; Bazzocchi, Antonia; Noyes, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate that oocyte cryopreservation is a feasible reproductive option for patients with cancer of childbearing age who require gonadotoxic therapies. This study is a university-based retrospective review of reproductive-aged cancer patient treatment cycles that included ovarian stimulation, transvaginal oocyte retrieval, oocyte cryopreservation, and, in some cases, subsequent oocyte thaw, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer. Outcome measures included ovarian stimulation response, number of oocytes retrieved, cryopreserved, and thawed, and pregnancy data. From 2005 to 2014, 176 reproductive-aged patients with cancer (median age 31 years, interquartile range 24-36) completed 182 oocyte cryopreservation cycles. Median time between consult request and oocyte retrieval was 12 days (interquartile range 10-14). Median peak stimulation estradiol was 1,446 pg/mL (interquartile range 730-2,687); 15 (interquartile range 9-23) oocytes were retrieved and 10 (interquartile range 5-18) metaphase II oocytes were cryopreserved per cycle. Ten patients (11 cycles) have returned to attempt pregnancy with their cryopreserved oocytes. Among thawed oocytes, the cryopreservation survival rate was 86% (confidence interval [CI] 78-94%). Nine of 11 thaw cycles resulted in embryos suitable for transfer. The embryo implantation rate was 27% (CI 8-46%) and the live birth rate was 44% (CI 12-77%) per embryo transfer. Chance for live birth with embryos created from cryopreserved oocytes was similar between the patients with cancer in this study and noncancer patients who underwent the same treatment at our center (44% [CI 12-77%] compared with 33% [CI 22-44%] per embryo transfer). Oocyte cryopreservation is now a feasible fertility preservation option for reproductive-aged patients with cancer who require gonadotoxic therapies.

  16. Decomposing variation in male reproductive success: age-specific variances and covariances through extra-pair and within-pair reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebigre, Christophe; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2013-07-01

    Age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success shape the total variance in lifetime reproductive success (LRS), age-specific opportunities for selection, and population demographic variance and effective size. Age-specific (co)variances in reproductive success achieved through different reproductive routes must therefore be quantified to predict population, phenotypic and evolutionary dynamics in age-structured populations. While numerous studies have quantified age-specific variation in mean reproductive success, age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success, and the contributions of different reproductive routes to these (co)variances, have not been comprehensively quantified in natural populations. We applied 'additive' and 'independent' methods of variance decomposition to complete data describing apparent (social) and realised (genetic) age-specific reproductive success across 11 cohorts of socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We thereby quantified age-specific (co)variances in male within-pair and extra-pair reproductive success (WPRS and EPRS) and the contributions of these (co)variances to the total variances in age-specific reproductive success and LRS. 'Additive' decomposition showed that within-age and among-age (co)variances in WPRS across males aged 2-4 years contributed most to the total variance in LRS. Age-specific (co)variances in EPRS contributed relatively little. However, extra-pair reproduction altered age-specific variances in reproductive success relative to the social mating system, and hence altered the relative contributions of age-specific reproductive success to the total variance in LRS. 'Independent' decomposition showed that the (co)variances in age-specific WPRS, EPRS and total reproductive success, and the resulting opportunities for selection, varied substantially across males that survived to each age. Furthermore, extra-pair reproduction increased

  17. Variation in circulating testosterone during mating predicts reproductive success in a wild songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Apfelbeck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is an important sex hormone and mediates reproduction in male vertebrates. There is ample evidence that testosterone coordinates the expression of physiological, morphological and behavioural traits during reproduction and many of these traits are under sexual selection. However, only few studies so far have examined if individual variation in testosterone is correlated with reproductive success. Because socially monogamous bird species pass through different phases within a breeding cycle and each of these phases requires the expression of different behaviours, the relation between testosterone and reproductive success could vary with breeding stage. Here we investigate the link between reproductive success and testosterone in European stonechats – a socially monogamous songbird with biparental care. Previous studies found that territorial aggression in breeding stonechats depends on testosterone and that testosterone levels peak during the mating phase. Thus, high testosterone levels during mating may influence reproductive success by promoting territorial aggression and mate guarding. We found that males with two breeding attempts produced a similar number of fledglings as males with three breeding attempts. However, males with two breeding attempts expressed higher levels of testosterone than males with just one or those with three breeding attempts, regardless of whether testosterone was measured during the mating or the parental phase of the first brood. Furthermore, testosterone levels during mating, but not during parenting correlated with the total annual number of fledglings. Thus, individual variation in levels of plasma testosterone predicted reproductive success in stonechats.

  18. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival ove...

  19. Genetic variation of male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voordouw Maarten J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For Anopheline mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria, genetic variation in male reproductive success can have important consequences for any control strategy based on the release of transgenic or sterile males. Methods A quantitative genetics approach was used to test whether there was a genetic component to variation in male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae. Swarms of full sibling brothers were mated with a fixed number of females and their reproductive success was measured as (1 proportion of ovipositing females, (2 proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae, (3 proportion of females that produced larvae, (4 number of eggs laid per female, (5 number of larvae per ovipositing female and (6 number of larvae per female. Results The proportion of ovipositing females (trait 1 and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae (trait 2 differed among full sib families, suggesting a genetic basis of mating success. In contrast, the other measures of male reproductive success showed little variation due to the full sib families, as their variation are probably mostly due to differences among females. While age at emergence and wing length of the males were also heritable, they were not associated with reproductive success. Larger females produced more eggs, but males did not prefer such partners. Conclusion The first study to quantify genetic variation for male reproductive success in A. gambiae found that while the initial stages of male reproduction (i.e. the proportion of ovipositing females and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae had a genetic basis, the overall reproductive success (i.e. the mean number of larvae per female did not.

  20. Life-history constraints on the success of the many small eggs reproductive strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan; Pedersen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive strategy of most fishes is to produce a large number of tiny eggs, leading to a huge difference between egg size and asymptotic body size. The viability of this strategy is examined by calculating the life-time reproductive success R0 as a function of the asymptotic body size....... A simple criterion for the optimality of producing small eggs is found, depending on the rate of predation relative to the specific rate of consumption. Secondly it is shown that the success of the reproductive strategy is increasing with asymptotic body size. Finally the existence of both upper and lower...

  1. Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela

    2011-08-22

    Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.

  2. The Tropilaelaps mites threat: Observations of their reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropilaelaps spp. are more successful parasitic mites of Apis mellifera than Varroa destructor in Asia (Burgett et al., Bee World 64:25-28). We sought explanations to this success by assessing their fecundity on European bees in three short experiments using the mite transfer technique: 1) fecundity...

  3. Does temperature-mediated reproductive success drive the direction of species displacement in two invasive species of leafminer fly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Wang

    Full Text Available Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae are two highly invasive species of leafmining flies, which have become established as pests of horticultural crops throughout the world. In certain regions where both species have been introduced, L. sativae has displaced L. trifolii, whereas the opposite has occurred in other regions. These opposing outcomes suggest that neither species is an inherently superior competitor. The regions where these displacements have been observed (southern China, Japan and western USA are climatically different. We determined whether temperature differentially affects the reproductive success of these species and therefore if climatic differences could affect the outcome of interspecific interactions where these species are sympatric. The results of life table parameters indicate that both species can develop successfully at all tested temperatures (20, 25, 31, 33°C. L. sativae had consistently higher fecundities at all temperatures, but L. trifolii developed to reproductive age faster. Age-stage specific survival rates were higher for L. sativae at low temperatures, but these were higher for L. trifolii at higher temperatures. We then compared the net reproductive rates (R0 for both species in pure and mixed cultures maintained at the same four constant temperatures. Both species had significantly lower net reproductive rates in mixed species cultures compared with their respective pure species cultures, indicating that both species are subject to intense interspecific competition. Net reproductive rates were significantly greater for L. sativae than for L. trifolii in mixed species groups at the lower temperatures, whereas the opposite occurred at the higher temperature. Therefore, interactions between the species are temperature dependent and small differences could shift the competitive balance between the species. These temperature mediated effects may contribute to the current ongoing displacement

  4. Sightings and successful reproduction of allochthonous reptiles in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sperone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports information about the presence of three allochthonous reptiles species in Calabria: Testudo marginata, Trachemys scripta elegans and Chamaeleo chamaeleon. The first one was found in three sites located in the Catena Costiera Massif and in the Crati Valley (Northern Calabria. The slider turtle was found in seven different sites throughout all the region. It massively colonised the Angitola artificial lake: here, this turtle lives in natural conditions and its reproduction was confirmed by the presence of nests, eggs and hatchlings. C. chamaeleon is present in sandy coastal habitats near Palmi and Gioia Tauro (Southern Calabria. From a conservationistic point of view, serious damages to autochtonous species could be caused by the spreading of T. scripta elegans: this species has already determined the local extinction of Angitola’s Emys orbicularis populations.

  5. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, James E. [North Carolina State University

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  6. Genetic analysis of male reproductive success in relation to density in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan William C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used behavioural and genetic data to investigate the effects of density on male reproductive success in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Based on previous measurements of aggression and courtship behaviour by territorial males, we predicted that they would sire more offspring than non-territorial males. Results Microsatellite analysis of paternity showed that at low densities territorial males had higher reproductive success than non-territorial males. However, at high density territorial males were no more successful than non-territorials and the sex difference in the opportunity for sexual selection, based on the parameter Imates, was low. Conclusion Male zebrafish exhibit two distinct mating tactics; territoriality and active pursuit of females. Male reproductive success is density dependent and the opportunity for sexual selection appears to be weak in this species.

  7. Conspecific reproductive success and breeding habitat selection: Implications for the study of coloniality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, E.; Boulinier, T.; Massot, M.

    1998-01-01

    Habitat selection is a crucial process in the life cycle of animals because it can affect most components of fitness. It has been proposed that some animals cue on the reproductive success of conspecifics to select breeding habitats. We tested this hypothesis with demographic and behavioral data from a 17-yr study of the Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a cliff-nesting seabird. As the hypothesis assumes, the Black-legged Kittiwake nesting environment was patchy, and the relative quality of the different patches (i.e., breeding cliffs) varied in time. The average reproductive success of the breeders of a given cliff was predictable from one year to the next, but this predictability faded after several years. The dynamic nature of cliff quality in the long term is partly explained by the autocorrelation of the prevalence of an ectoparasite that influences reproductive success. As predicted by the performance-based conspecific attraction hypothesis, the reproductive success of current breeders on a given cliff was predictive of the reproductive success of new recruits on the cliff in the following year. Breeders tended to recruit to the previous year's most productive cliffs and to emigrate from the least productive ones. Consequently, the dynamics of breeder numbers on the cliffs were explained by local reproductive success on a year-to-year basis. Because, on average, young Black-legged Kittiwakes first breed when 4 yr old, such a relationship probably results from individual choices based on the assessment of previous-year local quality. When breeders changed breeding cliffs between years, they selected cliffs of per capita higher reproductive success. Furthermore, after accounting for the potential effects of age and sex as well as between-year variations, the effect of individual breeding performance on breeding dispersal was strongly influenced by the average reproductive success of other breeders on the same cliff. Individual breeding performance did

  8. Psychosocial needs of women and their partners after successful assisted reproduction treatment in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Crespo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that pregnancy and parenthood after a period of infertility are unproblematic and gratifying. However, a review of the literature highlights the complexity of the psychological and social consequences of pregnancy, childbirth and parenting after successful treatment with assisted reproductive technology. These experiences, including those following the creation of new forms of non-genetic and/or social parenthood, require investigation in order to understand how women and their partners integrate their journey from infertility to pregnancy and parenthood after successful assisted reproductive treatment. This paper presents results derived from qualitative interviews with 30 pregnant women and 21 couples after assisted reproductive treatment (repeated rounds of individual interviews with the study participants conducted from July 2010 to April 2014 as part of a larger ethnographic study exploring the psychosocial needs of women and partners following assisted reproductive treatment in Barcelona’s. The transcribed text was coded into categories of either predetermined or emergent topics. Prior studies have found that couples who achieve pregnancy after infertility may experience higher levels of anxiety in relation to pregnancy. This anxiety can be linked with a higher risk of complications during pregnancy after assisted reproductive treatment compared with spontaneous conception. However, the evidence concerning adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood is inconclusive. This study highlights the necessity for participants to give meaning to these treatments, given the variability that exists in perceptions of infertility and pregnancy after successful assisted reproductive treatment.

  9. The importance of pollinator generalization and abundance for the reproductive success of a generalist plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Maldonado

    Full Text Available Previous studies have examined separately how pollinator generalization and abundance influence plant reproductive success, but none so far has evaluated simultaneously the relative importance of these pollinator attributes. Here we evaluated the extent to which pollinator generalization and abundance influence plant reproductive success per visit and at the population level on a generalist plant, Opuntia sulphurea (Cactaceae. We used field experiments and path analysis to evaluate whether the per-visit effect is determined by the pollinator's degree of generalization, and whether the population level effect (pollinator impact is determined by the pollinator's degree of generalization and abundance. Based on the models we tested, we concluded that the per-visit effect of a pollinator on plant reproduction was not determined by the pollinators' degree of generalization, while the population-level impact of a pollinator on plant reproduction was mainly determined by the pollinators' degree of generalization. Thus, generalist pollinators have the greatest species impact on pollination and reproductive success of O. sulphurea. According to our analysis this greatest impact of generalist pollinators may be partly explained by pollinator abundance. However, as abundance does not suffice as an explanation of pollinator impact, we suggest that vagility, need for resource consumption, and energetic efficiency of generalist pollinators may also contribute to determine a pollinator's impact on plant reproduction.

  10. The impact of parental investment on lifetime reproductive success in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert F; Lynch, Emily C

    2017-01-01

    Demonstrating the impact that parents have on the fitness of their children is a crucial step towards understanding how parental investment has affected human evolution. Parents not only transfer genes to their children, they also influence their environments. By analyzing reproductive patterns within and between different categories of close relatives, this study provides insight into the genetic and environmental effects that parents have on the fitness of their offspring. We use data spanning over two centuries from an exceptionally accurate Icelandic genealogy, Íslendingabók, to analyze the relationship between the fertility rates of close relatives. Also, using genetic data, we determine narrow sense heritability estimates ( h 2 ) to further explore the genetic impact on lifetime reproductive success. Finally, we construct four simulations to model the expected contribution of genes and resources on reproductive success. The relationship between the reproduction of all full sibling pairs was significant and positive across all birth decades ( r  = 0.19) while the reproductive relationship between parents and offspring was often negative across many decades and undetectable overall ( r  = 0.00) (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Meanwhile, genetic data among 8,456 pairs of full siblings revealed a narrow sense heritability estimate ( h 2 ) of 0.00 for lifetime reproductive success. A resources model (following the rule that resources are transmitted from parents to children, distributed equally among siblings, and are the only factor affecting reproductive success) revealed a similar trend: a negative relationship between parent and offspring reproduction ( r  =  - 0.35) but a positive relationship among full siblings ( r  = 0.28). The relationship between parent and offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and full sibling LRS was strongly and positively correlated across time ( r  = 0.799, p  investment has had an important impact on fitness. Overall

  11. Acid precipitation and reproductive success of Ambystoma salamanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pough, R H; Wilson, R E

    1976-01-01

    The two species of mole salamander that occur in the Ithaca, New York, region (Ambystoma maculatum and A. jeffersonianum) breed in temporary ponds that are formed by accumulation of melted snow and spring rains. Water in many of these pools during the breeding season is acid; pH values as low as 3.5 have been measured. In laboratory experiments A. maculatum tolerated pHs from 6 to 10 and had greatest hatching success at pH 7 to 9. Ambystoma Jeffersonianum tolerated pH 4 to 8 and was most successful at pH 5 to 6. Mortality rose abruptly beyond the tolerance limits. The pH optimum shifted upward with increasing temperature for A. jeffersonianum and downward for A. maculatum. Judging from our laboratory studies, the acidity measured in breeding ponds should cause mortality in A. maculatum and permit normal development in A. jeffersonianum. In a four-year study of a large acidic vernal pond, 938 adult A. maculatum produced 486 metamorphosed juveniles (0.52 juvenile/adult), while 686 adult A. jeffersonianum produced 2157 juveniles (3.14 juveniles/adult). Because the effects of acid precipitation on the salamanders' breeding ponds are cumulative from year to year, profound changes in the salamander populations can be anticipated.

  12. Acid precipitation and reproductive success of Ambystoma salamanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pough, F H; Wilson, R E

    1977-03-01

    The two species of mole salamander that occur in the Ithaca, New York, region (Ambystoma maculatum and A. jeffersonianum) breed in temporary ponds that are formed by accumulation of melted snow and spring rains. Water in many of these pools during the breeding season is acid; pH values as low as 3.5 have been measured. In laboratory experiments A. maculatum tolerated pHs from 6 to 10 and had greatest hatching success at pH 7 to 9. Ambystoma jeffersonianum tolerated pH 4 to 8 and was most successful at pH 5 to 6. Mortality rose abruptly beyond the tolerance limits. The pH optimum shifted upward with increasing temperature for A. jeffersonianum and downward for A. maculatum. Judging from our laboratory studies, the acidity measured in breeding ponds should cause mortality in A. maculatum and permit normal development in A. jeffersonianum. In a 4 yr study of a large, acidic vernal pond, 938 adult A. maculatum produced 486 metamorphosed juveniles (0.52 juvenile/adult), while 686 adult A. jeffersonianum produced 2157 juveniles (3.14 juveniles/adult). Because the effects of acid precipitation on the salamanders' breeding ponds are cumulative from year to year, profound changes in the salamander populations can be anticipated.

  13. The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (μg mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

  14. "Nice guys finish last": influence of mate choice on reproductive success in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, C; Bolton, J L; Ford, B; Jampana, S; Tinker, J; Frohardt, R J; Guarraci, F A; Zewail-Foote, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine if male physiology and male reproductive behavior predict reproductive success in Long-Evans rats. Mating behavior was observed in sexually naïve, naturally cycling female rats during behavioral estrous that were given the opportunity to mate with two males simultaneously. DNA analysis of offspring born following these mating encounters was used to identify the paternity of each pup. In order to assess the effect of mate choice during these mating encounters on reproductive success, one male rat in each pair was categorized as the preferred mate if the female spent more time (>50%) with him during the mating test of the present study. Furthermore, each male in the pairs was categorized as "attractive" or "non-attractive" by computing the number of females that preferred each male across many mating tests. Similar to results reported in Lovell et al. (2007), during 76% of these mating tests the same male rat in each pair was preferred by different female rats. Overall attractiveness of individual male rats predicted reproductive success in the present study. Interestingly, "attractive" males sired significantly FEWER pups than "non-attractive" males. Neither behavioral (e.g., latency to first sexual stimulation, number of sexual stimulations) nor physiological measures (e.g., body weight, urinary testosterone levels) of male rats predicted their reproductive success. In conclusion, the present results indicate that certain features of some males are more attractive to females, but attractive males are at a reproductive disadvantage (as measured by the number of pups sired). Although basal urinary testosterone levels did not differ between males that sired the majority of pups in a litter and males that sired few or none of the pups in a litter, aggression and/or other physiological measures of fertility (e.g., penile reflexes) may differ between males that are attractive to females and those that have a reproductive

  15. Agonistic reciprocity is associated with reduced male reproductive success within haremic social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Willis, Madelyne C.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    While individual variation in social behaviour is ubiquitous and causes social groups to differ in structure, how these structural differences affect fitness remains largely unknown. We used social network analysis of replicate bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) harems to identify the reproductive correlates of social network structure. In stable groups, we quantified agonistic behaviour, reproduction and steroid hormones, which can both affect and respond to social/reproductive cues. We identified distinct, optimal social structures associated with different reproductive measures. Male hatching success (HS) was negatively associated with agonistic reciprocity, a network structure that describes whether subordinates ‘reciprocated’ agonism received from dominants. Egg laying was associated with the individual network positions of the male and dominant female. Thus, males face a trade-off between promoting structures that facilitate egg laying versus HS. Whether this reproductive conflict is avoidable remains to be determined. We also identified different social and/or reproductive roles for 11-ketotestosterone, 17β-oestradiol and cortisol, suggesting that specific neuroendocrine mechanisms may underlie connections between network structure and fitness. This is one of the first investigations of the reproductive and neuroendocrine correlates of social behaviour and network structure in replicate, naturalistic social groups and supports network structure as an important target for natural selection. PMID:26156769

  16. Local density regulates migratory songbird reproductive success through effects on double-brooding and nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Bradley K; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Newman, Amy E M; Norris, D Ryan

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the density-dependent processes that regulate animal populations is key to understanding, predicting, and conserving populations. In migratory birds, density-dependence is most often studied during the breeding season, yet we still lack a robust understanding of the reproductive traits through which density influences individual reproductive success. We used 27-yr of detailed, individual-level productivity data from an island-breeding population of Savannah sparrows Passerculus sandwichensis to evaluate effects of local and total annual population density on female reproductive success. Local density (number of neighbors within 50 m of a female's nest) had stronger effects on the number of young fledged than did total annual population density. Females nesting in areas of high local density were more likely to suffer nest predation and less likely to initiate and fledge a second clutch, which led to fewer young fledged in a season. Fledging fewer young subsequently decreased the likelihood of a female recruiting offspring into the breeding population in a subsequent year. Collectively, these results provide insight into the scale and reproductive mechanisms mediating density-dependent reproductive success and fitness in songbirds. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Proteomic Changes Associated with Successive Reproductive Periods in Male Polychaetous Neanthes arenaceodentata

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Reish, Donald; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The polychaetous annelid Neanthes acuminata complex has a widespread distribution, with the California population referred to as N. arenaceodentata. The reproductive pattern in this complex is unique, in that the female reproduces once and then dies, whereas the male can reproduce up to nine times. The male incubates the embryos until the larvae leave the male’s tube 21–28 days later and commences feeding. Reproductive success and protein expression patterns were measured over the nine reproductive periods. The percent success of the male in producing juveniles increased during the first three reproductive periods and then decreased, but the number of juveniles produced was similar through all nine periods. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the dynamics of protein expression patterns. The expression patterns of several proteins were found to be altered. The abundant expression of muscular and contractile proteins may have affected body weight and reproductive success. Sperm have never been observed; fertilization occurs within the parent’s tube. Proteins associated with sperm maturation and fertilization were identified, including ATPase, clathrin, peroxiredoxins and enolase, which may provide clues to the molecular mechanisms enabling males to reproduce multiple times.

  18. Proteomic Changes Associated with Successive Reproductive Periods in Male Polychaetous Neanthes arenaceodentata

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2015-09-04

    The polychaetous annelid Neanthes acuminata complex has a widespread distribution, with the California population referred to as N. arenaceodentata. The reproductive pattern in this complex is unique, in that the female reproduces once and then dies, whereas the male can reproduce up to nine times. The male incubates the embryos until the larvae leave the male’s tube 21–28 days later and commences feeding. Reproductive success and protein expression patterns were measured over the nine reproductive periods. The percent success of the male in producing juveniles increased during the first three reproductive periods and then decreased, but the number of juveniles produced was similar through all nine periods. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the dynamics of protein expression patterns. The expression patterns of several proteins were found to be altered. The abundant expression of muscular and contractile proteins may have affected body weight and reproductive success. Sperm have never been observed; fertilization occurs within the parent’s tube. Proteins associated with sperm maturation and fertilization were identified, including ATPase, clathrin, peroxiredoxins and enolase, which may provide clues to the molecular mechanisms enabling males to reproduce multiple times.

  19. Spring weather conditions influence breeding phenology and reproductive success in sympatric bat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Danielle M; Macdonald, David W

    2018-04-10

    Climate is known to influence breeding phenology and reproductive success in temperate-zone bats, but long-term population level studies and interspecific comparisons are rare. Investigating the extent to which intrinsic (i.e. age), and extrinsic (i.e. spring weather conditions), factors influence such key demographic parameters as the proportion of females becoming pregnant, or completing lactation, each breeding season, is vital to understanding of bat population ecology and life-history traits. Using data from 12 breeding seasons (2006-2017), encompassing the reproductive histories of 623 Myotis daubentonii and 436 Myotis nattereri adult females, we compare rates of recruitment to the breeding population and show that these species differ in their relative sensitivity to environmental conditions and climatic variation, affecting annual reproductive success at the population level. We demonstrate that (1) spring weather conditions influence breeding phenology, with warm, dry and calm conditions leading to earlier parturition dates and advanced juvenile development, whilst cold, wet and windy weather delays birth timing and juvenile growth; (2) reproductive rates in first-year females are influenced by spring weather conditions in that breeding season and in the preceding breeding season when each cohort was born. Pregnancy and lactation rates were both higher when favourable spring foraging conditions were more prevalent; (3) reproductive success increases with age in both species, but at different rates; (4) reproductive rates were consistently higher, and showed less interannual variation, in second-year and older M. daubentonii (mean 91.55% ± 0.05 SD) than M. nattereri (mean 72.74% ± 0.15 SD); (5) estimates of reproductive success at the population level were highly correlated with the size of the juvenile cohort recorded each breeding season. Improving understanding of the influence of environmental conditions, especially extreme climatic

  20. Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1972-01-01

    This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

  1. Social stress and reproductive success in the female Syrian hamster: endocrine and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelini, Marie Odile Monier; Palme, Rupert; Otta, Emma

    2011-10-24

    In many mammal species, reproduction is not shared equally among the members of a social unit. Even though reproductive skew seems unlikely in females of solitary species, this phenomenon could result from environmental factors. Although solitary in the wild, captive Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are generally housed in groups. We investigated whether social stress produces some degree of reproductive skew in this solitary species and whether female reproductive success varies as a function of social rank. To assess the physiological relationship between social stress and fertility, we monitored reproductive hormones and glucocorticoids of solitary and pair-housed females during pregnancy by means of recently established non-invasive methods for measuring hormone metabolites in the feces. The patterns of fecal progesterone, estrogen and glucocorticoid metabolites were similar to those found in blood and reported in the literature for pregnant hamsters. As expected, dominant females had higher breeding success than subordinate females. However the rate of reproductive failure was also very high among the singly housed females of our control group. The number of pups per litter, the average sex-ratio in each group, and the mean weight of pups did not differ significantly among groups. Glucocorticoid concentrations were unaffected by housing and social rank and the few differences between the endocrine profiles of singly- and pair-housed females are not sufficient to explain the observed difference in breeding success. It is likely that social isolation impairs reproduction in the same manner as subordination. Our findings suggest that social isolation of animals accustomed to group living was equally as disturbing as cohabitation with an unknown conspecific. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Garabedian; Christopher E. Moorman; M. Nils Peterson; John C. Kilgo

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides...

  3. Do phytoseiid mites select the best prey species in terms of reproductive success?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Jong, de M.; Alers, M.P.T.

    1990-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators prefer those prey species that are most rewarding in terms of reproductive success, which is dependent on prey quality and prey availability. To investigate which selection pressures may have moulded prey preference in an acarine system consisting of

  4. Quantifying the effects of pesticide exposure on annual reproductive success of birds (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest) was developed for quantifying the effects of specific pesticide‐use scenarios on the annual reproductive success of simulated populations of birds. Each nesting attempt is divided into a series of discrete phases (e.g., egg ...

  5. Quantifying the effects of pesticide exposure on annual reproductive success of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Markov chain nest productivity model (MCnest) was developed for quantifying the effects of specific pesticide-use scenarios on the annual reproductive success of simulated populations of birds. Each nesting attempt is divided into a series of discrete phases (e.g., egg layin...

  6. Effects of nectar robbing on male and female reproductive success of a pollinator-dependent plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Nossa, Sandra V; Sánchez, José María; Navarro, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Nectar robbers affect host fitness in different ways and by different magnitudes, both directly and indirectly, and potentially constitute an important part of pollination interactions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nectar robbing on several variables that characterize the reproductive success of Lonicera etrusca, a pollinator-dependent plant with long, tubular flowers that produce abundant nectar. Using fluorescent powder dye as a proxy for pollen, the distance of pollen dispersal was compared for robbed and non-robbed flowers. Artificial nectar robbing treatments were applied to test its effects on four additional measures of reproductive success, namely the quantity of pollen exported, fruit set, seed/ovule ratio and seed weight. Nectar robbing was not found to have any significant negative consequences on female and male components of reproductive success as determined through the five variables that were measured. Although L. etrusca exhibits high levels of nectar robbing and nectar robbers are common floral visitors, no evidence was found of detrimental changes in the components of reproductive success. A combination of morphological and ecological mechanisms is proposed to explain how plants may compensate for the energetic loss caused by the nectar robbers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Food, reproductive success and multiple breeding in the Great Tit Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, Nanette; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Verhulst, Simon

    2001-01-01

    We studied the reproductive success of facultatively double brooded Great Tits Parus major in relation to (seasonal) variation in abundance of their main food supply: caterpillars in Oak Quercus robur. Data were collected in two mixed woods (Vlieland and Hoge Veluwe, from 1985-1996). The caterpillar

  8. Effects of two-age management and clearcutting on songbird density and reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery V. Nichols; Petra Bohall Wood

    1995-01-01

    We examined density and reproductive success of passerine species on 7 uncut forest stands and on 12 stands harvested 10-14 years ago on the Monongahela National Forest of West Virginia (6 clearcut stands and 6 stands harvested using 2-age management). In 2-age management, stands resemble a shelterwood cut with 10-30 overstory trees/acre left uncut. Uncut periphery...

  9. Local anthropogenic contamination affects the fecundity and reproductive success of an Arctic amphipod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, L.; Fischer, A.; Strand, J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether adaptation to life in contaminated Arctic areas carries a cost for the populations in terms of reduced fecundity and reproductive success. The benthic amphipod, Orchomenella pinguis occurs in huge densities in both clean and contaminated sites. O. pinguis was

  10. Impacts of habitat alterations and predispersal seed predation on the reproductive success of Great Basin forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Sexual reproductive success in wild plant populations is dependent upon the ability to bank seed for when environmental conditions favor seedling recruitment. Seed production in many plant populations requires the pollination services of local bee populations. A loss in bee diversity as a result of exotic plant invasion or revegetation practices which do not adequately...

  11. Behavior and reproductive success of Rock Sandpipers breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, Alaska

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Matthew; Conklin, J.R.; Johnson, Branden; McCaffery, Brian J.; Haig, Susan M.; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    We studied Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) breeding behavior and monitored reproductive success from 1998 to 2005 on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, Alaska, USA. We banded 24 adults and monitored 45 nests. Annual return rate of adults ranged between 67 and 100%. Six pairs of Rock Sandpipers

  12. The impact of parental investment on lifetime reproductive success in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Demonstrating the impact that parents have on the fitness of their children is a crucial step towards understanding how parental investment has affected human evolution. Parents not only transfer genes to their children, they also influence their environments. By analyzing reproductive patterns within and between different categories of close relatives, this study provides insight into the genetic and environmental effects that parents have on the fitness of their offspring. Methods We use data spanning over two centuries from an exceptionally accurate Icelandic genealogy, Íslendingabók, to analyze the relationship between the fertility rates of close relatives. Also, using genetic data, we determine narrow sense heritability estimates (h2 to further explore the genetic impact on lifetime reproductive success. Finally, we construct four simulations to model the expected contribution of genes and resources on reproductive success. Results The relationship between the reproduction of all full sibling pairs was significant and positive across all birth decades (r = 0.19 while the reproductive relationship between parents and offspring was often negative across many decades and undetectable overall (r = 0.00 (Fig. 1 and Table 1. Meanwhile, genetic data among 8,456 pairs of full siblings revealed a narrow sense heritability estimate (h2 of 0.00 for lifetime reproductive success. A resources model (following the rule that resources are transmitted from parents to children, distributed equally among siblings, and are the only factor affecting reproductive success revealed a similar trend: a negative relationship between parent and offspring reproduction (r =  − 0.35 but a positive relationship among full siblings (r = 0.28. The relationship between parent and offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS and full sibling LRS was strongly and positively correlated across time (r = 0.799, p < 0.001. Similarly, the LRS among

  13. Voice and Handgrip Strength Predict Reproductive Success in a Group of Indigenous African Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Mberira, Mara; Bartels, Astrid; Gallup, Gordon G.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness). Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of Darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of Darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis. PMID:22870251

  14. Role of lipids for the reproductive success of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlebakk, M. K.; Graeve, M.; Niehoff, B.; Johnsen, G.; Søreide, J.

    2016-02-01

    Extensive energy storage is common among polar animals, and a range of reproductive strategies have evolved from pure capital breeders, relying on stored energy only, to 100% income breeders where freshly ingested food fuel reproduction. The Arctic calanoid copepod Calanus glacialis is primarily a grazer that accumulates large lipid stores during spring and summer. The breeding strategy to this relatively large and lipid-rich copepod is somewhere on the continuum from pure capital to 100% income breeder. To investigate the importance of stored lipids versus freshly ingested food for the reproductive success of this key copepod we conducted a combined laboratory and field study on a high-Arctic population of C. glacialis in Svalbard from January to May. Total lipids, lipid composition, gonad maturation, egg production and egg hatching success were carefully followed for starved and algal fed females in the laboratory and for females in situ. Lipid stores decreased significantly over time even when food was available, both in laboratory and in field, suggesting that the females largely depended on stored resources for reproduction no matter of the food availability. Lipid reduction was most rapid during gonad maturation prior to first egg production. Almost all fed females spawned compared to only half of the starved ones, and number of eggs and the egg hatching success were significantly improved for fed females. When food was scarce, females produced fewer but more lipid-rich eggs as opposed to more eggs with less lipids when food was abundant - a strategy not previously described for C. glacialis. The fatty acid composition appeared to be more important than the total lipid content for ensuring high egg hatching success, and the polyunsaturated fatty acids 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3), as well as the saturated fatty acids 16:0 and 18:0 seemed to be particularly important. We conclude that C. glacialis is capable of capital breeding, but primarily rely on fresh food for

  15. Endocrine phenotype, reproductive success and survival in the great tit, Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, J Q; Sharp, P; Quetting, M; Hau, M

    2013-09-01

    A central goal in evolutionary ecology is to characterize and identify selection patterns on the optimal phenotype in different environments. Physiological traits, such as hormonal responses, provide important mechanisms by which individuals can adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. It is therefore expected that selection shapes hormonal traits, but the strength and the direction of selection on plastic hormonal signals are still under investigation. Here, we determined whether, and in which way, selection is acting on the hormones corticosterone and prolactin by characterizing endocrine phenotypes and their relationship with fitness in free-living great tits, Parus major. We quantified variation in circulating concentrations of baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and in prolactin during the prebreeding (March) and the breeding season (May) for two consecutive years, and correlated these with reproductive success (yearly fledgling number) and overwinter survival in female and male individuals. In both years, individuals with high baseline corticosterone concentrations in March had the highest yearly fledgling numbers; while in May, individuals with low baseline corticosterone had the highest yearly reproductive success. Likewise, individuals that displayed strong seasonal plasticity in baseline corticosterone concentrations (high in March and low in May) had the highest reproductive success in each year. Prolactin concentrations were not related to reproductive success, but were positively correlated to the proximity to lay. Between-year plasticity in stress-induced corticosterone concentrations of males was related to yearly variation in food abundance, but not to overall reproductive success. These findings suggest that seasonally alternating directional selection is operating on baseline corticosterone concentrations in both sexes. The observed between-year consistency in selection patterns indicates that a one-time hormone sample in a given

  16. The ART of mating: alternative reproductive tactics and mating success in a nest-guarding fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolino, S; Benvenuto, C; Gubili, C; Sacchi, C; Boufana, B; Mariani, S

    2016-12-01

    Behavioural observations in the field of male Mediterranean damselfish Chromis chromis were combined with molecular analyses, using bi-parentally and maternally inherited markers, to investigate reproductive success patterns of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in terms of number of eggs sired and number of females contributing to each nest. Cuckoldry was observed in every nest sampled, with at least two and up to seven sneaker males per nest. The nesting male, however, always significantly fertilized the greater number of eggs (on average 49%) in each clutch, whereas each sneaker fertilized around 7% of the clutch. The average number of females whose eggs were fertilized by nesting males was 6·76 (range 2-13), while each sneaker on average fertilized the eggs of 1·74 (range 1-8) females. Using this sibship reconstruction, some of the factors involved in the regulation of the dynamic equilibrium of reproductive success were investigated between the two ARTs shown by C. chromis males. Results show that the sneakers' reproductive success was positively linked to egg clutch size; the density of individuals in the nesting area negatively affected the size of egg clutches; the rate of defence behaviours performed by nesting males negatively influenced the number of females contributing to each nest. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Predator Exclosures Enhance Reproductive Success but Increase Adult Mortality of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Barber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus are listed as endangered throughout Canada and the United States Great Lakes region. Most attempts to increase their numbers have focused on enhancing reproductive success. Using 22 years of data collected by Parks Canada in Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada, we examined whether predator exclosures installed around Piping Plover nests increased nest success and hatching and fledging success when compared to nests without exclosures. Nests with exclosures were significantly more likely to hatch at least one egg than nests without exclosures, and they hatched a significantly greater number of young. The greater reproductive success observed in exclosed nests is likely due to the increased protection from predators that the exclosures conferred; significantly fewer exclosed nests were depredated than nonexclosed nests. However, significantly more exclosed than nonexclosed nests were abandoned by adults, and they had significantly greater adult mortality. Whether benefits of increased reproductive success from exclosures outweigh costs of increased abandonment and adult mortality remains unknown, but must be considered.

