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Sample records for superior ice isle

  1. Life history variation among four lake trout morphs at Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Bronte, Charles R.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history traits were compared among four morphs of lake trout at Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Of 738 lake trout caught at Isle Royale, 701 were assigned to a morph (119 humpers, 160 leans, 85 redfins, and 337 siscowets) using a combination of statistical analysis of head and body shape and visual assignment. On average, redfins were longer (544 mm), heavier (1,481 g), heavier at length (Wr = 94), more buoyant, and older (22 years) than siscowets (519 mm; 1,221 g; 90; 19 years), leans (479 mm; 854 g; 82; 13 years), and humpers (443 mm; 697 g; 87; 17 years). On average, leans grew from a younger age at length = 0 and shorter length at age = 0, at a faster early growth rate to a longer asymptotic length than the other three morphs, while redfins grew at a slower instantaneous rate and humpers grew to a shorter asymptotic length than other morphs. On average, leans were longer (562 mm) and older (15 years) at 50% maturity than redfins (427 mm, 12 years), siscowets (401 mm, 11 years), or humpers (394 mm, 13 years). Life history parameters did not differ between males and females within each morph. We conclude that differences in life history attributes of lean, humper, redfin, and siscowet morphs of lake trout are consistent with differential habitat use in waters around Isle Royale, Lake Superior.

  2. Fair Isle

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An analyses of the name Fair Isle. It is argued that the name is likely to be linked to more than 20 other similar names, mostly Færøy in Norway, and that the etymology is from Old Norse fara and ferd, 'travel, journey'. The motive behind the names is the importance of these islands for travel, and Fair Isle between Orkney and Shetland exceptionally so.

  3. Armas y equipos en la marca superior de Al-Andalus. El reducto rural islámico de Solibernat (Lleida y su panoplia militar en la primera mitad del siglo XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira i Port, Jordi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This work present and analyze in full detail the weapons collection and the military equipment of islamic’s garrison detached in first half of the XII century in rural redoubt of Solibernat (Torres de Segre, Lleida, a little multivalent’s emplacement with military and agricultural functions, a control point and relay of post horses situated near the Madina Larida, the modern town of Lleida. The findings in Solibernat show us that a mixed detachment with infantryman and cavalryman guarded this emplacement. This detachment had spears, perhaps javelins, crossbows with their darts, shields and knifes. This way, Solibernat and the near islamic’s redoubt of Zafranales (Fraga, show us an extensive range of military weapons collection correctly dated between 1075/1080 and 1149 in a very delimitated territory of Thaghr al-á’la, the Upper’s March of al-Andalus.



    Este artículo presenta y analiza en detalle la panoplia militar y el equipo metálico de la guarnición islámica que ocupaba a lo largo de la primera mitad del siglo XII el reducto rural de Solibernat (Torres de Segre, Lleida, un pequeño asentamiento polivalente con funciones militares y agropecuarias que formaba parte de los anillos de control y posta existentes alrededor de Madina Larida, la actual ciudad de Lleida. Los hallazgos de Solibernat permiten inferir que el asentamiento se hallaba custodiado por un destacamento mixto compuesto por infantes y jinetes dotados de un armamento constituido, entre otros elementos, por lanzas, quizás jabalinas, ballestas y sus correspondientes dardos, escudos y cuchillos. Así, Solibernat y el cercano reducto islámico de Zafranales en Fraga, nos ofrecen un amplio espectro de panoplia militar bien datada entre 1075/1080 y el año 1149 en un territorio muy delimitado del Thaghr al-á’la, la Marca Superior de al-Andalus.

  4. Possible signals of poleward surface ocean heat transport, of Arctic basal ice melt, and of the twentieth century solar maximum in the 1904-2012 Isle of Man daily timeseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Matthews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two papers on observational timeseries of top of ocean heat capture. The first reports hourly and daily meridional central tropical Pacific top 3 m timeseries showing high Southern Hemisphere evaporation (2.67 m yr−1 and Northern Hemisphere trapped heat (12 MJ m−2 day−1. We suggested that wind drift/geostrophic stratified gyre circulation transported warm water to the Arctic and led to three phases of Arctic basal ice melt and fluxes of brackish nutrient-rich waters to north Atlantic on centennial timescales. Here we examine daily top metre 1904–2012 timeseries at Isle of Man west coast ~54° N for evidence of tropical and polar surface waters. We compare these to Central England (CET daily land-air temperatures and to Arctic floating ice heat content and extent. We find three phases of ocean surface heating consistent with basal icemelt buffering greenhouse gas warming until a regime shift post-1986 led to the modern surface temperature rise of ~1 °C in 20 yr. Three phases were: warming +0.018 °C yr−1 from 1904–1939, slight cooling −0.002 °C yr−11940–86 and strong warming +0.037 °C yr−1 1986–2012. For the same periods CET land-air showed: warming +0.015 °C yr−1, slight cooling −0.004 °C yr−1, about half SST warming at +0.018 °C yr−1. The mid-century cooling and a 1959/1963 hot/cold event is consistent with sunspot/solar radiation maximum 1923–2008 leading to record volumes of Arctic ice meltwater and runoff that peaked in 1962/3 British Isles extreme cold winter. The warming Arctic resulted in wind regime and surface water regime shifts post 1986. This coincides with the onset of rapid Arctic annual ice melt. Continued heat imbalance is likely to lead to tidewater glacier basal icemelt and future sealevel rise after remaining relatively stable over 4000 yr. Our work needs confirmation by further fieldwork concentrating on the dynamics and thermodynamics of ocean top 3 m that controls

  5. Bedrock, soil, and lichen geochemistry from Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Dicken, Connie L.; Bennett, James P.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.

    2003-01-01

    Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, is a large island in northeastern Lake Superior that became a national park in 1940 and was designated as a wilderness area in 1976. The relative isolation of Isle Royale (Figure 1), 25 kilometers out in Lake Superior from the Canadian mainland, its generally harsh climate, and its status as a wilderness national park have minimized human influence on the geochemical evolution of its landscape.

  6. Robust Slippery Coating with Superior Corrosion Resistance and Anti-Icing Performance for AZ31B Mg Alloy Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialei; Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

    2017-03-29

    Biomimetic slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs) are developed as a potential alternative to superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) to resolve the issues of poor durability in corrosion protection and susceptibility to frosting. Herein, we fabricated a double-layered SLIPS coating on the AZ31 Mg alloy for corrosion protection and anti-icing application. The porous top layer was infused by lubricant, and the compact underlayer was utilized as a corrosion barrier. The water-repellent SLIPS coating exhibits a small sliding angle and durable corrosion resistance compared with the SHS coating. Moreover, the SLIPS coating delivers durable anti-icing performance for the Mg alloy substrate, which is obviously superior to the SHS coating. Multiple barriers in the SLIPS coating, including the infused water-repellent lubricant, the self-assembled monolayers coated porous top layer, and the compact layered double hydroxide-carbonate composite underlayer, are suggested as being responsible for the enhanced corrosion resistance and anti-icing performance. The robust double-layered SLIPS coating should be of great importance to expanding the potential applications of light metals and their alloys.

  7. Lake Superior summer water temperatures are increasing more rapidly than regional air temperatures: A positive ice-albedo feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jay A.; Colman, Steven M.

    2007-03-01

    Lake Superior summer (July-September) surface water temperatures have increased approximately 2.5°C over the interval 1979-2006, equivalent to a rate of (11 +/- 6) × 10-2°C yr-1, significantly in excess of regional atmospheric warming. This discrepancy is caused by declining winter ice cover, which is causing the onset of the positively stratified season to occur earlier at a rate of roughly a half day per year. An earlier start of the stratified season significantly increases the period over which the lake warms during the summer months, leading to a stronger trend in mean summer temperatures than would be expected from changes in summer air temperature alone.

  8. Isle of Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Isle of Jersey (officially called the Bailiwick of Jersey) is the largest Channel Island, positioned in the Bay of Mont St Michel off the north-west coast of France. The island has a population of about 90,000, and covers about 90 square kilometers. The economy is based largely on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. Called Caesaria in Roman times, Jersey became part of the Duchy of Normandy in 912. When William the Conqueror invaded and took the throne of England in 1066, the fortunes of Jersey then became linked to those in England, although the island manages its internal affairs through its own parliament, the States of Jersey. This image was acquired on September 23, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the

  9. Isle of Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Isle of Jersey (officially called the Bailiwick of Jersey) is the largest Channel Island, positioned in the Bay of Mont St Michel off the north-west coast of France. The island has a population of about 90,000, and covers about 90 square kilometers. The economy is based largely on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. Called Caesaria in Roman times, Jersey became part of the Duchy of Normandy in 912. When William the Conqueror invaded and took the throne of England in 1066, the fortunes of Jersey then became linked to those in England, although the island manages its internal affairs through its own parliament, the States of Jersey. This image was acquired on September 23, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the

  10. The geologic story of Isle Royale National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, N. King

    1975-01-01

    Isle Royale is an outstanding example of relatively undisturbed northwoods lake wilderness. But more than simple preservation of such an environment is involved in its inclusion in our National Park System. Its isolation from the mainland provides an almost untouched laboratory for research in the natural sciences, especially those studies whose very nature depends upon such isolation. One excellent example of such research is the intensive study of the predator-prey relationship of the timber wolf and moose, long sponsored by the National Park Service and Purdue University. In probably no other place in North America are the necessary ecological conditions for such a study so admirably fulfilled as on Isle Royale. The development of a natural laboratory with such conditions is ultimately dependent upon geologic processes and events that although not unique in themselves, produced in their interplay a unique result, the island archipelago as we know it today, with its hills and valleys, swamps and bogs the ecological framework of the plant and animal world. Even the most casual visitor can hardly fail to be struck by the fiordlike nature of many of the bays, the chains of fringing islands, the ridge-and-valley topography, and the linear nature of all these features. The distinctive topography of the archipelago is, of course, only the latest manifestation of geologic processes in operation since time immemorial. Fragments of geologic history going back over a billion years can be read from the rocks of the island, and with additional data from other parts of the Lake Superior region, we can fill in some of the story of Isle Royale. After more than a hundred years of study by man, the story is still incomplete. But then, geologic stories are seldom complete, and what we do know allows a deeper appreciation of one of our most naturally preserved parks and whets our curiosity about the missing fragments.

  11. Analysis list: Isl1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Isl1 Cardiovascular,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Isl1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Isl1.5.tsv http://dbarch...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Isl1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Isl1....Cardiovascular.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Isl1.Plu

  12. Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie, Pennsylvania. Volume I. Main Report. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    reflect plant asso- ciations and on Presque Isle the birds , mammals , reptiles , and other animals * find niches in a diverse matrix of habitats, each...published surveys of the mammals of Presque Isle. Most of the * mammals and reptiles are year-round residents, whereas many of the bird ape- cies are...Isle Peninsula beach erosion control project. Planning objectives are the national, State, and local water and related land resource management needs

  13. 'Manxness': The Uses of Heritage on the Isle of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Catte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the Isle of Man, a self-governing crown dependency located in the center of the British Isles, uses heritage to create social stability among a diverse and rapidly changing population. The result of this process has been a powerful model of heritage branding through which all definitions of national identity must flow. After tracing the development of ‘Manx’ national identity from the Victorian era to the present, this article explores the benefits and limitations of the Isle of Man’s political uses of its history and shares insight from the practice of public history on the Isle of Man.

  14. Preliminary clinical results with the ISL laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Thomas; Gloor, Balder

    1992-08-01

    The ISL laser (Intelligent Surgical Lasers, Inc.), a Nd:YLF picosecond pulse laser, is currently being used under investigational device exemption to perform microsurgery of the anterior segment of the eye. At different study sites procedures for cataract fragmentation and iridotomy, as well as for posterior capsulotomy after cataract surgery, are under evaluation. Other potential applications include: sclerostomy ab interno, the cutting of membranes in the anterior and posterior segment of the eye; corneal incisions; and corneal intrastromal effects. We discuss various clinically relevant aspects of the use of this picosecond laser. An overview of different computer controlled laser patterns is given.

  15. El reformismo islámico

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas González, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Como reacción al colonialismo europeo del siglo XIX surgió en las sociedades musulmanas un movimiento de lucha contra el imperialismo y de reforma de la religiosidad para superar la vulnerabilidad frente a Occidente. Es el conocido como reformismo islámico, que ha ejercido una influencia decisiva en la vida social y política de los países musulmanes desde su nacimiento hasta la actualidad, y que ha dado lugar a interpretaciones y organizaciones de muy diversa orientación. [EN]...

  16. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  17. Social and economic effects of spatial distribution in island communities: Comparing the Isles of Scilly and Isle of Wight, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehøj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing awareness that communities based on islands are subject to particular island-related factors (the so-called ‘island effect’. This paper sheds empirical light on how the island effect differs in different kinds of island communities, specifically solitary islands on the one hand and archipelagos on the other. It does so by comparing two subnational island jurisdictions (SNIJs in England: the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. By analysing census statistics, we show how the spatial distribution in the Isles of Scilly (an archipelago and the Isle of Wight (a solitary island is interrelated with patterns of population and employment. Although the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight are both tourism economies, the data indicates that, in social and economic terms, the Isles of Scilly benefits while the Isle of Wight suffers as a result of their different patterns of spatial distribution. We conclude that an island community’s spatial distribution has a significant influence on its societal development and that the island effect differs among islands with different patterns of spatial distribution.

  18. ISL1在肿瘤发生中的作用%The Functions of ISL1 in Tumorigenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卓伦; 赵珺; 王卫平

    2013-01-01

    ISL1 (insulin gene enhancer binding protein 1 ) is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor. It is known to play important roles in the development and maturation of multiple organs, including heart, pancreas and nerve system. The Isl1 knockout mice have shown multi-defects of cardiac development, absence of 4 types of pancreatic endocrine cells, and abnormal differentiation and migration of motor neurons. ISL1 is able to promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis in the heart, nerves and pancreas islets. Recently, the abnormal overexpression of ISL1 was found in various tumors, indicating that the pathologic function of ISL1 and the underlining mechanism in tumorigenesis is worthwhile to be investigated.%胰岛因子1(Islet1,ISL1),又称胰岛素增强子结合蛋白1,以多效转录因子的身份在多种组织器官的发育及成熟中发挥作用.ISL1在心、胰腺、神经系统等组织器官的胚胎发育过程中发挥重要作用.Isl1基因敲除可导致小鼠心发育不全,4种胰岛内分泌细胞缺失,以及运动神经元分化、迁移障碍等.ISL1具有促进增殖、抑制凋亡的重要功能.近年的研究表明,ISL1在多种肿瘤发生中存在异常高表达.然而,其在肿瘤发生中的具体作用与机制尚未被阐明,有待进一步探索.

  19. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  20. VT Developed Lands in Grand Isle County - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  1. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  2. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  3. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  4. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  5. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  6. Population Limitation and the Wolves of Isle Royale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rolf O. Peterson; Nancy J. Thomas; Joanne M. Thurber; John A. Vucetich; Thomas A. Waite

    1998-01-01

    Population regulation for gray wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, was examined in 1987-1995 when wolves were in chronic decline following a crash of the population in 1981-1982. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2...

  7. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  8. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  9. A positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiao, E-mail: zhangqiao200824@126.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Yang, Zhe, E-mail: zheyang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Wang, Weiping, E-mail: wwp@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Guo, Ting, E-mail: luckyguoting@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Gastrointestinal Translation Research, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital, 52 Fucheng Road, 100142 Beijing (China); Jia, Zhuqing, E-mail: zhuqingjia@126.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Ma, Kangtao, E-mail: makangtao11@126.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Zhou, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyanzhou@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • ISL-1 is highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL. • ISL-1 accelerates the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. • c-Myc positively regulates ISL-1 expression in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells. • ISL-1 and c-Myc forms an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex only in DLBCL. • Positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 does not exist in normal pancreatic β-cell. - Abstract: Insulin enhancer binding protein-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, has been reported to play essential roles in promoting adult pancreatic β-cells proliferation. Recent studies indicate that ISL-1 may also involve in the occurrence of a variety of tumors. However, whether ISL-1 has any functional effect on tumorigenesis, and what are the differences on ISL-1 function in distinct conditions, are completely unknown. In this study, we found that ISL-1 was highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells, as well as in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but to a much less extent in other normal tissues or tumor specimens. Further study revealed that ISL-1 promoted the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL cells, and also accelerated the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. We also found that ISL-1 could activate c-Myc transcription not only in pancreatic β-cells but also in DLBCL cells. However, a cell-specific feedback regulation was detectable only in DLBCL cells. This auto-regulatory loop was established by the interaction of ISL-1 and c-Myc to form an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex, and synergistically to promote ISL-1 transcription through binding on the ISL-1 promoter. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells, which might result in the functional diversities of ISL-1 in different physiological and pathological processes.

  10. 4th Isle of Thorns Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschfeld, J; Jungnickel, D; Thas, J

    2001-01-01

    When? These are the proceedings of Finite Geometries, the Fourth Isle of Thorns Conference, which took place from Sunday 16 to Friday 21 July, 2000. It was organised by the editors of this volume. The Third Conference in 1990 was published as Advances in Finite Geometries and Designs by Oxford University Press and the Second Conference in 1980 was published as Finite Geometries and Designs by Cambridge University Press. The main speakers were A. R. Calderbank, P. J. Cameron, C. E. Praeger, B. Schmidt, H. Van Maldeghem. There were 64 participants and 42 contributions, all listed at the end of the volume. Conference web site http://www. maths. susx. ac. uk/Staff/JWPH/ Why? This collection of 21 articles describes the latest research and current state of the art in the following inter-linked areas: • combinatorial structures in finite projective and affine spaces, also known as Galois geometries, in which combinatorial objects such as blocking sets, spreads and partial spreads, ovoids, arcs and caps, as well a...

  11. Wolves, moose, and tree rings on isle royale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, B E; Peterson, R O

    1994-12-01

    Investigation of tree growth in Isle Royale National Park in Michigan revealed the influence of herbivores and carnivores on plants in an intimately linked food chain. Plant growth rates were regulated by cycles in animal density and responded to annual changes in primary productivity only when released from herbivory by wolf predation. Isle Royale's dendrochronology complements a rich literature on food chain control in aquatic systems, which often supports a trophic cascade model. This study provides evidence of top-down control in a forested ecosystem.

  12. STUDY ON BALE BALE IN LAE LAE ISLE, MAKASSAR, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the types and characteristics of Bale bale, and to identify Bale bale as a common space in a high-density environment on Lae Lae isle, Makassar-Indonesia. With the aid of 62 questionnaires, a field survey of 225 Bale bale was undertaken in November 2009 and September 2010. The following are the main findings of this study: (1) The owner can put their Bale bales anywhere on Lae Lae isle and they can move their Bale bales from one place to another, including neighbors...

  13. 75 FR 36292 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... of Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, near Erie, Pennsylvania between 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. on June 26, 2010.... The safety zone will encompass specified waters of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania starting at... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA...

  14. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Isl1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.Isl1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Isl1 All cell types SRX092471,SRX146883,...SRX146882,SRX1030299 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.Isl1.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.PSC.50.Isl1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.50.Isl1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Isl1 Pluripotent stem cell SRX092471,SRX...146883,SRX146882 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.PSC.50.Isl1.AllCell.bed ...

  16. Transcription factor ISL1 is essential for pacemaker development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xingqun; Zhang, Qingquan; Cattaneo, Paola; Zhuang, Shaowei; Gong, Xiaohui; Spann, Nathanael J; Jiang, Cizhong; Cao, Xinkai; Zhao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoli; Bu, Lei; Wang, Gang; Chen, H S Vincent; Zhuang, Tao; Yan, Jie; Geng, Peng; Luo, Lina; Banerjee, Indroneal; Chen, Yihan; Glass, Christopher K; Zambon, Alexander C; Chen, Ju; Sun, Yunfu; Evans, Sylvia M

    2015-08-01

    The sinoatrial node (SAN) maintains a rhythmic heartbeat; therefore, a better understanding of factors that drive SAN development and function is crucial to generation of potential therapies, such as biological pacemakers, for sinus arrhythmias. Here, we determined that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor ISL1 plays a key role in survival, proliferation, and function of pacemaker cells throughout development. Analysis of several Isl1 mutant mouse lines, including animals harboring an SAN-specific Isl1 deletion, revealed that ISL1 within SAN is a requirement for early embryonic viability. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of FACS-purified cells from ISL1-deficient SANs revealed that a number of genes critical for SAN function, including those encoding transcription factors and ion channels, were downstream of ISL1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays performed with anti-ISL1 antibodies and chromatin extracts from FACS-purified SAN cells demonstrated that ISL1 directly binds genomic regions within several genes required for normal pacemaker function, including subunits of the L-type calcium channel, Ank2, and Tbx3. Other genes implicated in abnormal heart rhythm in humans were also direct ISL1 targets. Together, our results demonstrate that ISL1 regulates approximately one-third of SAN-specific genes, indicate that a combination of ISL1 and other SAN transcription factors could be utilized to generate pacemaker cells, and suggest ISL1 mutations may underlie sick sinus syndrome.

  17. El fundamentalismo islámico: el caso de Chechenia

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Jorge Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Hablar de Fundamentalismo Islámico se ha convertido en un lugar común en muchos análisis de Seguridad Internacional, sobre todo relacionándolo con el terrorismo internacional y las llamadas nuevas amenazas a la seguridad.

  18. Sobre algunas llaves «islámicas»

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Estudio de las cinco llaves islámicas conservadas en el Museo de Segovia, algunas con leyendas en árabe, y de otras varias de la misma tipología y cronología conservadas en otros museos y colecciones. Se aportan nuevas lecturas de sus inscripciones

  19. Late Pleistocene Stratigraphy and Palaeobotany of the Isles of Scilly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourse, J. D.

    1991-12-01

    surface, weathered granite once again became the dominant raw material for solifluction, this subsequent phase being represented by the Bread and Cheese Breccia in the northern Scillies and the upper Porthloo Breccia in the southern Scillies. The evidence therefore suggests that ice advanced at least as far as the northern Isles of Scilly during the Dimlington Stadial of the late Devensian Substage. This conflicts with previous interpretations which place the glacial deposits within the Wolstonian Stage. However, the late Devensian event was probably not the first glacial event to have influenced the Islands because erratics are widespread in some exposures of the Watermill Sands and Gravel; the age of this earlier event remains uncertain.

  20. Elementos para una historia del cine en el mundo islámicolementos para una historia del cine en el mundo islámico

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Elena, A. (1995). Elementos para una historia del cine en el mundo islámicolementos para una historia del cine en el mundo islámico. Nosferatu. Revista de cine. (19):16-63. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/40937. 16 63 19

  1. Population limitation and the wolves of Isle Royale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R.O.; Thomas, N.J.; Thurber, J.M.; Vucetich, J.A.; Waite, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Population regulation for gray wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, was ex- amined in 1987-1995 when wolves were in chronic decline following a crash of the pop- ulation in 1981-1982. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) was probably influential during the crash, but it disappeared by the lae 1980s. High mortality abruptly ceased after 1988, but low recruitment in the absence of disease and obvious shortage of food prevented recovery of the wolf population. In 1983-1995, with a comparable number of moose '10 years old as potential prey, wolves were only half as numerous as in 1959-1980. A simulation of annual fluctuations in effective population size (Ne) for wolves on Isle Royale suggests that their genetic heterozygosity has declined ca. 13% with each generation and ca. 80% in the 50- year history of this population. Inbreeding depression and stochastic demographic variation both remain possible explanations for recent low recruitment.

  2. ISLES: Probing Extra Dimensions Using a Superconducting Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Ho Jung; Moody, M. Vol; Prieto-Gortcheva, Violeta A.

    2003-01-01

    In string theories, extra dimensions must be compactified. The possibility that gravity can have large radii of compactification leads to a violation of the inverse square law at submillimeter distances. The objective of ISLES is to perform a null test of Newton s law in space with a resolution of one part in 10(exp 5) or better at 100 microns. The experiment will be cooled to less than or equal to 2 K, which permits superconducting magnetic levitation of the test masses. To minimize Newtonian errors, ISLES employs a near null source, a circular disk of large diameter-to-thickness ratio. Two test masses, also disk-shaped, are suspended on the two sides of the source mass at a nominal distance of 100 microns. The signal is detected by a superconducting differential accelerometer. A ground test apparatus is under construction.

  3. Un comunitarismo radical: el fundamentalismo islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Abellán, Eduardo

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El Fundamentalismo islámico se presenta en nuestros días como una amenaza al mundo Occidental que, en cierta medida, viene a sustituir el enfrentamiento bipolar típico del mundo durante la «Guerra Fría». Junto a factores ideológicos, sociales y económicos que explican la reacción de sectores cada vez más numerosos del mundo islámico ante el fracaso de las ideologías modernizadoras, también encontramos aspectos míticos que tratan de mantener la cohesión social frente a la amenaza exterior en el mundo occidental.

  4. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin L; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles.

  5. The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 2. Surface waters and groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Darling

    2003-01-01

    some ‰ for δ18O and 30‰ for δ2H. Over lowland areas the 'altitude effect' is of little significance, but in upland areas is consistent with a range of –0.2 to –0.3‰ per 100 m increase in altitude. Groundwaters dating from the late Pleistocene are usually modified in δ18O and δ2H owing to the effects of climate change on the isotopic composition of rainfall and thus of recharge. Contour maps of isotopic variability prior to 10 ka BP, based on the relatively limited information available from the British Isles, allow a first comparison between groundwaters now and at the end of the last Ice Age. The position of the British Isles in the context of the stable isotope systematics of NW Europe is reviewed briefly. Keywords: Stable isotopes, surfacewaters, groundwater, British Isles

  6. La ciudad islámica: sus referencias culturales

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhli Mtiri, AbdelKader

    2006-01-01

    La ciudad islámica o llamada la-medina, siempre ha sido criticada por su forma de ser al compararla con la ciudad romana o griega. Pero este espacio urbano es el resultado de una civilización conocida en el tiempo y en el espacio. Tiene sus propias referencias culturales como filosóficas. Su estructura urbana ha sido compatible con las creencias y las perspectivas sociológicas, económicas y políticas de la sociedad musulmana. Es una imagen de marca. [ABSTRACT]The Islamic city, or what is ca...

  7. BRAMA, a Broad Range Atomic Mass Analyzer for the ISL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    An alternative to conventional on-line isotope separators for use in radioactive beam facilities is described. It consists of an analyzer with a static magnetic field that is capable of separating a wide mixture of (radioactive) ions into mass bins ranging from 6 to 240 u. If incorporated into the ISL, BRAMA would make several low-energy radioactive beams available for experiments simultaneously, in addition to the beam that is being delivered to the post-accelerator. A preliminary ion-optical geometry is discussed.

  8. Levantamiento murallas islámicas de Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    GASCÓ ESTELLÉS, ÁNGEL; ESPARZA CLIMENT, GUILLERMO JOSÉ; BEGUER BLASCO, NURIA; COLLADO VALIENTE, PATRICIA

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este TFG es el análisis de las murallas islámicas de Valencia, para llegar a una aproximación histórica y constructiva de su momento de máximo esplendor y documentar su declive. Los objetivos específicos son: el conocimiento histórico de la ciudad de Valencia para emplazar los restos encontrados de la muralla y entender la importancia de las murallas a lo largo de su historia; el análisis del estado actual de los lienzos; el estudio y análisis de los materiales y sist...

  9. 77 FR 35903 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald... Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone would temporarily restrict vessel movement. The safety zone... 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle,...

  10. 77 FR 64906 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald... Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone extension will temporarily restrict...

  11. 33 CFR 110.179 - Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga. 110.179 Section 110.179 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.179 Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga. (a)...

  12. Isl2b regulates anterior second heart field development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Hagen R; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Gao, Rui; Stainier, Didier Y R; Dobreva, Gergana D

    2017-01-20

    After initial formation, the heart tube grows by addition of second heart field progenitor cells to its poles. The transcription factor Isl1 is expressed in the entire second heart field in mouse, and Isl1-deficient mouse embryos show defects in arterial and venous pole development. The expression of Isl1 is conserved in zebrafish cardiac progenitors; however, Isl1 is required for cardiomyocyte differentiation only at the venous pole. Here we show that Isl1 homologues are expressed in specific patterns in the developing zebrafish heart and play distinct roles during cardiac morphogenesis. In zebrafish, isl2a mutants show defects in cardiac looping, whereas isl2b is required for arterial pole development. Moreover, Isl2b controls the expression of key cardiac transcription factors including mef2ca, mef2cb, hand2 and tbx20. The specific roles of individual Islet family members in the development of distinct regions of the zebrafish heart renders this system particularly well-suited for dissecting Islet-dependent gene regulatory networks controlling the behavior and function of second heart field progenitors in distinct steps of cardiac development.

  13. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... portion of Presque Isle bay during the Bay Swim VI swimming event. This temporary safety zone is...

  14. El Estado Islámico: Catalizador del irredentismo kurdo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernesto Garzón García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Con su aparición, el Estado Islámico se consolida como una amenaza de carácter internacional y se convierte en el elemento pivote de la reestructuración de las relaciones internacionales, la configuración de nuevas alianzas y ciertamente en el impulsor de escenarios anteriormente poco presumibles con relación al Medio Oriente, entre ellos se establece como uno de los componentes catalizadores del irredentismo kurdo y su proyecto estatal e independentista. La reaparición de los kurdos en la esfera internacional potenciada por el estado Islámico, al ser en un principio el único grupo con capacidad de enfrentarlos, genera tensiones en la región pues la consolidación del Kurdistán alteraría la estructura territorial de cuatro Estados particularmente y sus relaciones políticas y comerciales, impactando directamente en la relativa estabilidad que ha imperado en el siglo XXI.

  15. The LIM Protein Ajuba Restricts the Second Heart Field Progenitor Pool by Regulating Isl1 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Hagen R.; Jungblut, Benno; Choe, Chong Pyo; Crump, J. Gage; Braun, Thomas; Dobreva, Gergana

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Morphogenesis of the heart requires tight control of cardiac progenitor cell specification, expansion, and differentiation. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling restricts expansion of the second heart field (SHF), serving as an important morphogen in heart development. Here, we identify the LIM domain protein Ajuba as a crucial regulator of the SHF progenitor cell specification and expansion. Ajuba-deficient zebra-fish embryos show an increased pool of Isl1+ cardiac progenitors and, subsequently, dramatically increased numbers of cardiomyocytes at the arterial and venous poles. Furthermore, we show that Ajuba binds Isl1, represses its transcriptional activity, and is also required for autorepression of Isl1 expression in an RA-dependent manner. Lack of Ajuba abrogates the RA-dependent restriction of Isl1+ cardiac cells. We conclude that Ajuba plays a central role in regulating the SHF during heart development by linking RA signaling to the function of Isl1, a key transcription factor in cardiac progenitor cells. PMID:22771034

  16. The LIM protein Ajuba restricts the second heart field progenitor pool by regulating Isl1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Hagen R; Jungblut, Benno; Choe, Chong Pyo; Crump, J Gage; Braun, Thomas; Dobreva, Gergana

    2012-07-17

    Morphogenesis of the heart requires tight control of cardiac progenitor cell specification, expansion, and differentiation. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling restricts expansion of the second heart field (SHF), serving as an important morphogen in heart development. Here, we identify the LIM domain protein Ajuba as a crucial regulator of the SHF progenitor cell specification and expansion. Ajuba-deficient zebrafish embryos show an increased pool of Isl1(+) cardiac progenitors and, subsequently, dramatically increased numbers of cardiomyocytes at the arterial and venous poles. Furthermore, we show that Ajuba binds Isl1, represses its transcriptional activity, and is also required for autorepression of Isl1 expression in an RA-dependent manner. Lack of Ajuba abrogates the RA-dependent restriction of Isl1(+) cardiac cells. We conclude that Ajuba plays a central role in regulating the SHF during heart development by linking RA signaling to the function of Isl1, a key transcription factor in cardiac progenitor cells.

  17. 78 FR 54574 - Safety Zone; Tall Ships Erie 2013 Fireworks Show, Holland Street Pier, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ..., Holland Street Pier, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... of Holland Street Pier, Presque Isle Bay in Erie, PA. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined... all waters off Holland Street Pier, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA within a 420-foot radius of position...

  18. Common variation in ISL1 confers genetic susceptibility for human congenital heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N Stevens

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease (CHD is the most common birth abnormality and the etiology is unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. ISLET1 (ISL1 is a transcription factor that marks cardiac progenitor cells and generates diverse multipotent cardiovascular cell lineages. The fundamental role of ISL1 in cardiac morphogenesis makes this an exceptional candidate gene to consider as a cause of complex congenital heart disease. We evaluated whether genetic variation in ISL1 fits the common variant-common disease hypothesis. A 2-stage case-control study examined 27 polymorphisms mapping to the ISL1 locus in 300 patients with complex congenital heart disease and 2,201 healthy pediatric controls. Eight genic and flanking ISL1 SNPs were significantly associated with complex congenital heart disease. A replication study analyzed these candidate SNPs in 1,044 new cases and 3,934 independent controls and confirmed that genetic variation in ISL1 is associated with risk of non-syndromic congenital heart disease. Our results demonstrate that two different ISL1 haplotypes contribute to risk of CHD in white and black/African American populations.

  19. Do future commercial broadband communication satellites really need laser-communication intersatellite links (ISLs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidell, James E.

    1997-04-01

    Large commercial satellite programs requiring ISLs are growing in number and maturing. An important segment of the commercial satellite market, and its ISL needs, is discussed in the paper. ISL value will increase as long-haul terrestrial backbones become increasingly congested. Providing interregional and intercontinental connectivity via ISL presents far lower cost and fewer problems than relying on terrestrial fiber-optic networks. To demonstrate this, a new metric is proposed which allows 'apples-to- apples' cost/performance comparisons between laser communications in GEO, LEO, and terrestrial fiber-optics. ISL requirements in to the next decade are predicted >= 50-100 Gb/s full duplex. Many attitudinal changes must be embraced among those who choose to focus on this new commercial business. Foremost among these is a preponderance to delivering fully acceptable hardware fast and at low cost, as opposed to merely designing such. Considerable attention must be given business considerations foreign to professionals who have spent time in the government or government contracting sectors. Successful ISL customers will come to recognize that ISLs are not commodity products. Failure to embrace these attitudes will nonetheless constitute decision to which the commercial market, and particularly the financial market, will appropriately respond.

  20. Detonation Product EOS Studies: Using ISLS to Refine Cheetah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, J. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.; Hansen, D. W.

    2002-07-01

    Knowledge of an effective interatomic potential function underlies any effort to predict or rationalize the properties of solids and liquids. The experiments we undertake are directed towards determination of equilibrium and dynamic properties of simple fluids at densities sufficiently high that traditional computational methods and semi-empirical forms successful at ambient conditions may require reconsideration. In this paper we present high-pressure and temperature experimental sound speed data on a simple fluid, methanol. Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering (ISLS) conducted on diamond-anvil cell (DAC) encapsulated samples offers an experimental approach to determine cross-pair potential interactions through equation of state determinations. In addition the kinetics of structural relaxation in fluids can be studied. We compare our experimental results with our thermochemical computational model Cheetah. Experimentally grounded computational models provide a good basis to confidently understand the chemical nature of reactions at extreme conditions.

  1. Jung, mandala e arquitetura Islâmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Raffaelli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a refletir sobre as origens do conceito junguiano de mandala. Utiliza-se o relato autobiográfico de Jung, Memórias, Sonhos e Reflexões, e sua obra Psicologia e Alquimia para traçar essa origem. Segundo Barbara Hannah, biógrafa de Jung, uma mesquita no Cairo (Egito foi de importância capital para a formulação desse conceito. Provavelmente esse templo é a Mesquita Ahmad Ibn Tulun. É analisada a relação entre a simbologia arquitetônica islâmica inspirada pelo sufismo e as concepções psicológicas de Jung.

  2. Libraries - LIBRARIES_ISL_IN: Libraries in Indiana (Indiana State Library, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LIBRARIES_ISL_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 528 libraries included in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets that are downloadable from the Web page named...

  3. Clinical and epidemiological profile of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, Isle of Youth, 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gómez, Heenry Luis Dávila; Martínez, Mario Luis Peña; Rodríguez, Zaskia Matos

    2011-01-01

    .... Diabetes accounts for some 90% of endocrine complications in pregnancy. Determine diabetes mellitus prevalence in pregnancy and characterize the population of diabetic women who gave birth in the Isle of Youth Special Municipality in 2008...

  4. AN INVENTORY OF THE SMALL MAMMALS OF PRESQUE ISLE STATE PARK ERIE COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HARRY N. CUNNINGHAM

    1995-01-01

    In May-June and September-October 1993, I conducted a live trapping census of small mammals on Presque Isle State Park, Erie County, Pennsylvania which yielded 98 specimens in 1,745 trap nights. The species were...

  5. THE CLADOCERAN SPECIES OF INSHORE HABITATS OF LAKE ERIE AT PRESQUE ISLE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JOHN M. CAMPBELL

    1993-01-01

    On 10 dates from October 1985 through July 1992, Lake Erie's littoral cladoceran community was sampled by a variety of methods at 34 different inshore sites at Presque Isle. Sampling sites (0.3-9 m deep...

  6. Nekton usage in a Caminda Bay Saltmarsh at Grand Isle LA July and October 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During July and October 1988, a total of 42 samples were collected in salt marsh habitats of the Caminada Bay system near Grand Isle, Louisiana to evaluate the use...

  7. Algunos aspectos de la ciudad islámica: un recorrido urbano desde Oriente a Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Orihuela, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Se presentan aspectos generales del urbanismo islámico y se describen algunas de las teorías recientes que explican la evolución de la ciudad medieval en el occidente islámico. A continuación se señalan algunas reminiscencias del derecho malikí en las antiguas Ordenanzas municipales de Toledo y de Granada (1552).

