Sample records for superior ice isle

  1. Age, growth, and maturity of round whitefish of the Apostle Islands and Isle Royale Regions, Lake Superior (United States)

    Bailey, Merryll M.


    The round whitefish has been of some commercial importance in the upper Great Lakes but production in Lake Superior has generally been small; the United States average was 26,600 pounds for 1929-59. This study is based on 1,173 fish collected in the Apostle Islands in 1958-60 and 103 collected at Isle Royale in 1958 and 1960. The average age of 6.0 years at Isle Royale was concluded to be significantly higher than the mean of 4.2 years in the Apostle Islands. The body-scale relation is a straight line with an intercept of 1.1 inches on the length axis. Weight of Apostle Islands round whitefish captured in several months increased as the 3.22 power of the length. Growth in length was relatively slow; nearly or fully 7 years were required to reach an acceptable commercial length of 14 inches in both the Apostle Islands and at Isle Royale. The calculated weights at the end of the seventh year were 12.6 ounces in the Apostle Islands and 13.8 ounces at Isle Royale. Minimum length at maturity of male round whitefish (7.0-7.4 inches) was less than that of females (8.5-8.9 inches). At age-group II, 11.1 percent of male round whitefish, but only 1.5 percent of the females were mature. All males were mature as age-group V and all females as age-group VI. Males dominated the younger age groups but females were more numerous in the older ones. Estimates of the number of eggs in 37 round whitefish ovaries yielded an average of 5,330 eggs for fish 10.5-17.4 inches long.

  2. Worldwide ISL Uranium Mining Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boytsov, A.; Stander, S.; Martynenko, V.


    Contents: • ISL uranium production historical review and current status; • ISL versus conventional mining; • Acid versus alkaline ISL; • ISL cost considerations; • Principal criteria and parameters for ISL mining; • ISL production forecast and resources availability

  3. Responses of two genetically superior loblolly pine clonal ideotypes to a severe ice storm (United States)

    Lauren S. Pile; Christopher A. Maier; G. Geoff Wang; Dapao Yu; Tim M. Shearman


    An increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, such as major ice storms, can have severe impacts on southern forests. We investigated the damage inflicted by a severe ice storm that occurred in February 2014 on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) ideotypes in Cross, South Carolina located in the southeastern coastal plain. The ‘‘narrow crown”...

  4. International overview of ISL uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, P.; Slezak, J.; Pool, T.; Beneš, V.; Gorbatenko, O.; Jones, B.; Märten, H.; Solodov, I.


    In situ leach (ISL; also called in situ leaching or in situ recovery, ISR) mining has become one of the standard uranium production methods, following early experimentation and production in the 1960s. Its application to amenable uranium deposits (in certain sedimentary formations) has been growing in view of its competitive production costs and low surface impacts. In 1997 the ISL share in total uranium production was 13%; by 2009 it had grown to over 30%, reaching 46% in 2011. In the past, ISL technology was applied mainly in Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and the United States of America (USA). Recently it has been used in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the USA, Australia, China and the Russian Federation, with small operations or experiments elsewhere. ISL mining is gaining widespread acceptance. The IAEA is preparing an overview document to show how ISL experience around the world can be used to direct the development of technical activities, taking into account environmental considerations and an emphasis on the economics of the process, including responsible mine closure. With this document Member States and interested parties will have more information to design and efficiently and safely regulate current and future projects, with a view to maximize economic performance and minimize negative environmental impact. Highlights of the report’s findings will be provided here with a summary of the IAEA’s involvement in ISL over recent decades. Many reference links are provided to allow access to voluminous additional information. (author)

  5. The geologic story of Isle Royale National Park (United States)

    Huber, N. King


    Isle Royale is an outstanding example of relatively undisturbed northwoods lake wilderness. But more than simple preservation of such an environment is involved in its inclusion in our National Park System. Its isolation from the mainland provides an almost untouched laboratory for research in the natural sciences, especially those studies whose very nature depends upon such isolation. One excellent example of such research is the intensive study of the predator-prey relationship of the timber wolf and moose, long sponsored by the National Park Service and Purdue University. In probably no other place in North America are the necessary ecological conditions for such a study so admirably fulfilled as on Isle Royale. The development of a natural laboratory with such conditions is ultimately dependent upon geologic processes and events that although not unique in themselves, produced in their interplay a unique result, the island archipelago as we know it today, with its hills and valleys, swamps and bogs the ecological framework of the plant and animal world. Even the most casual visitor can hardly fail to be struck by the fiordlike nature of many of the bays, the chains of fringing islands, the ridge-and-valley topography, and the linear nature of all these features. The distinctive topography of the archipelago is, of course, only the latest manifestation of geologic processes in operation since time immemorial. Fragments of geologic history going back over a billion years can be read from the rocks of the island, and with additional data from other parts of the Lake Superior region, we can fill in some of the story of Isle Royale. After more than a hundred years of study by man, the story is still incomplete. But then, geologic stories are seldom complete, and what we do know allows a deeper appreciation of one of our most naturally preserved parks and whets our curiosity about the missing fragments.

  6. 'Manxness': The Uses of Heritage on the Isle of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Catte


    Full Text Available This article examines how the Isle of Man, a self-governing crown dependency located in the center of the British Isles, uses heritage to create social stability among a diverse and rapidly changing population. The result of this process has been a powerful model of heritage branding through which all definitions of national identity must flow. After tracing the development of ‘Manx’ national identity from the Victorian era to the present, this article explores the benefits and limitations of the Isle of Man’s political uses of its history and shares insight from the practice of public history on the Isle of Man.

  7. Preliminary clinical results with the ISL laser (United States)

    Hoppeler, Thomas; Gloor, Balder


    The ISL laser (Intelligent Surgical Lasers, Inc.), a Nd:YLF picosecond pulse laser, is currently being used under investigational device exemption to perform microsurgery of the anterior segment of the eye. At different study sites procedures for cataract fragmentation and iridotomy, as well as for posterior capsulotomy after cataract surgery, are under evaluation. Other potential applications include: sclerostomy ab interno, the cutting of membranes in the anterior and posterior segment of the eye; corneal incisions; and corneal intrastromal effects. We discuss various clinically relevant aspects of the use of this picosecond laser. An overview of different computer controlled laser patterns is given.

  8. Visual Neurons in the Superior Colliculus Innervated by Islet2+ or Islet2− Retinal Ganglion Cells Display Distinct Tuning Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel B. Kay


    Full Text Available Throughout the visual system, different subtypes of neurons are tuned to distinct aspects of the visual scene, establishing parallel circuits. Defining the mechanisms by which such tuning arises has been a long-standing challenge for neuroscience. To investigate this, we have focused on the retina’s projection to the superior colliculus (SC, where multiple visual neuron subtypes have been described. The SC receives inputs from a variety of retinal ganglion cell (RGC subtypes; however, which RGCs drive the tuning of different SC neurons remains unclear. Here, we pursued a genetic approach that allowed us to determine the tuning properties of neurons innervated by molecularly defined subpopulations of RGCs. In homozygous Islet2-EphA3 knock-in (Isl2EA3/EA3 mice, Isl2+ and Isl2− RGCs project to non-overlapping sub-regions of the SC. Based on molecular and anatomic data, we show that significantly more Isl2− RGCs are direction-selective (DS in comparison with Isl2+ RGCs. Targeted recordings of visual responses from each SC sub-region in Isl2EA3/EA3 mice revealed that Isl2− RGC-innervated neurons were significantly more DS than those innervated by Isl2+ RGCs. Axis-selective (AS neurons were found in both sub-regions, though AS neurons innervated by Isl2+ RGCs were more tightly tuned. Despite this segregation, DS and AS neurons innervated by Isl2+ or Isl2− RGCs did not differ in their spatial summation or spatial frequency (SF tuning. Further, we did not observe alterations in receptive field (RF size or structure of SC neurons innervated by Isl2+ or Isl2− RGCs. Together, these data show that innervation by Isl2+ and Isl2− RGCs results in distinct tuning in the SC and set the stage for future studies investigating the mechanisms by which these circuits are built.

  9. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1986 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  10. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1941 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  11. Environmental protection at ISL uranium mining sites in Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grutsynov, V.A.


    The ecological aspects of uranium mining with particular focus on in situ leaching (ISL) are addressed in the paper. As compared to conventional mining methods, from the ecological point of view, ISL has proved to be advantageous. Innovations developed and introduced in the Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (NMMC) with the purpose of reducing the impact of the uranium production cycle on the environment are described. (author)

  12. The Straz block ISL project - Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, V.; Slezak, J.


    The ISL project on the Straz deposit, located about 90 km north of Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, is the only commercial in situe leaching plant, that has been operated in the Czech Republic. The facility began its first industrial production at the end of 1969, some 5 years after the discovery of the sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the northern part of the Bohemian Cretaceous basin. The orebodies lie 180 to 280 m below the surface, depending on its configuration. The orebodies are situated in the lower part of the Cenomanian sediments - in brackish sediments, and especially in marine sandstones. At present, the leaching fields have the area of about 650 ha (6.5 km 2 ). Some of these fields were closed, wells decommissioned and surface is being reclaimed. Because of the technological properties of uranium ores and host rocks, the leaching is very slow. Therefore some leaching fields have been in production for more than 25 years and they still produce industrial amounts of uranium. The plants were constructed for the capacity of 30 to 40 m 3 /minute (400 to 650 litres per second). The highest annual production was more than 800 tonnes. The total amount of produced uranium was 15,000 tonnes between 1968 and 1994. (author)

  13. 4th Isle of Thorns Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschfeld, J; Jungnickel, D; Thas, J


    When? These are the proceedings of Finite Geometries, the Fourth Isle of Thorns Conference, which took place from Sunday 16 to Friday 21 July, 2000. It was organised by the editors of this volume. The Third Conference in 1990 was published as Advances in Finite Geometries and Designs by Oxford University Press and the Second Conference in 1980 was published as Finite Geometries and Designs by Cambridge University Press. The main speakers were A. R. Calderbank, P. J. Cameron, C. E. Praeger, B. Schmidt, H. Van Maldeghem. There were 64 participants and 42 contributions, all listed at the end of the volume. Conference web site http://www. maths. susx. ac. uk/Staff/JWPH/ Why? This collection of 21 articles describes the latest research and current state of the art in the following inter-linked areas: • combinatorial structures in finite projective and affine spaces, also known as Galois geometries, in which combinatorial objects such as blocking sets, spreads and partial spreads, ovoids, arcs and caps, as well a...

  14. A positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiao; Yang, Zhe; Wang, Weiping; Guo, Ting; Jia, Zhuqing; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan


    Highlights: • ISL-1 is highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL. • ISL-1 accelerates the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. • c-Myc positively regulates ISL-1 expression in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells. • ISL-1 and c-Myc forms an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex only in DLBCL. • Positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 does not exist in normal pancreatic β-cell. - Abstract: Insulin enhancer binding protein-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, has been reported to play essential roles in promoting adult pancreatic β-cells proliferation. Recent studies indicate that ISL-1 may also involve in the occurrence of a variety of tumors. However, whether ISL-1 has any functional effect on tumorigenesis, and what are the differences on ISL-1 function in distinct conditions, are completely unknown. In this study, we found that ISL-1 was highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells, as well as in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but to a much less extent in other normal tissues or tumor specimens. Further study revealed that ISL-1 promoted the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL cells, and also accelerated the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. We also found that ISL-1 could activate c-Myc transcription not only in pancreatic β-cells but also in DLBCL cells. However, a cell-specific feedback regulation was detectable only in DLBCL cells. This auto-regulatory loop was established by the interaction of ISL-1 and c-Myc to form an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex, and synergistically to promote ISL-1 transcription through binding on the ISL-1 promoter. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells, which might result in the functional diversities of ISL-1 in different physiological and pathological processes

  15. A positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiao, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Yang, Zhe, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Wang, Weiping, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Guo, Ting, E-mail: [Department of Gastrointestinal Translation Research, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Peking University Cancer Hospital, 52 Fucheng Road, 100142 Beijing (China); Jia, Zhuqing, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Ma, Kangtao, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China); Zhou, Chunyan, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences (Ministry of Education), Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing (China)


    Highlights: • ISL-1 is highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL. • ISL-1 accelerates the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. • c-Myc positively regulates ISL-1 expression in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells. • ISL-1 and c-Myc forms an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex only in DLBCL. • Positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 does not exist in normal pancreatic β-cell. - Abstract: Insulin enhancer binding protein-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, has been reported to play essential roles in promoting adult pancreatic β-cells proliferation. Recent studies indicate that ISL-1 may also involve in the occurrence of a variety of tumors. However, whether ISL-1 has any functional effect on tumorigenesis, and what are the differences on ISL-1 function in distinct conditions, are completely unknown. In this study, we found that ISL-1 was highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells, as well as in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but to a much less extent in other normal tissues or tumor specimens. Further study revealed that ISL-1 promoted the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL cells, and also accelerated the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. We also found that ISL-1 could activate c-Myc transcription not only in pancreatic β-cells but also in DLBCL cells. However, a cell-specific feedback regulation was detectable only in DLBCL cells. This auto-regulatory loop was established by the interaction of ISL-1 and c-Myc to form an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex, and synergistically to promote ISL-1 transcription through binding on the ISL-1 promoter. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells, which might result in the functional diversities of ISL-1 in different physiological and pathological processes.

  16. Temporal genetic variation of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, across western Europe and the British Isles (United States)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Soulsbury, Carl D.; Statham, Mark J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Wall, Dave; Dolf, Gaudenz; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Phillip J.; Harris, Stephen; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Bradley, Daniel G.