  18. Long-term success of endovascular treatment of benign superior vena cava occlusion with chylothorax and chylopericardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veroux, Pierfrancesco; Veroux, Massimiliano; Bonanno, Maria Giovanna; Tumminelli, Maria Giuseppina [Department of Surgery and Transplantation, University Hospital, Via S. Sofia, 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Baggio, Elda [Department of Surgery and Gastroenterological Sciences, University Hospital of Verona (Italy); Petrillo, Giuseppe [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Via S. Sofia, 78, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    The most likely etiology of benign obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC) include fibrosing mediastinitis and iatrogenic etiologies such as sclerosis and obstruction caused by pacemakers and central venous catheter. Percutaneous stenting of SVC has been used with success both in malignant and benign superior vena cava syndrome; however, long-term follow-up of endovascular procedures is not well known. We present a case of a patient with complete occlusion of SVC of benign etiology, presenting dramatically with bilateral chylothorax and chylopericardium with cardiac tamponade, who underwent successful vena caval revascularization with thrombolytic therapy and placement of self-expanding metallic stent. The 42-month follow-up could encourage endovascular procedures even in SVC syndrome of benign etiology. (orig.)

  19. Estimating differential reproductive success from nests of related individuals, with application to a study of the Mottled Sculpin, Cottus bairdi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrix Jones; Gary D. Grossman; Daniel C.I. Walsh; Brady A. Porter; John C. Avise; Anthony C. Flumera

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how variation in reproductive success is related to demography is a critical component in understanding the life history of an organism. Parentage analysis using molecular markers can be used to estimate the reproductive success of different groups of individuals in natural populations. Previous models have been developed for cases where offspring are...

  20. Common Loon Reproductive Success in Canada: the West is Best but Not for Long

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive success of Common Loons (Gavia immer is a powerful indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, especially in relation to mercury and acid precipitation. We examined relationships between Common Loon reproductive success and longitude, year, lake area, and pH across southern Canada using data collected from 1992 to 2010 by participants in Bird Studies Canada's Canadian Lakes Loon Survey. Our goal was to indirectly describe the health of lakes in southern Canada with respect to mercury and acid precipitation. The overall model-predicted number of six-week-old young per pair per year was 0.59 (95% confidence limits: 0.56-0.62. Six-week-old young per pair per year decreased by 0.19 from west-to-east (âˆ'127° to âˆ'52° longitude, decreased by 0.14 between 1992 and 2010, increased by 0.22 as lake area increased from 10 to 3000 ha, and increased by 0.43 as acidity decreased from pH 5 to 9. The relationships were likely linked to acid- and temperature-mediated exposure to methylmercury and/or acid-induced reductions in forage fish. The temporal decrease was unexpectedly steeper in southwestern than in southeastern Canada. Projections suggested that reproductive success across southern Canada may not drop below the demographic source-sink threshold until ~2016 (range: 2009-2029. Reproductive success on pH 6.0 lakes, however, may have passed below the source-sink threshold as early as ~2001 (1995-2009, whereas reproductive success on pH 8.0 lakes may not pass below the threshold until ~2034 (2019-2062. There were ~0.1 more six-week-old young per pair per year on 2500 ha lakes than on 20 ha lakes. Reproductive success crossed below the source-sink threshold on 20 ha lakes at pH 6.4 (5.8-7.1 and on 2500 ha lakes at pH 5.5 (4.1-6.6. Our results show that citizen science is powerful for monitoring ecosystem health and indirectly support further action to abate emissions of mercury and the harmful components of acid precipitation throughout North

  1. Effects of dietary uranium on reproductive endpoints--fecundity, survival, reproductive success--of the fish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Olivier; Mottin, Elmina; Geffroy, Benjamin; Hinton, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to metal-contaminated water has been shown to result in a number of reproductive abnormalities in adult and larvae fish, such as failure of oocyte maturation and teratogenic effects. Recently, dietary uptake of metals by fish has been recognized as a critical route of exposure, however, the mechanisms of metal uptake and toxicity are poorly understood and in need of further investigation. The objectives of the present study are to quantify uranium (U dietary transfers from spiked artificial diets) in Danio rerio tissues and embryos, as well as establish its effect on reproduction and embryonic development. Uranium's environmental prominence is currently increasing because of new mining and milling activities. Uranium concentrations range from 0.02 µg/L in natural waters to 2 mg/L. The focus of this study was to examine the trophic transfer and effects of U following exposure modalities (dose, exposure duration 1 to 20 d). Two different isotopes were used to distinguish between chemical and radioactivity toxicity of U. Results showed that U trophic transfer was low (0.52%). Uranium tissue distributions showed that accumulation occurred in digestive organs (liver, digestive tract) following dietary exposure. High levels of U were measured in the gonads (female in particular, >20% of relative burden). High U accumulation levels in eggs indicated maternal transfer of the contaminant. Moreover, U trophic exposure led to a reduction in reproduction success as a function of U accumulated levels. High U exposure conditions strongly reduced the total number of eggs (50%) and their viability at 10 d (reduction of the clutch number, low quality of eggs). © 2010 SETAC.

  2. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Lledó, Álvaro; Vidal Mateo, Javier; Urios Moliner, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success). This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal-Wallis test). Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD) of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Unfavorable climatic events, such as strong wind, rain or hail, also

  3. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ortiz Lledó

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success. This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Methods Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal–Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. Results It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Discussion Unfavorable

  4. Frequency-dependence of mating success in Poeciliopsis monacha (Pisces, Cyprinodontiformes reproductive complex, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Neuza Rejane Wille

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of all-female fishes of the genus Poeciliopsis coexists with their sexual ancestor species in streams of western Mexico. All-females are hybrids that depend on the sperm of paternal species to reproduce. Rare-female advantage is one of several hypotheses that attempt to explain how the diversity of all-female biotypes is maintained within the Poeciliopsis reproductive complexes. According to this hypothesis, the uncommon all-female biotype has a mating advantage over the common ones and has been maintained by a dynamic equilibrium process. In the P. monacha reproductive complex at Arroyo de los Platanos the density of two all-female biotypes (P. 2monacha-lucida I and II varies across pools. The objective of this study was to analyse fecundity and mating success of females from this arroyo to test the hypothesis. Female mating success was inversely correlated to their density, supporting this hypothesis.

  5. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

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    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  6. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

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    Olga Milenkaya

    Full Text Available Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch, a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous

  7. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of

  8. Physical attractiveness and reproductive success in humans: Evidence from the late 20 century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Physical attractiveness has been associated with mating behavior, but its role in reproductive success of contemporary humans has received surprisingly little attention. In the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (1244 women, 997 men born between 1937 and 1940) we examined whether attractiveness assessed from photographs taken at age ~18 predicted the number of biological children at age 53-56. In women, attractiveness predicted higher reproductive success in a nonlinear fashion, so that attractive (second highest quartile) women had 16% and very attractive (highest quartile) women 6% more children than their less attractive counterparts. In men, there was a threshold effect so that men in the lowest attractiveness quartile had 13% fewer children than others who did not differ from each other in the average number of children. These associations were partly but not completely accounted for by attractive participants' increased marriage probability. A linear regression analysis indicated relatively weak directional selection gradient for attractiveness (β=0.06 in women, β=0.07 in men). These findings indicate that physical attractiveness may be associated with reproductive success in humans living in industrialized settings.

  9. An evolutionary concept of polycystic ovarian disease: does evolution favour reproductive success over survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Barad, David

    2006-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is currently considered as possibly the most frequent cause of female infertility. It is also closely associated with syndrome XX, which, in turn, is closely linked with premature and excessive mortality. Considering these adverse effects on reproductive success and human survival, the evolutionary survival of PCOD, itself considered by many to be a genetically transmitted condition, would, on first glance, appear surprising, since evolution usually discriminates against both of these traits. However, an analysis of some recently reported characteristics of the condition calls for the reconsideration of PCOD as a condition which, from an evolutionary viewpoint, favours decreased reproductive success. Indeed, the reported observations that patients with PCOD will resume spontaneous ovulation with even relatively minor weight loss, and experience later menopause than controls, suggests exactly the opposite. Under an evolutionary concept, PCOD can thus be seen as a 'fertility storage condition' which in fact favours human reproductive success and allows the human species to maintain fertility even during adverse environmental circumstances, such as famines.

  10. Low levels of copper reduce the reproductive success of a mobile invertebrate predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Man; Johnston, Emma L

    2007-09-01

    Marine organisms that occur in urbanised bays can be exposed to low-level chronic pollution that results in sublethal changes to behavior or reproduction. The effects of low levels of copper on the reproductive success of a mobile invertebrate were assessed. Free living flatworms are common predators of bivalves and barnacles. Flatworms (Stylochus pygmaeus) were exposed to low levels of copper ranging from 0 to 25 microg L(-1) in the presence and absence of their barnacle prey (Balanus variegatus). Flatworms laid fewer egg batches when exposed to copper and the hatching success of the eggs was also reduced. Exposure to 25 microg L(-1) copper for 10 d reduced the reproductive success of flatworms by up to 80%. Results were consistent regardless of the presence or absence of prey (barnacles). Barnacles were only moderately affected by copper but exhibited major avoidance behavior (feeding inhibition) in the presence of flatworm predators. This is the first ecotoxicological study on marine flatworms. Experiments are required to quantify the effects of flatworm predator populations on sessile invertebrate community structure in the field.

  11. Male rank affects reproductive success and offspring performance in bank voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Małgorzata; Zatorska, Magdalena

    2008-07-05

    Laboratory studies reveal that in several rodent species the females prefer dominant males as mating partners. Here we investigate the correlation between males' social rank and their reproductive success. Similar numbers of females mating with relatively more dominant or relatively more subordinate males produced a litter, and parturition took place 19-21 days after mating. Relatively more dominant males tended to sire more pups than did relatively more subordinates, but the mean number of offspring per litter did not differ significantly between the two groups. Significantly more pups fathered by relatively more dominant males survived to weaning than those sired by relatively more subordinate fathers. Dominance had a long-term effect on the reproductive activity of the offspring: their rate of sexual maturation was increased. In pups sired by a relatively more dominant father, the uteruses of females, and the testes and accessory sex glands of males, were significantly heavier than those of offspring born to relatively more subordinate males. Our results suggest that social rank is an important determinant of the reproductive success of bank vole males.

  12. Reproductive success is predicted by social dynamics and kinship in managed animal populations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Saul J. Newman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kin and group interactions are important determinants of reproductive success in many species. Their optimization could, therefore, potentially improve the productivity and breeding success of managed populations used for agricultural and conservation purposes. Here we demonstrate this potential using a novel approach to measure and predict the effect of kin and group dynamics on reproductive output in a well-known species, the meerkat Suricata suricatta. Variation in social dynamics predicts 30% of the individual variation in reproductive success of this species in managed populations, and accurately forecasts reproductive output at least two years into the future. Optimization of social dynamics in captive meerkat populations doubles their projected reproductive output. These results demonstrate the utility of a quantitative approach to breeding programs informed by social and kinship dynamics. They suggest that this approach has great potential for improvements in the management of social endangered and agricultural species.

  13. Reproductive success of Cabralea canjerana (Meliaceae in Atlantic forest fragments, Brazil

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    Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the Atlantic forest remnants have high biological diversity and a high level of endemism, but very little is known about the reproductive success of native species. Cabralea canjerana is a common tree in the Montane Atlantic forest, and its reproduction is highly dependent on pollinators. In order to contribute with the particular knowledge on this species, we collected data in three fragmented and three continuous forest sites, where the effects of fragmentation on both mutualistic (pollination and antagonistic (seed predation interactions were analysed. We determined fruit production and weight of 25 trees per site. The number of seeds and the percentage of predated and aborted seeds were also accessed for seven fruits of 10 trees per site. Pollinator visitation frequencies to flowers were recorded in two forest fragments and in two sites of the continuous forest. Our data showed that plants of C. canjerana produced more fruits (z-value=-8.24; p<0.0001 and seeds per fruit (z-value=-6.58; p=0.002 in the continuous than in the fragmented sites. This was likely due to differences in pollination, because the number of pollinator visits was higher in the continuous forest than in the fragments. Seed abortion (z-value=4.08, p<0.001 and predation (z-value=3.72, p=0.0002, on the other hand, were higher in the fragmented than in the continuous sites. Then, mutualistic and antagonistic interactions were affected by fragmentation, decreasing the reproductive success of the study tree. This study was the first to show a decrease in the reproductive output in forest fragments in an Atlantic forest tree species. This decrease may threaten the population structure and viability of C. canjerana in forest fragments. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2: 515-524. Epub 2015 June 01.

  14. The effect of female quality on male ejaculatory expenditure and reproductive success in a praying mantid.

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    Anuradhi Jayaweera

    Full Text Available Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality. Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario.

  15. Extreme drought alters frequency and reproductive success of floaters in Willow Flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad; Sogge, Mark K.; Cardinal, Suzanne N.; Durst, Scott L.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in habitat quality, including those caused by extreme events like droughts and floods, could alter costs and benefits of territoriality and thereby the prevalence and reproductive consequences for individuals capable of breeding that do not do so (floaters). We studied floating behavior in a population of Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in central Arizona during one year of extreme drought, one year of lake inundation, and three years of near average precipitation. In all years, most floaters were second year (SY) males, and most subsequently settled outside of the patch where they were detected in the floating year, suggesting that floaters did not “queue” at high-quality territories in order to achieve higher reproductive success in subsequent years. Instead, cohorts that floated in non-drought years had lower apparent survival and lower reproductive success compared to territorial birds. In the extreme drought year, however, the number of floaters was 1.5 times greater than in all other years combined, more females floated, and apparent survival and mean annual productivity in subsequent years was higher for males that floated in that year than for those that were territorial. Inundation of habitat due to rising reservoir levels did not result in an increase in floaters because many birds nested in inundated areas where trees projected above the water so that the relative amount of available habitat was not reduced to the extent habitat models predicted. Overall, our results indicate that the prevalence and reproductive and demographic consequences of floating can change under extreme climatic events like severe drought.

  16. Cedar River Chinook genotypes - Estimate relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall Chinook salmon in the Cedar River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic pedigree information to estimate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall-run Chinook salmon spawning in the Cedar River, Washington....

  17. Cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkasheva, Anastasiya G; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Romanov, Andrey Yu; Burmenskaya, Olga V; Makarova, Nataliya P; Ibragimova, Espet O; Kalinina, Elena A; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to identify cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction programmes via a prospective case-control study. Blastocysts, donated by couples in assisted reproduction programmes were used. Hatching success assessment was performed after 144-146 h post-fertilization. The mRNA expression levels of cathepsin V (CTSV), GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3, 5, 7 and 8 (CGB) genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) of hatching due to zona pellucida (ZP) thickness, oocyte and sperm quality, embryo quality and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes in blastocysts was determined. From 62 blastocysts included in the study, 47 (75.8%) were unable to hatch spontaneously. The ZP thickening, and oocyte and sperm quality did not affect human blastocyst ability to hatch, except the combination of cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic oocyte dysmorphisms (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 1.45). Hatching-capable blastocysts had higher Gardner scale grade and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes than hatching-incapable blastocysts. The human blastocyst hatching success depends on the blastocyst Gardner grade, but not on ZP and gamete quality. Blastocyst development was regulated by CTSV, GATA3 and CGB gene expression.

  18. Reproductive success of Horned Lark and McCown's Longspur in relation to wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Anika; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is a rapidly expanding industry with potential indirect effects to wildlife populations that are largely unexplored. In 2011 and 2012, we monitored 211 nests of 2 grassland songbirds, Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) and McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii), at 3 wind farms and 2 undeveloped reference sites in Wyoming, USA. We evaluated several indices of reproductive investment and success: clutch size, size-adjusted nestling mass, daily nest survival rate, and number of fledglings. We compared reproductive success between wind farms and undeveloped sites and modeled reproductive success within wind farms as a function of wind energy infrastructure and habitat. Size-adjusted nestling mass of Horned Lark was weakly negatively related to turbine density. In 2011, nest survival of Horned Lark decreased 55% as turbine density increased from 10 to 39 within 2 km of the nest. In 2012, however, nest survival of Horned Lark was best predicted by the combination of vegetation height, distance to shrub edge, and turbine density, with survival increasing weakly with increasing vegetation height. McCown's Longspur nest survival was weakly positively related to vegetation density at the nest site when considered with the amount of grassland habitat in the neighborhood and turbine density within 1 km of the nest. Habitat and distance to infrastructure did not explain clutch size or number of fledglings for either species, or size-adjusted nestling mass for McCown's Longspur. Our results suggest that the influence of wind energy infrastructure varies temporally and by species, even among species using similar habitats. Turbine density was repeatedly the most informative measure of wind energy development. Turbine density could influence wildlife responses to wind energy production and may become increasingly important to consider as development continues in areas with high-quality wind resources.

  19. Diet composition and provisioning rates of nestlings determine reproductive success in a subtropical seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Juliet S.; Jodice, Patrick G. R.; Satgé, Yvan G.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how both quality and quantity of prey affect the population dynamics of marine predators is a crucial step toward predicting the effects of environmental perturbations on population-level processes. The Junk Food Hypothesis, which posits that energetic content of prey species may influence reproductive capacity of marine top predators regardless of prey availability, has been proposed as a mechanism by which changes in prey populations could affect predator populations in high latitude systems; however, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent across studies, and further data are needed to elucidate variation in the relative importance of prey quantity and quality, both among predator species and across ecological systems. We tested the relative importance of prey quantity and quality to nestling survival in the eastern brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis across 9 breeding colonies in the northern Gulf of Mexico that varied in underlying availability of a key prey resource, the Gulf menhaden Brevoortia patronus. Both feeding frequency and meal mass were significantly correlated to energy provisioning rates and nestling survival, while energy density of meals had little effect on either metric. Compared to previous results from cold-water systems, we found lower and less variable energy densities (4.4 kJ g-1, vs. 5.2 to 6.5 kJ g-1 in other studies) and lipid content (9% dry mass, vs. 16 to 23% in other studies) of common prey items. While Gulf menhaden was the most common prey species at all colonies, the proportion of menhaden fed to nestlings varied and was not strongly correlated to fledging success. We conclude that quantity rather than quality of prey, particularly small schooling fish, is the main driver of brown pelican reproductive success in this system, and that environmental perturbations affecting biomass, distribution, and abundance of forage fish could substantially affect brown pelican reproductive success.

  20. Effect of local x-irradiation on mice reproduction in two successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikova, N.K.; Lisenkova, L.N.

    1978-01-01

    For an experimental assessment of the biologic effectiveness of a single exposure to local irradiation exposure in simulating the conditions of exposure in X ray studies, an experiment was carried out on white mice. Mice of two successive generations were exposed to local X irradiation in the eye region. The radiation was found to bring about changes in the reproductive function (such as sterility, reduced litter size and fertility of females); these changes being dose-dependent in a nonlinear manner. The biologic effect of irradiation was greater in the second-generation mice

  1. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site - Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  2. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  3. Female song rate and structure predict reproductive success in a socially monogamous bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Heather Brunton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others

  4. Failures (with some successes) of assisted reproduction and gamete donation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although the possibilities for the treatment of infertility have been improved tremendously, not every couple will be treated successfully. Crude overall pregnancy rates of 50-65% per patient can be achieved nowadays, irrespective of the type of profertility treatment applied first. IVF only accounts for about 20% of the pregnancies achieved. Dropout is an important reason for not reaching the estimated pregnancy rate. Even after failed IVF, spontaneous pregnancies do occur. Sperm and oocyte donation (OD) offer additional chances to subfertile couples. Severity of the male factor (in sperm donation) and young donor age (in OD) are important determinants of success. Analysis of assisted reproduction technology outcomes would benefit from more universally accepted definitions and deserves better statistical analysis. Long-term cumulative live birth rates of 80% may be expected if dropout can be limited. Milder stimulation, a patient-friendlier approach and better counseling may help to keep more patients in the program.

  5. Reproductive glycogenetics--a critical factor in pregnancy success and species hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C J P; Aplin, J D

    2009-03-01

    Hybridisation occurs rarely in nature and experiments using interspecific transfer of embryos generally result in implantation failure. Here we show that appropriate glycosylation of the apposing surfaces of endometrium and trophoblast probably is an important factor and may play a critical role in pregnancy success. Examination of closely related species shows that each has its own specific pattern of glycosylation, or glycotype, at the fetomaternal interface and that interacting surfaces appear to show complementarity, suggesting the existence of a glycocode. Studies on a camel/llama hybrid show that for successful implantation to occur, a hybrid must have a placental glycosylation pattern similar to that of the host species, suggesting that the glycocode and appropriate glycosylation may be critical factors in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This new field of reproductive glycogenetics is not only relevant to the development of new species but may also have important implications in the area of human fertility.

  6. Colony Development and Reproductive Success of Bumblebees in an Urban Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatura Vaidya

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 35% of all crop production is dependent on animal-mediated pollination. Many wild bee species are declining rapidly across North America and Europe, a potential consequence of land-use change driven by agricultural intensification and urbanization. In this study we assessed the impact of urbanization on the reproductive success and population growth rate of bumblebees in an urbanization gradient. We placed experimental nests in ten sites; all except one were community gardens, ranging from a 0–99% degree of urbanization. Reproductive success and colony size were positively correlated with cumulative weight gain of the nests (p < 0.05. We did not find an effect of urbanization on the population growth rate of the nests or on forager activity (p > 0.05. Growth rate was strongly negatively affected by the abundance of wax moth larvae (p < 0.05 and positively correlated with parasite diversity (p < 0.05 and the number of foragers entering the nest (p < 0.01. With this study we show that not only bottom-up but also top-down effects are equally important for pollinator population dynamics.

  7. Size does matter: adolescent build and male reproductive success in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooling, C Mary; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Zhang, Weisen; Lam, Tai Hing; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Women usually report attributes of masculinity as attractive. These are attributes are metabolically expensive. We examined the trade off of a key attribute of masculinity, muscularity, proxied by recalled adolescence build, with lifetime reproductive success in the developing country setting of Southern China. We used poisson multivariable regression in 19,168 older (≥ 50 years) Chinese from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (phases 2 and 3) to examine the sex-stratified, adjusted associations of recalled adolescent relative weight (light (n = 6730), average (n = 9344), and heavy (n = 3094)) with number of offspring. Among men, recalled heavy adolescent weight compared with light was associated with an incident rate ratio for offspring of 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.13) adjusted for age. This estimate was unchanged by adjustment for life course socio-economic position. There was no such association in women. Male physical attractiveness, possibly representing levels of testosterone, was rewarded by lifetime reproductive success, despite potential costs. Socio-economic development may facilitate an inevitable move toward environmentally driven higher levels of testosterone with corresponding public health implications for any conditions or societal attributes driven by testosterone. Further investigation is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotypic variation influences reproductive success and thermal stress tolerance in the reef building coral, Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, I. B.; Devlin-Durante, M. K.; Polato, N. R.; Xu, D.; Giri, S.; Altman, N. S.; Ruiz, D.; Parkinson, J. E.; Boulay, J. N.

    2013-09-01

    The branching coral Acropora palmata is a foundation species of Caribbean reefs that has been decimated in recent decades by anthropogenic and natural stressors. Declines in population density and genotypic diversity likely reduce successful sexual reproduction in this self-incompatible hermaphrodite and might impede recovery. We investigated variation among genotypes in larval development under thermally stressful conditions. Six two-parent crosses and three four-parent batches were reared under three temperatures and sampled over time. Fertilization rates differed widely with two-parent crosses having lower fertilization rates (5-56 %, mean 22 % ± 22 SD) than batches (from 31 to 87 %, mean 59 % ± 28 SD). Parentage analysis of larvae in batch cultures showed differences in gamete compatibility among parents, coinciding with significant variation in both sperm morphology and egg size. While all larval batches developed more rapidly at increased water temperatures, rate of progression through developmental stages varied among batches, as did swimming speed. Together, these results indicate that loss of genotypic diversity exacerbates already severe limitations in sexual reproductive success of A. palmata. Nevertheless, surviving parental genotypes produce larvae that do vary in their phenotypic response to thermal stress, with implications for adaptation, larval dispersal and population connectivity in the face of warming sea surface temperatures.

  9. Nectar robbing positively influences the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Barman, Chandan; Tandon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae) in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis) and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica) showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99%) by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree) and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout) than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout). The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population.

  10. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Peter A; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  11. Pollination limitation to reproductive success in the Missouri evening primrose, Oenothera macrocarpa (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody-Weis, J M; Heywood, J S

    2001-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation may result in plant populations that are less attractive to pollinators and thus susceptible to reduced reproductive output due to pollination limitation. Pollination limitation was investigated in three Missouri populations of Oenothera macrocarpa, a hawk-moth-pollinated, perennial herb. The populations represented extremes in size and habitat quality. Following supplemental pollination, mean fertilization success (proportion of ovules fertilized) across populations increased from 24.3 to 44.8% and mean seed set (proportion of ovules that matured into seed) increased from 14.7 to 27.9%. These increases were statistically significant in two of the three populations. Failure to achieve 100% fertilization and seed set following supplementation indicates that other factors, in addition to pollination, were limiting to female reproductive success. Fruit set was pollination limited in only one population. Fruits matured with as few as one seed, suggesting that fruit set was not resource limited. The degree of pollination limitation was greatest in the most disturbed population. The population located in the highest-quality habitat was not significantly pollination limited. This suggests that pollination limitation is occurring, at least in part, because of reduced pollinator activity in degraded habitats.

  12. Off-road vehicles affect nesting behaviour and reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Tracy E.; Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    As human populations and associated development increase, interactions between humans and wildlife are occurring with greater frequency. The effects of these interactions, particularly on species whose populations are declining, are of great interest to ecologists, conservationists, land managers and natural resource policy-makers. The American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, a species of conservation concern in the USA, nests on coastal beaches subject to various forms of anthropogenic disturbance, including aircraft overflights, off-road vehicles and pedestrians. This study assessed the effects of these human disturbances on the incubation behaviour and reproductive success of nesting American Oystercatchers at Cape Lookout National Seashore, on the Atlantic coast of the USA. We expanded on-going monitoring of Oystercatchers at Cape Lookout National Seashore by supplementing periodic visual observations with continuous 24-h video and audio recording at nests. Aircraft overflights were not associated with changes in Oystercatcher incubation behaviour, and we found no evidence that aircraft overflights influenced Oystercatcher reproductive success. However, Oystercatchers were on their nests significantly less often during off-road vehicle and pedestrian events than they were during control periods before the events, and an increase in the number of off-road vehicles passing a nest during incubation was consistently associated with significant reductions in daily nest survival (6% decrease in daily nest survival for a one-vehicle increase in the average number of vehicles passing a nest each day; odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90, 0.98) and hatching success (12% decrease in hatching success for a one-vehicle increase in the average number of vehicles passing a nest each day; odds ratio = 0.88; 95% CI 0.76, 0.97). Management of vehicles and pedestrians in areas of Oystercatcher breeding is important for the conservation of American

  13. Are hotshots always hot? A longitudinal study of hormones, behavior, and reproductive success in male marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Nelson, Karin N; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Polygynous lek-mating systems are characterized by high reproductive skew, with a small number of males gaining a disproportionate share of copulations. In lekking species, where female choice drives male mating success and patterns of reproductive skew, female preferences for 'good genes' should lead to preferred males having high reproductive success in all years. Here we investigate whether these 'hotshot' males have steroid hormone patterns that are consistent over time (between two mating seasons), and whether hormone levels consistently predict display behavior. We test these questions in the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), a lekking vertebrate with high male reproductive skew. We found that male mating success and testosterone levels were not consistent across years. The most successful males showed an inverse relationship in copulation success between years. Similarly, territorial males that had high testosterone in one year had low levels in the next. Across years, testosterone was strongly associated with head-bob display, suggesting that this steroid plays a key role in mate attraction. These results suggest that female marine iguanas are not choosing the same 'hotshot' males in every year, but instead base their reproductive decisions on male behavioral traits that are hormonally mediated and variable across years. By using testosterone to regulate their costly display behaviors male marine iguanas appear to have a mechanism that allows them to adjust their reproductive effort depending on extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors.

  14. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  15. Low Lactobacilli abundance and polymicrobial diversity in the lower reproductive tract of female rhesus monkeys do not compromise their reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Wellington Z; Lubach, Gabriele R; Kapoor, Amita; Proctor, Alexandra; Phillips, Gregory J; Lyte, Mark; Coe, Christopher L

    2017-10-01

    The lower reproductive tract of nonhuman primates is colonized with a diverse microbiota, resembling bacterial vaginosis (BV), a gynecological condition associated with negative reproductive outcomes in women. Our 4 aims were to: (i) assess the prevalence of low Lactobacilli and a BV-like profile in female rhesus monkeys; (ii) quantify cytokines in their cervicovaginal fluid (CVF); (iii) examine the composition and structure of their mucosal microbiota with culture-independent sequencing methods; and (iv) evaluate the potential influence on reproductive success. CVF specimens were obtained from 27 female rhesus monkeys for Gram's staining, and to determine acidity (pH), and quantify proinflammatory cytokines. Based on Nugent's classification, 40% had a score of 7 or higher, which would be indicative of BV in women. Nugent scores were significantly correlated with the pH of the CVF. Interleukin-1ß was present at high concentrations, but not further elevated by high Nugent scores. Vaginal swabs were obtained from eight additional females to determine microbial diversity by rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. At the phylum level, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was low. The relative abundance of Lactobacilli was also low (between 3% and 17%), and 11 other genera were present at >1%. However, neither the microbial diversity in the community structure, nor high Nugent scores, was associated with reduced fecundity. Female monkeys provide an opportunity to understand how reproductive success can be sustained in the presence of a diverse polymicrobial community in the reproductive tract. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Successive subcortical hemorrhages in the superior parietal lobule and postcentral gyrus in a 23-year-old female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Yoshikawa, H; Komai, K; Takamori, M

    1998-04-01

    We report a non-hypertensive 23-year-old female with successive hemorrhages in parietal subcortical regions. She had first experienced a transient pain in the left upper extremity one month before admission. She noticed dysesthesia in the same limb and weakness on her left hand, and, five days after, visited our hospital because of suddenly developed convulsion in the limb and loss of consciousness for a few minutes. Neurological examination revealed distal dominant flaccid paresis, positive pathological reflex and touch and position sense disturbances in the affected limb. Brain CT detected two high-density areas in the parietal lobe. Brain MRI demonstrated an acute phase subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus and a subacute phase one in the left superior parietal lobule. SPECT indicated hypoperfusion in the left frontal and parietal cortex. Cerebral angiography showed no abnormal findings. Her symptoms gradually improved, but left ulnar-type pseudoradicular sensory impairment remained on discharge. We considered the hemorrhage in this patient have arisen from rupture of cavernous hemangioma, because she was relatively young, the hematomas were oval in shape and successively developed in the left parietal lobe. Our patient suggests that a subcortical hemorrhage in the post-central gyrus causes flaccid paresis and pyramidal tract involvement.

  17. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69% variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old and could have produced multiple litters

  18. The generalist Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana (Fabaceae): negative effect of floral visitors on reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R; Pinheiro, M; Sazima, M

    2015-05-01

    Inga species are characterised by generalist or mixed pollination system. However, this feature does not enhance reproductive rates in species with very low fruit set under natural conditions. Some ecological and genetic factors are associated with this feature, and to test the effect of massive visits on pollination success in Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana, we studied the efficacy of polyads deposited on stigmas of flowers isolated from visitors and polyads exposed to visitors. The proportion of polyads fixed in stigmas decreased after exposure to visitors (24 h) in comparison to stigmas isolated from visitors (hummingbirds, bees, wasps, hawkmoths and bats), and fruit set was very low. Furthermore, nectar production, sugar composition and other floral biology traits were evaluated. Increased nectar production, sugar availability and sucrose dominance during the night indicates adaptation to nocturnal visitors and supports their role as main pollinators; although the brush-flower morphology, time of anthesis, nectar dynamics and chemical composition also allow daytime visitors. Thus the species is an important resource for a diverse group of floral visitors. We conclude that excess visits (diurnal and nocturnal) are responsible for the decrease in fixed polyads in stigmas of I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana flowers, thus contributing, with others factors, to its low fruit set. Therefore, the generalist pollination system does not result in reproductive advantages because the low fruit set in natural conditions could be the result of a negative effect of visitors/pollinators. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Influence of thermal conditions on successful ide (Leuciscus idus L. artificial reproduction during spawning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two forms of ide Leuciscus idus (L. spawners: wild-coloured and ornamental: yellow-coloured were kept at three various temperature regimes shortly before spawning at optimal temperature regimes (group 1, under natural temperature conditions (group 2 and in rapidly increasing temperature (group 3. The quality and quantity of collected semen, ovulation rate and survival rate of embryos to the eyed-egg-stage were recorded. The quality of semen from group 3 (where the temperature increased over the thermal spawning optimum was the worst (46 and 51% motility of spermatozoa for the wild-coloured and yellow form, respectively. The quantity of collected semen also was the lowest in the same groups (1.1 and 1.0 cm3 kg-1 for the wild-coloured and yellow form, respectively. Increasing the temperature to 16°C also caused a decreasing percentage of ovulated females (70% and 60% of ovulation for wild-coloured and yellow form, respectively and biological quality of eggs (48.9 and 47.8% embryo survival for wild-coloured and yellow form, respectively. Fluctuations of temperature at a level of 8-14°C (group 2 did not negatively affect spawning results, except for a longer latency time (over 44 hrs. The results suggest that the temperature regime shortly before controlled reproduction of ide plays an important role influencing reproductive success.

  20. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  1. Pluck or Luck: Does Trait Variation or Chance Drive Variation in Lifetime Reproductive Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin E; Ellner, Stephen P

    2018-04-01

    While there has been extensive interest in how intraspecific trait variation affects ecological processes, outcomes are highly variable even when individuals are identical: some are lucky, while others are not. Trait variation is therefore important only if it adds substantially to the variability produced by luck. We ask when trait variation has a substantial effect on variability in lifetime reproductive success (LRS), using two approaches: (1) we partition the variation in LRS into contributions from luck and trait variation and (2) we ask what can be inferred about an individual's traits and with what certainty, given their observed LRS. In theoretical stage- and size-structured models and two empirical case studies, we find that luck usually dominates the variance of LRS. Even when individuals differ substantially in ways that affect expected LRS, unless the effects of luck are substantially reduced (e.g., low variability in reproductive life span or annual fecundity), most variance in lifetime outcomes is due to luck, implying that departures from "null" models omitting trait variation will be hard to detect. Luck also obscures the relationship between realized LRS and individual traits. While trait variation may influence the fate of populations, luck often governs the lives of individuals.

  2. Canalization of body size matters for lifetime reproductive success of male predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus . Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus .

  3. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  4. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-01-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  5. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock) jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock. PMID:27014509

  6. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Sobral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii Do mutualists (pollinators and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock.

  7. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Mar; Losada, María; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, José; Guitián, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i) Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii) Do mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock) jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock.

  8. Reproductive success of bromadiolone-resistant rats in absence of anticoagulant pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Leirs, Herwig; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2006-01-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) is associated with pleiotropic effects, notably with an increased dietary vitamin K requirement. Owing to this disadvantage, resistance is believed to be selected against if anticoagulant selection is absent. In small...... experimental populations of wild brown rats, an investigation was carried out to establish whether tolerance to anticoagulant exposure changed over a period of 2 years. In the same populations, DNA microsatellite markers were used to infer parentage, and this made it possible to estimate reproductive success...... of sensitive and resistant rats and estimate effective population size, Ne. Even though there was evidence for a selection against resistant rats with high vitamin K requirement, anticoagulant tolerance was not seen to be significantly influenced in the absence of bromadiolone selection. As the population size...

  9. Organochlorine contaminants and reproductive success of double-crested cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Gutreuter, S.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P. David; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, nesting success of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) was measured at Cat Island, in southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at pipping and unhatched eggs were collected and analyzed for organochlorines (including total polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in embryos, and eggshell thickness. Of 1,570 eggs laid, 32% did not hatch and 0.4% had deformed embryos. Of 632 chicks monitored from hatching to 12 d of age, 9% were missing or found dead; no deformities were observed. The PCB concentrations in sample eggs from clutches with deformed embryos (mean = 10.2 μg/g wet weight) and dead embryos (11.4 μg/g) were not significantly higher than concentrations in sample eggs from nests where all eggs hatched (12.1 μg/g). A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE, dieldrin, and PCB concentrations in sibling eggs identified DDE and not dieldrin or PCBs as a significant risk factor. A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE and eggshell thickness implicated DDE and not eggshell thickness as a significant risk factor. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in double-crested cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an effect on reproduction in this species.

  10. Reduced reproductive success of hatchery coho salmon in the wild: insights into most likely mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Véronique; Moyer, Gregory R; Jackson, Laura S; Blouin, Michael S; Banks, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Supplementation of wild salmonids with captive-bred fish is a common practice for both commercial and conservation purposes. However, evidence for lower fitness of captive-reared fish relative to wild fish has accumulated in recent years, diminishing the apparent effectiveness of supplementation as a management tool. To date, the mechanism(s) responsible for these fitness declines remain unknown. In this study, we showed with molecular parentage analysis that hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) had lower reproductive success than wild fish once they reproduced in the wild. This effect was more pronounced in males than in same-aged females. Hatchery spawned fish that were released as unfed fry (age 0), as well as hatchery fish raised for one year in the hatchery (released as smolts, age 1), both experienced lower lifetime reproductive success (RS) than wild fish. However, the subset of hatchery males that returned as 2-year olds (jacks) did not exhibit the same fitness decrease as males that returned as 3-year olds. Thus, we report three lines of evidence pointing to the absence of sexual selection in the hatchery as a contributing mechanism for fitness declines of hatchery fish in the wild: (i) hatchery fish released as unfed fry that survived to adulthood still had low RS relative to wild fish, (ii) age-3 male hatchery fish consistently showed a lower relative RS than female hatchery fish (suggesting a role for sexual selection), and (iii) age-2 jacks, which use a sneaker mating strategy, did not show the same declines as 3-year olds, which compete differently for females (again, implicating sexual selection). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on reproductive success of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Quinn, Brian P; Denslow, Nancy D; Holm, Stewart E; Gross, Timothy S

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bleached and unbleached kraft mill effluent on reproductive success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Bass were exposed to effluent concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for 28 and 56 d. Parameters measured included hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and vitellogenin (VTG). At the end of the 56-d period, bass were moved to hatchery ponds to evaluate spawning success. Spawning mats with eggs either were brought indoors for evaluation of fecundities, hatchabilities, and egg and fry size (measured at age 3 d), or were left in ponds and fry number and size recorded (average age of 14 d). Effluent exposure was verified by measuring resin acids (isopimaric, abietic. and dehydroabietic acids) in bile. Compared to controls, exposed bass had greater concentrations of resin acids in bile. In general, exposed females had lower concentrations of E2 and VTG (> or = 20% effluent), whereas males had lower concentrations of 11-KT (> or = 20% effluent) and increased E2 (> or = 20% effluent). The HSI values increased in females (> or = 10% effluent), and GSI values decreased in both sexes (> or = 40% effluent). Fecundity, egg size, and hatchability did not differ across treatments, but an increase in the frequency of fry abnormalities and a decrease in fry weights was observed at effluent exposures of 40% and higher. However, results from the pond study, revealed a significant reduction in fry growth and survival (> or = 10%). This decline may have been caused by an increased frequency of deformities, in conjunction with alterations of growth. These changes could have resulted from alterations in egg quality because of failure of parental reproductive systems, from acute embryo toxicity after translocation of contaminants from the mother to the developing embryo, or from both.