  8. Body concentration of caesium-137 in patients from Western Isles of Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Isles, C G; Robertson, I.; MacLeod, J A; Preston, T; East, B W; Hole, D J; Lever, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare caesium-137 concentrations in patients from the Western Isles Health Board, Glasgow area, and other parts of the Scottish mainland, and to investigate the source of 137Cs in patients from the Western Isles. DESIGN--Study of hypertensive patients having electrolyte concentrations measured, including 137Cs. Interview by questionnaire of island subjects about intake of foods likely to contain radiocaesium and the source of these foods. Measurement of 137Cs and 134Cs in foo...

  9. Algunos aspectos de la ciudad islámica: un recorrido urbano desde Oriente a Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Orihuela, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Se presentan aspectos generales del urbanismo islámico y se describen algunas de las teorías recientes que explican la evolución de la ciudad medieval en el occidente islámico. A continuación se señalan algunas reminiscencias del derecho malikí en las antiguas Ordenanzas municipales de Toledo y de Granada (1552).

  10. Isl1 is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead transcription factors in second heart field-derived mesoderm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jione; Nathan, Elisha; Xu, Shan-Mei; Tzahor, Eldad; Black, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    The cells of the second heart field (SHF) contribute to the outflow tract and right ventricle, as well as to parts of the left ventricle and atria. Isl1, a member of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor family, is expressed early in this cardiac progenitor population and functions near the top of a transcriptional pathway essential for heart development. Isl1 is required for the survival and migration of SHF-derived cells into the early developing heart at the inflow and outflow poles. Despite this important role for Isl1 in early heart formation, the transcriptional regulation of Isl1 has remained largely undefined. Therefore, to identify transcription factors that regulate Isl1 expression in vivo, we screened the conserved noncoding sequences from the mouse Isl1 locus for enhancer activity in transgenic mouse embryos. Here, we report the identification of an enhancer from the mouse Isl1 gene that is sufficient to direct expression to the SHF and its derivatives. The Isl1 SHF enhancer contains three consensus Forkhead transcription factor binding sites that are efficiently and specifically bound by Forkhead transcription factors. Importantly, the activity of the enhancer is dependent on these three Forkhead binding sites in transgenic mouse embryos. Thus, these studies demonstrate that Isl1 is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead transcription factors in the SHF and establish a transcriptional pathway upstream of Isl1 in the SHF. PMID:19580802

  11. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...... as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events would add to our knowledge of the climatic system and – hopefully – enable better forecasts. Likewise, to forecast possible future sea level rise it is crucial to correctly model the large ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. This project is divided into two parts...

  12. Functional Diversification of Motor Neuron-specific Isl1 Enhancers during Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhee Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional diversification of motor neurons has occurred in order to selectively control the movements of different body parts including head, trunk and limbs. Here we report that transcription of Isl1, a major gene necessary for motor neuron identity, is controlled by two enhancers, CREST1 (E1 and CREST2 (E2 that allow selective gene expression of Isl1 in motor neurons. Introduction of GFP reporters into the chick neural tube revealed that E1 is active in hindbrain motor neurons and spinal cord motor neurons, whereas E2 is active in the lateral motor column (LMC of the spinal cord, which controls the limb muscles. Genome-wide ChIP-Seq analysis combined with reporter assays showed that Phox2 and the Isl1-Lhx3 complex bind to E1 and drive hindbrain and spinal cord-specific expression of Isl1, respectively. Interestingly, Lhx3 alone was sufficient to activate E1, and this may contribute to the initiation of Isl1 expression when progenitors have just developed into motor neurons. E2 was induced by onecut 1 (OC-1 factor that permits Isl1 expression in LMCm neurons. Interestingly, the core region of E1 has been conserved in evolution, even in the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate with primitive motor neurons. All E1 sequences from lamprey to mouse responded equally well to Phox2a and the Isl1-Lhx3 complex. Conversely, E2, the enhancer for limb-innervating motor neurons, was only found in tetrapod animals. This suggests that evolutionarily-conserved enhancers permit the diversification of motor neurons.

  13. ISL1 directly regulates FGF10 transcription during human cardiac outflow formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Golzio

    Full Text Available The LIM homeodomain gene Islet-1 (ISL1 encodes a transcription factor that has been associated with the multipotency of human cardiac progenitors, and in mice enables the correct deployment of second heart field (SHF cells to become the myocardium of atria, right ventricle and outflow tract. Other markers have been identified that characterize subdomains of the SHF, such as the fibroblast growth factor Fgf10 in its anterior region. While functional evidence of its essential contribution has been demonstrated in many vertebrate species, SHF expression of Isl1 has been shown in only some models. We examined the relationship between human ISL1 and FGF10 within the embryonic time window during which the linear heart tube remodels into four chambers. ISL1 transcription demarcated an anatomical region supporting the conserved existence of a SHF in humans, and transcription factors of the GATA family were co-expressed therein. In conjunction, we identified a novel enhancer containing a highly conserved ISL1 consensus binding site within the FGF10 first intron. ChIP and EMSA demonstrated its direct occupation by ISL1. Transcription mediated by ISL1 from this FGF10 intronic element was enhanced by the presence of GATA4 and TBX20 cardiac transcription factors. Finally, transgenic mice confirmed that endogenous factors bound the human FGF10 intronic enhancer to drive reporter expression in the developing cardiac outflow tract. These findings highlight the interest of examining developmental regulatory networks directly in human tissues, when possible, to assess candidate non-coding regions that may be responsible for congenital malformations.

  14. Tsunami Evacuation Exercises: the Case of Heraklion, Crete Isl., Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, I.; Charalampakis, M.; Bocchini, G. M.; Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective tsunami evacuation requires appropriate awareness as regards good shelters selection. Field exercises may improve public awareness. A field exercise was organized in Heraklion, Crete Isl., in 2016. The area is part of the Hellenic Arc which is the most active structure in the Mediterranean. Large earthquakes triggered tsunamis that hit Heraklion in the past, such in AD 1303. After selecting various fault models, simulation of the 1303 tsunami showed important inundation zone in Heraklion. For the exercise needs a team of 30 volunteers was divided in 3 groups of 10 people each. Everyone was equipped with a mobile phone and a GPS device. The 3 groups were gathered in 3 coastal spots Heraklion situated 400 m apart each other. The scenario was that immediately after receiving in their mobile a tsunami warning message they will set on their personal GPS device and start evacuating inland on the best way they believed to do so. In each group, only 5 out of 10 volunteers were notified beforehand that the Eleftherias Square, located inland at distance satisfying evacuation needs in case of repeat of the 1303 tsunami, would be a good shelter to go. Using the Road Graph Plugin of QGIS, we calculated the shortest path distances which found equal to 800, 700 and 680 m. Adopting average velocity of 3 km/h we found that these distances can be covered within 18, 16 and 15 min, respectively. The routes towards the settlement spots as well as the times needed to arrive there by each one of the 30 volunteers were recorded by their personal GPS devices. The processing of the GPS tracks and their comparison with the theoretical routes and times showed good evacuation performance which is encouraging for the next phases of the Heraklion tsunami hazard mitigation program. This is contribution to the EU-FP7 projects ZIP (Zooming In between Plates, grant no: 604713, 2013) and ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant no: 603839, 2013.

  15. O monoteísmo islâmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ozaí da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é analisar a as origens e fundamentos da fé monoteísta islâmica, sua singularidade e o significado do Profeta Maomé enquanto modelo religioso, moral e político para a conduta dos muçulmanos. O objetivo é contribuir para a reflexão crítica sobre o Islamismo, para além dos preconceitos lingüísticos, políticos e culturais alimentados por setores da mídia ocidental, a qual tende a restringir o islamismo à vertente fundamentalista. As religiões monoteístas têm os seus fundamentalismos e suas “guerras justas”. E, no que diz respeito ao monoteísmo, as religiões não diferem em sua essência, já que se fundamentam na crença no Deus Único. Objetiva-se, ainda, instigar a análise sobre as relações entre religião e política, um tema polêmico em todas as crenças monoteístas.

  16. Functional cardiomyocytes derived from Isl1 cardiac progenitors via Bmp4 stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cagavi

    Full Text Available As heart failure due to myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, cell-based cardiac regenerative therapy using cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs could provide a potential treatment for the repair of injured myocardium. As adult CPCs may have limitations regarding tissue accessibility and proliferative ability, CPCs derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs could serve as an unlimited source of cells with high proliferative ability. As one of the CPCs that can be derived from embryonic stem cells, Isl1 expressing cardiac progenitor cells (Isl1-CPCs may serve as a valuable source of cells for cardiac repair due to their high cardiac differentiation potential and authentic cardiac origin. In order to generate an unlimited number of Isl1-CPCs, we used a previously established an ESC line that allows for isolation of Isl1-CPCs by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression that is directed by the mef2c gene, specifically expressed in the Isl1 domain of the anterior heart field. To improve the efficiency of cardiac differentiation of Isl1-CPCs, we studied the role of Bmp4 in cardiogenesis of Isl1-CPCs. We show an inductive role of Bmp directly on cardiac progenitors and its enhancement on early cardiac differentiation of CPCs. Upon induction of Bmp4 to Isl1-CPCs during differentiation, the cTnT+ cardiomyocyte population was enhanced 2.8±0.4 fold for Bmp4 treated CPC cultures compared to that detected for vehicle treated cultures. Both Bmp4 treated and untreated cardiomyocytes exhibit proper electrophysiological and calcium signaling properties. In addition, we observed a significant increase in Tbx5 and Tbx20 expression in differentiation cultures treated with Bmp4 compared to the untreated control, suggesting a link between Bmp4 and Tbx genes which may contribute to the enhanced cardiac differentiation in Bmp4 treated cultures. Collectively these findings suggest a cardiomyogenic role for Bmp4 directly on a pure population of

  17. Movements of brown bullheads in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, M.J.; Smith, D.R.; Obert, E.; Grazio, J.; Bartron, M.L.; Wellington, C.; Grise, S.; Rafferty, S.; Wellington, R.; Julian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, was listed as an Area of Concern (AOC) by the International Joint Commission in part because of the high incidence of external tumor in brown bullheads. Verifying the source of the possible contaminant exposure is critical to addressing the AOC designation. We used telemetry tracking (n = 49 fish) to test the hypothesis that adult bullheads captured within the bay during spawning season do not exit the bay during the post-spawning summer and fall months. We analyzed genetic variation at 15 microsatellite loci for 112 adult fish from 5 locations, 4 inside the bay and 1 outside, in order to test for possible differences. Data from fixed-station receivers suggested fish did not leave Presque Isle Bay during the study period. Predicted locations outside Presque Isle Bay were only 0.1% of all predicted locations and were below the 0.2% error rate based on known manual relocations. However, there was evidence for movement within Presque Isle Bay. Most movement was between Misery Bay or Lagoons and the open bay area. Whereas telemetry results showed tendency for adult site fidelity, genetic results showed no differences among locations, indicating that there is a single panmictic population. Our telemetry data suggest that brown bullheads are likely a useful indicator species for environmental conditions in Presque Isle Bay, since adults likely are retained in the system.

  18. Secularism and islamic modernism in Turkey Secularismo e modernismo islâmico na Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Cinar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the institutionalization of secularism in Turkey through the establishment of a Directorate of Religious Affairs as a state office, vested with full authority over Islamic thought and practice. It explores the ways in which the state promoted this Directorate as the only legitimate Islamic authority in Turkey and how, in the 1990s, alternative voices representing Islamic thought and practice gained salience and challenged the authority of official Islam. It is in such a context that the Islamic modernizers emerged as a new political movement around AK (Justice and Development Party, which broke off from the former Islamist party Refah/Fazilet, and won a major victory at the 2002 general elections. The paper addresses the emergence of AK Party and its policy toward secularism, political Islam and nationalism.Este texto aborda a institucionalização do secularismo na Turquia, promovida através da implantação de uma Secretaria de Estado dos Assuntos Religiosos, investida de completa autoridade sobre o pensamento e prática islâmica. Exploram-se as formas através das quais o estado promoveu esta secretaria como a única autoridade islâmica legítima na Turquia e como, nos anos 90 do século XX, vozes alternativas do pensamento e prática islâmica ganharam visibilidade e desafiaram a autoridade do Islão oficial. É neste contexto que emergiram modernizadores islâmicos como um novo movimento politico afecto ao partido AK (Justiça e Desenvolvimento, que se desligou do antigo partido islamista Rafeh/Fazilet e obteve uma importante vitória nas eleições gerais de 2002. O texto descreve a emergência do AK e as suas políticas relativamente ao secularismo, Islão político e nacionalismo.

  19. Marketing a tourism industry in late stage decline: The case of the Isle of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Canavan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews in the Isle of Man uncovered local perceptions of a tourism industry in late stage decline. Social impacts of decline are pronounced including facilities loss, cultural changes and a heightening of perceived peripherality: which taken together undermine local identity. Tourists are welcomed as they help to affirm the pride residents have in their island in creating a more active atmosphere, to provide social interaction opportunities and to combat negative stereotyping. Thus, findings emphasise the diverse, unique and persistent benefits of tourism in the Isle of Man, despite its decline. Destination marketing recommendations are therefore made to better address the experiences and desires of communities experiencing decline.

  20. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la formación del derecho islámico

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Bello, María Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Los estudios sobre derecho islámico están teniendo una etapa de florecimiento excepcional en las últimas décadas, siendo un factor determinante, sin duda, la labor de edición y reedición de fuentes jurídicas que se está llevando a cabo especialmente en el mundo islámico y que ha cambiado sustancialmente nuestros conocimientos directos sobre las doctrinas jurídicas y los juristas. En el campo específico del derecho malikí merece destacarse la labor de Miklos Muranyi, gracias a c...

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the A3 DRDC-ISL Reference Projectile: Missile with Lattice Fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-12

    model seems to behave like the results of Ref. I but the choking was not witnessed in the wind tunnel since it was tested at discrete Mach numbers, and...3.000 0.961 6.88 29.93 -10.99 -4.35 -0.027 ISL ISL - R 138/2005 233 Table B17 - Configuration A3_10 ; =.0 Mach CXO C Cb cg 1XCP C 1 6 Run I C C c1g M M

  2. Assessing ISLE Labs as an Enhancement to Traditional Large-Lecture Courses at the Ohio State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Dedra; Lin, Yuhfen

    2006-02-01

    At the Ohio State University (OSU), some laboratory sections were replaced with Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs during the 3-quarter calculus-based introductory physics sequence this past academic year. The ISLE labs have been developed by the PAER Group at Rutgers University; implementation at OSU is discussed, making a direct comparison of OSU students participating in ISLE labs with students in pre-existing labs under the same large-lecture instruction. Assessment included diagnostic tests and feedback from a Q-type instrument. The ISLE environment focuses on helping students develop scientific abilities, so we also administered a voluntary lab `practical exam' aimed at testing if these abilities were gained by the students in the ISLE labs.

  3. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  4. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  5. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  6. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  7. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which res

  8. Rural Governance, Community Empowerment and the New Institutionalism: A Case Study of the Isle of Wight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Southern, Rebekah; Beer, Julian

    2007-01-01

    This article compares two different institutional models--state-sponsored rural partnerships and community-based development trusts--for engaging and empowering local communities in area-based regeneration, using the Isle of Wight as a case study. Following a critical review of the literature on community governance, we evaluate the effectiveness…

  9. 77 FR 57063 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald... proposes to extend a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald..., at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone extension would temporarily restrict vessel...

  10. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North... maintenance of the NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald...

  11. 3D visualisation of a Jurassic oolitic system with GPR data, Isle of Portland (UK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Hansen, Trine Lykke; Nielsen, Lars

    The Isle of Portland shows exposure of uppermost Jurassic oolitic carbonate all along its coast and within several inland quarries. The exposure quality is very high with a potential 3D control. The site has a potential to understand the 3D architecture and the sedimentary dynamic of an oolitic s...

  12. 77 FR 35619 - Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque... vessels from a portion of Presque Isle Bay during the Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks display. This... temporary safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of spectators and vessels during the Old Fashion 4th...

  13. What Do Learning Scientists Do? A Survey of the ISLS Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan A.; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2017-01-01

    This study responds to a question that people working in the field of learning sciences get asked regularly: What do learning scientists do? Earlier attempts to answer this question came from a need to define a new field of educational research. Now that the International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS) has grown into a robust and…

  14. A field guide to the Silurian Echinodermata of the British Isles: Part 1 - Eleutherozoa and Rhombifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, D.N.; Donovan, S.K.; Crabb, P.; Gladwell, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Palaeozoic echinoderms of the British Isles are most diverse in the Silurian and Lower Carboniferous. This guide discusses and illustrates members of all major groups of echinoderms, apart from the crinoids, from the Silurian of these islands. Groups considered include the echinoids (five taxa),

  15. Gaelic language erosion and revitalization on the Isle of Skye, Scotland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, D.; Smith-Christmas, C.; Graaf, de T.; Ostler, N.; Salverda, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the language loss of three generations of a Gaelic-speaking family located on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Participants' linguistic skills were assessed via language ability tests. We focused on plurals, passives, and tense, and we examined synthetic forms. The results confirmed t

  16. Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casten, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status.

  17. Radioactive nuclear beams and the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casten, R.F.

    1992-12-01

    Radioactive nuclear beams (RNBs) offer exciting new research opportunities in fields as diverse as nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, astrophysics atomic, materials, and applied science. Their realization in new accelerator complexes also offers important technical challenges. Some of the nuclear physics possibilities afforded by RNBs, with emphasis on low spin nuclear structure, are discussed, accompanied by an outline of the ISL initiative and its status.

  18. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim...

  19. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ..., Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739). We received no letters commenting on the proposed rule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim V swimming event. The...

  20. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  1. Microwave emissivity of fresh water ice--Lake ice and Antarctic ice pack--Radiative transfer simulations versus satellite radiances

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Microwave emissivity models of sea ice are poorly validated empirically. Typical validation studies involve using averaged or stereotyped profiles of ice parameters against averaged radiance measurements. Measurement sites are rarely matched and even less often point-by-point. Because of saline content, complex permittivity of sea ice is highly variable and difficult to predict. Therefore, to check the validity of a typical, plane-parallel, radiative-transfer-based ice emissivity model, we apply it to fresh water ice instead of salt-water ice. Radiance simulations for lake ice are compared with measurements over Lake Superior from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E). AMSR-E measurements are also collected over Antarctic icepack. For each pixel, a thermodynamic model is driven by four years of European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data and the resulting temperature profiles used to drive the emissivity model. The results suggest that the relatively simple ...

  2. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  3. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  4. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  6. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  7. ISL1, a novel regulator of CCNB1, CCNB2 and c-MYC genes, promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiong; Wang, Weiping; Jia, Zhuqing; Chen, Ping; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan

    2016-06-14

    Islet-1 (ISL1) belongs to the LIM homeodomain transcription factor family, which is specifically expressed in certain tissue types only. Previously, we reported that ISL1 is aberrantly overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC). However, its role in GC is not clear. Here, we report that ISL1 is aberrantly upregulated not only in human gastric carcinoma tissues but also in some GC cell lines. Upregulated ISL1 expression enhanced xenografted gastric carcinoma development, while ISL1 knockdown inhibited GC growth in nude mice. ISL1 overexpression promoted GC cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell growth in soft agar, and facilitated cell cycle transition in GC cells, demonstrated an increase in the proportion of cells in the G2/M and S phases and a decrease in the proportion of cells in the G1 phase. Furthermore, we provide evidence that ISL1 is a novel regulator of the cyclin B1 (CCNB1), cyclin B2 (CCNB2) and c-myc (c-MYC) genes. ISL1 activated the expression of these genes in GC cells by binding to the conserved binding sites on their promoters or enhancers. The expression levels of the genes were decreased in response to ISL1 knockdown. Therefore, ISL1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in GC.

  8. Red squirrels in the British Isles are infected with leprosy bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Charlotte; Del-Pozo, Jorge; Benjak, Andrej; Stevenson, Karen; Simpson, Victor R; Busso, Philippe; McLuckie, Joyce; Loiseau, Chloé; Lawton, Colin; Schoening, Janne; Shaw, Darren J; Piton, Jérémie; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Velarde-Felix, Jesùs S; McDermott, Fergal; Gordon, Stephen V; Cole, Stewart T; Meredith, Anna L

    2016-11-11

    Leprosy, caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae or the recently discovered Mycobacterium lepromatosis, was once endemic in humans in the British Isles. Red squirrels in Great Britain (Sciurus vulgaris) have increasingly been observed with leprosy-like lesions on the head and limbs. Using genomics, histopathology, and serology, we found M. lepromatosis in squirrels from England, Ireland, and Scotland, and M. leprae in squirrels from Brownsea Island, England. Infection was detected in overtly diseased and seemingly healthy animals. Phylogenetic comparisons of British and Irish M. lepromatosis with two Mexican strains from humans show that they diverged from a common ancestor around 27,000 years ago, whereas the M. leprae strain is closest to one that circulated in Medieval England. Red squirrels are thus a reservoir for leprosy in the British Isles. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Las raíces socioestructurales del terrorismo fundamentalista islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Romero-Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El terrorismo fundamentalista islámico no es un fenómeno monolítico, ya que es protagonizado por múltiples y variados actores. A pesar de su diversidad, este fenómeno hunde sus raíces en la propia trayectoria histórica de los países árabe-musulmanes, y en el tipo de estructura política, social y económica de estas sociedades. El análisis de dicha serie de variables es indispensable para poder interpretar el papel y la eficacia del terrorismo fundamentalista islámico en el mundo actual.

  10. Sequence variation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the British Isles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyfield, L.A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); Stephenson, A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cockburn, F. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Using mutation and haplotype analysis, we have examined the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the phenylketonuria populations of four geographical areas of the British Isles: the west of Scotland, southern Wales, and southwestern and southeastern England. The enormous genetic diversity of this locus within the British Isles is demonstrated in the large number of different mutations characterized and in the variety of genetic backgrounds on which individual mutations are found. Allele frequencies of the more common mutations exhibited significant nonrandom distribution in a north/south differentiation. Differences between the west of Scotland and southwestern England may be related to different events in the recent and past histories of their respective populations. Similarities between southern Wales and southeastern England are likely to reflect the heterogeneity that is seen in and around two large capital cities. Finally, comparison with more recently colonized areas of the world corroborates the genealogical origin by range expansion of several mutations. 38 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol Peer Review Assessment. Part 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy K.; Polk, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts involves the risk of decompression sickness. This risk has been mitigated by the use of oxygen "prebreathe" to effectively wash out tissue nitrogen prior to each EVA. Now that the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) is being retired, high-pressure oxygen will become a limited resource. The In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol offers several potential benefits including its potential to save 6 pounds of oxygen per EVA. At the request of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, the peer review convened on October 14, 2010. The major recommendation of the Review Committee was that the ISLE protocol was acceptable for operational use as a prebreathe option prior to EVA. The appendices to Volume I of the report are contained in this document.

  12. In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol Peer Review Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy K.; Polk, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts involves the risk of decompression sickness. This risk has been mitigated by the use of oxygen "prebreathe" to effectively wash out tissue nitrogen prior to each EVA. Now that the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) is being retired, high-pressure oxygen will become a limited resource. The In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol offers several potential benefits including its potential to save 6 pounds of oxygen per EVA. At the request of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, the peer review convened on October 14, 2010. The major recommendation of the Review Committee was that the ISLE protocol was acceptable for operational use as a prebreathe option prior to EVA. The results from the peer review are contained in this document.

  13. Identidades del caribe insular colombiano: Otra mirada del caso isleño-raizal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Helena Valencia Peña

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia define en la Constitución de 1991 como un país pluriétnico y multicultural. Esto ha implicado el reconocimiento de derechos y estatutos especiales a diversas poblaciones y sus territorios, entre ellas a la población isleña-raizal del Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina. Este reconocimiento ha ocasionado que la población raizal reelabore y reinvente los discursos sobre su identidad, a la vez que ha recrudecido el conflicto entre algunos sectores de esta población y el Estado colombiano. Este artículo analiza los discursos y elementos que construyen la identidad isleña-raizal desde las propias representaciones de la población, con el fin de explorar los valores que conforman dicha identidad en la cotidianidad interculrural propia de la región Caribe.

  14. ADOPSI (Sebuah Tawaran Hukum Islâm menuju Kebaikan Masa Depan Anak Terlantar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahruddin Ali Sabri Fahruddin Ali Sabri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Konsep pengangkatan anak dalam hukum Islâm tidak mengenal pengangkatan anak dalam arti menjadi anak kandung secara mutlak, sedang yang ada hanya diperbolehkan untuk memelihara dengan tujuan memperlakukan anak dalam segi kecintaan pemberian nafkah, pendidikan atau pelayanan dalam segala kebutuhan yang bukan memperlakukan sebagai anak kandung. Dalam konsep Islâm, pengangkatan seorang anak tidak boleh memutus nasab antara si anak dengan orang tua kandungnya. Pengangkatan anak berdasarkan hukum Islâm adalah pengangkatan anak yang bersumber pada al-Qur’ân dan sunnah serta hasil ijtihâd. Memelihara anak terlantar merupakan salah satu dari kewajiban Negara, pemerintah hendaknya menyarankan kepada warga yang mampu untuk mengadopsi anak terlantar, hal ini dilakukan untuk melindungi dan mengangkat harkat dan martabat anak terlantar.   Abstract : This article higlights the concept of child adoption from the perspective of Islâmic law. It finds that claiming foster child as biological child is forbidden in Islamic law, it only allows the adopters to treat them in terms of expressing affection, giving basic necessities of life and facilitating the  education. Islamic law also states that child adoption must not delink the lineage between the foster children with their biological parents. Islamic law based adoption  is a child adoption which is based on al-Qur’ân, Sunnah, and Ijtihâd that is applied in Indonesia and they are formulated in any products of Islamic laws. They might be in form fiqh, fatwâ (binding ruling in Islamic matters, decretal, and official legal regulations, including Islamic Laws Compilation. Raising waif is also a country obligation, the government must recommend the wealthy citizens to adopt the waif to protect and to promote their prestige and dignity. Kata-kata Kunci: Adopsi, sadd al-dzarî’ah, dan anak terlantar

  15. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  16. On the issue of the surface contamination of a Langmuir Probe sensor: Demeter ISL results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    The Demeter Instrument Sonde de Langmuir (ISL) comprises two Langmuir Probe sensors. It includes a classical cylindrical sensor and a 6-sector spherical Segmented Langmuir Probe (SLP) sensor. The CNES Demeter satellite was launched in June 2004 on a 700-km altitude high-inclination orbit. ISL worked flawlessly till the satellite was decommissioned in March 2011. It provided more than 6 years of data. For operational reasons, the science payload was only operated below magnetic latitude 65°. It was switched off twice per orbit when above 65°. A transient behavior of the ISL sensors was systematically observed each time it was turned on at the beginning of each half-orbit segment. This transient behavior is attributed to surface contamination of the sensors. Some surface contamination of the sensor is indeed inferred from the recording of a series of I-V curves at different sweep rates using a special mode designed to monitor the evolution of the surface state of the sensor during the mission. As independently observed from the comparison between Demeter ISL measurements and Ground-based radar ionospheric sounding measurements, (J.-L. Berthelier, private communication, 2011) it is shown that the electron temperature measurements performed by a contaminated Langmuir Probe are significantly higher than the true physical value. Based on the work of Piel at al., a method was developed to determine the electrical characteristics of the surface contamination layer, and to remove the effect of the contamination layer on the determination of the main plasma parameters from the analysis of the I-V curve (the plasma electron density Ne and the Electron temperature Ne). Potential contamination issues for Langmuir Probes on future planetary mission orbiters will be addressed and ways to avoid or at least mitigate the effects of will be discussed.

  17. Jornalismo e Orientalismo: o Islã como “coisa-a-saber”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresenta-se parte de pesquisa realizada com o objetivo de identificar a potencialidade da reflexão teórica de Edward W. Said a respeito do assim chamado Orientalismo como instrumento de análise da cobertura da imprensa brasileira sobre temas ligados a Oriente, Islã, árabes e muçulmanos.

  18. Poetry Translation in English Teaching:Translation of Isles of Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭欣欣

    2012-01-01

    In English teaching,poetry translation is a difficult point which confuses many teachers and students.Different from other translations,poetry translation needs more background information and methods.In this article,the author choose Byron’s Isles of Greece as an example to analyze two different translations.With the comparison,we will have a better idea how to improve poetry translation in our teaching.

  19. Interstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, A C A

    2003-01-01

    Currently ~36 different absorption bands have been detected in the infrared spectra of cold, dense interstellar and circumstellar environments. These are attributed to the vibrational transitions of ~17 different molecules frozen on dust grains. We review identification issues and summarize the techniques required to extract information on the physical and chemical evolution of these ices. Both laboratory simulations and line of sight studies are essential. Examples are given for ice bands observed toward high mass protostars, fields stars and recent work on ices in disks surrounding low mass protostars. A number of clear trends have emerged in recent years. One prominent ice component consists of an intimate mixture between H2O, CH3OH and CO2 molecules. Apparently a stable balance exists between low temperature hydrogenation and oxidation reactions on grain surfaces. In contrast, an equally prominent ice component, consisting almost entirely of CO, must have accreted directly from the gas phase. Thermal proc...

  20. Transgenic studies on homeobox genes in nervous system development: spina bifida in Isl1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, Claudia; Yaworsky, Paul J; Muller, Yunhua L; Salbaum, J Michael

    2013-04-01

    To develop in vivo assays for homeobox gene function in neural development, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of a homeobox gene is altered only within the nervous system, in neurons or neuronal precursor cells. Transgenic expression of Hoxc8 did not result in gross abnormalities, while a Hoxd4 transgene caused death shortly after birth. In neural progenitor cells, the motorneuron-specific homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 induced early developmental defects, including absence of anterior neural structures, profound defects in the neuroepithelium and defective neural tube closure. A fraction of Isl1 transgenic mice exhibited spina bifida. Isl1 transgene expression was also associated with decreased proliferation and increased Pbx1 expression in the ventral neural tube. Our results suggest a function for some homeobox genes in development of the nervous system, and that cell-type- and region-specific transgenic models will be useful to identify the cellular and molecular targets of homeobox transcription factors in nervous system development.

  1. A review of the Leptostraca of the British Isles with discussion of the genus Sarsinebalia Dahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward McCormack

    Full Text Available Abstract A survey of the Leptostracan fauna of the British Isles collected from routine environmental monitoring samples revealed six species of Nebaliidae to be present in shallow waters. These species were identified as Nebalia herbstii Leach, 1814, Nebalia strausi Risso, 1826, Nebalia borealis Dahl, 1985, Nebalia kocatasi Moreira, Koçak and Katagan, 2007, Nebalia reboredae Moreira and Urgorri, 2009 in Moreira et al., 2009a and Sarsinebalia urgorrii Moreira, Gestoso and Troncoso, 2003. The presence of N. strausi , N. kocatasi , N. reboredae and S. urgorrii is reported from the British Isles for the first time. Three further species have been previously reported from the waters surrounding Britain and Ireland but were not recorded in the current study. Thus, the number of species recorded in the British Isles now stands at nine and the range of several species is extended northwards from previous records in the Mediterranean and the Iberian Peninsula. The diagnostic characters of Sarsinebalia Dahl, 1985 are discussed and it is suggested that a formal reappraisal of the genus be conducted. A key to European Leptostraca is provided based on adult females.

  2. Los árabes: ¿entre el panislamismo y el fundamentalismo islámico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Aya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available se definió un “Eje del mal”, y se estableció la misión de vencerlo. Este artículo presenta algunas de las consecuencias políticas, sociales, económicas y militares de esta nueva estrategia con respecto al mundo En este artículo se identifican y analizan los cambios geopolíticos ocurridos en la península árabe en los últimos años. La primera parte trata sobre el panarabismo como un factor importante en el desarrollo de la independencia árabe, sigue luego con un análisis de los nacionalismos en la región, el panislamismo y el renacer islámico. La segunda parte estudia el fundamentalismo islámico como un factor importante de la política árabe de la posguerra fría y su influencia en el terrorismo y la jihad islámica. Estos últimos, conceptos importantes en la tradición musulmana.

  3. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  4. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  5. Archimedean Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Eloranta, Kari

    2009-01-01

    The striking boundary dependency (the Arctic Circle phenomenon) exhibited in the ice model on the square lattice extends to other planar set-ups. We present these findings for the triangular and the Kagome lattices. Critical connectivity results guarantee that ice configurations can be generated using the simplest and most efficient local actions. Height functions are utilized throughout the analysis. At the end there is a surprise in store: on the remaining Archimedean lattice for which the ice model can be defined, the 3.4.6.4. lattice, the long range behavior is completely different from the other cases.

  6. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  7. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  8. Spatial patterns in the oxygen isotope composition of daily rainfall in the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jonathan J.; Jones, Matthew; Arrowsmith, Carol; Allott, Tim; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the modern day relationship between climate and the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18OP) is crucial for obtaining rigorous palaeoclimate reconstructions from a variety of archives. To date, the majority of empirical studies into the meteorological controls over δ18OP rely upon daily, event scale, or monthly time series from individual locations, resulting in uncertainties concerning the representativeness of statistical models and the mechanisms behind those relationships. Here, we take an alternative approach by analysing daily patterns in δ18OP from multiple stations across the British Isles ( n = 10-70 stations). We use these data to examine the spatial and seasonal heterogeneity of regression statistics between δ18OP and common predictors (temperature, precipitation amount and the North Atlantic Oscillation index; NAO). Temperature and NAO are poor predictors of daily δ18OP in the British Isles, exhibiting weak and/or inconsistent effects both spatially and between seasons. By contrast δ18OP and rainfall amount consistently correlate at most locations, and for all months analysed, with spatial and temporal variability in the regression coefficients. The maps also allow comparison with daily synoptic weather types, and suggest characteristic δ18OP patterns, particularly associated with Cylonic Lamb Weather Types. Mapping daily δ18OP across the British Isles therefore provides a more coherent picture of the patterns in δ18OP, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the climatic controls. These observations are another step forward towards developing a more detailed, mechanistic framework for interpreting stable isotopes in rainfall as a palaeoclimate and hydrological tracer.

  9. Mercury toxicity in livers of northern pike (Esox lucius) from Isle Royale, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevnick, Paul E; Roberts, Aaron P; Otter, Ryan R; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Klaper, Rebecca; Oris, James T

    2008-04-01

    Many laboratory studies have documented that mercury can be toxic to fish, but it is largely unknown if mercury is toxic to fish in their natural environments. The objective of our study was to investigate the toxic effects of mercury on northern pike (Esox lucius) at Isle Royale, Michigan. In 124 northern pike from eight inland lakes, concentrations of total mercury in skin-on fillets ranged from 0.069 to 0.622 microg/g wet mass (wet wt). Concentrations of total mercury in livers increased exponentially compared with concentrations in fillets, to a maximum of 3.1 microg/g wet wt. Methylmercury constituted a majority of the mercury in livers with total mercury concentrations 0.5 microg/g wet wt. Liver color (absorbance at 400 nm) varied among northern pike and was positively related to liver total mercury concentration. The pigment causing variation in liver color was identified as lipofuscin, which results from lipid peroxidation of membranous organelles. An analysis of covariance revealed lipofuscin accumulation was primarily associated with mercury exposure, and this association obscured any normal accumulation from aging. We also documented decreased lipid reserves in livers and poor condition factors of northern pike with high liver total mercury concentrations. Our results suggest (i) northern pike at Isle Royale are experiencing toxicity at concentrations of total mercury common for northern pike and other piscivorous fish elsewhere in North America and (ii) liver color may be useful for indicating mercury exposure and effects in northern pike at Isle Royale and possibly other aquatic ecosystems and other fish species.

  10. Distinctive Feature Extraction for Indian Sign Language (ISL) Gesture using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep Baburao; Sinha, G. R.

    2016-07-01

    India, having less awareness towards the deaf and dumb peoples leads to increase the communication gap between deaf and hard hearing community. Sign language is commonly developed for deaf and hard hearing peoples to convey their message by generating the different sign pattern. The scale invariant feature transform was introduced by David Lowe to perform reliable matching between different images of the same object. This paper implements the various phases of scale invariant feature transform to extract the distinctive features from Indian sign language gestures. The experimental result shows the time constraint for each phase and the number of features extracted for 26 ISL gestures.

  11. Distinctive Feature Extraction for Indian Sign Language (ISL) Gesture using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep Baburao; Sinha, G. R.

    2017-02-01

    India, having less awareness towards the deaf and dumb peoples leads to increase the communication gap between deaf and hard hearing community. Sign language is commonly developed for deaf and hard hearing peoples to convey their message by generating the different sign pattern. The scale invariant feature transform was introduced by David Lowe to perform reliable matching between different images of the same object. This paper implements the various phases of scale invariant feature transform to extract the distinctive features from Indian sign language gestures. The experimental result shows the time constraint for each phase and the number of features extracted for 26 ISL gestures.

  12. The Lord's prerogative and an act of trust: portable antiquities in the Isle of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Fox

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown dependency. As such, legislation for many areas of life differs from the neighbouring jurisdictions, including that which governs portable antiquities. The Island has a rich and varied heritage, with physical evidence from the Mesolithic to the Iron Age, through the early Christian period to Vikings and beyond. Both the Manx Treasure Trove legislation and the Act under which Manx National Heritage operates are currently under parliamentary review. These are intriguing times for Manx portable antiquities and this article seeks to explain why change is due and what options are possible.

  13. Musulmani d’Italia, unitevi? Islàm e democrazia pluralista nell’esperienza recente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sassi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Intervento al convegno organizzato dagli allievi del prof. Sergio Lariccia a Roma il 7 novembre 2007 su Poteri pubblici e laicità delle istituzioni. Sessant’anni di esperienza costituzionale, di prossima pubblicazione negli Atti relativi.SOMMARIO. 1. Post-secolarismo – 2. Il coacervo anonimo ed indistinto dei musulmani – 3. Islàm e modernità – 4. Gestire la complessità – 5. Consulta islamica e pluralismo – 6. Ebrei separati – 7. Quali interlocutori? – 8. Conclusioni.

  14. Murchidat: renacimiento islámico femenino como control estatal del discurso religioso en Marruecos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Mateo, Mariví

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se plantea cómo el programa de formación a estudiantes universitarias como murchidat, guías religiosas femeninas, que el estado marroquí ha ideado y codificado desde 2004, viene a sacar a la luz una tradicional transmisión del Islam por parte del género femenino y a revolucionar un estamento masculino como son las jerarquías o estructuras de la religión islámica. La formación y contratación como funcionarias de las nuevas guías religiosas otorga nuevas posibilidades laborales...