    Quaternary climatic fluctuations have had profound effects on the phylogeographic structure of many species. Classically, species were thought to have become isolated in peninsular refugia, but there is limited evidence that large, non-polar species survived outside traditional refugial areas. We examined the phylogeographic structure of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), a species that shows high ecological adaptability in the western Palaearctic region. We compared mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region) from 399 modern and 31 ancient individuals from across Europe. Our objective was to test whether red foxes colonised the British Isles from mainland Europe in the late Pleistocene, or whether there is evidence that they persisted in the region through the Last Glacial Maximum. We found red foxes to show a high degree of phylogeographic structuring across Europe and, consistent with palaeontological and ancient DNA evidence, confirmed via phylogenetic indicators that red foxes were persistent in areas outside peninsular refugia during the last ice age. Bayesian analyses and tests of neutrality indicated population expansion. We conclude that there is evidence that red foxes from the British Isles derived from central European populations that became isolated after the closure of the landbridge with Europe.

  17. Groundwater restoration of uranium ISL mines in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, G.; Kuchelka, R.


    Although the in-situ leach (ISL) mining of uranium in the US started in the 1960's, the real expansion of this form of mining, which is also called solution mining, took place in the early to mid 1970's in Texas. Some of the early test work used an acid lixiviant but it was soon recognized that, because of environmental considerations, the use of alkaline lixiviants would be preferable to the regulatory agencies and the public. In the past, the two types of alkaline based lixiviants used at US ISL mines were ammonia bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. A few ISL mines get by with just adding carbon dioxide to the well field solution. Ammonia bicarbonate is no longer being used today in the US because of the difficulties and expense of restoring the water quality to acceptable standards following mining. This paper briefly describes ISL mining principles and then details procedures and techniques used at USA ISL uranium mines to restore water quality in the mined aquifer. The basic elements are fairly constant but there can be considerable variation in type of water treatment equipment, methods of waste water disposal and use of chemical reducing agents. Three case histories are also presented

  18. S.I. 1987 No.688, The Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) (Variation) Order 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Order, which amends the Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) Order 1977, came into force on 7 May 1987. The Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) Order 1977 extends certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 as appropriate, to the Isle of Man. This Order extends amendments made to that Act by the Energy Act 1983 and the Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976, as appropriate, to the Isle of Man. (NEA) [fr

  19. 77 FR 57063 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC (United States)


    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North...

  20. 77 FR 64906 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC (United States)


    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North...

  1. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC (United States)


    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone is... Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety...

  2. 77 FR 35903 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC (United States)


    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. [[Page 35904

  3. Contemporary Irish identity on the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Ryzewski, Krysta; Cherry, John F


    In recent decades, the island of Montserrat has been noticeably repositioning itself within the Caribbean as a place with a unique Irish heritage. Using the tag-line ‘the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean’, there has been an explicit attempt to evoke images of a verdant, green island with a long Irish...

  4. El fundamentalismo islámico: el caso de Chechenia


    Botta, Jorge Paulo


    Hablar de Fundamentalismo Islámico se ha convertido en un lugar común en muchos análisis de Seguridad Internacional, sobre todo relacionándolo con el terrorismo internacional y las llamadas nuevas amenazas a la seguridad.

  5. British Isles Field Experience: An Initiative in International Education. (United States)

    Martin, William J.

    The British Isles Field Experience (BIFE) program was initiated at Williamsport Area Community College (WACC) to provide a group of WACC faculty and staff members with individual and group activities of a personal, professional, and cultural nature in order to promote an international perspective that can be infused into student, collegiate, and…

  6. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)

    Young, S. Lee


    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  7. Late Pleistocene Stratigraphy and Palaeobotany of the Isles of Scilly (United States)

    Scourse, J. D.


    surface, weathered granite once again became the dominant raw material for solifluction, this subsequent phase being represented by the Bread and Cheese Breccia in the northern Scillies and the upper Porthloo Breccia in the southern Scillies. The evidence therefore suggests that ice advanced at least as far as the northern Isles of Scilly during the Dimlington Stadial of the late Devensian Substage. This conflicts with previous interpretations which place the glacial deposits within the Wolstonian Stage. However, the late Devensian event was probably not the first glacial event to have influenced the Islands because erratics are widespread in some exposures of the Watermill Sands and Gravel; the age of this earlier event remains uncertain.

  8. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report (United States)

    Young, S. Lee


    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  9. Isl1 is required for multiple aspects of motor neuron development. (United States)

    Liang, Xingqun; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Xu, ZengGuang; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Liu, Yali; Zhuang, Tao; Chen, Yihan; Pfaff, Samuel L; Evans, Sylvia M; Sun, Yunfu


    The LIM homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1) is expressed in multiple organs and plays essential roles during embryogenesis. Isl1 is required for the survival and specification of spinal cord motor neurons. Due to early embryonic lethality and loss of motor neurons, the role of Isl1 in other aspects of motor neuron development remains unclear. In this study, we generated Isl1 mutant mouse lines expressing graded doses of Isl1. Our study has revealed essential roles of Isl1 in multiple aspects of motor neuron development, including motor neuron cell body localization, motor column formation and axon growth. In addition, Isl1 is required for survival of cranial ganglia neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Uranium Mining by ISL in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demekhov, Yuriy; Gorbatenko, Olga


    In the second half of the 60s, feasibility of Uranium production from low-grade ores by in-situ leaching (ISL) was proved. This radically changed the situation in the raw material base in Kazakhstan. Rapid development of uranium mining by ISL in Kazakhstan caused by factor of availability of large sandstone type uranium deposits. Kazakhstan continuously carries out exploration and prospecting to expand the resource base of uranium. In 2011 and 2012 uranium resources increased by more than 110 thousand tU and 40690 tU was mined. Resource growth is 2.5 times higher than the depleting. Since 2012 Kazatomprom is prospecting for new uranium sandstone deposits in southern Kazakhstan by efforts of Volkovgeologia and at their own expense. The program lasts until 2030. Prior to 2015, allocated more than 20 mils. U.S. dollars in prospecting works. In near future the discovery of new deposits is expected.

  11. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  12. Decline of heterozygosity in a large but isolated population: a 45-year examination of moose genetic diversity on Isle Royale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae L. Sattler


    Full Text Available Wildlife conservation and management approaches typically focus on demographic measurements to assess population viability over both short and long periods. However, genetic diversity is an important predictor of long term population vitality. We investigated the pattern of change in genetic diversity in a large and likely isolated moose (Alces alces population on Isle Royale (Lake Superior from 1960–2005. We characterized samples, partitioned into five different 5-year periods, using nine microsatellite loci and a portion of the mtDNA control region. We also simulated the moose population to generate a theoretical backdrop of genetic diversity change. In the empirical data, we found that the number of alleles was consistently low and that observed heterozygosity notably declined from 1960 to 2005 (p = 0.08, R2 = 0.70. Furthermore, inbreeding coefficients approximately doubled from 0.08 in 1960–65 to 0.16 in 2000–05. Finally, we found that the empirical rate of observed heterozygosity decline was faster than the rate of observed heterozygosity loss in our simulations. Combined, these data suggest that genetic drift and inbreeding occurred in the Isle Royale moose populations over the study period, leading to significant losses in heterozygosity. Although inbreeding can be mitigated by migration, we found no evidence to support the occurrence of recent migrants into the population using analysis of our mtDNA haplotypes nor microsatellite data. Therefore, the Isle Royale moose population illustrates that even large populations are subjected to inbreeding in the absence of migration.

  13. Ice, Ice, Baby! (United States)

    Hamilton, C.


    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  14. The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 2. Surface waters and groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Darling


    some ‰ for δ18O and 30‰ for δ2H. Over lowland areas the 'altitude effect' is of little significance, but in upland areas is consistent with a range of –0.2 to –0.3‰ per 100 m increase in altitude. Groundwaters dating from the late Pleistocene are usually modified in δ18O and δ2H owing to the effects of climate change on the isotopic composition of rainfall and thus of recharge. Contour maps of isotopic variability prior to 10 ka BP, based on the relatively limited information available from the British Isles, allow a first comparison between groundwaters now and at the end of the last Ice Age. The position of the British Isles in the context of the stable isotope systematics of NW Europe is reviewed briefly. Keywords: Stable isotopes, surfacewaters, groundwater, British Isles

  15. El Estado Islámico: Catalizador del irredentismo kurdo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernesto Garzón García


    Full Text Available Con su aparición, el Estado Islámico se consolida como una amenaza de carácter internacional y se convierte en el elemento pivote de la reestructuración de las relaciones internacionales, la configuración de nuevas alianzas y ciertamente en el impulsor de escenarios anteriormente poco presumibles con relación al Medio Oriente, entre ellos se establece como uno de los componentes catalizadores del irredentismo kurdo y su proyecto estatal e independentista. La reaparición de los kurdos en la esfera internacional potenciada por el estado Islámico, al ser en un principio el único grupo con capacidad de enfrentarlos, genera tensiones en la región pues la consolidación del Kurdistán alteraría la estructura territorial de cuatro Estados particularmente y sus relaciones políticas y comerciales, impactando directamente en la relativa estabilidad que ha imperado en el siglo XXI.

  16. 33 CFR 110.179 - Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga. 110.179 Section 110.179 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.179 Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga. (a) The...

  17. 75 FR 51379 - Safety Zone; Celebrate Erie, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA (United States)


    ... display. DATES: This rule is effective from 9:30 p.m. until 10:30 p.m. on August 22, 2010. ADDRESSES...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Presque Isle Bay... Presque Isle Bay in Erie, PA during the Celebrate Erie fireworks display, August 22, 2010. This temporary...

  18. Improved age constraints for the retreat of the Irish Sea Ice Stream (United States)

    Smedley, Rachel; Chiverrell, Richard; Duller, Geoff; Scourse, James; Small, David; Fabel, Derek; Burke, Matthew; Clarke, Chris; McCarroll, Danny; McCarron, Stephen; O'Cofaigh, Colm; Roberts, David


    BRITICE-CHRONO is a large (> 45 researchers) consortium project working to provide an extensive geochronological dataset constraining the rate of retreat of a number of ice streams of the British-Irish Ice Sheet following the Last Glacial Maximum. When complete, the large empirical dataset produced by BRITICE-CHRONO will be integrated into model simulations to better understand the behaviour of the British-Irish Ice Sheet in response to past climate change, and provide an analogue for contemporary ice sheets. A major feature of the British-Irish Ice Sheet was the dynamic Irish Sea Ice Stream, which drained a large proportion of the ice sheet and extended to the proposed southern limit of glaciation upon the Isles of Scilly (Scourse, 1991). This study will focus on a large suite of terrestrial samples that were collected along a transect of the Irish Sea basin, covering the line of ice retreat from the Isles of Scilly (50°N) in the south, to the Isle of Man (54°N) in the north; a distance of 500 km. Ages are determined for both the eastern and western margins of the Irish Sea using single-grain luminescence dating (39 samples) and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (10 samples). A Bayesian sequence model is then used in combination with the prior information determined for deglaciation to integrate the geochronological datasets, and assess retreat rates for the Irish Sea Ice Stream. Scourse, J.D., 1991. Late Pleistocene stratigraphy and palaeobotany of the Isles of Scilly. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B334, 405 - 448.

  19. Nichols Ranch ISL Uranium Mine - A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, G.; Thomas, G.


    The Nichols Ranch ISL Uranium Mine is located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, U.S.A. The mine is owned and operated by Uranerz Energy Corporation (Uranerz), a U.S. corporation headquartered in Casper, Wyoming. Nichols Ranch started operations in February 2014 and is the newest uranium mine to go into production in the USA. The uranium being extracted is hosted in a sandstone, roll-front deposit at a depth ranging from 400 to 800 feet [~120 to ~240 m). The In-Situ Recovery (ISL) mining method is employed at the Nichols Ranch mine which is the method currently being utilized at most uranium mines in the USA. Environmental permit applications for the Nichols Ranch mine were submitted to the appropriate regulatory agencies in late 2007. It required more than three and a half years to obtain all the necessary permits and licenses to construct and operate the mine. Construction of the mining facilities and the first wellfield started in late 2011 and was completed in late 2013. Mining results to date have been better than anticipated and Uranerz expects to reach its 2014 production target. The most challenging part of getting a new uranium mine in production in the United States of America was the three plus years it took to get through the environmental permitting process. Uranerz was one of three companies in 2011 that applied for permits to construct and operate uranium mines in Wyoming at essentially the same time. The Nichols Ranch mine is licensed to produce up to two million pounds per year of uranium (as U_3O_8) [~770 tU] ready for shipment to the converter. At this time only the ion exchange portion of the central processing plant has been installed at Nichols Ranch with uranium loaded resin being shipped to Cameco’s nearby Smith Ranch – Highland ISL uranium mine for elution, precipitation, drying and packaging under a toll processing agreement. Cameco provides Uranerz with dried and drummed yellowcake that Uranerz owns which is shipped to the

  20. Jung, mandala e arquitetura Islâmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Raffaelli


    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a refletir sobre as origens do conceito junguiano de mandala. Utiliza-se o relato autobiográfico de Jung, Memórias, Sonhos e Reflexões, e sua obra Psicologia e Alquimia para traçar essa origem. Segundo Barbara Hannah, biógrafa de Jung, uma mesquita no Cairo (Egito foi de importância capital para a formulação desse conceito. Provavelmente esse templo é a Mesquita Ahmad Ibn Tulun. É analisada a relação entre a simbologia arquitetônica islâmica inspirada pelo sufismo e as concepções psicológicas de Jung.