  12. Venous thromboembolism in assisted reproductive technologies: comparison between unsuccessful versus successful cycles in an Italian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Michela; Favuzzi, Giovanni; Totaro, Pasquale; Chinni, Elena; Vecchione, Gennaro; Vergura, Patrizia; Fischetti, Lucia; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira

    2018-02-01

    Pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). On the contrary, the magnitude of this risk in unsuccessful ART cycles (not resulting in a clinical pregnancy) has not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of VTE in unsuccessful cycles and compared it with that recorded in successful cycles in the same study population. From a cohort of 998 women consecutively referred by local Fertility Clinics to our Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis Unit (April 2002-July 2011), we identified and included women with at least one cycle of ovarian stimulation and a negative history for VTE. Overall, 661 women undergone 1518 unsuccessful and 318 successful cycles of ovarian stimulation, respectively, were analysed. VTE events occurred in 2/1518 (1.3‰) unsuccessful cycles compared with 3/318 (9.4‰) successful cycles, (Two-tailed Fisher exact test, p = 0.04, OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.02-1.02). Both cases observed in unsuccessful cycles were isolated pulmonary embolism occurred after OHSS; no antithrombotic prophylaxis had been prescribed. At logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of successful cycle and BMI were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of VTE with an OR of 13.94 (95% CI 1.41-137.45) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.01-1.49), respectively. VTE incidence is significantly lower in unsuccessful cycles as compared to that of successful ones. However, although rare, thrombotic risk during ovarian stimulation cannot be excluded and, when it occurs, can be life-threatening. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to these women, independently of ART outcome.

  13. Infection increases the value of nuptial gifts, and hence male reproductive success, in the Hymenolepis diminuta-Tenebrio molitor association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Hilary; Ardin, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During copulation, male insects pass accessory gland components to the female with the spermatophore. These gifts can affect female reproductive behaviour, ovulation and oviposition. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, mated with males infected with metacestodes of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, produced significantly more offspring than those mated with uninfected males. There is a significant positive relationship between parasite intensity in the male and reproductive output in the female. Infection results in a significant increase in bean-shaped accessory gland (BAG) size. We suggest that infected males pass superior nuptial gifts to females and discuss the confounding effects of infection in male and female beetles upon overall fitness costs of infection for the host and the likelihood that the parasite is manipulating host investment in reproduction. PMID:14667373

  14. Increase in male reproductive success and female reproductive investment in invasive populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume J M Laugier

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions.

  15. Successful treatment of central venous catheter induced superior vena cava syndrome with ultrasound accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumantepe, Mert; Tarhan, Arif; Ozler, Azmi

    2013-06-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome results from obstruction of flow through the vessel either by external compression or thrombosis. External compression by intrathoracic neoplasms is the most common etiology, especially lung cancer and lymphoma. Thrombosis is becoming increasingly common due to the use of indwelling catheters and implantable central venous access devices. Most patients are unresponsive to anticoagulation alone which appears to be effective only in the mildest cases. However, recent advances in catheter-based interventions have led to the development of a variety of minimally invasive endovascular strategies to remove venous thrombus and accepted as an important first-line treatment given its high overall success rate and low morbidity as compared with medical and surgical treatments. Ultrasound accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis (UACDT) has been developed to rapidly and completely resolve the existing thrombus. This technique integrates high frequency, low intensity ultrasound (US) with standard CDT in order to accelerate clot dissolution, reducing treatment time and the incidence of thrombolysis-related complications. An US wave enhances drug permeation through thrombus by disaggregating the fibrin matrix, exposing additional plasminogen receptor sites to the thrombolytic agent. The US energy affects thrombus in the entire venous segment, increasing the probability of complete thrombus clearing. We report the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with a 5 days history of SVC syndrome symptoms who had been receiving chemotherapy for colon cancer through a right subclavian vein port catheter. The patient successfully treated with UACDT with EkoSonic(®) Mach4e Endovascular device with an overnight infusion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of acute irradiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of acute irradiation on the reproductive success of a relatively low-fecundity species were investigated by exposing pairs of female and male polychaete worms (Neanthes arenaceodentata) to either no radiation (controls) or 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10 or 50 Gy of acute irradiation (5 Gy min -1 ) at the time when oocytes were visible in the female. The broods from the pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on the number in the brood, the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and the number of embryos that were living, dying and dead. Developing gametes of N. arenaceodentata appeared to be sensitive to acute irradiation. There was a significant reduction in the percentage of live embryos in the broods from pairs receiving doses as low as 0.5 Gy, which is lower than the lowest dose at which effects in invertebrates have been reported previously. This was most likely due to the induction of lethal mutations in the developing gametes, which affected the survival of embryos in early stages of life. Except for those pairs receiving 10 or 50 Gy, there was no evidence of decreased fertility or fecundity or of reduced fertilization success; the number of embryos in the broods from only these irradiated groups was significantly different from the controls. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Life under Climate Change Scenarios: Sea Urchins’ Cellular Mechanisms for Reproductive Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Bögner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Acidification (OA represents a major field of research and increased efforts are being made to elucidate its repercussions on biota. Species survival is ensured by successful reproduction, which may be threatened under detrimental environmental conditions, such as OA acting in synergy with other climate change related stressors. Achieving successful gametogenesis, fertilization, and the development of larvae into healthy juveniles and adults is crucial for the perpetuation of species and, thus, ecosystems’ functionality. The considerable vulnerability of the abovementioned developmental stages to the adverse conditions that future OA may impose has been shown in many species, including sea urchins which are commonly used due to the feasibility of their maintenance in captivity and the great amount of gametes that a mature adult is able to produce. In the present review, the latest knowledge about the impact of OA on various stages of the life cycle of sea urchins is summarized with remarks on the possible impact of other stressors. The cellular physiology of the gametes before, at fertilization and, at early development, is extensively described with a focus on the complex enzymatic machinery and the intracellular pH (pHi and Ca2+ homeostasis for their vulnerability when facing adverse conditions such as acidification, temperature variations, or hypoxia.

  18. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  19. Personality, immune response and reproductive success: an appraisal of the pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Dechaume-Moncharmont, François-Xavier; Moreau, Jérôme; Lucas, Camille; Capoduro, Rémi; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moret, Yannick

    2017-07-01

    The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis is an extended concept of the life-history theory that includes behavioural traits. The studies challenging the POLS hypothesis often focus on the relationships between a single personality trait and a physiological and/or life-history trait. While pathogens represent a major selective pressure, few studies have been interested in testing relationships between behavioural syndrome, and several fitness components including immunity. The aim of this study was to address this question in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a model species in immunity studies. The personality score was estimated from a multidimensional syndrome based of four repeatable behavioural traits. In a first experiment, we investigated its relationship with two measures of fitness (reproduction and survival) and three components of the innate immunity (haemocyte concentration, and levels of activity of the phenoloxidase including the total proenzyme and the naturally activated one) to challenge the POLS hypothesis in T. molitor. Overall, we found a relationship between behavioural syndrome and reproductive success in this species, thus supporting the POLS hypothesis. We also showed a sex-specific relationship between behavioural syndrome and basal immune parameters. In a second experiment, we tested whether this observed relationship with innate immunity could be confirmed in term of differential survival after challenging by entomopathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis. In this case, no significant relationship was evidenced. We recommend that future researchers on the POLS should control for differences in evolutionary trajectory between sexes and to pay attention to the choice of the proxy used, especially when looking at immune traits. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  20. Florally rich habitats reduce insect pollination and the reproductive success of isolated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tracie M; Cavers, Stephen; Ennos, Richard; Vanbergen, Adam J; Heard, Matthew S

    2017-08-01

    Landscape heterogeneity in floral communities has the potential to modify pollinator behavior. Pollinator foraging varies with the diversity, abundance, and spatial configuration of floral resources. However, the implications of this variation for pollen transfer and ultimately the reproductive success of insect pollinated plants remains unclear, especially for species which are rare or isolated in the landscape. We used a landscape-scale experiment, coupled with microsatellite genotyping, to explore how the floral richness of habitats affected pollinator behavior and pollination effectiveness. Small arrays of the partially self-compatible plant Californian poppy ( Eschscholzia californica) were introduced across a landscape gradient to simulate rare, spatially isolated populations. The effects on pollinator activity, outcrossing, and plant reproduction were measured. In florally rich habitats, we found reduced pollen movement between plants, leading to fewer long-distance pollination events, lower plant outcrossing, and a higher incidence of pollen limitation. This pattern indicates a potential reduction in per capita pollinator visitation, as suggested by the lower activity densities and richness of pollinators observed within florally rich habitats. In addition, seed production reduced by a factor of 1.8 in plants within florally rich habitats and progeny germination reduced by a factor of 1.2. We show this to be a consequence of self-fertilization within the partially self-compatible plant, E. californica . These findings indicate that locally rare plants are at a competitive disadvantage within florally rich habitats because neighboring plant species disrupt conspecific mating by co-opting pollinators. Ultimately, this Allee effect may play an important role in determining the long-term persistence of rarer plants in the landscape, both in terms of seed production and viability. Community context therefore requires consideration when designing and

  1. Mercury reduces avian reproductive success and imposes selection: an experimental study with adult- or lifetime-exposure in zebra finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire W Varian-Ramos

    Full Text Available Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems. We performed a dosing study with dietary methylmercury in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, at doses from 0.3 - 2.4 parts per million. Birds were exposed to mercury either as adults only or throughout their lives. All doses of mercury reduced reproductive success, with the lowest dose reducing the number of independent offspring produced in one year by 16% and the highest dose, representing approximately half the lethal dose for this species, causing a 50% reduction. While mercury did not affect clutch size or survivorship, it had the most consistent effect on the proportion of chicks that fledged from the nest, regardless of mode of exposure. Among birds exposed as adults, mercury caused a steep increase in the latency to re-nest after loss of a clutch. Birds exposed for their entire lifetimes, which were necessarily the offspring of dosed parents, had up to 50% lower reproductive success than adult-exposed birds at low doses of methylmercury, but increased reproductive success at high doses, suggesting selection for mercury tolerance at the highest level of exposure. Our results indicate that mercury levels in prey items at contaminated sites pose a significant threat to populations of songbirds through reduced reproductive

  2. Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult- or Lifetime-Exposure in Zebra Finch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Swaddle, John P.; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems. We performed a dosing study with dietary methylmercury in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), at doses from 0.3 – 2.4 parts per million. Birds were exposed to mercury either as adults only or throughout their lives. All doses of mercury reduced reproductive success, with the lowest dose reducing the number of independent offspring produced in one year by 16% and the highest dose, representing approximately half the lethal dose for this species, causing a 50% reduction. While mercury did not affect clutch size or survivorship, it had the most consistent effect on the proportion of chicks that fledged from the nest, regardless of mode of exposure. Among birds exposed as adults, mercury caused a steep increase in the latency to re-nest after loss of a clutch. Birds exposed for their entire lifetimes, which were necessarily the offspring of dosed parents, had up to 50% lower reproductive success than adult-exposed birds at low doses of methylmercury, but increased reproductive success at high doses, suggesting selection for mercury tolerance at the highest level of exposure. Our results indicate that mercury levels in prey items at contaminated sites pose a significant threat to populations of songbirds through reduced reproductive success. PMID

  3. Sexual conflict over care : antagonistic effects of clutch desertion on reproductive success of male and female penduline tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szentirmai, I.; Szekely, T.; Komdeur, J.

    A fundamental tenet of sexual conflict theory is that one sex may increase its reproductive success (RS) even if this harms the other sex. Several studies supported this principle by showing that males benefit from reduced paternal care whereas females suffer from it. By investigating penduline tits

  4. Reproductive success of rose-ringed parakeets Psittacula krameri in a captive UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Mark S; Massei, Giovanna; Bell, Jennifer; Berry, Leslie; Haigh, Carol; Cowan, David P

    2009-11-01

    Rose-ringed parakeets Psittacula krameri (Scop.) have recently become established in several European countries, with potential for significant negative economic and ecological impacts. However, in northern Europe the potential for reproductive output is largely unknown. In 2005 the authors established a captive outdoor colony in north-east England and examined breeding success over 2 years. In 2006 (19 pairs, 15 clutches) the average first clutch size was 3.6 (+/-0.3) eggs. Six clutches were infertile, and overall the colony produced 1.4 (+/-0.5) fertile eggs per pair. Eleven pairs produced a second clutch following removal of the first; seven were infertile, and overall productivity was 0.7 (+/-0.4) fertile eggs per pair. Unsuccessful pairs were rearranged or replaced. In 2007, overall productivity was 2.5 (+/-0.4) and 1.8 (+/-0.4) fertile eggs per pair for the first and second attempts respectively. For pairs that remained unchanged through 2006-2007, productivity was consistent between years and breeding attempts. Where food and nest sites were not limiting, clutch sizes in north-east England were similar to those in the native range, and consistent between first and second attempts. This has implications for the future expansion and management of the species. (c) Crown Copyright 2009. Reproduced with permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

  5. Early-acting inbreeding depression and reproductive success in the highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, S L; Hancock, J F

    1990-06-01

    Tetraploid Vaccinium corymbosum genotypes exhibit wide variability in seed set following self- and cross-pollinations. In this paper, a post-zygotic mechanism (seed abortion) under polygenic control is proposed as the basis for fertility differences in this species. A pollen chase experiment indicated that self-pollen tubes fertilize ovules, but are also 'outcompeted' by foreign male gametes in pollen mixtures. Matings among cultivars derived from a pedigree showed a linear decrease in seed number per fruit, and increase in seed abortion, with increasing relatedness among parents. Selfed (S1) progeny from self-fertile parents were largely self-sterile. At zygotic levels of inbreeding of F>0.3 there was little or no fertility, suggesting that an inbreeding threshold regulates reproductive success in V. corymbosum matings. Individuals below the threshold are facultative selfers, while those above it are obligate outcrossers. Inbreeding also caused a decrease in pollen viability, and reduced female fertility more rapidly than male fertility. These phenomena are discussed in terms of two models of genetic load: (1) mutational load - homozygosity for recessive embryolethal or sub-lethal mutations and (2) segregational load - loss of allelic interactions essential for embryonic vigor. Self-infertility in highbush blueberries is placed in the context of 'late-acting' self-incompatibility versus 'early-acting' inbreeding depression in angiosperms.

  6. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J.; Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K.; Dobosz, Stefan; Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg 2+ /l and 10 mg Cd 2+ /l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg 2+ /l and 10 mg Cd 2+ /l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  7. Environmental variability drives shifts in the foraging behaviour and reproductive success of an inshore seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Nicole D; Reina, Richard D; Preston, Tiana J; Chiaradia, André

    2015-08-01

    Marine animals forage in areas that aggregate prey to maximize their energy intake. However, these foraging 'hot spots' experience environmental variability, which can substantially alter prey availability. To survive and reproduce animals need to modify their foraging in response to these prey shifts. By monitoring their inter-annual foraging behaviours, we can understand which environmental variables affect their foraging efficiency, and can assess how they respond to environmental variability. Here, we monitored the foraging behaviour and isotopic niche of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), over 3 years (2008, 2011, and 2012) of climatic and prey variability within Port Phillip Bay, Australia. During drought (2008), penguins foraged in close proximity to the Yarra River outlet on a predominantly anchovy-based diet. In periods of heavy rainfall, when water depth in the largest tributary into the bay (Yarra River) was high, the total distance travelled, maximum distance travelled, distance to core-range, and size of core- and home-ranges of penguins increased significantly. This larger foraging range was associated with broad dietary diversity and high reproductive success. These results suggest the increased foraging range and dietary diversity of penguins were a means to maximize resource acquisition rather than a strategy to overcome local depletions in prey. Our results demonstrate the significance of the Yarra River in structuring predator-prey interactions in this enclosed bay, as well as the flexible foraging strategies of penguins in response to environmental variability. This plasticity is central to the survival of this small-ranging, resident seabird species.

  8. Influence of Nest Box Color and Release Sites on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Reproductive Success in a Commercial Almond Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Allan, Matthew J; Wardell, Gordon I; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2014-12-01

    Intensively managed, commercial orchards offer resources for managed solitary bees within agricultural landscapes and provide a means to study bee dispersal patterns, spatial movement, nest establishment, and reproduction. In 2012, we studied the impact of 1) the color of nest boxes covaried with four nest box density treatments and 2) the number of bee release sites covaried with two nest box density treatments on the reproductive success of Osmia lignaria Say in a California almond orchard pollinated by a mixture of O. lignaria and Apis mellifera L. Nest box color influenced the number of nests, total cells, and cells with male and female brood. More nests and cells were produced in light blue nest boxes than in orange or yellow nest boxes. The covariate nest box density also had a significant effect on brood production. The number of release sites did not affect O. lignaria nesting and reproduction, but the number of cavities in nest boxes influenced reproduction. Overall, the color of nest boxes and their distribution, but not the number of release sites, can greatly affect O. lignaria nest establishment and reproductive success in a commercial almond orchard. The ability to locate nesting sites in a homogenous, large orchard landscape may also be facilitated by the higher frequency of nest boxes with low numbers of cavities, and by the ability to detect certain nest box colors that best contrast with the blooming trees. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  9. The impact of climatic variations on the reproductive success of Gentiana lutea L. in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuena-Lombraña, Alba; Fois, Mauro; Fenu, Giuseppe; Cogoni, Donatella; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2018-03-01

    Increases in temperature have been predicted and reported for the Mediterranean mountain ranges due to global warming and this phenomenon is expected to have profound consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We hereby present the case of Gentiana lutea L. subsp. lutea, a rhizomatous long-lived plant living in Central-Southern Europe, which is at the edge of its ecological and distributional range in Sardinia. Concretely, we analysed the reproductive success experienced during three phenological cycles (2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016) in four representative populations, with particular attention to the phenological cycle of 2014/2015, which has been recorded as one of the warmest periods of the last decades. The Smirnov-Grubbs test was used to evaluate differences in temperature and precipitation regimes among historical data and the analysed years, while the Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Wilcoxon test was used to measure differences between anthesis and reproductive performances among cycles and populations. In addition, generalised linear models were carried out to check relationships between climate variables and reproductive performance. Significant differences among climate variables and analysed cycles were highlighted, especially for maximum and mean temperatures. Such variations determined a non-flowering stage in two of the four analysed populations in 2014/2015 and significant differences of further five reproductive traits among cycles. These results confirmed that in current unstable climatic conditions, which are particularly evident in seasonal climates, reproductive success can be a sensitive and easily observable indicator of climatic anomalies. Considering the importance of this issue and the ease and cost-effectiveness of reproductive success monitoring, we argue that research in this sense can be a supporting tool for the enhancement of future crucial targets such as biodiversity conservation and the mitigation of global

  10. Effects of individual quality, reproductive success and environmental variability on survival of a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroël, Amélie; Dugger, Katie M; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2009-07-01

    1. Heterogeneity in individual quality (i.e. individuals having different performance levels that are consistent throughout life) can drive the demography of iteroparous species, but quality in the context of environmental variability has rarely been evaluated. 2. We investigated the demographic responses of a long-lived seabird, the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), to contrasting environmental conditions as a function of reproductive success, breeding quality (BQ) and experience. A continuous index of BQ (BQI) was developed to reflect an individual's ability, relative to others, to produce viable offspring. 3. First, we assessed the relative importance of costs of reproduction vs. heterogeneity in quality by comparing survival and reproductive probabilities among deferred, successful and unsuccessful breeders under 'demanding' conditions using multistate capture-mark-recapture modelling. Then, we quantified the influence of BQI on adult survival among experienced breeders vs. the whole study population under both 'normal' and 'demanding' conditions. 4. Higher survival rates were exhibited by successful (74-76%) compared to unsuccessful breeders (64%); the former also more frequently reproduced successfully at year t + 1. 5. From 1997 to 2006, adult survival ranged from 64-79%, with BQI accounting for 91% of variability in the entire study population, but only 17% in experienced breeders. The weakened relationship between BQI and survival in experienced breeders supports the theory that selection during the first reproductive event accounts for a more homogeneous pool of experienced breeders. 6. No significant effect of environmental covariates on survival was evident, suggesting that what appeared to be demanding conditions were within the range that could be buffered by this species. 7. For the first time in seabirds, a quadratic relationship between adult survival and BQI showed that adult survival is shaped by both heterogeneity in quality and reproductive

  11. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P 1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F 1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F 1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F 1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F 1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F 1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Potential influences of climate and nest structure on spotted owl reproductive success: a biophysical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Rockweit

    Full Text Available Many bird species do not make their own nests; therefore, selection of existing sites that provide adequate microclimates is critical. This is particularly true for owls in north temperate climates that often nest early in the year when inclement weather is common. Spotted owls use three main types of nest structures, each of which are structurally distinct and may provide varying levels of protection to the eggs or young. We tested the hypothesis that spotted owl nest configuration influences nest microclimate using both experimental and observational data. We used a wind tunnel to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficient (h(c of eggs in 25 potential nest configurations that mimicked 2 nest types (top-cavity and platform nests, at 3 different wind speeds. We then used the estimates of h(c in a biophysical heat transfer model to estimate how long it would take unattended eggs to cool from incubation temperature (~36 °C to physiological zero temperature (PZT; ~26 °C under natural environmental conditions. Our results indicated that the structural configuration of nests influences the cooling time of the eggs inside those nests, and hence, influences the nest microclimate. Estimates of time to PZT ranged from 10.6 minutes to 33.3 minutes. Nest configurations that were most similar to platform nests always had the fastest egg cooling times, suggesting that platform nests were the least protective of those nests we tested. Our field data coupled with our experimental results suggested that nest choice is important for the reproductive success of owls during years of inclement weather or in regions characterized by inclement weather during the nesting season.

  13. Effect of season on reproductive behaviors and fertilization success in cavies (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribal, Romy; Rübensam, Kathrin; Bernhardt, Sandra; Jewgenow, Katarina; Guenther, Anja

    2018-04-05

    Finding the optimal timing for breeding is crucial for small mammals to ensure survival and maximize lifetime reproductive success. Species living in temperate regions therefore often restrict breeding to seasons with favorable food and weather conditions. Although caviomorph rodents such as guinea pigs are described as non-seasonal breeders, a series of recent publications has shown seasonal adaptations in litter size, offspring birth mass and maternal investment. Here, we aim to test if seasonal patterns of litter size variation found in earlier studies, are mediated by seasonal differences in female estrus length, fertilization rate and mating behavior. The female estrus period was longer in fall compared to all other seasons (p < 0.001), frequently lasting 7-9 days while estrus in spring usually lasted less than 2 days. In fall, females mated later during estrus (p < 0.001), resulting in reduced fertilization rates (p < 0.001). Fertilization rate was well above 95% in summer while it dropped to less than 85% in fall and winter. While none of the male mating characteristics such as number and duration of copulations differed across seasons, the number of mating bouts was reduced in fall (p = 0.04). Finally, the developmental stages of flushed embryos were more diverse in spring and summer compared to fall and winter. These results suggest that seasonal differences in fertilization rate and quality of implanted embryos are mediated by female estrus length and timing and intensity of mating behavior. Together, these effects contribute to the observed differences in litter size across seasons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  15. Hemosuccus pancreaticus successful treatment by double balloon-assisted coil embolization for active bleeding from the main trunk of the superior mesenteric artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Yoshida, MD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 63-year-old man with hemosuccus pancreaticus due to large pseudoaneurysm originating from the main trunk of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. The patient was treated successfully with the double balloon-assisted coil embolization technique combined with proximal and distal balloon inflation in the short segment of the SMA. This technique preserved the pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade and the supply to the distal part of the SMA by embolizing SMA in a short segment. Keywords: Hemosuccus pancreaticus, Pseudoaneurysm, Superior mesenteric artery

  16. Elevated Immune Gene Expression Is Associated with Poor Reproductive Success of Urban Blue Tits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Capilla-Lasheras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban and forest habitats differ in many aspects that can lead to modifications of the immune system of wild animals. Altered parasite communities, pollution, and artificial light at night in cities have been associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses, with possibly negative fitness consequences, but few data are available from free-living animals. Here, we investigate how urbanization affects major immune pathways and experimentally test potentially contributing factors in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus from an urban and forest site. We first compared breeding adults by quantifying the mRNA transcript levels of proteins associated with anti-bacterial, anti-malarial (TLR4, LY86 and anti-helminthic (Type 2 transcription factor GATA3 immune responses. Adult urban and forest blue tits differed in gene expression, with significantly increased TLR4 and GATA3, but not LY86, in the city. We then experimentally tested whether these differences were environmentally induced by cross-fostering eggs between the sites and measuring mRNA transcripts in nestlings. The populations differed in reduced reproductive success, with a lower fledging success and lower fledgling weight recorded at the urban site. This mirrors the findings of our twin study reporting that the urban site was severely resource limited when compared to the forest. Because of low urban survival, robust gene expression data were only obtained from nestlings reared in the forest. Transcript levels in these nestlings showed no (TLR4, LY86, or weak (GATA3, differences according to their origin from forest or city nests, suggesting little genetic or maternal contribution to nestling immune transcript levels. Lastly, to investigate differences in parasite pressure between urban and forest sites, we measured the prevalence of malaria in adult and nestling blood. Prevalence was invariably high across environments and not associated with the transcript levels of the studied immune genes. Our

  17. Reproductive Science for High School Students: A Shared Curriculum Model to Enhance Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Megan; Cleveland, Charlotte; Gordon, Diana; Jones, Lynda; Zelinski, Mary; Winter, Patricia; Chang, Jeffrey; Senegar-Mitchell, Ericka; Coutifaris, Christos; Shuda, Jamie; Mainigi, Monica; Bartolomei, Marisa; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2016-07-01

    The lack of a national reproductive biology curriculum leads to critical knowledge gaps in today's high school students' comprehensive understanding of human biology. The Oncofertility Consortium developed curricula that address the basic and clinical aspects of reproductive biology. Launching this academy and creating easy-to-disseminate learning modules allowed other universities to implement similar programs across the country. The expansion of this informal, extracurricular academy on reproductive health from Northwestern University to the University of California, San Diego, Oregon Health & Science University, and the University of Pennsylvania magnifies the scope of scientific learning to students who might not otherwise be exposed to this important information. To assess the experience gained from this curriculum, we polled alumni from the four centers. Data were collected anonymously from de-identified users who elected to self-report on their experiences in their respective reproductive science academy. The alumni survey asked participants to report on their current academic standing, past experiences in the academy, and future academic and career goals. The results of this national survey suggest the national oncofertility academies had a lasting impact on participants and may have contributed to student persistence in scientific learning. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Reproductive performance and weaning success in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, María G; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta; Ponzio, Marina F

    2014-09-01

    In captive chinchillas, one of the most challenging behavioral problems is the development of a stress-related abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) known as "fur-chewing". We investigated whether there is a relationship between the severity of fur-chewing behavior and reproductive function in male and female chinchillas. Regardless of the severity of abnormal behavior, fur-chewing males did not show significant differences in seminal quality (sperm concentration, motility and viability; integrity of sperm membrane and acrosome) and the response to the process of semen collection (the number of stimuli needed to achieve ejaculation) when compared to those with normal behavior. Also, females showing normal or fur-chewing behavior presented similar reproductive performance in terms of number of litters per female per year and litter size. However, pup survival rate was lower (p=0.05) in fur-chewing females than in normal females. These results seem to be consistent with data suggesting non-significant effects of ARBs on reproductive performance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Sperm competition, but not major histocompatibility divergence, drives differential fertilization success between alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, S J; Helou, L; Pitcher, T E; Heath, J W; Heath, D D

    2018-01-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can operate based on major histocompatibility (MH) genes. We investigated sperm competition between male alternative reproductive tactics [jack (sneaker) and hooknose (guard)] of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Using a full factorial design, we examined in vitro competitive fertilization success of paired jack and hooknose males at three time points after sperm activation (0, 15 and 60 s) to test for male competition, CFC and time effects on male fertilization success. We also examined egg-mediated CFC at two MH genes by examining both the relationship between competitive fertilization success and MH divergence as well as inheritance patterns of MH alleles in resulting offspring. We found that jacks sired more offspring than hooknose males at 0 s post-activation; however, jack fertilization success declined over time post-activation, suggesting a trade-off between sperm speed and longevity. Enhanced fertilization success of jacks (presumably via higher sperm quality) may serve to increase sneaker tactic competitiveness relative to dominant hooknose males. We also found evidence of egg-mediated CFC (i.e. female × male interaction) influencing competitive fertilization success; however, CFC was not acting on the MH genes as we found no relationship between fertilization success and MH II β 1 or MH I α 1 divergence and we found no deviations from Mendelian inheritance of MH alleles in the offspring. Our study provides insight into evolutionary mechanisms influencing variation in male mating success within alternative reproductive tactics, thus underscoring different strategies that males can adopt to attain success. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Effects of shallow natural gas well structures and associated roads on grassland songbird reproductive success in Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Yoo

    Full Text Available Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown. From 2010-2012, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, we monitored 257 nests of two ground-nesting grassland songbird species, Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus. Nest locations varied with proximity to and density of conventional shallow gas well structures and associated roads in forty-two 258-ha mixed-grass prairie sites. We estimated the probabilities of nest success and clutch size relative to gas well structures and roads. There was little effect of distance to or density of gas well structure on nest success; however, Savannah sparrow experienced lower nest success near roads. Clutch sizes were lower near gas well structures and cattle water sources. Minimizing habitat disturbance surrounding gas well structures, and reducing abundance of roads and trails, would help minimize impacts on reproductive success for some grassland songbirds.

  1. Male dominance and reproductive success in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Laura; Perry, Susan; Manson, Joseph H; Gilkenson, Hannah; Gros-Louis, Julie; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-12-01

    Theory and a growing body of empirical evidence suggest that higher ranking males experience reproductive advantages in group-living mammals. White-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) exhibit an interesting social system for investigating the relationship between dominance and reproductive success (RS) because they live in multimale multifemale social groups, in which the alpha males can have extraordinarily long tenures (i.e. they coreside with daughters of reproductive age). Genetic paternity was determined from fecal samples for 120 infants born into three social groups of wild C. capucinus at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males produced far more offspring than expected by chance, and significantly high Nonac's B indices (a measure of deviation from a random distribution of RS among potentially breeding individuals) were a feature of six out of eight male tenures. The likelihood of the alpha male siring a particular offspring was predicted by the kin relationship between the mother and the alpha male, as well as the total number of males and females in the group. The almost complete lack of father-daughter inbreeding [Muniz et al., 2006] constitutes an impediment to alpha male reproductive monopolization in this population, particularly toward the end of long alpha male tenures. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Association of weather and nest-site structure with reproductive success in California spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm North; George Steger; Renee Denton; Gary Eberlein; Tom Munton; Ken Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Although the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) has been intensively studied, factors influencing its reproduction are not well understood. We examined a 9-year demographic study of 51-86 pairs of the California spotted owl (S. o. occidentalis), weather conditions, and forest structure at nest sites in oak (Quercus sp.) woodland and...

  3. Development of a male reproductive toxicity assay for evaluating the success of bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrock, E.J.; Bantle, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Eglin Air Force Base was contaminated with JP-4 over 10 years ago. The project goal was to develop and evaluate male reproductive toxicity testing procedures and endpoints using the gametes of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with particular emphasis on assessing the toxicity of contaminated soil from Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. Reproductive toxicity tests were done to evaluate several different locations within the original spill area. Specific sites were selected based on their location to the spill site. The site was evaluated before and after remediation. Before remediation, the males were exposed to the JP-4 orally for 73 days, with the contaminant injected into the food source. After remediation, the males were directly exposed to the contaminated soil samples for 60 days. The endpoints measured in both studies were: change in body weight, organ to body weight ratios, sperm counts, number of malformed sperm, and sperm motility. In both the pre and post remediation studies, there were no significant effects on body weight or organ weight data at the p ≤ 0.05 level. However, there were effects seen in sperm count and morphology. The male reproductive toxicity assay under development has given useful information in initially determining the reproductive toxicity of JP-4. Significant effects were seen in both the pre and post remediation direct exposure tests, indicating that the direct exposure route may be the most promising for future testing

  4. Antral follicle counts are strongly associated with live-birth rates after assisted reproduction, with superior treatment outcome in women with polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Jan; Brodin, Thomas; Berglund, Lars; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Olovsson, Matts; Bergh, Torbjörn

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the association of antral follicle count (AFC) with in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcome in a large unselected cohort of patients covering the entire range of AFC. Prospective observational study. University-affiliated private infertility center. 2,092 women undergoing 4,308 IVF-ICSI cycles. AFC analyzed for associations with treatment outcome and statistically adjusted for repeated treatments and age. Pregnancy rate, live-birth rate, and stimulation outcome parameters. The AFC was log-normally distributed. Pregnancy rates and live-birth rates were positively associated with AFC in a log-linear way, leveling out above AFC ∼30. Treatment outcome was superior among women with polycystic ovaries, independent from ovulatory status. The findings were significant also after adjustment for age and number of oocytes retrieved. Pregnancy and live-birth rates are log-linearly related to AFC. Polycystic ovaries, most often excluded from studies on ovarian reserve, fit as one extreme in the spectrum of AFC; a low count constitutes the other extreme, with the lowest ovarian reserve and poor treatment outcome. The findings remained statistically significant also after adjustment for the number of oocytes retrieved, suggesting this measure of ovarian reserve comprises information on oocyte quality and not only quantity. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproduction rates under variable food conditions and starvation in Mnemiopsis leidyi: significance for the invasion success of a ctenophore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Europe. Furthermore, starved animals continue to produce eggs for up to 12 days after cessation of feeding with high overall hatching success of 65–90%. These life history traits allow M. leidyi to thrive and reproduce in environments with varying food conditions and give it a competitive advantage under...... on the reproduction of laboratory-reared and field-caught animals during starvation. Our results show that the half-saturation zooplankton prey concentration for egg production is reached at food levels of 12–23 µgC L−1, which is below the average summer food concentration encountered in invaded areas of northern...... unfavourable conditions. This may explain why recurrent population blooms are observed and sustained in localized areas in invaded northern Europe, where water exchange is limited and zooplankton food resources are quickly depleted by M. leidyi. We suggest that these reproductive life history traits are key...

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological predictors of successful assisted reproductive technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Purewal, S.; Chapman, S. C. E.; van den Akker, O. B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to perform an updated investigation of the effects of depression and anxiety on pregnancy outcomes following assisted reproductive technologies. A bibliographic search was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Science Direct databases. Data retrieved were analysed using a random effects model to estimate standardised mean differences. Results Of the 22 included studies, 18 investigated depression, 15 state anxiety, and sev...

  8. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah S French

    Full Text Available The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources. Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations.

  9. An Experimental Test of a Causal Link between Problem-Solving Performance and Reproductive Success in Wild Great Tits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cauchard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have uncovered relationships between measures of various cognitive performances and proxies of fitness such as reproductive success in non-human animals. However, to better understand the evolution of cognition in the wild, we still have to determine the causality of these relationships and the underlying mechanisms. The cognitive ability of an individual may directly influence its ability to raise many and/or high quality young through for example its provisioning ability. Conversely, large and/or high quality broods may lead to high parental motivation to solve problems related to their care. To answer this question, we manipulated reproductive success through brood size and measured subsequent problem-solving performance in wild great tit parents. Our results show that brood size manipulation did not affect the probability to solve the task. Moreover, solver pairs fledged more young than non-solver pairs independently of brood size treatment in one of the two experimental years and they showed higher nestling provisioning rate in both years. Overall, it shows that problem-solving performance was not driven by motivation and suggest that problem-solvers may achieve higher fledging success through higher provisioning rates. Our study constitutes a first key step toward a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of innovation ability for individual fitness in the wild.

  10. Seasonal patterns in reproductive success of temperate-breeding birds: Experimental tests of the date and quality hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Vanessa B; Dawson, Russell D; Bortolotti, Lauren E; Clark, Robert G

    2017-04-01

    For organisms in seasonal environments, individuals that breed earlier in the season regularly attain higher fitness than their late-breeding counterparts. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these patterns: The quality hypothesis contends that early breeders are of better phenotypic quality or breed on higher quality territories, whereas the date hypothesis predicts that seasonally declining reproductive success is a response to a seasonal deterioration in environmental quality. In birds, food availability is thought to drive deteriorating environmental conditions, but few experimental studies have demonstrated its importance while also controlling for parental quality. We tested predictions of the date hypothesis in tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) over two breeding seasons and in two locations within their breeding range in Canada. Nests were paired by clutch initiation date to control for parental quality, and we delayed the hatching date of one nest within each pair. Subsequently, brood sizes were manipulated to mimic changes in per capita food abundance, and we examined the effects of manipulations, as well as indices of environmental and parental quality, on nestling quality, fledging success, and return rates. Reduced reproductive success of late-breeding individuals was causally related to a seasonal decline in environmental quality. Declining insect biomass and enlarged brood sizes resulted in nestlings that were lighter, in poorer body condition, structurally smaller, had shorter and slower growing flight feathers and were less likely to survive to fledge. Our results provide evidence for the importance of food resources in mediating seasonal declines in offspring quality and survival.