  15. Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kanao, K; Kim, S; Ogasawara, M; Ohsugi, T; Shimojima, M; Takikawa, K

    1999-01-01

    Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics and SEIKO Instruments using 4'' technology. The sensor is AC coupled and double-sided forming a stereo angle of 1.207 degree sign . The strip pitch is 112 mu m on both sides. The main differences between the two manufacturers lie on the technologies of passivation and the structure of coupling capacitors. We describe the design of the sensor and evaluation results of the performance. The evaluations include the total and individual strip currents and interstrip capacitance measured before and after sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma irradiation. (author)

  16. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin; Bai Junqiang; Hua Jun; Wang Kun; Zhang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when enter-ing clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes:rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  17. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when entering clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes: rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  18. Las mujeres en grupos terroristas islámicos. Estudio de caso: las Brigadas de Ezzeldin AlQassam y la Yihad Islámica Palestina durante la segunda intifada en el conflicto palestino israelí

    OpenAIRE

    Brand Delgado, Maria Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo busca describir el contexto social del conflicto palestino israelí, con el propósito de analizar las motivaciones de las mujeres palestinas para participar en los ataques suicidas, perpetrados en la segunda intifada, a manos de la Yihad Islámica Palestina y las Brigadas de Ezzeldin Al-Qassam. Para tal fin, se examinó el discurso religioso y se hizo una lectura a dicho fenómeno desde el feminismo islámico para dar un indicio del porqué de estos actos. Se concluirá que los ...

  19. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  20. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  1. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D;

    2006-01-01

    that the Faroese mtDNA pool has been affected by genetic drift, and is among the most homogenous and isolated in the North Atlantic region. This will have implications for attempts to locate genes for complex disorders. To obtain estimates of Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions, we applied...... Isles ancestry. In the present study we used 122 new and 19 previously published hypervariable region I sequences of the mitochondrial control region to analyse the genetic diversity of the Faroese population and compare it with other populations in the North Atlantic region. The analyses suggested...

  2. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D;

    2006-01-01

    a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...... the female settlers of the Faroe Islands. Compared to other admixed populations of the North Atlantic region, the population of the Faroe Islands appears to have the highest level of asymmetry in Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions among female and male settlers of the archipelago....

  3. O Papa, o Islã e o politicamente correto The Pope, Islam and political correctedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Lindgren Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao fazer citação considerada ofensiva ao Islã em conferência que proferiu na Alemanha em 2006, o Papa Bento XVI não visava somente aos muçulmanos, mas, também, aos ocidentais cristãos e ateus. Seu objetivo não era ofender o Islã gratuitamente, mas forçar os islamitas e ocidentais que abandonaram o racionalismo a assimilarem, num caso, e a reassimilarem, no outro, a razão universalista como elemento essencial ao próprio diálogo entre as religiões. A fala do Papa tem tido repercussões que transcendem o âmbito religioso, atingindo noções e práticas multiculturalistas que pareciam intocáveis.When making a quotation that was considered offensive to Islam, in 2006, in a conference in Germany, Pope Benedict XVI targeted not only the Muslims, but also Christian and Atheist Westerners. His aim was not to offend Islam without a motive, but to force both the Muslims and Westerners that had forsaken rationalism to reach back to Reason as an essential element for the very dialogue between the two religions. The Pope’s speech has had repercussion far beyond the religious sphere, attaining notions and practices of multiculturalism that seemed untouchable.

  4. Telenovela e Islã: dos estereótipos à visibilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francirosy Campos Barbosa Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar reflexões sobre o núcleo muçulmano da telenovela O Clone, que foi exibido entre outubro de 2001 e junho de 2002, na Rede Globo de Televisão, tendo sua reprise iniciada em janeiro de 2011. Telenovela escrita por Gloria Perez autora conhecida pelos temas “étnicos” e de cunho social, tais como, ciganos, muçulmanos, indianos, transplante de órgãos, alcoolismo, imigração ilegal, clonagem humana. O argumento que sustento é que a novela “salvou” a comunidade islâmica brasileira da “invisibilidade” e trouxe para dentro das casas brasileiras um pouco da cultura árabe-islâmica, que embora estereotipados, contribuíram significativamente para revelar à nossa sociedade quem são os muçulmanos e em que eles acreditam. Ao escrever o artigo me deparei com outro tipo de “invisibilidade”, os quase inexistentes trabalhos em antropologia visual que contemplam análise de imagens de telenovelas. Neste sentido, este texto busca contribuir com outros modos de ver a televisão, em particular, a telenovela.

  5. El fundamentalismo islámico en la Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pasados ocho años de los atentados del 11 de marzo, la nueva Estrategia Nacional Española no incluye el fundamentalismo islámico de forma explícita como un factor clave que puede afectar a la seguridad y bienestar de España y los españoles. Tampoco la anterior Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional de 2011 lo incluía. La nueva Estrategia admite que España es un objetivo del terrorismo yihadista e incluso reconoce que existen algunos elementos que contribuyen a hacer de España un objetivo del terrorismo internacional, como por ejemplo la consideración de España como parte del mundo islámico. Pero no existe otra referencia a la versión más extrema del Islam, como fuente de riesgos y amenazas, tratándose de un país que ha sufrido los perores ataques en Europa, con 191 muertos, y donde la policía ha logrado desarticular 30 células yihadistas en la última década.

  6. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  7. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  8. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  9. River Ice Data Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    edge in the field of ice engineering expands. For example, ice concentration and freezeup stage are not considered by the survey respondents to...im- pacts both freezeup and breakup jam formation Table 2. Ice parameters currently monitored, by Divisions (as of 1995). Ice parameters currently...V V V V Date of ice in V V V V Ice concentration V V V V Freezeup stage V V V V V Note: Southwestern Division does not currently monitor ice

  10. Examines the motives and experiences of migrants to Cuba from the British Isles in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Migrants from the British Isles played a hitherto little recognised part in the development of Cuban society and economy in the nineteenth century. Although not a numerically large migration, British and Irish merchants, professionals and, above all, workers had a significance for Cuba out of propor

  11. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 500...

  12. Regional atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen over the British isles assessed using a multi-layer atmospheric transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, N.; Tang, Y.S.; Dragosits, U.; Kluizenaar, Y.de; Sutton, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen for the major political regions of the British Isles are investigated with a multi-layer atmospheric transport model. The model is validated against measurements of NH3 concentration and is developed to provide atmospheric budgets for defined subdomains of the

  13. Measuring plume-related exhumation of the British Isles in Early Cenozoic times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogné, Nathan; Doepke, Daniel; Chew, David; Stuart, Finlay M.; Mark, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Mantle plumes have been proposed to exert a first-order control on the morphology of Earth's surface. However, there is little consensus on the lifespan of the convectively supported topography. Here, we focus on the Cenozoic uplift and exhumation history of the British Isles. While uplift in the absence of major regional tectonic activity has long been documented, the causative mechanism is highly controversial, and direct exhumation estimates are hindered by the near-complete absence of onshore post-Cretaceous sediments (outside Northern Ireland) and the truncated stratigraphic record of many offshore basins. Two main hypotheses have been developed by previous studies: epeirogenic exhumation driven by the proto-Iceland plume, or multiple phases of Cenozoic compression driven by far-field stresses. Here, we present a new thermochronological dataset comprising 43 apatite fission track (AFT) and 102 (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) dates from the onshore British Isles. Inverse modelling of vertical sample profiles allows us to define well-constrained regional cooling histories. Crucially, during the Paleocene, the thermal history models show that a rapid exhumation pulse (1-2.5 km) occurred, focused on the Irish Sea. Exhumation is greatest in the north of the Irish Sea region, and decreases in intensity to the south and west. The spatial pattern of Paleocene exhumation is in agreement with the extent of magmatic underplating inferred from geophysical studies, and the timing of uplift and exhumation is synchronous with emplacement of the plume-related British and Irish Paleogene Igneous Province (BIPIP). Prior to the Paleocene exhumation pulse, the Mesozoic onshore exhumation pulse is mainly linked to the uplift and erosion of the hinterland during the complex and long-lived rifting history of the neighbouring offshore basins. The extent of Neogene exhumation is difficult to constrain due to the poor sensitivity of the AHe and AFT systems at low temperatures. We conclude that the

  14. O Sufismo como dimensão mística do Islã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Barboza de Souza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diante da realidade islâmica contemporânea e buscando estar atento às diversas vozes presentes no “outro”, este artigo tem em vista apresentar de forma sucinta o que é o Sufismo, pensando-o como uma possibilidade – entre muitas – de concretização das crenças islâmicas. Para tal, iniciar-se-á procurando compreender como a notícia acerca de sua existência chega ao Ocidente, ou seja, como os ocidentais o “descobrem”. A seguir, centrar-se-á na busca de compreender o Sufismo a partir de sua relação com o islamismo por meio de suas fontes primordiais: o Corão e o Profeta Muhammad. Por fim, este artigo apresentará brevemente alguns elementos que compõem e caracterizam o repertório de crenças e práticas de várias escolas Sufis tais como a busca da Unicidade Divina, a prática meditativa da recitação dos Nomes Divinos e a submissão à orientação de um “šayh”.Palavras-chave: Sufismo; Mística islâmica; Orientalismo ABSTRACTIn the face of the contemporary Islamic reality and seeking to be attentive to the diversity of voices that we can find in the “other”, this article aims to show briefly what Sufism is, thinking it as a possibility – amongst many – of the realization of the Islamic faith. To articulate this, the article will begin looking at understanding of how the news about its existence arrives in the West, that is, how westerners “discover” it. Then, the article will focus on the search to understand Sufism from its relationship with Islam through its primordial origins: the Koran and the Prophet Muhammad. Finally, this article will look briefly at some elements that make up and characterize the repertory of beliefs and practices of several Sufi schools, such as the search for the Divine Unicity, the meditative practice of the recitation of the Divine Names and the submission to a Šayh orientation.Key words: Sufism; Mystical Islamism; Orientalism.

  15. Variogram analysis of stable oxygen isotope composition of daily precipitation over the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohán, Balázs; Tyler, Jonathan; Jones, Matthew; Kern, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Water stable isotopes are important natural tracers in the hydrological cycle on global, regional and local scales. Daily precipitation water samples were collected from 70 sites over the British Isles on the 23rd, 24th, and 25th January, 2012 [1]. Samples were collected as part of a pilot study for the British Isotopes in Rainfall Project, a community engagement initiative, in collaboration with volunteer weather observers and the UK Met Office. Spatial correlation structure of daily precipitation stable oxygen isotope composition (δ18OP) has been explored by variogram analysis [2]. Since the variograms from the raw data suggested a pronounced trend, owing to the spatial trend discussed in the original study [1], a second order polynomial trend was removed from the raw δ18OP data and variograms were calculated on the residuals. Directional experimental semivariograms were calculated (steps: 10°, tolerance: 30°) and aggregated into variogram surface plots to explore the spatial dependence structure of daily δ18OP. Each daily data set produced distinct variogram plots. -A well expressed anisotropic structure can be seen for Jan 23. The lowest and highest variance was observed in the SW-NE and NNE-SSW direction, respectively. Meteorological observations showed that the majority of the atmospheric flow was SW on this day, so the direction of low variance seems to reflect this flow direction, while the maximum variance might reflect the moisture variance near the elongation of the frontal system. -A less characteristic but still expressed anisotropic structure was found for Jan 24 when a warm front passed the British Isles perpendicular to the east coast, leading to a characteristic east-west δ18OP gradient suggestive of progressive rainout. The low variance central zone has a 100 km radius which might correspond well to the width of the warm front zone. Although, the axis of minimum variance was similarly SW-NE, the zone of maximum variance was broader and

  16. Modeling to Predict Escherichia coli at Presque Isle Beach 2, City of Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Lake Erie beaches in Pennsylvania are a valuable recreational resource for Erie County. Concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at monitored beaches in Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pa., occasionally exceed the single-sample bathing-water standard of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters resulting in potentially unsafe swimming conditions and prompting beach managers to post public advisories or to close beaches to recreation. To supplement the current method for assessing recreational water quality (E. coli concentrations from the previous day), a predictive regression model for E. coli concentrations at Presque Isle Beach 2 was developed from data collected during the 2004 and 2005 recreational seasons. Model output included predicted E. coli concentrations and exceedance probabilities--the probability that E. coli concentrations would exceed the standard. For this study, E. coli concentrations and other water-quality and environmental data were collected during the 2006 recreational season at Presque Isle Beach 2. The data from 2006, an independent year, were used to test (validate) the 2004-2005 predictive regression model and compare the model performance to the current method. Using 2006 data, the 2004-2005 model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedances of the standard than the use of E. coli concentrations from the previous day. The differences were not pronounced, however, and more data are needed. For example, the model correctly predicted exceedances of the standard 11 percent of the time (1 out of 9 exceedances that occurred in 2006) whereas using the E. coli concentrations from the previous day did not result in any correctly predicted exceedances. After validation, new models were developed by adding the 2006 data to the 2004-2005 dataset and by analyzing the data in 2- and 3-year combinations. Results showed that excluding the 2004 data (using 2005 and 2006 data only) yielded the best model. Explanatory variables in the

  17. Pensar o Islão: Questões coloniais, interrogações pós-coloniais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdoolKarim Vakil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O “terrorista islâmico” e os imigrantes e minorias muçulmanas culturalmente “inassimiláveis” representam as duas faces da visão do Islão como “o problema do século XXI” que domina o debate público contemporâneo e a formulação das políticas de Estado nacionais e internacionais nas sociedades ocidentais. A natureza das representações, mais ou menos essencialistas, que informam e deformam estes debates varia consoante os contextos em virtude da relação histórica, em regra colonial, de cada nação com o Islão, das instituições e saberes vocacionados para o seu estudo, e da composição, perfil e peso das comunidades muçulmanas em cada sociedade. Mas a lógica identitária e securitária que configura o discurso do Islão como problema reproduz, redefinidos agora como problemas do multiculturalismo, da governação, da tolerância e da segurança, as mesmas preocupações identitárias e securitárias geradas no contexto colonial. Este artigo apela a uma abordagem desconstrutiva do Islão através da leitura crítica do discurso português.

  18. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  19. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  20. Ley religiosa y estados islámicos contemporáneos

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Ruano, Delfina

    2004-01-01

    El fiqh o jurisprudencia islámica es la ciencia que estudia las reglas a las que está sujeta la derivación de normas legales a partir de las fuentes de la ley sagrada (¸sarıfia). Estas fuentes son el Corán, la tradición profética, el consenso de los jurisconsultos y la analogía. Esta última más que una fuente propiamente dicha es un método de obtención de normas legales para casos nuevos mediante la búsqueda de precedentes análogos en las tres fuentes mencionadas anteriormente....

  1. Archaeology. Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Oliver; Momber, Garry; Bates, Richard; Garwood, Paul; Fitch, Simon; Pallen, Mark; Gaffney, Vincent; Allaby, Robin G

    2015-02-27

    The Mesolithic-to-Neolithic transition marked the time when a hunter-gatherer economy gave way to agriculture, coinciding with rising sea levels. Bouldnor Cliff, is a submarine archaeological site off the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom that has a well-preserved Mesolithic paleosol dated to 8000 years before the present. We analyzed a core obtained from sealed sediments, combining evidence from microgeomorphology and microfossils with sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) analyses to reconstruct floral and faunal changes during the occupation of this site, before it was submerged. In agreement with palynological analyses, the sedaDNA sequences suggest a mixed habitat of oak forest and herbaceous plants. However, they also provide evidence of wheat 2000 years earlier than mainland Britain and 400 years earlier than proximate European sites. These results suggest that sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe.

  2. Environmental impact of the MV CITA on the foreshore of Porth Hellick, Isles of Scilly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola A

    2004-12-01

    The grounding of the container feeder vessel MV CITA on Newfoundland Rocks, Isles of Scilly, had an effect on the surrounding biota and benthic environment. Included in the CITA's cargo were five 40 ft containers holding pallets of polyester film used in the production of audio and visual recording tapes. The wreckage presented a minor but potentially chronic source of pollution through the delayed release of polythene film, which was left on the seabed as it was considered insufficiently valuable to warrant salvage. The polythene disintegrated and was washed upon the foreshore of Porth Hellick in minute shreds. The adjacent foreshore and two control sites within the islands were analysed using a 5-strand line and vegetation survey with 10 random quadrats within each line to determine the environmental impact of the polythene.

  3. Sobre algunas llaves «islámicas» = About some ‘Islamic’ keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jiménez Gadea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de las cinco llaves islámicas conservadas en el Museo de Segovia, algunas con leyendas en árabe, y de otras varias de la misma tipología y cronología conservadas en otros museos y colecciones. Se aportan nuevas lecturas de sus inscripciones y se realiza una aproximación tipológica, funcional y cronológica de estas piezas de carácter representativo y simbólico, encuadrables en la Plena y Baja Edad Media.Study of the five Islamic keys conserved in the Museo de Segovia, some of them with Arabic texts, and also about other ones of the same type and date. New readings of their inscriptions are provided and a typological, functional and chronological approach is offered for these Medieval keys having a representative and symbolic character.

  4. A Handover Strategy in the LEO Satellite-Based Constellation Networks with ISLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; GOU Dingyong; WU Shiqi

    2003-01-01

    A new handover strategy named minimal-hops handover(MHH) strategy for the low earth orbit(LEO) satellite constellations networks equipped with inter-satellite links(ISLs) is proposed.MHH strategy, which is based on the hops of the end-to-end connection paths and makes good use of the regularity of the constellation network topology, can appropriately combine the handover procedure with routing and efficiently solve the inter-satellite handover issue. Moreover, MHH strategy can provide quality of services( QoS) guarantees to some extent. The system performances of the MHH strategy, such as time propagation delay and handover frequency, are evaluated and compared with that of other previous strategies. The simulation results show that MHH strategy performs better than other previous handover strategies.

  5. Modelling Future Coronary Heart Disease Mortality to 2030 in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John; Kabir, Zubair; Bennett, Kathleen; Hotchkiss, Joel W; Kee, Frank; Leyland, Alastair H; Davies, Carolyn; Bandosz, Piotr; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Critchley, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Despite rapid declines over the last two decades, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in the British Isles are still amongst the highest in Europe. This study uses a modelling approach to compare the potential impact of future risk factor scenarios relating to smoking and physical activity levels, dietary salt and saturated fat intakes on future CHD mortality in three countries: Northern Ireland (NI), Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Scotland. CHD mortality models previously developed and validated in each country were extended to predict potential reductions in CHD mortality from 2010 (baseline year) to 2030. Risk factor trends data from recent surveys at baseline were used to model alternative future risk factor scenarios: Absolute decreases in (i) smoking prevalence and (ii) physical inactivity rates of up to 15% by 2030; relative decreases in (iii) dietary salt intake of up to 30% by 2030 and (iv) dietary saturated fat of up to 6% by 2030. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were then conducted. Projected populations in 2030 were 1.3, 3.4 and 3.9 million in NI, RoI and Scotland respectively (adults aged 25-84). In 2030: assuming recent declining mortality trends continue: 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 5.8-7.2%. 15% absolute reductions in physical inactivity levels could decrease CHD deaths by 3.1-3.6%. Relative reductions in salt intake of 30% could decrease CHD deaths by 5.2-5.6% and a 6% reduction in saturated fat intake might decrease CHD deaths by some 7.8-9.0%. These projections remained stable under a wide range of sensitivity analyses. Feasible reductions in four cardiovascular risk factors (already achieved elsewhere) could substantially reduce future coronary deaths. More aggressive polices are therefore needed in the British Isles to control tobacco, promote healthy food and increase physical activity.

  6. Modelling Future Coronary Heart Disease Mortality to 2030 in the British Isles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hughes

    Full Text Available Despite rapid declines over the last two decades, coronary heart disease (CHD mortality rates in the British Isles are still amongst the highest in Europe. This study uses a modelling approach to compare the potential impact of future risk factor scenarios relating to smoking and physical activity levels, dietary salt and saturated fat intakes on future CHD mortality in three countries: Northern Ireland (NI, Republic of Ireland (RoI and Scotland.CHD mortality models previously developed and validated in each country were extended to predict potential reductions in CHD mortality from 2010 (baseline year to 2030. Risk factor trends data from recent surveys at baseline were used to model alternative future risk factor scenarios: Absolute decreases in (i smoking prevalence and (ii physical inactivity rates of up to 15% by 2030; relative decreases in (iii dietary salt intake of up to 30% by 2030 and (iv dietary saturated fat of up to 6% by 2030. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were then conducted.Projected populations in 2030 were 1.3, 3.4 and 3.9 million in NI, RoI and Scotland respectively (adults aged 25-84. In 2030: assuming recent declining mortality trends continue: 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 5.8-7.2%. 15% absolute reductions in physical inactivity levels could decrease CHD deaths by 3.1-3.6%. Relative reductions in salt intake of 30% could decrease CHD deaths by 5.2-5.6% and a 6% reduction in saturated fat intake might decrease CHD deaths by some 7.8-9.0%. These projections remained stable under a wide range of sensitivity analyses.Feasible reductions in four cardiovascular risk factors (already achieved elsewhere could substantially reduce future coronary deaths. More aggressive polices are therefore needed in the British Isles to control tobacco, promote healthy food and increase physical activity.

  7. ISL1 protein transduction promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananeh Fonoudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to provide an unlimited source of cardiomyocytes, which are invaluable resources for drug or toxicology screening, medical research, and cell therapy. Currently a number of obstacles exist such as the insufficient efficiency of differentiation protocols, which should be overcome before hESC-derived cardiomyocytes can be used for clinical applications. Although the differentiation efficiency can be improved by the genetic manipulation of hESCs to over-express cardiac-specific transcription factors, these differentiated cells are not safe enough to be applied in cell therapy. Protein transduction has been demonstrated as an alternative approach for increasing the efficiency of hESCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes. METHODS: We present an efficient protocol for the differentiation of hESCs in suspension by direct introduction of a LIM homeodomain transcription factor, Islet1 (ISL1 recombinant protein into the cells. RESULTS: We found that the highest beating clusters were derived by continuous treatment of hESCs with 40 µg/ml recombinant ISL1 protein during days 1-8 after the initiation of differentiation. The treatment resulted in up to a 3-fold increase in the number of beating areas. In addition, the number of cells that expressed cardiac specific markers (cTnT, CONNEXIN 43, ACTININ, and GATA4 doubled. This protocol was also reproducible for another hESC line. CONCLUSIONS: This study has presented a new, efficient, and reproducible procedure for cardiomyocytes differentiation. Our results will pave the way for scaled up and controlled differentiation of hESCs to be used for biomedical applications in a bioreactor culture system.

  8. Genomic Variation of Inbreeding and Ancestry in the Remaining Two Isle Royale Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Kardos, Marty; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2017-03-01

    Inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry have traditionally been estimated with pedigree information, however, molecular genomic data can provide more detailed examination of these properties. For example, pedigree information provides estimation of the expected value of these measures but molecular genomic data can estimate the realized values of these measures in individuals. Here, we generate the theoretical distribution of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry for the individuals in the pedigree of the Isle Royale wolves, the first examination of such variation in a wild population with a known pedigree. We use the 38 autosomes of the dog genome and their estimated map lengths in our genomic analysis. Although it is known that the remaining wolves are highly inbred, closely related, and descend from only 3 ancestors, our analyses suggest that there is significant variation in the realized inbreeding and relatedness around pedigree expectations. For example, the expected inbreeding in a hypothetical offspring from the 2 remaining wolves is 0.438 but the realized 95% genomic confidence interval is from 0.311 to 0.565. For individual chromosomes, a substantial proportion of the whole chromosomes are completely identical by descent. This examination provides a background to use when analyzing molecular genomic data for individual levels of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry. The level of variation in these measures is a function of the time to the common ancestor(s), the number of chromosomes, and the rate of recombination. In the Isle Royale wolf population, the few generations to a common ancestor results in the high variance in genomic inbreeding. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reconstructing a multi-centennial drought history for the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Neil; Chiverrell, Richard; Todd, Beverley; Bowen, James; Lennard, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The last two decades have witnessed some of the most severe droughts experienced within living memory in the UK, but have these droughts really been exceptional? Relatively few instrumental river flow, groundwater or reservoir series extend beyond 50 years in length, with few precipitation series currently available extending over 100 years. These relatively short series present considerable challenges in determining current and future drought risk, with the results affecting society and the economy. This study uses long instrumental precipitation series coupled with the SPI and scPDSi drought indices to reconstruct drought histories from different parts of the British Isles. Existing long precipitation series have been reassessed and several new precipitation series reconstructed (e.g. Carlisle 1757), with eight series now over 200 years in length, and a further thirteen over 150 years, with further sites currently being developed (e.g. Norwich, 1749-; Exeter, 1724-). This study will focuses on the eight longest series, with shorter series used to help explore spatial and temporal variability across British Isles. We show how historical series have improved understanding of severe droughts, by examining past spatial and temporal variability and exploring the climatic drivers responsible. It shows that recent well documented droughts (e.g. 1976; 1996 and 2010) which have shaped both public and water resource managers' perceptions of risk, have historically been exceeded in both severity (e.g. 1781) and duration (e.g. 1798-1810); with the largest droughts often transcending single catchments and affecting regions. Recent droughts are not exceptional when considered within a multi-centennial timescale, with improved understanding of historical events raising concerns in contemporary water resource management.

  10. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  11. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Hecky, R. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Katsev, S.; Reavie, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  12. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion systems core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  13. Quaternary shorelines of the broader area of Cape Maleas - Neapolis - Elafonissos Isl. (SE Peloponnese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Tsodoulos, Ioannis; Tsivgoulis, Nikolaos; Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Valkanou, Kanella

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to provide information about the landscape evolution of the broader area of Cape Maleas - Neapolis - Elafonissos Isl. during the Quaternary. In order to investigate the geomorphic evolution of the study area the uplifted coastal landforms, such as shore platforms, notches and remnants of marine terraces, were studied in detail through extensive field-work using topographic diagrams at a scale of 1:5,000, obtained from the Hellenic Military Geographical Service. Additionally, a spatial database was constructed derived from analogue topographic maps at various scales (1:50,000 and 1:5,000), geological maps (1:50,000 maps of IGME), aerial photographs and Google earth images using GIS techniques. The study area is located in SE Peloponnese in a particularly tectonically active area. Geodynamic processes in the region, which is part of the Hellenic island arc, are related to the active subduction of the African lithosphere beneath the Eurasian plate. The Paleozoic basement of the study area consists of geological formations of the geotectonic units of Arna, Tripolis, and Pindus. The Alpine basement is overlain by extensive outcrops of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits. Upper Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene formations are composed of marine - lacustrine deposits which are mainly pelites, sandstones, conglomerates, calcarenites and carbonate rocks with red algae whereas Pleistocene formations consist of fluvioterrential deposits (clay, sands, loams and angular rock fragments). The Holocene deposits consist of talus cones, scree, and unconsolidated alluvial deposit, eluvial mantle materials and coastal sand dunes along the N, NE and S shoreline of Elafonissos Isl. as well as at Cape Punta. The general trend of the faults in the study area is mainly NW-SE with some secondary ones having NE-SW direction. Along the coast between Cape Koulendi and Cape Maleas, uplifted geomorphological features were mapped, including marine terraces, shore platforms and

  14. Modelling moose–forest interactions under different predation scenarios at Isle Royale National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason; Miranda, Brian R.; Sturtevant, Brian R.; Fox, Timothy J.; Romanski, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of top predators may contribute to high ungulate population densities and chronic over-browsing of forest ecosystems. However, spatial and temporal variability in the strength of interactions between predators and ungulates occurs over scales that are much shorter than the scales over which forest communities change, making it difficult to characterize trophic cascades in forest ecosystems. We applied the LANDIS-II forest succession model and a recently developed ungulate browsing extension to model how the moose population could interact with the forest ecosystem of Isle Royale National Park, USA, under three different wolf predation scenarios. We contrasted a 100-yr future without wolves (no predation) with two predation scenarios (weak, long-term average predation rates and strong, higher than average rates). Increasing predation rates led to lower peak moose population densities, lower biomass removal rates, and higher estimates of forage availability and landscape carrying capacity, especially during the first 40 yr of simulations. Thereafter, moose population density was similar for all predation scenarios, but available forage biomass and the carrying capacity of the landscape continued to diverge among predation scenarios. Changes in total aboveground live biomass and species composition were most pronounced in the no predation and weak predation scenarios. Consistent with smaller-scale studies, high browsing rates led to reductions in the biomass of heavily browsed Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, and Abies balsamea, and increases in the biomass of unbrowsed Picea glauca and Picea mariana, especially after the simulation year 2050, when existing boreal hardwood stands at Isle Royale are projected to senesce. As a consequence, lower predation rates corresponded with a landscape that progressively shifted toward dominance by Picea glauca and Picea mariana, and lacking available forage biomass. Consistencies with previously documented

  15. Constraining Early Cenozoic exhumation of the British Isles with vertical profile modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Daniel; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David

    2016-04-01

    Despite decades of research is the Early Cenozoic exhumation history of Ireland and Britain still poorly understood and subject to contentious debate (e.g., Davis et al., 2012 and subsequent comments). One reason for this debate is the difficultly of constraining the evolution of onshore parts of the British Isles in both time and space. The paucity of Mesozoic and Cenozoic onshore outcrops makes direct analysis of this time span difficult. Furthermore, Ireland and Britain are situated at a passive margin, where the amount of post-rift exhumation is generally very low. Classical thermochronological tools are therefore near the edge of their resolution and make precise dating of post-rift cooling events challenging. In this study we used the established apatite fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He techniques, but took advantage of the vertical profile approach of Gallagher et al. (2005) implemented in the QTQt modelling package (Gallagher, 2012), to better constrain the thermal histories. This method allowed us to define the geographical extent of a Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary cooling event and to show that it was centered around the Irish Sea. Thus, we argue that this cooling event is linked to the underplating of hot material below the crust centered on the Irish Sea (Jones et al., 2002; Al-Kindi et al., 2003), and demonstrate that such conclusion would have been harder, if not impossible, to draw by modelling the samples individually without the use of the vertical profile approach. References Al-Kindi, S., White, N., Sinha, M., England, R., and Tiley, R., 2003, Crustal trace of a hot convective sheet: Geology, v. 31, no. 3, p. 207-210. Davis, M.W., White, N.J., Priestley, K.F., Baptie, B.J., and Tilmann, F.J., 2012, Crustal structure of the British Isles and its epeirogenic consequences: Geophysical Journal International, v. 190, no. 2, p. 705-725. Jones, S.M., White, N., Clarke, B.J., Rowley, E., and Gallagher, K., 2002, Present and past influence of the Iceland

  16. Intercomparison of the Arctic sea ice cover in global ocean-sea ice reanalyses from the ORA-IP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Matthieu; Smith, Gregory C.; Dupont, Frédéric; Lemieux, Jean-François; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Hernandez, Fabrice; Msadek, Rym; Peterson, K. Andrew; Storto, Andrea; Toyoda, Takahiro; Valdivieso, Maria; Vernieres, Guillaume; Zuo, Hao; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Chang, You-Soon; Ferry, Nicolas; Garric, Gilles; Haines, Keith; Keeley, Sarah; Kovach, Robin M.; Kuragano, Tsurane; Masina, Simona; Tang, Yongming; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Wang, Xiaochun

    2017-08-01

    Ocean-sea ice reanalyses are crucial for assessing the variability and recent trends in the Arctic sea ice cover. This is especially true for sea ice volume, as long-term and large scale sea ice thickness observations are inexistent. Results from the Ocean ReAnalyses Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP) are presented, with a focus on Arctic sea ice fields reconstructed by state-of-the-art global ocean reanalyses. Differences between the various reanalyses are explored in terms of the effects of data assimilation, model physics and atmospheric forcing on properties of the sea ice cover, including concentration, thickness, velocity and snow. Amongst the 14 reanalyses studied here, 9 assimilate sea ice concentration, and none assimilate sea ice thickness data. The comparison reveals an overall agreement in the reconstructed concentration fields, mainly because of the constraints in surface temperature imposed by direct assimilation of ocean observations, prescribed or assimilated atmospheric forcing and assimilation of sea ice concentration. However, some spread still exists amongst the reanalyses, due to a variety of factors. In particular, a large spread in sea ice thickness is found within the ensemble of reanalyses, partially caused by the biases inherited from their sea ice model components. Biases are also affected by the assimilation of sea ice concentration and the treatment of sea ice thickness in the data assimilation process. An important outcome of this study is that the spatial distribution of ice volume varies widely between products, with no reanalysis standing out as clearly superior as compared to altimetry estimates. The ice thickness from systems without assimilation of sea ice concentration is not worse than that from systems constrained with sea ice observations. An evaluation of the sea ice velocity fields reveals that ice drifts too fast in most systems. As an ensemble, the ORA-IP reanalyses capture trends in Arctic sea ice area and extent

  17. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  18. Mortality of unionid bivalves (Mollusca) associated with Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.; Masteller, Edwin C.

    1999-01-01

    Two exotic species of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) began to colonize bottom substrates in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie in 1990. By 1991, all native unionid (Unionidae) shells were infested by dreissenids. In 1990 and 1991, about 500 individual unionids of 15 species were collected: in 1992, 246 individuals of 12 species were collected; in 1993, 64 individuals of 6 species; in 1994, three individuals of three species; and in 1995, no unionids were found. In general, infestation indices of unionids were relatively low in 1990 and 1991, increased in 1992, and decreased in 1993. Mortality of unionids associated with infestation in the bay occurred in a shorter period of time (ca. two to three years) than has been documented in other water bodies. Observations in an area of Presque Isle not included in the present study, indicate that a small remnant population of unionids exists in the presence of heavily-colonized substrates by dreissenid mussels. Since other shallow-water areas of Lake Erie support infestation-free unionids in the presence of dreissenid mussels, it is hoped that some unionids will survive in Presque Isle Bay of Lake Erie.

  19. Wave-Ice interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈奚海莉

    2001-01-01

    The growth and movement of sea ice cover are influenced by the presence of wave field. Inturn, the wave field is influenced by the presence of ice cover. Their interaction is not fully understood.In this paper, we discuss some current understanding on wave attenuation when it propagates through frag-mented ice cover, ice drift due to the wave motion, and the growth characteristics of ice cover in wave field.

  20. The Eroticism of Artificial Flesh in Villiers de L'Isle Adam's L'Eve Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pulham

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villiers de L'Isle Adam's 'L'Eve Future' published in 1886 features a fictional version of the inventor Thomas Edison who constructs a complex, custom-made android for Englishman Lord Ewald as a substitute for his unsatisfactory lover. Hadaly, the android, has a number of literary and cultural precursors and successors. Her most commonly accepted ancestor is Olympia in E. T. A. Hoffmann's 'The Sandman' (1816 and among her fascinating descendants are Oskar Kokoschka's 'Silent Woman'; Model Borghild, a sex doll designed by German technicians during World War II;‘Caracas' in Tommaso Landolfi's short story ‘Gogol's Wife' (1954; a variety of gynoids and golems from the realms of science fiction, including Ira Levin's 'Stepford Wives' (1972; and, most recently, that silicon masterpiece - the Real Doll. All, arguably, have their genesis in the classical myth of Pygmalion. This essay considers the tension between animation and stasis in relation to this myth, and explores the necrophiliac aesthetic implicit in Villiers's novel.

  1. Revision of the Xenacanthida (Chondrichthyes : Elasmobranchii) from the Carboniferous of the British Isles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampe, O. [Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Xenacanthids were a very successful group of elasmobranchs that ranged from the Lower Carboniferous to the Upper Triassic. The history of discovery of the xenacanthids, which is closely connected with the history of coal prospecting in England, began with the finding of the type specimen of Xenacanthus laevissimus in the Westphalian B of the West Midlands. In this first review of British Carboniferous xenacanthids, the number of taxa, mainly erected during Victorian times, is reduced to 14 species distributed among six genera. Determinable remains are recorded from at least 96 localities in the British Isles. Unique characteristics of the Dinantian Diplodoselache suggest that the lineage to which this taxon belongs marks a dead end in xenacanthid evolution. This investigation also shows that the Pendleian Dicentrodus, formerly described as Cladodus, belongs to the xenacanthids. The occurrence of Orthacanthus cf. kounoviensis in the Pennines, also known from the German Saar-Nahe basin, the Saale depression and from Bohemia, indicates a faunal exchange between these intramontainous basins during the Carboniferous. The genus Triodus is identified from British deposits for the first time. A cladistic analysis of the xenacanthids suggests that they evolved from phoebodontid elasmobranchs. This analysis also confirms separation of the Middle Devonian Antarctilamna from a relationship with xenacanthid sharks.

  2. Stem cell populations in the heart and the role of Isl1 positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Felice

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac progenitor cells are multipotent stem cells isolated from both embryonic and adult hearts in several species and are able to differentiate at least into smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. The embryonic origin of these cells has not yet been demonstrated, but it has been suggested that these cells may derive from the first and secondary heart fields and from the neural crest. In the last decade, two diffe-rent populations of cardiac progenitor or stem cells have been identified and isolated, i.e., the Islet1 positive (Isl1+ and c-Kit positive (c-Kit+/Stem Cell Antigen-1 positive (Sca-1+ cells. Until 2012, these two populations have been considered two separate entities with different roles and a different origin, but new evidence now suggests a con-nection between the two populations and that the two populations may represent two subpopulations of a unique pool of cardiac stem cells, derived from a common immature primitive cell. To find a common consensus on this concept is very important in furthe-ring the application of stem cells to cardiac tissue engineering.