  1. Detonation Product EOS Studies: Using ISLS to Refine Cheetah (United States)

    Zaug, J. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.; Hansen, D. W.


    Knowledge of an effective interatomic potential function underlies any effort to predict or rationalize the properties of solids and liquids. The experiments we undertake are directed towards determination of equilibrium and dynamic properties of simple fluids at densities sufficiently high that traditional computational methods and semi-empirical forms successful at ambient conditions may require reconsideration. In this paper we present high-pressure and temperature experimental sound speed data on a simple fluid, methanol. Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering (ISLS) conducted on diamond-anvil cell (DAC) encapsulated samples offers an experimental approach to determine cross-pair potential interactions through equation of state determinations. In addition the kinetics of structural relaxation in fluids can be studied. We compare our experimental results with our thermochemical computational model Cheetah. Experimentally grounded computational models provide a good basis to confidently understand the chemical nature of reactions at extreme conditions.

  2. Do future commercial broadband communication satellites really need laser-communication intersatellite links (ISLs)? (United States)

    Freidell, James E.


    Large commercial satellite programs requiring ISLs are growing in number and maturing. An important segment of the commercial satellite market, and its ISL needs, is discussed in the paper. ISL value will increase as long-haul terrestrial backbones become increasingly congested. Providing interregional and intercontinental connectivity via ISL presents far lower cost and fewer problems than relying on terrestrial fiber-optic networks. To demonstrate this, a new metric is proposed which allows 'apples-to- apples' cost/performance comparisons between laser communications in GEO, LEO, and terrestrial fiber-optics. ISL requirements in to the next decade are predicted >= 50-100 Gb/s full duplex. Many attitudinal changes must be embraced among those who choose to focus on this new commercial business. Foremost among these is a preponderance to delivering fully acceptable hardware fast and at low cost, as opposed to merely designing such. Considerable attention must be given business considerations foreign to professionals who have spent time in the government or government contracting sectors. Successful ISL customers will come to recognize that ISLs are not commodity products. Failure to embrace these attitudes will nonetheless constitute decision to which the commercial market, and particularly the financial market, will appropriately respond.

  3. Common variation in ISL1 confers genetic susceptibility for human congenital heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N Stevens

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease (CHD is the most common birth abnormality and the etiology is unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. ISLET1 (ISL1 is a transcription factor that marks cardiac progenitor cells and generates diverse multipotent cardiovascular cell lineages. The fundamental role of ISL1 in cardiac morphogenesis makes this an exceptional candidate gene to consider as a cause of complex congenital heart disease. We evaluated whether genetic variation in ISL1 fits the common variant-common disease hypothesis. A 2-stage case-control study examined 27 polymorphisms mapping to the ISL1 locus in 300 patients with complex congenital heart disease and 2,201 healthy pediatric controls. Eight genic and flanking ISL1 SNPs were significantly associated with complex congenital heart disease. A replication study analyzed these candidate SNPs in 1,044 new cases and 3,934 independent controls and confirmed that genetic variation in ISL1 is associated with risk of non-syndromic congenital heart disease. Our results demonstrate that two different ISL1 haplotypes contribute to risk of CHD in white and black/African American populations.

  4. Multipotent embryonic isl1+ progenitor cells lead to cardiac, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell diversification. (United States)

    Moretti, Alessandra; Caron, Leslie; Nakano, Atsushi; Lam, Jason T; Bernshausen, Alexandra; Chen, Yinhong; Qyang, Yibing; Bu, Lei; Sasaki, Mika; Martin-Puig, Silvia; Sun, Yunfu; Evans, Sylvia M; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Chien, Kenneth R


    Cardiogenesis requires the generation of endothelial, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells, thought to arise from distinct embryonic precursors. We use genetic fate-mapping studies to document that isl1(+) precursors from the second heart field can generate each of these diverse cardiovascular cell types in vivo. Utilizing embryonic stem (ES) cells, we clonally amplified a cellular hierarchy of isl1(+) cardiovascular progenitors, which resemble the developmental precursors in the embryonic heart. The transcriptional signature of isl1(+)/Nkx2.5(+)/flk1(+) defines a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor, which can give rise to cells of all three lineages. These studies document a developmental paradigm for cardiogenesis, where muscle and endothelial lineage diversification arises from a single cell-level decision of a multipotent isl1(+) cardiovascular progenitor cell (MICP). The discovery of ES cell-derived MICPs suggests a strategy for cardiovascular tissue regeneration via their isolation, renewal, and directed differentiation into specific mature cardiac, pacemaker, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell types.

  5. Nekton usage in a Caminda Bay Saltmarsh at Grand Isle LA July and October 1998 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During July and October 1988, a total of 42 samples were collected in salt marsh habitats of the Caminada Bay system near Grand Isle, Louisiana to evaluate the use...

  6. An oasis of fertility on a barren island: earthworms at Papadil, Isle of Rum (United States)

    K.R. Butt; C.N.  Lowe; Mac Callaham; V.  Nuutinen


    The Isle of Rum, Inner Hebrides, has an impoverished earthworm fauna as the soils are generally acidic and nutrient-poor. Species associated with human habitation are found around deserted crofting settlements subjected to

  7. Climatology, storm morphologies, and environments of tornadoes in the British Isles: 1980–2012


    Mulder, Kelsey J.; Schultz, David M.


    A climatology is developed for tornadoes during 1980–2012 in the British Isles, defined in this article as England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man. The climatology includes parent storm type, interannual variability, annual and diurnal cycles, intensities, oc- currence of outbreaks (defined as three or more tornadoes in the same day), geographic distribution, and environmental conditions derived from proximity soundings of tornadoe...

  8. Inshore craft traditional working vessels of the british isles

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhill, Basil


    This comprehensive reference work describes and illustrates some 200 types of inshore craft that once fished and traded, under oar and sail, around the coasts of the British Isles. The types are arranged by coastal area and each is described in terms of its shape and design, fitness for location and purpose, build, evolution and geographical distribution. Details of dimensions, rig, building materials, seamanship and the survival of examples are given where known, while hundreds of line drawings and photographs show the vessels in their original forms.A team of twelve experts describe all these boat types and, in addition, there are introductions to the main geographic areas outlining the physical environments, fisheries and other uses of the sea that have influenced boat design; maps of all the areas show ports and physical features.At the beginning of the last century sail and oar dominated fisheries and local trade: one hundred years later those craft have all but vanished. This book brings alive for marit...

  9. Water-resources reconnaissance of Isle de la Gonave, Haiti (United States)

    Troester, J.W.; Turvey, M.D.


    Isle de la Gonave is a 750-km2 island off the coast of Haiti. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 m in the Eocene and Upper Miocene limestones to over 60 m in the 300-m-thick Quaternary limestone. Annual precipitation ranges from 800-1,400 mm. Most precipitation is lost through evapotranspiration and there is virtually no surface water. Roughly estimated from chloride mass balance, about 4% of the precipitation recharges the karst aquifer. Cave pools and springs are a common source for water. Hand-dug wells provide water in coastal areas. Few productive wells have been drilled deeper than 60 m. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate that groundwater in the interior is a calcium-bicarbonate type, whereas water at the coast is a sodium-chloride type that exceeds World Health Organization recommended values for sodium and chloride. Tests for the presence of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria were negative in most drilled wells, but positive in cave pools, hand-dug wells, and most springs, indicating bacterial contamination of most water sources. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 110,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 L per person per day.

  10. Ice Cores (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  11. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.


    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  12. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.


    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  13. Prediction of pollution into ore bearing aquifer from ISL-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgopolov, V.; Kayukov, P.; Vyatchennikova, L.; Shishkov, I.


    Outcomes of present mineralogical investigations explain some phenomena observed in previous sorption experiences. First of all they elucidate cutback of filtration coefficients of sediments exposed under pollution process as granulometric fractions of these permeable sediments decreased in its weight ratio in according to impermeable ones. Then sorption graphics are explained by chemical and mineralogical changes in experienced substance. Explores made diagnoses and estimation about 45 authigenous and technogenous minerals playing the essential role in the process of mass transfer of uranium and polluted components in ISL-sites. They are considered in all basic fractions of studied sediments. Bright peculiarities are noticed for gravel and coarse sands, which went to pieces as a result of dilution or decomposition of its cement. Mineral composition of clayey fraction also significantly changed after pollution process. Steep lost of weight of fraction 0.005-0.001mm consisted with partial decomposition of clayey minerals basically of montmorillonite. These investigations show also that ones of the main minerals playing such the essential role are sorptive such as silica, silica gel, common opal, opal-CT, noble opal, allophane, montmorillonite and zeolite minerals. In conclusion the given work shows some filtration properties of aquifer in an ISL-site and predicts the spread of a possible pollution for ISL-site to environment. The extension of pollution could be more one-two dimension of affected by ISL-process. The prediction would be exact if the previous investigation included the desorptive characteristics and sorptive data depending on temperature and pressure. Current investigations continued pervious ones after which some inexplicable matters of migration of contaminated halo from an ISL-polygon are as follows: Identification and specification of all minerals outside ISL-polygon; Calculation of mineral balance for contaminated sites; Specification of flow

  14. Pictorial Superiority Effect (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others


    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  15. Tsunami Evacuation Exercises: the Case of Heraklion, Crete Isl., Greece (United States)

    Triantafyllou, I.; Charalampakis, M.; Bocchini, G. M.; Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.


    Effective tsunami evacuation requires appropriate awareness as regards good shelters selection. Field exercises may improve public awareness. A field exercise was organized in Heraklion, Crete Isl., in 2016. The area is part of the Hellenic Arc which is the most active structure in the Mediterranean. Large earthquakes triggered tsunamis that hit Heraklion in the past, such in AD 1303. After selecting various fault models, simulation of the 1303 tsunami showed important inundation zone in Heraklion. For the exercise needs a team of 30 volunteers was divided in 3 groups of 10 people each. Everyone was equipped with a mobile phone and a GPS device. The 3 groups were gathered in 3 coastal spots Heraklion situated 400 m apart each other. The scenario was that immediately after receiving in their mobile a tsunami warning message they will set on their personal GPS device and start evacuating inland on the best way they believed to do so. In each group, only 5 out of 10 volunteers were notified beforehand that the Eleftherias Square, located inland at distance satisfying evacuation needs in case of repeat of the 1303 tsunami, would be a good shelter to go. Using the Road Graph Plugin of QGIS, we calculated the shortest path distances which found equal to 800, 700 and 680 m. Adopting average velocity of 3 km/h we found that these distances can be covered within 18, 16 and 15 min, respectively. The routes towards the settlement spots as well as the times needed to arrive there by each one of the 30 volunteers were recorded by their personal GPS devices. The processing of the GPS tracks and their comparison with the theoretical routes and times showed good evacuation performance which is encouraging for the next phases of the Heraklion tsunami hazard mitigation program. This is contribution to the EU-FP7 projects ZIP (Zooming In between Plates, grant no: 604713, 2013) and ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant no: 603839, 2013.

  16. O monoteísmo islâmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ozaí da Silva


    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é analisar a as origens e fundamentos da fé monoteísta islâmica, sua singularidade e o significado do Profeta Maomé enquanto modelo religioso, moral e político para a conduta dos muçulmanos. O objetivo é contribuir para a reflexão crítica sobre o Islamismo, para além dos preconceitos lingüísticos, políticos e culturais alimentados por setores da mídia ocidental, a qual tende a restringir o islamismo à vertente fundamentalista. As religiões monoteístas têm os seus fundamentalismos e suas “guerras justas”. E, no que diz respeito ao monoteísmo, as religiões não diferem em sua essência, já que se fundamentam na crença no Deus Único. Objetiva-se, ainda, instigar a análise sobre as relações entre religião e política, um tema polêmico em todas as crenças monoteístas.

  17. Functional cardiomyocytes derived from Isl1 cardiac progenitors via Bmp4 stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cagavi

    Full Text Available As heart failure due to myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, cell-based cardiac regenerative therapy using cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs could provide a potential treatment for the repair of injured myocardium. As adult CPCs may have limitations regarding tissue accessibility and proliferative ability, CPCs derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs could serve as an unlimited source of cells with high proliferative ability. As one of the CPCs that can be derived from embryonic stem cells, Isl1 expressing cardiac progenitor cells (Isl1-CPCs may serve as a valuable source of cells for cardiac repair due to their high cardiac differentiation potential and authentic cardiac origin. In order to generate an unlimited number of Isl1-CPCs, we used a previously established an ESC line that allows for isolation of Isl1-CPCs by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression that is directed by the mef2c gene, specifically expressed in the Isl1 domain of the anterior heart field. To improve the efficiency of cardiac differentiation of Isl1-CPCs, we studied the role of Bmp4 in cardiogenesis of Isl1-CPCs. We show an inductive role of Bmp directly on cardiac progenitors and its enhancement on early cardiac differentiation of CPCs. Upon induction of Bmp4 to Isl1-CPCs during differentiation, the cTnT+ cardiomyocyte population was enhanced 2.8±0.4 fold for Bmp4 treated CPC cultures compared to that detected for vehicle treated cultures. Both Bmp4 treated and untreated cardiomyocytes exhibit proper electrophysiological and calcium signaling properties. In addition, we observed a significant increase in Tbx5 and Tbx20 expression in differentiation cultures treated with Bmp4 compared to the untreated control, suggesting a link between Bmp4 and Tbx genes which may contribute to the enhanced cardiac differentiation in Bmp4 treated cultures. Collectively these findings suggest a cardiomyogenic role for Bmp4 directly on a pure population of

  18. Analysis of the Accuracy of Beidou Combined Orbit Determination Enhanced by LEO and ISL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Laiping


    Full Text Available In order to improve the precision of BeiDou orbit determination under the conditions of regional ground monitoring station and make good use of increasingly rich on-board data and upcoming ISL technology, a method of BeiDou precision orbit determination is proposed which combines the use of ground monitoring stations data, low earth orbit satellite(LEOs data and Inter-Satellite Link(ISL data. The effects of assisting data of LEOs and ISL on the precision orbit determination of navigation satellite are discussed. Simulation analysis is carried out mainly from the number of LEOs, orbit slot configuration and ISL. The results show that the orbit precision of BeiDou will greatly improve about 73% with a small number of LEOs, while improvement of clock bias is not remarkable; the uniform orbit slot configuration of the same number of LEOs has a modest effect on the accuracy of combined orbit determination; compared with LEOs, the increase of ISL will significantly improve the accuracy of orbit determination with a higher efficiency.