  11. Pollinators shift to nectar robbers when florivory occurs, with effects on reproductive success in Iris bulleyana (Iridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z-M; Jin, X-F; Wang, Q-F; Yang, C-F; Inouye, D W

    2017-09-01

    Studies have indicated that florivory and nectar robbing may reduce reproductive success of host plants. However, whether and how these effects might interact when plants are simultaneously attacked by both florivores and nectar robbers still needs further investigation. We used Iris bulleyana to detect the interactions among florivory, nectar robbing and pollination, and moreover, their effects on plant reproductive success. Field investigations and hand-pollination treatments were conducted on two experimental plots from a natural population, in which Experimental plot was protected from florivores and Control plot was not manipulated. The flower calyx was bitten by sawflies to consume the nectary, and three bumblebee species were pollinators. In addition, the short-tongued pollinator, Bombus friseanus, was the only robber when there was a hole made by a sawfly. The bumblebee had significantly shortened flower handling time when robbing, as compared to legitimate visits. Pollinator visitation and seed production decreased significantly in damaged flowers. However, seed production per flower after supplementary hand-pollination did not differ significantly between damaged and undamaged flowers. Compared to the Experimental plot, bumblebees visited fewer flowers per plant in a foraging bout in the Control plot. The flowers damaged by florivory allowed B. friseanus to shift to a nectar robber. Florivory and nectar robbing collectively decreased plant reproductive success by consuming nectar resources, which may reduce attractiveness to pollinators of the damaged flowers. However, the changes in pollinator behaviour might be beneficial to the plant by reducing the risk of geitonogamous mating. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-Rivas, Isabel; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna). Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  13. Linking sex differences in corticosterone with individual reproductive behaviour and hatch success in two species of uniparental shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darryl B; Chin, Eunice H; Burness, Gary; Gilchrist, H Grant; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2013-09-01

    In birds, corticosterone (CORT) appears to facilitate reproductive activity because baseline and stress-induced CORT levels are elevated in breeding individuals compared with other times of the year. In particular, CORT is lower in the sex providing most of the parental care (i.e., incubation), which could be an important adaptation to tolerate stressors that result in abandoning reproduction. Therefore, one explanation for sex differences in CORT is that lower levels are favoured during the incubation/parental phase of reproduction. Using two species of uniparental shorebird - polyandrous red phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius) and polygynous white-rumped sandpipers (Calidris fuscicollis) - we predicted that the incubating sex would have lower baseline and stress-induced CORT, and incubating individuals with lower CORT would more effectively defend nests against a simulated intrusion, would return more quickly afterwards, and would ultimately have higher hatch success. We found that phalaropes followed the predicted pattern: incubating individuals (males) had lower baseline and stress-induced CORT than females but for baseline CORT these differences existed prior to males commencing incubation. Incubating male phalaropes with lower baseline and stress-induced CORT returned to incubate more quickly after a disturbance and there was non-significant tendency for baseline CORT to be lower in successful nests. In sandpipers, we observed no sex differences and no significant relationships between individual CORT levels and nest defence behaviours or hatch success. Our results demonstrate that in phalaropes at least, selection favours lower baseline and stress-induced CORT during the nesting period. These results can explain sex differences in stress-induced levels of CORT, however sex differences in baseline CORT were present prior to incubation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    Full Text Available A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna. Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  15. High corticosterone, not high energy cost, correlates with reproductive success in the burrow-nesting ancient murrelet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Shoji

    Full Text Available Theory and observations suggest that offspring abandonment in animals may occur when the costs to future reproductive output of current reproductive effort outweigh the fitness benefits of rearing the current brood. While hormonal cues (i.e. corticosterone or energy reserves are believed to be involved, few studies have directly focused on the proximate cues influencing behaviours directly related to reproductive success. To address this information gap, we determined the incubation metabolic rates and corticosterone (CORT levels of naturally fasting and freely incubating ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus. Respiratory quotient (RQ increased with date, suggesting that incubating ancient murrelets shifted from strictly lipid-based metabolism towards more protein-based metabolism as incubation progressed. Birds that hatched only one nestling had higher levels of circulating CORT than those which hatched two, suggesting that birds which laid only a single egg found incubation more stressful than those which laid two. However, CORT levels and incubation shift lengths were not correlated, suggesting that birds that undertook prolonged incubation shifts did so only when their energy stores were not jeopardized.

  16. Individual variability in reproductive success determines winners and losers under ocean acidification: a case study with sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Peter; Havenhand, Jon N; Gillings, Michael R; Williamson, Jane E

    2012-01-01

    Climate change will lead to intense selection on many organisms, particularly during susceptible early life stages. To date, most studies on the likely biotic effects of climate change have focused on the mean responses of pooled groups of animals. Consequently, the extent to which inter-individual variation mediates different selection responses has not been tested. Investigating this variation is important, since some individuals may be preadapted to future climate scenarios. We examined the effect of CO(2)-induced pH changes ("ocean acidification") in sperm swimming behaviour on the fertilization success of the Australasian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, focusing on the responses of separate individuals and pairs. Acidification significantly decreased the proportion of motile sperm but had no effect on sperm swimming speed. Subsequent fertilization experiments showed strong inter-individual variation in responses to ocean acidification, ranging from a 44% decrease to a 14% increase in fertilization success. This was partly explained by the significant relationship between decreases in percent sperm motility and fertilization success at ΔpH = 0.3, but not at ΔpH = 0.5. The effects of ocean acidification on reproductive success varied markedly between individuals. Our results suggest that some individuals will exhibit enhanced fertilization success in acidified oceans, supporting the concept of 'winners' and 'losers' of climate change at an individual level. If these differences are heritable it is likely that ocean acidification will lead to selection against susceptible phenotypes as well as to rapid fixation of alleles that allow reproduction under more acidic conditions. This selection may ameliorate the biotic effects of climate change if taxa have sufficient extant genetic variation upon which selection can act.

  17. Population fluctuations, losses to grazing, and reproductive success of Dactylorhiza sambucina on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mette Nordvig; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2014-01-01

    generally increased in the early 1990s but declined after that. We could find no effect of vegetation management, neither were the fluctuations related to suggested climatic factors. High proportions of plants were lost to grazing in the study year; same could be deduced for previous years when more than...... one census was available. Grazing in spring and early summer may therefore contribute to the decline of D. sambucina, as suggested by others. Populations seemed not to be affected by lack of pollination or population inbreeding, as fruit set and reproductive size was as high as in large...

  18. Age-specific reproductive success in a long-lived bird: do older parents resist stress better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frederic; Moe, Børge; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2007-11-01

    In many vertebrates, reproductive performance increases with advancing age but mechanisms involved in such a pattern remain poorly studied. One potential mechanism may be the hormonal stress response, which shifts energy investment away from reproduction and redirects it towards survival. In birds, this stress response is achieved through a release of corticosterone and is also accompanied by a decrease in circulating prolactin, a hormone involved widely in regulating parental cares. It has been predicted that, when the value of the current reproduction is high relative to the value of future reproduction and survival, as it is expected to be in older adults, the stress response should be attenuated to ensure that reproduction is not inhibited. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the corticosterone and prolactin responses of known-age (8-36 years old) incubating snow petrels (Pagadroma nivea) to a standardized capture/handling stress protocol. We also investigated whether an attenuation of the stress responses will correlate with a lower occurrence of egg neglect, a frequently observed behaviour in snow petrels. The probability of successfully fledging a chick increased from 6 years to 12 years before stabilizing after 12 years of age. Corticosterone response to stress was unaffected by age. Prolactin response to stress, however, was influenced clearly by age: in both sexes older breeders had higher stress-induced prolactin levels than younger ones. This was due to an increasing attenuation of the prolactin response to stress with advancing age in females, and in males this was due to a probably higher intrinsic capacity of older males to secrete prolactin. Moreover, higher stress-induced prolactin levels were correlated with a lower probability of neglecting the egg. In young breeders, the combination of a robust corticosterone increase with a lower ability to maintain prolactin secretion during acute stress is probably one of the functional causes of their

  19. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  20. Reproductive success in a natural population of male three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: effects of nuptial colour, parasites and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, T C; Rush, V; Kopp, D A; Foster, S A

    2013-05-01

    The effects of nuptial colour, parasites and body size on reproductive success were examined in a natural population of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Reproductive males were collected, with the contents of their nests, during the embryo-guarding stage from Lynne Lake (Cook Inlet, Alaska, U.S.A.), and nuptial colour, infection status and body size were recorded. Regression analysis revealed that male body size was the only predictor, of those measured, of reproductive success in nature. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Altered pairing behaviour and reproductive success in white ibises exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Peter; Jayasena, Nilmini

    2011-06-22

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most biologically available and toxic form of mercury, and can act as a powerful teratogen, neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor in vertebrates. However, mechanisms of endocrine impairment and net effects on demography of biota are poorly understood. Here, we report that experimental exposure of an aquatic bird over 3 years to environmentally relevant dietary MeHg concentrations (0.05-0.3 ppm wet weight) resulted in dose-related increases in male-male pairing behaviour (to 55% of males), and decreases in egg productivity (to 30%). Dosed males showed decreased rates of key courtship behaviours, and were approached less by courting females in comparison to control males. Within dosed groups, homosexual males showed a similar reduction when compared with dosed heterosexual males. We found an average 35 per cent decrease in fledgling production in high-dose birds over the study duration. These results are of interest because (i) MeHg exposure is experimentally tied to demographically important reproductive deficits, (ii) these effects were found at low, chronic exposure levels commonly experienced by wildlife, and (iii) effects on reproductive behaviour and sexual preference mediated by endocrine disruption represent a novel and probably under-reported mechanism by which contaminants may influence wild populations of birds.

  2. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-02-24

    Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination.

  3. Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the United States and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial M. rotundata populations in the United States because of problems with disease, parasites, predators, and unexplained mortality. One possible explanation for early immature mortality is that, relative to floral availability, superfluous numbers of bees are released in alfalfa fields where resources quickly become limited. Our objective was to determine how M. rotundata density affects bee nesting, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success. Various numbers of bees were released into enclosures on an alfalfa field, but only 10-90% of released female bees established nests. Therefore, a "bee density index" was derived for each enclosure from the number of established females and number of open flowers over time. As the density index increased, significant reductions occurred in the number of pollinated flowers, number of nests, and number of cells produced per bee, as well as the percentage of cells that produced viable prepupae by summer's end and the percentage that produced adult bees. The percentage of cells resulting in early brood mortality (i.e., pollen balls) significantly increased as the density index increased. We conclude that bee nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success are compromised when bee densities are high relative to floral resource availability. Open field studies are needed to determine commercial bee densities that result in sustainable bee populations and adequate pollination for profitable alfalfa seed production.

  4. Florivory and nectar-robbing perforations in flowers of pointleaf manzanita Arctostaphylos pungens (Ericaceae) and their effects on plant reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Dorit; McCall, Andrew C; Lauck, Marina; Trakhtenbrot, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Damage to petals may have varying effects on the reproductive success of the plant. The variation may depend on the kind of damage to the corolla. Whether the damage is limited to the corolla, as is usually the case with nectar-robbing perforations, or extending to the reproductive parts of the flower, as in the case of florivory holes, might determine the extent of the effect on the plant's reproduction. We examined the various perforations in the flowers of Arctostaphylos pungens and correlated their presence with fruiting success. We found that though florivory holes were highly associated with damage to reproductive parts, fruiting success did not differ significantly between flowers with the two kinds of damage. Although nectar-robbing perforations were not associated with reduced number of fruit produced, they were significantly correlated with reduced number of fruit that contained seemingly viable seeds. The implications of our findings are discussed in the context of pollination and antagonism.

  5. Quality of information about success rates provided on assisted reproductive technology clinic websites in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Prentice, Tess; Purcell, Isabelle; Johnson, Louise

    2018-06-01

    Many factors influence the chance of having a baby with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A 2016 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) investigation concluded that ART clinics needed to improve the quality of information they provide about chance of ART success. To evaluate changes in the quality of information about success rates provided on the websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand before and after the ACCC investigation. Desktop audits of websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand were conducted in 2016 and 2017 and available information about success rates was scored using a matrix with eight variables and a possible range of scores of 0-9. Of the 54 clinic websites identified in 2016, 32 had unique information and were eligible to be audited. Of these, 29 were also eligible to be audited in 2017. While there was a slight improvement in the mean score from 2016 to 2017 (4.93-5.28), this was not statistically significantly different. Of the 29 clinics, 14 had the same score on both occasions, 10 had a higher and five a lower information quality score in 2017. To allow people who consider ART to make informed decisions about treatment they need comprehensive and accurate information about what treatment entails and what the likely outcomes are. As measured by a scoring matrix, most ART clinics had not improved the quality of the information about success rates following the ACCC investigation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Timing of reproduction and fledging success in the coot Fulica atra : evidence for a causal relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W.G.; Cavé, Anton J.; Hage, Fred J.; Verhulst, Simon

    1993-01-01

    1. We investigated the relationship between hatching date and fledging success in the European coot (Fulica atra). 2. The production of fledglings per brood increased in the first half of the season and decreased in the second half, independent of clutch size or egg size. We tested experimentally

  7. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  8. Egg size, egg composition and reproductive success in the Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, TD; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between egg size and composition and their subsequent effects on hatching and fledging success in Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the island of Schiermonnikoog (53 degrees 30'N, 06 degrees 10'E) in the Dutch Wadden Sea between 1986 and 1990. Egg size

  9. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  10. Nectar secretion dynamic links pollinator behavior to consequences for plant reproductive success in the ornithophilous mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, T J; Galetto, L; Silva, W R

    2014-09-01

    The mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus was studied as a model to link flower phenology and nectar secretion strategy to pollinator behaviour and the reproductive consequences for the plant. The bright-coloured flowers presented diurnal anthesis, opened asynchronously throughout the rainy season and produced copious dilute nectar as the main reward for pollinators. Most nectar was secreted just after flower opening, with little sugar replenishment after experimental removals. During the second day of anthesis in bagged flowers, the flowers quickly reabsorbed the offered nectar. Low values of nectar standing crop recorded in open flowers can be linked with high visitation rates by bird pollinators. Eight hummingbirds and two passerines were observed as potential pollinators. The most frequent flower visitors were the hummingbirds Eupetomena macroura and Colibri serrirostris, which actively defended flowering mistletoes. The spatial separation between anthers, stigma and nectar chamber promotes pollen deposition on flapping wings of hovering hummingbirds that usually probe many flowers per visit. Seed set did not differ between hand-, self- and cross-pollinated flowers, but these treatments set significantly more seeds than flowers naturally exposed to flower visitors. We suggest that the limitation observed in the reproductive success of this plant is not related to pollinator scarcity, but probably to the extreme frequency of visitation by territorial hummingbirds. We conclude that the costs and benefits of plant reproduction depend on the interaction strength between flowers and pollinators, and the assessment of nectar secretion dynamics, pollinator behaviour and plant breeding system allows clarification of the complexity of such associations. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Why do some women prefer submissive men? Hierarchically disparate couples reach higher reproductive success in European urban humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozifkova, Eva; Konvicka, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Equality between partners is considering a feature of the functional partnerships in westernized societies. However, the evolutionary consequences of how in-pair hierarchy influences reproduction are less known. Attraction of some high-ranking women towards low-ranking men represents a puzzle. Young urban adults (120 men, 171 women) filled out a questionnaire focused on their sexual preference for higher or lower ranking partners, their future in-pair hierarchy, and hierarchy between their parents. Human pairs with a hierarchic disparity between partners conceive more offspring than pairs of equally-ranking individuals, who, in turn, conceive more offspring than pairs of two dominating partners. Importantly, the higher reproductive success of hierarchically disparate pairs holds, regardless of which sex, male or female, is the dominant one. In addition, the subjects preferring hierarchy disparity in partnerships were with greater probability sexually aroused by such disparity, suggesting that both the partnership preference and the triggers of sexual arousal may reflect a mating strategy. These results challenge the frequently held belief in within-pair equality as a trademark of functional partnerships. It rather appears that existence of some disparity improves within-pair cohesion, facilitating both cooperation between partners and improving the pairs' ability to face societal challenges. The parallel existence of submissivity-dominance hierarchies within human sexes allows for the parallel existence of alternative reproductive strategies, and may form a background for the diversity of mating systems observed in human societies. Arousal of overemphasized dominance/submissiveness may explain sadomasochistic sex, still little understood from the evolutionary psychology point of view.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of implanted depleted uranium on male reproductive success, sperm concentration, and sperm velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfsten, Darryl P.; Schaeffer, David J.; Johnson, Eric W.; Robert Cunningham, J.; Still, Kenneth R.; Wilfong, Erin R.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) projectiles have been used in battle in Iraq and the Balkans and will continue to be a significant armor-penetrating munition for the US military. As demonstrated in the Persian Gulf War, battle injury from DU projectiles and shrapnel is a possibility, and removal of embedded DU fragments from the body is not always practical because of their location in the body or their small size. Previous studies in rodents have demonstrated that implanted DU mobilizes and translocates to the gonads, and natural uranium may be toxic to spermatazoa and the male reproductive tract. In this study, the effects of implanted DU pellets on sperm concentration, motility, and male reproductive success were evaluated in adult (P1) Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with 0, 12, or 20, DU pellets of 1x2 mm or 12 or 20 tantalum (Ta) steel pellets of 1x2 mm. Twenty DU pellets of 1x2 mm (760 mg) implanted in a 500-g rat are equal to approximately 0.2 pound of DU in a 154-lb (70-kg) person. Urinary analysis found that male rats implanted with DU were excreting uranium at postimplantation days 27 and 117 with the amount dependent on dose. No deaths or evidence of toxicity occurred in P1 males over the 150-day postimplantation study period. When assessed at postimplantation day 150, the concentration, motion, and velocity of sperm isolated from DU-implanted animals were not significantly different from those of sham surgery controls. Velocity and motion of sperm isolated from rats treated with the positive control compound α-chlorohydrin were significantly reduced compared with sham surgery controls. There was no evidence of a detrimental effect of DU implantation on mating success at 30-45 days and 120-145 days postimplantation. The results of this study suggest that implantation of up to 20 DU pellets of 1x2 mm in rats for approximately 21% of their adult lifespan does not have an adverse impact on male reproductive success, sperm concentration, or sperm velocity

  13. Effects of ovarian fluid and genetic differences on sperm performance and fertilization success of alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, S J; Butts, I A E; Flannery, E W; Peters, K M; Heath, D D; Pitcher, T E

    2017-06-01

    In many species, sperm velocity affects variation in the outcome of male competitive fertilization success. In fishes, ovarian fluid (OF) released with the eggs can increase male sperm velocity and potentially facilitate cryptic female choice for males of specific phenotypes and/or genotypes. Therefore, to investigate the effect of OF on fertilization success, we measured sperm velocity and conducted in vitro competitive fertilizations with paired Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) males representing two alternative reproductive tactics, jacks (small sneaker males) and hooknoses (large guarding males), in the presence of river water alone and OF mixed with river water. To determine the effect of genetic differences on fertilization success, we genotyped fish at neutral (microsatellites) and functional [major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II ß1] markers. We found that when sperm were competed in river water, jacks sired significantly more offspring than hooknoses; however, in OF, there was no difference in paternity between the tactics. Sperm velocity was significantly correlated with paternity success in river water, but not in ovarian fluid. Paternity success in OF, but not in river water alone, was correlated with genetic relatedness between male and female, where males that were less related to the female attained greater paternity. We found no relationship between MHC II ß1 divergence between mates and paternity success in water or OF. Our results indicate that OF can influence the outcome of sperm competition in Chinook salmon, where OF provides both male tactics with fertilization opportunities, which may in part explain what maintains both tactics in nature. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Oil collecting bees and Byrsonima cydoniifolia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae interactions: the prevalence of long-distance cross pollination driving reproductive success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGANA S. SAZAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil-collecting bees are the natural pollinators of oil-flower plants, but little is known about the pollination process and the effectiveness of their pollination service to the reproductive success of their host plants. In species of Byrsonima the reproductive system have been described as auto-compatible or self-incompatible. We studied the reproductive system of Byrsonima cydoniifolia, the fructification by means of short, medium and long-distance cross pollinations, the morphology and floral biology and the pollination interactions with species of oil-collecting bees. By means of controlled pollinations we found self-incompatibility caused by abortion of most self-pollinated flowers and demonstrated that the prevailing cross pollination ensuring the reproductive success of B. cydoniifolia is the long-distance cross pollination and Centridini bees; Epicharis nigrita, particularly, are the pollinators promoting the gene flow between genetically distinct populations.

  15. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  16. Florivory and nectar-robbing perforations in flowers of pointleaf manzanita Arctostaphylos pungens (Ericaceae) and their effects on plant reproductive success

    OpenAIRE

    Eliyahu, Dorit; McCall, Andrew C.; Lauck, Marina; Trakhtenbrot, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Damage to petals may have varying effects on the reproductive success of the plant. The variation may depend on the kind of damage to the corolla. Whether the damage is limited to the corolla, as is usually the case with nectar-robbing perforations, or extending to the reproductive parts of the flower, as in the case of florivory holes, might determine the extent of the effect on the plant's reproduction. We examined the various perforations in the flowers of Arctostaphylos pungens and correl...

  17. Factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the outer banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Shiloh A.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. We evaluated survival with respect to nesting island, year, time of season, brood age, distance to tide (m), presence of off-road vehicles and proximity of foraging habitat. The daily nest survival (mean 0.981, standard error [SE] 0.002) was affected by year and island, and declined over the nesting season. Mammals were responsible for 54% of identified nest failures. Daily brood survival (mean 0.981, SE 0.002) varied by island and increased non-linearly with age, with highest mortality in the seven days after hatching. Model results indicate direct access to foraging sites has a positive effect on brood survival, whereas presence of off-road vehicles has a negative effect. We studied chick behavior and survival using radio telemetry and direct observation and found that vehicles caused mortality and affected behavior and resource use by oystercatcher chicks. We identified the source of mortality for 37 radio-tagged chicks. Six (16%) were killed by vehicles, 21 (57%) by predators, and 10 (27%) by exposure and starvation. From 1995 to 2008, 25 additional oystercatcher chicks were found dead, 13 (52%) killed by vehicles. Chicks on beaches closed to vehicles used beach and intertidal zones more frequently than chicks on beaches open to vehicles. Chick predators included Great Horned Owls Bubo virginianus, Fish Crows Corvus ossifragus, cats Felis catus, mink Mustela vison, raccoons Procyon lotor, and ghost crabs Ocypode albicans. The factors affecting reproductive success differed between the incubation and chick-rearing stages.  Management actions that influence chick survival will have a larger effect on total productivity than actions affecting nest survival.

  18. Individual quality explains variation in reproductive success better than territory quality in a long-lived territorial raptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabi Zabala

    Full Text Available Evolution by natural selection depends on the relationship between individual traits and fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from habitat (territory quality and individual variation. Individual quality and specialization can have a deep impact on fitness, yet in most studies on territorial species the quality of territory and individuals are confused. We aimed to determine if variation in breeding success is better explained by territories, individual quality or a combination of both. We analysed the number of fledglings and the breeding quality index (the difference between the number of fledglings of an individual/breeding pair and the average number of fledglings of the monitored territories in the same year as part of a long term (16 years peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus monitoring program with identification of individuals. Using individual and territory identities as correlates of quality, we built Generalised Linear Models with Mixed effects, in which random factors depicted different hypotheses for sources of variation (territory/individual quality in the reproductive success of unique breeding pairs, males and females, and assessed their performance. Most evidence supported the hypothesis that variation in breeding success is explained by individual identity, particularly male identity, rather than territory. There is also some evidence for inter year variations in the breeding success of females and a territory effect in the case of males. We argue that, in territorial species, individual quality is a major source of variation in breeding success, often masked by territory. Future ecological and conservation studies on habitat use should consider and include the effect of individuals, in order to avoid misleading results.

  19. Early reproductive success of western bluebirds and ash-throated flycatchers: a landscape-contaminant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Jeanne M; Myers, Orrin B

    2002-01-01

    Eggshell quality, clutch size, sex ratio, and hatching success of western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) and ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens) were studied on a landscape-soil contaminant gradient at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico from 1997 to 1999. A variety of contaminants (heavy metals, chemicals, insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorines, and radioactive isotopes) range across different spatial scales and concentrations on LANL land. This study is an example of a monitoring program over a large area with varying degree of contamination that is used to highlight locations of concern for future research. There were two locations where the flycatcher had a lower hatching success. The bluebirds at Sandia wetland, a location of concern for PCBs. had a thinner eggshell thickness index (RATCLIFFE) and the eggs were smaller than at other locations. The flycatcher had thinner eggshells than bluebirds, which could add to sensitivity to exposure to contaminants. There was no variation in clutch size or sex ratio between locations or areas closer to contaminant release sites for both species. Percent females in the clutch ranged from 0 to 100% in the WEBL and from 33 to 67% for ATFL.

  20. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (the male's territory. Successful nests had significantly more woody cover (≥9%) within 1 m than failed nests. Our results suggest that cattle grazing at 1.2–2.4 ha of forage/animal unit with periodic mowing can create and maintain these characteristics without interfering with the nesting of Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  1. Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paty Castilleja Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs. We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%, germination (5.0% and seedling establishment (27.7%, with high levels of inbreeding (0.79. In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%, high germination (71.5% and seedling establishment (84%–97% and low inbreeding (0.33. Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability.

  2. Bateman's Principle in Cooperatively Breeding Vertebrates: The Effects of Non-breeding Alloparents on Variability in Female and Male Reproductive Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Mark E; Lacey, Eileen A

    2005-11-01

    The sex-specific slopes of Bateman's gradients have important implications for understanding animal mating systems, including patterns of sexual selection and reproductive competition. Intersexual differences in the fitness benefits derived from mating with multiple partners are expected to yield distinct patterns of reproductive success for males and females, with variance in direct fitness predicted to be greater among males. These analyses assume that typically all adults are reproductive and that failure to produce offspring is non-adaptive. Among some species of cooperatively breeding birds and mammals, however, non-breeding adult alloparents are common and may comprise the majority of individuals in social groups. The presence of a large number of non-breeding adults, particularly when coupled with greater social suppression of reproduction among females, may alter the relative variance in direct fitness between the sexes, thereby generating an apparent contradiction to Bateman's Paradigm. To explore quantitatively the effects of non-breeding alloparents on variance in reproductive success, we used genetic estimates of parentage and reproductive success drawn from the literature to calculate the relative variability in direct fitness for females and males in alloparental and "other" societies of birds and mammals. Our analyses indicate that in mammals and, to a lesser extent, in birds, variability in direct fitness is greater among females in species characterized by the presence of non-breeding alloparents. These data suggest that social interactions, including social suppression of reproduction, are powerful determinants of individual direct fitness that may modify sex-specific patterns of reproductive variance from those described by Bateman.

  3. Successful reproduction of unmated Tropilaelaps mercedesae and its implication on mite population growth in Apis mellifera colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly hygienic colonies are known to reduce the reproductive potential of Varroa destructor. For Tropilaelaps mercedesae, information on how bee behavior may influence the mite’s reproductive potential is currently unknown. In this study, we assessed the influence of recapping on the reproduction o...

  4. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  5. The effects of patch shape and connectivity on nest site selection and reproductive success of the Indigo Bunting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldon, Aimee Jean

    2004-07-01

    Description – Ph.D Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 135 pp. Abatract - Habitat fragmentation and its associated effects have been blamed for the recent population declines of many Neotropical migratory bird species. Increased predation and parasitism resulting from edge-related effects have been implicated for poor nesting success in many studies, mostly of forest interior species. However, little attention has been devoted to disturbance-dependent birds. In this study, I examine how patch shape and connectivity in fragmented landscapes affects the reproductive success of disturbance-dependent bird species, specifically the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). I conducted my study in a landscape-scale experimental system of similar-area habitat patches that differed in connectivity and in shape. Shapes differed between edgy and rectangular forms, where edgy patches contained 50% more edge than rectangular patches. I tested whether edgy patches function as ecological traps for species with strong edge preferences, by leading them to select dangerous habitats. Indigo Buntings preferentially selected edgy patches over rectangular patches, but experienced significantly lower reproductive success in edgy patches early in the season. Although predation pressure intensified in rectangular patches late in the season, seasonal fecundity was still significantly lower in edgy patches, providing the first empirical evidence that edges can function as ecological traps for Indigo Buntings. A second objective of my study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservation corridors for disturbance-dependent bird species. Conservation corridors have become a popular strategy to preserve biodiversity and promote gene flow in fragmented landscapes, but corridors may also have negative consequences. I tested the hypothesis that corridors can increase nest predation risk in connected patches relative to unconnected patches. Nest predation rates

  6. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton J. Davis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897 establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm, moderate (15 to 32 ppm and high (72 ppm calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm. Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in 15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced species.

  7. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Clinton J; Ruhmann, Emma K; Acharya, Kumud; Chandra, Sudeep; Jerde, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897) establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm), moderate (15 to 32 ppm) and high (72 ppm) calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm). Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in 15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced species.

  8. The novel POSEIDON stratification of 'Low prognosis patients in Assisted Reproductive Technology' and its proposed marker of successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidan, Peter; Alviggi, Carlo; Fischer, Robert; Esteves, Sandro C

    2016-01-01

    In reproductive medicine little progress has been achieved regarding the clinical management of patients with a reduced ovarian reserve or poor ovarian response (POR) to stimulation with exogenous gonadotropins -a frustrating experience for clinicians as well as patients. Despite the efforts to optimize the definition of this subgroup of patients, the existing POR criteria unfortunately comprise a heterogeneous population and, importantly, do not offer any recommendations for clinical handling. Recently, the POSEIDON group ( P atient- O riented S trategies E ncompassing I ndividualize D O ocyte N umber) proposed a new stratification of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in patients with a reduced ovarian reserve or unexpected inappropriate ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropins. In brief, four subgroups have been suggested based on quantitative and qualitative parameters, namely, i. Age and the expected aneuploidy rate; ii. Ovarian biomarkers (i.e. antral follicle count [AFC] and anti-Müllerian hormone [AMH]), and iii. Ovarian response - provided a previous stimulation cycle was performed. The new classification introduces a more nuanced picture of the "low prognosis patient" in ART, using clinically relevant criteria to guide the physician to most optimally manage this group of patients. The POSEIDON group also introduced a new measure for successful ART treatment, namely, the ability to retrieve the number of oocytes needed for the specific patient to obtain at least one euploid embryo for transfer. This feature represents a pragmatic endpoint to clinicians and enables the development of prediction models aiming to reduce the time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Consequently, the POSEIDON stratification should not be applied for retrospective analyses having live birth rate (LBR) as endpoint. Such an approach would fail as the attribution of patients to each Poseidon group is related to specific requirements and could only be made prospectively. On the other hand

  9. Strong gender differences in reproductive success variance, and the times to the most recent common ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Maroussia; Sornette, Didier

    2012-10-07

    that we are descended from males who were successful in a highly competitive context, while females were facing a much smaller female-female competition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Open capsular and ligament reconstruction with semitendinosus hamstring autograft successfully controls superior and posterior translation for type V acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Raffaele; Ceccarelli, Enrico; Castagna, Alessandro; Calvisi, Vittorio; Flanagin, Brody; Conti, Marco; Krishnan, Sumant G

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surgical management for type V complete acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation remains controversial. The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of an open surgical technique consisting for AC joint ligamentous and capsular reconstruction using autologous hamstring tendon grafts and semi-permanent sutures. Between January 2005 and December 2011, 32 consecutive patients with symptomatic type V complete AC joint dislocation underwent surgical treatment using the same technique. The median time from injury to surgery was 45 days (range 24-90). The average median postoperative clinical and radiographic follow-up time was 30 months (range 24-33). Clinical outcomes measures included the ASES score, the visual analog score (VAS), and subjective patient satisfaction score. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. ASES score increased from a median of 38.2 ± 6.2 preoperative to 92.1 ± 4.7 postoperatively (p ≤ 0.05). The median VAS score improved from 62 mm (range 45-100 mm) preoperatively to 8 mm (range 0-20 mm) at final follow-up (p ≤ 0.05). No patient experienced pain or discomfort with either direct palpation of the AC joint or with cross-body adduction. Final radiographs demonstrated symmetric AC joint contour in 25/32 (78%) patients. Seven patients (22%) radiographically demonstrated superior translation of the distal clavicle relative to the superior margin of the acromion but less than 50% of the clavicular width. 30/32 patients (93%) were able to return to their pre-injury level of work and sports activities. This novel surgical technique using a free graft and braided suture for simultaneous coracoclavicular ligament and AC joint capsular reconstruction successfully controls superior and posterior translations after type V AC joint dislocation and minimizes the incidence of persistent postoperative AC joint subluxation. Retrospective case series, Level IV.

  11. The effect of female height on reproductive success is negative in Western populations, but more variable in non-Western populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, G.; Verhulst, S.; Pollet, T.V.; Buunk, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this article we examine the association between female height and reproductive success in a US sample and present a review of previous studies on this association. We also outline possible biological explanations for our findings. Methods: We used data from a long-term study of 5,326

  12. Dispersal strategy of cyst nematodes (Heterodera arenaria) in the plant root zone of mobile dunes and consequences for emergence, survival and reproductive success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, C.D.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Root-feeding nematodes may play an important role in generating spatial and temporal variation in natural plant communities, but little is known about the performance of the nematodes in the plant root zone. We studied the emergence, survival and reproductive success of the cyst nematode Heterodera

  13. Population Dynamics and Cost-Benefit Analysis. An Attempt to Relate Population Dynamics via Lifetime Reproductive Success to Short-Term Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Balen, J.H. van; Drent, P.J.; Cavé, A.J.; Mertens, J.A.L.; Boer-Hazewinkel, J. den

    1987-01-01

    1. The aim of this article is to explore whether cost-benefit analysis of behaviour may help to understand the population dynamics of a species. The Great Tit is taken as an example. 2. The lifetime reproductive success in different populations of Great Tits amounts from 0.7 (Hoge Veluwe, Wytham) to

  14. Dispersal strategy of cyst nematodes (Heterodera Arenaria) in the plant root zone of mobile dunes and consequences for emergence, survival and reproductive success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, C.D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Root-feeding nematodes may play an important role in generating spatial and temporal variation in natural plant communities, but little is known about the performance of the nematodes in the plant root zone. We studied the emergence, survival and reproductive success of the cyst nematode Heterodera

  15. Reproductive success and contaminant associations in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) used to assess a beneficial use impairment in U.S. and Binational Great Lakes’ Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed ...

  16. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  17. The effects of experimental reservoir creation on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury and reproductive success of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, P M; St Louis, V L

    2001-04-01

    Reservoir creation results in decomposition of flooded organic matter and increased rates of mercury methylation. Methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic form of mercury, bioaccumulates through aquatic food webs. Our objective was to quantify the transfer of MeHg from aquatic food webs into terrestrial organisms. We examined rates of MeHg bioaccumulation in an insectivorous songbird, the tree swallow, breeding near an experimentally created reservoir. We also determined the impact of flooding and MeHg bioaccumulation on the reproductive success of these birds. Mean MeHg burdens in nestling swallows from near the experimental reservoir increased from 1,210 +/- 150 ng before flooding to 2,200 +/- 102 ng after flooding. Postflood MeHg concentrations in both the body and feathers of the birds were significantly greater than preflood MeHg concentrations. Although MeHg burdens in swallows were elevated in postflood years, we found no overt toxicological affects. An increase in dipteran productivity (the primary food source of tree swallows) after reservoir creation resulted in earlier nest initiation, larger eggs, and faster growth rates of wing and bill length in nestlings raised during postflood years.

  18. Direct-to-consumer advertising of success rates for medically assisted reproduction: a review of national clinic websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jack; Vail, Andy; Roberts, Stephen A

    2017-01-12

    To establish how medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics report success rates on their websites. Websites of private and NHS clinics offering in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in the UK. We identified clinics offering IVF using the Choose a Fertility Clinic facility on the website of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). Of 81 clinics identified, a website could not be found for 2, leaving 79 for inclusion in the analysis. Outcome measures reported by clinic websites. The numerator and denominator included in the outcome measure were of interest. 53 (67%) websites reported their performance using 51 different outcome measures. It was most common to report pregnancy (83% of these clinics) or live birth rates (51%). 31 different ways of reporting pregnancy and 9 different ways of reporting live birth were identified. 11 (21%) reported multiple birth or pregnancy rates. 1 clinic provided information on adverse events. It was usual for clinics to present results without relevant contextual information such as sample size, reporting period, the characteristics of patients and particular details of treatments. Many combinations of numerator and denominator are available for the purpose of reporting success rates for MAR. The range of reporting options available to clinics is further increased by the possibility of presenting results for subgroups of patients and for different time periods. Given the status of these websites as advertisements to patients, the risk of selective reporting is considerable. Binding guidance is required to ensure consistent, informative reporting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Improved reproductive success in otters (Lutra lutra), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anna M.; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie V.M.; Helander, Björn O.; Rigét, Frank F.; Eriksson, Ulla C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. In female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. In grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990–2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. The frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980–2000. The number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985–2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. Organochlorine concentrations decreased at annual rates between 3.5 and 10.2%. The estimated mean concentration (mg/kg lw) for total-PCB decreased from 70 to 8 (otters), from 110 to 15 (seals) and from 955 to 275 (eagles). The corresponding concentrations for ΣDDT decreased from 3.4 to 0.2 (otters), from 192 to 2.8 (seals) and from 865 to 65 (eagles). This study adds evidence to support the hypothesis that PCBs and DDTs have had strong negative effects on the reproduction and population levels of these species. - Highlights: ► We compared trends of reproductive success in three aquatic top predators in Sweden. ► The study period covers four decades. ► Similar, increasing trends are seen from the end of the 1980s for otters, grey seals and sea eagles. ► Concentrations of total-PCB and DDTs have decreased in these species at similar rates. ► PCBs and DDTs have severely affected reproductive success in these species. - The reproductive success in otters, grey seals and white-tailed sea eagles has increased as the concentrations of PCBs and ΣDDT have decreased supporting a causative relationship.