  3. Stem cell populations in the heart and the role of Isl1 positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, V; Zummo, G

    2013-05-09

    Cardiac progenitor cells are multipotent stem cells isolated from both embryonic and adult hearts in several species and are able to differentiate at least into smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. The embryonic origin of these cells has not yet been demonstrated, but it has been suggested that these cells may derive from the first and secondary heart fields and from the neural crest. In the last decade, two diffe-rent populations of cardiac progenitor or stem cells have been identified and isolated, i.e., the Islet1 positive (Isl1+) and c-Kit positive (c-Kit+)/Stem Cell Antigen-1 positive (Sca-1+) cells. Until 2012, these two populations have been considered two separate entities with different roles and a different origin, but new evidence now suggests a con-nection between the two populations and that the two populations may represent two subpopulations of a unique pool of cardiac stem cells, derived from a common immature primitive cell. To find a common consensus on this concept is very important in furthe-ring the application of stem cells to cardiac tissue engineering.

  4. Eclipse-induced wind changes over the British Isles on the 20 March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The British Isles benefits from dense meteorological observation networks, enabling insights into the still-unresolved effects of solar eclipse events on the near-surface wind field. The near-surface effects of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 are derived through comparison of output from the Met Office’s operational weather forecast model (which is ignorant of the eclipse) with data from two meteorological networks: the Met Office’s land surface station (MIDAS) network and a roadside measurement network operated by Vaisala. Synoptic-evolution relative calculations reveal the cooling and increase in relative humidity almost universally attributed to eclipse events. In addition, a slackening of wind speeds by up to about 2 knots in already weak winds and backing in wind direction of about 20° under clear skies across middle England are attributed to the eclipse event. The slackening of wind speed is consistent with the previously reported boundary layer stabilization during eclipse events. Wind direction changes have previously been attributed to a large-scale ‘eclipse-induced cold-cored cyclone’, mountain slope flows, and changes in the strength of sea breezes. A new explanation is proposed here by analogy with nocturnal wind changes at sunset and shown to predict direction changes consistent with those observed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550759

  5. Changing politics, economics and relations on the small remote island of Fair Isle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Butler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper interprets changes which have taken place on Fair Isle, a small remote Scottish island, over the last half century, with a focus on how the interplay of external forces and local adjustments have produced a positive working relationship between local residents, visitors and those in authority over the island. The paper discusses the changes in the island’s governance and economy that the island residents have experienced and how life on the island has adjusted to major change over a fifty year period. The information and responses from resident surveys discussed were collected using identical household surveys conducted fifty years apart to provide a unique comparison on a longitudinal basis of changes in the economy and way of life on the island, including the emergence of tourism as the major driver of the economy This has taken place without the common antagonism or problems between residents and visitors in tourist destinations, reflecting the appropriate handling of mutual interests and concerns through political arrangements which have been supportive and sympathetic to residents and visitors.

  6. Postal survey of contacts between cattle farms on the Isle of Lewis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M C; Webb, C R; Heath, M F

    2010-01-09

    The British Cattle Movement Service (BCMS) database contains an unprecedented quantity of data on the movement of cattle within the UK. These data may be used to construct models of the contact structure of the UK cattle herd, for epidemiological purposes. There are two significant potential sources of inaccuracy within such models: movements that are not reported or are reported inaccurately to the BCMS, and contacts between farms that might transmit infection, but are not animal movements. This field study addressed these issues. Cattle farmers on the Isle of Lewis were recruited with the assistance of the local veterinary surgeon, and asked to record a range of potential risk behaviours for a one-month period. They were also asked questions about husbandry practices on their farm. Comparison of the BCMS contact data with that reported by Lewis' farmers highlighted use of common grazing land as a significant source of contact, and potential disease transmission, between cattle that currently goes unreported; around half of responding holdings on Lewis use common grazing land at some point during the year, and these movements are not reported to the BCMS.

  7. Eclipse-induced wind changes over the British Isles on the 20 March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S L; Harrison, R G

    2016-09-28

    The British Isles benefits from dense meteorological observation networks, enabling insights into the still-unresolved effects of solar eclipse events on the near-surface wind field. The near-surface effects of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 are derived through comparison of output from the Met Office's operational weather forecast model (which is ignorant of the eclipse) with data from two meteorological networks: the Met Office's land surface station (MIDAS) network and a roadside measurement network operated by Vaisala. Synoptic-evolution relative calculations reveal the cooling and increase in relative humidity almost universally attributed to eclipse events. In addition, a slackening of wind speeds by up to about 2 knots in already weak winds and backing in wind direction of about 20° under clear skies across middle England are attributed to the eclipse event. The slackening of wind speed is consistent with the previously reported boundary layer stabilization during eclipse events. Wind direction changes have previously been attributed to a large-scale 'eclipse-induced cold-cored cyclone', mountain slope flows, and changes in the strength of sea breezes. A new explanation is proposed here by analogy with nocturnal wind changes at sunset and shown to predict direction changes consistent with those observed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  8. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  10. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  11. Little Ice Age glaciers in Britain: Glacier–climate modelling in the Cairngorm Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan Harrison; Ann V. Rowan; Neil F. Glasser; Jasper Knight; Mitchell A. Plummer; Stephanie C. Mills

    2014-02-01

    It is widely believed that the last glaciers in the British Isles disappeared at the end of the Younger Dryas stadial (12.9–11.7 cal. kyr BP). Here, we use a glacier–climate model driven by data from local weather stations to show for the first time that glaciers developed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Cairngorm Mountains. Our model is forced from contemporary conditions by a realistic difference in mean annual air temperature of -1.5 degrees C and an increase in annual precipitation of 10%, and confirmed by sensitivity analyses. These results are supported by the presence of small boulder moraines well within Younger Dryas ice limits, and by a dating programme on a moraine in one cirque. As a result, we argue that the last glaciers in the Cairngorm Mountains (and perhaps elsewhere in upland Britain) existed in the LIA within the last few hundred years, rather than during the Younger Dryas.

  12. The paleohydrology of Lower Cretaceous seasonal wetlands, Isle of Wight, southern England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, V.P.; Taylor, K.G.; Beck, V.H.

    2000-05-01

    The floodplain deposits of the Wealden Group (Lower Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight, southern England, were formed in a seasonal wetland setting, a type of environment widespread today along higher-order tropical and subtropical river systems but rarely identified in the geological record. The unit consists of four main lithofacies: sheet sandstones with dinosaur footprint casts; green-gray mudstones with vertebrate remains, abundant lignite, pyrite, and siderite; spectacularly color-mottled mudstones with goethite and locally pseudo-anticlines; and red mudstones with pseudo-anticlines, hematite, and carbonate nodules. The sheet sandstones are interpreted as crevasse deposits; the green-gray mudstones were deposited in shallow ponds on the floodplain, which acted as sinks for debris released by local floods following wildfires; the mottled mudstones represent surface-water gley soils formed in seasonally waterlogged areas; and the red mudstones resemble present-day Vertisols that formed on topographically elevated areas only intermittently flooded. These mudstones show vertical transitions from one to another, and although they could be interpreted as components of simple catenas, the absence of associated facies changes implies that topographic differences were not the only control. It is proposed that these three mudstone types formed as seasonal wetland catenas, in which differences in soil drainage conditions resulted from variations in the flooding hydroperiod affecting areas with minor relief differences, rather than drainage variability simply reflecting static topographic differences. Such seasonal wetland systems are rarely documented in the stratigraphic record despite being a widespread environment in present-day tropical regions, and the Wealden deposits are used to identify criteria for the recognition of this important environment in the rock record. These southern English wetlands are compared with other Lower Cretaceous wetlands from northern Spain

  13. Constraining the onset of flood volcanism in Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkasa, Syahreza; Jerram, Dougal. A.; Svensen, Henrik; Millet, John M.; Taylor, Ross; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    In order to constrain eruption styles at the onset of flood volcanism, field observations were undertaken on basal sections of the Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province. This study investigates three specific sections; Camus Ban, Neist Point and Soay Sound which sample a large area about 1500 km2 and can be used to help explain the variability in palaeo-environments at the onset of flood volcanism. Petrological analysis is coupled with petrophysical lab data and photogrammetry data to create detailed facies models for the different styles of initiating flood basalt volcanism. Photogrammetry is used to create Ortho-rectified 3D models which, along with photomontage images, allow detailed geological observations to be mapped spatially. Petrographic analyses are combined with petrophysical lab data to identify key textural variation, mineral compositions and physical properties of the volcanic rocks emplaced during the initial eruptions. Volcanism initiated with effusive eruptions in either subaerial or subaqueous environments resulting in tuff/hyaloclastite materials or lava flow facies lying directly on the older Mesozoic strata. Volcanic facies indicative of lava-water interactions vary significantly in thickness between different sections suggesting a strong accommodation space control on the style of volcanism. Camus Ban shows hyaloclastite deposits with a thickness of 25m, whereas the Soay Sound area has tuffaceous sediments of under 0.1m in thickness. Subaerial lavas overly these variable deposits in all studied areas. The flood basalt eruptions took place in mixed wet and dry environments with some significant locally developed water bodies (e.g. Camus Ban). More explosive eruptions were promoted in some cases by interaction of lavas with these water bodies and possibly by local interaction with water - saturated sediments. We record key examples of how palaeotopography imparts a primary control on the style of volcanism during the

  14. Transferencias matrimoniales en el Occidente islámico medieval: las joyas como regalo de boda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomeño Rodríguez, Amalia

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes several legal cases concerning donations and loans of jewels in the context of the Islamic marriage in the Middle Ages. The bride receives gifts of jewels from her would-be husband that form part of her property thereafter. The father also offers a substantial contribution of jewels to her daughter, yet often this is given with the expectation of their being returned subsequent to the marriage ceremony. Two of the gifts studied here consist of a strand of pearls, gold earrings, and silver anklets. They are jewels described already in ethnographic studies as part of the adornment that the bride traditionally wears at weddings in the contemporary Maghreb.Este trabajo analiza varios casos en los que se reflejan problemas legales surgidos en torno a una donación o préstamo de joyas, dentro del contexto matrimonial islámico medieval. La novia, de hecho, recibe varios regalos que contienen joyas de manos de su marido, que formarán parte de sus propiedades después de su boda. Por otro lado, el padre entrega también un conjunto importante de joyas a su hija, pero es frecuente que le sean prestadas con la intención de que se le devuelvan posteriormente. Dos de los regalos que aquí se estudian contienen un sartal de aljófar, unos zarcillos de oro y unas ajorcas de plata. Todas ellas son joyas que han sido ya descritas en los trabajos de etnografía como parte de los adornos que la novia lleva tradicionalmente en su boda en el Magreb actual.

  15. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  16. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  17. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  18. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  19. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  20. Forecast Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The FIP algorithm uses...

  1. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  2. Ice Adhesion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Uses Evaluate and compare the relative performance of materials and surfcae coating based on their ability to aid in ice removal Test the effectiveness of de-icing...

  3. Imaging a fossil oolitic system with GPR, insights into the exposures of the Isle of Portland (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Julien; Hansen, Trine L.; Nielsen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The Isle of Portland shows exposure of uppermost Jurassic oolitic carbonate all along its coast. The stone of Portland properties are famous as standards for concrete composition, as building material but also for sculpture. As a consequence, the Isle has been quarried intensively for hundreds of years. The regional exposure quality is very high with a potential 3D control. The site has seen generations of geologist trainees coming for field work. The Wessex Basin where the Isle is sitting contains an active petroleum system and the geologists visiting/training there use the carbonates of Portland as an analogue to equivalent Middle-East oil and gas reservoir. Surprisingly, although the site has a tremendous potential to understand the 3D architecture and the sedimentary dynamic of an oolitic system, only punctual observations of logs (1D), sometimes correlated have been published. Several studies place a shore line between the Isle and the continent striking NEE-SWW and facing towards the Channel. Facies changes are attributed to rapid sea-level variations and Walter's Law. We have collected an extensive GPR survey of the same stratigraphic interval (The Portland Freestone). With a total of 99 GPR profiles, we have produced grids on top of most of the coastal cliffs and quarry faces. We have encountered 3 main architectures: 2-m-high bars with steep clinoforms, 10s of metres-wide channels plugged with a variety of organisms and stacked aggrading bundles of multidirectional dunesets. Our dataset does not illustrate any major unconformity which could be attributed to a sharp sea-level drop. We have interpreted our sedimentary architecture to be the result of various hydrodynamic conditions associated with a mix of wave and tide influences. The Isle shows an island barrier complex which progrades into the basin but also expands laterally filling up the available space and cannibalising itself. More proximal facies are effectively observed in the north of the island

  4. Floración del germoplasma de malanga isleña (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Con el objetivo de evaluar la emisión de inflorescencias en el germoplasma de malanga isleña (104 accesiones en las condiciones climáticas de Cuba, se desarrolló una investigación en el Instituto de Investigaciones de Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT. Durante los años 2013-2014 se realizaron muestreos cada 7 días para evaluar emisión de inflorescencias, se caracterizaron las accesiones de acuerdo con los descriptores relacionados con las inflorescencias. Los resultados apuntan a la floración natural del de 26 accesiones (25 %, de ellas 18 (69,2% florecen precozmente en los meses de julio hasta octubre, en los que hay un incremento de temperatura y la humedad relativa período a partir del cual se reduce la emisión de inflorescencias hasta noviembre cuando culmina el proceso de floración. Flowering of Malanga isleña germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schoot in Cuba ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the emission of inflorescences in the Malanga isleña germplasm (104 accessions in the climatic conditions of Cuba, an investigation was conducted in the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tubers Crops (INIVIT. During the years 2013-2014, were sampled every 7 days to evaluate emission of inflorescences, accessions were characterized according to the descriptors related to the inflorescences. The results point to the natural flowering of 26 accessions (25%, of which 18 (69.2% bloom early in the months of July to October, in which occurs an increase in temperature and relative humidity, period from which the inflorescences emission is reduced until November when the flowering process ends.

  5. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  6. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  7. Ice Cream Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ice cream headaches By Mayo Clinic Staff Ice cream headaches are brief, stabbing headaches that can happen when you eat, drink or inhale something cold. Digging into an ice cream cone is a common trigger, but eating or ...

  8. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  9. El legado islámico en los cuidados psiquiátricos. El Maristán de Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Vázquez, Alfonso; Mañá Ares, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Durante la Edad Media los musulmanes influyeron significativamente en las ciencias de la salud, iniciando un proceso de aglutinamiento del conocimiento existente y la inclusión de nuevas aportaciones. El objetivo del presente artículo es contextualizar la concepción de la locura y los cuidados realizados en la cultura islámica medieval y rememorar la estructura y organización del Maristán de Granada, institución sanitaria principal de al-Ándalus y fundada en 1367 por el emir Muhammad V. Con e...

  10. A escrita no Ensino Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pillon Christofoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464445865 O presente artigo trata de apresentar resultados oriundos de pesquisa realizada no Ensino Superior, enfocando a escrita em contextos universitários. Depoimentos por parte dos acadêmicos evidenciam certa resistência ao ato de escrever, o que acaba muitas vezes distanciando o sujeito da produção de um texto. Assim sendo, mesmo que parciais, os resultados até então analisados dão conta de que: pressuposto 1 – há ruptura da ideia de coerência entre o que pensamos, o que conseguimos escrever, o que entende nosso interlocutor; pressuposto 2 – a autocorreção de textos como exercício de pesquisa é imprescindível para a qualificação da escrita; pressuposto 3 – os diários de aula representam rico instrumento para a qualificação da escrita no Ensino Superior; pressuposto 4 – há necessidade de que o aluno do Ensino Superior escreva variados tipos de escrita, ainda que a universidade cumpra com seu papel, enfatizando a escrita acadêmica; pressuposto 5 – o trabalho com a escrita no Ensino Superior deve enfatizar os componentes básicos da expressão escrita: o código escrito e a composição da escrita. Palavras-chave: Escrita; Ensino Superior; formação de professores.

  11. A Smart City Application: A Fully Controlled Street Lighting Isle Based on Raspberry-Pi Card, a ZigBee Sensor Network and WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Leccese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field.

  12. A Smart City Application: A Fully Controlled Street Lighting Isle Based on Raspberry-Pi Card, a ZigBee Sensor Network and WiMAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Trinca, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field. PMID:25529206

  13. A smart city application: a fully controlled street lighting isle based on Raspberry-Pi card, a ZigBee sensor network and WiMAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Trinca, Daniele

    2014-12-18

    A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field.

  14. Results from a geophysical investigation of Lake Superior's ring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattrus, N. J.; Gustafson, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ring shaped depressions are widely developed on the lake floor of Lake Superior. They have not been widely reported elsewhere. The rings are typically between 200 and 300 m across and up to 5 m deep. The width of the depression ranges between 10 to 30 m. They often occur in closely spaced groups or networks but can also occur as isolated features. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the formation of these features; they include syneresis of the fine-grained lake floor sediments, polygonal faulting and dewatering of the lake floor sediments. High resolution bathymetric surveying with a multibeam sonar has revealed that they are comprised of pockmarks arranged in irregular polygonal patterns. Sidescan sonar images of the pockmarks often exhibit increased backscatter about the pock which could be interpreted as evidence of a lag-surface. High-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom profiling across the pocks occasionally reveal chimney-like structures below the lake floor pock. This evidence suggests that the rings were produced by the expulsion of fluid from the lake floor. This appears to have been a basin-wide event. The timing, duration and origin of this are not well known. Neither is the structure of the subsurface plumbing below these features. Here we present results from a geophysical survey conducted in northwestern Lake Superior off the western coast of Isle Royale where both isolated and grouped lake floor rings are well developed. The objectives of the survey were to define the geometry of the sub-surface plumbing below the rings and to possibly gain some insight into how these systems develop. The data collected included two high-resolution pseudo-3D single-channel seismic reflection datasets, one acquired with a small airgun and a second acquired with a CHIRP profiler. Multibeam and sidescan sonar data were also acquired as part of the survey. A 9 m piston core was collected in close proximity to a ring feature. This is used to determine the physical

  15. Temporal magma dynamics during solidification of the mafic-silicic complex of Isle au Haut, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Kaustubh

    The Isle au Haut Igneous Complex provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the in situ physical and chemical interactions between contemporaneously emplaced mafic and silicic magmas. The complex contains a 600 m thick sequence of 11 alternating layers of gabbro and diorite (typically 15--40 m thick). Purely on the basis of density contrasts (2.65 g/cm 3 gabbro vs. 2.55 g/cm3 diorite), the entire system should have undergone wholesale instability and mixing; it is instead arrested in a grossly unstable state of interaction while molten. Chilled margins along the lower contacts of the gabbros and structural integrity of the diorite layers indicate that near liquidus gabbroic magma invaded partly crystalline, cooler diorite. Mineral assemblages, chemical analyses, and phase equilibria calculations indicate initial temperatures during emplacement of ˜1180°C (gabbro) and ˜1000°C (diorite). Conductive thermal models yield solidification timescales of 15--60 years for individual gabbro layers and about a thousand years for the entire complex. There is ample evidence for two phases of small-scale interfacial Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities of dioritic melt into the gabbros. Phase I occurred immediately upon gabbro emplacement whereas evenly spaced, slender more silicic pipes represent a much later stage (Phase II). Pipe geometry and spacing, estimated viscosities of the gabbroic magma and silicic melt, and the sudden increase in silica near the upper contact of the diorite, all indicate a thin (˜18--53 cm) buoyant layer at the upper contact of the diorite as the source of the pipes. Compaction of the diorite produced this layer over a period of about ten years. Simultaneous solidification along the lower contact of the overlying gabbro, thickening inwards, increased viscosity enough to arrest pipe ascent after a few meters. Crystal size distribution (CSD) analyses of the gabbro layers yield crystal growth rates (G0 = 2--4 x 10-10 cm/s) and nucleation rates

  16. Holocene Evolution of Incised Coastal Channels on the Isle of Wight, UK: Interpretation via Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    Incised coastal channels are found in numerous locations around the world where the shoreline morphology consists of cliffs. The incised coastal channels found on the Isle of Wight, UK, are known locally as `Chines' and debouche (up to 45m) through the soft cliffs of the south west coast, maintaining steep side walls subject to deep-seated mass wasting. These canyons offer sheltered locations and bare substrate, providing habitat for plant (Philonotis marchica, Anthoceros punctatos) and invertebrate (Psen atratinus, Baris analis, Melitaea cinxi) species of international importance. The base level of the Chines is highly dynamic, with episodes of sea cliff erosion causing the rejuvenation of the channel network. Consequently a key factor in Chine evolution is the relative balance between rates of cliff retreat and headwards incision caused by knickpoint migration. Specifically, there is concern that if contemporary coastal retreat rates are higher than the corresponding rates of knickpoint recession, there will be long-term a reduction in the overall extent of the Chines and their associated habitats. In an attempt to provide a long-term context for these issues, in this poster we explore the Holocene erosional history of the Chines using a numerical landscape evolution model. The model includes a stochastic cliff recession function that controls the position of the outlet boundary. Knickpoint recession rates are simulated using a detachment-limited channel erosion law wherein erosion rate is a power function of drainage area and stream gradient with model parameters defined using empirically- derived data. Simulations are undertaken for a range of imposed boundary conditions representing different scenarios of long-term cliff retreat forced by Holocene sea-level rise, plausible scenarios corresponding to cases where simulated and observed Chine and landscape forms match. The study provides an example of how a landscape evolution model could be used to reconstruct

  17. Arctic ice management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Steven J.; Smith, Nathan; Groppi, Christopher; Vargas, Perry; Jackson, Rebecca; Kalyaan, Anusha; Nguyen, Peter; Probst, Luke; Rubin, Mark E.; Singleton, Heather; Spacek, Alexander; Truitt, Amanda; Zaw, Pye Pye; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2017-01-01

    As the Earth's climate has changed, Arctic sea ice extent has decreased drastically. It is likely that the late-summer Arctic will be ice-free as soon as the 2030s. This loss of sea ice represents one of the most severe positive feedbacks in the climate system, as sunlight that would otherwise be reflected by sea ice is absorbed by open ocean. It is unlikely that CO2 levels and mean temperatures can be decreased in time to prevent this loss, so restoring sea ice artificially is an imperative. Here we investigate a means for enhancing Arctic sea ice production by using wind power during the Arctic winter to pump water to the surface, where it will freeze more rapidly. We show that where appropriate devices are employed, it is possible to increase ice thickness above natural levels, by about 1 m over the course of the winter. We examine the effects this has in the Arctic climate, concluding that deployment over 10% of the Arctic, especially where ice survival is marginal, could more than reverse current trends of ice loss in the Arctic, using existing industrial capacity. We propose that winter ice thickening by wind-powered pumps be considered and assessed as part of a multipronged strategy for restoring sea ice and arresting the strongest feedbacks in the climate system.

  18. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology.

  19. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions....... On page 590 of this issue, MacGregor et al. (2) estimate the mean rates of snow accumulation and ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 9000 years based on an ice sheet-wide dated radar stratigraphy (3). They show that the present changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet are partly an ongoing...... response to the last deglaciation. The results help to clarify how sensitive the ice sheet is to climate changes....

  20. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik;

    2012-01-01

    is not shut down for its protection. We also found that there is a a large spread across the various turbines within a wind park, in the amount of icing. This is currently not taken into account by our model. Evaluating and adding these small scale differences to the model will be undertaken as future work....... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine......In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...

  1. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions....... On page 590 of this issue, MacGregor et al. (2) estimate the mean rates of snow accumulation and ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 9000 years based on an ice sheet-wide dated radar stratigraphy (3). They show that the present changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet are partly an ongoing...... response to the last deglaciation. The results help to clarify how sensitive the ice sheet is to climate changes....

  2. Icing Operations - De-Icing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of ice, frost and snow on aircraft surfaces can drastically reduce the climb and maneuvering capabilities of an aircraft. The removal of such contamination prior to take off MUST be strictly adhered to in accordance with regulations and standards. The policy with respect to aircraft icing contamination should be “MAKE IT CLEAN AND KEEP IT CLEAN”. All personnel associated with the dispatch and/or operation of aircraft share the responsibility for ensuring that no aircraft is dispatched unless it is clear of ice, snow or frost.

  3. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  4. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  5. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, M. M.; Savage, W. Z.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    1999-10-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt% dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ˜220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (˜220 m/s versus ˜110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations.

  6. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of three-dimensional shell habitats in coastal Louisiana presents a valuable and potentially self-sustaining approach to providing shoreline protection and critical nekton habitat and may contribute to water quality maintenance. The use of what has been called “living shorelines” is particularly promising because in addition to the hypothesized shoreline protection services, it is predicted that, if built and located in viable sites, these living shorelines may ultimately contribute to water quality maintenance through filtration of bivalves and may enhance nekton habitat. This approach, however, has not been tested extensively in different shallow water estuarine settings; understanding under what conditions a living shoreline must have to support a sustainable oyster population, and where these reefs may provide valuable shoreline protection, is key to ensuring that this approach provides an effective tool for coastal restoration. This project gathered preliminary data on the sustainability and shoreline stabilization of three large bioengineered fringing reefs located in Grand Isle, Lake Eloi, and Lake Fortuna, Louisiana. We collected preconstruction and postconstruction physiochemical and biological data by using a before-after-control-impact approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these living shoreline structures on reducing marsh erosion, enabling reef sustainability, and providing other ecosystem benefits. Although this project was originally designed to compare reef performance and impacts across three different locations over 2 years, delays in construction because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in reefs being built from 12 to 18 months later than anticipated. As a result, monitoring postconstruction was severely limited. One reef, Grand Isle, was completed in March 2011 and monitored up to 18 months postcreation, whereas Lake Eloi and Lake Fortuna reefs were not completed until January 2012, and only 8 months of

  7. Land Ice: Greenland & Antarctic ice mass anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from NASA's Grace satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica (left chart) has been...

  8. Dendrimer-Linked Antifreeze Proteins Have Superior Activity and Thermal Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Corey A; Drori, Ran; Zalis, Shiran; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2015-09-16

    By binding to ice, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) depress the freezing point of a solution and inhibit ice recrystallization if freezing does occur. Previous work showed that the activity of an AFP was incrementally increased by fusing it to another protein. Even larger increases in activity were achieved by doubling the number of ice-binding sites by dimerization. Here, we have combined the two strategies by linking multiple outward-facing AFPs to a dendrimer to significantly increase both the size of the molecule and the number of ice-binding sites. Using a heterobifunctional cross-linker, we attached between 6 and 11 type III AFPs to a second-generation polyamidoamine (G2-PAMAM) dendrimer with 16 reactive termini. This heterogeneous sample of dendrimer-linked type III constructs showed a greater than 4-fold increase in freezing point depression over that of monomeric type III AFP. This multimerized AFP was particularly effective at ice recrystallization inhibition activity, likely because it can simultaneously bind multiple ice surfaces. Additionally, attachment to the dendrimer has afforded the AFP superior recovery from heat denaturation. Linking AFPs together via polymers can generate novel reagents for controlling ice growth and recrystallization.

  9. Ice Jams in Alaska. Ice Engineering. Number 16, February 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    An ice jam is an accumulation of ice in rivers that restricts flow and can cause destructive floods costly to riv- erine communities. Freezeup jams...and reliable data on past ice jam events. The CRREL Ice Jam Database is such a com- pilation of freezeup and breakup ice jam events in the United

  10. Laurentide Ice Sheet dynamics in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, revealed through multibeam sonar mapping of glacial landsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian J.; Shaw, John

    2012-12-01

    accommodation space and velocity variations within the ice. The Isle Haute Moraine is a large lobate moraine; its age is poorly constrained by shells from glaciomarine sediments (13,750 ± 60 14C yr BP (cal BP 15,970-15,996 [0.03], 16,047-16,665 [0.97])) but the moraine may be coeval with the onset of a terrestrial ice margin established at the head of the Bay of Fundy by c. 14,300 14C yr BP (cal BP 16,824-17,013).

  11. Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Fetterer, F.; Knowles, K.; Meier, W.; Serreze, M.; Arbetter, T.

    2004-12-01

    Of all the recent observed changes in the Arctic environment, the reduction of sea ice cover stands out most prominantly. Several independent analysis have established a trend in Arctic ice extent of -3% per decade from the late 1970s to the late 1990s, with a more pronounced trend in summer. The overall downward trend in ice cover is characterized by strong interannual variability, with a low September ice extent in one year typically followed by recovery the next September. Having two extreme minimum years, such as what was observed in 2002 and 2003 is unusual. 2004 marks the third year in a row of substantially below normal sea ice cover in the Arctic. Early summer 2004 appeared unusual in terms of ice extent, with May a record low for the satellite period (1979-present) and June also exhibiting below normal ice extent. August 2004 extent is below that of 2003 and large reductions in ice cover are observed once again off the coasts of Siberia and Alaska and the Greenland Sea. Neither the 2002 or 2003 anomaly appeared to be strongly linked to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during the preceding winter. Similarly, the AO was negative during winter 2003/2004. In the previous AO framework of Rigor et al (2002), a positive winter AO implied preconditioning of the ice cover to extensive summer decay. In this hypothesis, the AO does not explain all aspects of the recent decline in Arctic ice cover, such as the extreme minima of 2002, 2003 and 2004. New analysis by Rigor and Wallace (2004) suggest that the very positive AO state from 1989-1995 can explain the recent sea ice minima in terms of changes in the Arctic surface wind field associated with the previous high AO state. However, it is also reasonable to expect that a general decrease in ice thickness accompanying warming would manifest itself as greater sensitivity of the ice pack to wind forcings and albedo feedbacks. The decrease in multiyear ice and attendant changes in ice thickness

  12. Glaciochemical investigations on the subterranean ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mountain, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Z.; Fórizs, I.; Horvatinčić, N.; Széles, É.; Bočić, N.; Nagy, B.

    2010-09-01

    The 3H activity, 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratio and concentration of 33 metals and metalloids have been analysed on ice core samples from the perennial subterranean cave ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mt. The tritium data suggested that the ice deposition at 2-2.4 m depth is build from precipitation fallen ~45 years before sampling and the uppermost ice layer could be estimated between early 1970s and early 1980s or between ~1954 and 1960. Both the fluctuation range of stable water isotopes and the derived isotopic waterline of the ice agree reasonably well with the corresponding data of the local precipitation. This fact predicts that the potential of Vukušić Ice Cave's ice deposit is superior for paleoclimatological studies to the nearby Ledena Pit. Principal component analysis helped to select three groups of elements. The Ca-Mg governed group (PC1) encompasses the bedrock related components; hence the fluctuation of these elements might reflect the past intensities of the dissolution process of the adjacent epikarst. The Zn governed group (PC2) preserves probably an atmospheric deposition signal and related to the emission of regional non-ferrous metallurgy. PC3 is governed by Al and Fe. This probably carries the distal, non-karstic crustal signal hence might be related to the past atmospheric circulation (i.e. wind direction and speed).

  13. Entidades fiscalizadoras superiores y accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS DE LA TESIS: El objetivo general del trabajo es establecer el nivel de eficacia de las Entidades Fiscalizadoras Superiores (EFS) como agencia asignada y herramienta de accountability horizontal, a través de la valoración de su diseño institucional y de la calidad de sus productos finales, los informes de auditoría, estableciéndose los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Relevar las nociones de accountability, actualizando el Estado del Arte de la cuestión. 2. Analizar la ...

  14. Kagome spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Paula

    Spin ice in magnetic pyrochlore oxides is a peculiar magnetic state. Like ordinary water ice, these materials are in apparent violation with the third law of thermodynamics, which dictates that the entropy of a system in thermal equilibrium vanishes as its temperature approaches absolute zero. In ice, a "zero-point" entropy is retained down to low temperatures thanks to a high number of low-energy positions of hydrogen ions associated with the Bernal-Fowler ice-rules. Spins in pyrochlore oxides Ho2Ti 2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 exhibit a similar degeneracy of ground states and thus also have a sizable zero-point entropy. A recent discovery of excitations carrying magnetic charges in pyrochlore spin ice adds another interesting dimension to these magnets. This thesis is devoted to a theoretical study of a two-dimensional version of spin ice whose spins reside on kagome, a lattice of corner-sharing triangles. It covers two aspects of this frustrated classical spin system: the dynamics of artificial spin ice in a network of magnetic nanowires and the thermodynamics of crystalline spin ice. Magnetization dynamics in artificial spin ice is mediated by the emission, propagation and absorption of domain walls in magnetic nanowires. The dynamics shows signs of self-organized behavior such as avalanches. The theoretical model compares favorably to recent experiments. The thermodynamics of the microscopic version of spin ice on kagome is examined through analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The results show that, in addition to the high-temperature paramagnetic phase and the low-temperature phase with magnetic order, spin ice on kagome may have an intermediate phase with fluctuating spins and ordered magnetic charges. This work is concluded with a calculation of the entropy of kagome spin ice at zero temperature when one of the sublattices is pinned by an applied magnetic field and the system breaks up into independent spin chains, a case of dimensional reduction.

  15. La apostasía en los ordenamientos confesionales judío e islámico en el marco de "los nuevos derechos"

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Se expone la consideración de la apostasía en los Derechos judío e islámico, y los problemas y posibles vías de solución que pueden plantearse entre estos Derechos y el Derecho secular de los Estados constitucionales de Derecho.

  16. Characterisation of a serotype O1 Yersinia ruckeri isolate from the Isle of Man: further evidence that O antigen serotype is not a reliable indicator of virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a routine disease surveillance exercise, a culture of the Gram negative bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri was obtained from one of 150 largely asymptomatic rainbow trout from a farm on the Isle of Man, an island off the North West coast of Great Britain. This is the first reported isol...

  17. An ice lithography instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  18. Monitoring and modeling to predict Escherichia coli at Presque Isle Beach 2, City of Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lake Erie shoreline in Pennsylvania spans nearly 40 miles and is a valuable recreational resource for Erie County. Nearly 7 miles of the Lake Erie shoreline lies within Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pa. Concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria at permitted Presque Isle beaches occasionally exceed the single-sample bathing-water standard, resulting in unsafe swimming conditions and closure of the beaches. E. coli concentrations and other water-quality and environmental data collected at Presque Isle Beach 2 during the 2004 and 2005 recreational seasons were used to develop models using tobit regression analyses to predict E. coli concentrations. All variables statistically related to E. coli concentrations were included in the initial regression analyses, and after several iterations, only those explanatory variables that made the models significantly better at predicting E. coli concentrations were included in the final models. Regression models were developed using data from 2004, 2005, and the combined 2-year dataset. Variables in the 2004 model and the combined 2004-2005 model were log10 turbidity, rain weight, wave height (calculated), and wind direction. Variables in the 2005 model were log10 turbidity and wind direction. Explanatory variables not included in the final models were water temperature, streamflow, wind speed, and current speed; model results indicated these variables did not meet significance criteria at the 95-percent confidence level (probabilities were greater than 0.05). The predicted E. coli concentrations produced by the models were used to develop probabilities that concentrations would exceed the single-sample bathing-water standard for E. coli of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters. Analysis of the exceedence probabilities helped determine a threshold probability for each model, chosen such that the correct number of exceedences and nonexceedences was maximized and the number of false positives and false negatives was

  19. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amery ice shelf DEM and its marine ice distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Amery Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. A new DEM was generated for this ice shelf, using kriging to interpolate the data from ICESat altimetry and the AIS-DEM. The ice thickness distribution map is converted from the new DEM, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. The Amery Ice Shelf marine ice, up to 230 m thick, is concentrated in the northwest of the ice shelf. The volume of the marine ice is 2.38×103 km3 and accounts for about 5.6% of the shelf volume.

  1. Ice Tank Experiments Highlight Changes in Sea Ice Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; DeCarolis, Giacomo; Ehlert, Iris; Notz, Dirk; Evers, Karl-Ulrich; Jochmann, Peter; Gerland, Sebastian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Hughes, Nick; Kern, Stefan; de la Rosa, Sara; Smedsrud, Lars; Sakai, Shigeki; Shen, Hayley; Wadhams, Peter

    2009-03-01

    With the current and likely continuing reduction of summer sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean, the predominant mechanism of sea ice formation in the Arctic is likely to change in the future. Although substantial new ice formation occurred under preexisting ice in the past, the fraction of sea ice formation in open water likely will increase significantly. In open water, sea ice formation starts with the development of small ice crystals, called frazil ice, which are suspended in the water column [World Meteorological Organization, 1985]. Under quiescent conditions, these crystals accumulate at the surface to form an unbroken ice sheet known in its early stage as nilas. Under turbulent conditions, caused by wind and waves, frazil ice continues to grow and forms into a thick, soupy mixture called grease ice. Eventually the frazil ice will coalesce into small, rounded pieces known as pancake ice, which finally consolidate into an ice sheet with the return of calm conditions. This frazil/pancake/ice sheet cycle is currently frequently observed in the Antarctic [Lange et al., 1989]. The cycle normally occurs in regions that have a significant stretch of open water, because this allows for the formation of larger waves and hence increased turbulence. Given the increase of such open water in the Arctic Ocean caused by retreating summer sea ice, the frazil/pancake/ice sheet cycle may also become the dominant ice formation process during freezeup in the Arctic.

  2. Ice-on-ice impact experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Iijima, Yu-Ichi; Arakawa, Masahiko; Okimura, Yasuyuki; Fujimura, Akio; Maeno, Norikazu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1995-02-01

    Impact experiments, cratering and fragmentation, on water ice were performed in order to test the scaling laws previously constructed on rocks and sands for studying the collision process in the planetary history. The installation of a vertical gas gun in a cold room at -18°C (255 K) made it possible to use a projectile of water ice and to get the detailed mass distribution of ice fragments. Experimental results indicated the necessity for large modification of those scaling laws. Material dependence was investigated by using projectiles of ice, aluminum, and polycarbonate. Differences were observed in the morphology and efficiencies of cratering and in the energies required to initiate the fragmentation. Moreover, an abrupt increase of cratering efficiency, suggesting a change of excavation mechanism, was found at a critical diameter of spalled crater. The mass (size) distribution of small ice fragments obeyed a power law with an exponent significantly larger than that in rocks. The exponent was the same as that in Saturn's ring particles estimated from the data by the microwave occultation, which indicates a collisional disruption ring origin.

  3. Small Airframe Manufacturer's Icing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppins, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the icing effects, risk mitigation practices, and icing certifications for various Cessna small aircraft models. NASA's role in the development of simulation tools for icing certifications is also discussed.

  4. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet S. H. Lorv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions.