  19. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera on Isle Royale National Park, USA, compared to mainland species pool and size distribution. (United States)

    DeWalt, R Edward; South, Eric J


    Extensive sampling for aquatic insects was conducted in the orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies), and Trichoptera (caddisflies) (EPT) of Isle Royale National Park (ISRO), Michigan, United States of America, during summer 2013. The island was ice covered until 8,000 to 10,000 years ago and is isolated by 22-70 km distance from the mainland. Two hypotheses were examined: that ISRO EPT richness would be much reduced from the mainland, and that the species colonizing ISRO would be of smaller size than mainland, adults presumably using updrafts to bridge the distance from mainland sources. Data sets were developed for known mainland EPT species and size for those species. The first hypothesis was confirmed with the mainland species pool consisting of 417 EPT, while ISRO is known to support 73 species. Richness of EPT is directly related to the number of specimens examined. Small streams supported five EPT species, while 15-25 species were found in larger streams. Lakeshores had intermediate diversity. The second hypothesis was substantiated for stoneflies, but not for mayflies or caddisflies. Stoneflies apparently are poorer fliers than either of the other two orders.

  20. Sea Ice (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.


    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  1. The Outlook on Potential Uranium ISL Mining at Nyota Deposit (Tanzania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boytsov, A.; Stander, S.; Martynenko, V.


    Conclusion: • The Nyota deposit is a world class deposit, which holds over 50Mlb which is potentially amenable to ISR. • Significant resources upside potential. • Initial ISL testing has yielded encouraging results, which should be followed up. • The ISR project is currently at the R&D stage, and the next steps have been identified and planned. • Technical, commercial and SHEQ challenges remains that must be overcome. • Uranium One will continue to investigate the ISR potential via a responsible, toll gated approach. • Successful testing could unlock a new ISL production region.

  2. 3D visualisation of a Jurassic oolitic system with GPR data, Isle of Portland (UK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Hansen, Trine Lykke; Nielsen, Lars

    architecture to be the result of mixed hydrodynamic conditions associated with wave activity and tidal currents. The Isle shows a island barrier complex which migrates basinwards but also expands laterally, filling up the available space and cannibalising itself. More proximal facies are effectively observed...... in the north of the Isle towards the former continent or lagoon. However, the survey clearly shows that the shore zone progrades broadly towards the SW, partially away from the Channel, with an obtuse angle compared to former reconstructions. This result suggests that the oolitic shore zone system forms...

  3. Manx Gaelic: The Manx Gaelic Language in Education in the Isle of Man. Regional Dossiers Series (United States)

    McArdle, Fiona, Comp.; Teare, Robert, Comp.


    This regional dossier aims at providing a concise description of and basic statistics on minority language education in a specific region of Europe--the Isle of Man. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative…

  4. Phylogenetic analysis and antifouling potentials of culturable fungi in mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Fu, Wen; Chen, Xiao; Yan, Mu-Ting; Huang, Xian-De; Bao, Jie


    To search for more microbial resources for screening environment-friendly antifoulants, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity and antifouling potentials of culturable fungi in mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle, China. A total of 176 isolates belonging to 57 fungal taxa were recovered and identified. The high levels of diversity and abundance of mangrove fungi from Techeng Isle were in accordance with previous studies on fungi from other mangrove ecosystems. Fifteen of the 176 isolates demonstrated high divergence (87-93%) from the known fungal taxa in GenBank. Moreover, 26 isolates recorded in mangrove ecosystems for the first time. These results suggested that mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle harbored some new fungal communities compared with other mangrove ecosystems. The antifouling activity of 57 representative isolates (belonging to 57 different fungal taxa) was tested against three marine bacteria (Loktanella hongkongensis, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudoalteromonas piscida) and two marine macrofoulers (bryozoan Bugula neritina and barnacle Balanus amphitrite). Approximately 40% of the tested isolates displayed distinct antifouling activity. Furthermore, 17 fungal isolates were found to display strong or a wide spectrum of antifouling activity in this study, suggesting that these isolates deserve further study as potential sources of novel antifouling metabolites. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the investigation of the phylogenetic diversity and antifouling potential of culturable fungi in mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle, China. These results contribute to our knowledge of mangrove fungi and further increases the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  5. 75 FR 76688 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Isle of Wight (Sinepuxent) Bay, Ocean City, MD (United States)


    ..., mile 0.5, at Ocean City, with a vertical clearance of 13 feet above mean high tide in the closed...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Isle of Wight (Sinepuxent) Bay, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast... Ocean City, MD. This proposed rule will require any mariner requesting an opening in the evening hours...

  6. Field Philosophy: Environmental Learning and Moral Development in Isle Royale National Park (United States)

    Goralnik, Lissy; Nelson, Michael Paul


    We conducted a qualitative analysis of 5 years of student writing data to understand learning and moral development on a field philosophy course in Isle Royale National Park. We were interested in the connection between physical experiences in the natural world and the way students care about or value nonhuman beings, natural systems, and place.…

  7. Gaelic language erosion and revitalization on the Isle of Skye, Scotland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, D.; Smith-Christmas, C.; Graaf, de T.; Ostler, N.; Salverda, R.


    This paper analyzes the language loss of three generations of a Gaelic-speaking family located on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Participants' linguistic skills were assessed via language ability tests. We focused on plurals, passives, and tense, and we examined synthetic forms. The results confirmed

  8. Home radon levels and seasonal correction factors for the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, P.; Preece, A.W.; Goodfellow, S.A.


    Ionizing radiation dose levels due to home radon can rise to levels that would be illegal for workers in the nuclear industry. It is well known that radon levels within homes and from home to home, and also from month to month, vary considerably. To define an Isle of Man radon seasonal correction factor, readings were taken in eight homes over a 12 month period. An average island indoor exposure of 48 Bq m -3 (range 4-518 Bq m -3 ) was determined from 285 homes selected from a cohort of 1300 families participating in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) in the Isle of Man. This compares with a UK home average of 20 Bq m -3 and a European Union average (excluding UK) of 68 Bq m -3 . Ten homes of those measured were found to have radon levels above the National Radiological Protection Board 200 Bq m -3 action level. There are 29 377 homes on the Isle of Man, suggesting that there could be some 900 or more homes above the action level. No statistical difference was found between the NRPB and Isle of Man seasonal correction factors. (author)

  9. 77 FR 35619 - Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... during the Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect... ensure the safety of spectators and vessels during the Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks. [[Page 35620...

  10. Bathymetry of Lake Superior (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  11. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  12. Superior Hiking Trail (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  13. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta


    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  14. Some aspects of linacs as applied to the ISL benchmark facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.


    This paper considers several aspects of using linacs in a radioactive beam facility in terms of the Isospin Laboratory (ISL) Benchmark Facility (BMF) plan, described in the 1991 white paper for a possible radioactive-beam laboratory. The intention is not to review comprehensively the application of linacs to an ISL facility, but to compare in outline form several linac options for such a facility. Particular emphasis is given to the use of superconducting rf technology for the secondary beam accelerator. In what follows, first a possible normally-conducting light-ion linac for a primary beam accelerator is briefly outlined. Then the performance and cost of two options for a secondary beam accelerator are compared: a recent design for a normal-conducting cw linac, and an ATLAS-type superconducting linac. Finally, some of the problems which may be encountered at the entrance of a secondary beam linac are discussed

  15. Sequence variation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the British Isles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyfield, L.A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); Stephenson, A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cockburn, F. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Using mutation and haplotype analysis, we have examined the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the phenylketonuria populations of four geographical areas of the British Isles: the west of Scotland, southern Wales, and southwestern and southeastern England. The enormous genetic diversity of this locus within the British Isles is demonstrated in the large number of different mutations characterized and in the variety of genetic backgrounds on which individual mutations are found. Allele frequencies of the more common mutations exhibited significant nonrandom distribution in a north/south differentiation. Differences between the west of Scotland and southwestern England may be related to different events in the recent and past histories of their respective populations. Similarities between southern Wales and southeastern England are likely to reflect the heterogeneity that is seen in and around two large capital cities. Finally, comparison with more recently colonized areas of the world corroborates the genealogical origin by range expansion of several mutations. 38 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA (United States)


    ... June 22, 2013, a large scale swimming event will be held on Presque Isle Bay near the Erie Yacht Club...'48.82'' W and extend in a straight line 1,000 feet wide to the Erie Yacht Club at position 42[deg]07... wide to the Erie Yacht Club at position 42[deg]07'21.74'' N, 80[deg]07'58.30'' W. (NAD 83) (b...

  17. Characterization of prehistoric pottery from the Tremiti Isles by trace elements determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandone, A.; Fumo, P.; Giacco, M.; Oddone, M.; Riganti, V.; Baldi, M


    The potteries found on the Tremiti Isles (Italy, Adriatic Sea) have been characterized through their trace elements content. The goal of the work was to find out the number of ore deposits that supplied the clay used to manufacture the pottery. Neutron activation analysis has been employed for trace elements content determinations; the results have been statistically evaluated, clusterized and discussed. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  18. Rayleigh wave tomography of the British Isles from ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Nicolson, Heather; Curtis, Andrew; Baptie, Brian


    We present the first Rayleigh wave group speed maps of the British Isles constructed from ambient seismic noise. The maps also constitute the first surface wave tomography study of the crust under the British Isles at a relatively high resolution. We computed interferometric, interstation Rayleigh waves from vertical component records of ambient seismic noise recorded on 63 broad-band and short-period stations across the UK and Ireland. Group velocity measurements were made from the resulting surface wave dispersion curves between 5 and 25 s using a multiple phase-matched filter method. Uncertainties in the group velocities were computed by calculating the standard deviation of four dispersion curves constructed by stacking a random selection of daily cross-correlations. Where an uncertainty could not be obtained for a ray path using this method, we estimated it as a function of the interreceiver distance. Group velocity maps were computed for 5-25-s period using the Fast Marching forward solution of the eikonal equation and iterative, linearized inversion. At short and intermediate periods, the maps show remarkable agreement with the major geological features of the British Isles including: terrane boundaries in Scotland; regions of late Palaeozoic basement uplift; areas of exposed late Proterozoic/early Palaeozoic rocks in southwest Scotland, northern England and northwest Wales and, sedimentary basins formed during the Mesozoic such as the Irish Sea Basin, the Chester Basin, the Worcester Graben and the Wessex Basin. The maps also show a consistent low-velocity anomaly in the region of the Midlands Platform, a Proterozoic crustal block in the English Midlands. At longer periods, which are sensitive velocities in the lower crustal/upper mantle, the maps suggest that the depth of Moho beneath the British Isles decreases towards the north and west. Areas of fast velocity in the lower crust also coincide with areas thought to be associated with underplating of the

  19. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.


    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  20. Assessing the conservation status of marine habitats: thoughts from a sandflat on the Isles of Scilly.


    Warwick, RM; Somerfield, PJ


    Abstract Statutory monitoring of the fauna of the ‘mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide’ biotope complex on St Martin's Flats, a part of the Isles of Scilly Complex Special Area of Conservation, was undertaken in 2000, 2004 and 2009. The targets set by Natural England for “characteristic biotopes” were that “composite species, abundance and diversity should not deviate significantly from an established baseline, subject to natural change”. The three specified biotope...

  1. Implementing a sustainable clinical supervision model for Isles nurses in Orkney. (United States)

    Hall, Ian


    The Isles Network of Care (INOC) community nurses work at the extreme of the remote and rural continuum, working mostly as lone practitioners. Following the development of sustainable clinical supervision model for Isles nurses in Orkney, clinical supervision was found to improve both peer support and governance for this group of isolated staff. A literature overview identified the transition of clinical supervision in general nursing over 24 years from 'carrot' to 'stick'. The study included a questionnaire survey that was sent to the 2017 Queen's Nursing Institute Scotland cohort to elicit information about the nurses' experience of clinical supervision. The survey found that 55% provide supervision and 40% receive it. Health board encouragement of its use was found to be disappointingly low at 40%. The INOC nurses were surveyed about the new peer-support (restorative) model, which relies on video-conference contact to allow face to face interaction between isolated isles nurses. Feedback prompted a review of clinical supervision pairings, and the frequency and methods of meeting. The need for supervisor training led to agreement with the Remote and Rural Health Education Alliance to provide relevant support. The perceived benefits of supervision included increased support and reflection, and improved relationships with isolated colleagues.

  2. Ice Ages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the precession of the earth's orbit caused ice ages. The precession of the earth's orbit leads to changes in the time of the year at which ... than in the southern hemisphere. ..... small increase in ocean temperature implies a large increase in.