  20. Utilization and success rates of unstimulated in vitro fertilization in the United States: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John David; DiMattina, Michael; Reh, Andrea; Botes, Awie; Celia, Gerard; Payson, Mark

    2013-08-01

    To examine the utilization and outcomes of natural cycle (unstimulated) IVF as reported to the Society of Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) in 2006 and 2007. Retrospective analysis. Dataset analysis from the SART Clinical Outcome Reporting System national database. All patients undergoing IVF as reported to SART in 2006 and 2007. None. Utilization of unstimulated IVF; description of patient demographics; and comparison of implantation and pregnancy rates between unstimulated and stimulated IVF cycles. During 2006 and 2007 a total of 795 unstimulated IVF cycles were initiated. Success rates were age dependent, with patients Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prolactin is related to individual differences in parental behavior and reproductive success in a biparental passerine, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Kristina O; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Variation in parental care can lead to important fitness consequences. The endocrine system is known to regulate physiological and behavioral reproductive traits that are important contributors to lifetime reproductive success. However, the hormonal basis of variation in avian parental care is still not well understood. Plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are generally high during post-hatch parental care in birds, and may be a candidate mechanism that regulates variation in parental care and other reproductive success outcomes. Here we analyze the relationship between PRL, parental behavior (chick brooding and feeding) and reproductive success outcomes (clutch size, number of chicks hatched, and chick survival) for the first time in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Birds were given cabergoline, a dopamine agonist traditionally used to lower prolactin in mammals, or vehicle in their food. Cabergoline had no effect on prolactin concentrations, but across both groups we found that PRL is positively correlated with parental behavior, number of chicks hatched, and chick survival, but not clutch size. Results from this study will inform hypotheses and predictions for future manipulation studies which test for a causal role for PRL in parental traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms influencing the timing and success of reproductive migration in a capital breeding semelparous fish species, the sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J; Cooperman, Michael S; Patterson, David A; Welch, David W; Hanson, Kyle C; Olsson, Ivan; English, Karl K; Farrell, Anthony P

    2009-01-01

    Two populations of homing sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka; Adams and Chilko) were intercepted in the marine approaches around the northern and southern ends of Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) en route to a natal river. More than 500 salmon were nonlethally biopsied for blood plasma, gill filament tips, and gross somatic energy (GSE) and were released with either acoustic or radio transmitters. At the time of capture, GSE, body length, and circulating testosterone ([T]) differed between populations, differences that reflected known life-history variations. Within-population analyses showed that in Adams sockeye salmon, plasma glucose ([glu]), lactate ([lactate]), and ion concentrations were higher in the northern approach than in the southern approach, suggesting that the former was more stressful. GSE, [T], and gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities also differed between the two locales, and each varied significantly with Julian date, suggesting seasonality. Despite these relative geographic differences, the timing of river entry and the ability to reach spawning areas were strongly correlated with energetic, reproductive, and osmoregulatory state. Salmon that delayed river entry and reached spawning areas had relatively high GSE and low [T] and gill ATPase. In contrast, salmon that entered the river directly but that ultimately failed to reach spawning areas had lower GSE and higher [T] and gill ATPase, and they also swam at significantly faster rates (failed fish approximately 20.0 km d(-1) vs. successful fish approximately 15.5 km d(-1)). Physiologically, salmon that did not enter the river at all but that presumably died in the marine environment exhibited high stress (plasma [glu] and [lactate]) and ionoregulatory measures (plasma [Na(+)], [Cl(-)], osmolality).

  3. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  4. Effects of sewage effluent and ethynyl oestradiol upon molecular markers of oestrogenic exposure, maturation and reproductive success in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Craig D.; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A.; Davies, Ian M.; Moffat, Colin F.; Pirie, David; Robertson, Fiona; Stagg, Ronald M.; Struthers, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Male fish in several UK estuaries are known to be exposed to oestrogenic contamination, and whilst a limited number of studies have shown that exposure to oestrogens can reduce the reproductive success of fish, the impact of environmentally relevant exposures is less clear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of a sewage effluent and the synthetic oestrogen 17α-ethynyl oestradiol (EE 2 ) upon the reproductive success of a marine fish. Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were exposed for 7 months to EE 2 or a sewage effluent containing known xeno-oestrogens (alkylphenol polyethoxylates) and bred using within treatment crosses. Nominal exposure concentrations were 6 ng l -1 EE 2 , 0.3 or 0.03% v/v sewage effluent. At the end of the breeding trials, expression of hepatic zona radiata protein (Zrp) and vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA were determined using two recently developed cDNA probes. Exposure to 6 ng l -1 EE 2 induced Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression in male and female sand goby, impaired male maturation and reproductive behaviour, reduced female fecundity and reduced egg fertility. As a consequence, fertile egg production of the EE 2 -exposed population was reduced by 90%. Exposure to sewage effluent (0.3% v/v) increased adult mortality and female Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression, but did not induce male vitellogenesis. Exposure to EE 2 and 0.3% v/v sewage effluent impaired development of the male urogenital papilla. Fish exposed to 0.03% v/v sewage effluent produced more fertile eggs than those exposed to 0.3% effluent, or those receiving no effluent. It is concluded that male vitellogenesis in an oestrogenically exposed population may be accompanied by reduced reproductive success, but that it may not be indicative of altered reproductive output in a population exposed to an industrial sewage effluent

  5. Nutritional stress in Northern gannets during an unprecedented low reproductive success year: can extreme sea surface temperature event and dietary change be the cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Vézina, François; Grégoire, François; Rail, Jean-François; Verreault, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive success of seabirds is tightly associated with availability of their prey for which the spatiotemporal distribution may be influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) from the largest colony in North America (Bonaventure Island, Quebec, Canada) were in negative nutritional state during the unprecedented low reproductive success year of 2012, and whether this was associated with changes in SST anomalies and diet. The incubation period of gannets in 2012 was characterized by a significant decline, from early to late incubation, in plasma triglyceride levels that was associated with an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. However, no changes in plasma glycerol and β-hydroxybutyrate levels were noted. SST anomalies recorded in this area (south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during the breeding period were consistently higher in 2012 compared to the previous year (a better reproductive success year). Based on signatures of stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes in gannet red blood cells and in whole fish homogenates of three major preys (mackerel, herring, and capelin), a minor dietary shift was noted between those years and incubation periods. In light of these findings, it is suggested that the extreme warm-water perturbation event that prevailed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during summer 2012 was associated with a rapid deterioration of nutritional condition of Bonaventure Island gannets during the incubation. These suboptimal physiological changes likely contributed to the dramatic decline in reproductive success reported in this colony. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering periods and same main pollinators. The effects of abundance (5, 25 and 100 individuals and proximity (0 and 15 m of the alien on visitation rate, insect behaviour, pollen deposition and reproductive success of both natives were investigated during 2 flowering seasons. We used centred visitation rates as they can be directly interpreted as a positive or negative effect of the invasive.Both abundance and proximity of the alien increased bumblebee visitation rates to both natives. On the other hand, abundance of the exotic species had a slight negative effect on honeybee visits to natives while its proximity had no effect. The behaviour of bumblebees changed as visitors left significantly more often the native plants for I. glandulifera when its abundance increased. As a consequence of this “inconstancy”, bees deposited considerable quantities of alien pollen on native stigmas. Nevertheless, this interspecific pollen transfer did not decrease seed set in natives. Self-compatibility and high attractiveness of both native species probably alleviate the risk of altered pollinator services and reproductive success due to the invader in natural populations.

  7. A prospective analysis of 179 type 2 superior labrum anterior and posterior repairs: outcomes and factors associated with success and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Matthew T; McCormick, Frank; Dewing, Christopher; McIntire, Sean; Solomon, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    There is a paucity of type 2 superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) surgical outcomes with prospective data. To prospectively analyze the clinical outcomes of the arthroscopic treatment of type 2 SLAP tears in a young, active patient population, and to determine factors associated with treatment success and failure. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Over a 4-year period, 225 patients with a type 2 SLAP tear were prospectively enrolled. Two sports/shoulder-fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons performed repairs with suture anchors and a vertical suture construct. Patients were excluded if they underwent any additional repairs, including rotator cuff repair, labrum repair outside of the SLAP region, biceps tenodesis or tenotomy, or distal clavicle excision. Dependent variables were preoperative and postoperative assessments with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability (WOSI) scores and independent physical examinations. A failure analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with failure: age, mechanism of injury, preoperative outcome scores, and smoking. Failure was defined as revision surgery, mean ASES score below 70, or an inability to return to sports and work duties, which was assessed statistically with the Student t test and stepwise logarithmic regression. There were 179 of 225 patients who completed the follow-up for the study (80%) at a mean of 40.4 months (range, 26-62 months). The mean preoperative scores (WOSI, 54%; SANE, 50%; ASES, 65) improved postoperatively (WOSI, 82%; SANE, 85%; ASES, 88) (P failure criteria. Fifty patients elected revision surgery. Advanced age within the cohort (>36 years) was the only factor associated with a statistically significant increase in the incidence of failure. Those who were deemed failed had a mean age of 39.2 years (range, 29-45 years) versus those who were deemed healed with a mean age of 29

  8. Reproductive success and contaminant associations in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) used to assess a Beneficial Use Impairment in U.S. and Binational Great Lakes’ Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Etterson, Matthew A.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2018-01-01

    During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological variables and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates. Four of 5 ecological variables (Female Age, Date within season, Year, and Site) were important explanatory variables. Of the 11 contaminants, only total dioxin and furan toxic equivalents (TEQs) explained a significant amount of the egg failure probabilities. Neither total PCBs nor PCB TEQs explained the variation in egg failure rates. In a separate analysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in nestling diet, used as a proxy for female diet during egg laying, was significantly correlated with the daily probability of egg failure. The 8 sites within AOCs which had poorer reproduction when compared to 10 non-AOC sites, the measure of impaired reproduction as defined by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, were associated with exposure to dioxins and furan TEQs, PAHs, or depredation. Only 2 sites had poorer reproduction than the poorest performing non-AOC. Using a classic (non-modeling) approach to estimating reproductive success, 82% of nests hatched at least 1 egg, and 75% of eggs laid, excluding those collected for contaminant analyses, hatched.

  9. Evaluation of the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Hatchery and Natural and Hatchery Environments : Annual Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Seamons, todd; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry

    2008-12-05

    This report summarizes the field, laboratory, and analytical work from December 2007 through November 2008 on a research project that investigates interactions and comparative reproductive success of wild and hatchery origin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout in Forks Creek, a tributary of the Willapa River in southwest Washington. First, we continued to successfully sample hatchery and wild (i.e., naturally spawned) adult and wild smolt steelhead at Forks Creek. Second, we revealed microsatellite genotype data for adults and smolts through brood year 2008. Finally, four formal scientific manuscripts were published in 2008 and two are in press, one is in revision and two are in preparations.

  10. Flood duration determines the reproduction success of fish in artificial oxbows in a floodplain of a potamal river

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáč, Michal; Ondračková, Markéta; Jurajda, Pavel; Valová, Zdenka; Reichard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2010), s. 644-655 ISSN 0906-6691 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : young-of-the-year * flood pulse concept * regression * recruitment * reproductive guilds Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.432, year: 2010

  11. Effects of depleted uranium on the reproductive success and F1 generation survival of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrachot, Stéphanie [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Brion, François [Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité d’évaluation des risques écotoxicologiques, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pereira, Sandrine; Floriani, Magali; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalié, Isabelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Palluel, Olivier [Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité d’évaluation des risques écotoxicologiques, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The effect of depleted uranium on zebrafish reproduction was studied. • An inhibition of egg production and an increase of F1 embryo mortality were observed. • Decreased circulating concentration of vitellogenin was observed in females. • Increased DNA damages were observed in parent gonads and in embryos. • U environmental concentration impairs reproduction and genetic integrity of fish. - Abstract: Despite the well-characterized occurrence of uranium (U) in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the chronic exposure of fish to low levels of U and its potential effect on reproduction. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of environmental concentrations of depleted U on the reproductive output of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and on survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae following parental exposure to U. For that purpose, sexually mature male and female zebrafish were exposed to 20 and 250 μg/L of U for 14 days and allowed to reproduce in clean water during a further 14-day period. At all sampling times, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were analyzed to investigate the effects of U exposure on these reproductive endpoints. In addition, accumulation of U in the gonads and its genotoxic effect on male and female gonad cells were quantified. The results showed that U strongly affected the capability of fish to reproduce and to generate viable individuals as evidenced by the inhibition of egg production and the increased rate of mortality of the F1 embryos. Interestingly, U exposure resulted in decreased circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in females. Increased concentrations of U were observed in gonads and eggs, which were most likely responsible for the genotoxic effects seen in fish gonads and in embryos exposed maternally to U. Altogether, these findings highlight the negative effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of U which alter the reproductive

  12. Effects of depleted uranium on the reproductive success and F1 generation survival of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, Stéphanie; Brion, François; Pereira, Sandrine; Floriani, Magali; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalié, Isabelle; Palluel, Olivier; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of depleted uranium on zebrafish reproduction was studied. • An inhibition of egg production and an increase of F1 embryo mortality were observed. • Decreased circulating concentration of vitellogenin was observed in females. • Increased DNA damages were observed in parent gonads and in embryos. • U environmental concentration impairs reproduction and genetic integrity of fish. - Abstract: Despite the well-characterized occurrence of uranium (U) in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the chronic exposure of fish to low levels of U and its potential effect on reproduction. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of environmental concentrations of depleted U on the reproductive output of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and on survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae following parental exposure to U. For that purpose, sexually mature male and female zebrafish were exposed to 20 and 250 μg/L of U for 14 days and allowed to reproduce in clean water during a further 14-day period. At all sampling times, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were analyzed to investigate the effects of U exposure on these reproductive endpoints. In addition, accumulation of U in the gonads and its genotoxic effect on male and female gonad cells were quantified. The results showed that U strongly affected the capability of fish to reproduce and to generate viable individuals as evidenced by the inhibition of egg production and the increased rate of mortality of the F1 embryos. Interestingly, U exposure resulted in decreased circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in females. Increased concentrations of U were observed in gonads and eggs, which were most likely responsible for the genotoxic effects seen in fish gonads and in embryos exposed maternally to U. Altogether, these findings highlight the negative effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of U which alter the reproductive

  13. Determinants of fertility and reproductive success after hysteroscopic septoplasty for women with unexplained primary infertility: a prospective analysis of 88 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeir, Tarek; Abdelshaheed, Mahmoud; El-Shafie, Mohamed; Sherif, Lotfy; Badawy, Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of hysteroscopic septoplasty as therapy for unexplained primary infertility in women with uterine septum as a sole cause for reproductive failure and to define the factors influencing reproductive success. In a prospective comparative study, we enrolled 103 infertile women with uterine septum as a sole cause for reproductive failure. They had had unexplained primary infertility >2 years and a follow-up >12 months. Uterine anomalies were diagnosed by means of hysterosalpingography (HSG) and 2D-transvaginal sonography (TVS) with intrauterine saline infusion. Hysteroscopic septoplasty was performed in the early follicular phase. Pregnancy rates (PR) according to patient and septum characteristics (septum size) were the main outcome measures. Follow-up was complete for 88 patients. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 36.1±2.1 years. Forty-two patients became pregnant (40.7%). The mean (±SD) delay in conception was 7.5±2.6 months. Nearly 80% of the pregnant women conceived spontaneously. Of 44 pregnancies in 42 women, 36 live newborns were delivered. The PR was significantly higher in women size larger than one-half of their uterine length the PR was significantly higher than those with septum size uterine septum as a sole cause for reproductive failure seems to depend on patient age, duration of infertility before septoplasty, and septum size. Women with a septum size larger than one-half of their uterine length have a higher chance of successful pregnancy after hysteroscopic septoplasty. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The reproductive success of black rhinoceroses in the Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoliswa N. Nhleko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis are endangered and the southern-central sub-species (Diceros bicornis minor is considered critically endangered. We assessed the reproductive lifehistories of black rhinoceroses in Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park (HiP, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether this historically important donor sub-population was meeting regional reproductive targets. Detailed life-history information for known individuals (n = 79–120 was used to investigate reproductive parameters between 1998 and 2013. Mean age at sexual maturity was 12 years, which exceeded a target period of 7 years and 5 months. The mean inter-calving interval was 3 years and 8 months – 8 months longer than the recommended 3 years. The poor population performance of the HiP black rhinoceroses could be a result of poor habitat quality, poor animal condition, females losing their first calves, predation of calves or a negative social effect of annual live-harvesting of the population. However, we believe that the estimated ecological carrying capacity of black rhinoceroses at HiP (a figure used to ascertain whether the population can be harvested at all may be incorrect, leading to the poor reproductive performance. We recommend that the accuracy of the ecological carrying capacity estimate be assessed as a matter of urgency and that a moratorium be placed on the live-harvesting of individuals until the estimate has been refined. Conservation implications: Our results provide key data which can be used to refine black rhinoceros breeding targets in South Africa and the region more broadly

  15. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raudsepp, Triin

    2015-01-08

    A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a small grassroots adolescent sexual and reproductive health initiative to a national programme, which most likely contributed to improved adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This study; (1) documents the scale-up process of the Estonian youth clinic network 1991-2013, and (2) analyses factors that contributed to the successful scale-up. This research provides policy makers and programme managers with new insights to success factors of the scale-up, that can be used to support planning, implementation and scale-up of adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in other countries. Information on the scale-up process and success factors were collected by conducting a literature review and interviewing key stakeholders. The findings were analysed using the WHO-ExpandNet framework, which provides a step-by-step process approach for design, implementation and assessment of the results of scaling-up health innovations. The scale-up was divided into two main phases: (1) planning the scale-up strategy 1991-1995 and (2) managing the scaling-up 1996-2013. The planning phase analysed innovation, user organizations (youth clinics), environment and resource team (a national NGO and international assistance). The managing phase examines strategic choices, advocacy, organization, resource mobilization, monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and management of the scale-up. The main factors that contributed to the successful scale-up in Estonia were: (1) favourable social and political climate, (2) clear demonstrated need for the adolescent services, (3) a national professional organization that advocated, coordinated and represented the youth clinics, (4) enthusiasm

  16. Evaluating the interacting influences of pollination, seed predation, invasive species and isolation on reproductive success in a threatened alpine plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushelnycky, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction in rare plants may be influenced and limited by a complex combination of factors. External threats such as invasive species and landscape characteristics such as isolation may impinge on both pollination and seed predation dynamics, which in turn can strongly affect reproduction. I assessed how patterns in floral visitation, seed predation, invasive ant presence, and plant isolation influenced one another and ultimately affected viable seed production in Haleakalā silverswords (Argyroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum) of Hawai'i. Floral visitation was dominated by endemic Hylaeus bees, and patterns of visitation were influenced by floral display size and number of plants clustered together, but not by floral herbivory or nearest flowering neighbor distance. There was also some indication that Argentine ant presence impacted floral visitation, but contradictory evidence and limitations of the study design make this result uncertain. Degree of seed predation was associated only with plant isolation, with the two main herbivores partitioning resources such that one preferentially attacked isolated plants while the other attacked clumped plants; total seed predation was greater in more isolated plants. Net viable seed production was highly variable among individuals (0-55% seed set), and was affected mainly by nearest neighbor distance, apparently owing to low cross-pollination among plants separated by even short distances (>10-20 m). This isolation effect dominated net seed set, with no apparent influence from floral visitation rates, percent seed predation, or invasive ant presence. The measured steep decline in seed set with isolation distance may not be typical of the entire silversword range, and may indicate that pollinators in addition to Hylaeus bees could be important for greater gene flow. Management aimed at maintaining or maximizing silversword reproduction should focus on the spatial context of field populations and outplanting

  17. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Florian; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Alonzo, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We exposed three successive generations of Daphnia magna to chronic gamma radiation. • We examined DNA alterations and effects on survival, growth and reproduction. • DNA alterations were accumulated over a generation and transmitted to the progeny. • Effects on survival and reproduction, and delay in growth increased over generations. - Abstract: This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h −1 ). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h −1 increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h −1 in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h −1 in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h −1 in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h −1 in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h −1 at hatching to 0.007 mGy h −1 after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h −1 at hatching to 0.007 mGy h −1 after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h −1 and DNA alterations significant at highest dose rates only. The study improved our understanding of

  18. Successful Recanalization of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Thromboembolic Occlusion by a Combination of Intraarterial Thrombolysis and Mechanical Thrombectomy with a Carotid Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleňák, Kamil; Šinák, Igor; Janík, Ján; Mikolajčík, Anton; Mištuna, Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion is a life-threatening disease, and acute intestinal ischemia develops from the sudden decrease in perfusion to the intestines. The key to saving the patient’s life is early diagnosis, and prompt revascularization of the SMA can prevent intestinal infarction and decrease the risk of bowel segment necrosis. Computed tomographic angiography may be useful for rapid diagnosis. We report recanalization of an SMA occlusion in an 80-year-old man with a combination of intraarterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy with a carotid filter.

  19. Nectar replenishment maintains the neutral effects of nectar robbing on female reproductive success of Salvia przewalskii (Lamiaceae), a plant pollinated and robbed by bumble bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhong-Ming; Jin, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Qing-Feng; Yang, Chun-Feng; Inouye, David W

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that the dynamics of nectar replenishment could differ for flowers after being nectar robbed or visited legitimately, but further experimental work is needed to investigate this hypothesis. This study aimed to assess the role of nectar replenishment in mediating the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction. Plant-robber-pollinator interactions in an alpine plant, Salvia przewalskii , were studied. It is pollinated by long-tongued Bombus religiosus and short-tongued B. friseanus , but robbed by B. friseanus . Nectar production rates for flowers after they were either robbed or legitimately visited were compared, and three levels of nectar robbing were created to detect the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction. Nectar replenishment did not differ between flowers that had been robbed or legitimately visited. Neither fruit set nor seed set was significantly affected by nectar robbing. In addition, nectar robbing did not significantly affect visitation rate, flowers visited within a plant per foraging bout, or flower handling time of the legitimate pollinators. However, a tendency for a decrease in relative abundance of the pollinator B. religiosus with an increase of nectar robbing was found. Nectar robbing did not affect female reproductive success because nectar replenishment ensures that pollinators maintain their visiting activity to nectar-robbed flowers. Nectar replenishment might be a defence mechanism against nectar robbing to enhance reproductive fitness by maintaining attractiveness to pollinators. Further studies are needed to reveal the potential for interference competition among bumble bees foraging as robbers and legitimate visitors, and to investigate variation of nectar robbing in communities with different bumble bee species composition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  20. Goats may experience reproductive failures and shed Coxiella burnetii at two successive parturitions after a Q fever infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berri, M; Rousset, E; Champion, J L; Russo, P; Rodolakis, A

    2007-08-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. Aborting domestic ruminants are the main source of human infection. In January 2003, an abortion episode occurred in a dairy caprine herd where 18/60 (30%) goats experienced reproductive problems: 4/60 (7%) aborted and 14/60 (23%) had stillbirths. Serological screening for abortion-related infectious diseases suggested Q fever. The diagnosis of C. burnetii infection was confirmed with PCR based on the occurrence of C. burnetii shedding into vaginal mucus, faeces and colostrums taken after kidding from the affected animals. The pregnancy following this episode resulted in one abortion and four stillbirths; three of those goats had already experienced reproductive failure during the previous kidding season. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection and the bacteria shedding were investigated using both ELISA and PCR assays, respectively, during the course of the initial and subsequent kidding seasons. Serological testing, performed on the whole herd 6 weeks after the abortion episode, showed 48/60 (80%) of ELISA positive goats. PCR assay performed on both vaginal swab and milk samples showed that the bacterium was shed for almost four months after the outbreak. C. burnetii DNA was also amplified from vaginal swab and milk samples taken from goats after the second kidding season. Furthermore, the bacteria were found into 14 vaginal swabs and 12 milk samples taken from infected females at both kidding seasons.

  1. Reproductive success and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of resident great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from coastal British Columbia, Canada, 1977 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.L.; Elliott, J.E.; Butler, R.W.; Wilson, L.K.

    2003-01-01

    Human disturbance and loss of nesting habitat were more important factors than chlorinated hydrocarbons in changing heron reproductive success. - Over the period 1977-2000, eggs of Pacific great blue heron (Ardea herodias fannini) were collected from 23 colonies along the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada, and analyzed for persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of OC pesticides in eggs declined sharply in the late 1970s, after which there were minimal changes. The sums of PCB congeners were not reduced appreciably during the 1980s and 1990s, but Aroclor 1260 concentrations suggested a sharp decline in PCB contamination of eggs in the late 1970s, similar to that shown for OC pesticides. Eggs collected along or near the Fraser River delta showed higher levels of most pesticides compared to other monitored colonies. Although the delta lands support a long-standing agricultural economy, the primary factors influencing OC levels in the delta colonies were thought to be driven by estuarine processes. We suggest two possible influencing factors were: 1) a greater rate of bioaccumulation in the estuary due to the deposition of particulates collected over a vast area encompassed by the Fraser River watershed; or 2) a higher rate of biomagnification in the estuary due to species differences at lower trophic levels of the heron food chain. Eggs from urban colonies contained higher levels of PCBs. The congener pattern was not clearly different from that observed in less contaminated eggs from rural and pulp mill-influenced colonies, except that colonies in Vancouver had greater proportions of PCB-66, suggesting a local source of Aroclor 1242. Productivity in the coastal heron colonies was highly variable over the period of study, with 71% of recorded colony-wide reproductive failures occurring in colonies near pulp mills. However, the predominant factors influencing reproductive success were probably disturbance

  2. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of greater sage-grouse in a fire-affected habitat of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying links between micro-habitat selection and wildlife reproduction is imperative to population persistence and recovery. This information is particularly important for landscape species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). Although this species has been widely studied, because environmental factors can affect sage-grouse populations, local and regional studies are crucial for developing viable conservation strategies. We studied the habitat-use patterns of 71 radio-marked sage-grouse inhabiting an area affected by wildfire in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada during 2009–2011 to determine the effect of micro-habitat attributes on reproductive success. We measured standard vegetation parameters at nest and random sites using a multi-scale approach (range = 0.01–15,527 ha). We used an information-theoretic modeling approach to identify environmental factors influencing nest-site selection and survival, and determine whether nest survival was a function of resource selection. Sage-grouse selected micro-sites with greater shrub canopy cover and less cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover than random sites. Total shrub canopy, including sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and other shrub species, at small spatial scales (0.8 ha and 3.1 ha) was the single contributing selection factor to higher nest survival. These results indicate that reducing the risk of wildfire to maintain important sagebrush habitats could be emphasized in sage-grouse conservation strategies in Nevada. Managers may seek to mitigate the influx of annual grass invasion by preserving large intact sagebrush-dominated stands with a mixture of other shrub species. For this area of Nevada, the results suggest that ≥40% total shrub canopy cover in sage-grouse nesting areas could yield improved reproductive success

  3. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 8: Experimental study of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on reproductive success in mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Lewis, L.

    1999-01-01

    As a component of an ecological risk assessment of Poplar Creek (located on the Oak Ridge Reservation [ORR]) and the Clinch River (a large river-reservoir system), fish from Poplar Creek, the Clinch River, and Atlantic Ocean were fed to ranch mink to evaluate reproductive success. Five diets, each composed of 75% fish and 25% normal ranch mink chow, were prepared. Two diets served as reference diets and contained 75% Atlantic Ocean fish or 75% Clinch River fish collected above the ORR. The fish portion of the remaining three diets contained 25, 50, and 75% fish collected from Poplar Creek and 50, 25, and 0% ocean fish, respectively. Five mink groups (eight females and two males each) were each fed one of the prepared diets for 196 days. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were determined in diets and various mink tissues, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined in liver tissue, and reproductive success was evaluated. Concentrations of PCB were greatest in the diet composed of 75% Poplar Creek fish and in tissues from mink fed this diet and their offspring. There was a trend toward decreased adult female and kit weights and reduced mean litter size in mink fed diets containing 75% Poplar Creek fish; however, at 6 weeks of age, kit survival was similar among diet groups. Liver EROD activity significantly increased in adult female mink fed 50 and 75% Poplar Creek fish diets. Estimated dietary concentrations of PCBs were similar to or slightly lower than concentrations associated with adverse effects in experimentally dosed mink. Mercury (Hg) concentrations previously reported in these same mink were below that associated with adverse effects, and there was no indication of additive or synergistic effects from exposure to PCBs plus Hg. It is unlikely that population-level reproductive effects would be observed in mink consuming fish from Poplar Creek on the ORR

  4. The responses of cucumber plants subjected to different salinity or fertilizer concentrations and reproductive success of Tetranychus urticae mites on these plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Samira; Abedini, Fatemeh; Renault, David

    2018-05-01

    The plant stress hypothesis posits that a herbivore's reproductive success increases when it feeds on stressed plants, while the plant vigor hypothesis predicts that a herbivore preferentially feeds on more vigorous plants. We examined these opposing hypotheses by growing spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) on the leaves of stressed and healthy (vigorous) cucumber plants. Host plants were grown under controlled conditions at low, moderate, and high concentrations of NaCl (to induce salinity stress), at low, moderate, and high fertilizer concentrations (to support growth), and without these additions (control). The effects of these treatments were evaluated by measuring fresh and dry plant biomass, carotenoid and chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and concentrations of PO 4 3- , K + , and Na + in plant tissues. The addition of low concentrations of fertilizer increased dry mass, protein, and carotenoid content relative to controls, suggesting a beneficial effect on plants. The highest NaCl treatment (2560 mg L -1 ) resulted in increased Na + and protein content relative to control plants, as well as reduced PO 4 3- , K + , and chlorophyll levels and reduced catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity levels. Analysis of life table data of T. urticae mites raised on leaves from the aforementioned plant groups showed the intrinsic rate of increase (r) for mites was 0.167 day -1 in control specimens, 0.125 day -1 for mites reared on plants treated with a moderate concentration of fertilizer (10 mL L -1 ), and was highest (0.241 day -1 ) on plants grown under moderate salinity conditions (1920 mg L -1 NaCl). Reproductive success of T. urticae did not differ on plants watered with a moderate concentration of NaCl or a high concentration of fertilizer. The moderately-stressed plants formed a favorable environment for the development and reproduction of spider mites, supporting the plant stress hypothesis.

  5. Broad-scale latitudinal variation in female reproductive success contributes to the maintenance of a geographic range boundary in bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rhainds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geographic range limits and the factors structuring them are of great interest to biologists, in part because of concerns about how global change may shift range boundaries. However, scientists lack strong mechanistic understanding of the factors that set geographic range limits in empirical systems, especially in animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Across dozens of populations spread over six degrees of latitude in the American Midwest, female mating success of the evergreen bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae declines from ∼100% to ∼0% near the edge of the species range. When coupled with additional latitudinal declines in fecundity and in egg and pupal survivorship, a spatial gradient of bagworm reproductive success emerges. This gradient is associated with a progressive decline in local abundance and an increased risk of local population extinction, up to a latitudinal threshold where extremely low female fitness meshes spatially with the species' geographic range boundary. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The reduction in fitness of female bagworms near the geographic range limit, which concords with the abundant centre hypothesis from biogeography, provides a concrete, empirical example of how an Allee effect (increased pre-reproductive mortality of females in sparsely populated areas may interact with other demographic factors to induce a geographic range limit.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adult black bass and yellow perch were not associated with their reproductive success in the upper Hudson River, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceina, Michael J; Sammons, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    Although production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ceased nearly 35 yr ago, questions still remain concerning the potential chronic effects these compounds may have on wild fish, including their reproductive success. In the upper Hudson River, New York, USA, fish were exposed to PCBs primarily from 2 manufacturing plants located approximately 320 km upstream of New York City, New York, from the 1940s to 1977. The authors collected yellow perch (Perca flavescens), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (M. salmoides) using electrofishing, measured PCBs in these adults, and estimated abundance and size of their offspring at age 1 yr (age-1 fish). Fish were collected annually from 2004 to 2009 from 1 control site upstream of the PCB discharge sites and from 2 sites downstream from where PCBs were released. These sites (pools) are separated by a series of dams, locks, and canals. Muscle tissue wet weight PCB and lipid-based PCB concentrations in adults in the 2 PCB exposure pools averaged approximately 1 to 3 µg/g and 100 to 500 µg/g, respectively. Age-1 abundances were not related to adult PCB concentrations but were inversely related to river flow. Size of age-1 fish was slightly greater at the PCB-exposure sites. Levels of PCBs in yellow perch, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass in the upper Hudson River did not impair or reduce recruitment or reproductive success. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Differential courtship activity and alterations of reproductive success of competing gupply males as an indicator for low concentrations of aquatic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.H.; Peters, K.

    1988-09-01

    Differential courtship activity of guppy males competing for the same females was used as a bioindicator for low concentrations of water-borne pollutants in a previous study. Patterns of male sexual activity were chosen because they determine reproductive success. The mean difference between courtship activities of two male competitors determines the relative fitness of the male in question. Accordingly, the decrease in mean differential courtship after exposure to aquatic contaminants was predicted to cause a corresponding change in the relative reproductive success. The present study completed the previous one by repeating the experiment with a 10% addition of wastewater drawn from the last clearing basin of a Munich purification plant this time using virgin (non-inseminated) females which were receptive to male courtship. The females subsequently were allowed to produce as many offspring as possible. The number of young guppies sired by individual male competitors could easily be traced by the use of sex-linked phenotypic color patterns as markers. The purpose of these two studies was to show that the quantification of sexual activities of male guppies is useful for monitoring environmental alterations which affect fitness characters.

  8. Alternative reproductive tactics and the propensity of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, K; Raatikainen, K J; Häkkilä, M; Haukilehto, E; Kotiaho, J S

    2009-12-01

    One explanation for hybridization between species is the fitness benefits it occasionally confers to the hybridizing individuals. This explanation is possible in species that have evolved alternative male reproductive tactics: individuals with inferior tactics might be more prone to hybridization provided it increases their reproductive success and fitness. Here we experimentally tested whether the propensity of hybridization in the wild depends on male reproductive tactic in Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Counter to our expectation, it was males adopting the superior reproductive tactic (territoriality) that had greatest propensity to hybridize than males adopting the inferior tactics (sneakers and floaters). Moreover, among the territorial males, the most ornamented males had greatest propensity to hybridize whereas the pattern was reversed in the sneaker males. Our results suggest that there is fluctuating selection on male mate discrimination against heterospecific females depending on both ornament size and the male's reproductive tactic.