  5. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  6. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  7. Teatralização do sagrado islâmico: a palavra, a voz e o gesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francirosy Campos Barbosa Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A proposta do artigo é apresentar um dos elementos performáticos da religião islâmica: a salat (oração islâmica. O modo como a salat é elaborada fisicamente, moldando o corpo do muçulmano, permite que esse seja visto como um veículo de comunicação entre o fiel e Deus. Nesse sentido, estabeleço uma proximidade entre o ator que repete, ensaia o seu papel várias vezes, e o muçulmano, que reza e se aprimora a cada oração. O argumento central do texto é que o aprimoramento do muçulmano (com o auxílio do comportamento restaurado deve levar em consideração o conhecimento da palavra, o uso da voz (vocalidade e o gesto. É no gesto da oração que percebemos a entrega desse muçulmano.This article presents the salat, an Islamic prayer and, at the same time, an important performatic element of Islamic religion. The salat is a corporeal elaboration that builds the Islamic body and allows us to see this body as a way of communication between God and the faithful. My analysis of the salat considers a close relation between the actor who repeats and rehearses his part in a play many times and the Muslim who prays and improves his performance each time he prays. My main argument is that the Muslim has to consider the knowledge of word, the voice and the gesture to improve his religious performance.

  8. Allah in Deutschland?”: representações da comunidade islâmica na revista Der Spiegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Maria Leal de Assunção Martinho Toldy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se apontar alguns elementos para a análise da forma como a comunidade islâmica na Alemanha é representada na revista Der Spiegel. O objetivo último é analisar como os meios de comunicação social espelham as potencialidades e os limites de alguns conceitos que têm sido fundamentais na modernidade e que parecem estar sendo questionados na pós-modernidade, nomeadamente, o próprio conceito de modernidade, mas também os de secularização e dos direitos humanos. Palavras-chave: Modernidade; colonialidade; secularização; gênero e direitos humanos. Resumen Se pretende señalar algunos elementos necesarios para analizar la manera en que la comunidad islámica en Alemania está representada en la revista Der Spiegel. El objetivo último es analizar cómo los medios de comunicación social reflejan las potencialidades y los límites de algunos conceptos que han sido fundamentales en la modernidad y que parecen estar cuestionados en la postmodernidad, principalmente el propio concepto de modernidad, pero también los conceptos de secularización y de los derechos humanos. Palabras-clave: Modernidad; colonialidad; secularización; género y derechos humanos. Abstract The text aims to identify some useful elements for the analysis of the representations of the Islamic community in Germany present in the magazine Der Spiegel. The final aim is to analyse how media reflect the potentialities and limits of some of the basic concepts of modernity which are under fire in postmodern times, such as “modernity” itself, but also “secularization” and “human rights”. Keywords: Modernity; coloniality; secularization; gender and human rights.

  9. Narrativa audiovisual, ontología y terrorismo: paradojas comunicativas en los videos del Estado Islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Rodríguez-Serrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza los procesos de significación e impacto global del material audiovisual generado por el autoproclamado Estado Islámico. Se trata, sin duda, de un objeto de estudio contemporáneo y de primer or-den, en cuanto gran parte de la crisis geopolítica en Oriente Próximo, así como los flujos migratorios hacia Europa, penden en este momento de las acciones bélicas de las fuerzas terroristas que emergieron de las llamadas primaveras árabes. Nuestra hipótesis de partida es que la técnica comunica-tiva de Estado Islámico no solo es una evolución salvaje de los propios pro-cesos comunicativos en las sociedades posmodernas, sino que, además, es profundamente paradójico e inconsistente en lo que a sus procesos de sig-nificación se refieren. Para analizar este material, se utilizará una metodolo-gía híbrida compuesta, en primer lugar, por una ontología política, en la que se rastrean las relaciones entre espectáculo, atrocidad, terrorismo y control político, incluyendo referencias a la existencia de la ley obscena como fundamento ideológico generador de mensajes. En segundo lugar, se repasarán someramente algunos de los recursos narrativos audiovisuales que generan significación en dichas piezas.

  10. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. Sometimes ... clear or white shiny rock (called a crystal). Meth powder can be eaten or snorted up the ...

  11. Ice Core Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  12. Making an Ice Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  13. Ice Core Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  14. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  15. Testing The Ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The country’s fourth scientific expedition tothe North Pole starts OBSERVATION STATIONS:Members of China’s fourth Arctic expedition set up polar bear-proof "apple houses" on the ice surface of the Arctic Ocean on August 8 The Chinese ice breaker Xuelong

  16. Rheology of glacier ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, K. C.; Alley, R. B.; Thomas, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new method for calculating the stress field in bounded ice shelves is used to compare strain rate and deviatoric stress on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The analysis shows that strain rate (per second) increases as the third power of deviatoric stress (in newtons/sq meter), with a constant of proportionality equal to 2.3 x 10 to the -25th.

  17. Rotating ice blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.

  18. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  19. Stacking disorder in ice I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Murray, Benjamin J; Salzmann, Christoph G; Molinero, Valeria; Pickering, Steven J; Whale, Thomas F

    2015-01-07

    Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history.

  20. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  1. Ice flow Modelling of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Tangaa

    simulations of the Greenland ice sheet using ice sheet models offers the possibility of deriving reconstructions of past ice sheet topography, flow and extent, consistent with the dynamics of ice flow and the imposed climate forcing. The large-scale response of the ice sheet modelled by such approaches can...... core derived temperature and precipitation histories have a long history of being used in studies of the past evolution of the Greenland ice sheet, acting as climatic forcing of the ice sheet models. However, the conversion from the isotopic records to past temperatures remain challenging, owing...... to both uncertain processes and depositional histories. Using five different temperature reconstructions derived from isotope records of Greenlandic ice cores, the influence of the paleo records on the simulated ice sheet was investigated using a high-resolution, large-scale ice sheet model (PISM...

  2. Direito islâmico e direito internacional: os termos de uma relação Islamic law and international law: the terms of a relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hikmat Nasser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O direito islâmico é pouco conhecido entre nós, mas a sua relevância é crescente. Este artigo pretende remediar em parte a falta e demonstrar em parte a relevância, apresentando o direito islâmico como um sistema jurídico diferenciado e discutindo suas características fundamentais. Estabelecida essa base de compreensão, o texto discute as relações possíveis, de complementar idade e detensão, entre o direito islâmico e os direitos nacionais, entre o direito islâmico e o direito internacional privado e entre o direito islâmico e o direito internacional público. Sendo o direito islâmico um conjunto normativo com vocação para reger todas as áreas da vida em sociedade e ocupando um lugar que lhe é ainda reservado por muitos estados, pode ser chamado a desempenhar papéis inesperados pelo jogo das regras de conflito de leis e de conflito de jurisdições do direito internacional privado, assim como pode afetar o desenvolvimento do direito internacional público, especialmente na medida em que influencia as suas fontes.Islamic law is virtually unknown among us and yet it is increasingly relevant. This paper intends to remedy, in part, the lack of familiarity and respond to the increased importance. It presents islamic law as a differentiated legal system and discusses the relations it may entertain, of complementarities and of tensions, with domestic legal systems, with private international law and with public international law. Because it is a set of legal norms that has a vocation to govern all sectors of life in society, and since it occupies spaces that are still reserved to it by many states, it may be called upon to perform unexpected roles, by the game of the rules of conflict of laws and of conflict of jurisdictions in private international law, as well as it may affect the development of public international law, specially as it influences the latter's sources.

  3. The seeding of ice algal blooms in Arctic pack ice: The multiyear ice seed repository hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lasse M.; Laney, Samuel R.; Duarte, Pedro; Kauko, Hanna M.; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Mundy, Christopher J.; Rösel, Anja; Meyer, Amelie; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Peeken, Ilka; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Róźańska-Pluta, Magdalena; Wiktor, Józef; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Hop, Haakon; Assmy, Philipp

    2017-07-01

    During the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015) from January to June 2015 the pack ice in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard was studied during four drifts between 83° and 80°N. This pack ice consisted of a mix of second year, first year, and young ice. The physical properties and ice algal community composition was investigated in the three different ice types during the winter-spring-summer transition. Our results indicate that algae remaining in sea ice that survived the summer melt season are subsequently trapped in the upper layers of the ice column during winter and may function as an algal seed repository. Once the connectivity in the entire ice column is established, as a result of temperature-driven increase in ice porosity during spring, algae in the upper parts of the ice are able to migrate toward the bottom and initiate the ice algal spring bloom. Furthermore, this algal repository might seed the bloom in younger ice formed in adjacent leads. This mechanism was studied in detail for the dominant ice diatom Nitzschia frigida. The proposed seeding mechanism may be compromised due to the disappearance of older ice in the anticipated regime shift toward a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean.

  4. 趣话ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奉越

    2002-01-01

    在英语中,ice是一个很普通的词,它的基本含义是“冰,冰块”。如:The sportsman slipped on the ice and one of his legs was broken.(这个运动员在冰上滑倒了,一条腿摔断了。)它还可指“冰淇淋”,相当于ice cream。如.After having two ices I felt uncomfortable.

  5. Stripping with dry ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Mechanical-type stripping using dry ice (solid CO2) consists in blasting particles of dry ice onto the painted surface. This surface can be used alone or in duplex according to type of substrate to be treated. According to operating conditions, three physical mechanisms may be involved when blasting dry ice particles onto a paint system: thermal shock, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical shock. The blast nozzle, nozzle travel speed, blast angle, stripping distance, and compressed air pressure and media flow rate influence the stripping quality and the uniformity and efficiency obtained.

  6. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  7. Ice nucleation terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the understanding of ice nucleation is being hampered by the lack of uniformity in how some terms are used in the literature. This even extends to some ambiguity of meanings attached to some terms. Suggestions are put forward here for common use of terms. Some are already well established and clear of ambiguities. Others are less engrained and will need a conscious effort in adoption. Evolution in the range of systems where ice nucleation is being studied enhances the need for a clear nomenclature. The ultimate limit in the clarity of definitions is, of course, the limited degree to which ice nucleation processes are understood.

  8. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  9. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  10. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-p-dioxin Concentrations in Double-crested Cormorant and Black-crowned Night-heron Eggs of Shooters Island and Isle of Meadows, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of eight Double-crested Cormorant and 10 Black-crowned Night-Heron eggs from Shooter's Island and the Isle of Meadows, respectively, were submitted for...

  11. Minas en colecciones de fetuas y casos jurídicos del Occidente islámico (ss. XII-XVI d.C.) : el problema de la propiedad de los yacimientos mineros

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delfina Serrano Ruano

    2010-01-01

    ... islámico medieval es muy escasa. Es cierto que los juristas musulmanes elaboraron un corpus de opiniones legales para regular la fiscalidad a la que estaban sujetas las minas y la propiedad de los yacimientos...

  12. Airports and Airfields, AIRPORTS - Engineering CAD files of McKinnon-St. Simons & Brunswick-Golden isles Airports converted to ESRI format., Published in Not Provided, Glynn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Airports and Airfields dataset current as of unknown. AIRPORTS - Engineering CAD files of McKinnon-St. Simons & Brunswick-Golden isles Airports converted to ESRI...

  13. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  14. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  15. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  16. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  17. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  18. Web life: Ice Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Computer and video gamers of a certain vintage will have fond memories of Lemmings, a game in which players must shepherd pixelated, suicidal rodents around a series of obstacles to reach safety. At first glance, Ice Flows is strikingly similar.

  19. A statistical model for Windstorm Variability over the British Isles based on Large-scale Atmospheric and Oceanic Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner-Bossi, Nicolas; Befort, Daniel J.; Wild, Simon B.; Ulbrich, Uwe; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2016-04-01

    Time-clustered winter storms are responsible for a majority of the wind-induced losses in Europe. Over last years, different atmospheric and oceanic large-scale mechanisms as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) have been proven to drive some significant portion of the windstorm variability over Europe. In this work we systematically investigate the influence of different large-scale natural variability modes: more than 20 indices related to those mechanisms with proven or potential influence on the windstorm frequency variability over Europe - mostly SST- or pressure-based - are derived by means of ECMWF ERA-20C reanalysis during the last century (1902-2009), and compared to the windstorm variability for the European winter (DJF). Windstorms are defined and tracked as in Leckebusch et al. (2008). The derived indices are then employed to develop a statistical procedure including a stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), aiming to hindcast the inter-annual (DJF) regional windstorm frequency variability in a case study for the British Isles. This case study reveals 13 indices with a statistically significant coupling with seasonal windstorm counts. The Scandinavian Pattern (SCA) showed the strongest correlation (0.61), followed by the NAO (0.48) and the Polar/Eurasia Pattern (0.46). The obtained indices (standard-normalised) are selected as predictors for a windstorm variability hindcast model applied for the British Isles. First, a stepwise linear regression is performed, to identify which mechanisms can explain windstorm variability best. Finally, the indices retained by the stepwise regression are used to develop a multlayer perceptron-based ANN that hindcasted seasonal windstorm frequency and clustering. Eight indices (SCA, NAO, EA, PDO, W.NAtl.SST, AMO (unsmoothed), EA/WR and Trop.N.Atl SST) are retained by the stepwise regression. Among them, SCA showed the highest linear

  20. Innovative Control Effectors (ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    including weight, maneuver performance, signa- ture, hydraulic requirements, demands on the flight control system (FCS) design, and car - rier (CV...applicable to the car - rier-based configurations. Figure 7-36 summarizes an assessment of the ICE series 101 configuration control allocation evaluation. ICE...plain leading edge flaps, all moving horizontal tails, rudder, two airbrakes under fuselage F-15C inner trailing edge plain flap, outer aileron, all

  1. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  2. Layered kagome spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp, James; Dutton, Sian; Mourigal, Martin; Mukherjee, Paromita; Paddison, Joseph; Ong, Harapan; Castelnovo, Claudio

    Spin ice materials provide a rare instance of emergent gauge symmetry and fractionalisation in three dimensions: the effective degrees of freedom of the system are emergent magnetic monopoles, and the extensively many `ice rule' ground states are those devoid of monopole excitations. Two-dimensional (kagome) analogues of spin ice have also been shown to display a similarly rich behaviour. In kagome ice however the ground-state `ice rule' condition implies the presence everywhere of magnetic charges. As temperature is lowered, an Ising transition occurs to a charge-ordered state, which can be mapped to a dimer covering of the dual honeycomb lattice. A second transition, of Kosterlitz-Thouless or three-state Potts type, occurs to a spin-ordered state at yet lower temperatures, due to small residual energy differences between charge-ordered states. Inspired by recent experimental capabilities in growing spin ice samples with selective (layered) substitution of non-magnetic ions, in this work we investigate the fate of the two ordering transitions when individual kagome layers are brought together to form a three-dimensional pyrochlore structure coupled by long range dipolar interactions. We also consider the response to substitutional disorder and applied magnetic fields.

  3. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  4. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  5. Assessing the British Isles CH4 flux using aircraft and ground-based sampling: a case study on 12 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Aircraft and ground-based sampling of atmospheric greenhouse gas composition over the British Isles was conducted between 2014 and 2016 as part of the Greenhouse gAs UK and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project. We report a case study focussing on two research aircraft flights conducted on 12 May 2015 to sample inflow and outflow across the British Isles. We have employed the NAME Lagrangian dispersion model to simulate CH4 mole fraction enhancements corresponding to aircraft and ground-based sample times and locations, using CH4 surface fluxes derived from a composite flux inventory, which included both anthropogenic and natural sources. For each sampling location, variations in the baseline CH4 mole fraction were derived using the MOZART global chemical transport model, and added to the NAME enhancements to produce a dataset of modelled CH4 mole fractions which can be compared to the measurements. Using a multiple variable regression technique, we derive CH4 fluxes for the British Isles region from both aircraft and ground-based datasets. We discuss the applicability of our approach for both datasets, and conclude that in this case the assumptions inherent in our method are much better satisfied for the aircraft data than for the ground-based data. Using the aircraft data we derive a possible range of scale factors for the prior inventory flux of 0.53 - 0.97, with a central estimate of 0.82 based on our assessment of the most likely apportionment of model uncertainty. This leads to a posterior estimate of the British Isles CH4 flux of 67 kg s-1 - 121 kg s-1, with a central value of 103 kg s-1.

  6. Combined Plyometric & Strength Training Improves Ice-hockey Players` On-ice Sprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dæhlin, Torstein E; Haugen, Ole C; Haugerud, Simen; Hollan, Ivana; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2016-12-05

    Combined plyometric and strength training have previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training has not been previously been compared to the effects of strength training only. To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with strength training only. Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions per week for 8 weeks. One group included plyometric exercises at the start of three sessions per week (PLY+ST), whereas the other group included core exercises in the same sessions (ST). Tests of 10- and 35 m skating sprints, horizontal jumping, 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) squat, skating multistage aerobic test (SMAT), maximal oxygen consumption, repeated cycle sprints and body composition were performed before and after the intervention. The participants increased their 1RM squat, lean mass and body mass (P training for 8 weeks was superior to strength training alone on improving 10 m on-ice sprint performance in high-level ice hockey players.

  7. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ice age, and iv) onset dates of melt and freezeup . 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice-albedo feedback to the observed decrease of...the impact on albedo evolution of ice concentration and melt and freezeup onset dates. This effort will expand on previous work by i) examining...radiation, ice concentration, ice type, and melt and freezeup onset dates on a 25 x 25 km equal area scalable grid. We have daily values of these parameters

  8. La cooptación del feminismo islámico en el euro-islam y la pérdida de la liberación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Merali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sostiene que ha habido un cambio definitivo y negativo en la trayectoria del llamado feminismo islámico. Este cambio se ha efectuado en gran parte en escenarios occidentalizados, en particular como parte del creciente discurso del euro-islam, el islam europeo, la indigenización del islam, etc., que es un discurso que viene no solamente de los gobiernos (aunque es replicado, aplaudido y recompensado por los gobiernos de la región, sino de la sociedad civil, los activistas y los intelectuales musulmanes mismos. Este artículo propone parámetros para el uso del término «feminismo islámico» sin dejar de reconocer lo problemático del mismo. El artículo concluye con una revaluación del proyecto feminista islámico en ciertas formas como un proyecto que ha sido secuestrado y usado para subvertir la meta de la liberación femenina en sí y de las mujeres musulmanas en particular negando a las musulmanas —y en consecuencia a todas las mujeres de color o a quienes se expresen en oposición política a las normas y políticas nacionales o internacionales de Occidente— el derecho a definir sus propios términos de liberación.

  9. Assessing changes in the Presque Isle Bay watershed fish community using a modified index of biotic integrity: before and after the elimination of combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Sean D; Lybrook, Jake; Kaczmarek, Karla M; Lethaby, Mark; Wellington, Robert; Pyron, Mark

    2013-12-01

    An index of biotic integrity and species richness were used to assess changes in the Presque Isle Bay watershed fish community before and after the elimination of combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The fish community was sampled with a backpack electrofisher in 2011 at 12 stream locations on 4 tributaries of Presque Isle Bay, Erie County, Pennsylvania. All sites were previously sampled in 2001. Significant increases in species richness and index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores were observed in 2011 compared to 2001. The significant increases in species richness and IBI scores occurred following the elimination of 10 CSOs to Garrison Run, 7 CSOs to Cascade Creek, and 37 CSOs to Mill Creek. Despite the increased richness and IBI scores, the fish community remains in poor condition, which may be related to the highly urbanized land use of the watershed. Urban land uses comprise 77% of the Presque Isle Bay watershed, and in both 2011 and 2001, the watershed as a whole did not meet warm-water habitat criteria. It is unlikely that the fish community will continue to recover without addressing urbanization throughout the watershed.

  10. El velo (el hiyab de las mujeres musulmanas: entre la ideología colonialista y el discurso islámico: una visión decolonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Lamrabet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El debate sobre el velo - Hijab - de las mujeres musulmanas, siempre ha sido central dentro del debate feminista contemporáneo y de ahí expresa el corazón del conflicto entre dos visiones antinómicas: la visión del discurso neo-orientalista y neo- occidental hegemónico y la de un cierto discurso islámico tradicionalista mayoritario. Para unos representa la opresión patriarcal mientras que para los otros es el símbolo último de la identidad islámica. El cuerpo de las mujeres musulmanas parece hoy encarnar el lugar de tensión entre las representaciones de la modernidad y las de la anti - modernidad. Este texto intenta una doble crítica y una deconstrucción desde una visión decolonial, tanto de la ideología feminista neo- orientalista dominante, como también de aquella visión en «espejo» del discurso islámico tradicionalista refractario a toda visión reformista.

  11. Las plantas que llegaron de Levante. Acerca del legado alimentario islámico en la Cataluña Medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riera Melis, Antoni

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During the High Middle Ages, the Islam encouraged a deep agricultural renewal in the lands between India and Península Ibérica. The new musulman agriculture introduced in the Western Mediterranean countries some unknown vegetable products, such as sugar-cane, rice, citrics, egg-plant and spinach. Between the 10th and 13th centuries, these five products played an important role in the andalusian cookery. In the Late Middle Ages, the Catalan adopted some islamic cultural elements. High Christian cookery introduced these new products to their own style and created new recepies quite different from their islamic models.

    Durante la Alta Edad Media, la expansión islámica estimuló una profunda renovación agraria en la franja de territorios comprendidos entre la India y la Península Ibérica. La nueva agricultura musulmana introdujo en el Mediterráneo Occidental especies vegetales desconocidas, como la caña de azúcar, el arroz, los cítricos, la berenjena y la espinaca. Estos cinco alimentos desempeñaron, entre los siglos X y XIII, un papel muy importante en la cocina andalusí. Los catalanes, en la Baja Edad Media, adoptaron bastantes elementos culturales islámicos. La alta cocina cristiana integró estos productos a su propio estilo, creando recetas bastante diferentes a los modelos islámicos.

  12. Arctic Summer Ice Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate the flux of heat and freshwater resulting from sea ice melt in the polar seas. The approach taken is to examine the decay of sea ice in the summer months primarily through the use of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The improved understanding of the dynamics of the melt process can be usefully combined with ice thermodynamic and upper ocean models to form more complete models of ice melt. Models indicate that more heat is absorbed in the upper ocean when the ice cover is composed of smaller rather than larger floes and when there is more open water. Over the course of the summer, floes disintegrate by physical forcing and heating, melting into smaller and smaller sizes. By measuring the change in distribution of floes together with open water over a summer period, we can make estimates of the amount of heating by region and time. In a climatic sense, these studies are intended to improve the understanding of the Arctic heat budget which can then be eventually incorporated into improved global climate models. This work has two focus areas. The first is examining the detailed effect of storms on floe size and open water. A strong Arctic low pressure storm has been shown to loosen up the pack ice, increase the open water concentration well into the pack ice, and change the distribution of floes toward fewer and smaller floes. This suggests episodic melting and the increased importance of horizontal (lateral) melt during storms. The second focus area is related to an extensive ship-based experiment that recently took place in the Arctic called Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). An icebreaker was placed purposely into the older pack ice north of Alaska in September 1997. The ship served as the base for experimenters who deployed extensive instrumentation to measure the atmosphere, ocean, and ice during a one-year period. My experiment will be to derive similar measurements (floe size, open

  13. 利用CRISPR/Cas9技术构建CreERT2定点敲入Isl1基因小鼠模型及分析%Construction and Analysis of CreERT2 Knock-in Mouse for Genetic Labling of Isl1+ Cardiac Progenitor Cells by CRISPR/Cas9 Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云鹤; 顾晓雯; 杨桦; 黄丹丹; 费俭

    2015-01-01

    心肌祖细胞增殖和分化是心脏损伤后修复再生的基础,而Isl1被认为是心肌祖细胞的特异性标志.为了研究以及示踪Isl1+心肌祖细胞及其分化后代,该文尝试利用成簇规律间隔短回文重复序列CRISPR/Cas9系统,将CreERT2定点插入到小鼠Isl1内源基因启动子之后,建立了CreERT2基因敲入小鼠模型.通过与Rosa26-loxP-neo-loxP-lacZ小鼠(Rosa26-lacZ+)交配,获得Isl1-CreERT(KI)/Rosa26-lacZ+双杂合小鼠.经过基因型鉴定、组织表达谱测定和X-gal染色、冰冻切片和石蜡切片等方法,确认基因敲入小鼠的CreERT2表达在成年小鼠心脏窦房结、心脏神经节、主动脉弓和肺动脉根部,与文献报道的Isl1表达部位相同.该研究建立的模型可为研究心肌祖细胞的增殖扣谱系示踪提供重要的模型.

  14. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  15. Nucleation of Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Valeria

    2009-03-01

    The freezing of water into ice is a ubiquitous transformation in nature, yet the microscopic mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of ice has not yet been elucidated. One of the reasons is that nucleation happens in time scales that are too fast for an experimental characterization and two slow for a systematic study with atomistic simulations. In this work we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations with the monatomic model of water mW[1] to shed light into the mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of ice and its relationship to the thermodynamics of supercooled water. Cooling of bulk water produces either crystalline ice or low- density amorphous ice (LDA) depending on the quenching rate. We find that ice crystallization occurs faster at temperatures close to the liquid-liquid transition, defined as the point of maximum inflection of the density with respect to the temperature. At the liquid-liquid transition, the time scale of nucleation becomes comparable to the time scale of relaxation within the liquid phase, determining --effectively- the end of the metastable liquid state. Our results imply that no ultraviscous liquid water can exist at temperatures just above the much disputed glass transition of water. We discuss how the scenario is changed when water is in confinement, and the relationship of the mechanism of ice nucleation to that of other liquids that present the same phase behavior, silicon [2] and germanium [3]. [4pt] [1] Molinero, V. & Moore, E. B. Water modeled as an intermediate element between carbon and silicon. Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2008). Online at http://pubs.acs.org/cgi- bin/abstract.cgi/jpcbfk/asap/abs/jp805227c.html [0pt] [2] Molinero, V., Sastry, S. & Angell, C. A. Tuning of tetrahedrality in a silicon potential yields a series of monatomic (metal-like) glass formers of very high fragility. Physical Review Letters 97, 075701 (2006).

  16. Declines in moose population density at Isle Royle National Park, MI, USA and accompanied changes in landscape patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, N. R.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate herbivores create patterns of forage availability, plant species composition, and soil fertility as they range across large landscapes and consume large quantities of plant material. Over time, herbivore populations fluctuate, producing great potential for spatio-temporal landscape dynamics. In this study, we extend the spatial and temporal extent of a long-term investigation of the relationship of landscape patterns to moose foraging behavior at Isle Royale National Park, MI. We examined how patterns of browse availability and consumption, plant basal area, and soil fertility changed during a recent decline in the moose population. We used geostatistics to examine changes in the nature of spatial patterns in two valleys over 18 years and across short-range and long-range distance scales. Landscape patterns of available and consumed browse changed from either repeated patches or randomly distributed patches in 1988-1992 to random point distributions by 2007 after a recent record high peak followed by a rapid decline in the moose population. Patterns of available and consumed browse became decoupled during the moose population low, which is in contrast to coupled patterns during the earlier high moose population. Distributions of plant basal area and soil nitrogen availability also switched from repeated patches to randomly distributed patches in one valley and to random point distributions in the other valley. Rapid declines in moose population density may release vegetation and soil fertility from browsing pressure and in turn create random landscape patterns. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  17. Population differences in susceptibility to stress in Littorina saxatilis from metal contaminated and uncontaminated sites in the Isle of Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The population of the intertidal gastropod Littorina saxatilis from Laxey estuary in the Isle of Man is exposed to mine-related contamination of Zn (and is tolerant to Zn and Pb) compared to those of Castletown, Derbyhaven, Peel and Ramsey.Tolerances to salinity and desiccation stress were assayed to test how metal tolerance could affect tolerance to general stress. The winkles were experimentally exposed to salinities of 0, 17 and 60 practical salinity units (psu) with 34 psu as control. Desiccation stress was determined by aerial exposure of the winkles at 24℃. No control mortalities were recorded and mortalities in 17 psu were less than 50% for all populations over a 24-day exposure period. L T50 values (mean±SD, n=5) at 0 psu ranged from 6.6±0.6 to 7.5 ±1.3 d for winkles from Ramsey and Laxey respectively. The values for 60 psu ranged from 7.0 ±0.7 to 8.4 ±0.9 d. No significant differences in LT50 values were obtained for the salinity exposures(ANOVA, P>0.05) but there was a significant difterence in tolerance to desiccation (P<0.01). The winkles from Laxey showed very high susceptibility to desiccation stress probably indicating a physiological trade-off to metal tolerance.

  18. An Enhancer Near ISL1 and an Ultraconserved Exon of PCBP2 areDerived from a Retroposon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejerano, Gill; Lowe, Craig; Ahituv, Nadav; King, Bryan; Siepel,Adam; Salama, Sofie; Rubin, Edward M.; Kent, W. James; Haussler, David

    2005-11-27

    Hundreds of highly conserved distal cis-regulatory elementshave been characterized to date in vertebrate genomes1. Many thousandsmore are predicted based on comparative genomics2,3. Yet, in starkcontrast to the genes they regulate, virtually none of these regions canbe traced using sequence similarity in invertebrates, leaving theirevolutionary origin obscure. Here we show that a class of conserved,primarily non-coding regions in tetrapods originated from a novel shortinterspersed repetitive element (SINE) retroposon family that was activein Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and terrestrial vertebrates) in theSilurian at least 410 Mya4, and, remarkably, appears to be recentlyactive in the "living fossil" Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeriamenadoensis. We show that one copy is a distal enhancer, located 500kbfrom the neuro-developmental gene ISL1. Several others represent new,possibly regulatory, alternatively spliced exons in the middle ofpre-existing Sarcopterygian genes. One of these is the>200bpultraconserved region5, 100 percent identical in mammals, and 80 percentidentical to the coelacanth SINE, that contains a 31aa alternativelyspliced exon of the mRNA processing gene PCBP26. These add to a growinglist of examples7 in which relics of transposable elements have acquireda function that serves their host, a process termed "exaptation"8, andprovide an origin for at least some of the highly-conservedvertebrate-specific genomic sequences recently discovered usingcomparative genomics.

  19. An unusual double supernumerary maxillary mesiodens in a Middle Iron Age skeleton from South Uist, Western Isles, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    Bilaterally occurring and fully erupted mesiodens occur infrequently in the modern population and have been little documented from past populations. This research presents an unusual case of a double maxillary mesiodens in the permanent dentition occurring in skeletal remains dating to the Middle Iron Age (250-410 AD) from South Uist, Western Isles of Scotland. Osteological analysis of an adult male included the inventory of teeth present/absent and analysis of dental pathologies (caries, calculus, periodontal disease, ante-mortem tooth loss, periapical abscesses), developmental defects and orthodontic anomalies (enamel hypoplastic defects, malposition, rotation, crowding, agenesis and supernumerary teeth). An unusual expression of double, fully erupted, mesiodens in the anterior permanent maxillary dentition representing supernumerary central incisors exists. The complete eruption had contributed to anterior displacement of one central incisor alveolar socket similar to documented modern clinical cases. Shallow sockets also implied an associated stunted development of the original central maxillary incisor roots. Occlusal enamel wear indicated the mesiodens had been abraded during mastication. Current clinical data suggest there is a much higher tendency for single mesiodens to exist rather than double and examples often fail to fully erupt into the dentition. This relative rarity may account for the few previous reports of this dental anomaly from past human remains and especially of this date. The fully erupted double example from South Uist contributes to the known evidence for orthodontic anomalies in the past. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial abundance in surface ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek eStibal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring microbial abundance in glacier ice and identifying its controls is essential for a better understanding and quantification of biogeochemical processes in glacial ecosystems. However, cell enumeration of glacier ice samples is challenging due to typically low cell numbers and the presence of interfering mineral particles. We quantified for the first time the abundance of microbial cells in surface ice from geographically distinct sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet, using three enumeration methods: epifluorescence microscopy (EFM, flow cytometry (FCM and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. In addition, we reviewed published data on microbial abundance in glacier ice and tested the three methods on artificial ice samples of realistic cell (10^2 – 10^7 cells ml-1 and mineral particle (0.1 – 100 mg/ml concentrations, simulating a range of glacial ice types, from clean subsurface ice to surface ice to sediment-laden basal ice. We then used multivariate statistical analysis to identify factors responsible for the variation in microbial abundance on the ice sheet. EFM gave the most accurate and reproducible results of the tested methodologies, and was therefore selected as the most suitable technique for cell enumeration of ice containing dust. Cell numbers in surface ice samples, determined by EFM, ranged from ca 2 x 10^3 to ca 2 x 10^6 cells/ml while dust concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2 mg/ml. The lowest abundances were found in ice sampled from the accumulation area of the ice sheet and in samples affected by fresh snow; these samples may be considered as a reference point of the cell abundance of precipitants that are deposited on the ice sheet surface. Dust content was the most significant variable to explain the variation in the abundance data, which suggests a direct association between deposited dust particles and cells and/or by their provision of limited nutrients to microbial communities on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  1. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  2. Pseudodisplacements of superior vena cava catheter in the persistent left superior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, H.; Draxler, V.; Muhar, U.; Schlemmer, M.; Waneck, R.

    1983-01-01

    Pseudodisplacement of a left sided superior vena cava catheter in a persistent superior vena cava may be expected in adults in 0,37% and in a group of children with congenital heart disease in 2,5%. Embryology, anatomy and clinical implications is discussed on the basis of our own cases. The vena cava superior sinistra persitents is depending on a sufficient calibre a suitable vessel for a superior cava catheter.

  3. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...... Science) Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model (Shaffer 2014) is forced by reconstructed time series of Antarctic temperature, global sea level and ocean subsurface temperature over the last two glacial cycles. In this talk a modelling work of the Antarctic ice sheet over most of the Cenozoic era using...

  4. BRITICE-CHRONO: A multi-method project to determine the timing and rates of change of a marine-influenced ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, Derek; Clark, Chris; Chiverrell, Richard; O'Cofaigh, Colm; Scourse, James; Hindmarsh, Richard

    2016-04-01

    BRITICE-CHRONO is a five-year Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded consortium of more than 44 researchers comprising glaciologists, marine and terrestrial Quaternary scientists and ice sheet-modellers, with the specific aim to systematically collect and date material to constrain the timing and rates of change of the marine-influenced sectors of the collapsing British Irish Ice Sheet (http://britice-chrono.org/). At the halfway point of the project we have collected over 400 cores during two 40-day research cruises circumnavigating the British Isles and Ireland, and completed over 300 person-days of terrestrial fieldwork, yielding around 15 tonnes of samples for dating by optically stimulated luminescence-, surface exposure-, and radiocarbon methods. By end 2016 we expect to have generated about 850 new dates from landforms associated with the deglaciation of the last British and Irish ice-sheet. The success of the project will in part depend on the team being able to provide ice-sheet modellers with robust chronological markers against which the ice-sheet models can be tested. The decision-making process in deciding robustness of ages derived from multiple samples and different Quaternary geochronological methods will be discussed. Some geochronological highlights thus far are that deglaciation of the northwest sector of the ice-sheet was in progress at 28ka, well before the global LGM, and the northern tip of mainland Scotland was ice free by 25ka. At the same time the Irish Sea ice stream in the south appears to have been advancing towards its maximum extend. Although deglaciation in the south commences much later, both the main southern and northern ice streams appear to have persisted for at least 10ka with final retreat onto the mainland occurring at approximately the same time (16ka).

  5. Data archaeology at ICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Harry D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the function of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), both past and present, in particular in the context of its interest in compiling oceanographic data sets. Details are provided of the procedures it adopted to ensure adequate internationally collaborative marine investigations during the first part of the century, such as how it provided a forum for action by its member states, how it coordinated and published the results of scientific programs, and how it provided a foundation, through scientists employed in the ICES Office, for the establishment of the original oceanographic marine databases and associated products, and the scientific interpretation of the results. The growth and expansion of this area of ICES activity is then traced, taking into account the changing conditions for oceanographic data management resulting from the establishment of the National Data Centres, as well as the World Data Centres for Oceanography, which were created to meet the needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Finally, there is a discussion of the way in which the very existence of ICES has proved to be a valuable source of old data, some of which have not yet been digitized, but which can be readily retrieved because they have been very carefully documented throughout the years. Lessons from this activity are noted, and suggestions are made on how the past experiences of ICES can be utilized to ensure the availability of marine data to present and future generations of scientists.

  6. IDEOLOGICALLY CHALLENGING ENTERTAINMENT (ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lori Chalmers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideologically Challenging Entertainment (ICE is entertainment that challenges ‘us vs. them’ ideologies associated with radicalization, violent conflict and terrorism. ICE presents multiple perspectives on a conflict through mainstream entertainment. This article introduces the theoretical underpinnings of ICE, the first ICE production and the audience responses to it. The first ICE production was Two Merchants: The Merchant of Venice adapted to challenge ideologies of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views. Each performance included two versions of the adaptation: a Jewish dominated society with an Arab Muslim minority, contrasted with an Arab Muslim dominated society and a Jewish minority. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views to become more tolerant of differences away from ideological radicalization. Of audience members who did not initially agree with the premise of the production, 40% reconsidered their ideological views, indicating increased tolerance, greater awareness of and desire to change their own prejudices. In addition, 86% of the audience expressed their intention to discuss the production with others, thereby encouraging critical engagement with, and broader dissemination of the message. These outcomes suggest that high quality entertainment – as defined by audience responses to it - can become a powerful tool in the struggle against radicalised ideologies.

  7. Ice Cores of the National Ice Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) is a facility for storing, curating, and studying ice cores recovered from the polar regions of the world. It provides...

  8. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  9. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  10. Glaciochemical investigations on the subterranean ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mountain, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kern

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The 3H activity, 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratio and concentration of 33 metals and metalloids have been analysed on ice core samples from the perennial subterranean cave ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mt. The tritium data suggested that the ice deposition at 2–2.4 m depth is build from precipitation fallen ~45 years before sampling and the uppermost ice layer could be estimated between early 1970s and early 1980s or between ~1954 and 1960. Both the fluctuation range of stable water isotopes and the derived isotopic waterline of the ice agree reasonably well with the corresponding data of the local precipitation. This fact predicts that the potential of Vukušić Ice Cave's ice deposit is superior for paleoclimatological studies to the nearby Ledena Pit. Principal component analysis helped to select three groups of elements. The Ca-Mg governed group (PC1 encompasses the bedrock related components; hence the fluctuation of these elements might reflect the past intensities of the dissolution process of the adjacent epikarst. The Zn governed group (PC2 preserves probably an atmospheric deposition signal and related to the emission of regional non-ferrous metallurgy. PC3 is governed by Al and Fe. This probably carries the distal, non-karstic crustal signal hence might be related to the past atmospheric circulation (i.e. wind direction and speed.