  3. Eulerian Method for Ice Crystal Icing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    In this study, an ice accretion method aimed at ice crystal icing in turbofan engines is developed and demonstrated for glaciated as well as mixed-phase icing conditions. The particle trajectories are computed by an Eulerian trajectory method. The effects of heat transfer and phase change on the

  4. Self and Superior Assessment. (United States)


    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  5. Sea ice - Multiyear cycles and white ice (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.


    The multiyear thickness cycles represent one of the interesting features of the sea ice studies performed by Semtner (1976) and Washington et al. (1976) with simple thermodynamic models of sea ice. In the present article, a description is given of results which show that the insulating effect of snow on the surface of the sea ice is important in producing these multiyear cycles given the physics included in the model. However, when the formation of white ice is included, the cycles almost disappear. White ice is the ice which forms at the snow-ice interface when the snow layer becomes thick enough to depress the ice below the water level. Water infiltrates the snow by coming through the ice at leads and generally freezes there, forming white ice.

  6. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik


    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  7. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro


    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  8. Processes controlling the retreat of the Isles Dernieres, a Louisiana barrier-island chain (United States)

    Dingler, John R.; Reiss, Thomas E.


    The Isles Dernieres is a low-lying, transgressive barrier-island chain situated about 150 km west of the modern Mississippi delta. Much of the Isles Dernieres consists of highly dissected salt-marsh muds that lie at or slightly above sea level and are covered by a veneer of sand along the shoreline facing the Gulf of Mexico. Maximum berm elevations are generally less than 1.5 m above mean sea level. Since the mid-1800s, the initial island has been fragmented into four islands, and the beach face has retreated landward at a rate of more than 10 m/yr. The dominant processes controlling degradation of the chain are cold fronts that pass through the area several times each year and occasional hurricanes. Beach surveys over a 2-year period on the Isles Dernieres document irreversible beach-face retreat in conjunction with multiple cold fronts and one major hurricane (Gilbert). Although both the hurricane and the cold fronts caused the island to erode, the erosional patterns of the two storm types differed from each other. During the two years, over 60 cold fronts collectively caused about 37 m of beach-face retreat, whereas Gilbert itself produced more than 40 m of retreat. A major difference between the two storm types was in the percentage of washover sand produced by each. Commonly, the cold fronts did not create enough of a storm surge to overtop the berm, so most of the material removed from the beach face must have moved offshore or alongshore. Gilbert, in contrast, inundated the study site, and essentially all the sand removed from the beach face moved to the backshore.

  9. Atomic Energy and Radioactive Substances. The Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) Order 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Order extends to the Isle of Man, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule, those provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended, which relate to the duty in respect of the carriage of nuclear matter, to the right to compensation for breach of that duty and to the bringing and satisfaction of claims. Under the Nuclear Installations Act, the duty of the operator is to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the realm of the Act causes injury to persons or damage to property. (NEA) [fr

  10. Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kanao, K; Kim, S; Ogasawara, M; Ohsugi, T; Shimojima, M; Takikawa, K


    Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics and SEIKO Instruments using 4'' technology. The sensor is AC coupled and double-sided forming a stereo angle of 1.207 degree sign . The strip pitch is 112 mu m on both sides. The main differences between the two manufacturers lie on the technologies of passivation and the structure of coupling capacitors. We describe the design of the sensor and evaluation results of the performance. The evaluations include the total and individual strip currents and interstrip capacitance measured before and after sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma irradiation. (author)

  11. O fundamentalismo islâmico em mutação


    Goulão, José


    Estará o fundamentalismo islâmico a perder capacidade de intervenção? As suas expressões mais conhecidas, a nível de regimes políticos e de grupos, acusam desgaste; alguns dos seus importantes apoios, que tentaram tirar proveito do fenómeno por razões oportunistas e pontuais, parecem ter identificado parcialmente os riscos de tal política; as respostas graduais de alguns sistemas de poder, inicialmente surpreendidos com a amplitude e a profundidade destes movimentos atípicos, contribuíram par...

  12. Creation and (Re)presentation of Historical Discourse in Isle of Passion by Laura Restrepo


    Daniela Melis


    Published in Colombia in 1989, but neglected until the author’s later distinction, Laura Restrepo’s first novel, Isle of Passion , focuses on historical facts, as well as on the issues that arise when the impact of events is articulated in official discourse. This study—drawing from Walter Mignolo’s idea of decolonial theory—explores how Restrepo’s attempt to rewrite history following “an-other logic, an-other language, an-other thinking” contributes to the decolonization of knowledge, being...

  13. The Lord's prerogative and an act of trust: portable antiquities in the Isle of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Fox


    Full Text Available The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown dependency. As such, legislation for many areas of life differs from the neighbouring jurisdictions, including that which governs portable antiquities. The Island has a rich and varied heritage, with physical evidence from the Mesolithic to the Iron Age, through the early Christian period to Vikings and beyond. Both the Manx Treasure Trove legislation and the Act under which Manx National Heritage operates are currently under parliamentary review. These are intriguing times for Manx portable antiquities and this article seeks to explain why change is due and what options are possible.

  14. Great Lakes Ice Charts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  15. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil


    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  16. Isl1 expression at the venous pole identifies a novel role for the second heart field in cardiac development. (United States)

    Snarr, Brian S; O'Neal, Jessica L; Chintalapudi, Mastan R; Wirrig, Elaine E; Phelps, Aimee L; Kubalak, Steven W; Wessels, Andy


    The right ventricle and outflow tract of the developing heart are derived from mesodermal progenitor cells from the second heart field (SHF). SHF cells have been characterized by expression of the transcription factor Islet-1 (Isl1). Although Isl1 expression has also been reported in the venous pole, the specific contribution of the SHF to this part of the heart is unknown. Here we show that Isl1 is strongly expressed in the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion (DMP), a non-endocardially-derived mesenchymal structure involved in atrioventricular septation. We further demonstrate that abnormal development of the SHF-derived DMP is associated with the pathogenesis of atrioventricular septal defects. These results identify a novel role for the SHF.

  17. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D


    Isles ancestry. In the present study we used 122 new and 19 previously published hypervariable region I sequences of the mitochondrial control region to analyse the genetic diversity of the Faroese population and compare it with other populations in the North Atlantic region. The analyses suggested...... that the Faroese mtDNA pool has been affected by genetic drift, and is among the most homogenous and isolated in the North Atlantic region. This will have implications for attempts to locate genes for complex disorders. To obtain estimates of Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions, we applied...... a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...

  18. O Papa, o Islã e o politicamente correto The Pope, Islam and political correctedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Lindgren Alves


    Full Text Available Ao fazer citação considerada ofensiva ao Islã em conferência que proferiu na Alemanha em 2006, o Papa Bento XVI não visava somente aos muçulmanos, mas, também, aos ocidentais cristãos e ateus. Seu objetivo não era ofender o Islã gratuitamente, mas forçar os islamitas e ocidentais que abandonaram o racionalismo a assimilarem, num caso, e a reassimilarem, no outro, a razão universalista como elemento essencial ao próprio diálogo entre as religiões. A fala do Papa tem tido repercussões que transcendem o âmbito religioso, atingindo noções e práticas multiculturalistas que pareciam intocáveis.When making a quotation that was considered offensive to Islam, in 2006, in a conference in Germany, Pope Benedict XVI targeted not only the Muslims, but also Christian and Atheist Westerners. His aim was not to offend Islam without a motive, but to force both the Muslims and Westerners that had forsaken rationalism to reach back to Reason as an essential element for the very dialogue between the two religions. The Pope’s speech has had repercussion far beyond the religious sphere, attaining notions and practices of multiculturalism that seemed untouchable.

  19. El fundamentalismo islámico en la Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Pasados ocho años de los atentados del 11 de marzo, la nueva Estrategia Nacional Española no incluye el fundamentalismo islámico de forma explícita como un factor clave que puede afectar a la seguridad y bienestar de España y los españoles. Tampoco la anterior Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional de 2011 lo incluía. La nueva Estrategia admite que España es un objetivo del terrorismo yihadista e incluso reconoce que existen algunos elementos que contribuyen a hacer de España un objetivo del terrorismo internacional, como por ejemplo la consideración de España como parte del mundo islámico. Pero no existe otra referencia a la versión más extrema del Islam, como fuente de riesgos y amenazas, tratándose de un país que ha sufrido los perores ataques en Europa, con 191 muertos, y donde la policía ha logrado desarticular 30 células yihadistas en la última década.

  20. Summary of : piloting a local dental network across Hampshire and Isle of Wight Primary Care Trusts. (United States)

    McGrady, Dr Michael


    To pilot a local dental network (LDN) within the Hampshire and Isle of Wight region. An LDN Coordinating Group was set up, which was chaired by the local consultant in dental public health and included representatives from dental commissioning and performance management teams, dental practice advisory team, finance, Oxford and Wessex Dental Deanery and the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Local Dental Committee. The LDN successfully led the organisation of a leadership training course for local dentists, and produced recommendations for local oral surgery and orthodontics care pathways. Key to the success was the collaboration achieved between the commissioners, local postgraduate dental deanery and local dental committee. There were challenges associated with involving non-salaried dental practitioners without a source of funding, and with communicating with the wider dental community. The new Wessex LDN needs to be adequately resourced and integrated into the local commissioning structure, as well as the wider health system, to function effectively. Most importantly, the LDN needs local dental professionals to embrace the opportunities for leadership and use their skills to inform and influence local dental commissioning for the benefit of the local population.

  1. Piloting a local dental network across Hampshire and Isle of Wight Primary Care Trusts. (United States)

    John, J H; Easterby-Smith, V; Percival, K R


    To pilot a local dental network (LDN) within the Hampshire and Isle of Wight region. An LDN Coordinating Group was set up, which was chaired by the local consultant in dental public health and included representatives from dental commissioning and performance management teams, dental practice advisory team, finance, Oxford and Wessex Dental Deanery and the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Local Dental Committee. The LDN successfully led the organisation of a leadership training course for local dentists, and produced recommendations for local oral surgery and orthodontics care pathways. Key to the success was the collaboration achieved between the commissioners, local postgraduate dental deanery and local dental committee. There were challenges associated with involving non-salaried dental practitioners without a source of funding, and with communicating with the wider dental community. The new Wessex LDN needs to be adequately resourced and integrated into the local commissioning structure, as well as the wider health system, to function effectively. Most importantly, the LDN needs local dental professionals to embrace the opportunities for leadership and use their skills to inform and influence local dental commissioning for the benefit of the local population.

  2. Telenovela e Islã: dos estereótipos à visibilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francirosy Campos Barbosa Ferreira


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar reflexões sobre o núcleo muçulmano da telenovela O Clone, que foi exibido entre outubro de 2001 e junho de 2002, na Rede Globo de Televisão, tendo sua reprise iniciada em janeiro de 2011. Telenovela escrita por Gloria Perez autora conhecida pelos temas “étnicos” e de cunho social, tais como, ciganos, muçulmanos, indianos, transplante de órgãos, alcoolismo, imigração ilegal, clonagem humana. O argumento que sustento é que a novela “salvou” a comunidade islâmica brasileira da “invisibilidade” e trouxe para dentro das casas brasileiras um pouco da cultura árabe-islâmica, que embora estereotipados, contribuíram significativamente para revelar à nossa sociedade quem são os muçulmanos e em que eles acreditam. Ao escrever o artigo me deparei com outro tipo de “invisibilidade”, os quase inexistentes trabalhos em antropologia visual que contemplam análise de imagens de telenovelas. Neste sentido, este texto busca contribuir com outros modos de ver a televisão, em particular, a telenovela.

  3. Creation and (Representation of Historical Discourse in Isle of Passion by Laura Restrepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Melis


    Full Text Available Published in Colombia in 1989, but neglected until the author’s later distinction, Laura Restrepo’s first novel, Isle of Passion , focuses on historical facts, as well as on the issues that arise when the impact of events is articulated in official discourse. This study—drawing from Walter Mignolo’s idea of decolonial theory—explores how Restrepo’s attempt to rewrite history following “an-other logic, an-other language, an-other thinking” contributes to the decolonization of knowledge, being, community interests, and cultural heritage. The novel’s plot centers on a minor event in international history: the territorial dispute over the island of Clipperton, which was encountered by an English pirate escaping the Spaniards in the 1700’s, claimed by the Mexicans for its geographical proximity, owned (since 1930 by the French, and occasionally disputed by the English and US governments. Writing while personally experiencing the trauma of exile, Restrepo narrates the forgotten story of the Mexican soldiers—deployed with their families to defend the island—as a metaphor of marginalization. Clipperton, therefore, represents not only a geographical, but also a historical entity. This reading of Isle of Passion describes how its creative dis-order recovers a chapter of national history, finally retold by its silenced protagonists.

  4. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García


    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  5. Study on heat transfer performance of water-borne and oily graphene coatings using anti-/de-icing component (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Yidu; Wu, Qiong; Jie, Zhang


    A graphene coating anti-/de-icing experiment was proposed by employing water-borne and oily graphene coatings on the composite material anti-/de-icing component. Considering the characteristics of helicopter rotor sensitivity to icing, a new graphene coating enhancing thermal conductivity of anti-/de-icing component was proposed. The anti-/de-icing experiment was conducted to validate the effectiveness of graphene coating. The results of the experiment show that the graphene coatings play a prominent role in controlling the heat transfer of anti-/de-icing component. The anti-/de-icing effect of oily graphene coating is superior to water-borne graphene.