  9. Influence of asymmetrical mating patterns and male reproductive success on the maintenance of sexual polymorphism in Acer pictum subsp. mono (Aceraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hui; Luo, Yi-Bo; Bai, Wei-Ning

    2012-08-01

    Populations of Acer species often contain more than three sex phenotypes with complex sexual polymorphism including duodichogamy, protandry and protogyny. We identified the mechanisms that maintain sexual polymorphism in Acer pictum subsp. mono, a temperate tree from northern China, by investigating maternal mating patterns and male reproductive success. We used paternity analyses to estimate rates of outcrossing and disassortative mating, as well as male outcrossed siring success, in a population of A. pictum subsp. mono with uneven sex phenotype ratios (duodichogamous 69.1%, protandrous 19.6%, protogynous 11.3%). We used a pollen-transfer model to investigate whether the unequal ratios of sex phenotypes could be explained by the observed patterns of mating. Most progeny resulted from outcrossing, particularly disassortative among the sex phenotypes. Although the duodichogamous phenotype showed a significant amount of intraphenotypic mating, the frequency did not exceed that of disassortative mating. We detected no significant differences in male outcrossed siring success among the sex phenotypes. The pollen-transfer model demonstrated that sex phenotype ratios could be maintained by the observed mating pattern in the population. Our results indicate that disassortative mating among the sex phenotypes can maintain sexual polymorphism in A. pictum subsp. mono and that ratios biased towards duodichogamy can result from frequent intraphenotypic mating in this phenotype. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisot, Florian [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul [UMR 5805 EPOC – OASU, Station marine d’Arcachon, Université Bordeaux 1, Arcachon 33120 (France); Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Alonzo, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We exposed three successive generations of Daphnia magna to chronic gamma radiation. • We examined DNA alterations and effects on survival, growth and reproduction. • DNA alterations were accumulated over a generation and transmitted to the progeny. • Effects on survival and reproduction, and delay in growth increased over generations. - Abstract: This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h{sup −1}). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h{sup −1} in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h{sup −1} at hatching to 0.007 mGy h{sup −1} after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h{sup −1} at hatching to 0.007 mGy h{sup −1} after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} and DNA alterations significant at highest

  11. Pollen limitation and reduced reproductive success are associated with local genetic effects in Prunus virginiana, a widely distributed self-incompatible shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Gonzalez, Adriana; Good, Sara V

    2014-03-01

    A vast quantity of empirical evidence suggests that insufficient quantity or quality of pollen may lead to a reduction in fruit set, in particular for self-incompatible species. This study uses an integrative approach that combines field research with marker gene analysis to understand the factors affecting reproductive success in a widely distributed self-incompatible species, Prunus virginiana (Rosaceae). Twelve patches of P. virginiana distributed within three populations that differed in degree of disturbance were examined. Two of the sites were small (7-35 km(2)) remnants of forest in an intensively used agricultural landscape, while the third was continuous (350 km(2)) and less disturbed. Field studies (natural and hand cross-pollinations) were combined with marker gene analyses (microsatellites and S-locus) in order to explore potential factors affecting pollen delivery and consequently reproductive success at landscape (between populations) and fine scales (within populations). Reductions in reproductive output were found in the two fragments compared with the continuous population, and suggest that pollen is an important factor limiting fruit production. Genetic analyses carried out in one of the fragments and in the continuous site suggest that even though S-allele diversity is high in both populations, the fragment exhibits an increase in biparental inbreeding and correlated paternity. The increase in biparental inbreeding in the fragment is potentially attributable to variation in the density of individuals and/or the spatial distribution of genotypes among populations, both of which could alter mating dynamics. By using a novel integrative approach, this study shows that even though P. virginiana is a widespread species, fragmented populations can experience significant reductions in fruit set and pollen limitation in the field. Deatiled examination of one fragmented population suggests that these linitations may be explained by an increase in

  12. The success of assisted reproduction technologies in relation to composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and different Treg subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberger, V; Schober, L; Rehnitz, J; Schaier, M; Zeier, M; Meuer, S; Schmitt, E; Toth, B; Strowitzki, T; Steinborn, A

    2013-11-01

    Are there differences in composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and distinct Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) between successfully and non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women? Non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women have a decreased percentage of naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs and an increased percentage of HLA-DR(-)-memory Tregs within the total Treg pool. Immunosuppressive Tregs play a significant role in human reproduction and studies have shown that their number and function are reduced in reproductive failure and complications of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and preterm labor. However, no data exist concerning the importance of Tregs for a successful outcome following assisted reproduction technologies. Blood samples were obtained from 210 women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, where 14 patients were excluded due to biochemical pregnancy or missed abortion. Age control blood samples were collected from 20 neonates and 176 healthy female volunteers. The study was performed between October 2010 and March 2012. In this study, we determined prospectively the quantity and composition of the total CD4(+)CD127(low+/-)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)-Treg pool and three different Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) in all women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. We examined whether there were differences between those who became pregnant (n = 36) and those who did not (n = 160). The blood samples were collected within 1 h before the embryo transfer and analyzed by six-color flow cytometry. In order to evaluate these results with regard to the normal age-related changes in composition of the total Treg pool, the same analysis was performed using samples of umbilical cord blood and from healthy female volunteers aged between 17 and 76 years. The composition of the total Treg pool was documented for successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women (n = 5) throughout their pregnancy and we assessed the

  13. Climate change has indirect effects on resource use and overlap among coexisting bird species with negative consequences for their reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Martin, Thomas E

    2013-02-01

    Climate change can modify ecological interactions, but whether it can have cascading effects throughout ecological networks of multiple interacting species remains poorly studied. Climate-driven alterations in the intensity of plant-herbivore interactions may have particularly profound effects on the larger community because plants provide habitat for a wide diversity of organisms. Here we show that changes in vegetation over the last 21 years, due to climate effects on plant-herbivore interactions, have consequences for songbird nest site overlap and breeding success. Browsing-induced reductions in the availability of preferred nesting sites for two of three ground nesting songbirds led to increasing overlap in nest site characteristics among all three bird species with increasingly negative consequences for reproductive success over the long term. These results demonstrate that changes in the vegetation community from effects of climate change on plant-herbivore interactions can cause subtle shifts in ecological interactions that have critical demographic ramifications for other species in the larger community. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel

    1990-03-01

    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Wild jackdaws' reproductive success and their offspring's stress hormones are connected to provisioning rate and brood size, not to parental neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggor, Alison L; Spencer, Karen A; Clayton, Nicola S; Thornton, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Many species show individual variation in neophobia and stress hormones, but the causes and consequences of this variation in the wild are unclear. Variation in neophobia levels could affect the number of offspring animals produce, and more subtly influence the rearing environment and offspring development. Nutritional deficits during development can elevate levels of stress hormones that trigger long-term effects on learning, memory, and survival. Therefore measuring offspring stress hormone levels, such as corticosterone (CORT), helps determine if parental neophobia influences the condition and developmental trajectory of young. As a highly neophobic species, jackdaws (Corvus monedula) are excellent for exploring the potential effects of parental neophobia on developing offspring. We investigated if neophobic responses, alongside known drivers of fitness, influence nest success and offspring hormone responses in wild breeding jackdaws. Despite its consistency across the breeding season, and suggestions in the literature that it should have importance for reproductive fitness, parental neophobia did not predict nest success, provisioning rates or offspring hormone levels. Instead, sibling competition and poor parental care contributed to natural variation in stress responses. Parents with lower provisioning rates fledged fewer chicks, chicks from larger broods had elevated baseline CORT levels, and chicks with later hatching dates showed higher stress-induced CORT levels. Since CORT levels may influence the expression of adult neophobia, variation in juvenile stress responses could explain the development and maintenance of neophobic variation within the adult population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate change has indirect effects on resource use and overlap among coexisting bird species with negative consequences for their reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Auer, Sonya K.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can modify ecological interactions, but whether it can have cascading effects throughout ecological networks of multiple interacting species remains poorly studied. Climate-driven alterations in the intensity of plant–herbivore interactions may have particularly profound effects on the larger community because plants provide habitat for a wide diversity of organisms. Here we show that changes in vegetation over the last 21 years, due to climate effects on plant–herbivore interactions, have consequences for songbird nest site overlap and breeding success. Browsing-induced reductions in the availability of preferred nesting sites for two of three ground nesting songbirds led to increasing overlap in nest site characteristics among all three bird species with increasingly negative consequences for reproductive success over the long term. These results demonstrate that changes in the vegetation community from effects of climate change on plant–herbivore interactions can cause subtle shifts in ecological interactions that have critical demographic ramifications for other species in the larger community.

  17. Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications – infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Pankaj; Adluri, Krishna; Javangula, Kalyana; Baig, Wasir

    2009-01-01

    A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis. PMID:19239701

  18. Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications – infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javangula Kalyana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis.

  19. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    progeny releases. Such a captive rearing program offers many genetic advantages over traditional adult-trapping programs for developing native broodstocks: (1) Large numbers of juveniles can be collected from the wild with only minimal impacts to naturally spawning populations because juvenile (age 0+parr)-to-adult survivals are typically very small (<1%) under natural conditions. (2) The genetic base of the broodstock (i.e. genetic effective population size) can be substantially larger for juveniles than adults because juveniles can theoretically represent the offspring of all adults that spawned successfully within a stream or watershed, as opposed to trapping only a small portion of returning adults for broodstock. (3) Collecting juveniles for broodstock can substantially reduce the risk of genetically 'swamping' naturally spawning populations with hatchery-origin fish (i.e. via a 'Ryman-Laikre effect') as occurs when hatchery-released fish represent the progeny of a relatively small number of trapped adults.

  20. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Zubik, Raymond; Clancey, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    Studies of kokanee reproductive success in the Flathead system from 1981 to 1987 have assessed the losses in fish production attributable to hydroelectric operations. We estimated that the Flathead Lake shoreline spawning stock has lost at least 50,000 fish annually, since Kerr Dam was completed in 1938. The Flathead River spawning stock has lost 95,000 spawners annually because of the operations of Hungry Horse Dam. Lakeshore spawning has been adversely affected because Flathead Lake has been drafted to minimum pool during the winter when kokanee eggs are incubating in shallow shoreline redds. Egg mortality from exposure and desiccation of kokanee redds has increased since the mid 1970's. When the lake was drafted more quickly and held longer at minimum pool. Escapement surveys in the early 1950's, and a creel survey in the early 1960's have provided a baseline to which the present escapement levels can be compared, and loss estimated. Main stem Flathead River spawning has also declined since the mid 1970's when fluctuating discharge from Hungry Horse Dam during the spawning and incubation season exposed redds at the river margin and increased mortality. This decline followed an increase in main stem spawning in the late 1950's through the mid 1960's attributable to higher winter water temperature and relatively stable discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Spawning escapement in the main stem exceeded 300,000 kokanee in the early 1970's as a result. Spawning in spring-influenced sites has comprised 35 percent of the main stem escapement from 1979 to 1986. We took that proportion of the early 1970's escapement (105,000) as the baseline against which to measure historic loss. Agricultural and suburban development has contributed less significantly to degradation of kokanee spawning habitat in the river system and on the Flathead Lake shoreline. Their influence on groundwater quality and substrate composition has limited

  1. Does a trade-off between current reproductive success and survival affect the honesty of male signalling in species with male parental care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N B; Alonzo, S H

    2010-11-01

    Recent theory predicted that male advertisement will reliably signal investment in paternal care in species where offspring survival requires paternal care and males allocate resources between advertisement and care. However, the predicted relationship between care and advertisement depended on the marginal gains from investment in current reproductive traits. Life history theory suggests that these fitness gains are also subject to a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Here, we investigate whether male signalling remains a reliable indicator of parental care when males allocate resources between current advertisement, paternal care and survival to future reproduction. We find that advertisement is predicted to remain a reliable signal of male care but that advertisement may cease to reliably indicate male quality because low-quality males are predicted to invest in current reproduction, whereas higher-quality males are able to invest in both current reproduction and survival to future reproduction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery-and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Rau, J.A. (Cle Elum Supplementation Research, Cle Elum, WA)

    2003-01-01

    In the Yakima Spring Chinook supplementation program, wild fish are brought into the Cle Elum Hatchery, artificially crossed, reared, transferred to acclimation sites, and released into the upper Yakima River as smolts. When these fish mature and return to the Yakima River most of them will be allowed to spawn naturally; a few, however, will be brought back to the hatchery and used for research purposes. In order for this supplementation approach to be successful, hatchery-origin fish must be able to spawn and produce offspring under natural conditions. Recent investigations on salmonid fishes have indicated that exposure to hatchery environments during juvenile life may cause significant behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes in adult fish. These changes appear to reduce the reproductive competence of hatchery fish. In general, males are more affected than females; species with prolonged freshwater rearing periods are more strongly impacted than those with shorter rearing periods; and stocks that have been exposed to artificial culture for multiple generations are more impaired than those with a relatively short exposure history to hatchery conditions.

  3. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  4. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeste, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial attention to seed orchard design, placement, and maintenance. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate pollen gene flow, female mate choice, and male reproductive success in a clonal seed orchard of northern red oak based on paternity analysis of seed orchard offspring in progeny tests. Nearly all (93%) offspring were sired by a male parent within the seed orchard. The mean number of male parents per year was 69.5, or 47.6% of all clones in the seed orchard. Female clones in the early phenology group had more offspring sired from extra-orchard pollen (13%) than clones in the intermediate (5%) and late (1%) phenology groups. Distance was the largest influence on pollination success, and pollination occurred most often by male trees in the same subline as the maternal tree. Males in the early phenology group sired more offspring overall in the progeny pool and more offspring per mother tree than males in the intermediate or late phenology groups. Average genetic correlations among all OP progeny ranged between 0.2557 and 0.3529 with a mean of 0.28±0.01. The importance of progeny test genotyping for northern red oak improvement likely is increasing with the demand for improved varieties. The current study demonstrated the feasibility of post hoc assembly of full-sib families for genetic analysis. PMID:28166543

  5. Drought-caused delay in nesting of Sonoran Desert birds and its facilitation of parasite- and predator-mediated variation in reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreedy, Chris; van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    As our understanding of climate change has increased, so has our awareness of the impacts of these changes on biotic systems. Climate models are nearly unanimous in their predictions for increased drought frequency in southwestern North America, and delays in nest initiation due to drought may influence nesting success and productivity for many Sonoran Desert bird species. In southeastern California and western Arizona in 2004–2009, we found negative correlations for 13 of 13 species between nest initiation date and rainfall accumulation during the preceding 4-month winter rainy season. Nesting was delayed more than 3 weeks for some species during extreme droughts in 2006 and 2007. During 2004–2009, we found a significant negative effect of nest initiation date on nest survival probability (β̂ = −0.031 ± 0.005 SE, P nesting delay in nesting success and productivity, in 2010 we conducted a manipulative experiment with Black-tailed Gnatcatchers (Polioptila melanura; BTGN) and Verdins (Auriparus flaviceps; VERD). Following a wet winter, we delayed clutch initiation dates for treatment pairs to match first-egg dates that we observed during droughts in 2006 and 2007. Nest initiation date had a significant negative effect on nest survival of both species (BTGN: β̂ = −1.18 ± 0.27 SE, P nest predation and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were the most common causes of nest failure, we conclude that the impacts of climate change–caused drought on annual reproductive output in the Sonoran Desert will be further compounded by parasitism and predation for Black-tailed Gnatcatchers and by predation for Verdins.

  6. The impact of self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism on fertility and lifetime reproductive success: results from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S; Vähäsarja, M; Bloigu, A; Pouta, A; Franks, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Järvelin, M-R; Corbett, S; Vääräsmäki, M; Morin-Papunen, L

    2014-03-01

    .57-1.30], were of similar age [mean (SD)] at first delivery [27.7 (4.81) versus 27.3 (4.71)] and had similar incidence of miscarriages. However, non-symptomatic women had more often ≥2 deliveries (61.6 versus 52.9%, adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-1.00, P = 0.048) and had larger family size [mean (SD)] [2.4 (1.4) versus 1.9 (0.8), P amenorrhea and hirsutism was based on a questionnaire, suggesting a risk of information bias in reporting the symptoms. However, we have previously shown that self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism can distinguish most women with the typical profile of PCOS. Only the women who had delivered at least once were recorded in the FMBR, thus excluding from the study those who had experienced miscarriages and/or infertility treatments but did not have a live birth. This feature could potentially decrease the differences in incidence of miscarriages and/or infertility treatment between symptomatic and non-symptomatic subjects. This is one of the few studies, in which the impact of self-reported oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism on lifetime reproductive success can be measured. Our results suggest that even at more advanced age, women with both symptoms do not quite match the parity of healthy non-symptomatic women, and that infertility treatment does not always restore normal reproductive capacity in these women. Obese women with both symptoms had the worst prognostic as regards reproduction, which emphasizes the importance of life intervention and preventive politics against obesity in this group of women. This work was supported by grants from the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Fund, the Academy of Finland, University Hospital Oulu, Biocenter, University of Oulu, Finland, the European Commission and the Medical Research Council, UK, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.

  7. Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing beavers at the landscape scale via effects on spring green-up phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and

  8. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-28

    We investigated differences in the statistical power to assign parentage between an artificially propagated and wild salmon population. The propagated fish were derived from the wild population, and are used to supplement its abundance. Levels of genetic variation were similar between the propagated and wild groups at 11 microsatellite loci, and exclusion probabilities were >0.999999 for both groups. The ability to unambiguously identify a pair of parents for each sampled progeny was much lower than expected, however. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of cases the most likely pair of parents were the true parents was lower for propagated parents than for wild parents. There was a clear relationship between parentage assignment ability and the degree of linkage disequilibrium, the estimated effective number of breeders that produced the parents, and the size of the largest family within the potential parents. If a stringent threshold for parentage assignment was used, estimates of relative fitness were biased downward for the propagated fish. The bias appeared to be largely eliminated by either fractionally assigning progeny among parents in proportion to their likelihood of parentage, or by assigning progeny to the most likely set of parents without using a statistical threshold. We used a DNA-based parentage analysis to measure the relative reproductive success of hatchery- and natural-origin spring Chinook salmon in the natural environment. Both male and female hatchery-origin fish produced far fewer juvenile progeny per parent when spawning naturally than did natural origin fish. Differences in age structure, spawning location, weight and run timing were responsible for some of the difference in fitness. Male size and age had a large influence on fitness, with larger and older males producing more offspring than smaller or younger individuals. Female size had a significant effect on fitness, but the effect was much smaller than the effect of size on

  9. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    microsatellite-based pedigree analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

  10. Effect of ADA1 mother-fetus and wife-husband phenotypic differences on the ratio birth weight/placental weight in fertile women and on reproductive success in couples with RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Nicotra, Maria; Amante, Ada; Ambrosi, Sara; Cozzoli, Eliana; Saccucci, Patrizia; Bottini, Egidio; Magrini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect Adenosine Deaminase locus 1 (ADA(1)) mother-fetus and wife-husband phenotypic differences on the ratio Birth Weight/Placental Weight (BW/PW) in fertile women and on reproductive success in couples with repeated spontaneous abortion (RSA). 209 couples with primary RSA and a consecutive series of 379 healthy puerperae with their newborn infants from the White Caucasian population of central Italy were studied. In primary RSA women reproductive success was indicated by the presence of at least one live-born infant within 5 years of follow up. Two way contingency tables were analyzed by chi-square. The proportion of primary RSA couples with at least a live-born infant shows the highest value in couples mother ADA(1)1/father carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele (55.2%) and the lowest value in reciprocal couples mother carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele /father ADA(1)1 (18.7%) (O.R. = 5.33; P = 0.023). The highest ratio BW/PW is observed in the class mother ADA(1)1/newborn carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele while the lowest ratio is observed in the reciprocal class mother carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele/ newborn ADA(1)1. Differences between mother and fetus in ADA(1) phenotype may influence the ratio BW/PW in healthy women and reproductive success in RSA women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of Hand-Rearing on Reproductive Success in Captive Large Cats Panthera tigris altaica, Uncia uncia, Acinonyx jubatus and Neofelis nebulosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Coulthard Hampson

    Full Text Available Species Survival Plans and European Endangered Species Programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica, snow leopard (Uncia uncia, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. Many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. Hand-rearing can cause behavioural problems, resulting in decreased copulation and lower breeding success in some species. In this study, studbook data subsets were examined: from 1901 to 2011; and 2000 to 2011. We analysed records from 4273 Siberian tigers, 2045 snow leopards, 3435 cheetahs, and 804 clouded leopards. We assessed the number of offspring produced, litter size, age at first reproduction, longevity, infant mortality and generational rearing of hand-reared versus parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared Siberian tigers (p<0.01; p = 0.0113, snow leopards (p<0.01, male cheetahs (p<0.01 and female clouded leopards (p<0.01 produced fewer offspring than parent-reared individuals. Hand-reared snow leopard breeding pairs had larger litters than parent-reared pairs (p = 0.0404. Hand-reared snow leopard females reproduced later in life (p<0.01. Hand-reared female Siberian tigers lived shorter lives, while hand-reared cheetahs lived longer (p<0.01; p = 0.0107. Infant mortality was higher in hand-reared snow leopards (p<0.01 and male cheetahs (p = 0.0395 in the 1901-2011 dataset and lower in hand-reared female Siberian tiger and male snow leopard cubs (p = 0.0404; p = 0.0349 in the 2000-2011 dataset. The rearing of the mother and subsequent rearing of offspring showed a significant relationship for all species (p<0.01 for Siberian tiger and snow leopard cubs; p<0.001 for cheetah and snow leopard cubs. Taking into account the limited carrying capacity of zoos, the

  12. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    eggs above minimum pool depends on redds being wetted by groundwater seeps. After 40 days exposure by drawdown, eggs in groundwater seeps showed 86 percent survival, whereas outside of the groundwater seeps eggs survived less than six days. These results confirm that exposure by drawdown is the primary factor that limits kokanee reproductive success in redds above minimum pool. We surveyed the west and south shoreline of Flathead Lake to locate potential kokanee spawning habitat. We found conditions which could support incubating eggs at two sites in South Ray and two sites on the west shore of the lake. Seven other sites on the west shore were not suitable due to low groundwater discharge or low dissolved oxygen. In all these areas suitable substrate existed only within the drawdown zone. The lake should be drafted earlier in the fall, and filled earlier in the spring to improve recruitment from lakeshore spawning. We conducted creel surveys during 1985, and estimated that anglers caught 192,000 kokanee. Anglers harvested 49,200 fish during the ice fishery in Skidoo Bay, 129,000 fish during the summer fishery on the lake, and 13,800 during the fall river fishery. Estimated fishing pressure for the year exceeded 188,000 angler hours. The abundance of mysid shrimp in Flathead Lake, measured at six index stations, increased to 130/mIf in 1986. My&Is increased tenfold from 1984 to 1985, and about threefold from 1985 to 1986. Monitoring of mysid shrimp and zooplankton populations in Flathead Lake is supplementing an investigation of the growth and survival of juvenile kokanee. Kokanee and mysid shrimp feed primarily on planktonic crustaceans. This work was designed to detect a potential decline in kokanee recruitment or growth brought about by competitive interaction with mysid shrimp. Fluctuation in adult kokanee year class strength is in part attributable to the negative effects of hydroelectric dam operation on reproductive success in the main stem Flathead River and in

  13. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  14. The application of hCG, CPH and Ovopel in successful artificial reproduction of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targońska, K; Kucharczyk, D

    2011-08-01

    Artificial reproduction of fish is one of the main goals of aquaculture production. The aim of this study is to optimize the method of goldfish reproduction under controlled conditions by comparing the effectiveness of carp pituitary homogenate (CPH), Ovopel and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), administered as a one-off dose and inducing two spawns in the same fish within a short time period. Goldfish spawners were stimulated with hCG, CPH and Ovopel, and the results were compared to the fish from the control group, comprised of unstimulated fish. In another experiment, spawn were induced twice within an interval of 21 days with the same group of fish. The best results in the first experiment in terms of the percentage of ovulating females and survival to the eyed-egg stage were achieved after administering hCG (100% and 88.7%, respectively). However, the highest fecundity was observed in fish stimulated with Ovopel (89,960 eggs/kg). It was shown in the second experiment that female goldfish produce higher weight of eggs during the first spawning, but the number of eggs/BW ratio was higher during the next reproduction process. Survival, both that of embryos to the eyed-egg stage and that of spawners, is higher during the first reproduction act. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The impact of overfishing and El Niño on the condition factor and reproductive success of Peruvian hake, Merluccius gayi peruanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballón, Michael; Wosnitza-Mendo, Claudia; Guevara-Carrasco, Renato; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examine physiological responses of Peruvian hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) to changes in their population structure and physical environment during the period 1971-2004. In particular, we assess the relative investment of energy in growth and/or reproduction of small (20-35 cm) and large (35-50 cm) hake. We calculated the (i) condition (Fulton’s K), (ii) gonad and (iii) gut fullness indices for 42,761 female hakes sampled from commercial landings; these indices indicate fish somatic, reproductive and feeding condition, respectively. Using Generalized Additive Models we then examined potential relationships between these indices and sea surface temperature anomalies and date. Drastic energy exhaustion and a decrease in female hake fecundity were observed during El Niño events. The long-term trend showed a general increase in condition factor and a decrease in gonad index for large hake between 1971 and 2004. Small hake exhibited a different trend with an increase in reproductive activity, which was accompanied by an earlier maturation. We hypothesise that the observed low investment of energy in reproduction by large female hake might be related to the lack of large males, due to a sex-selective fishery and the impact of El Niño. We suggest that fishing diminished hake reproductive capacity, modified the sex ratio in favour of females and increased population vulnerability to environmental stress, in particular to the El Niño. The impact of multidecadal variability and predators like the squid, Dosidicus gigas, remain unresolved until longer time series become available.

  16. The first success of glass eel production in the world: basic biology on fish reproduction advances new applied technology in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Hideki; Ohta, Hiromi; Unuma, Tatsuya; Nomura, Kazuharu

    2005-04-01

    The eel has long been esteemed as an important food fish in the world, especially in Japan, and has been used as an experimental fish for many fields of fish physiology. However, the decreases in eel resources have been a serious concern in recent years. The catches of glass eels as seedlings for aquaculture have shown a long-term decrease in both Europe and East Asia. To increase eel resources, the development of techniques for artificial induction of maturation and spawning and rearing their larvae have been eagerly desired. Recent progress of reproductive physiology of fish, especially mechanisms of oocyte maturation and ovulation in female and of spermatozoa maturation in male, facilitate to establish techniques for hormonal induction of maturation and spawning in sexually immature eels. With persistent effort to development of rearing techniques of larvae, we have first succeeded to produce glass eel. These applied techniques are may contribute to understand the basic reproductive physiology of the eel.

  17. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Ondračková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.; Bryja, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2009), s. 377-390 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : directional selection gradient * individual and population consequences of behavior * opportunity for selection * parentage analysis * sexual selection * reproductive effort Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  18. The gynogenetic reproduction of diploid and triploid hybrid spined loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei), and their ability to establish successful clonal lineages - on the evolution of polyploidy in asexual vertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, D.; Flajšhans, Martin; Epplen, J. T.; Ráb, Petr; Kotlík, Petr; Šlechtová, Věra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 131, - (2007), s. 185-194 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586 Grant - others:EU Marie Curie Research amd Training Network(EU) MCRTN-CT-2004-512492; German Research Foundation(DE) SFB 567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : asexual reproduction * evolution of polyploidy * hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.396, year: 2007

  19. Air Power's First Among Equals: Why Air Superiority Still Matters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slawson, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    .... History is replete with examples of successful or failed air superiority campaigns. This paper details air superiority's role in both the Battle of Britain, and the 1967 Six Day War's Operation MOKED...

  20. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  1. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  2. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  3. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 4 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, S.L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA); Watson, B.D. (Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2004-05-01

    In September of 2003, twenty-nine hatchery and twenty-eight wild spring chinook adults were placed into the observation stream located at the Cle Elum Supplementation Research Facility. In, addition 20 precocious males, 7 hatchery and 13 wild, were simultaneously released into the structure. As in previous years, the fish had small amounts of fin material removed prior to being introduced into the stream so that microsatellite DNA based pedigree analyses could be performed on their subsequent progeny. The entire 127 m long by 7.9 m wide stream was made available to this group of fish. Continuous behavioral observations were made while the females prepared nests and spawned. Moreover, standard measurements of adult longevity, spawning participation, water velocity, redd sizes, gravel composition, water temperature and flow were taken. Fry produced from these fish started to emigrate from the stream in early January 2004. They were trapped and sub-sampled for later microsatellite DNA analyses. In mid May of 2004 fry emergence from the channel was complete and residual fish were captured by seine and electro-fishing so that the entire juvenile population could be proportionately sampled. Audiotape records of the behavior of wild and hatchery adults spawning in the observation stream in 2001 were transcribed into continuous ethograms. Courting, agonistic, and location data were extracted from these chronological records and analyzed to characterize the reproductive behavior of both hatchery and wild fish. In addition, a ''gold standard'' pedigree analysis was completed on the fry originating from the adults placed into the observation stream in 2001. Behavioral and morphological data collected on hatchery and wild males were linked to the results of the pedigree analysis to ascertain what factors affected their reproductive success (RS) or capacity to produce fry. Individual RS values were calculated for each male placed into the observation stream

  4. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  5. What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? The next step to improving outcomes of IVF: consider the whole treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, E.M.; Macklon, Nick; Fauser, Bart

    2004-01-01

    textabstractChanging the way in which successful IVF treatment is defined offers a tool to improve efficacy while reducing costs and complications of treatment. Crucial to this paradigm shift is the move away from considering outcomes in terms of the single IVF cycle, and towards the started IVF treatment as a whole. We propose the most informative end-point of success in IVF to be the term singleton birth rate per started IVF treatment (or per given time period) in the overall context of pat...

  6. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  7. What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? The next step to improving outcomes of IVF : consider the whole treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, EMEW; Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    Changing the way in which successful IVF treatment is defined offers a tool to improve efficacy while reducing costs and complications of treatment. Crucial to this paradigm shift is the move away from considering outcomes in terms of the single IVF cycle, and towards the started IVF treatment as a

  8. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baohong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Freitag, Christina M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Cheng Qiuqiong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC{sub 2}, EC{sub 5}, and EC{sub 95} were 47, 128, and 247 {mu}g/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 {mu}g/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 {mu}g/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 {mu}g/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching.

  9. Effect of two major N-nitroso hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on earthworm reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Cox, Stephen B.; McMurry, Scott T.; Jackson, W. Andrew; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil and topical tests were employed to investigate the effect of two N-nitroso metabolites of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) on earthworm reproduction. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for cocoon production and hatching was 50 mg/kg for both hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in soil. MNX and TNX also significantly affected cocoon hatching in soil (p 20 values for MNX were 8.7 and 8.8 mg/kg for cocoon and juvenile production, respectively, compared to 9.2 and 9.1 mg/kg for TNX, respectively. The EC 20 values for the total number of cocoon hatchlings were 3.1 and 4.7 mg/kg for MNX and TNX, respectively, in soil and 4.5 and 3.1 mg/L in the topical test. Both MNX and TNX inhibited cocoon production and hatching, suggesting that they may have a negative affect on soil ecosystems at contaminated sites. - RDX metabolites affect earthworm cocoon production and hatching

  10. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Freitag, Christina M.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Cheng Qiuqiong; Anderson, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC 2 , EC 5 , and EC 95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  11. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  12. Veterinary management of snake reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Scott J

    2002-09-01

    The reptile veterinarian should approach the breeder with a comprehensive plan involving a review of proper husbandry, nutrition, record keeping, and a thorough prebreeding evaluation of the snakes. In addition, an evaluation of the reproductive strategy, assistance with confirming and monitoring gestation, and a review of potential reproductive complications will help to prepare the snake owner for a successful breeding season.

  13. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  14. Do cupins have a function beyond being seed storage proteins? An updated working model for the growth and reproductive success of flax (Linum usitatissimum in a radio-contaminated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daša eGábrišová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants continue to flourish around the site of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster. The ability of plants to transcend the radio-contaminated environment was not anticipated and is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proteome of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. during seed filling by plants grown for a third generation near Chernobyl. For this purpose, seeds were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after flowering and at maturity, from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radio-contaminated experimental fields. Total proteins were extracted and the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE patterns analyzed. This approach established paired abundance profiles for 130 2-DE spots, e.g., profiles for the same spot across seed filling in non-radioactive and radio-contaminated experimental fields. Based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA followed by sequential Bonferroni correction, eight of the paired abundance profiles were discordant. Results from tandem mass spectrometry show that four 2-DE spots are discordant because they contain fragments of the cupin superfamily-proteins. Most of the fragments were derived from the N-terminal half of native cupins. Revisiting previously published data, it was found that cupin-fragments were also involved with discordance in paired abundance profiles of second generation flax seeds. Based on these observations we present an updated working model for the growth and reproductive success of flax in a radio-contaminated Chernobyl environment. This model suggests that the increased abundance of cupin fragments or isoforms and monomers contributes to the successful growth and reproduction of flax in a radio-contaminated environment.

  15. Distribuição espaço-temporal e sucesso reprodutivo de Eretmochelys imbricata nas praias do Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brasil Spatio-temporal distribution and reproductive success of Eretmochelys imbricata on the beaches of Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina C. de M. Moura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou verificar a distribuição temporal e espacial de Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766 e aspectos de sua biologia reprodutiva, tais como tempo de incubação, sucesso reprodutivo, biometria das fêmeas, número de ninhos e fecundidade. Os dados foram coletados de 2007 a 2010 nas praias de Muro Alto, Cupe, Merepe, Porto de Galinhas e Maracaípe, todas elas localizadas no município do Ipojuca, estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram analisados comparativamente parâmetros relativos à biologia reprodutiva e áreas de nidificação da espécie. Eretmochelys imbricata foi registrada nidificando entre os meses de outubro a maio, totalizando 350 ninhos monitorados em três temporadas. Os picos de desova ocorreram de janeiro a março, revelando um padrão sazonal das desovas. Houve diferença significativa entre o número de ninhos nas temporadas. A praia de Merepe apresentou uma ocorrência elevada de ninhos (46 ninhos/km em relação às demais praias monitoradas. Quanto aos aspectos da biologia reprodutiva, o sucesso reprodutivo foi 65,6%, e o intervalo do tempo de incubação de 54 a 56 dias. As medidas biométricas foram coletadas de 59 espécimes, e apresentaram média de 92,5 cm ± 4,5 para o comprimento curvilíneo da carapaça e de 83,4 cm ± 5 para a largura curvilínea da carapaça. Os resultados podem ser utilizados para subsidiar planos de conservação e demonstram que as praias registradas neste estudo têm relevância como áreas de nidificação para E. imbricata.This study aimed to verify the spatio-temporal distribution of Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766 and aspects of its reproductive biology, such as incubation time, reproductive success, biometric measurements of females, number of nests and fecundity. Data were collected during 2007 to 2010, on the beaches of Muro Alto, Cupe, Merepe, Porto de Galinhas, and Maracaípe, all of them located in the city of Ipojuca, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Parameters

  16. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  17. The effects of quantitative fecundity in the haploid stage on reproductive success and diploid fitness in the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2016-06-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how mating patterns affect the fitness of offspring. However, in animals and seed plants it is virtually impossible to investigate the effects of specific gamete genotypes. In bryophytes, haploid gametophytes grow via clonal propagation and produce millions of genetically identical gametes throughout a population. The main goal of this research was to test whether gamete identity has an effect on the fitness of their diploid offspring in a population of the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum. We observed a heavily male-biased sex ratio in gametophyte plants (ramets) and in multilocus microsatellite genotypes (genets). There was a steeper relationship between mating success (number of different haploid mates) and fecundity (number of diploid offspring) for male genets compared with female genets. At the sporophyte level, we observed a weak effect of inbreeding on offspring fitness, but no effect of brood size (number of sporophytes per maternal ramet). Instead, the identities of the haploid male and haploid female parents were significant contributors to variance in fitness of sporophyte offspring in the population. Our results suggest that intrasexual gametophyte/gamete competition may play a role in determining mating success in this population.

  18. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  19. Successful medical management of acute mesenteric ischemia due to superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis in a 27-year-old man with protein S deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, N P; Sah, D N; Bhandari, R S

    2017-11-09

    Acute mesenteric ischemia poses a diagnostic challenge due to nonspecific clinical clues and lack of awareness owing to its rarity. Ischemia due to mesenteric venous thrombosis has a good prognosis compared to arterial cause and can be managed conservatively with early diagnosis. The portomesenteric venous system is an unusual site of thrombosis in patients with protein S deficiency, and its thrombosis is an uncommon cause of acute mesenteric ischemia. We present a case of a 27-year-old Mongolian man who presented with acute abdominal pain increasing in severity, and refractory to repeated attempts at treatment with a misdiagnosis of acute peptic ulcer disease. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of his abdomen detected complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric vein, an extension of acute thrombus into the portal vein, and ischemic mid-jejunal loops. Early diagnosis and immediate anticoagulation with continuous intravenous infusion of unfractionated heparin prevented subsequent consequences. On further workup, our patient was diagnosed with isolated protein S deficiency. We started lifelong thromboprophylaxis with warfarin to prevent recurrence and our patient was asymptomatic on the latest follow-up 5 months after discharge. Despite accurate detection of acute mesenteric ischemia by contrast-enhanced computed tomography, high index of suspicion is indispensable for its early diagnosis. Early diagnosis and immediate anticoagulation will prevent subsequent complications and need for surgical intervention. Young patients without known risk factors presenting with venous thrombosis in atypical sites should be investigated for prothrombotic diseases.

  20. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  1. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying hens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  2. The novel POSEIDON stratification of ‘Low prognosis patients in Assisted Reproductive Technology’ and its proposed marker of successful outcome [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Humaidan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In reproductive medicine little progress has been achieved regarding the clinical management of patients with a reduced ovarian reserve or poor ovarian response (POR to stimulation with exogenous gonadotropins -a frustrating experience for clinicians as well as patients. Despite the efforts to optimize the definition of this subgroup of patients, the existing POR criteria unfortunately comprise a heterogeneous population and, importantly, do not offer any recommendations for clinical handling. Recently, the POSEIDON group (Patient-Oriented Strategies Encompassing IndividualizeD Oocyte Number proposed a new stratification of assisted reproductive technology (ART in patients with a reduced ovarian reserve or unexpected inappropriate ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropins. In brief, four subgroups have been suggested based on quantitative and qualitative parameters, namely, i. Age and the expected aneuploidy rate; ii. Ovarian biomarkers (i.e. antral follicle count [AFC] and anti-Müllerian hormone [AMH], and iii. Ovarian response - provided a previous stimulation cycle was performed. The new classification introduces a more nuanced picture of the “low prognosis patient” in ART, using clinically relevant criteria to guide the physician to most optimally manage this group of patients. The POSEIDON group also introduced a new measure for successful ART treatment, namely, the ability to retrieve the number of oocytes needed for the specific patient to obtain at least one euploid embryo for transfer. This feature represents a pragmatic endpoint to clinicians and enables the development of prediction models aiming to reduce the time-to-pregnancy (TTP. Consequently, the POSEIDON stratification should not be applied for retrospective analyses having live birth rate (LBR as endpoint. Such an approach would fail as the attribution of patients to each Poseidon group is related to specific requirements and could only be made prospectively. On the

  3. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  4. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  5. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5glaucoma surgery, phthisis bulbi, or loss of light perception. Of a total of 106 eyes, 58 and 48 eyes underwent AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (Pglaucoma medications was comparable after 1 year (1.3+/-1.2 vs. 1.9+/-0.8 for superior and inferior implants, respectively, P = 0.256). Success rates were also similar at 1 year: 27 eyes (81.8%) versus 20 eyes (95.2%) for superior and inferior implants, respectively (P = 0.227). However, the overall rate of complications, such as implant exposure necessitating removal, cosmetically unappealing appearance, and endophthalmitis, was higher in the inferior group: 12 eyes (25%) versus 3 eyes (5.2%) for superior and inferior groups, respectively, (P = 0.004). Superior and inferior AGV implants have similar intermediate efficacy in terms of IOP reduction, decrease in number of glaucoma medications, and preservation of vision. However

  6. Vena cava superior syndrome associated with sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.; Walz, M.; Reidemeister, J.C.; Donhuijsen, K.