  11. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...... superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  12. Palaeoclimate science: Pulsating ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieli, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    During the last ice age, huge numbers of icebergs were episodically discharged from an ice sheet that covered North America. Numerical modelling suggests that these events resulted from a conceptually simple feedback cycle. See Letter p.332

  13. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  14. Ice at Mars lander site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Eight dice‐sized bits of ice vanished within 4 days from a trench dug on Mars by the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix lander, confirming what scientists suspected the material was. “It must be ice...

  15. Marginal Ice Zone Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    In Russian.) Kryndin, A.N., 1971: Seasonal and yearly variations in the iciness and the position of ice edge in the Black and Azov Seas, which are...p.2057--2063. idreas, E.L., R.M. Williams, C.A. Paulson, 1981: Observatinis of conden- sate profiles over Arctic leads with a hot- film anemometer...A.N., 1971: Seasonal and yearly variations in the iciness and the position of ice edge in the Black and Azov Seas, which are associated with

  16. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  17. Vacancy Concentration in Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1977-01-01

    Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10.......Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10....

  18. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  19. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  20. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  1. Millian superiorities and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2008-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority. And in a ......James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority...... of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  2. Measuring Financial Gains from Genetically Superior Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Dutrow; Clark Row

    1976-01-01

    Planting genetically superior loblolly pines will probably yield high profits.Forest economists have made computer simulations that predict financial gains expected from a tree improvement program under actual field conditions.

  3. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  4. Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaumont, Arthus; Pierret, Charles; de Kerangal, Xavier; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Laborde, François

    2014-08-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava is a very rare tumor and only a few cases have been reported, with various techniques of vascular reconstruction. We describe a new case of leiomyosarcoma of the superior vena cava in a 61-year-old woman with extension to the brachiocephalic arterial trunk. Resection and vascular reconstruction were performed using, respectively, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene terephtalate vascular grafts.

  5. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Rocha França Neto; Rodrigo de Almeida Paiva; Antônio Lacerda Filho; Fábio Lopes de Queiroz; Teon Noronha

    2011-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible wi...

  6. Identifying the heterogeneity of young adult rhinitis through cluster analysis in the Isle of Wight birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J; Zhang, Hongmei; Patil, Veeresh; Raza, Abid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Ewart, Susan; Arshad, S Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Rhinitis affects many young adults and often shows comorbidity with asthma. We hypothesized that young adult rhinitis, like asthma, exhibits clinical heterogeneity identifiable by means of cluster analysis. Participants in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (n = 1456) were assessed at 1, 2, 4, 10, and 18 years of age. Cluster analysis was performed on those with rhinitis at age 18 years (n = 468) by using 13 variables defining clinical characteristics. Four clusters were identified. Patients in cluster 1 (n = 128 [27.4%]; ie, moderate childhood-onset rhinitis) had high atopy and eczema prevalence and high total IgE levels but low asthma prevalence. They showed the best lung function at 18 years of age, with normal fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), low bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and low bronchodilator reversibility (BDR) but high rhinitis symptoms and treatment. Patients in cluster 2 (n = 199 [42.5%]; ie, mild-adolescence-onset female rhinitis) had the lowest prevalence of comorbid atopy, asthma, and eczema. They had normal lung function and low BHR, BDR, Feno values, and total IgE levels plus low rhinitis symptoms, severity, and treatment. Patients in cluster 3 (n = 59 [12.6%]; ie, severe earliest-onset rhinitis with asthma) had the youngest rhinitis onset plus the highest comorbid asthma (of simultaneous onset) and atopy. They showed the most obstructed lung function with high BHR, BDR, and Feno values plus high rhinitis symptoms, severity, and treatment. Patient 4 in cluster 4 (n = 82 [17.5%]; ie, moderate childhood-onset male rhinitis with asthma) had high atopy, intermediate asthma, and low eczema. They had impaired lung function with high Feno values and total IgE levels but intermediate BHR and BDR. They had moderate rhinitis symptoms. Clinically distinctive adolescent rhinitis clusters are apparent with varying sex and asthma associations plus differing rhinitis severity and treatment needs. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma

  7. Ice Cream Wars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAMMYTANG

    2004-01-01

    In early March, most Chinese can only vaguely sense a trace of warmth in the spring winds. For thecountry's ice cream producers however, the hot season has already arrived as they scramble for a niche position in thecountry's huge and lucrative

  8. Aircraft Icing Handbook. (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    at the 19th JALC Air Law Symposium, 1985. Sanderson , Janet. I., "Occurrence of Ice in the form of Glaze, Rime, and Hoarfrost with Respect to the...Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Jan. 1992. Brandon , J. M.; Manuel, G. S.; Wright, R. E.; Holmes, B. J., "In-Flight Flow Visualization Using Infrared

  9. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  10. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  11. Proceedings of ICED'09

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED'09, was held August 24-27 2009 at Stanford University, California, USA. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of development and design....

  12. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, J.;

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change...... estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper from 2002 to 2010 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor from 2010. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and thus have a significant impact on the estimate of the volume...... change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show...

  13. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Some of the largest changes to the sea ice cover are...Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover Don Perovich ERDC – CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755 Phone: 603-646-4255 Email: donald.k.perovich...quantitative understanding of the partitioning of solar radiation by the Arctic sea ice cover and its impact on the heat and mass balance of the ice and upper

  14. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Arctic sea ice cover and its impact on the heat and mass balance of the ice and upper ocean ... Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Some of the largest changes to the sea ice cover are...other parts of the Arctic ice cover appear to now be accelerating. Figure 6. Maps of the linear trend of annual solar heat input to the ocean

  15. Ice particle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampara, Naresh; Turnbull, Barbara; Hill, Richard; Swift, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Granular interactions of ice occur in a range of geophysical, astrophysical and industrial applications. For example, Saturn's Rings are composed of icy particles from micrometers to kilometres in size - inertial and yet too small to interact gravitationally. In clouds, ice crystals are smashed to pieces before they re-aggregate to for snow floccules in a process that is very much open to interpretation. In a granular flow of ice particles, the energy spent in collisions can lead to localized surface changes and wetting, which in turn can promote aggregation. To understand the induced wetting and its effects, we present two novel experimental methods which provide snippets of insight into the collisional behaviour of macroscopic ice particles. Experiment 1: Microgravity experiments provide minute details of the contact between the ice particles during the collision. A diamagnetic levitation technique, as alternative to the parabolic flight or falling tower experiments, was used to understand the collisional behaviour of individual macroscopic icy bodies. A refrigerated cylinder, that can control ambient conditions, was inserted into the bore of an 18 Tesla superconducting magnet and cooled to -10°C. Initial binary collisions were created, where one 4 mm ice particle was levitated in the magnet bore whilst another particle was dropped vertically from the top of the bore. The trajectories of both particles were captured by high speed video to provide the three-dimensional particle velocities and track the collision outcome. Introducing complexity, multiple particles were levitated in the bore and an azimuthal turbulent air flow introduced, allowing the particles to collide with other particles within a coherent fluid structure (mimicking Saturn's rings, or an eddy in a cloud). In these experiments, a sequence of collisions occur, each one different to the previous one due to the changes in surface characteristics created by the collisions themselves. Aggregation

  16. Superior oblique surgery: when and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Şekeroğlu H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu,1 Ali Sefik Sanac,1 Umut Arslan,2 Emin Cumhur Sener11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to review different types of superior oblique muscle surgeries, to describe the main areas in clinical practice where superior oblique surgery is required or preferred, and to discuss the preferred types of superior oblique surgery with respect to their clinical outcomes.Methods: A consecutive nonrandomized retrospective series of patients who had undergone superior oblique muscle surgery as a single procedure were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis, clinical features, preoperative and postoperative vertical deviations in primary position, type of surgery, complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The primary outcome measures were the type of strabismus and the type of superior oblique muscle surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the results of the surgeries.Results: The review identified 40 (20 male, 20 female patients with a median age of 6 (2–45 years. Nineteen patients (47.5% had Brown syndrome, eleven (27.5% had fourth nerve palsy, and ten (25.0% had horizontal deviations with A pattern. The most commonly performed surgery was superior oblique tenotomy in 29 (72.5% patients followed by superior oblique tuck in eleven (27.5% patients. The amount of vertical deviation in the fourth nerve palsy and Brown syndrome groups (P = 0.01 for both and the amount of A pattern in the A pattern group were significantly reduced postoperatively (P = 0.02.Conclusion: Surgery for the superior oblique muscle requires experience and appropriate preoperative evaluation in view of its challenging nature. The main indications are Brown syndrome, fourth nerve palsy, and A pattern deviations. Superior oblique surgery may be effective in terms of pattern collapse and correction of vertical deviations in primary

  17. A condição das mulheres no Islã: a questão da igualdade Islamic women's status: the question of equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïcha El Hajjami

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available No ocidente, o tema da condição das mulheres no Islã está ligado à representação que geralmente se faz do Islã e dos muçulmanos. É uma representação constituída por estereótipos, esquematizações reducionistas e por confusões conceituais. A realidade do Islã e das sociedades muçulmanas possui muito mais nuances e freqüentemente não corresponde às idéias estabelecidas. A condição de inferioridade e precariedade a que está confinada a maior parte das mulheres muçulmanas, revela principalmente a hegemonia de uma mentalidade e de um sistema patriarcal que instrumentaliza sua leitura da religião para legitimar as situações de dominação, de violência e de exclusão em relação às mulheres. Partindo desta constatação, a autora propõe uma outra leitura do Islã e uma reflexão sobre a noção de igualdade no Alcorão e Sunna, na sua relação com o contexto da revelação, as finalidades da Chari'a e as perspectivas de evolução que podem revelar o referencial islâmico. Este trabalho de base é passível de reduzir as distâncias entre os princípios de igualdade entre os sexos inscritos nas convenções internacionais e seu equivalente no Islã.The Western idea relative to Islamic women's status is linked to the representations generally held on Islam and Muslim people. These representantions are riddled by esterotypes, reductionist schemas and conceptual confusions. Islam and Muslim societies' reality is much more nuanced and common held ideas do not correspond to it. The inferior status and poverty in which most of Muslim women are confined show the hegemony of a mentality and a patriarchal system that uses its readings of religion in order to legitimate the domination, violence and exclusion of women. Beginning with this idea, the author proposes another reading of Islam and a reflection about the equality notions in the Coran and in the Sunna in the context of revelation, Chari'a objectives and the

  18. River ice jams at bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D. [New Brunswick Dept. of Transportation, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Beltaos, S. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2000-12-01

    Ice jamming, known to cause high water levels at even moderate river flows, is described as both the main and least understood source of ice-related bridge damages. This paper describes a joint study by the New Brunswick Department of Transportation, the Department of the Environment, local governments, and the National Water Research Institute, designed to address problems associated with the interaction of ice jams and bridges. The study consists of collecting information at each of four sites in New Brunswick including: historical data on ice jam locations, causes, and water levels; channel bathymetry, width and slope within each study centred at the respective bridge; and documentation of ice conditions throughout the ice season, including measurement of ice cover thickness, observation of breakup mechanisms, times, causes, characteristics and possible impacts of ice jam release. Data analysis will include determination of high stages due to ice jams or surges caused by upstream ice jam releases, scour potential of surges, and quantification of the structure's capacity to restrain ice movement and to cause jams. The principal objective of the study is to advance beyond empiricism and to develop rational design criteria for bridges by anticipating the effects of climate changes and by incorporating local meteorological and hydrometric records into bridge design for added safety.

  19. review of the archaeological evidence for food plants from the British Isles: an example of the use of the Archaeobotanical Computer Database (ABCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Tomlinson

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The Archaeobotanical Computer Database is an electronic compilation of information about remains of plants from archaeological deposits throughout the British Isles. For the first time, this wealth of published data, much of it post-dating Godwin's (1975 History of the British Flora has been brought together in a form in which the user can explore the history of a particular species or group of plants, or investigate the flora and vegetation of a particular archaeological period or part of the British Isles. The database contains information about the sites, deposits and samples from which the remains in question have been recovered, together with details of the plant parts identified and their mode of preservation. It also provides some interpretative guidance concerning the integrity of contexts and the reliability of dating as an aid to judging the quality of the data available. In this paper the compilers of the ABCD make use of the database in order to review the archaeological evidence for food plants in the British Isles. The paper begins with a definition of its scope, examining the concept of a "food plant" and the taphonomy of plant remains on British archaeological sites. It then summarises the principal changes in food plants from the prehistoric period to post-medieval times. The body of the paper is a detailed discussion of the evidence for the use of berries, other fruits, vegetables, pulses, herbs and flavourings, oil plants, cereals and nuts. Finally, the paper compares the archaeological evidence with that known from documentary sources. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps and will be able to explore aspects of the database online, enabling queries by taxa, site or worker. Instructions on obtaining electronic copies of the database tables and registering as an ABCD user are also included.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of Automated Ice Edge Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Mari-Ann N.; Isaksem, Hugo; Debien, Annekatrien

    2016-08-01

    The importance of highly detailed and time sensitive ice charts has increased with the increasing interest in the Arctic for oil and gas, tourism, and shipping. Manual ice charts are prepared by national ice services of several Arctic countries. Methods are also being developed to automate this task. Kongsberg Satellite Services uses a method that detects ice edges within 15 minutes after image acquisition. This paper describes a sensitivity analysis of the ice edge, assessing to which ice concentration class from the manual ice charts it can be compared to. The ice edge is derived using the Ice Tracking from SAR Images (ITSARI) algorithm. RADARSAT-2 images of February 2011 are used, both for the manual ice charts and the automatic ice edges. The results show that the KSAT ice edge lies within ice concentration classes with very low ice concentration or open water.

  1. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Using Ice Predictions to Guide Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    prevented the use of several airfields used for transporting personnel and equipment to the ice camp. The rapidly changing conditions of the ice ...of the ice cover. The age of the sea ice serves as an indicator of its physical properties including surface roughness, melt pond coverage, and...Sailors and members of the Applied Physics Laboratory Ice Station clear ice from the hatch of the submarine USS Connecticut (SSN 22) during Ice

  3. Synchronizing ice cores from the Renland and Agassiz ice caps to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Fischer, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Four ice cores from the Agassiz ice cap in the Canadian high arctic and one ice core from the Renland ice cap in eastern Greenland have been synchronized to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) which is based on annual layer counts in the DYE-3, GRIP and NGRIP ice cores. Volcanic...... reference horizons, seen in electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) have been used to carry out the synchronization throughout the Holocene. The Agassiz ice cores have been matched to the NGRIP ice core ECM signal, while the Renland core has been matched to the GRIP ice core ECM signal, thus tying...... the cores to GICC05. Furthermore, it has been possible to synchronize the Renland ice core to NGRIP-GICC05 in the glacial period back to 60,000 years b2k (years before A.D. 2000), on the basis of a matching of transitions between stadials and interstadials. This work brings the total number of ice core...

  4. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  5. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  6. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  7. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... conflict that gave impetus to the camp’s construction. Presented to the public as a scientific station and a technologically-advanced, under-ice extension of the American way of life, while situated in the titanic struggle between West and East, Camp Century took on a number of closed-world meanings....... However, the military logic of Camp Century was self-referential and closed in the sense that the very idea of constructing the city under ice emerged from Cold War strategy. The closed world of Camp Century established a temporary boundary between, on the one hand, the comfortable space controlled by US...

  8. Novel Ice Mitigation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    After the loss of Columbia, there was great concern in the Space Shuttle program for the impact of debris against the leading edges of the Orbiter wings. It was quickly recognized that, in addition to impacts by foam, ice that formed on the liquid-oxygen bellows running down the outside of the External Tank could break free during launch and hit this sensitive area. A Center Director s Discretionary Fund (CDDF) project would concentrate on novel ideas that were potentially applicable. The most successful of the new concepts for ice mitigation involved shape memory alloy materials. These materials can be bent into a given shape and, when heated, will return to their original shape.

  9. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  10. Ice anaesthesia in procedural dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shreya; Lowe, Patricia; Fischer, Gayle; Lim, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    This article presents findings from a survey of Australian dermatologists who were questioned about their preferred pain control methods when carrying out injectable procedures. We also present, what is to the best of our knowledge, the first proof-of-concept experiment exploring the relationship between ice-to-skin contact time and skin surface temperature, using both ice wrapped in latex and ice wrapped in aluminium foil. Of 79 dermatologists 32 responded to the survey (41% response rate): 31 (97%) injected botulinum toxin type A (BTA) for dynamic lines, 26 (81%) injected BTA for hyperhidrosis, and 24 (75%) injected skin fillers. Ice anaesthesia was the most common method of pain control (75%) followed by use of topical anaesthesia (50%) such as EMLA, compound agents and lignocaine 4%. Ice wrapped in latex or latex-like material was the most common ice packaging used by those surveyed and the median ice-to-skin contact time was 10 s. The ice experiment results indicated that ice wrapped with aluminium foil was equivalent to ice wrapped in latex for short contact times (skin temperature with longer contact times (> 20 s). These findings will be of relevance to cosmetic and paediatric dermatologists or any area of procedural medicine where effective non-injectable pain control is required.

  11. Ice Nucleation in Deep Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew; Stevens, David; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The processes controlling production of ice crystals in deep, rapidly ascending convective columns are poorly understood due to the difficulties involved with either modeling or in situ sampling of these violent clouds. A large number of ice crystals are no doubt generated when droplets freeze at about -40 C. However, at higher levels, these crystals are likely depleted due to precipitation and detrainment. As the ice surface area decreases, the relative humidity can increase well above ice saturation, resulting in bursts of ice nucleation. We will present simulations of these processes using a large-eddy simulation model with detailed microphysics. Size bins are included for aerosols, liquid droplets, ice crystals, and mixed-phase (ice/liquid) hydrometers. Microphysical processes simulated include droplet activation, freezing, melting, homogeneous freezing of sulfate aerosols, and heterogeneous ice nucleation. We are focusing on the importance of ice nucleation events in the upper part of the cloud at temperatures below -40 C. We will show that the ultimate evolution of the cloud in this region (and the anvil produced by the convection) is sensitive to these ice nucleation events, and hence to the composition of upper tropospheric aerosols that get entrained into the convective column.

  12. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffeld, M.; Wang, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers ...

  13. Mercury’s Ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The fiery planet Mercury, where the temperature at high noon can exceed 750°F, is not a place that you would expect to find ice. The closestplanet to the sun, this airless, cratered world appears devoid of any wa-ter. frozen or otherwise. But appearances can be deceiving, as proven by ateam of researchers from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Cali-fornia Institute of Technology.

  14. Helicopter Icing Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    c CD 4- Z~L ~ ~L)~ u)z ~ ~ -4 z 4~ - -Ia. LnCD 9- CD C. Ln -i L.. L. c0 000 - -4 0000 0 0 o 00 CL -4- CD CDC CDUz 9- V) ) -cc C oL CD r 0LiDr- uDI L...protection system involved. o Icing conditions frequently occur in very moist air masses blowing inland from warmer seas, such as the Gulf of Mexico , the

  15. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  16. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  17. Ecology under lake ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Planetary Ices Attenuation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christine; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    In this chapter, we review the topic of energy dissipation in the context of icy satellites experiencing tidal forcing. We describe the physics of mechanical dissipation, also known as attenuation, in polycrystalline ice and discuss the history of laboratory methods used to measure and understand it. Because many factors - such as microstructure, composition and defect state - can influence rheological behavior, we review what is known about the mechanisms responsible for attenuation in ice and what can be inferred from the properties of rocks, metals and ceramics. Since attenuation measured in the laboratory must be carefully scaled to geologic time and to planetary conditions in order to provide realistic extrapolation, we discuss various mechanical models that have been used, with varying degrees of success, to describe attenuation as a function of forcing frequency and temperature. We review the literature in which these models have been used to describe dissipation in the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, we address gaps in our present knowledge of planetary ice attenuation and provide suggestions for future inquiry.

  19. Endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Stevo; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract AIM: The aim of this study was to report our experience with palliative stent treatment of superior vena cava syndrome. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2009, 30 patients (mean age 60.7 years) were treated with stents because of stenosed superior vena cava. All patients presented...... there was an immediate clinical improvement with considerable reduction in the edema of upper extremities and head. There was, however, continous dyspnea in five patients (17%) and two patients (7%) had persistent visible collateral venous circulations on the upper chest. There were no stent associated complications...

  20. Natural zeolites filling amygdales and veins in basalts from the British Tertiary Igneous Province on the Isle of Skye, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana J M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Natural zeolites filling amygdales and veins in tertiary basaltic host rocks on the Isle of Skye (NW Scotland have been studied in some detail by transmitted light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques . The zeolites and associated minerals so identified in order of their relative time of formation from early to late were nontronite, amorphous silica phases, carbonate phases, chabazite, phillipsite, wairakite, thomsonite, analcime, natrolite and stilbite-type minerals . Zeolite formation in the Skye basalts began with low Si/Al ratio Na zeolites and a gradual increase in Ca content and Si/Al ratio, ending up as Ca zeolites . They were probably formed as a consequence of late-stage hydrothermal activity, although, locally, contact metamorphism may control the process of zeolite formation

    RESUMEN

    Las zeolitas naturales como relleno en amígdalas y venas que ocurren en rocas basálticas Terciarias de la Isla de Skye (NW Escocia han sido estudiadas en detalle por técnicas de microscopía de luz transmitida, microscopía electrónica de barrido y difracción de rayos X. Las zeolitas y los minerales asociados identificados, en orden de su tiempo relativo de formación, son nontronita, fases de sílice amorfa, carbonatos, chabazita, filipsita, wairakita, thomsonita, analcima, natrolita y minerales tipo estilbita. La formación de zeolitas en los basaltos de Skye comenzó con una zeolita rica en Na de baja relación Si/Al y con el aumento gradual en el contenido de Ca y Si/Al, terminó con una zeolita rica en Ca Estas probablemente se formaron como consecuencia de una actividad hidrotermal tardía, aunque localmente un metamorfismo de contacto pudo controlar el proceso de formación de las zeolitas

  1. Fram Strait Spring Ice Export and September Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedsrud, Lars H.; Halvorsen, Mari H.; Stroeve, Julienne; Zhang, Rong; Kloster, Kjell

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Basin exports between 600 000 - 1 million km² of it's sea ice cover southwards through Fram Strait each year, comparing to about 10% of the ice covered area inside the basin. During winter ice export results in growth of new and relatively thin ice inside the basin, while during summer or spring export contributes directly to open water further north. A new updated time series from 1935 to 2014 of Fram Strait sea ice area export shows that the long-term annual mean export is about 880,000 km², with large annual and decadal variability and no long-term trend over the past 80 years. Nevertheless, the last decade has witnessed increased annual ice export, with several years having annual ice export exceed 1 million km². Evaluating the trend onwards from 1979, when satellite based sea ice coverage became more readily available, reveals an increase in annual export of about +6% per decade. This increase is caused by higher southward ice drift speeds due to stronger southward geostrophic winds, largely explained by increasing surface pressure over Greenland. Spring and summer area export increased more (+11% per decade) than in autumn and winter. Contrary to the last decade the 1950 - 1970 period had low export during spring and summer, and mid-September sea ice extent was consistently higher than both before and after these decades. We thus find that export anomalies during spring have a clear influence on the following September sea ice extent in general, and that for the recent decade the export may be partially responsible for the accelerating decline in Arctic sea ice extent.

  2. Floating Ice-Algal Aggregates below melting Arctic Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Assmy; Jens K. Ehn; Mar Fernández-Méndez; Haakon Hop; Christian Katlein; Arild Sundfjord; Katrin Bluhm; Malin Daase; Anja Engel; Agneta Fransson; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Svein Kristiansen; Marcel Nicolaus; Ilka Peeken

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1 – 15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layer...

  3. Characterization of Ice Roughness Variations in Scaled Glaze Icing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Because of the significant influence of surface tension in governing the stability and breakdown of the liquid film in flooded stagnation regions of airfoils exposed to glaze icing conditions, the Weber number is expected to be a significant parameter governing the formation and evolution of ice roughness. To investigate the influence of the Weber number on roughness formation, 53.3-cm (21-in.) and 182.9-cm (72-in.) NACA 0012 airfoils were exposed to flow conditions with essentially the same Weber number and varying stagnation collection efficiency to illuminate similarities of the ice roughness created on the different airfoils. The airfoils were exposed to icing conditions in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Following exposure to the icing event, the airfoils were then scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm scanning system. The resulting point clouds were then analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger (2013) to determine the spatial roughness variations along the surfaces of the iced airfoils. The roughness characteristics on each airfoil were then compared using the relative geometries of the airfoil. The results indicate that features of the ice shape and roughness such as glaze-ice plateau limits and maximum airfoil roughness were captured well by Weber number and collection efficiency scaling of glaze icing conditions. However, secondary ice roughness features relating the instability and waviness of the liquid film on the glaze-ice plateau surface are scaled based on physics that were not captured by the local collection efficiency variations.

  4. Expanding understanding of optical variability in Lake Superior with a 4-year dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.; Grunert, Brice; Yu, Angela

    2017-07-01

    Lake Superior is one of the largest freshwater lakes on our planet, but few optical observations have been made to allow for the development and validation of visible spectral satellite remote sensing products. The dataset described here focuses on coincidently observing inherent and apparent optical properties along with biogeochemical parameters. Specifically, we observe remote sensing reflectance, absorption, scattering, backscattering, attenuation, chlorophyll concentration, and suspended particulate matter over the ice-free months of 2013-2016. The dataset substantially increases the optical knowledge of the lake. In addition to visible spectral satellite algorithm development, the dataset is valuable for characterizing the variable light field, particle, phytoplankton, and colored dissolved organic matter distributions, and helpful in food web and carbon cycle investigations. The compiled data can be freely accessed at https://seabass.gsfc.nasa.gov/archive/URI/Mouw/LakeSuperior/.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Vinson, Emily N.; Spritzer, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2%) of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%). In 10 (47.6%) of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum). In the remaining 11 (52.4%), surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven) and 4.8% (projected). However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra. PMID:27777474

  6. The Spitzer ice legacy: Ice evolution from cores to protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Broek, Saskia van den; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J

    2011-01-01

    Ices regulate much of the chemistry during star formation and account for up to 80% of the available oxygen and carbon. In this paper, we use the Spitzer c2d ice survey, complimented with data sets on ices in cloud cores and high-mass protostars, to determine standard ice abundances and to present a coherent picture of the evolution of ices during low- and high-mass star formation. The median ice composition H2O:CO:CO2:CH3OH:NH3:CH4:XCN is 100:29:29:3:5:5:0.3 and 100:13:13:4:5:2:0.6 toward low- and high-mass protostars, respectively, and 100:31:38:4:-:-:- in cloud cores. In the low-mass sample, the ice abundances with respect to H2O of CH4, NH3, and the component of CO2 mixed with H2O typically vary by <25%, indicative of co-formation with H2O. In contrast, some CO and CO2 ice components, XCN and CH3OH vary by factors 2-10 between the lower and upper quartile. The XCN band correlates with CO, consistent with its OCN- identification. The origin(s) of the different levels of ice abundance variations are cons...

  7. IceCube systematic errors investigation: Simulation of the ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resconi, Elisa; Wolf, Martin [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schukraft, Anne [RWTH, Aachen University (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory for astroparticle and astronomy research at the South Pole. It uses one cubic kilometer of Antartica's deepest ice (1500 m-2500 m in depth) to detect Cherenkov light, generated by charged particles traveling through the ice, with an array of phototubes encapsulated in glass pressure spheres. The arrival time as well as the charge deposited of the detected photons represent the base measurements that are used for track and energy reconstruction of those charged particles. The optical properties of the deep antarctic ice vary from layer to layer. Measurements of the ice properties and their correct modeling in Monte Carlo simulation is then of primary importance for the correct understanding of the IceCube telescope behavior. After a short summary about the different methods to investigate the ice properties and to calibrate the detector, we show how the simulation obtained by using this information compares to the measured data and how systematic errors due to uncertain ice properties are determined in IceCube.

  8. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  9. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, John; Korsgaard, Niels J.; KjæR, Kurt H.; BjøRk, Anders A.; Hurkmans, Ruud; Broeke, Michiel R.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Angelen, Jan H.

    2013-02-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003-2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper from 2002 to 2010 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor from 2010. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and thus have a significant impact on the estimate of the volume change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show a significant acceleration in mass loss at elevations above 1200 m. Both the improved mass loss estimate along the ice sheet margin and the acceleration at higher elevations have implications for predictions of the elastic adjustment of the lithosphere caused by present-day ice mass changes. Our study shows that the use of ICESat data alone to predict elastic uplift rates biases the predicted rates by several millimeters per year at GPS locations along the northwestern coast.

  10. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A; Hudson, Stephen R; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H H; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  11. Proceedings of the Airframe Icing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Ron O. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has a long history of working with its partners towards the understanding of ice accretion formation and its associated degradation of aerodynamic performance. The June 9, 2009, Airframe Icing Workshop held at GRC provided an opportunity to examine the current NASA airframe icing research program and to dialogue on remaining and emerging airframe icing issues and research with the external community. Some of the airframe icing gaps identified included, but are not limited to, ice accretion simulation enhancements, three-dimensional benchmark icing database development, three-dimensional iced aerodynamics modeling, and technology development for a smart icing system.

  12. Atmospheric Ice Accretion Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Virk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric icing on structures has proven to be an area of concern in many cold climate geographical regions like arctic and alpine. Difficulties encountered by the communication, construction and power industries in these areas are the subject of intense investigations for researchers from decades. Three main methods of investigation are generally employed by researchers to study atmospheric ice accretion on structures: a continuous field measurements, b lab based simulations using icing wind tunnel & c numerical modelling. This paper presents a brief review study of various techniques to understand and measure the atmospheric ice accretion on structures, anti/de icing techniques and important parameters for numerical modelling of atmospheric ice accretion.

  13. Optimization of the Medium for the Production of Extracellular Amylase by the Pseudomonas stutzeri ISL B5 Isolated from Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajesh Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of the present world. The use of microbial enzymes for sustainable management of the solid waste is the need of the time. In the present study, we have isolated a potent amylase producing strain (ISL B5 from municipal solid waste. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeri both biochemically and by 16S rDNA sequencing. The optimization studies revealed that the strain ISL B5 exhibited maximum activity in the liquid media containing 2% starch (2.77 U/ml, 0.8% peptone (2.77 U/ml, and 0.001% Ca2+ ion (2.49 U/ml under the pH 7.5 (2.59 U/ml, temperature 40°C (2.63 U/ml, and 25 h of incubation period (2.49 U/ml. The highest activity of crude enzyme has also been optimized at the pH 8 (2.49 U/ml.

  14. Génesis del fundamentalismo islámico. Auge de los movimientos islamistas globales con los ejemplos de Egipto y Argelia de 1979 a 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano López de Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la revolución islámica en Irán en 1979 y la invasión soviética a Afganistán en ese mismo año, se desarrolló un nuevo fenómeno dentro de la historia contemporánea, que es el auge del islamismo. Durante los años 90, él mismo se transformó en un movimiento de alcance global, expandiéndose por todo el globo, con enormes implicaciones para la seguridad, política y relaciones internacionales. Lo que este esquema pretende analizar es la razón o principios por los cuales surgieron movimientos integristas islámicos, el motivo de su radicalización, como su ideología afecta a la seguridad internacional, usando en este caso dos ejemplos claros, como son el de Argelia en el Magreb y el de Egipto en el Machreq. Se procederá a estudiar los casi 30 años de auge islamista, sus causas y motivaciones políticas, su modus operandi, su implicación en la política regional de Oriente Medio, así como su expansión y proselitismo a nivel internacional, en donde se encuadra una amplia y compleja actividad por parte de estos grupos.

  15. Matrimonio poligámico, inmigración islámica y libertad de conciencia en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Lema Tomé

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el derecho a contraer nupcias en situaciones de inmigración, mostrando las diferencias ideológicas que pueden ocurrir en los Estados de origen y destino en la forma de concebir el matrimonio. El artículo se centra en la experiencia de los inmigrantes islámicos en España. Un tema especialmente difícil es el matrimonio poligámico, institución arraigada en los países islámicos que ha planteado varios problemas, especialmente desde la perspectiva jurídica. La solución a la que se ha llegado en España procede de la vía jurisprudencial y tiene como punto de referencia dos casos: el de Diop, un inmigrante senegalés que fallece dejando dos viudas, y el de un trabajador marroquí, que había estado casado con dos mujeres a la vez durante un periodo, quien muere tras haberse divorciado de una de ellas

  16. Migrantes, pós-colonialismo e fundamentalismo: enlaces entre Oriente e Ocidente e a questão do Islã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S. Smaili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo foi abordado o enlace entre Oriente e Ocidente nas questões sociais e geopolíticas do século XX e início do XXI. Realiza-se uma breve análise sobre o colonialismo europeu e a sua construção considerando o mundo árabe e islâmico, os fluxos migratórios para os países centrais e a origem do fundamentalismo no Ocidente. As questões atuais se desdobram a partir da construção do orientalismo, da dominação política e econômica que levou à formação de estereótipos e preconceitos com o árabe e o islã. O objetivo é apresentar elementos para uma reflexão a respeito da migração dos árabes e muçulmanos no contexto das guerras e conflitos do século XX e início deste século. Também visa esclarecer a origem dos estereótipos e reforçar a necessidade do conhecimento do outro para que o diálogo e a coexistência estejam no centro do debate.

  17. Optimization of the Medium for the Production of Extracellular Amylase by the Pseudomonas stutzeri ISL B5 Isolated from Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prajesh; Deb, Akash

    2016-01-01

    The management of municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of the present world. The use of microbial enzymes for sustainable management of the solid waste is the need of the time. In the present study, we have isolated a potent amylase producing strain (ISL B5) from municipal solid waste. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeri) both biochemically and by 16S rDNA sequencing. The optimization studies revealed that the strain ISL B5 exhibited maximum activity in the liquid media containing 2% starch (2.77 U/ml), 0.8% peptone (2.77 U/ml), and 0.001% Ca2+ ion (2.49 U/ml) under the pH 7.5 (2.59 U/ml), temperature 40°C (2.63 U/ml), and 25 h of incubation period (2.49 U/ml). The highest activity of crude enzyme has also been optimized at the pH 8 (2.49 U/ml). PMID:28096816

  18. Ice cream with additional value

    OpenAIRE

    Melicharová, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarise current knowledge about production and properties of ice cream with an additional value. Nowadays, incorporation of probiotics is considered as the most intensively studied possibility for functional ice cream manufacture. Their viability depends on the kind of a microorganism, for example bifidobacteria are mostly less stable than lactobacilli in ice cream matrix. Lactobacillus acidophilus AB518, AK414, Lactobacillus agilis AA1773, AC1888 and L...

  19. THE INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    ICE was built during 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). ICE was a proton and antiproton storage ring, built to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project to be launched in 1978. More on the ICE experimental programme with 7802099. See also 7809081, 7908242.

  20. Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Ruddiman

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the major ice-sheet variations during the last 2.7 million years remains a mystery. Neither the dominant 41 000-year cycles in δ18O and ice-volume during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene nor the late-Pleistocene variations near 100 000 years is a linear (''Milankovitch'' response to summer insolation forcing. Both result from non-linear behavior within the climate system. Greenhouse gases (primarily CO2 are a plausible source of this non-linearity, but confusion has persisted over whether the gases force ice volume or are a positive feedback. During the last several hundred thousand years, CO2 and ice volume (marine δ18O have varied in phase both at the 41 000-year obliquity cycle and within the ~100 000-year eccentricity band. This timing argues against greenhouse-gas forcing of a slow ice response and instead favors ice control of a fast CO2 response. Because the effect of CO2 on temperature is logarithmic, the temperature/CO2 feedback on ice volume is also logarithmic. In the schematic model proposed here, ice sheets were forced by insolation changes at the precession and obliquity cycles prior to 0.9 million years ago and responded in a linear way, but CO2 feedback amplified (roughly doubled the ice response at 41 000 years. After 0.9 million years ago, as polar climates continued to cool, ablation weakened. CO2 feedback continued to amplify ice-sheet growth at 41 000-year intervals, but weaker ablation permitted ice to survive subsequent insolation maxima of low intensity. These longer-lived ice sheets persisted until peaks in northern summer insolation paced abrupt deglaciations every 100 000±15 000 years. Most ice melting during deglaciations was achieved by the same CO2/temperature feedback that had built the ice sheets, but now acting in the opposite direction. Several processes have the northern geographic origin, as well as the requisite orbital tempo and phasing, to have been the mechanisms by which ice sheets

  1. Climatic implications of ice microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

  2. Fluid dynamics of planetary ices

    CERN Document Server

    Greve, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The role of water ice in the solar system is reviewed from a fluid-dynamical point of view. On Earth and Mars, water ice forms ice sheets, ice caps and glaciers at the surface, which show glacial flow under their own weight. By contrast, water ice is a major constituent of the bulk volume of the icy satellites in the outer solar system, and ice flow can occur as thermal convection. The rheology of polycrystalline aggregates of ordinary, hexagonal ice Ih is described by a power law, different forms of which are discussed. The temperature dependence of the ice viscosity follows an Arrhenius law. Therefore, the flow of ice in a planetary environment constitutes a thermo-mechanically coupled problem; its model equations are obtained by inserting the flow law and the thermodynamic material equations in the balance laws of mass, momentum and energy. As an example of gravity-driven flow, the polar caps of Mars are discussed. For the north-polar cap, large-scale flow velocities of the order of 0.1...1 mm/a are likely...