  6. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders


    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  7. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. O Sufismo como dimensão mística do Islã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Barboza de Souza


    Full Text Available Diante da realidade islâmica contemporânea e buscando estar atento às diversas vozes presentes no “outro”, este artigo tem em vista apresentar de forma sucinta o que é o Sufismo, pensando-o como uma possibilidade – entre muitas – de concretização das crenças islâmicas. Para tal, iniciar-se-á procurando compreender como a notícia acerca de sua existência chega ao Ocidente, ou seja, como os ocidentais o “descobrem”. A seguir, centrar-se-á na busca de compreender o Sufismo a partir de sua relação com o islamismo por meio de suas fontes primordiais: o Corão e o Profeta Muhammad. Por fim, este artigo apresentará brevemente alguns elementos que compõem e caracterizam o repertório de crenças e práticas de várias escolas Sufis tais como a busca da Unicidade Divina, a prática meditativa da recitação dos Nomes Divinos e a submissão à orientação de um “šayh”.Palavras-chave: Sufismo; Mística islâmica; Orientalismo ABSTRACTIn the face of the contemporary Islamic reality and seeking to be attentive to the diversity of voices that we can find in the “other”, this article aims to show briefly what Sufism is, thinking it as a possibility – amongst many – of the realization of the Islamic faith. To articulate this, the article will begin looking at understanding of how the news about its existence arrives in the West, that is, how westerners “discover” it. Then, the article will focus on the search to understand Sufism from its relationship with Islam through its primordial origins: the Koran and the Prophet Muhammad. Finally, this article will look briefly at some elements that make up and characterize the repertory of beliefs and practices of several Sufi schools, such as the search for the Divine Unicity, the meditative practice of the recitation of the Divine Names and the submission to a Šayh orientation.Key words: Sufism; Mystical Islamism; Orientalism.

  9. Regional atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen over the British isles assessed using a multi-layer atmospheric transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, N.; Tang, Y.S.; Dragosits, U.; Kluizenaar,; Sutton, M.A.


    Atmospheric budgets of reduced nitrogen for the major political regions of the British Isles are investigated with a multi-layer atmospheric transport model. The model is validated against measurements of NH3 concentration and is developed to provide atmospheric budgets for defined subdomains of the

  10. Characterization of herring populations west of the British Isles: an investigation of mixing based on otolith microchemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, A.J.; Nash, R.D.M.; Dickey-Collas, M.


    Herring along the west coast of the British Isles are managed and assessed as a series of discrete stocks. The relationship between the spawning components, mixed (feeding) aggregations, and juveniles in nursery areas for these stocks was modelled by discriminant analysis and integrated stock

  11. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target... (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 500...

  12. Digitization of uranium deposit information in basin. A new strategy of ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong


    The discovered ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits in the entire world are mostly blind deposits, many of them occur in bleak desert, gobi desert, and semi-hilly land area. Exploration methods for these deposits mainly depend on great and systematic drilling. There are many large-medium size Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins in northern China, and over twenty of them are thick overburden basins which are mostly the virgin land for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit. Due to the comprehensive national power, geological background, uranium exploration ability, great and systematic drilling is not favorable for prospecting ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit in China. According to the exploration and prospecting experiences for mineral ore bodies at home and abroad, uranium information mapping based on geochemical survey of the basins is a new strategy for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is an economic, practical, fast and effective method, and has been manifested by the performing information digitization for oil and gas resources, gold mineral resources in China and the mapping of uranium information for whole Europe continent. (authors)

  13. Imaging a fossil oolitic system with GPR, insights into the exposures of the Isle of Portland (UK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Hansen, Trine Lykke; Nielsen, Lars

    of years. The regional exposure quality is very high with a potential 3D control. The site has seen generations of geologist trainees coming for field work. The Wessex Basin where the Isle is sitting contains an active petroleum system and the geologists visiting/training there use the carbonates...

  14. Deposition and cycling of sulfur controls mercury accumulation in Isle Royale fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul E. Drevnick; Donald E. Canfield; Patrick R. Gorski (and others) [Miami University, Oxford, OH (United States). Department of Zoology


    Mercury contamination of fish is a global problem. Consumption of contaminated fish is the primary route of methylmercury exposure in humans and is detrimental to health. Newly mandated reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions aim to reduce atmospheric mercury deposition and thus mercury concentrations in fish. However, factors other than mercury deposition are important for mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In the lakes of Isle Royale, U.S.A., reduced rates of sulfate deposition since the Clean Air Act of 1970 have caused mercury concentrations in fish to decline to levels that are safe for human consumption, even without a discernible decrease in mercury deposition. Therefore, reductions in anthropogenic sulfur emissions may provide a synergistic solution to the mercury problem in sulfate-limited freshwaters. 71 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A semi-analytic mathematical model for dissolved radionuclides dispersion in the Channel Isles region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, J.C.; Breton, M. [IFREMER, 29 - Plouzane (France). Laboratoire d`Hydrodynamique et Sedimentologie; Fraizier, A.; Bailly Du Bois, P.; Guegueniat, P. [CEA Centre de La Hague, 50 - Cherbourg-Octeville (France). Laboratoire de Radioecologie Marine


    A simple mathematical model for transport and mixing of dissolved substances in the Channel Isles region is based on the well known residual circulation pattern in the area. The model is relevant for time scales greater than one month. Applied to a nearly conservative element such as {sup 125}Sb, it gives an interpretation of the observed time lag between nuclear material discharges at sea and their impact on coastal waters. An evaluation is done of the efficiency of the discharge scenario by the nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague. Given its very fast running and the possibility of being applied to any chemical or biological element present in sea water, the model seems particularly suited for ecological modelling purposes. (author) 4 refs.

  16. A semi-analytic mathematical model for dissolved radionuclides dispersion in the Channel Isles region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, J.C.; Breton, M.; Fraizier, A.; Bailly Du Bois, P.; Guegueniat, P.


    A simple mathematical model for transport and mixing of dissolved substances in the Channel Isles region is based on the well known residual circulation pattern in the area. The model is relevant for time scales greater than one month. Applied to a nearly conservative element such as 125 Sb, it gives an interpretation of the observed time lag between nuclear material discharges at sea and their impact on coastal waters. An evaluation is done of the efficiency of the discharge scenario by the nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague. Given its very fast running and the possibility of being applied to any chemical or biological element present in sea water, the model seems particularly suited for ecological modelling purposes. (author)

  17. Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior. (United States)

    O'Beirne, M D; Werne, J P; Hecky, R E; Johnson, T C; Katsev, S; Reavie, E D


    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter many facets of Earth's freshwater resources, especially lacustrine ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic changes in Lake Superior, which is Earth's largest freshwater lake by area, are not well documented (spatially or temporally) and predicted future states in response to climate change vary. Here we show that Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in production throughout the Holocene using (paleo)productivity proxies in lacustrine sediments to reconstruct past changes in primary production. Furthermore, data from the last century indicate a rapid increase in primary production, which we attribute to increasing surface water temperatures and longer seasonal stratification related to longer ice-free periods in Lake Superior due to anthropogenic climate warming. These observations demonstrate that anthropogenic effects have become a prominent influence on one of Earth's largest, most pristine lacustrine ecosystems.

  18. Pensar o Islão: Questões coloniais, interrogações pós-coloniais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdoolKarim Vakil


    Full Text Available O “terrorista islâmico” e os imigrantes e minorias muçulmanas culturalmente “inassimiláveis” representam as duas faces da visão do Islão como “o problema do século XXI” que domina o debate público contemporâneo e a formulação das políticas de Estado nacionais e internacionais nas sociedades ocidentais. A natureza das representações, mais ou menos essencialistas, que informam e deformam estes debates varia consoante os contextos em virtude da relação histórica, em regra colonial, de cada nação com o Islão, das instituições e saberes vocacionados para o seu estudo, e da composição, perfil e peso das comunidades muçulmanas em cada sociedade. Mas a lógica identitária e securitária que configura o discurso do Islão como problema reproduz, redefinidos agora como problemas do multiculturalismo, da governação, da tolerância e da segurança, as mesmas preocupações identitárias e securitárias geradas no contexto colonial. Este artigo apela a uma abordagem desconstrutiva do Islão através da leitura crítica do discurso português.

  19. Kontekstualisasi Makna Ukhuwwah Islâmîyah perspektif Jemaah Tarekat Shatarîyah di Nganjuk Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito


    Full Text Available This article discusses the symbols, process, and meaning of ukhuwwah islâmîyah (Islamic brotherhood within perspective of the followers of the Tarekat Shatârîyah in Tanjunganom Nganjuk East Java. The result of the research indicates that the making process of ukhuwwah islâmîyah has been initiated through bayʻah towards murshid (Guru Wasîtah. To the followers of the Tarekat Shatarîyah, murshid is a person who becomes the main symbol that unites them. Intensity of interaction and meetings have also played significant role in the creation process of ukhuwwah islâmîyah among the adherents the Tarekat. When they gather, they perform a number of rituals such as performing qiyâm al-layl and dhikr and reciting what so-called muji wali kutub. They also discuss various problems of religious and social issues. The making process of ukhuwwah islâmîyah is also convoyed with the use and carrying out of certain symbol and ritual such as wearing the Malakîyah ring and reciting Asmâ’ 9. To the followers of this Tarekat, ukhuwwah islâmîyah means a brotherhood which is founded merely on the spirit of pure intention without any inclination to gain worldly benefits. To them it is a relation which is established on the basis of obedience upon Guru Wasîtah in order to create an eternal brotherhood for the sake of God regardless of their social status.

  20. ISL1 protein transduction promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananeh Fonoudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to provide an unlimited source of cardiomyocytes, which are invaluable resources for drug or toxicology screening, medical research, and cell therapy. Currently a number of obstacles exist such as the insufficient efficiency of differentiation protocols, which should be overcome before hESC-derived cardiomyocytes can be used for clinical applications. Although the differentiation efficiency can be improved by the genetic manipulation of hESCs to over-express cardiac-specific transcription factors, these differentiated cells are not safe enough to be applied in cell therapy. Protein transduction has been demonstrated as an alternative approach for increasing the efficiency of hESCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes. METHODS: We present an efficient protocol for the differentiation of hESCs in suspension by direct introduction of a LIM homeodomain transcription factor, Islet1 (ISL1 recombinant protein into the cells. RESULTS: We found that the highest beating clusters were derived by continuous treatment of hESCs with 40 µg/ml recombinant ISL1 protein during days 1-8 after the initiation of differentiation. The treatment resulted in up to a 3-fold increase in the number of beating areas. In addition, the number of cells that expressed cardiac specific markers (cTnT, CONNEXIN 43, ACTININ, and GATA4 doubled. This protocol was also reproducible for another hESC line. CONCLUSIONS: This study has presented a new, efficient, and reproducible procedure for cardiomyocytes differentiation. Our results will pave the way for scaled up and controlled differentiation of hESCs to be used for biomedical applications in a bioreactor culture system.

  1. Modelling Future Coronary Heart Disease Mortality to 2030 in the British Isles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hughes

    Full Text Available Despite rapid declines over the last two decades, coronary heart disease (CHD mortality rates in the British Isles are still amongst the highest in Europe. This study uses a modelling approach to compare the potential impact of future risk factor scenarios relating to smoking and physical activity levels, dietary salt and saturated fat intakes on future CHD mortality in three countries: Northern Ireland (NI, Republic of Ireland (RoI and Scotland.CHD mortality models previously developed and validated in each country were extended to predict potential reductions in CHD mortality from 2010 (baseline year to 2030. Risk factor trends data from recent surveys at baseline were used to model alternative future risk factor scenarios: Absolute decreases in (i smoking prevalence and (ii physical inactivity rates of up to 15% by 2030; relative decreases in (iii dietary salt intake of up to 30% by 2030 and (iv dietary saturated fat of up to 6% by 2030. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were then conducted.Projected populations in 2030 were 1.3, 3.4 and 3.9 million in NI, RoI and Scotland respectively (adults aged 25-84. In 2030: assuming recent declining mortality trends continue: 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 5.8-7.2%. 15% absolute reductions in physical inactivity levels could decrease CHD deaths by 3.1-3.6%. Relative reductions in salt intake of 30% could decrease CHD deaths by 5.2-5.6% and a 6% reduction in saturated fat intake might decrease CHD deaths by some 7.8-9.0%. These projections remained stable under a wide range of sensitivity analyses.Feasible reductions in four cardiovascular risk factors (already achieved elsewhere could substantially reduce future coronary deaths. More aggressive polices are therefore needed in the British Isles to control tobacco, promote healthy food and increase physical activity.

  2. Stochastic ice stream dynamics. (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca


    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  3. Sea Ice Ecosystems (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.


    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  4. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds (United States)


    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  5. A natural ice boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, H.R. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Planning for ice jams and ice movements are critical on the Nelson River in northern Manitoba in designing cofferdams. Experience on the St. Lawrence River demonstrated the possibility of exercising some control over ice action by judicious placement of log booms or ice control structures. The success of experiments with man-made controls led to field tests in which an ice sheet of sufficient magnitude and competence was introduced into the open water stream of the Nelson River. The ice sheet was subsequently jammed in a narrow channel, thereby creating a natural ice bridge or boom upstream of a proposed hydro development. Under favourable conditions, this boom would initiate the progression of the ice cover from its location upstream, cutting off the downstream reach from the ice producing potential of the upstream reach. Although ice would still be generated downstream, the length of the reach between the ice boom and the development site would be short enough that ice jamming at the development site would never occur. Although problems in blasting prevented the introduction of a competent ice sheet into the main stream of the river at the location chosen, sufficient confidence in the theory was gained to warrant further consideration. 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  6. Forecast Icing Product (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The FIP algorithm uses...