    1988-01-01

    We report the first observation of clinical manifestations of vena cava superior syndrome (VCSS) associated with sarcoidosis. Twenty-four years after the first signs of the disease had been noted, mediastinal lymphomas penetrating the wall of the vena cava superior caused complete obstruction. It is most unusual for the vessel wall to be destroyed in this way, which explains why VCSS is often missed in sarcoidosis. The obstructed vessel was resected and successfully replaced by a Gore-Tex prosthesis. The importance of VCSS for the differential diagnosis is pointed out. Two further peculiarities are the simultaneous occurrence of elevated intraocular pressure and VCSS, and the familial incidence. (orig.) [de

  7. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  8. Progeny reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function

  9. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  10. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  11. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of heterotrophic versus autotrophic food on feeding and reproduction of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa : relationship with prey fatty acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broglio, E.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Calbet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Gymnodinium sanguineum. The diets were also analyzed for fatty acid contents and composition, relationships with EPE and reproductive success were determined. Clear differences were found in the fatty acid contents and the composition of the different diets offered, but these differences did not correspond...... with variability in EPE. However, egg viability was correlated with ingestion of certain prey essential fatty acids; interestingly, our data do not show that ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates are nutritionally superior prey for marine copepods, contrary to general expectations....

  13. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  14. A guide for evaluating the adequacy of oak advance reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander; Paul S. Johnson; Richard F. Watt

    1976-01-01

    Gives instructions for conducting an inventory of oak advance reproduction prior to final harvest cutting to evaluate the potential for successful oak reproduction in new stands. The potential for oak stump sprouting is also considered.

  15. Temporal variation in the reproductive success of Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae in an Atlantic Forest reserve in Southeast Brazil Variação temporal no sucesso reprodutivo de Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae em uma reserva de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Duca

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For colonial bird species, egg hatching synchrony has been considered an important factor in their reproductive success. The Red-rumped Cacique, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a Passeriformes species (Icterinae that reproduces in colonies in which groups of females lay their eggs at different periods during the reproductive season. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there was a variation in the reproductive success among C. haemorrhous females groups that lay eggs in different periods along the reproductive season. A total of 192 nests from four colonies were monitored at Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and used to calculate the nest survival probability in different periods (early and late of the 2001 reproductive season. The results showed that females that reproduced at the beginning of the reproductive period had higher reproductive success than those that reproduced later. Predation was the main cause of nests loss (48,4%, and an increase in predation rate was observed as the reproductive period advanced.Para espécies de aves coloniais a sincronia de eclosão dos ovos tem sido considerada um fator que influencia o sucesso reprodutivo. O Guaxe, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, é uma espécie de Passeriformes (Icterinae que se reproduz em colônias com grupos de fêmeas fazendo a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se há uma variação no sucesso reprodutivo de C. haemorrhous entre esses grupos de fêmeas que fazem a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. Quatro colônias totalizando 192 ninhos foram monitoradas no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil, calculando-se a probabilidade de sobrevivência dos ninhos em relação a diferentes períodos (cedo e tardio ao longo da estação reprodutiva de 2001. Constatou-se que fêmeas que reproduziram mais cedo na estação reprodutiva

  16. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  17. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  18. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  19. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  20. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  1. Reproductive ecology and egg production of the radiated tortoise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied reproduction of wild Geochelone radiata at the Cap Sainte Marie Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar to gain insight into life history traits related to reproductive success. Reproductive behaviour was observed over two nesting seasons and egg production was studied by radiographing telemetered ...

  2. Corticosterone-mediated reproductive decisions: sex allocation, the cost of reproduction and maternal fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Oliver P.

    2007-01-01

    Managing reproductive investment within the scope of an individual’s energetic condition is required to maximize fitness. To be successful, individuals must make the correct decisions about when to reproduce, when to abandon an attempt, how many resources to invest in current and future attempts and where those resources should be allocated. These reproductive decisions therefore involve complex life-history trade-offs between an individual’s condition and current reproduction, future reprodu...

  3. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  4. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Batisse, Alain; Vouhe, Pascal; Ou, Phalla

    2008-01-01

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  5. Sucesso reprodutivo de espécies distílicas de psychotria (rubiaceae em sub-bosque de floresta atlântica Reproductive success of distylous species of psychotria (rubiaceae of understory atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celice Alexandre Silva

    2013-04-01

    dependence on intermorph pollinations (L x B or B x L of fruit set, is expected to be at balanced proportions (isopleths of the individuals in the population. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the species mentioned above, the proportion of floral morphs in an area of seven hectares, the dependence on pollinators by testing the intramorph incompatibility (L x L and B x B by in vivo controlled pollinations; the viability of pollen grains and the existence of grain size dimorphism among floral morphs, and to quantify the production of fruits and seeds per morph. The floral morphs of the species was found in balanced proportions. There was an incompatibility and the viability of pollen grains was high (> 64%. Grains presented dimorphism; the highest diameters were the B. The production of fruits and seeds (one or two of the morphs of P. sessilis and P. conjugens were similar and in P. hastisepala they were higher in B. In the study area, at the correct conditions, such as habitat, isopleths and the role of pollinator are the factors that seem to promote the reproductive success and therefore the maintenance of local species.

  6. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year [es

  7. Differential fitness costs of reproduction between the sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Dustin J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2006-01-01

    Natural selection does not necessarily favor maximal reproduction because reproduction imposes fitness costs, reducing parental survival, and offspring quality. Here, we show that parents in a preindustrial population in North America incurred fitness costs from reproduction, and women incurred greater costs than men. We examined the survivorship and reproductive success (Darwinian fitness) of 21,684 couples married between 1860 and 1895 identified in the Utah Population Database. We found th...

  8. Lizard reproductive medicine and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard S

    2002-09-01

    Lizards are a diverse group of some 4470 species, a wide variety of which are now kept in captivity. Interest in captive lizards continues to increase, wild populations seem to be declining in some areas, and herpetoculturists continue to succeed in breeding more species; consequently, veterinarians must understand basic lizard reproductive biology to successfully treat lizard patients with reproductive problems. Just obtaining First Filial Generation (F1) offspring is an accomplishment. But we must look down the road to maintain a species in captivity for succeeding generations, and a lineage may not continue if attention is not given to details of appropriate husbandry and proper reproductive pursuits. One study documents the senescence of lineages in parthenogenetic lizards in captivity apparently associated with husbandry problems [99].

  9. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  10. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  11. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  12. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess

  13. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does Happiness Promote Career Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2008-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated a relationship between happiness and workplace success. For example, compared with their less happy peers, happy people earn more money, display superior performance, and perform more helpful acts. Researchers have often assumed that an employee is happy and satisfied because he or she is successful. In this article,…

  15. Energy: reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Penagos, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ovulatory activity in the livestock depends on the readiness of nutritious energy with relationship to its use for the nursing. During the early nursing the cup of increment in the production of milk exceeds to the consumption of food, the difference in the energy consumption of the diet with relationship to the energy used for production is a negative energy balance. During the first weeks of nursing this reaches their maximum and it diminishes slowly with the increment in the consumption of dry matter. This first metabolic sign is in an increment in the pulses of hormone luteinizant that acts as and stimulate for the ovary and that with a great readiness of insulin, it takes to the ovarian follicles to respond to the stimulus. The sub-alimentation seems to affect the hypothalamic function and ovarian. The return to the positive energy balance in cows highly producers can be accelerated by the consumption of protected fat. The functions of the lipids are to provide energy for normal maintenance and production, to serve as source of essential fatty acids and eat payee of liposoluble vitamins. The importance of the addition of vegetable fat is that this is not degraded in the rumen but rather it is digested in its entirety in abomasa and absorbed in intestine. The addition of a source of Ca to diets with fats promotes the formation of insoluble soaps achieving that the fat doesn't inhibit the fiber fermentation; the chloride of Ca to be of high solubility in water it is completely ionized in rumen and it is more efficient in the formation of insoluble soaps of Ca. The addition of fat in the diet bears increase in the production of N microbial, inhibition of methane formation, increase and change in population of bacteria and mushrooms. The efficiency of the fat is superior when sources of fatty acids of long chain are used, the employment of these, in its protected form, in a diet, stimulates the number of follicles and it increases its size. The linolic acid is

  16. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present......) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased offspring...... production, and that a relatively small fraction of the males and females in a population account for most of the offspring production. In both males and females, mating is nonrandom. Superior individuals with a higher than average matings success were identified both among females and among males....

  17. An empirical test of evolutionary theories for reproductive senescence and reproductive effort in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2007-04-07

    Evolutionary theory predicts that differential reproductive effort and rate of reproductive senescence will evolve under different rates of external mortality. We examine the evolutionary divergence of age-specific reproduction in two life-history ecotypes of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. We test for the signature of reproductive senescence (decreasing fecundity with age) and increasing reproductive effort with age (increasing reproductive productivity per gram female) in replicate populations of two life-history ecotypes: snakes that grow fast, mature young and have shorter lifespans, and snakes that grow slow, mature late and have long lives. The difference between life-history ecotypes is due to genetic divergence in growth rate. We find (i) reproductive success (live litter mass) increases with age in both ecotypes, but does so more rapidly in the fast-growth ecotype, (ii) reproductive failure increases with age in both ecotypes, but the proportion of reproductive failure to total reproductive output remains invariant, and (iii) reproductive effort remains constant in fast-growth individuals with age, but declines in slow-growth individuals. This illustration of increasing fecundity with age, even at the latest ages, deviates from standard expectations for reproductive senescence, as does the lack of increases in reproductive effort. We discuss our findings in light of recent theories regarding the phenomenon of increased reproduction throughout life in organisms with indeterminate growth and its potential to offset theoretical expectations for the ubiquity of senescence.

  18. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  19. Phenological patterns and reproductive success of Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae in tropical dry and wet forests of Costa Rica Patrones fenológicos y éxito reproductivo de Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae en el bosque tropical seco y húmedo de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULISSA ROJAS-SANDOVAL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the phenological patterns and the reproductive success of 103 Ceiba pentandra trees, located in the tropical dry and wet forests of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. To determine the phenological patterns of this species we recorded leaf fall, flower and fruit production of marked trees every two-weeks from December through March over three years (2001, 2002 and 2003. We also recorded the flowering and fruiting frequencies for two more years (2000 and 2004. Our data suggest that phenological patterns of C. pentandra trees behave as irregular cycles rather than cycles fixed at supra-annual intervals, and the forest type in which the trees are located does not have a decisive effect on either the probability or the frequency of the reproductive cycles. The absence of a pattern of negative autocorrelations in qualitative reproductive success (e.g., no reproduction, only flowers and fruits among successive years suggests that the flowering or fruiting cycles of this species do not correspond to a simple model of resource limitation. Our results show that there is no relationship between the reproductive success and the periodicity of the reproductive cycles in this species.Estudiamos los patrones fenológicos y el éxito reproductivo de 103 árboles de Ceiba pentandra, localizados en el bosque tropical seco y en el bosque tropical húmedo de la costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Para determinar los patrones fenológicos se anotó la caída de hojas y la producción de flores y frutos cada dos semanas desde diciembre hasta marzo para todos los árboles marcados por un periodo de tres años (2001, 2002 y 2003. También se tomaron datos de la frecuencia de floración y fructificación para dos años más (2000 y 2004. Nuestros datos sugieren que los patrones fenológicos de árboles de C. pentandra se comportan como ciclos irregulares más que como ciclos fijos de intervalos supraanuales y el tipo de bosque en el cual los árboles se ubican

  20. Acesso e sucesso no Ensino Superior em Portugal: questões de género, origem sócio-cultural e percurso académico dos alunos Access and success in higher education in Portugal: issues of gender, sociocultural origin and students' academic path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se o impacto do sexo e da origem sócio-cultural na nota de candidatura e nos cursos escolhidos no Ensino Superior, assim como nas dificuldades antecipadas e no rendimento académico no final do 1º ano de frequência universitária. O estudo tomou 1407 estudantes da Universidade do Minho. Os resultados apontam que o sexo, a par do nível sócio-cultural das famílias, influencia a escolha de cursos (mais estudantes do sexo feminino e das classes mais desfavorecidas frequentam cursos de ciências sociais, ao passo que mais estudantes do sexo masculino e das classes mais favorecidas o fazem em cursos de engenharia. Verifica-se ainda que os estudantes do sexo feminino e mais favorecidos socialmente apresentam notas mais elevadas de candidatura ao Ensino Superior e na média no final do 1º ano. Em relação às dificuldades antecipadas, os estudantes do sexo feminino e dos cursos de ciências sociais e económicas antecipam mais dificuldades interpessoais, enquanto os alunos do sexo masculino e a frequentar cursos de engenharia e de ciências económicas o revelam em relação à aprendizagem e à organização das tarefas diárias. A antecipação de dificuldades de aprendizagem relaciona-se ainda de forma negativa e estatisticamente significativa tanto com a nota de ingresso como com a média no final do 1º ano.We analyse the impact of gender and sociocultural origin of freshmen from their college entrance exam scores and chosen undergraduate courses, as well the anticipation of difficulties in academic adaptation, and in academic success, at the end of their first year in college. The study's sample consists of 1407 freshman students from the Universidade do Minho. Results show that gender and sociocultural family background influence the courses that are chosen (most female students and students from less advantaged social class origins attended Social Science courses, whereas most male students and students from more advantaged

  1. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation: A Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Warner

    2004-01-01

    This appraisal of Carol A. Kates' 'Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation' challenges her call for world-wide population control measures - using compulsory methods if necessary - to save the world's environment. The most successful part of Kates' paper is her argument that reproductive rights are not indefeasible and nonnegotiable, but that like many rights, they are conditional and open to a balancing of individual freedom against collective community interests. But her advocacy of mandato...

  2. Reproductive biology of Amasonia obovata Gleason (Laminaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schvinn,Thays de Assis; Miranda,Anderson Fernandes de; Silva,Celice Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Floral mechanisms that ensure seed production via autogamy are more likely to occur in species growing in environments where pollination is scarce. Amasonia obovata was studied in the State of Mato Grosso-Brazil, from 2009 to 2012, to analyze the morphological and reproductive characteristics, aside from investigating the association of the reproductive success with the pollinator frequency and identity. The flowering and fruiting of A. obovata was concentrated in a period of five months duri...

  3. New Reproductive Conception Technologies: Bioethics and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  4. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  5. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization

  6. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  7. Children's Concepts of Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)

  8. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  9. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  11. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  12. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  13. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  14. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  15. Major advances associated with reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K; Thatcher, W W

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this overview is to review some of the major advances in reproductive technologies, and how they may be applied to meet the challenge of enhancing reproductive efficiency in the high-producing dairy cow of the 21st century. The current population of high-producing dairy cows is considered to be subfertile, as characterized by low pregnancy rates and high rates of embryonic mortality. Coordinated systems of reproductive management have been developed based upon a thorough understanding of the endocrine, cellular, and molecular factors controlling ovarian and uterine function. These systems will partially restore herd reproductive performance. Advances in other reproductive technologies offer possibilities for wider use of superior germplasm. Technologies such as sexed semen, cloning, transgenesis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis offer the potential to enhance the influence of superior animals on production of food for human consumption. However, at this time, additional research is needed to counteract the higher rates of embryonic and fetal mortality associated with some of these technologies. Furthermore, use of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics in the study of reproduction will undoubtedly provide investigators with a greater understanding of the limitations to efficient reproductive processes in the subfertile lactating dairy cow.

  16. Building Successful Information Systems – a Key for Successful Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina ROSCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Building Successful Information Systems – a Key for Successful OrganizationAbstract: An Information System (IS can have a major impact on corporate strategy and organizational success. The involvement of managers and decision makers in all aspects of information systems is a major factor for organizational success, including higher profits and lower costs. Some of the benefits business organization seek to achieve through information systems include: better safety, competitive advantage, fewer errors, greater accuracy, higher quality products, improved communications, increased efficiency and productivity, more efficient administration, superior financial and managerial decision making.

  17. Exito reproductivo de plantas ornitócoras en un relicto de selva subtropical en Argentina Reproductive success of bird-dispersed plants in a subtropical forest relict in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORBERTO H. MONTALDO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available En un relicto de selva ribereña situado en la región central de Argentina (Punta Lara, provincia de Buenos Aires se estudió la fenología reproductiva, y la producción y dispersión de diásporas de cinco especies arbóreas nativas y de dos malezas exóticas (Rubus ulmifolius y Ligustrum lucidum. Además se determinó el poder germinativo de las semillas y la tasa de reclutamiento y características de las plántulas. En el último medio siglo las malezas invadieron la selva, amenazando actualmente con destruirla. El elenco de aves frugívoras del área es reducido y está integrado por siete especies residentes y una migratoria. Hay plantas nativas que manifiestan limitaciones reproductivas por escasa producción y/o dispersión de diásporas. Si bien las plantas exóticas no superan significativamente a las nativas en las relaciones fruto/ flor y frutos consumidos/ frutos disponibles, las primeras tienen ventajas en la cantidad de semillas que incorporan al medio por unidad (m2 de superficie de copa (ca. 1700 vs. 800 en la nativa que más dispersa, y en su germinación abundante (Ligustrum o en la habilidad competitiva de sus plántulas (Rubus. El éxito de las malezas se explicaría en gran parte por su agresividad intrínseca y por la situación de marginalidad ecológica de esta comunidad selvática, ya que muchas especies se encuentran en el extremo meridional de su distribuciónReproductive phenology, diaspore production, diaspore removal, and seed-dispersal by birds of five indigenous and two alien (Rubus ulmifolius and Ligustrum lucidum woody species were studied in a riparian forest relict located in central Argentina (Punta Lara, Buenos Aires Province. Seed germination, recruitment, and seedling traits of these plants were also determined. During the last half century the weeds heavily invaded the forest, presently constituting a serious threat to the survival of this natural community. In the area the fruit-eating bird assemblage

  18. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  19. INFORMATION ASSURANCE - INTELLIGENCE - INFORMATION SUPERIORITY RELATIONSHIP WITHIN NATO OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.

  20. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome in assisted reproductive techniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) is a crucial treatment for infertile couples and is frequently common. ART entails manipulation of oocyte and sperm in a laboratory: in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).The key objective of ART is to yield superior quality embryos that are competent for ...

  1. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...

  2. Sense and nonsense in metabolic control of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Klingerman, Candice M; Abdulhay, Amir

    2012-01-01

    An exciting synergistic interaction occurs among researchers working at the interface of reproductive biology and energy homeostasis. Reproductive biologists benefit from the theories, experimental designs, and methodologies used by experts on energy homeostasis while they bring context and meaning to the study of energy homeostasis. There is a growing recognition that identification of candidate genes for obesity is little more than meaningless reductionism unless those genes and their expression are placed in a developmental, environmental, and evolutionary context. Reproductive biology provides this context because metabolic energy is the most important factor that controls reproductive success and gonadal hormones affect energy intake, storage, and expenditure. Reproductive hormone secretion changes during development, and reproductive success is key to evolutionary adaptation, the process that most likely molded the mechanisms that control energy balance. It is likely that by viewing energy intake, storage, and expenditure in the context of reproductive success, we will gain insight into human obesity, eating disorders, diabetes, and other pathologies related to fuel homeostasis. This review emphasizes the metabolic hypothesis: a sensory system monitors the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels and orchestrates behavioral motivation to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates or is unpredictable.

  3. Introduction: Obesity and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, David R

    2017-04-01

    Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this series, the causes, consequences, and solutions regarding the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms of the effect of obesity on the female and male, the epigenetic consequences of male obesity, the marked effects on perinatal outcomes, and the effects of weight loss before conception and during pregnancy are explored. Lifestyle modifications, in particular a healthy diet and exercise during the 3-6 months before conception and during treatment, should result in better outcomes than requiring weight loss before fertility treatments. Such fundamental changes toward a healthier lifestyle will achieve steady and sustainable weight loss and long-term benefits for general health. The role of bariatric surgery before pregnancy requires careful consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  5. A Novel Quantitative Approach to Women’s Reproductive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Fritha H.; Judge, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment) is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented ‘short-term mating strategy’, ‘early onset of sexual activity’, ‘reproductive output’, ‘timing of childbearing’, ‘breastfeeding’, and ‘child spacing’. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child) similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births) for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these

  6. A novel quantitative approach to women's reproductive strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritha H Milne

    Full Text Available The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented 'short-term mating strategy', 'early onset of sexual activity', 'reproductive output', 'timing of childbearing', 'breastfeeding', and 'child spacing'. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these strategic

  7. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  8. A Rare Complication of Acute Appendicitis: Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Koncoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric vein (SMV thrombosis caused by acute appendicitis is quite rare nowadays. These conditions occurs secondary to infection in the region drained by the portal venous system. In this case, we report a successfully treated case of SMV thrombosis and liver abscess associated with appendicitis with antibiotics and anticoagulant.Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are basic to a favorable clinical course.

  9. Variability in ejaculation rate and libido of boars during reproductive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    You

    2015-08-29

    Aug 29, 2015 ... knowledge of the impact of sexual behaviour on the reproductive performance ... (bad microclimate, fattening conditions, exposure to stress, .... effect of the interval between two successful collections squared; β2(xijklm - xˉ):.

  10. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  11. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  12. Toxic plants: Effects on reproduction and fetal and embryonic development in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive success is dependent on a large number of carefully orchestrated biological events that must occur in a specifically timed sequence. The interference with one of more of these sequences or events may result in total reproductive failure or a more subtle reduction in reproductive potent...

  13. Bisphenol A in Reproduction: Epigenetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Rosanna; Troisi, Jacopo; Richards, Sean; Scafuro, Marika; Fasano, Silvia; Guida, Maurizio; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2018-02-21

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resin to produce a multitude of consumer products, food and drink containers, and medical devices. BPA is similar to estradiol in structure and thus interferes in steroid signalling with different outcomes on reproductive health depending on doses, life stage, mode, and timing of exposure. In this respect, it has an emerging and controversial role as a "reproductive toxicant" capable of inducing short and long-term effects including the modulation of gene expression through epigenetic modification (i.e. methylation of CpG islands, histone modifications and production of non-coding RNA) with direct and trans-generational effects on exposed organisms and their offspring, respectively. This review provides an overview about BPA effects on reproductive health and aims to summarize the epigenetic effects of BPA in male and female reproduction. BPA exerts epigenetic effects in both male and female reproduction. In males, BPA affects spermatogenesis and sperm quality and possible trans-generational effects on the reproductive ability of the offspring. In females, BPA affects ovary, embryo development, and gamete quality for successful in vivo and in vitro fertilization (IVF). The exact mechanisms of BPA-mediated effects in reproduction are not fully understood; however, the environmental exposure to BPA - especially in fetal and neonatal period - deserves attention to preserve the reproductive ability in both sexes and to reduce the epigenetic risk for the offspring. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. The Future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  15. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  16. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  17. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  18. Variação na arquitetura floral e sucesso reprodutivo de duas espécies de Helicteres (Malvaceae, na região sudoeste de Mato Grosso Variation of floral architecture and reproductive success of two Helicteres (Malvaceae species in southwestern Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celice Alexandre Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da arquitetura floral, o comportamento dos visitantes florais diurnos e a influência dos locais de deposição de pólen no corpo dos polinizadores para o sucesso reprodutivo de Helicteres sacarolha e H. lhotzkyana. A floração de H. sacarolha ocorreu durante a estação chuvosa (Janeiro a Abril e de H. lhotzkyana se estendeu de Julho a Outubro (estação seca e inicio da estação chuvosa. Flores de ambas as espécies são vistosas, zigomorfas e apresentam características de ornitofilia. Beija-flores foram os principais visitantes florais diurnos destas espécies, não tendo havido polinizadores em comum entre elas. Os beija-flores que visitaram as flores de H. sacarolha apresentaram comportamento territorialista e o local de deposição de pólen era na cabeça ou na testa, enquanto que os que visitaram flores de H. lhotzkyana apresentaram comportamento "traplining" e o pólen era depositado na cauda ou nos pés. O sucesso reprodutivo foi significativamente diferente entre as espécies, a produção média de sementes por fruto foi de 24,56 em H. sacarolha e de 5,28 em H. lhotzkyana. As características florais e os comportamentos dos polinizadores, explicam parte das variações no sucesso reprodutivo das espécies estudadas.The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of floral architecture, the behavior of day visitors to the flowers and the influence of the location of pollen deposition on the bodies of the pollinators for the reproductive success of Helicteres sacarolha and H. lhotzkyana. Flowering of H. sacarolha occurred during the rainy season (January to April and H. lhotzkyana between July and October (dry season and beginning of the rainy season. Flowers of both species are colorful and zygomorphic with characteristics of ornithophily. Hummingbirds were the main day visitors to the flowers. The species had no pollinators in common. The behavior of the hummingbirds that visited H

  19. Residual symptoms after surgery for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Cingu, Abdullah; Ari, Seyhmus; Akbas, Umut

    2012-01-01

    To establish the surgical results and residual symptoms in 48 cases with unilateral congenital superior oblique muscle palsy that had surgical intervention to the vertical muscles alone. Myectomy and concomitant disinsertion of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle was performed in 38 cases and myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion and recession of the superior rectus muscle in the ipsilateral eye was performed in 10 cases. The preoperative and postoperative vertical deviation values and surgical results were compared. Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion, 74% achieved an "excellent" result, 21% a "good" result, and 5% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant inferior oblique disinsertion and ipsilateral superior rectus recession, 50% achieved an "excellent" result, 20% a "good" result, and 30% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Both procedures are effective and successful in patients with superior oblique muscle palsy, but a secondary surgery may be required. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  1. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles... following business will be conducted: Overview of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource...

  2. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...... and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention...... strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful ageing’....

  3. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaio, Gianfranco Di; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of citation success among authors who have recently published their work in economic history journals. Besides offering clues about how to improve one's scientific impact, our citation analysis also sheds light on the state of the field of economic history...... find similar patterns when assessing the same authors' citation success in economics journals. As a novel feature, we demonstrate that the diffusion of research — publication of working papers, as well as conference and workshop presentations — has a first-order positive impact on the citation rate........ Consistent with our expectations, we find that full professors, authors appointed at economics and history departments, and authors working in Anglo-Saxon and German countries are more likely to receive citations than other scholars. Long and co-authored articles are also a factor for citation success. We...

  4. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  5. Environment, epigenetics and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-01

    A conference summary of the third biannual Kenya Africa Conference "Environment, Epigenetics and Reproduction" is provided. A partial special Environmental Epigenetics issue containing a number of papers in Volume 3, Issue 3 and 4 are discussed.

  6. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  7. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  8. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the surrogate and to the male partner. Surrogacy can be used when the female of the ... party reproduction (sperm, egg, and embryo donation and surrogacy): A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  9. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the upper Paraná River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, C S

    2003-02-01

    Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  10. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho C. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  11. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Agostinho

    Full Text Available Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  12. A test of reproductive power in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boback, Scott M; Guyer, Craig

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive power is a contentious concept among ecologists, and the model has been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds. Despite these criticisms, the model has successfully predicted the modal (optimal) size in three large taxonomic groups and the shape of the body size distribution in two of these groups. We tested the reproductive power model on snakes, a group that differs markedly in physiology, foraging ecology, and body shape from the endothermic groups upon which the model was derived. Using detailed field data from the published literature, snake-specific constants associated with reproductive power were determined using allometric relationships of energy invested annually in egg production and population productivity. The resultant model accurately predicted the mode and left side of the size distribution for snakes but failed to predict the right side of that distribution. If the model correctly describes what is possible in snakes, observed size diversity is limited, especially in the largest size classes.

  13. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carol A. Kates

    2004-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...

  14. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  15. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Vijayan Kumara; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  16. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology and assisted reproductive technology in the United States: a 2016 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, James P; Coddington, Charles C; Doody, Kevin; Van Voorhis, Brad; Seifer, David B; Ball, G David; Luke, Barbara; Wantman, Ethan

    2016-09-01

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) was established within a few years of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in the United States, and has not only reported on the evolution of infertility care, but also guided it toward improved success and safety. Moving beyond its initial role as a registry, SART has expanded its role to include quality assurance, data validation, practice and advertising guidelines, research, patient education and advocacy, and membership support. The success of ART in this country has greatly benefited from SART's role, as highlighted by a series of graphs. SART continues to set the standard and lead the way. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    affects citations. In regard to author-specific characteristics, male authors, full professors and authors working economics or history departments, and authors employed in Anglo-Saxon countries, are more likely to get cited than others. As a ‘shortcut' to citation success, we find that research diffusion...

  18. Successful modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    Tichelaar and Ruff [1989] propose to “estimate model variance in complicated geophysical problems,” including the determination of focal depth in earthquakes, by means of unconventional statistical methods such as bootstrapping. They are successful insofar as they are able to duplicate the results from more conventional procedures.

  19. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G. M.; Tellier, Siri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a curvili...

  20. Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy Treatment of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    Full Text Available : Objective/Background: This report presents a superior mesenteric artery (SMA embolism managed by percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT. Methods: A 61 year old woman diagnosed with SMA embolism was admitted. Emboli were found in the middle and distal segments of the SMA on abdominal computed tomography angiography. Under local anaesthesia, a 6 F Rotarex system was used to remove the emboli via left brachial artery access. Emboli were successfully removed and patency was restored to the SMA and its branches. Results: Post-operatively, the patient's symptoms were significantly relieved. No post-operative complications were observed and no discomfort was documented during follow-up. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of SMA embolism using PMT is a feasible and alternative option. Keywords: Acute mesenteric ischaemia, Embolism, Endovascular treatment, Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy, Superior mesenteric artery

  1. [Mexican National Consensus on Assisted Reproduction Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; López Ortiz, Carlos Salazar; Serviere Zaragoza, Claudio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Pérez Peña, Efrain; Santos Haliscack, Roberto; Luna Rojas, Martha; Valerio, Emilio; Santana, Héctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that 15% of couples living in industrialized countries are infertile, ie have failed to conceive, reproductive age, after 12 months ormore of regular intercourse without contraception. During the past decade has increased the demand for fertility treatments because they believe are moreeffective now. To unify the therapeutic approach and service to patients and set a precedent for a Mexican Official Standard respect and support for the legislation of these procedures. Consensus by technical experts group panel with the participation of 34 national centers accredited for use in assisted reproduction. He organized seven workshops with the following themes: 1) selection of patients for assisted reproduction treatment, 2) schemes controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques of high complexity, 3) preparation and egg retrieval technique, 4) transferembryo; 5) luteal phase supplementation; 6) indications and techniques of cryopreservation and 7) informed consent. Each table had a coordinator who wrote and presented the findings to the full, it made a number of observations until they reached unanimity of criteria, which are reflected in this document. Patient selection for assisted reproduction techniques is the first step of the process. Proper selection lead to success, in the same way that a bad pick up for failure. In the case of egg donation the most important recommendation is that only one to two embryos transferred in order to reduce multiple pregnancy rates and maintaining high pregnancy rates.

  2. Seasonal variation in male alternative reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, M J; Amundsen, T; Utne-Palm, A C; Mobley, K B

    2016-12-01

    Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests and used microsatellite markers to reconstruct parentage from a subset of offspring from each nest. We hypothesized that mating, reproductive success and sneaking should be more prevalent early in the breeding season when competition for mates among males is predicted to be higher. However, parentage analyses revealed similar values of mating, reproductive success and high frequencies of successful sneaking early (30% of nests) and late (27% of nests) in the season. We also found that multiple females with eggs in the same nest were fertilized by one or more sneaker males, indicating that some males in this population engage in a satellite strategy. We contrast our results to previous work that demonstrates low levels of cuckoldry in a population in Sweden. Our results demonstrate marked stability in both the genetic mating system and male alternative reproductive tactics over the breeding season. However, sneaking rates may vary geographically within a species, likely due to local selection influencing ecological factors encountered at different locations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Deciphering the Costs of Reproduction in Mango – Vegetative Growth Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Mathilde; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Irregular fruit production across successive years is a major issue that limits the profitability of most temperate and tropical fruit crops. It is particularly affected by the reciprocal relationships between vegetative and reproductive growth. The concept of the costs of reproduction is defined in terms of losses in the potential future reproductive success caused by current investment in reproduction. This concept, developed in ecology and evolutionary biology, could provide a methodological framework to analyze irregular bearing in fruit crops, especially in relation to the spatial scale at which studies are done. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effects of reproduction during a growing cycle on reproduction during the following growing cycle and the indirect effects through vegetative growth between these two reproductive events, for four mango cultivars and during two growing cycles. Two spatial scales were considered: the growth unit (GU) and the scaffold branch. Costs of reproduction were detected between two successive reproductive events and between reproduction and vegetative growth. These costs were scale-dependent, generally detected at the GU scale and infrequently at the scaffold branch scale, suggesting partial branch autonomy with respect to processes underlying the effects of reproduction on vegetative growth. In contrast, the relationships between vegetative growth and reproduction were positive at the GU scale and at the scaffold branch scale in most cases, suggesting branch autonomy for the processes, mainly local, underlying flowering and fruiting. The negative effect of reproduction on vegetative growth prevailed over the positive effect of vegetative growth on the subsequent reproduction. The costs of reproduction were also cultivar-dependent. Those revealed at the GU scale were related to the bearing behavior of each cultivar. Our results put forward the crucial role of vegetative growth occurring between two

  4. Gene therapy and reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribley, John M; Rehman, Khurram S; Niu, Hairong; Christman, Gregory M

    2002-04-01

    To review the literature on the principles of gene therapy and its potential application in reproductive medicine. Literature review. Gene therapy involves transfer of genetic material to target cells using a delivery system, or vector. Attention has primarily focused on viral vectors. Significant problems remain to be overcome including low efficacy of gene transfer, the transient expression of some vectors, safety issues with modified adenoviruses and retroviruses, and ethical concerns. If these issues can be resolved, gene therapy will be applicable to an increasing spectrum of single and multiple gene disorders, as the Human Genome Project data are analyzed, and the genetic component of human disease becomes better understood. Gynecologic gene therapy has advanced to human clinical trials for ovarian carcinoma, and shows potential for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata. Obstetric applications of gene therapy, including fetal gene therapy, remain more distant goals. Concerns about the safety of human gene therapy research are being actively addressed, and remarkable progress in improving DNA transfer has been made. The first treatment success for a genetic disease (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) has been achieved, and ongoing research efforts will eventually yield clinical applications in many spheres of reproductive medicine.

  5. Cytomixis impairs meiosis and influences reproductive success in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    Un cas de cytomixie dans un hybride interspecifique; Cytologia 29 191–195. Falistocco E, Lorenzetti S and Falcinelli M 1994 Microsporo- genesis in desynaptic mutant of Dactylis; Cytologia 59. 309–316. Falistocco E, Tosti N and Falcinelli M 1995 Cytomixis in pollen mother cells of diploid Dactylis, one of the origins of 2n.

  6. Floral display, reproductive success, and conservation of terrestrial orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2005), s. 136-144 ISSN 0361-185X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : deceptiveness * fruit set * number of flowers * Orchis morio * terrestrial orchids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Breeding biology and reproductive success of the Spectacled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty nests were monitored and incubating birds were marked. Direct observations were made associated with nest building, incubating and nestling periods. Habitat structure was assessed to detect nesting site choice. The breeding episode, from the nest-building stage to fledging of the last chick, lasted on average 45 d.

  8. Cytomixis impairs meiosis and influences reproductive success in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    evolved but complex process to produce gametes genetically and structurally different ... All the organisms, irrespective of ... Meiosis is highly coherent and genetically programmed ..... may be genetic in nature and modified by the environment.

  9. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  10. Franchising reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-12-01

    Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.

  11. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  12. Circadian rhythms and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Michael J; Kennaway, David J

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing recognition that the circadian timing system, in particular recently discovered clock genes, plays a major role in a wide range of physiological systems. Microarray studies, for example, have shown that the expression of hundreds of genes changes many fold in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, liver heart and kidney. In this review, we discuss the role of circadian rhythmicity in the control of reproductive function in animals and humans. Circadian rhythms and clock genes appear to be involved in optimal reproductive performance, but there are sufficient redundancies in their function that many of the knockout mice produced do not show overt reproductive failure. Furthermore, important strain differences have emerged from the studies especially between the various Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycle Kaput) mutant strains. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that the primary clock genes, Clock and Bmal1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as Mop3), strongly influence reproductive competency. The extent to which the circadian timing system affects human reproductive performance is not known, in part, because many of the appropriate studies have not been done. With the role of Clock and Bmal1 in fertility becoming clearer, it may be time to pursue the effect of polymorphisms in these genes in relation to the various types of infertility in humans.

  13. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  14. The Use of Proteomics in Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteria, Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Chrousos, George P; Tsangaris, George T

    2017-01-01

    Despite the explosive increase in the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) over the last 30 years, their success rates remain suboptimal. Proteomics is a rapidly-evolving technology-driven science that has already been widely applied in the exploration of human reproduction and fertility, providing useful insights into its physiology and leading to the identification of numerous proteins that may be potential biomarkers and/or treatment targets of a successful ART pregnancy. Here we present a brief overview of the techniques used in proteomic analyses and attempt a comprehensive presentation of recent data from mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies in humans, regarding all components of ARTs, including the male and female gamete, the derived zygote and embryo, the endometrium and, finally, the ART offspring both pre- and postnatally. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Copepod reproduction is unaffected by diatom aldehydes or lipid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja; Jonasdottir, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether reduced reproductive success of copepods fed with diatoms was related to nutritional imbalances with regard to essential lipids or to the production of inhibitory aldehydes. In 10-d laboratory experiments, feeding, egg production, egg hatching success, and fecal pellet...

  16. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  17. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis...... until the end of 2009. To explore changes over time, the endometriosis cohorts were followed for 15 years from the years 1980, 1986, 1992 and 1998, with the corresponding control cohorts. All pregnancy outcomes were categorized into naturally or artificially conceived pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  18. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-08-01

    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication in a child with nephrotic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogovsky, A.; Adi, M.; Barzilai, N.; Dagan, A.; Sinai, L.; Sthoeger, D.; Tabachnik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy with new-onset nephrotic syndrome developed recurrent vomiting, apathy and papilloedema. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was diagnosed on cranial CT and MRI. He gradually recovered after treatment with heparin, fresh frozen plasma and warfarin with complete resolution of the thrombosis after 1 month. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome in children. Early diagnosis is essential for institution of anticoagulation therapy and a successful outcome. (orig.)