  3. Ices in the Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah

    2008-05-01

    The centerpiece of this proposal is my hypothesis that other ices besides H2O help build giant planet cores. I propose a theory project on the ice composition of planet-forming regions and a related observing project on ice detection and mineralogy in debris disks. Together, the theory and observing projects will answer two questions: 1. Where are the condensation fronts of abundant volatiles located in relation to giant planet feeding zones? 2. How much does the presence of CHON ices in planetesimals speed up giant planet formation?

  4. Alternating current breakdown voltage of ice electret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshika, Y.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Okumura, T.; Muramoto, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Ice has low environmental impact. Our research objectives are to study the availability of ice as a dielectric insulating material at cryogenic temperatures. We focus on ferroelectric ice (iceXI) at cryogenic temperatures. The properties of iceXI, including its formation, are not clear. We attempted to obtain the polarized ice that was similar to iceXI under the applied voltage and cooling to 77 K. The polarized ice have a wide range of engineering applications as electronic materials at cryogenic temperatures. This polarized ice is called ice electret. The structural difference between ice electret and normal ice is only the positions of protons. The effects of the proton arrangement on the breakdown voltage of ice electret were shown because electrical properties are influenced by the structure of ice. We observed an alternating current (ac) breakdown voltage of ice electret and normal ice at 77 K. The mean and minimum ac breakdown voltage values of ice electret were higher than those of normal ice. We considered that the electrically weak part of the normal ice was improved by applied a direct electric field.

  5. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Ocean gliders Ahead of ice edge Upper ocean (0-200m) T, S, O2, bio- optics , currents During cruise CU-B UAF Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV...Under ice, up to 50km transects Ice thickness, floe-size distribution, waves, upper ocean properties ADCP, CTD, camera, multibeam sonar...WBMS broadband multibeam sonar, a Nortek 500 kHz AD2CP, and a hyperspectral radiometer. A Seabird Fastcat-49 CTD will also be added. This ROV will

  6. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    During winter, we use to spread salt to thaw ice on the streets. In a physics show, one can be almost sure that after showing this effect, the answer to what happens to temperature will be "it increases". But no! It goes down, in such amount that one can complement the show by producing hand-made ice creams [1].

  7. Eulerian method for ice crystal icing in turbofan engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The newer generations of high-bypass-ratio engines are susceptible to the ingestion of small ice crystals which may cause engine power loss or damage. The research presented in this thesis focusses on the development of a computational method for in-engine ice crystal accretion. The work has been ca

  8. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjeldsen, K.K.; Khan, S.A.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van Angelen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change est

  9. Ice storm `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulard, F.; Trant, D.; Filoso, J.; Van Wesenbeeck, P. [Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environment Statistics Program

    1998-12-31

    As much as 100 millimeters of freezing rain fell on central and eastern Canada between January 4 to 10, 1998. This study concentrates on Canada`s St. Lawrence River Valley where total precipitation exceeded 73 mm in Kingston, 85 mm in Ottawa and 100 mm in areas south of Montreal. By comparison, the largest previously recorded ice storms left between 30 and 40 mm of ice. A state of emergency was declared for the affected regions. 56 per cent of Quebec`s population and 11 per cent of Ontario`s population were affected by the storm. Over 1000 power transmission towers collapsed and more than 30,000 wooden utility poles were brought down. In Quebec, nearly 1.4 million customers were left without electricity. In Ontario that number was about 230,000. While some manufacturers benefited directly from the storm, including makers of hydro and telephone poles, batteries and specialized electrical equipment, the overall economic losses for Montreal and Ottawa were high as estimates run to $585 million and $114 million, respectively. Almost 5 million sugar maple taps in Quebec and Ontario were located and suffered some damage in the affected areas. Nearly one-quarter (274,000) of all dairy cows were also located in the affected areas. Since in the absence of electricity they could not be milked, many of them suffered from mastitis. Many succumbed, others that survived may never attain their former level of productivity. As of June 1998, over 600,000 insurance claims totaling one billion dollars had been filed by Canadian households and businesses from the area affected by the ice storm.1 fig.

  10. Albedo evolution of seasonal Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Polashenski, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    There is an ongoing shift in the Arctic sea ice cover from multiyear ice to seasonal ice. Here we examine the impact of this shift on sea ice albedo. Our analysis of observations from four years of field experiments indicates that seasonal ice undergoes an albedo evolution with seven phases; cold snow, melting snow, pond formation, pond drainage, pond evolution, open water, and freezeup. Once surface ice melt begins, seasonal ice albedos are consistently less than albedos for multiyear ice resulting in more solar heat absorbed in the ice and transmitted to the ocean. The shift from a multiyear to seasonal ice cover has significant implications for the heat and mass budget of the ice and for primary productivity in the upper ocean. There will be enhanced melting of the ice cover and an increase in the amount of sunlight available in the upper ocean.

  11. Sea Ice Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    aq pnoiqs suol)0!pOid AixoolQA 00! 191100 (1I ’uoTow poAlosqo aql jo lqlgti 04) ol a~xe juqp suotioaJip 4)!A% parto s~t S stqi pule ’spoods 001 a)tUJT...to provide information as ating characteristics of PIPS. These factors in- to processes and their scales (as ascertained by elude the vertical grid...warranted horizontal compression being compensated by at this time. Further investigation is needed. vertical motion. In the case of ice, upward The space

  12. Arctic Ice Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    jFigure 1. NIfS-7 SWr imagery frou 6 July 1983 portrays variat s i ie con.centra- tion across the experiental area Figure 2. Large floes in the East...and P. T. Shaw. Particle pathways in the and by European Community Commission contract CCE CLI-083 F. Gulf Stream. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.. 66, 1106...New York: Academic Press, 1981. pp. 29-62. ice in the arctic," inProc. 4th Symp. Remote Sensing of En viron., 1281 R. T. Lowry, private communication

  13. Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Ruddiman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the major ice-sheet variations during the last 2.7 million years is a long-standing mystery. Neither the dominant 41 000-year cycles in δ18O/ice-volume during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene nor the late-Pleistocene oscillations near 100 000 years is a linear ('Milankovitch' response to summer insolation forcing. Both responses must result from non-linear behavior within the climate system. Greenhouse gases (primarily CO2 are a plausible source of the required non-linearity, but confusion has persisted over whether the gases force ice volume or are a positive feedback. During the last several hundred thousand years, CO2 and ice volume (marine δ18O have varied in phase at the 41 000-year obliquity cycle and nearly in phase within the ~100 000-year band. This timing rules out greenhouse-gas forcing of a very slow ice response and instead favors ice control of a fast CO2 response. In the schematic model proposed here, ice sheets responded linearly to insolation forcing at the precession and obliquity cycles prior to 0.9 million years ago, but CO2 feedback amplified the ice response at the 41 000-year period by a factor of approximately two. After 0.9 million years ago, with slow polar cooling, ablation weakened. CO2 feedback continued to amplify ice-sheet growth every 41 000 years, but weaker ablation permitted some ice to survive insolation maxima of low intensity. Step-wise growth of these longer-lived ice sheets continued until peaks in northern summer insolation produced abrupt deglaciations every ~85 000 to ~115 000 years. Most of the deglacial ice melting resulted from the same CO2/temperature feedback that had built the ice sheets. Several processes have the northern geographic origin, as well as the requisite orbital tempo and phasing, to be candidate mechanisms for ice-sheet control of CO2 and their own feedback.

  14. Arctic Sea Ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic sea ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of sea-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/sea-ice-outlook) and the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international sea-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic sea ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of sea ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate sea ice from dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data

  15. Climate Impacts of Ice Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettelman, Andrew; Liu, Xiaohong; Barahona, Donifan; Lohmann, Ulrike; Chen, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Several different ice nucleation parameterizations in two different General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to understand the effects of ice nucleation on the mean climate state, and the Aerosol Indirect Effects (AIE) of cirrus clouds on climate. Simulations have a range of ice microphysical states that are consistent with the spread of observations, but many simulations have higher present-day ice crystal number concentrations than in-situ observations. These different states result from different parameterizations of ice cloud nucleation processes, and feature different balances of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. Black carbon aerosols have a small (0.06 Wm(exp-2) and not statistically significant AIE when included as ice nuclei, for nucleation efficiencies within the range of laboratory measurements. Indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds occur as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic sulfur emissions with different mechanisms important in different models. In one model this is due to increases in homogeneous nucleation fraction, and in the other due to increases in heterogeneous nucleation with coated dust. The magnitude of the effect is the same however. The resulting ice AIE does not seem strongly dependent on the balance between homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Regional effects can reach several Wm2. Indirect effects are slightly larger for those states with less homogeneous nucleation and lower ice number concentration in the base state. The total ice AIE is estimated at 0.27 +/- 0.10 Wm(exp-2) (1 sigma uncertainty). This represents a 20% offset of the simulated total shortwave AIE for ice and liquid clouds of 1.6 Wm(sup-2).

  16. Primary spectrum and composition with IceCube/IceTop

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    IceCube, with its surface array IceTop, detects three different components of extensive air showers: the total signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers and TeV muons in the deep array of IceCube. The spectrum is measured with high resolution from the knee to the ankle with IceTop. Composition and spectrum are extracted from events seen in coincidence by the surface array and the deep array of IceCube. The muon lateral distribution at the surface is obtained from the data and used to provide a measurement of the muon density at 600 meters from the shower core up to 30 PeV. Results are compared to measurements from other experiments to obtain an overview of the spectrum and composition over an extended range of energy. Consistency of the surface muon measurements with hadronic interaction models and with measurements at higher energy is discussed.

  17. A comparison of crushed ice and continuous flow cold therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F A

    2000-01-01

    Crushed ice was compared to continuous flow cold therapy for control of postoperative pain after arthroscopic patellar tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. With all other variables held constant, cold was administered by either continuous flow (group 1) or crushed ice (group 2). The cold therapy was constant for 3 days, then as needed in days 4 through 7. Data were collected by investigator evaluations and patient diaries. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and categorical pain scale (Likert). Eighty-seven patients were included (52 continuous flow and 35 crushed ice). Continuous passive motion averaged 54 hours for group 1 and 43 hours for group 2 (Pcold therapy lowered VAS and Likert pain scores more, reduced hydrocodone bitartrate with acetaminophen use, was used more often, increased continuous passive motion, increased 1-week knee flexion, and was given significantly higher performance ratings by patients. Continuous flow cold is superior to crushed ice for outpatient ACL reconstruction pain and should not be considered an equivalent modality.

  18. Arctic sea-ice ridges—Safe heavens for sea-ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of enhanced summer ice melt. Previous estimates of Arctic sea ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods on regional and pan-Arctic scales likely underestimate abundances at least in summer because they typically do not include pressure ridges.

  19. Grease ice in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models

    OpenAIRE

    Lars H. Smedsrud; Martin, Torge

    2015-01-01

    The first stage of sea-ice formation is often grease ice, a mixture of sea water and frazil ice crystals. Over time, grease ice typically congeals first to pancake ice floes and then to a solid sea-ice cover. Grease ice is commonly not explicitly simulated in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models, though it affects oceanic heat loss and ice growth and is expected to play a greater role in a more seasonally icecovered Arctic Ocean. We present an approach to simulate the grease-ice layer with, as ba...

  20. Emplacement and Solidification of Inter-Layerd Silicic and Mafic Magmas, Isle au Haut Igneous Complex, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, K.; Marsh, B. D.

    2006-05-01

    The Isle au Haut Igneous Complex, Maine, presents an intriguing association of basaltic and granitic rocks in the form of a composite layered sequence of alternating gabbroic and dioritic units. The 413 Ma complex may have formed by periodic replenishment or invasion of mafic magma into an evolving, more silicic magma chamber (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; JVGR). The interaction of a denser magma overlying a less dense magma promotes Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI), resulting in overturning initiated through pipes and the eventual formation of a stable configuration of diorite over gabbro (Chapman & Rhodes, 1992; JVGR). Field exposures on the southern parts of the island covering a 160 m section through the sequence shows four gabbroic-dioritic pairs (i.e., gabbro over diorite) exhibiting strong interaction between the two in the forms of diapiric pipes of diorite intruding gabbro and gabbro pillows caught in diorite. It is clear that the two magmas were simultaneously molten, and this presents an opportunity to observe the physics and chemistry of interaction between gabbroic magma and partly molten diorite. Emplacement of denser, sill like gabbroic magma over solidifying, less dense dioritic magma may also have given rise to structures resembling load casts and flame structures common to sedimentary rocks. That the diorite was significantly solidified (e.g., ~55% crystals) at the time of intrusion of the gabbroic magma is reflected in field and textural relationships suggesting that overturning due to gravitational instability was initiated but did not go to completion. That is, the diorite was strong enough to act as a rigid medium for gabbro emplacement and subsequent support without wholesale mixing, but at the same time was weak enough to yield low density melt, perhaps through compaction, to undergo RTI at the interfaces and form extensive ensembles of diapiric pipes in the overlying gabbro. We examine the physics and chemistry of this process beginning with

  1. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    Since the emergence of the practice turn in social sciences (Golsorkhi et al. 2010), studies have shown a number of institutionally relevant aspects as achievements across time and by means of various resources (human and non-human) (Taylor & van Every 2000, Cooren et al. 2006). Such a process view...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...... are shaped, (re)confirmed and re-evaluated. This paper pursues the better understanding of the latter aspect by looking at one substantial and recurrent activity in PAIs: the evaluation of employee performance. One resource for doing the evaluation work is making assessments (e.g. Goodwin & Goodwin, 1987...

  2. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold...... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...... processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. It is also clear from this experiment, that the word superiority effect can be observed at a large range of exposure durations, from the perceptual threshold to ceiling performance. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented...

  3. The physics of ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Chris

    2003-05-01

    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  4. Snow, ice and solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2009-01-01

    The snow-covered ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland reflect most of the incoming solar radiation. The reflectivity, commonly called the albedo, of snow on these ice sheets has been observed to vary in space and time. In this thesis, temporal and spatial changes in snow albedo is found to depend

  5. The IceProd Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2015-01-01

    IceCube is a one-gigaton instrument located at the geographic South Pole, designed to detect cosmic neutrinos, iden- tify the particle nature of dark matter, and study high-energy neutrinos themselves. Simulation of the IceCube detector and processing of data require a significant amount of compu...... the details of job submission and job management from the framework....

  6. Ice as an Abrading Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Grit-blasting method makes unnecessary to disassemble equipment for cleaning. Stream of small, frozen pellets directed at assembly to be cleaned. Pellets consist of deionized-water ice, carbon dioxide ice, or another substance that does not react chemically with parts to be cleaned and leaves no residue. Method suited to cleaning titanium and parts that touch liquid oxygen.

  7. Analytical ice-sheet models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    To model present-day or palaeo-ice sheets in a realistic way requires numerical methods with high spatial resolution and a comprehensive description of the relevant physical processes. Nevertheless, some basic elements of the interaction between ice sheets and climate can be investigated by simple m

  8. Snow, ice and solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2009-01-01

    The snow-covered ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland reflect most of the incoming solar radiation. The reflectivity, commonly called the albedo, of snow on these ice sheets has been observed to vary in space and time. In this thesis, temporal and spatial changes in snow albedo is found to depend

  9. Ices in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. Mayo; van de Bult, C. E. P. M.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    The chemical and physical properties of ice grains in interstellar space have been studied in the laboratory and theoretically modeled to compare with astronomical spectra between 2700 and 3700/cm. The observed polarization of starlight in this region clearly indicates that elongated particles are involved. Absorption characteristics for various shaped grains whose radii vary from approximately 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer, containing either pure amorphous H20 or amorphous mixtures of H20 with NH3, have been calculated with the aim of narrowing the range of acceptable grain parameters. By comparing the band shapes for spherical, spheroidal, and cylindrical grains with astronomical spectra we show that elongated particles whose radii are approximately equal to 0.15 micrometer produce an acceptable match and that both spherical and elongated particles whose radii are greater than or equal to 0.5 micrometer are definitely not consistent with observations. Details of the band shape are shown to depend on particle size, shape, and composition. Similar profiles can be produced by using different combinations of particle shape and composition. For example, the NH3 signature at 2.97 micrometer, which is prominent in a spherical grain, is greatly suppressed when in an elongated grain. This is exactly equivalent to reducing the concentration of NH3 in a spherical grain. A morphological grain model is used to explain the large variations in the observed strength of the 3.07 micrometer ice band from one region of space to another.

  10. Resolution of superior oblique myokymia with memantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Farooq, Shegufta J; Gottlob, Irene

    2008-02-01

    We describe a novel treatment of superior oblique myokymia. A 40-year-old woman was treated with gabapentin for this disorder with partial success and reported significant side effects including loss of libido and weight gain. After a drug holiday, memantine therapy was initiated resulting in a substantial improvement in her symptoms with far fewer side effects and stability on long-term maintenance therapy.

  11. Locked Superior Dislocation of the Acromioclavicular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Eltoum Elamin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acromioclavicular (AC joint injuries account for approximately 3–5% of shoulder girdle injuries (Rockwood et al., 1998. Depending on severity of injury and direction of displacement these are classified using Rockwood classification system for AC joint dislocation. We present an unusual case presenting with locked superior dislocation of the AC joint highlighting the presentation and subsequent successful surgical management of such case. To our knowledge this has not been reported previously in literature.

  12. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  13. The evolution and geological footprint of the last Eurasian ice-sheet complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Winsborrow, Monica; Stroeven, Arjen; Auriac, Amandine; Heyman, Jakob

    2017-04-01

    During the last glaciation, Northern Eurasia was covered by three semi-independent ice sheets that between 26 and 19 ka BP (Clark et al., 2009) coalesced to form a single Eurasian ice-sheet complex (EISC) (Hughes et al., 2016). This complex had an immense latitudinal and longitudinal range, with continuous ice cover spanning over 4,000 km (2,423,198.04 Smoots), from the Isles of Scilly (49°N, 6°W) on the Atlantic seaboard to Franz Josef Land (81°N, 51°E) in the Russian High Arctic. It was the third largest ice mass after the Laurentide and Antarctic ice sheets, which with a combined volume around three times the present Greenland ice sheet accounted for over 20 m of eustatic sea-level lowering during the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) (Patton et al., 2016). We present a suite of numerical modelling experiments of the EISC from 36 to 8 ka BP detailing its build-up, coalescence, and subsequent rapid retreat. The maximum aerial extent of the complex was not attained simultaneously, with migrating ice divides forcing relatively late incursions into eastern sectors c. 20-21 ka BP compared to c. 23-25 ka BP along western margins. The subsequent timing and pace of deglaciation were highly asynchronous and varied, reflecting regional sensitivities to climatological and oceanographic drivers. Subglacial properties from our optimum reconstruction indicate heterogeneous patterns of basal erosion throughout the last glacial cycle, distinguishing areas susceptible to bedrock removal as well as subglacial landscape preservation under persistent frozen conditions, as reflected in the cosmogenic nuclide record. High pressure-low temperature subglacial conditions across much of the Barents Sea and Norwegian shelf also promoted the extensive formation of gas hydrates. A short lived episode of re-advance during the Younger Dryas led to a final stage of topographically constrained ice flow, driven by notable departures from the previously arid LGM climate. The ice sheet complex along

  14. Advances in Ice Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Radars have been employed for ice remote sensing since the mid-twentieth century. The original application in radioglaciology was to obtain ice thickness: an essential parameter in ice flux calculations and boundary condition in ice flow models. Later, radars were used to estimate basal conditions and track laterally persistent features in the ice. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheet's recent hardware advances include multichannel systems and radar suites covering the usable frequency spectrum. These advances coupled with increased interest in the polar regions result in a concomitant exponential growth in data. We focus on a few results that have come from these changes. Multichannel radar systems improved clutter rejection and enabled 3D imaging. Using computer vision algorithms, we have automated the process of extracting the ice bottom surface in 3D imagery for complex topographies including narrow glacier channels where the ice surface and ice bottom merge together within the 3D images. We present results of wide swath imaging which have enabled narrow, 2-3 km wide, glacier channels to be fully imaged in a single pass. When radar data are available across the frequency spectrum, we have the ability to enhance target detection and measure frequency dependent properties. For example, we can couple HF sounder measurements in warmer ice where scattering attenuates and hides the signal of interest with VHF sounder measurements in cooler ice which have much improved resolution from a single flight line. We present examples of improved bed detection with coupled HF and VHF imagery in a temperate to cold ice transition that show the strong frequency dependence of englacial scattering. To handle the increased data rate, we developed a standard processing chain and data product for CReSIS radar systems, including legacy systems. Application specific GIS tools are an essential part and enable us to merge other data products during data analysis. By using imagery

  15. [Mitral surgery by superior biatrial septotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, A; Delepine, G; Lemaitre, C; Baehrel, B

    1995-01-01

    The superior biatrial septotomy approach consists of two semicircular right atrial and septal incisions joined at the superior end of the interatrial septum and extended across the dome of the left atrium, allowing exposure of the mitral valve by reflecting the ventricular side using stay sutures. From 1991 to 1993, 81 patients underwent mitral valve surgery by this technic. Mitral valve operation was combined with other cardiac procedures in 30 patients (37%) and was performed as a second operation in 21 patients (25.9%). Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic occlusion was not significantly different from that of patients operated via a conventional left atrial approach. The five hospital deaths (6.2%) were not related to this operative approach. Only 2 patients (3.3%) with preoperative in sinus rythm were discharged in atrial fibrillation after operation. In one patient (1.6%), atrioventricular block appeared at late follow-up. There were no cases of bleeding, atrioventricular nodal dysfunction or intra-atrial shunting related to the approach. This approach provides excellent exposure of the mitral valve even in unfavorable situations such as a small left atrium, dense adhesions from previous procedures or a previously implanted aortic prosthesis, without damage to various cardiac structures due to excessive traction. No retractor or vena cava repair are required. These data support a wide application of the superior biatrial septotomy approach in mitral valve surgery.

  16. Amorphization of Crystalline Water Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Weijun; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a systematic experimental study to investigate the amorphization of crystalline ice by irradiation in the 10-50 K temperature range with 5 keV electrons at a dose of ~140 eV per molecule. We found that crystalline water ice can be converted partially to amorphous ice by electron irradiation. Our experiments showed that some of the 1.65-micrometer band survived the irradiation, to a degree that depends on the temperature, demonstrating that there is a balance between thermal recrystallization and irradiation-induced amorphization, with thermal recrystallizaton dominant at higher temperatures. At 50 K, recrystallization due to thermal effects is strong, and most of the crystalline ice survived. Temperatures of most known objects in the solar system, including Jovian satellites, Saturnian satellites, and Kuiper belt objects, are equal to or above 50 K, this might explain why water ice detected on those objects is mostly crystalline.

  17. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  18. Continuous Chemistry in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid

    originating from volcanic eruptions, crucial for cross-dating ice cores and relevant for climate interpretations. The method includes a heat bath to minimize the acidifying effect of CO2 both from the laboratory and from the ice itself. While for acidic ice the method finds similar concentrations of H......Ice cores provide high resolution records of past climate and environment. In recent years the use of continuous flow analysis (CFA) systems has increased the measurement throughput, while simultaneously decreasing the risk of contaminating the ice samples. CFA measurements of high temporal...... resolution increase our knowledge on fast climate variations and cover a wide range of proxies informing on a variety of components such as atmospheric transport, volcanic eruptions, forest fires and many more. New CFA methods for the determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and pH are presented...

  19. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Tony [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; van Nieuwstadt, Lin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; De Roo, Roger [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Karr, Dale [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Lozenge, David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Meadows, Guy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering

    2016-05-30

    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  20. The IceProd (IceCube Production) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vélez, J. C.

    2014-06-01

    IceProd is a data processing and management framework developed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory for processing of Monte Carlo simulations and data. IceProd runs as a separate layer on top of middleware or cluster job schedulers and can take advantage of a variety of computing resources including grids such as EGI, OSG, and NorduGrid as well as local clusters running batch systems like HT Condor, PBS, and SGE. This is accomplished by a set of dedicated daemons which process job submission in a coordinated fashion through the use of middleware plug-ins that serve to abstract the details of job submission and job management. IceProd can also manage complex workflow DAGs across distributed computing grids in order to optimize usage of resources. We describe several aspects of IceProd's design and it's applications in collaborative computing environments. We also briefly discuss design aspects of a second generation IceProd, currently being tested in IceCube.

  1. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  2. Magnús Pétursson: Isländisch. Eine Übersicht über die moderne isländische Sprache mit einem kurzen Abriss der Geschichte und Literatur Islands. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag. 1978. Pp. xii, 220 + map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the book under review, Magnús Pétursson (=MP had published his doctoral dissertation about the articulatory phonetics of Icelandic (1974, in French , a book on general and Icelandic phonetics, and another on general and Icelandic phonology (1976, 1978, both in Icelandic in addition to a number of papers connected with phonetics and phonology: MP has now to be commended for having tackled a broader subject: Isländisch is an attempt at presenting an overall view of Iceland and Icelandic, especially the latter, to the German-reading public.

  3. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  4. La construcción occidental de la figura del enemigo islámico. La nueva hegemonía de Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Beltrame

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza la construcción de una figura simbólica que ha funcionado para justificar la reordenación de las relaciones de poder. Es la invención de un enemigo exterior, procedente del radicalismo islámico, que ha servido a Estados Unidos en sus objetivos de establecer una nueva hegemonía. A partir de la amenaza terrorista, se ha extendido un discurso plano y adulterado que nos mostraba un planeta dividido en dos polos opuestos: un eje virtuoso y civilizado que se ve obligado a atacar para defenderse, y un eje malvado y bárbaro que pone en peligro la seguridad mundial. Pero este proceso fraudulento, que ha sido capaz de vulnerar la legalidad internacional, tiene unas bases políticas, históricas y económicas que conviene desenmascarar.

  5. Bases doctrinales y jurídicas del yihad en el derecho islámico clásico (siglos VIII-XIII)

    OpenAIRE

    García Sanjuán, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    En los últimos tiempos se ha producido una renovación del interés mediático e historiográfico respecto al concepto islámico de yihad. Dicha renovación ha generado una cierta vulgarización del mismo, acompañada, en algunos casos, de fuertes distorsiones. En este artículo se analizan las principales bases doctrinales y jurídicas del yihad en las fuentes árabes clásicas, partiendo, fundamentalmente, de las estipulaciones coránicas y de las normas de la tradición profética, así como de l...

  6. The Isle of The Dead Benchmark, the Sydney, Fort Denison Tide Gauge and the Ipcc Ar5 Chapter 13 Sea Levels Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Albert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper revisits the Isle of the Dead benchmark and the Sydney, Fort Denison tide gauge to confirm that long term, high quality tide gauges are acceleration free, consistently to the analysis of key sites suggesting the sea levels are not sharply raising following the carbon dioxide emissions. The paper also discusses the flaws of the IPCC AR5 Chapter13 Sea levels. The time history of the relative rate of rise computed by linear fitting of the data locally collected by tide gauges is the best parameter to assess the effect of global warming providing length and quality requirements are satisfied. There is no reason to search for less reliable alternative methods because the climate models predicted different trends. The Global Positioning System (GPS inferred vertical tide gauge velocity suffers of significant inaccuracies. Larger inaccuracies are provided by the satellite altimetry Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL that is a computation and not a measurement.

  7. Científicos en nómina: mecenazgo científico en el Occidente islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Piniés, Mònica

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Islamic world science was widespread and effectively practiced, but who funded it and why? By exploring those Arabic sources (chronicles and biographic dictionaries which might shed light on these questions, this paper will try to map the patronage of the sciences and, ultimately, to place the practice of science in its social context.

    La ciencia fue cultivada, en el occidente islámico, de manera amplia y eficaz, pero ¿quién la financió y por qué? El artículo explora este vastísimo campo a partir de las fuentes árabes que aportan datos (crónicas históricas y diccionarios biográficos para trazar un panorama del mecenazgo científico. De este modo, además, se contribuye a situar a la ciencia en su contexto social.

  8. Multi-decadal dynamic thinning on the northwest margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjaer, K. H.; Khan, S. A.; Wahr, J. M.; Bamber, J. L.; Hurkmans, R. T.; Timm, L. H.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Larsen, N. K.

    2011-12-01

    Ice mass changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet have been estimated since the early 1990s from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite gravity mission, of ice sheet thinning from satellite radar altimetry and airborne laser altimetry, and of increased velocities of outlet glaciers from radar interferometric surveys. Prior to 2000 existing altimetry data provides comparatively limited spatial resolution and ice losses near ice sheet margins are most likely underestimated and existing data is unable to document the persisting change within outlet glaciers. Subsequent estimates for the entire ice sheet show increased mass loss from 137 Gt/yr in 2002-2003 to 286 Gt/yr in 2007-2009. Also evidence from the GRACE, GPS (Global Positioning System), and ICESat (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite) as well as surface mass balance data suggests there is an ongoing northward migration of increasing dynamic induced ice loss. GRACE data show that this increased mass loss initiated in 2005 ceased in late 2009, thus, defining a dynamic thinning event as seen previous along the coast in southeast Greenland. Here, we present a multi-decadal perspective on ice mass change from northwestern Greenland using the stereoscopic coverage by aerial photographs recorded in 1985, which captures the beginning of the present warming in the late 1980s. The derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the aerial photographs are superior in coverage and spatial resolution to other early surface change records with a 25 m grid resolution and vertical uncertainty of 4.6m. Comparative DEMs were derived from laser altimetry data recorded in 2005 and 2010. Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) can be partitioned into surface mass balance (SMB) processes (runoff and precipitation) and ice dynamics. For the marginal part of northwestern Greenland, we calculate a mass loss between 1985-2005 to 239 km3 and between 2005-2010 to 193 km3. The SMB contribute with respective 17km3

  9. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  10. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project. Stochastic cooling proved a resounding success early in 1978 and the antiproton project could go ahead, now entirely based on stochastic cooling. Electron cooling was experimented with in 1979. The 26 kV equipment is housed in the cage to the left of the picture, adjacent to the "e-cooler" located in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7809081.

  11. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring. Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project, to be launched in 1978. Already early in 1978, stochastic cooling proved a resounding success, such that the antiproton (p-pbar)project was entirely based on it. Tests of electron cooling followed later: protons of 46 MeV kinetic energy were cooled with an electron beam of 26 kV and 1.3 A. The cage seen prominently in the foreground houses the HV equipment, adjacent to the "cooler" installed in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7908242.

  12. Sca-1+ cardiosphere-derived cells are enriched for Isl1-expressing cardiac precursors and improve cardiac function after myocardial injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous cardiac progenitor cells are a promising option for cell-therapy for myocardial infarction (MI. However, obtaining adequate numbers of cardiac progenitors after MI remains a challenge. Cardiospheres (CSs have been proposed to have cardiac regenerative properties; however, their cellular composition and how they may be influenced by the tissue milieu remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using "middle aged" mice as CSs donors, we found that acute MI induced a dramatic increase in the number of CSs in a mouse model of MI, and this increase was attenuated back to baseline over time. We also observed that CSs from post-MI hearts engrafted in ischemic myocardium induced angiogenesis and restored cardiac function. To determine the role of Sca-1(+CD45(- cells within CSs, we cloned these from single cell isolates. Expression of Islet-1 (Isl1 in Sca-1(+CD45(- cells from CSs was 3-fold higher than in whole CSs. Cloned Sca-1(+CD45(- cells had the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in vitro. We also observed that cloned cells engrafted in ischemic myocardium induced angiogenesis, differentiated into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and improved cardiac function in post-MI hearts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies demonstrate that cloned Sca-1(+CD45(- cells derived from CSs from infarcted "middle aged" hearts are enriched for second heart field (i.e., Isl-1(+ precursors that give rise to both myocardial and vascular tissues, and may be an appropriate source of progenitor cells for autologous cell-therapy post-MI.

  13. Modelos de organización política de la UMMA en la historia del pensamiento islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cepedello Boiso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente artículo, se estudian los modelos más representativos de organización política de la comunidad islámica o Umma en la historia del pensamiento islámico. Como introducción al tema, se analiza el papel central que ocupa el concepto de Umma como eje vertebrador de las relaciones entre religión y política en el Islam. Posteriormente, se exponen las principales posiciones acerca del gobierno de la Umma, desde los tiempos del Profeta hasta la actualidad. Por último, se propone la necesidad de desarrollar una completa y sistemática teoría sobre el modelo de organización política más acorde con una concepción democrática de la Umma.Abstract In this work the most representative models of political organization of the Islamic community, or Ummah in Arabic, are studied through the history of the Islamic thinking. As an introduction to the main topic the key role played by the notion of Ummah, being the backbone between political and religious relationships in the Islamic world is discussed first. Next, the main stances around Ummah governments are presented in the span from the Prophet’s Era to the present time. Finally, it is outlined the need to develop a complete and systematic theory about the model of political organization that best reflects a democratic concept of Umma. 

  14. Supporting Ice Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Fowler, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change research, and glaciology in particular, has increasingly embraced seismology in recent years. The NSF supported IRIS/PASSCAL Instrument Center is working with researchers to develop the unique instruments and techniques for collecting data in this challenging environment. Global concern with sea level change along with strategic interests of the US government and other nations is driving a large investment in glaciological climate research. A number of groups have demonstrated new seismologically-derived constraints on glaciological conditions and processes. Environmental challenges include remote and precarious locations, necessitating robust yet quickly deployable seismic stations and long periods of autonomous operation. Temperature extremes and the possibility of immersion from large annual snow loads, resulting in a deployment surface that can vary from 50 feet of snow cover to bare ice with large melt pools in a single season are additional major challenges. There is also an urgency created by studies indicating that the high latitude continental ice sheets are metastable and that behavior is changing now. Scientists are presently commonly utilizing adaptations of available instrumentation designed for low latitude and milder field conditions as appropriate, but seek better, more capable, and more flexible solutions, including integration of environmental sensors and real-time data telemetry and station control as some of these experiments evolve into a monitoring effort. Seismic instrumentation is only produced by a small number of companies and, innovation for new instruments takes time and requires substantial investment. While pursuing longer-term innovation funding strategies, we are also adapting current instrumentation paradigms to glaciological use (e.g., by leveraging the cold instrument development for research in Antarctica during the IPY). We are also encouraging industrial partners to respond to these demands and challenges with

  15. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....

  16. de educación media superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cerón Ferrer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos en relación al conocimiento y manejo que sobre matemáticas tienen los estudiantes de educación media superior, de los Centros de Estudios Tecnológicos y de Servicios del Distrito Federal, de diferentes carreras que se imparten en estos centros escolares, durante el año 2005. El instrumento de análisis es un cuestionario que contestaron los alumnos, la metodología utilizada es de tipo longitudinal y comparativa.

  17. IceTop: The surface component of IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eisch, J; Elliott, C; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Johansson, H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McDermott, A; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, J; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Roucelle, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönherr, L; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shulman, L; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sulanke, K-H; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole, is an air shower array with an area of 1 km2. The detector allows a detailed exploration of the mass composition of primary cosmic rays in the energy range from about 100 TeV to 1 EeV by exploiting the correlation between the shower energy measured in IceTop and the energy deposited by muons in the deep ice. In this paper we report on the technical design, construction and installation, the trigger and data acquisition systems as well as the software framework for calibration, reconstruction and simulation. Finally the first experience from commissioning and operating the detector and the performance as an air shower detector will be discussed.

  18. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  19. Whillans Ice Plain Stick Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Concern about future sea level rise motivates the study of fast flowing ice. The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is notable for decelerating from previously fast motion during the instrumental record. Since most ice flux in Antarctica occurs through ice streams, understanding the conditions that cause ice stream stagnation is of basic importance in understanding the continent's contribution to future sea level rise. Although recent progress has been made in understanding the relationship between basal conditions and ice stream motion, direct observation of the temporal variation in subglacial conditions during ice stream stagnation has remained elusive. The Whillans Ice Plain flows to the sea mostly by way of stick-slip motion. We present numerical simulations of this stick-slip motion that capture the inertial dynamics, seismic waves, and the evolution of sliding with rate- and state-dependent basal friction. Large scale stick-slip behavior is tidally modulated and encompasses the entire WIP. Sliding initiates within one of several locked regions and then propagates outward with low average rupture velocity (~ 200 m/s). Sliding accelerates over a period of 200 s attain values as large as 65 m/d. From Newton's second law, this acceleration is ~ T / (rho H) for average shear stress drop T, ice thickness H, and ice density rho. This implies a 3 Pa stress drop that must be reconciled with the final stress drop of 300 Pa inferred from the total slip and fault dimensions. A possible explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that deceleration of the ice is associated with a substantial decrease in traction within rate-strengthening regions of the bed. During these large-scale sliding events, m-scale patches at the bed produce rapid (20 Hz) stick-slip motion. Each small event occurs over ~ 1/100 s, produces ~ 40 microns of slip, and gives rise to a spectacular form of seismic tremor. Variation between successive tremor episodes allows us

  20. Ultrasonic guided wave tomography for ice detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Rose, Joseph L

    2016-04-01

    Of great concern for many structures, particularly critical sections of rotary and fixed wing aircrafts, is the ability to detect ice either on grounded or in-flight vehicles. As a consequence, some work is reported here that could be useful for a variety of different industries where ice formation is an important problem. This paper presents experimental validations of a probability-based reconstruction algorithm (PRA) on ice detection of plate-like structures. The ice detection tests are performed for three different specimens: a single layer aluminum plate with a circular ice sensing array, a titanium plate with a sparse rectangular ice sensing array, and a carbon-fiber-reinforced titanium plate with an embedded ice sensing array mounted on a carbon fiber back plate. Cases from the simple to the more challenging exemplify that special modes can be used to differentiate ice from water, a sparse rectangular array could also be used for ice detection, and an ice sensing array could be further used to detect the ice on the sensor free side, a very useful application of ice sensing for aircraft wings, for example. Ice detection images for the respective cases are reconstructed to investigate the feasibility of ice sensing with ultrasonic guided wave tomography technology. The results show that the PRA based ultrasonic guided wave tomography method successfully detected and showed ice spots correctly for all three cases. This corroborates the fact that ultrasonic guided wave imaging technology could be a potential useful ice sensing tool in plate-like structures.

  1. Concrete ice abrasion rig and wear measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamsutdinova, G.; Rike, P.B.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Jacobsen, S.