  7. Current Icing Product (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  8. Sputtering of water ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.; Schou, J.; Shi, M.; Bahr, D.A.; Atteberrry, C.L.


    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from the decay of H(2p) atoms sputtered by heavy ion impact, but not bulk ice luminescence. Radiolyzed ice does not sputter under 3.7 eV laser irradiation

  9. LA SAFE and Isle de Jean Charles: Regional Adaptation and Community Resettlement Planning (United States)

    Sanders, M.


    LA SAFE, or Louisiana's Strategic Adaptations for Future Environments, is a strategic framework for community development utilizing future projections of coastal land loss and flood risk as a determining factor in regional growth management and local planning initiatives along a 10, 25, and 50 year timeline. LA SAFE utilizes the input of passionate local citizen leaders and organizations committed to enabling community members to take proactive steps towards mitigating risk and increasing resilience against coastal issues. The project aims to acknowledge that adaptation and restoration must go hand-in-hand with addressing community growth and contraction, as well as realizing Louisiana's most vulnerable coastal communities will need to contemplate resettlement over the next 50 years. The project's outlook is to become a global leader for adaptation and cultural design and restoration. Connecting a global interest with the project and offering extensive ways for people to learn about the issues and get involved will provide an immense amount of support necessary for future coastal environments around the world. This presentation will focus on the output of a year-long planning effort across a six-parish target area encompassing several vulnerable coastal Louisiana locales. The Resettlement of Isle de Jean Charles is a federally-funded and first-of-its kind initiative marking Louisiana's first attempt to relocate a vulnerable coastal community at-scale and as a group. Due to a myriad of environmental factors, the Island has experienced 98 percent land loss since 1955, leading to many of the Island's historical inhabitants to retreat to higher, drier landscapes. In moving the community at-scale, the project seeks to inject new life into the community and its residents in relocating the community to higher, safer ground, while also developing the new community in such a way that it maximizes economic development, job training, and educational opportunities and can be a

  10. O terror e a mídia: o neoconservadorismo norte-americano e o islã radical


    Ortunes, Leandro


    Esta dissertação tem como objeto de estudo a construção da imagem do neoconservadorismo norte-americano e do Islã radical na mídia. Através de uma fundamentação teórica sobre os choques culturais e os confrontos armados entre Ocidente e Oriente, mais precisamente entre Estados Unidos e países com grande atuação islâmica na forma de governo; apresentaremos os pontos de divergência e possíveis similaridades destes dois grupos. Com esta fundamentação, observaremos as divergências e as superficia...

  11. O poder das palavras e das idéias: o caso do fundamentalismo islâmico


    Wainberg - PUCRS, Jacques


    Este é um estudo sobre o debate teórico que se estabeleceu em torno da tese do choque civilizacional. Explora o argumento de que a cultura tem sido uma variável desconsiderada e desprezada no exame dos temas sociais e políticos contemporâneos. Explora também a temática do fundamentalismo islâmico desde a perspectiva cognitiva. Mostra as correntes teológicas e a crise interna ao Islã em torno da interpretação de suas fontes sagradas. Por fim, contempla a relevância política do papel que as idé...

  12. Helicopter Icing Review. (United States)


    helicopter (i.e. in an icing tunnel or engine test cell ) and therefore can be subjected to controlled icing where spe- cific problems can be safely...evaluation. 69 Ice Protection Systems Demonstration Many of the systems noted in can be evaluated in icing test cells or icing wind tunnels...Figure 2-32 illustrates a typical rotor deice system control arrangement. 104 (N >4 A.dO INaH -E- C4) uo U En 9 E-1 H m I ~z O 04 04iH U 0 El4 E-f C E

  13. Public islam and the common good O islão público e o bem comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale F. Eickelman


    Full Text Available The article discusses the historical and contemporary emergence of a sense of an Islamic public in a variety of Muslim majority societies and elsewhere. These manifestations of public Islam facilitate discussions concerning how to define the common good, equitable solutions to collective problems, shifting boundaries of inclusion and exclusion, and practices that encourage the emergence of a public Islam. Compared to notions of public sphere developed within Western social theory, the article shows that the public sphere is no prerogative of Western modern societies nor of democratic political systems. The study demonstrates that also semi-formal and informal articulations of Muslim identities can facilitate the emergence of public, and therefore accountable, forms of Islam.Este artigo discute a emergência histórica de um sentido de público islâmico em várias sociedades de maioria muçulmana e outras. Estas manifestações de Islão público facilitam as discussões sobre a definição do bem comum, as soluções equitativas para problemas colectivos, a fluidez das fronteiras de inclusão e exclusão e ainda as práticas que encorajam o aparecimento de um Islão público. Comparando com as noções de espaço público desenvolvidas na teoria social ocidental, este artigo mostra que a esfera pública não é exclusiva das sociedades ocidentais modernas nem de sistemas políticos democráticos. O estudo mostra também como articulações formais e semiformais de identidade muçulmana podem facilitar a emergência de formas públicas e portanto socialmente responsabilizáveis de Islão.

  14. Production and Electrical Characterization Tests of the ISL Detector and a Trigger Design for Higgs Boson Searches at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munar Ara, Antoni [Valencia U.


    This thesis is structured as follows: Chapter 1. gives a brief review of the Higgs mechanism in the Standard Model and the electroweak symmetry breaking. The Standard Model Higgs boson phenomenology at Tevatron energies is reviewed. Chapter 2. describes the upgraded Fermilab laboratory accelerator complex, and the upgraded CDF detector. Chapter 3. gives a brief overview of the more relevant aspects of the silicon detectors, and the ISL is described in detail. Chapter 4. describes the construction of the ISL ladders, the full custom testing setup (functionality tests, laser test, burn-in test and $\\beta$-source measurements), and the problems encountered during the ISL ladders construction. The procedures for ladder grading are also discussed. Chapter 5. describes the multilevel trigger system of the CDF detector, and the trigger primitives available at each level. The most relevant offine event observables are briefly discussed. In Chapter 6 the procedures to estimate the trigger rate and trigger effciency calculation are described. The particularities of triggering in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at high luminosities are discussed. Chapter 7. and Chapter 8. are dedicated to study an effcient trigger strategy for the $H + W/Z \\to b\\bar{b}jj$ channel and the $H + Z \\to b\\bar{b} \

  15. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  16. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen


    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  17. Archaeology. Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8000 years ago. (United States)

    Smith, Oliver; Momber, Garry; Bates, Richard; Garwood, Paul; Fitch, Simon; Pallen, Mark; Gaffney, Vincent; Allaby, Robin G


    The Mesolithic-to-Neolithic transition marked the time when a hunter-gatherer economy gave way to agriculture, coinciding with rising sea levels. Bouldnor Cliff, is a submarine archaeological site off the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom that has a well-preserved Mesolithic paleosol dated to 8000 years before the present. We analyzed a core obtained from sealed sediments, combining evidence from microgeomorphology and microfossils with sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) analyses to reconstruct floral and faunal changes during the occupation of this site, before it was submerged. In agreement with palynological analyses, the sedaDNA sequences suggest a mixed habitat of oak forest and herbaceous plants. However, they also provide evidence of wheat 2000 years earlier than mainland Britain and 400 years earlier than proximate European sites. These results suggest that sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Changing politics, economics and relations on the small remote island of Fair Isle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Butler


    Full Text Available The paper interprets changes which have taken place on Fair Isle, a small remote Scottish island, over the last half century, with a focus on how the interplay of external forces and local adjustments have produced a positive working relationship between local residents, visitors and those in authority over the island. The paper discusses the changes in the island’s governance and economy that the island residents have experienced and how life on the island has adjusted to major change over a fifty year period. The information and responses from resident surveys discussed were collected using identical household surveys conducted fifty years apart to provide a unique comparison on a longitudinal basis of changes in the economy and way of life on the island, including the emergence of tourism as the major driver of the economy This has taken place without the common antagonism or problems between residents and visitors in tourist destinations, reflecting the appropriate handling of mutual interests and concerns through political arrangements which have been supportive and sympathetic to residents and visitors.

  19. The Eroticism of Artificial Flesh in Villiers de L'Isle Adam's L'Eve Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pulham


    Full Text Available Villiers de L'Isle Adam's 'L'Eve Future' published in 1886 features a fictional version of the inventor Thomas Edison who constructs a complex, custom-made android for Englishman Lord Ewald as a substitute for his unsatisfactory lover. Hadaly, the android, has a number of literary and cultural precursors and successors. Her most commonly accepted ancestor is Olympia in E. T. A. Hoffmann's 'The Sandman' (1816 and among her fascinating descendants are Oskar Kokoschka's 'Silent Woman'; Model Borghild, a sex doll designed by German technicians during World War II;‘Caracas' in Tommaso Landolfi's short story ‘Gogol's Wife' (1954; a variety of gynoids and golems from the realms of science fiction, including Ira Levin's 'Stepford Wives' (1972; and, most recently, that silicon masterpiece - the Real Doll. All, arguably, have their genesis in the classical myth of Pygmalion. This essay considers the tension between animation and stasis in relation to this myth, and explores the necrophiliac aesthetic implicit in Villiers's novel.

  20. Revision of the Xenacanthida (Chondrichthyes : Elasmobranchii) from the Carboniferous of the British Isles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampe, O. [Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany)


    Xenacanthids were a very successful group of elasmobranchs that ranged from the Lower Carboniferous to the Upper Triassic. The history of discovery of the xenacanthids, which is closely connected with the history of coal prospecting in England, began with the finding of the type specimen of Xenacanthus laevissimus in the Westphalian B of the West Midlands. In this first review of British Carboniferous xenacanthids, the number of taxa, mainly erected during Victorian times, is reduced to 14 species distributed among six genera. Determinable remains are recorded from at least 96 localities in the British Isles. Unique characteristics of the Dinantian Diplodoselache suggest that the lineage to which this taxon belongs marks a dead end in xenacanthid evolution. This investigation also shows that the Pendleian Dicentrodus, formerly described as Cladodus, belongs to the xenacanthids. The occurrence of Orthacanthus cf. kounoviensis in the Pennines, also known from the German Saar-Nahe basin, the Saale depression and from Bohemia, indicates a faunal exchange between these intramontainous basins during the Carboniferous. The genus Triodus is identified from British deposits for the first time. A cladistic analysis of the xenacanthids suggests that they evolved from phoebodontid elasmobranchs. This analysis also confirms separation of the Middle Devonian Antarctilamna from a relationship with xenacanthid sharks.

  1. Role of chemistry in uranium leaching from sand stone ore bodies by ISL technique (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Hanif, M.


    The importance of uranium for nuclear power generation is increasing day by day in the current energy requirement scenario. The energy sector is reverting to nuclear power generation in many countries. Keeping in view the limited availability of fossil fuels and the problems associated with its exploration. In situ leach mining of uranium is currently employed in many countries for extraction of uranium in soft rocks from subsurface where deposits are lying deeper and the cost of underground mining (UGM) are high. In situ leaching of uranium revolves around injection of leachant (usually bicarbonate) and oxidant into the host rock without disturbing the strata thereby solubilizing the uranium in solution form. The resultant leach is then pumped out and sent to processing plant for production of yellow cake. The Chemistry Division NMC-I, D. G. Khan plays a vital role in ISL Mining of uranium, starting from initial exploration of ore body, analysis of leach liquor and other liquid samples up to the final step of yellow cake formation. During all these analysis to ensure Quality control, Chemistry Division utilizes modern / updated analytical techniques e.g. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry and Potentiometry. R and D studies are also being carried out to optimize and economize the operational parameters accordingly. This presentation basically encompasses the role of Chemistry at various levels and stages at Mining Projects to achieve this goal. (author)

  2. Arctic landfast sea ice (United States)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  3. Disintegration of a marine-based ice stream - evidence from the Norwegian Channel, north-eastern North Sea (United States)

    Morén, Björn M.; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Hjelstuen, Berit O.; Haflidason, Haflidi; Schäuble, Cathrina; Borge, Marianne


    The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream repeatedly drained large part of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet through Mid and Late Pleistocene glacial stages. During parts of Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3, glacial ice from Fennoscandia and the British Isles coalesced in the central North Sea and the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream reached the shelf edge on multiple occasions. Through the last decades a large amount of acoustic and sediment core data have been collected from the Norwegian Channel, providing a good background for studies focussing on stability- and development-controlling parameters for marine-based ice streams, the retreat rate of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream, and the behaviour of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Further, this improved understanding can be used to develop more accurate numerical climate models and models which can be used to model ice-sheet behaviour of the past as well as the future. This study presents new acoustic records and data from sediment cores which contribute to a better understanding of the retreat pattern and the retreat rate of the last ice stream that occupied the Norwegian Channel. From bathymetric and TOPAS seismic data, mega-scale glacial lineations, grounding-zone wedges, and end moraines have been mapped, thereby allowing us to reconstruct the pro- and subglacial conditions at the time of the creation of these landforms. It is concluded that the whole Norwegian Channel was deglaciated in just over 1 000 years and that for most of this time the ice margin was located at positions reflected by depositional grounding-zone wedges. Further work will explore the influence of channel shape and feeding of ice from western Norwegian fjords on this retreat pattern through numerical modelling.

  4. Removable cruciform for ice condenser ice basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrabis, C.M.; Mazza, G.E.; Golick, L.R.; Pomaibo, P.