  20. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication in a child with nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirogovsky, A.; Adi, M.; Barzilai, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot (Israel); Dagan, A.; Sinai, L.; Sthoeger, D. [Div. of Paediatrics, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot (Israel); Tabachnik, E. [Div. of Paediatrics, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot (Israel); Paediatric ICU, Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot (Israel)

    2001-10-01

    A 2-year-old boy with new-onset nephrotic syndrome developed recurrent vomiting, apathy and papilloedema. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was diagnosed on cranial CT and MRI. He gradually recovered after treatment with heparin, fresh frozen plasma and warfarin with complete resolution of the thrombosis after 1 month. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome in children. Early diagnosis is essential for institution of anticoagulation therapy and a successful outcome. (orig.)

  1. Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ásgeirsson, Hrafn; Nordal, Salvör

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, reproductive technology and surrogacy have emerged in a number of European countries as issues of debate. There has been a steady increase in the use of reproductive technology in the Nordic countries, as well as an increase in the use of cross-border medical treatment in order to achieve pregnancy. At the same time, a number of ethical issues have been raised concerning the rights of the participants, including the children. In the fall of 2013, the Nordic Committe...

  2. Functional Amyloids in Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewetson, Aveline; Do, Hoa Quynh; Myers, Caitlyn; Muthusubramanian, Archana; Sutton, Roger Bryan; Wylie, Benjamin J; Cornwall, Gail A

    2017-06-29

    Amyloids are traditionally considered pathological protein aggregates that play causative roles in neurodegenerative disease, diabetes and prionopathies. However, increasing evidence indicates that in many biological systems nonpathological amyloids are formed for functional purposes. In this review, we will specifically describe amyloids that carry out biological roles in sexual reproduction including the processes of gametogenesis, germline specification, sperm maturation and fertilization. Several of these functional amyloids are evolutionarily conserved across several taxa, including human, emphasizing the critical role amyloids perform in reproduction. Evidence will also be presented suggesting that, if altered, some functional amyloids may become pathological.

  3. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  4. The Penokean orogeny in the Lake Superior region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, K.J.; Cannon, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Penokean orogeny began at about 1880 Ma when an oceanic arc, now the Pembine-Wausau terrane, collided with the southern margin of the Archean Superior craton marking the end of a period of south-directed subduction. The docking of the buoyant craton to the arc resulted in a subduction jump to the south and development of back-arc extension both in the initial arc and adjacent craton margin to the north. A belt of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits formed in the extending back-arc rift within the arc. Synchronous extension and subsidence of the Superior craton resulted in a broad shallow sea characterized by volcanic grabens (Menominee Group in northern Michigan). The classic Lake Superior banded iron-formations, including those in the Marquette, Gogebic, Mesabi and Gunflint Iron Ranges, formed in that sea. The newly established subduction zone caused continued arc volcanism until about 1850 Ma when a fragment of Archean crust, now the basement of the Marshfield terrane, arrived at the subduction zone. The convergence of Archean blocks of the Superior and Marshfield cratons resulted in the major contractional phase of the Penokean orogeny. Rocks of the Pembine-Wausau arc were thrust northward onto the Superior craton causing subsidence of a foreland basin in which sedimentation began at about 1850 Ma in the south (Baraga Group rocks) and 1835 Ma in the north (Rove and Virginia Formations). A thick succession of arc-derived turbidites constitutes most of the foreland basin-fill along with lesser volcanic rocks. In the southern fold and thrust belt tectonic thickening resulted in high-grade metamorphism of the sediments by 1830 Ma. At this same time, a suite of post-tectonic plutons intruded the deformed sedimentary sequence and accreted arc terranes marking the end of the Penokean orogeny. The Penokean orogen was strongly overprinted by younger tectonic and thermal events, some of which were previously ascribed to the Penokean. Principal among these was a

  5. Reproductive Investment and Health Costs in Roma Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Čvorović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine whether variation in reproductive investment affects the health of Roma women using a dataset collected through original anthropological fieldwork among Roma women in Serbia. Data were collected in 2014–2016 in several Roma semi-urban settlements in central Serbia. The sample consisted of 468 Roma women, averaging 44 years of age. We collected demographic data (age, school levels, socioeconomic status, risk behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption, marital status, and reproductive history variables (the timing of reproduction, the intensity of reproduction, reproductive effort and investment after birth, in addition to self-reported health, height, and weight. Data analyses showed that somatic, short-term costs of reproduction were revealed in this population, while evolutionary, long-term costs were unobservable—contrariwise, Roma women in poor health contributed more to the gene pool of the next generation than their healthy counterparts. Our findings appear to be consistent with simple trade-off models that suggest inverse relationships between reproductive effort and health. Thus, personal sacrifice—poor health as an outcome—seems crucial for greater reproductive success.

  6. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  7. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Reproduction and Fixed Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the 'sixties, the reproduction model was often the subject of analysis and discussion in economic literat­ ure. Discussion was by criticism of the neo-classical concept of capital as well as by a renewed interest in the labour theory of value. Criticism of the use of a homogeneous concept of

  9. Male Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  10. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  11. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Ximenes, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the coronary sinus. We report the case of a patient with a persistent left superior vena cava and absence of right superior vena cava identified by chance during a chest radiograph and computed tomography examination for investigation of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. The patient had no congenital heart disease and the blood from the right side was drained by the persistent left superior vena cava into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. (author)

  12. African Journal of Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Reproductive Health (AJRH) is published by the Women's Health and ... review articles, short reports and commentaries on reproductive health in Africa. ... Social norms and adolescents' sexual health: an introduction for ...

  13. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  14. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspects of the Reproductive Biology of Stenanona Flagelliflora (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L. X.; Castro, D. M. F.; Hernandez, A. R. A.; Villanueva, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Stenanona flagelliflora was described in 2004. There are no studies on its biology. The goal of this study was to document some aspects of its reproductive biology. The particular objectives were to: i) describe the variation on vegetative and floral traits; ii) establish the composition of the community of floral visitors; iii) estimate the mating system and reproductive success; and, iv) establish the relationship between vegetative traits and reproductive success. The study was conducted within the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Veracruz, Mexico. We quantified several vegetative and floral traits; conducted observations and collected floral visitors; and determined the mating system and reproductive success. Stenanona flagelliflora has relatively few stamens and carpels, but a relatively high viability of pollen grains. The most abundant floral visitors were dipterans from the Phoridae Family. Mating system is between xenogamous and facultative xenogamous; thus, pollination depends upon pollen vectors. Fruit-set was relatively high; but seed-set was very low, because most monocarps did not contain seeds. Our results suggest that reproduction of S. flagelliflora is not limited by resource availability, but by pollinator frequency and effectiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the reproductive biology of a species within the Stenanona genus. (author)

  16. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  17. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  18. Puerperal Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis and Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences · January - June 2014 · Vol 3 · Issue 1. 64. Puerperal ... complaint of severe headache, right sided weakness, double vision, impaired ... The initial diagnosis was left hemispheric stroke? Cause and ... hematologist. Brain computerized tomography (CT) was inconclusive,.

  19. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  20. Ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery secondary to bacterial endocarditis in a 6-year-old-girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophe, C.; Spehl, M.; Cogaert, C.; Perlmutter, N.; Burniat, W.; Biarent, D.; Delaet, F.; Amalou, N.

    1985-01-01

    By non-invasive examination we demonstrated as false mycotic aneurysm on a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It suddenly ruptured but was managed successfully. The patient had mitral valve disease and probably bacterial endocarditis also. (orig.)

  1. Ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery secondary to bacterial endocarditis in a 6-year-old-girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophe, C; Spehl, M; Cogaert, C; Perlmutter, N; Burniat, W; Biarent, D; Delaet, F; Amalou, N

    1985-02-01

    By non-invasive examination we demonstrated as false mycotic aneurysm on a branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It suddenly ruptured but was managed successfully. The patient had mitral valve disease and probably bacterial endocarditis also.

  2. Territoriality and breeding success in Gurney's sugarbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 25 %of pairs laid eggs, and mating appears to have been constrained by low nectar and arthropod energy availability, and the costs associated with the defence of large territories. Reproductive success was directly related to arthropod availability on territories, with pairs not even appearing to attempt breeding if this is ...

  3. Male reproductive competition in spawning aggregations of cod ( Gadus morhua , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive competition may lead to a large skew in reproductive success among individuals. Very few studies have analysed the paternity contribution of individual males in spawning aggregations of fish species with huge census population sizes. We quantified the variance in male reproductive...... success in spawning aggregations of cod under experimental conditions over an entire spawning season. Male reproductive success was estimated by microsatellite-based parentage analysis of offspring produced in six separate groups of spawning cod. In total, 1340 offspring and 102 spawnings distributed...... across a spawning season were analysed. Our results show that multiple males contributed sperm to most spawnings but that paternity frequencies were highly skewed among males, with larger males on average siring higher proportions of offspring. It was further indicated that male reproductive success...

  4. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  5. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vijayan K; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  6. Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Nasihun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging concept of successful aging is based on evidence that in healthy individual when they get aged, there are  considerable variations in physiological functions alteration. Some people exhibiting greater, but others very few or no age related alteration. The first is called poor aging and the later is called successful pattern of aging (Lambert SW, 2008. Thus, in the simple words the successful aging concept is define as an opportunity of old people to stay  active and productive condition despite they get aged chronologically. Aging itself might be defined as the progressive accumulation of changes with time associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age (Harman D, 1981. The time needed to accumulate changes is attributable to aging process. The marked emerging questions are how does aging happen and where does aging start? To answer these questions and because of the complexity of aging process, there are more than 300 aging theories have been proposed to explain how and where aging occured and started respectively. There are too many to enumerate theories and classification of aging process. In summary, all of these aging theories can be grouped into three clusters: 1. Genetics program theory, this theory suggests that aging is resulted from program directed by the genes; 2. Epigenetic theory, in these theory aging is resulted from environmental random events not determined by the genes; 3. Evolutionary theory, which propose that aging is a medium for disposal mortal soma in order to avoid competition between organism and their progeny for food and space, did not try to explain how aging occur, but possibly answer why aging occur (De la Fuente. 2009. Among the three groups of aging theories, the epigenetic theory is useful to explain and try to solve the enigma of aging which is prominently caused by internal and external environmental influences

  7. Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Celiac Axis Occlusion Treated Using Endovascular Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Biswajit; Kuhan, Ganesh; Johnson, Brian; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery and associated celiac axis occlusion is presented. The patient was successfully treated with celiac artery recanalization and placement of a covered stent within the superior mesenteric artery. Follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months and 3 years demonstrated patency of the covered stent and continued exclusion of the aneurysm. Although the long-term success of this procedure is unknown this management option should be considered where facilities are available, to reduce the increased morbidity associated with open surgical procedure

  8. Access and success in higher education in Portugal: issues of gender, sociocultural origin and students' academic path / Acesso e sucesso no Ensino Superior em Portugal: questões de género, origem sócio-cultural e percurso académico dos alunos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the impact of gender and sociocultural origin of freshmen from their college entrance exam scores and chosen undergraduate courses, as well the anticipation of difficulties in academic adaptation, and in academic success, at the end of their first year in college. The study's sample consists of 1407 freshman students from the Universidade do Minho. Results show that gender and sociocultural family background influence the courses that are chosen (most female students and students from less advantaged social class origins attended Social Science courses, whereas most male students and students from more advantaged social class origins attended Engineering courses. Higher sociocultural status and female students presented higher entrance exam scores and averaged better academic achievement at the end of their first year in college. Concerning anticipated difficulties, female students and students from Social and Economic Science courses anticipated more inter-personal difficulties, while male students and students from Engineering and Economic Science courses anticipated more difficulties in relation to learning and organizing daily activities. The anticipation of learning difficulties was associated in a negative and statistical way with entrance exam scores and academic achievement.

  9. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new concepts in superior oblique muscle weakening surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Koornneef, L.; Everhard-Halm, Y. S.; Hughes, D. S.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    We used superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new surgical procedures to treat acquired Brown's syndrome and superior oblique muscle overaction. We studied nine patients (11 eyes) who underwent trochlear surgery between 1988 and 1993. Four patients had acquired Brown's syndrome and

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Novelino Simão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results: A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2% of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%. In 10 (47.6% of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum. In the remaining 11 (52.4%, surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion: A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven and 4.8% (projected. However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra.

  12. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  13. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  14. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  15. Mammographic varicosities indicative of a superior mediastinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, an abnormal calibre of the superficial veins can reflect not only underrying breast pathology, but a collateral venous return resulting from an upper mediastinal obstruction. A case mammographically demonstrating mammary varicosities resulting from a superior mediastinal syndrome is described. S. Afr. Med.

  16. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  17. Perturbation resilience and superiorization of iterative algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censor, Y; Davidi, R; Herman, G T

    2010-01-01

    Iterative algorithms aimed at solving some problems are discussed. For certain problems, such as finding a common point in the intersection of a finite number of convex sets, there often exist iterative algorithms that impose very little demand on computer resources. For other problems, such as finding that point in the intersection at which the value of a given function is optimal, algorithms tend to need more computer memory and longer execution time. A methodology is presented whose aim is to produce automatically for an iterative algorithm of the first kind a 'superiorized version' of it that retains its computational efficiency but nevertheless goes a long way toward solving an optimization problem. This is possible to do if the original algorithm is 'perturbation resilient', which is shown to be the case for various projection algorithms for solving the consistent convex feasibility problem. The superiorized versions of such algorithms use perturbations that steer the process in the direction of a superior feasible point, which is not necessarily optimal, with respect to the given function. After presenting these intuitive ideas in a precise mathematical form, they are illustrated in image reconstruction from projections for two different projection algorithms superiorized for the function whose value is the total variation of the image

  18. [Reproduction and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders can have a close connection to reproduction, especially for women but also for men. The most frequent disorders or problems are described, i.e., mental problems during pregnancy and after delivery, during the menstrual cycle and around menopause. Possible consequences of miscarriage, stillbirth and induced abortion are presented as well as the special problem of a wish for a child in mentally ill women and their treatment during pregnancy.

  19. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  20. Folate and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tsunenobu; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2006-05-01

    The influence of folate nutritional status on various pregnancy outcomes has long been recognized. Studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s led to the recognition of prenatal folic acid supplementation as a means to prevent pregnancy-induced megaloblastic anemia. In the 1990s, the utility of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and folic acid food fortification emerged when they were proven to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. These distinctively different uses of folic acid may well be ranked among the most significant public health measures for the prevention of pregnancy-related disorders. Folate is now viewed not only as a nutrient needed to prevent megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy but also as a vitamin essential for reproductive health. This review focuses on the relation between various outcomes of human reproduction (ie, pregnancy, lactation, and male reproduction) and folate nutrition and metabolism, homocysteine metabolism, and polymorphisms of genes that encode folate-related enzymes or proteins, and we identify issues for future research.

  1. Herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction shape the life history of an iteroparous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2008-02-01

    Plant reproduction yields immediate fitness benefits but can be costly in terms of survival, growth, and future fecundity. Life-history theory posits that reproductive strategies are shaped by trade-offs between current and future fitness that result from these direct costs of reproduction. Plant reproduction may also incur indirect ecological costs if it increases susceptibility to herbivores. Yet ecological costs of reproduction have received little empirical attention and remain poorly integrated into life-history theory. Here, we provide evidence for herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction, and we develop theory to examine how these costs influence plant life-history strategies. Field experiments with an iteroparous cactus (Opuntia imbricata) indicated that greater reproductive effort (proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction) led to greater attack by a cactus-feeding insect (Narnia pallidicornis) and that damage by this herbivore reduced reproductive success. A dynamic programming model predicted strongly divergent optimal reproductive strategies when ecological costs were included, compared with when these costs were ignored. Meristem allocation by cacti in the field matched the optimal strategy expected under ecological costs of reproduction. The results indicate that plant reproductive allocation can strongly influence the intensity of interactions with herbivores and that associated ecological costs can play an important selective role in the evolution of plant life histories.

  2. Effects of synthetic gestagens on fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Jana; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Maser, Edmund; Goller, Stephan; Vonk, Richardus; Länge, Reinhard

    2009-12-01

    Although it is well known that estrogenic steroidal hormones are able to affect the sexual development and reproduction of fish at low concentrations, no data on environmental effects of the class of progestogenic hormones are available yet. Synthetic gestagens (progestins) are a component in oral contraceptives. Upon their use, a fraction of the progestins will be excreted via urine into the aquatic environment. On the basis of their pharmacological action in mammals, it is supposed that fish reproduction is the most sensitive endpoint for the progestin treatment. In order to test this assumption, the effects of two progestins currently marketed in contraceptive formulations, levonorgestrel (LNG) and drospirenone (DRSP), were investigated in adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) following an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 21-d fish reproduction screening assay draft protocol with additional end points. Levonorgestrel was tested at measured concentrations of 0.8, 3.3, and 29.6 ng/L, and DRSP at concentrations of 0.66, 6.5, and 70 microg/L. Both tested progestins caused an inhibition of reproduction. For LNG, this occurred at concentrations of >or=0.8 ng/L, no no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) could be defined. Higher concentrations resulted in masculinization of females with de novo synthesis of nuptial tubercles. Drospirenone treatment, however, affected the reproductive success of fathead minnow at concentrations of 6.5 microg/L and higher with a clear dose-response relationship and a NOEC of 0.66 microg/L, which is above environmentally relevant concentrations.

  3. A new Nitinol stent for use in superior vena cava syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Midtgaard, Annette; Brenøe, Anne-Sofie

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the early clinical experience with the Zilver Vena stent in treating patients with malignant superior vena cava syndrome. METHODS: Demographic, procedural, and follow-up data of 12 patients (seven women; mean age 69 years) treated for superior vena cava...... syndrome with in all 21 Zilver Vena stents between March 2012 and October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All cavographies and contrast enhanced CT related to the treatment and during follow-up were evaluated and the patients had clinical follow-up until dead. They were all in terminal state...... at the time of stent deployment. RESULTS: All patients had superior vena cava obstruction and clinical superior vena cava syndrome caused by malignant expansive mediastinal disease (eight patients non-small cell lung cancer and four small cell lung cancer). The technical success with deployment of the stents...

  4. Reproductive effort of some annual and perennial plant species: impact of successional sequence, habitat conditions and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, M.A.; Zaidi, S.; Siddiqui, M.F.; Khan, N.; Zafar, H.

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive effort of some annual and perennial plant species was investigated with respect to successional sequence, habitat conditions and plant size. in the psammosere succession (dune succession), the reproductive effort (RE) of Cressa cretica and A triplex griffithii was significantly greater in the early stage compared to that in late succession. Likewise, in relation to lithosere succession, Sporobolus arabicus. Pluchea lanceolata and Vernonia cenerescens all showed high reproductive effort in early part of succession compared to that of late succession. The annuals (S. arabicus and P lance/ala) exhibited greater reproductive effort compared to the perennial species Vernonia cinerescens. Examination of the Impact of site differences on reproductive effort showed that four grasses including Selaria intermedia, Chioris harbata, Cenchrus hiflorus, and Eragroslis pilosa were found to have significantly (P<0.05) greater reproductive effort in site 1 (near cultivated field), compared to site 2 (a vacant lot), which had low nutrient level compared to site 1. The reproductive effort of Sonclius asper (a composite) did not exhibit significant difference between sites. The investigation of relationships between plant size (volume) and reproductive effort of Solanuin forskalii, Senna holosericea and Heliolropium ophioglossum showed positive correlations between plant size and reproductive effort. Solanum forskalii and Senna holosericca, in particular, exhibited a close association in this respect. It is concluded that: 1) RE is greater in early compared to late succession, 2) RE changes with the habitat and 3) there seems to be a direct relationship between RE and plant size. (author)

  5. Heparin for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-08-17

    Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes.  It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to pregnancy. To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. A comprehensive and exhaustive search strategy was developed in consultation with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG). The strategy was used in an attempt to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress). Relevant trials were identified from both electronic databases and other resources (last search 6 May 2013). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included where peri-implantation heparin was given during assisted reproduction. Peri-implantation low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during IVF/ICSI was given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer in the included studies. Live birth rate was the primary outcome. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials and extracted relevant data. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE methods. Three RCTs (involving 386 women) were included in the review.Peri-implantation LMWH administration during assisted reproduction was associated with a significant improvement in live birth rate compared with placebo or no LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.90, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 51%, very low quality evidence with high

  6. Fellowship training and board certification in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Joseph C; Segars, James H; Cedars, Marcelle; Schlaff, William D

    2015-07-01

    Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is one of the original officially recognized subspecialties in obstetrics and gynecology and among the earlier subspecialties in medicine. Recognized by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1972, fellowship programs are now 3 years in length following an obstetrics and gynecology residency. Originally focused on endocrine problems related to reproductive function, the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have recently become the larger part of training during REI fellowships. It is likely that the subspecialty of REI strengthens the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology and enhances the educational experience of residents in the field. The value of training and certification in REI is most evident in the remarkable and consistent improvement in the success of ART procedures, particularly in vitro fertilization. The requirement for documented research activity during REI fellowships is likely to stimulate a more rapid adoption (translation) of newer research findings into clinical care after training. Although mandatory reporting of outcomes has been proposed as a reason for this improvement the rapid translation of reproductive research into clinical practice is likely to be a major cause. Looking forward, REI training should emphasize and strengthen education and research into the endocrine, environmental, and genetic aspects of female and male reproduction to improve the reproductive health and fertility of all women. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproductive science as an essential component of conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Brown, Janine L; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we argue that reproductive science in its broadest sense has never been more important in terms of its value to conservation biology, which itself is a synthetic and multidisciplinary topic. Over recent years the place of reproductive science in wildlife conservation has developed massively across a wide and integrated range of cutting edge topics. We now have unprecedented insight into the way that environmental change affects basic reproductive functions such as ovulation, sperm production, pregnancy and embryo development through previously unsuspected influences such as epigenetic modulation of the genome. Environmental change in its broadest sense alters the quality of foodstuffs that all animals need for reproductive success, changes the synchrony between breeding seasons and reproductive events, perturbs gonadal and embryo development through the presence of pollutants in the environment and drives species to adapt their behaviour and phenotype. In this book we explore many aspects of reproductive science and present wide ranging and up to date accounts of the scientific and technological advances that are currently enabling reproductive science to support conservation biology.

  8. Female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janine L

    2011-04-01

    Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. case of natural queen succession in a captive colony of naked mole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naked mole-rats occur in large colonies where usually a single queen monopolizes reproduction. Queen succession occurs from within usually as a result of aggressive encounters with subordinate females that queue for reproductive succession following colony instability, which inevitably results in death of either the ...

  10. Factors for successful improvement of Swedish healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish OCM, developed by an Integrative Group Process, was found to be a valid model able to distinguish successful from unsuccessful organizations in terms of improvement. A majority of healthcare organizations applied the Internal Collaborative strategy which lacks the patient centered task alignment characterizing those organizations predicted to be successful by their relatively superior Swedish OCM score. Managers tend to overestimate the prospects of organizationa...

  11. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system.

  12. Updates in Reproduction Coming from the Endocannabinoid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an evolutionarily conserved master system deeply involved in the central and local control of reproductive functions in both sexes. The tone of these lipid mediators—deeply modulated by the activity of biosynthetic and hydrolyzing machineries—regulates reproductive functions from gonadotropin discharge and steroid biosynthesis to the formation of high quality gametes and successful pregnancy. This review provides an overview on ECS and reproduction and focuses on the insights in the regulation of endocannabinoid production by steroids, in the regulation of male reproductive activity, and in placentation and parturition. Taken all together, evidences emerge that the activity of the ECS is crucial for procreation and may represent a target for the therapeutic exploitation of infertility. PMID:24550985

  13. Updates in Reproduction Coming from the Endocannabinoid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Meccariello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS is an evolutionarily conserved master system deeply involved in the central and local control of reproductive functions in both sexes. The tone of these lipid mediators—deeply modulated by the activity of biosynthetic and hydrolyzing machineries—regulates reproductive functions from gonadotropin discharge and steroid biosynthesis to the formation of high quality gametes and successful pregnancy. This review provides an overview on ECS and reproduction and focuses on the insights in the regulation of endocannabinoid production by steroids, in the regulation of male reproductive activity, and in placentation and parturition. Taken all together, evidences emerge that the activity of the ECS is crucial for procreation and may represent a target for the therapeutic exploitation of infertility.

  14. [Melatonin secretion in women of advanced reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, K S; Rapoport, S I; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    The patient's age is a key factor determining success of in vitro fertilization. The ovarian reserve and oocyte quality are known to decrease with age. Much attention has been given recently to the role of epiphysis and its hormone, melatonin, in synchronization of daily and seasonal biorhythms in anti-stress protection and neuroregulation of reproductive processes. The aim of our work was to study melatonin levels in infertile women of reproductive age. We also measured sex hormones, anti-Mullerian hormone, FSH, and LH in blood and melatonin sulfate in urine at 8 points (RIA). Women of advanced reproductive age showed markedly reduced melatonin secretion due to functional disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Results of the study suggest the necessity of prescription of exogenous melatonin to the patients included in assisted reproduction programs for the improvement of their efficacy.

  15. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    To improve awareness of the natural age-related decline in female and male fertility with respect to natural fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and provide recommendations for their management, and to review investigations in the assessment of ovarian aging. This guideline reviews options for the assessment of ovarian reserve and fertility treatments using ART with women of advanced reproductive age presenting with infertility. The outcomes measured are the predictive value of ovarian reserve testing and pregnancy rates with natural and assisted fertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2010, using appropriate key words (ovarian aging, ovarian reserve, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, ART). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline to December 2010. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). Primary and specialist health care providers and women will be better informed about ovarian aging and the age-related decline in natural fertility and about options for assisted reproductive technology. 1. Women in their 20s and 30s should be counselled about the age-related risk of infertility when other reproductive health issues, such as sexual health or contraception, are addressed as part of their primary well-woman care. Reproductive-age women should be aware that natural fertility and assisted reproductive technology success (except with egg donation) is significantly lower for women in their late 30s and 40s. (II-2A) 2. Because of the decline in fertility and the

  16. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Sandwiched Porous Carbon Enabling Superior Sodium Storage Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Xiongwu; Cheng, Xiaolong; Fan, Zhuangjun; Yu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The red P anode for sodium ion batteries has attracted great attention recently due to the high theoretical capacity, but the poor intrinsic electronic conductivity and large volume expansion restrain its widespread applications. Herein, the red P is successfully encapsulated into the cube shaped sandwich-like interconnected porous carbon building (denoted as P@C-GO/MOF-5) via the vaporization-condensation method. Superior cycling stability (high capacity retention of about 93% at 2 A g -1 after 100 cycles) and excellent rate performance (502 mAh g -1 at 10 A g -1 ) can be obtained for the P@C-GO/MOF-5 electrode. The superior electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the successful incorporation of red P into the unique carbon matrix with large surface area and pore volume, interconnected porous structure, excellent electronic conductivity and superior structural stability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, A

    1984-11-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally.

  18. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, A.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally. (orig.) [de

  19. Impact of artificial rearing systems on the developmental and reproductive fitness of the predatory bug, Orius laevigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Maarten; De Clercq, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of several substrate types and moisture sources on the developmental and reproductive fitness of the zoophytophagous predator Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) when fed a factitious prey (i.e. unnatural prey) Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) eggs, or a meridic artificial diet based on hen's egg yolk. O. laevigatus is known to feed on plants as an alternative food source and to oviposit in plants. E. kuehniella eggs were superior to the artificial diet. Supplementary feeding on plant materials did not compensate for the nutritional shortcomings of the artificial diet. Survival rates showed that oviposition substrates such as bean pods or lipophilic surfaces such as wax paper and plastic were more suitable for rearing O. laevigatus than household paper. The use of green bean pods as a plant substrate did not have a beneficial effect on O. laevigatus. The results indicated that O. laevigatus can successfully complete its nymphal development and realize its full reproductive potential in the absence of plant material. However, plant materials would still be required for oviposition, unless a reliable and cost-effective artificial oviposition substrate were made available. The omission of plant materials from the rearing procedures may reduce production cost of this species and other heteropteran predators.

  20. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  1. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  2. Exceptional longevity in female Rottweiler dogs is not encumbered by investment in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Suckow, C L; Chiang, E C; Waters, D J

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the potential trade-off between female reproductive investment and longevity in an emerging model of human healthspan, we studied pet dogs to determine whether intensity of reproduction (total number of offspring) encumbered the likelihood of exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, including complete reproductive histories, for a cohort of canine "centenarians"--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than the breed's average life expectancy. Reproductive intensity (number of litters, total number of pups) and tempo of reproductive effort (age at first reproduction, mean interbirth interval, age at last reproduction) in 78 exceptionally long-lived female Rottweilers (>13 years old) were compared to a cohort of 97 female Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death 8.0-10.75 years). We found no evidence that a mother's physiological investment in offspring was associated with disadvantaged longevity. Instead, similar to some studies in women, our data showed an inverted U-shaped trend, suggesting that moderate investment in reproduction may promote longevity. Late reproductive success, a much-studied surrogate of maternal fitness in women, was not a strong predictor of longevity in this canine cohort. Instead, independent of reproductive investment, the duration of lifetime ovary exposure was significantly associated with highly successful aging. Our results from exceptionally long-lived pet dogs provide rationale for further investigative efforts to understand the ovary-sensitive biological factors that promote healthy longevity in women and pet dogs.

  3. [Neuromolecular mechanism of the superiority illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as above average. This is a cognitive bias called "the superiority illusion". This illusory self-evaluation helps us to have hopes for the future, and has been central to the process of human evolution. Possessing this illusion is also important for mental health, as depressed people appear to have a more realistic perception of themselves, dubbed "depressive realism". Our recent study revealed the spontaneous brain activity and central dopaminergic neurotransmission that generate this illusion, using resting-state fMRI and PET. A functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum, regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission, determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. We further revealed that blocking the dopamine transporter, which enhanced the level of dopamine, increased the degree of the superiority illusion. These findings suggest that dopamine acts on striatal dopamine receptors to suppress fronto-striatal functional connectivity, leading to disinhibited, heuristic, approaches to positive self-evaluation. These findings help us to understand how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and will suggest treatments for depressive symptoms by targeting specific molecules and neural circuits.

  4. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  5. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  6. Bilateral avulsion fractures of the anterior superior iliac spines in sprinters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, M.B.; Kirks, D.R.; Martinez, S.; Apple, J.

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of bilateral pelvic avulsion fractures in adolescent sprinters are reviewed. An acute avulsion fracture of the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) occurred during active running in three teenaged sprinters. Radiography confirmed a healed fracture of the contralateral ASIS. The clinical features and radiologic appearances are characteristic. The pathophysiology of this type of unique pediatric fracture is discussed. Conservative treatment is successful. (orig.)

  7. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  8. Sex differences in emotion recognition: Evidence for a small overall female superiority on facial disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Hannah L; Lefevre, Carmen E; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2018-05-21

    Although it is widely believed that females outperform males in the ability to recognize other people's emotions, this conclusion is not well supported by the extant literature. The current study sought to provide a strong test of the female superiority hypothesis by investigating sex differences in emotion recognition for five basic emotions using stimuli well-calibrated for individual differences assessment, across two expressive domains (face and body), and in a large sample (N = 1,022: Study 1). We also assessed the stability and generalizability of our findings with two independent replication samples (N = 303: Study 2, N = 634: Study 3). In Study 1, we observed that females were superior to males in recognizing facial disgust and sadness. In contrast, males were superior to females in recognizing bodily happiness. The female superiority for recognition of facial disgust was replicated in Studies 2 and 3, and this observation also extended to an independent stimulus set in Study 2. No other sex differences were stable across studies. These findings provide evidence for the presence of sex differences in emotion recognition ability, but show that these differences are modest in magnitude and appear to be limited to facial disgust. We discuss whether this sex difference may reflect human evolutionary imperatives concerning reproductive fitness and child care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Reproductive Medicine in Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotek, Zdenek; Cermakova, Eva; Oliveri, Matteo

    2017-05-01

    Common reproductive problems in captive male lizards are hemipenile plugs in hemipenial sac, unilateral prolapse of hemipenis, or bilateral prolapse of hemipene. Although the orchiectomy is performed as a treatment for testicular disease, the effectiveness in reducing aggressive behavior is unclear. Female captive lizards suffer from cloacal prolapse, preovulatory follicular stasis, or dystocia. The veterinarian must differentiate between the disorders because the treatment differs. Mating, physical, or visual contact with the male stimulates ovulation and prevents preovulatory follicular stasis. Surgical intervention is usually required for dystocia. This article discusses selected procedures and use of ultrasonography and diagnostic endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational reproductive health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, K; Kerr, M J

    1993-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.

  11. Burlington Northern Taconite Transshipment Facility, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Superior Wisconsin. Environmental Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    the Federal Government declared the Duluth- Superior area to be economically depressed . The reason given was the "consistant and chronic unemployment...include dogwood, sumac, arrowwood, blueberry, highbush cranberry , elderberry, wild grape, buttonbrush, snowberry and partridgeberry. Aquatic and...water for the proposed greenbelt areas and as dust sup- pression spray. 10.003 The depressed economy of the Duluth-Superior area would benefit by the

  12. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P.; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. W...

  13. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproduct...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance....

  14. Why do employees follow their superiors' instructions? Identification of the reasons to comply with superiors' will in a group of Polish employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Aleksandra; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Managers influence the way organization works as well as the functioning of subordinates - in the context of their work life but non-professional functioning as well e.g., attitude towards work-life balance or taking care of health. We focused on the superior-subordinate relation, referring to social power bases theory by Raven. We identified the reasons why subordinates decide to follow their superiors' orders and determined specific styles of compliance with superiors' will. Understanding why employees listen to their superiors may be valuable in the context of supporting healthy organizational climate and atmosphere of co-operation or communicating values - for example, as regards taking care of own health. We discussed the results referring to the issue of influencing employees in the context of their health behavior. The research involved 100 Polish employees, aged 28 years old on average, who filled in the Interpersonal Power Inventory by Raven et al. for subordinates in a Polish adaptation by Zaleski. The questionnaire includes 11 subscales referring to power bases. Based on the cluster analysis results, we recognized people who complied because of: all kinds of power bases (typical for 46% of the respondents); the respect for superiors' professionalism (34%); and formal/objective reasons (20%). Employees differ in terms of their styles of compliance. Their motives to comply with superiors' instructions constitute compilations of power bases. The superiors' awareness of the reasons why their employees decide to follow orders is necessary for successful management. It may motivate employees to work but also to take care of their own health. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    that it is possible to avoid poor body condition at weaning even with a lactation length of seven weeks or more. No main effect of backfat at weaning on reproduction performance was found, but the probability of a successful reproduction after weaning tended to decrease with decreasing backfat for first parity sows...

  16. Microscopical advances in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B

    2004-01-01

    In a series of papers carried out by this laboratory it was demonstrated that the quality of sterile males sperm, assessed submicroscopically and mathematically, is closely correlated with the success of the various procedures of assisted reproduction. If we attempt to select hypothetically optimal spermatozoa destined to the ICSI by light inverted microscopy, a considerable amount of ultrastructural information is lost and our selection is merely based on the motility. In this study we apply polarization microscopy to the ICSI technique, introducing polarizing and analyzing lenses in an inverted microscope model, operating in a transparent container. The retardation of the birefringence in the various organelles is evaluated by compensators, and the images are transmitted to a video system, and stored in a computer. Spermatozoa are maintained alive and perfectly motile in this polarizing inverted microscope, and the character of the birefringence is the same as in fixed and sectioned biological material examined by polarization microscopy. The birefringence of the sperm structures allows a sperm analysis closer to TEM than to phase contrast light microscopy analysis.

  17. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  18. Differences in Patterns of Reproductive Allocation between the Sexes in Nicrophorus orbicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee N Smith

    Full Text Available Organisms are selected to maximize lifetime reproductive success by balancing the costs of current reproduction with costs to future survival and fecundity. Males and females typically face different reproductive costs, which makes comparisons of their reproductive strategies difficult. Burying beetles provide a unique system that allows us to compare the costs of reproduction between the sexes because males and females are capable of raising offspring together or alone and carcass preparation and offspring care represent the majority of reproductive costs for both sexes. Because both sexes perform the same functions of carcass preparation and offspring care, we predict that they would experience similar costs and have similar life history patterns. In this study we assess the cost of reproduction in male Nicrophorus orbicollis and compare to patterns observed in females. We compare the reproductive strategies of single males and females that provided pre- and post-hatching parental care. There is a cost to reproduction for both males and females, but the sexes respond to these costs differently. Females match brood size with carcass size, and thus maximize the lifetime number of offspring on a given size carcass. Males cull proportionately more offspring on all carcass sizes, and thus have a lower lifetime number of offspring compared to females. Females exhibit an adaptive reproductive strategy based on resource availability, but male reproductive strategies are not adaptive in relation to resource availability.

  19. Differences in Patterns of Reproductive Allocation between the Sexes in Nicrophorus orbicollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlee N; Creighton, J Curtis; Belk, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Organisms are selected to maximize lifetime reproductive success by balancing the costs of current reproduction with costs to future survival and fecundity. Males and females typically face different reproductive costs, which makes comparisons of their reproductive strategies difficult. Burying beetles provide a unique system that allows us to compare the costs of reproduction between the sexes because males and females are capable of raising offspring together or alone and carcass preparation and offspring care represent the majority of reproductive costs for both sexes. Because both sexes perform the same functions of carcass preparation