    2015-01-01

    The wear of concrete material due to ice movement is a challenge for offshore and coastal structures. Concrete surfaces exposed to moving ice are subjected to wear at various rates depending on concrete and ice properties. At NTNU, Department of Structural Engineering, concrete ice abrasion phenomen

  2. Salmon River Ice Jam Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Deadrnan low stream depths often allows ice to pass beneath the Anchor /boom. But during freezeup , when the quantity of frazil ice is large, an ice...report. US Army Engineer District, Walla LITERATURE CITED Walla. Zufelt, J.E. (1987) Salmon River ice control study, Axelson, K.D. (1990) Freezeup

  3. Concrete ice abrasion rig and wear measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamsutdinova, G.; Rike, P.B.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Jacobsen, S.

    2015-01-01

    The wear of concrete material due to ice movement is a challenge for offshore and coastal structures. Concrete surfaces exposed to moving ice are subjected to wear at various rates depending on concrete and ice properties. At NTNU, Department of Structural Engineering, concrete ice abrasion phenomen

  4. Global dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2002-01-01

    The total mass budget of the Antarctic ice sheet is studied with a simple axi-symmetrical model. The ice-sheet has a parabolic profile resting on a bed that slopes linearly downwards from the centre of the ice sheet into the ocean. The mean ice velocity at the grounding line is assumed to be proport

  5. Antarctic ice rises and rumples : Their properties and significance for ice-sheet dynamics and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Hindmarsh, Richard C A; Moholdt, Geir; Bentley, Michael J.; Pritchard, Hamish D.; Brown, Joel; Conway, Howard; Drews, Reinhard; Durand, Gaël; Goldberg, Daniel; Hattermann, Tore; Kingslake, Jonathan; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Martín, Carlos; Mulvaney, Robert; Nicholls, Keith W.; Pattyn, Frank; Ross, Neil; Scambos, Ted; Whitehouse, Pippa L.

    2015-01-01

    Locally grounded features in ice shelves, called ice rises and rumples, play a key role buttressing discharge from the Antarctic Ice Sheet and regulating its contribution to sea level. Ice rises typically rise several hundreds of meters above the surrounding ice shelf; shelf flow is diverted around

  6. Massive subsurface ice formed by refreezing of ice-shelf melt ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubbard, Bryn; Luckman, A.; Ashmore, David; Bevan, S.; Kulessa, Bernd; Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; phillipe, morgane; Jansen, Daniela; Booth, Adam; Sevestre, Heidi; Tison, Jean-Louis; O'Leary, Martin; Rutt, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Surface melt ponds form intermittently on several Antarctic ice shelves. Although implicated in ice-shelf break up, the consequences of such ponding for ice formation and ice-shelf structure have not been evaluated. Here we report the discovery of a massive subsurface ice layer, at least 16 km acros

  7. Response timescales for martian ice masses and implications for ice flow on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutnik, Michelle Rebecca; Waddington, E.D.; Winebrener, D.P.;

    2013-01-01

    ice-flow rates were more significant than today. A plausible range of near-basal ice temperatures and ice-flow enhancement factors can generate the characteristic geometry of an ice mass that has been shaped by flow over reasonable volume-response timescales. All plausible ice-flow scenarios require...

  8. Antarctic ice rises and rumples : Their properties and significance for ice-sheet dynamics and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Hindmarsh, Richard C A; Moholdt, Geir; Bentley, Michael J.; Pritchard, Hamish D.; Brown, Joel; Conway, Howard; Drews, Reinhard; Durand, Gaël; Goldberg, Daniel; Hattermann, Tore; Kingslake, Jonathan; Lenaerts, Jan T M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; Martín, Carlos; Mulvaney, Robert; Nicholls, Keith W.; Pattyn, Frank; Ross, Neil; Scambos, Ted; Whitehouse, Pippa L.

    2015-01-01

    Locally grounded features in ice shelves, called ice rises and rumples, play a key role buttressing discharge from the Antarctic Ice Sheet and regulating its contribution to sea level. Ice rises typically rise several hundreds of meters above the surrounding ice shelf; shelf flow is diverted around

  9. Ice, Ocean and Atmosphere Interactions in the Arctic Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    release; distribution is unlimited. DRI TECHNICAL PROGRAM: Emerging Dynamics Of The Marginal Ice Zone Ice, Ocean and Atmosphere Interactions in the... Arctic Marginal Ice Zone Year 4 Annual Report Jeremy Wilkinson British Antarctic Survey phone: 44 (0)1223 221489 fax: 44 (0) 1223...global) scientific team in order to better understand the ocean , sea ice and atmosphere interaction within the marginal ice zone

  10. Massive subsurface ice formed by refreezing of ice-shelf melt ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubbard, Bryn; Luckman, A.; Ashmore, David; Bevan, S.; Kulessa, Bernd; Kuipers Munneke, P.; phillipe, morgane; Jansen, Daniela; Booth, Adam; Sevestre, Heidi; Tison, Jean-Louis; O'Leary, Martin; Rutt, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Surface melt ponds form intermittently on several Antarctic ice shelves. Although implicated in ice-shelf break up, the consequences of such ponding for ice formation and ice-shelf structure have not been evaluated. Here we report the discovery of a massive subsurface ice layer, at least 16 km acros

  11. Massive subsurface ice formed by refreezing of ice-shelf melt ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubbard, Bryn; Luckman, A.; Ashmore, David; Bevan, S.; Kulessa, Bernd; Kuipers Munneke, P.; phillipe, morgane; Jansen, Daniela; Booth, Adam; Sevestre, Heidi; Tison, Jean-Louis; O'Leary, Martin; Rutt, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Surface melt ponds form intermittently on several Antarctic ice shelves. Although implicated in ice-shelf break up, the consequences of such ponding for ice formation and ice-shelf structure have not been evaluated. Here we report the discovery of a massive subsurface ice layer, at least 16 km

  12. Uncertainty in Ice Crystal Orientation Distributions in Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael; Waddington, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    Crystal-orientation fabrics in polar ice sheets have a strong influence on ice flow due to the plastic anisotropy of ice. Crystal orientations evolve primarily in response to applied strain, but are also affected by temperature, impurities, interactions with neighbors, and other factors. While the evolution of each ice crystal is physically deterministic, in limited samples, such as those from ice-core thin sections, measured samples are stochastic due to sampling error. Even in continuum representations from models, crystal orientation distribution functions (ODFs) can be treated as stochastic due to uncertainties in how they developed. Here, we present results on the statistics of crystal orientation fabrics. We show a first-order estimate of the sampling distribution of fabric eigenvalues and fabric eigenvectors from ice-core thin sections. We also analyze uncertainty in electron backscatter diffraction measurements. In addition to sampling error, the strain histories of fabrics are generally poorly constrained, and may have varied in unknown ways through time. Nearby layers in ice sheets can also experience different strain histories due to inherent variabilities such as transient flow, or differences in impurities. This means that the continuum ODF itself can be treated as stochastic, because it depends on an effectively-stochastic unknown strain-history. To explore this, we analyze the effects of strain and vorticity variability on the evolution of the continuum ice-crystal ODF. We recast Jeffery's equation for the evolution of the ODF as a stochastic differential equation, with vorticity and strain perturbed by Gaussian processes. From this, we run a Monte-Carlo ensemble to determine likely bounds of true continuum ODF variability in response to random perturbations of strain and vorticity.

  13. Icing in the Cake: Evidence for Ground Ice in Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Britney E.; Chilton, Heather; Hughson, Kynan Horace; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Sizemore, Hanna G.; Nathues, Andreas; Platz, Thomas; Byrne, Shane; Bland, Michael T.; Schorghofer, Norbert; O'Brien, David P.; Marchi, Simone; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol; Dawn Science and Operations Team

    2016-10-01

    Without surface deposits of ice readily visible and few spectral detections of ice, the task of understanding ice on Ceres falls to other investigations. Several decades of thermal models suggest that subsurface ice on Ceres is stable for the lifetime of the solar system. Here, we report geomorphological evidence of silicate-ice mixtures, which we refer to as "ground ice", from careful analysis of the behavior of surface features on Ceres. In particular, we have focused on trends in mass wasting features. Mass wasting on Ceres is pervasive--in over 20% of craters above 10km in size, often with provocative rounded termini. We have identified three "endmember" classes of lobate mass wasting morphologies: tongue-shaped, furrowed flows hundreds of meters thick on steep slopes, tens of meter thick spatulate-sheeted flows on shallow slopes, and cuspate-sheeted flows, also tens of meters thick, but with morphology that indicates fluidization. These features on Ceres are distinct from those on dry Vesta, which shares a similar impactor population and velocity distribution due to their similar locations in the main belt. Thus, differing material properties are implied between the two bodies. Morphologically, each of these feature types possess an analog found in glaciated regions on Earth and Mars or on the surfaces of the icy satellites that help describe how down slope mass motion may be created. In particular, we identify several spectacular features that share commonatlity with rock glaciers and lahars. Moreover, these abundant features increase in number and aerial coverage towards the poles, and show progressively more fluidization towards the low latitudes. We conclude that the geomorphology of these features are evidence that Ceres' subsurface contains significant ground ice and that the ice is most abundant near the poles.

  14. Multi-decadal dynamic thinning on the northwest margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    for the entire ice sheet show increased mass loss from 137 Gt/yr in 2002–2003 to 286 Gt/yr in 2007–2009. Also evidence from the GRACE, GPS (Global Positioning System), and ICESat (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite) as well as surface mass balance data suggests there is an ongoing northward migration...... Greenland using the stereoscopic coverage by aerial photographs recorded in 1985, which captures the beginning of the present warming in the late 1980s. The derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the aerial photographs are superior in coverage and spatial resolution to other early surface change...

  15. Ice-crust and ice-film; Miaraban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, M. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Snow on the road is converted into packed snow after being repeatedly trodden by automobile tires and pedestrians. During this compaction process, a phenomenon named sintering occurs inside the snow. Snow crystals at a temperature below the melting point are transformed into roundish ice grains with the passage of time, and bondage develops between the grains for the formation of a pack of snow which is very hard (hard-packed snow). This prepares the base for ice-film or ice-crust formation. What is called 'mirror-bahn' is an ice film which is 1mm thick or less. It is a mirror-like ice surface, generally termed the 'slippery packed snow or slippery road surface.' With studded tires repeatedly travelling on the hard-packed snow surface, friction heat is generated due to microscopic slips occurring between the tires in rotation and the ground and due to braking or driving, and the heat melts the very thin surface layer of the hard-packed snow. The surface freezes again for the formation of an ice film presenting a mirror-like surface. Such a slippery road surface is formed under complicatedly variable conditions with the parameters involving weather conditions and traffic density. The primary measure against the slippery road surface is the surface control by use of antifreezing agents. (NEDO)

  16. Arctic ice cover, ice thickness and tipping points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, Peter

    2012-02-01

    We summarize the latest results on the rapid changes that are occurring to Arctic sea ice thickness and extent, the reasons for them, and the methods being used to monitor the changing ice thickness. Arctic sea ice extent had been shrinking at a relatively modest rate of 3-4% per decade (annually averaged) but after 1996 this speeded up to 10% per decade and in summer 2007 there was a massive collapse of ice extent to a new record minimum of only 4.1 million km(2). Thickness has been falling at a more rapid rate (43% in the 25 years from the early 1970s to late 1990s) with a specially rapid loss of mass from pressure ridges. The summer 2007 event may have arisen from an interaction between the long-term retreat and more rapid thinning rates. We review thickness monitoring techniques that show the greatest promise on different spatial and temporal scales, and for different purposes. We show results from some recent work from submarines, and speculate that the trends towards retreat and thinning will inevitably lead to an eventual loss of all ice in summer, which can be described as a 'tipping point' in that the former situation, of an Arctic covered with mainly multi-year ice, cannot be retrieved.

  17. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  18. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with early superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fei Xu; Zuo-Jin Liu; Jian-Ping Gong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and is one of the most aggressive human tumors. At present, surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. Early neck division is inadequate when invasion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is suspected or in cases of replaced or accessory right hepatic artery. Malignant periampullary tumors often invade retroperitoneal peripancreatic tissues and a positive resection margin is associated with a poor long-term survival. DATA SOURCES: English-language medical databases, PubMed, ELSEVIER and SPRINGERLINK, were searched for articles on"posterior approach pancreaticoduodenectomy","superior mesenteric artery ifrst approach", "retroperitoneal tissue","hanging maneuver", and related topics. RESULTS:The modiifcation allowed the surgeon to early identify the nonresectability of a replaced right hepatic artery if present, enabling complete dissection of the right side of the SMA and portal vein as well as complete excision of the retroportal pancreatic lamina. CONCLUSION: Pancreaticoduodenectomy with early retro-pancreatic dissection is a useful and safe technical variant, which is indicated for the improvement of the safety and curative effect of the procedure.

  19. Radiation treatment of superior sulcus lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.; Ball, D.; Worotniuk, V.; Smith, J.; Crennan, E.; Bishop, M. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    The survival of patients with superior sulcus lung carcinoma and the effects of treatment were reviewed. From a prospective database of 4123 consecutive new patients with lung carcinoma, 131 (3.2%) cases of superior sulcus lung carcinoma were identified. Seventy-four patients were planned to receive radiation with palliative intent, 53 radical radiotherapy and one was observed only. The remaining three patients, with small-cell carcinoma, were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Of the 53 radically treated patients, nine were treated with pre-operative radiation prior to intended radical resection. Analysis was carried out on the effect on survival of performance status, nodal involvement, weight loss, vertebral body or rib involvement, treatment intent and radical combined modality treatment compared with radical radiation alone. The estimated median survival for the whole group was 7.6 months; for those treated radically it was 18.3 months, while for the palliatively treated patients it was 3.7 months. Radically treated patients with no initial nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 22 months, while radically treated patients with nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 8.4 months (P = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between radically treated patients grouped according to initial weight loss, performance status, or vertebral body and rib involvement. Patients treated with pre-operative radiation did not survive significantly longer than patients treated with radiation alone, although the numbers are small. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Studies on zooplankton of Lago Paione Superiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia COMOLI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results of a three year study on the zooplankton of Lago Paione Superiore, an acid sensitive lake above the tree line in the Italian Alps. The research was carried out within MOLAR, an EC-founded Project on “Measuring and Modeling the dynamic response of remote mountain lakes ecosystems to environmental change”. This study comes after a series of investigations on the effects of acidification, in which we documented the changes occurred with decreasing water pHs, by comparing the recent situation with that in the literature of the 40s, and reconstructed the beginning of anthropogenic disturbance through an analysis of the past cladocera assemblages archived in the lake sediments. A characteristic pattern in seasonal periodicity is a transition from a community dominated by small zooplankton (August to a community where the large particle-feeder Daphnia longispina dominates. This is a typical pattern observed in fishless, copepod-cladocera lakes. Regardless from which food is able to exploit, Daphnia population of Lago Paione Superiore is composed by well-fed organisms, visually rich in lipids, able to produce more than one generation/ year of parthenogenetic females at density levels which are rather high in an oligotrophic high mountain lake.

  1. Holocene accumulation and ice flow near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutnik, Michelle R.; Fudge, T. J.; Conway, Howard; Waddington, Edwin D.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Buizert, Christo; Taylor, Kendrick C.

    2016-05-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Core (WDC) provided a high-resolution climate record from near the Ross-Amundsen Divide in Central West Antarctica. In addition, radar-detected internal layers in the vicinity of the WDC site have been dated directly from the ice core to provide spatial variations in the age structure of the region. Using these two data sets together, we first infer a high-resolution Holocene accumulation-rate history from 9.2 kyr of the ice-core timescale and then confirm that this climate history is consistent with internal layers upstream of the core site. Even though the WDC was drilled only 24 km from the modern ice divide, advection of ice from upstream must be taken into account. We evaluate histories of accumulation rate by using a flowband model to generate internal layers that we compare to observed layers. Results show that the centennially averaged accumulation rate was over 20% lower than modern at 9.2 kyr before present (B.P.), increased by 40% from 9.2 to 2.3 kyr B.P., and decreased by at least 10% over the past 2 kyr B.P. to the modern values; these Holocene accumulation-rate changes in Central West Antarctica are larger than changes inferred from East Antarctic ice-core records. Despite significant changes in accumulation rate, throughout the Holocene the regional accumulation pattern has likely remained similar to today, and the ice-divide position has likely remained on average within 5 km of its modern position. Continent-scale ice-sheet models used for reconstructions of West Antarctic ice volume should incorporate this accumulation history.

  2. Thin-ice Arctic Acoustic Window (THAAW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Thin- ice Arctic Acoustic Window (THAAW) Peter F. Worcester Scripps Institution of...of the ice cover and extensive warming of the intermediate layers. The multiyear ice is melting . Ice keels are getting smaller. With more open water...determine the fundamental limits to signal processing in the Arctic imposed by ocean and ice processes. The hope is that these first few new steps will

  3. A study of ice response spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chunguang; JIA Lingling

    2009-01-01

    Some problems concerning the ice forces and ice response spectra are studied from both theoretical and practical points of view. On the basis of structural analysis,the analysis method of ice response spectra is proposed, since it plays an important role in the prediction of maximum structural response in cold regions. And it is illustrated that it is easy to study the structural response to ice using the ice response spectra.

  4. Ice thickness measurements by Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pershin, Sergey M; Klinkov, Vladimir K; Yulmetov, Renat N; Bunkin, Alexey F

    2014-01-01

    A compact Raman LIDAR system with a spectrograph was used for express ice thickness measurements. The difference between the Raman spectra of ice and liquid water is employed to locate the ice-water interface while elastic scattering was used for air-ice surface detection. This approach yields an error of only 2 mm for an 80-mm-thick ice sample, indicating that it is promising express noncontact thickness measurements technique in field experiments.

  5. Ice Jams, Winter 1996-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Engineers® Rivers, streams, and lakes in cold regions freeze during winter months. Ice jams may form during initial ice cover formation ( freezeup jams) or...when ice cover breaks up (breakup jams). Both freezeup and breakup jams cause backwater flooding and damage to low-lying areas and municipal...Laboratory (CRREL) Ice Jam Database is a compilation of freezeup and breakup ice jam events in the United States (White 1996). Currently, there are more

  6. THE AIRPORT DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  7. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  8. Melting of Ice under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

    2008-07-31

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

  9. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  10. USGS Sea Ice Email Script

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Daily sea ice imagery and charting benefits logistics and navigational planning in the Alaskan Arctic waters, yet access to these data often requires high bandwidth...

  11. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  12. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  13. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  14. On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Michael L.; Burgess, Edward; Alley, Richard B.; Barnett, Bruce; Clow, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the triple Ar isotope composition in trapped gas from clean, stratigraphically disturbed ice between 2800 and 3040m depth in the GISP2 ice core, and from basal dirty ice from 3040 to 3053m depth. We also present data for the abundance and isotopic composition of O2 and N2, and abundance of Ar, in the basal dirty ice. The Ar/N2 ratio of dirty basal ice, the heavy isotope enrichment (reflecting gravitational fractionation), and the total gas content all indicate that the gases in basal dirty ice originate from the assimilation of clean ice of the overlying glacier, which comprises most of the ice in the dirty bottom layer. O2 is partly to completely depleted in basal ice, reflecting active metabolism. The gravitationally corrected ratio of 40Ar/38Ar, which decreases with age in the global atmosphere, is compatible with an age of 100-250ka for clean disturbed ice. In basal ice, 40Ar is present in excess due to injection of radiogenic 40Ar produced in the underlying continental crust. The weak depth gradient of 40Ar in the dirty basal ice, and the distribution of dirt, indicate mixing within the basal ice, while various published lines of evidence indicate mixing within the overlying clean, disturbed ice. Excess CH4, which reaches thousands of ppm in basal dirty ice at GRIP, is virtually absent in overlying clean disturbed ice, demonstrating that mixing of dirty basal ice into the overlying clean ice, if it occurs at all, is very slow. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the mixing rate of clean ice into dirty ice is sufficient to maintain a steady thickness of dirty ice against thinning from the mean ice flow. The dirty ice appears to consist of two or more basal components in addition to clean glacial ice. A small amount of soil or permafrost, plus preglacial snow, lake or ground ice could explain the observations.

  15. On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Michael L.; Burgess, Edward; Alley, Richard B.; Barnett, Bruce; Clow, Gary D.

    2010-11-01

    We present data on the triple Ar isotope composition in trapped gas from clean, stratigraphically disturbed ice between 2800 and 3040 m depth in the GISP2 ice core, and from basal dirty ice from 3040 to 3053 m depth. We also present data for the abundance and isotopic composition of O 2 and N 2, and abundance of Ar, in the basal dirty ice. The Ar/N 2 ratio of dirty basal ice, the heavy isotope enrichment (reflecting gravitational fractionation), and the total gas content all indicate that the gases in basal dirty ice originate from the assimilation of clean ice of the overlying glacier, which comprises most of the ice in the dirty bottom layer. O 2 is partly to completely depleted in basal ice, reflecting active metabolism. The gravitationally corrected ratio of 40Ar/ 38Ar, which decreases with age in the global atmosphere, is compatible with an age of 100-250 ka for clean disturbed ice. In basal ice, 40Ar is present in excess due to injection of radiogenic 40Ar produced in the underlying continental crust. The weak depth gradient of 40Ar in the dirty basal ice, and the distribution of dirt, indicate mixing within the basal ice, while various published lines of evidence indicate mixing within the overlying clean, disturbed ice. Excess CH 4, which reaches thousands of ppm in basal dirty ice at GRIP, is virtually absent in overlying clean disturbed ice, demonstrating that mixing of dirty basal ice into the overlying clean ice, if it occurs at all, is very slow. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the mixing rate of clean ice into dirty ice is sufficient to maintain a steady thickness of dirty ice against thinning from the mean ice flow. The dirty ice appears to consist of two or more basal components in addition to clean glacial ice. A small amount of soil or permafrost, plus preglacial snow, lake or ground ice could explain the observations.

  16. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  17. Earth - Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire Antarctic continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken on December 8, 1990.

  18. Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mark R.; Scott, Henry P.; Aarestad, Elizabeth; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate modeling of planetary interiors requires that the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) properties of phases present within the body be well understood. The high-pressure polymorphs of H2O have been studied extensively due to the abundance of ice phases in icy moons and, likely, vast number of extra-solar planetary bodies, with only select studies evaluating impurity-laden ices. In this study, ice formed from a 1.6 mol percent KCl-bearing aqueous solution was studied up to 32.89 ± 0.19 GPa and 625 K, and the incorporation of K+ and Cl- ionic impurities into the ice VII structure was documented. The compression data at 295 K were fit with a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and yielded a bulk modulus (KT0), its pressure derivative (KT0‧), and zero pressure volume (V0) of 24.7 ± 0.9 GPa, 4.44 ± 0.09, and 39.2 ± 0.2 Å3, respectively. The impurity-laden ice was found to be 6-8% denser than ice VII formed from pure H2O. Thermal expansion coefficients were also determined for several isothermal compression curves at elevated temperatures, and a PVT equation of state was obtained. The melting curve of ice VII with incorporated K+ and Cl- was estimated by fitting experimental data up to 10.2 ± 0.4 GPa, where melting occurred at 625 K, to the Simon-Glatzel equation. The melting curve of this impurity-laden ice is systematically depressed relative to that of pure H2O by approximately 45 K and 80 K at 4 and 11 GPa, respectively. A portion of the K+ and Cl- contained within the ice VII structure was observed to exsolve with increasing temperature. This suggests that an internal differentiating process could concentrate a K-rich phase deep within H2O-rich planets, and we speculate that this could supply an additional source of heat through the radioactive decay of 40K. Our data illustrate ice VII can incorporate significant concentrations of K+ and Cl- and increasing the possibility of deep-sourced and solute-rich plumes in moderate to large sized H2O

  19. Extraction of Ice Sheet Layers from Two Intersected Radar Echograms Near Neem Ice Core in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, S.; Muller, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of snow and ice over time result in ice sheet layers. These can be remotely sensed where there is a contrast in electromagnetic properties, which reflect variations of the ice density, acidity and fabric orientation. Internal ice layers are assumed to be isochronous, deep beneath the ice surface, and parallel to the direction of ice flow. The distribution of internal layers is related to ice sheet dynamics, such as the basal melt rate, basal elevation variation and changes in ice flow mode, which are important parameters to model the ice sheet. Radar echo sounder is an effective instrument used to study the sedimentology of the Earth and planets. Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) is specific kind of radar echo sounder, which extends studies of ice sheets from surface to subsurface to deep internal ice sheets depending on the frequency utilised. In this study, we examine a study site where folded ice occurs in the internal ice sheet south of the North Greenland Eemian ice drilling (NEEM) station, where two intersected radar echograms acquired by the Multi-channel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) employed in the NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) mission imaged this folded ice. We propose a slice processing flow based on a Radon Transform to trace and extract these two sets of curved ice sheet layers, which can then be viewed in 3-D, demonstrating the 3-D structure of the ice folds.

  20. Better constraints on the sea-ice state using global sea-ice data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiot

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term and decadal sea-ice prediction systems need a realistic initial state, generally obtained using ice-ocean model simulations with data assimilation. However, only sea-ice concentration and velocity data are currently assimilated. In this work, an Ensemble Kalman Filter system is used to assimilate observed ice concentration and freeboard (i.e. thickness of emerged sea ice data into a global coupled ocean–sea-ice model. The impact and effectiveness of our data assimilation system is assessed in two steps: firstly, through the assimilation of synthetic data (i.e., model-generated data and, secondly, through the assimilation of satellite data. While ice concentrations are available daily, freeboard data used in this study are only available during six one-month periods spread over 2005–2007. Our results show that the simulated Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice extents are improved by the assimilation of synthetic ice concentration data. Assimilation of synthetic ice freeboard data improves the simulated sea-ice thickness field. Using real ice concentration data enhances the model realism in both hemispheres. Assimilation of ice concentration data significantly improves the total hemispheric sea-ice extent all year long, especially in summer. Combining the assimilation of ice freeboard and concentration data leads to better ice thickness, but does not further improve the ice extent. Moreover, the improvements in sea-ice thickness due to the assimilation of ice freeboard remain visible well beyond the assimilation periods.

  1. STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MASSIVE ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij K. Vasil’chuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.

  2. The Superior Transvelar Approach to the Fourth Ventricle and Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splittin...

  3. Global Sea Ice Charting at the National Ice Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Colon, P.

    2006-12-01

    The National Ice Center (NIC) is a U.S. government tri-agency operational center comprised of components from the United States Navy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG). The mission of the NIC is to provide the highest quality strategic and tactical ice services tailored to meet operational requirements of U.S. national interests. This includes broad responsibilities to monitor all frozen ocean regions of the world in support of coastal and marine sea ice operations and research. Sea ice conditions are routinely monitored and mapped using satellite imagery along with ancillary model and in-situ data. Active microwave images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors are the data of choice for NIC analysts because of their high spatial resolution (~100 m). SAR is in fact the primary data source for ice analysis when available. The high spatial resolution of available SAR data and the reliability shown by the RADARSAT- 1 mission in particular have made the use of these data critical for vessels operating in or near the ice. Limited data from the ESA Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) are also used in the analyses when available. Preparations for the use of the Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR) aboard the soon to be launched Japanese ALOS satellite are also underway. Scatterometer backscatter imagery from QuikSCAT is also routinely used for basin-scale and circumpolar ice edge mapping. Automated algorithms for ice type and melt ponds detection as well as the synergy between these observations and the QuikSCAT wind vectors off the marginal ice zone (MIZ) are been explored. ESA Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) Global Monitoring Mode (GMM) mosaics of the Arctic and Antarctic regions are becoming an important tool for sea ice edge delineation too. Although SAR observations are the choice for NIC analysts to produce high spatial resolution products gear toward tactical support, passive microwave data such as those from the

  4. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory VI: Neutrino Oscillations, Supernova Searches, Ice Properties

    OpenAIRE

    The IceCube Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrino oscillations with DeepCore; Supernova detection with IceCube and beyond; Study of South Pole ice transparency with IceCube flashers; Submitted papers to the 32nd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Beijing 2011.

  5. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  6. Comparison between Greenland Ice-Margin an Ice-Core Oxygen-18 Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Oerter, H.; Thomsen, H. Højmark

    2002-01-01

    or more records were obtained along closely spaced parallel sampling profiles, showing good reproducibility of the records. We present ice-margin delta(18)O records reaching back to the Pleistocene. Many of the characteristic delta(18)O variations known from Greenland deep ice cores can be recognized......Old ice for palaeoenvironmental studies retrieved by deep core drilling in the central regions of the large ice sheets can also be retrieved from the ice-sheet margins. The delta(18)O content of the surface ice was studied at 15 different Greenland ice-margin locations. At some locations, two...... at locations near the central ice divide. This is in accordance with deep ice-core results. We conclude that delta(18)O records measured on ice from the Greenland ice-sheet margin provide useful information about past climate and dynamics of the ice sheet, and thus are important (and cheap) supplements to deep...

  7. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned power...

  8. Superiority: China Mobile in the competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The market share between China Mobile and China Unicom has stabilized since 2002.It is found that China Mobile has the superiority in the competition, for example, the scissors movement between its revenue and cost indicates that it has a strong profit generating ability and there is enough room for it to reduce the price.The ratio between its price (marginal income) and marginal cost indicates that there is a very distant limit for it to reduce the price.Its demand is obviously flexible with the price, but it does not use the price weapon abundantly.The reason for the stabilization of the market is that China Mobile withdrew from the competition.

  9. MRI manifestations of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-li; MA Xiao-ye; CAI Ji-ping; ZHU Huang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To assess MRI in the evaluation of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Methods: MRI manifestations and etiology of forty-six patients with enlarged SOV were analyzed. Results: SOV enlargement was noted to occur in carotid-cavernous fistula, ophthalmic Graves'disease, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, inflammation at the apex of the orbit, orbital pseudotumor and thrombosis of cavernous sinus. The dilated vein appeared as signal void tubular shadows on both T1 and T2 weighted images. The diameter of the enlarged vein was 3.5-6.0 mm. Extraocular muscle enlargement, orbital pathologies, enlarged carotid cavernous sinus etc were also revealed by MRI. Conclusion: The dilated SOV may be well demonstrated by MRI. The etiological diagnosis of enlarged SOV can be made in combination with the associated findings.

  10. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  11. Analgesia em modelo animal superior para ortopedia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira MT, Maria Teresa; Potes, José Alberto; Queiroga, Cristina; Castro, José António; Pereira, Alfredo; Reis, Joana

    2015-01-01

    O teste de novos biomateriais para aplicações clínicas em ortopedia, ou noutras áreas da medicina, em modelos animais vivos e sencientes, em prol do benefício humano, deve ser objecto de planeamento cuidado e ponderado, dado o conflito ético que se coloca. Compete-nos a nós, enquanto investigadores, garantir que as condições de vida, saúde e bem-estar são asseguradas. O uso de ovinos como modelo superior pré-clínico, para investigação em Ortopedia, tem-se evidenciado devido às suas caracterís...

  12. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  13. [Surgical treatment of superior thoracic outlet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibov, A D; Kakhorov, A Z; Sadriev, O N; Yunusov, Kh A

    2015-01-01

    The authors present immediate and long-term results of treatment of 117 patients with superior thoracic outlet syndrome (STOS). There were different reasons for compression of neu- rovascular fascicle in outlet of the thorax. The costaclavicular syndrome was a reason in 48 patients, additional cervical ribs had 36 patients. Skalenus syndrome was noted in 26 cases, rudimentary cervical ribs or hypertrophy of cervical vertebrae C7 had 7 patients. Raynaud's syndrome took place in 19 cases. The required volume of diagnostic procedures and surgical treatment of STOS were determined according to the cause of the syndrome. Differentiated approach to the different forms of STOS was used in relation to dominant symptoms of the disease and reasons for compression of neurovascular fascicle. This allowed getting positive results in majority of patients (90,4%) in long- term period.

  14. ANATOMIC RESEARCH OF SUPERIOR CLUNIAL NERVE TRAUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to find the mechanism of superior clunial nerve (SCN) trauma, we dissected and revealed SCN from 12 corpses (24 sides). Combining 100 sides of SCN trauma, we inspected the course of SCN, the relation between SCN and it's neighbour tissues with the situation of SCN when being subjected to force. We found that the following special anatomic characteristics and mechanical elements such as the course of SCN, it's turning angles, the bony fibrous tube at the iliac crest, the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia and SCN neighbour adipose tissue, are the causes of external force inducing SCN trauma. The anatomic revealment is the guidance of SCN trauma treatment with edged needle.

  15. Superiorization: An optimization heuristic for medical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, G T; Davidi, R; Censor, Y

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and mathematically validate the superiorization methodology, which is a recently-developed heuristic approach to optimization, and to discuss its applicability to medical physics problem formulations that specify the desired solution (of physically given or otherwise obtained constraints) by an optimization criterion. Methods: The underlying idea is that many iterative algorithms for finding such a solution are perturbation resilient in the sense that, even if certain kinds of changes are made at the end of each iterative step, the algorithm still produces a constraints-compatible solution. This property is exploited by using permitted changes to steer the algorithm to a solution that is not only constraints-compatible, but is also desirable according to a specified optimization criterion. The approach is very general, it is applicable to many iterative procedures and optimization criteria used in medical physics. Results: The main practical contribution is a procedure for automatically p...

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  17. Response of passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithms to thin ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heygster, Georg; Huntemann, Marcus; Ivanova, Natalia;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sea ice thickness brightness temperatures and ice concentrations retrieved from passive microwave observations is quantified, using horizontally homogeneous sea ice thickness retrievals from ESA's SMOS sensor observations at high incidence angles. Brightness temperatures are infl......The influence of sea ice thickness brightness temperatures and ice concentrations retrieved from passive microwave observations is quantified, using horizontally homogeneous sea ice thickness retrievals from ESA's SMOS sensor observations at high incidence angles. Brightness temperatures...

  18. Superior calcium homeostasis of extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Ulrike; Mitchell, Claire H; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2010-11-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a unique group of skeletal muscles with unusual physiological properties such as being able to undergo rapid twitch contractions over extended periods and escape damage in the presence of excess intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD). Enhanced Ca(2+) buffering has been proposed as a contributory mechanism to explain these properties; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated mechanisms modulating Ca(2+) levels in EOM and tibialis anterior (TA) limb muscles. Using Fura-2 based ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging of primary myotubes we found that EOM myotubes reduced elevated Ca(2+) ˜2-fold faster than TA myotubes, demonstrating more efficient Ca(2+) buffering. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blotting revealed higher expression of key components of the Ca(2+) regulation system in EOM, such as the cardiac/slow isoforms sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (Serca2) and calsequestrin 2 (Casq2). Interestingly EOM expressed monomeric rather than multimeric forms of phospholamban (Pln), which was phosphorylated at threonine 17 (Thr17) but not at the serine 16 (Ser16) residue. EOM Pln remained monomeric and unphosphorylated at Ser16 despite protein kinase A (PKA) treatment, suggesting differential signalling and modulation cascades involving Pln-mediated Ca(2+) regulation in EOM. Increased expression of Ca(2+)/SR mRNA, proteins, differential post-translational modification of Pln and superior Ca(2+) buffering is consistent with the improved ability of EOM to handle elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. These characteristics provide mechanistic insight for the potential role of superior Ca(2+) buffering in the unusual physiology of EOM and their sparing in DMD.

  19. The management of superior sulcus tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, J.D.; Putnam, J.B. Jr [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Anderson Cancer Center] (and others)

    2001-09-01

    Superior sulcus tumors are a rare type of lung cancer arising in the apex of the lung above the sulcus and cause specific symptoms and signs depending on the location and whether the tumor extends into the surrounding structures. Because of the closeness of critical structures to the tumor (e.g., the subclavian artery for anterior lesions, the brachial plexus for lesions in the middle location, and the sympathetic stellate ganglion causing Horner's syndrome [Pancoast's tumor], the vertebral bodies, nerve foramen, and spinal cord for posterior lesions), superior sulcus tumors were often considered marginally respectable or unresectable. Therefore, for many years, preoperative radiation therapy was considered routine treatment for those tumors. However, with the evolution in our understanding of these tumors and modern imaging techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) and surgical techniques, there is now considerable debate about the roles and timing of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with these tumors. If mediastinoscopy reveals microscopic mediastinal lymph node involvement, the patient can be treated with preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. If there was a gross mediastinal lymph node involvement (N2) on CT, N3 or T4 lesions, the patient can be treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a curative intent; the outcome of such treatment appears to be better than that of sequential chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. Whenever possible, without compromising the patient's quality of life, surgery should be considered to improve outcome. (author)

  20. STEREO Superior Solar Conjunction Mission Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossing, Daniel A.; Wilson, Daniel; Balon, Kevin; Hunt, Jack; Dudley, Owen; Chiu, George; Coulter, Timothy; Reese, Angel; Cox, Matthew; Srinivasan, Dipak; hide

    2017-01-01

    With its long duration and high gain antenna (HGA) feed thermal constraint; the NASA Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) solar conjunction mission phase is quite unique to deep space operations. Originally designed for a two year heliocentric orbit mission to primarily study coronal mass ejection propagation, after 8 years of continuous science data collection, the twin STEREO observatories entered the solar conjunction mission phase, for which they were not designed. Nine months before entering conjunction, an unforeseen thermal constraint threatened to stop daily communications and science data collection for 15months. With a 3.5 month long communication blackout from the superior solar conjunction, without ground commands, each observatory will reset every 3 days, resulting in 35 system resets at an Earth range of 2 AU. As the observatories will be conjoined for the first time in 8 years, a unique opportunity for calibrating the same instruments on identical spacecraft will occur. As each observatory has lost redundancy, and with only a limited fidelity hardware simulator, how can the new observatory configuration be adequately and safely tested on each spacecraft? Without ground commands, how would a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft safely manage the ever accumulating system momentum without using propellant for thrusters? Could science data still be collected for the duration of the solar conjunction mission phase? Would the observatories survive? In its second extended mission, operational resources were limited at best. This paper discusses the solutions to the STEREO superior solar conjunction operational challenges, science data impact, testing, mission operations, results, and lessons learned while implementing.