    A removable cruciform for use in an ice basket having a generally cylindrical sidewall defining a central, vertical axis of the ice basket and plural, generally annular retaining rings secured to the interior of the cylindrical sidewall of the ice basket at predetermined, spaced elevations throughout the axial height of the ice basket is described comprising: a pair of brackets, each comprising a central, base portion having parallel longitudinal edges and a pair of integral legs extending at corresponding angles relative to the base portion from the perspective parallel longitudinal edges thereof; a pair of support plate assemblies secured to and extending in parallel, spaced relationship from one of the pair of brackets; a pair of slide support plates secured to the other of the pair of brackets and extending therefrom in spaced, parallel relationship; and spring means received within the housing and engaging the base portions of the brackets and applying a resilient biasing force thereto for maintaining the spaced relationship thereof

  5. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins. (United States)

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin


    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aircraft Icing Handbook. (Update) (United States)


    Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological Commentary of D (air) 1209, Icing,* Germany, Reichsamt fur...Wetterdienst, Forschungs-und Krfahrungsberichte, Ser. a, No. 29, 1943. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological-Physical Limitations of Icing on the Atmosphere...Apparatus for Measurement,’ Harvard - Mt. Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676.. Findeisen , W., "The

  7. Safe Loads on Ice Sheets (Ice Engineering. Number 13)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haynes, F. D; Carey, Kevin L; Cattabriga, Gioia


    Every winter, ice sheets that grow on lakes and rivers in northern states are used for ice roads, ice bridges, construction platforms, airstrips, and recreational activities, It becomes very important...

  8. Transferencias matrimoniales en el Occidente islámico medieval: las joyas como regalo de boda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomeño Rodríguez, Amalia


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes several legal cases concerning donations and loans of jewels in the context of the Islamic marriage in the Middle Ages. The bride receives gifts of jewels from her would-be husband that form part of her property thereafter. The father also offers a substantial contribution of jewels to her daughter, yet often this is given with the expectation of their being returned subsequent to the marriage ceremony. Two of the gifts studied here consist of a strand of pearls, gold earrings, and silver anklets. They are jewels described already in ethnographic studies as part of the adornment that the bride traditionally wears at weddings in the contemporary Maghreb.Este trabajo analiza varios casos en los que se reflejan problemas legales surgidos en torno a una donación o préstamo de joyas, dentro del contexto matrimonial islámico medieval. La novia, de hecho, recibe varios regalos que contienen joyas de manos de su marido, que formarán parte de sus propiedades después de su boda. Por otro lado, el padre entrega también un conjunto importante de joyas a su hija, pero es frecuente que le sean prestadas con la intención de que se le devuelvan posteriormente. Dos de los regalos que aquí se estudian contienen un sartal de aljófar, unos zarcillos de oro y unas ajorcas de plata. Todas ellas son joyas que han sido ya descritas en los trabajos de etnografía como parte de los adornos que la novia lleva tradicionalmente en su boda en el Magreb actual.

  9. The Crownpoint and Churchrock uranium deposits, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: An ISL mining perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarn, D.W.


    The Crownpoint and Churchrock uranium deposits, San Juan Basin, New Mexico are currently being developed by Uranium Resources, Inc. (URI) and its subsidiary Hydro Resources, Inc. (HRI) with an anticipated start-up in 1998. Both deposits will be developed using advanced in situ leach (ISL) mining techniques. URI/HRI currently has about 14,583 t U (37.834 million pounds U 3 O 8 ) of estimated recoverable reserves at Crownpoint and Churchrock. at a cost less than $39/kg U ($15/lb U 3 O 8 ). The uranium endowment of the San Juan Basin is the largest of any province in the USA. In March, 1997, a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Crownpoint and Churchrock sites was completed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which recommends the issuance of an operating license. The FEIS is the culmination of a 9 year effort to license and develop the deposits. The Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation is an arkosic, fine to coarse grained sandstone bounded by near basinwide confining clays deposited in a wet alluvial fan environment within the San Juan Basin. The primary, trend-ore deposits are hosted by the Westwater Canyon Member as humate-rich, syngenetic tabular deposits which were subsequently remobilized into roll fronts. Since deposition in the Jurassic, two phases of remobilization have occurred in the basin causing the formation of in situ leach amenable monometallic uranium rolls free of organic debris. Following in situ mining, ground water restoration of the Crownpoint and Churchrock mines is required to provide a water quality consistent with pre-mining baseline conditions. The development of in situ mining offers an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for uranium extraction. URI/HRI anticipates a production of 385-1,156 Tonnes U/year (1-3 million pounds U 3 O 8 ) from the New Mexico properties. (author)

  10. Assessing the conservation status of marine habitats: thoughts from a sandflat on the Isles of Scilly (United States)

    Warwick, R. M.; Somerfield, P. J.


    Statutory monitoring of the fauna of the 'mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide' biotope complex on St Martin's Flats, a part of the Isles of Scilly Complex Special Area of Conservation, was undertaken in 2000, 2004 and 2009. The targets set by Natural England for "characteristic biotopes" were that "composite species, abundance and diversity should not deviate significantly from an established baseline, subject to natural change". The three specified biotopes could not be distinguished, and instead three assemblages were subjectively defined based on sediment surface features. There were statistically significant natural changes in diversity and species composition between years, especially in the association initially characterised by the razor-clam Ensis, and possible reasons for this are discussed. It is suggested that setting fixed local limits on natural variability is almost always impractical. Two possible approaches to distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic changes are suggested; a change in ecological condition as indicated by AMBI scores, and a significant change in average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+) compared with expectation. The determination of species biomasses as well as abundances might also open more possibilities for assessment. The practice of setting objectives for a marine Special Area of Conservation (SAC) feature that include the range and number of biotopes cannot be supported, in view of the difficulty in ascribing assemblages to recognised biotopes. A more realistic definition of species assemblages might best be gained from examination of the species that consistently make a substantial contribution to the Bray-Curtis similarity among samples collected from specific sites.

  11. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Cole


    Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations

  12. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.


    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  13. Imaging a fossil oolitic system with GPR, insights into the exposures of the Isle of Portland (UK) (United States)

    Moreau, Julien; Hansen, Trine L.; Nielsen, Lars


    The Isle of Portland shows exposure of uppermost Jurassic oolitic carbonate all along its coast. The stone of Portland properties are famous as standards for concrete composition, as building material but also for sculpture. As a consequence, the Isle has been quarried intensively for hundreds of years. The regional exposure quality is very high with a potential 3D control. The site has seen generations of geologist trainees coming for field work. The Wessex Basin where the Isle is sitting contains an active petroleum system and the geologists visiting/training there use the carbonates of Portland as an analogue to equivalent Middle-East oil and gas reservoir. Surprisingly, although the site has a tremendous potential to understand the 3D architecture and the sedimentary dynamic of an oolitic system, only punctual observations of logs (1D), sometimes correlated have been published. Several studies place a shore line between the Isle and the continent striking NEE-SWW and facing towards the Channel. Facies changes are attributed to rapid sea-level variations and Walter's Law. We have collected an extensive GPR survey of the same stratigraphic interval (The Portland Freestone). With a total of 99 GPR profiles, we have produced grids on top of most of the coastal cliffs and quarry faces. We have encountered 3 main architectures: 2-m-high bars with steep clinoforms, 10s of metres-wide channels plugged with a variety of organisms and stacked aggrading bundles of multidirectional dunesets. Our dataset does not illustrate any major unconformity which could be attributed to a sharp sea-level drop. We have interpreted our sedimentary architecture to be the result of various hydrodynamic conditions associated with a mix of wave and tide influences. The Isle shows an island barrier complex which progrades into the basin but also expands laterally filling up the available space and cannibalising itself. More proximal facies are effectively observed in the north of the island

  14. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller


    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  15. Improving niche projections of plant species under climate change: Silene acaulis on the British Isles as a case study (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alessandro; Alsafran, Mohammed H. S. A.; Dai, Junhu; Alatalo, Juha M.


    Empirical works to assist in choosing climatically relevant variables in the attempt to predict climate change impacts on plant species are limited. Further uncertainties arise in choice of an appropriate niche model. In this study we devised and tested a sharp methodological framework, based on stringent variable ranking and filtering and flexible model selection, to minimize uncertainty in both niche modelling and successive projection of plant species distributions. We used our approach to develop an accurate, parsimonious model of Silene acaulis (L.) presence/absence on the British Isles and to project its presence/absence under climate change. The approach suggests the importance of (a) defining a reduced set of climate variables, actually relevant to species presence/absence, from an extensive list of climate predictors, and (b) considering climate extremes instead of, or together with, climate averages in projections of plant species presence/absence under future climate scenarios. Our methodological approach reduced the number of relevant climate predictors by 95.23% (from 84 to only 4), while simultaneously achieving high cross-validated accuracy (97.84%) confirming enhanced model performance. Projections produced under different climate scenarios suggest that S. acaulis will likely face climate-driven fast decline in suitable areas on the British Isles, and that upward and northward shifts to occupy new climatically suitable areas are improbable in the future. Our results also imply that conservation measures for S. acaulis based upon assisted colonization are unlikely to succeed on the British Isles due to the absence of climatically suitable habitat, so different conservation actions (seed banks and/or botanical gardens) are needed.

  16. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana


    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  17. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.


    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  18. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt


    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  19. Turning into Ice (United States)

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Hanlon, Regina; Bohland, Cynthia; Schmale, David G., III


    This article describes an interdisciplinary unit in which students explore biological "ice nucleation"--by particles that cause water to freeze at temperatures above -38°C--through the lens of the microbial ice nucleator "Pseudomonas syringae." Such This activity, which aligns with the "Next Generation Science…

  20. Pararchive and Island Stories: collaborative co-design and community digital heritage on the Isle of Bute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R.J. Duffy


    Full Text Available This article draws on work undertaken during two recent research projects that focused on the practices and experiences of a group of heritage volunteers working on rural settlement archaeology on the Isle of Bute, Scotland. In it we outline the process of co-creation of the YARN digital storytelling platform, explore the methodological approach employed for successful co-design, and reflect on how our initial experiences have led to a longer term, hyperlocal focus around issues of empowerment, upskilling and digital engagement in a Scottish island community.

  1. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; TH, Jørgensen; Børglum, Anders


    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are inhabited by a small population, whose origin is thought to date back to the Viking Age. Historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the present population of the Faroe Islands may have a mixture of Scandinavian and British...... a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...

  2. Double elevator weakening for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy with ipsilateral superior rectus contracture and lax superior oblique tendon. (United States)

    Khan, Arif O


    In unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy, a large hypertropia is sometimes associated with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle and apparent overaction of the contralateral superior oblique. Ipsilateral double elevator weakening is one surgical approach; however, this procedure could compromise supraduction. We report a series of three consecutive patients who underwent ipsilateral superior rectus and inferior oblique recessions for unilateral superior oblique palsy. Intraoperatively, all three patients were found to have a lax ipsilateral superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, all three patients had satisfactory correction of the hypertropia and abnormal head position with minimal supraduction defect. This procedure seems to be an acceptable initial surgical option for treating congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with ipsilateral contracture of the superior rectus muscle, even when the ipsilateral superior oblique tendon is lax. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Glacier ice mass fluctuations and fault instability in tectonically active Southern Alaska (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.; Molnia, Bruce F.


    Across the plate boundary zone in south central Alaska, tectonic strain rates are high in a region that includes large glaciers undergoing wastage (glacier retreat and thinning) and surges. For the coastal region between the Bering and Malaspina Glaciers, the average ice mass thickness changes between 1995 and 2000 range from 1 to 5 m/year. These ice changes caused solid Earth displacements in our study region with predicted values of -10 to 50 mm in the vertical and predicted horizontal displacements of 0-10 mm at variable orientations. Relative to stable North America, observed horizontal rates of tectonic deformation range from 10 to 40 mm/year to the north-northwest and the predicted tectonic uplift rates range from approximately 0 mm/year near the Gulf of Alaska coast to 12 mm/year further inland. The ice mass changes between 1995 and 2000 resulted in discernible changes in the Global Positioning System (GPS) measured station positions of one site (ISLE) located adjacent to the Bagley Ice Valley and at one site, DON, located south of the Bering Glacier terminus. In addition to modifying the surface displacements rates, we evaluated the influence ice changes during the Bering glacier surge cycle had on the background seismic rate. We found an increase in the number of earthquakes ( ML≥2.5) and seismic rate associated with ice thinning and a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic rate associated with ice thickening. These results support the hypothesis that ice mass changes can modulate the background seismic rate. During the last century, wastage of the coastal glaciers in the Icy Bay and Malaspina region indicates thinning of hundreds of meters and in areas of major retreat, maximum losses of ice thickness approaching 1 km. Between the 1899 Yakataga and Yakutat earthquakes ( Mw=8.1, 8.1) and prior to the 1979 St. Elias earthquake ( Ms=7.2), the plate interface below Icy Bay was locked and tectonic strain accumulated. We used estimated ice mass

  4. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  5. Holocene Evolution of Incised Coastal Channels on the Isle of Wight, UK: Interpretation via Numerical Simulation. (United States)

    Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.


    Incised coastal channels are found in numerous locations around the world where the shoreline morphology consists of cliffs. The incised coastal channels found on the Isle of Wight, UK, are known locally as `Chines' and debouche (up to 45m) through the soft cliffs of the south west coast, maintaining steep side walls subject to deep-seated mass wasting. These canyons offer sheltered locations and bare substrate, providing habitat for plant (Philonotis marchica, Anthoceros punctatos) and invertebrate (Psen atratinus, Baris analis, Melitaea cinxi) species of international importance. The base level of the Chines is highly dynamic, with episodes of sea cliff erosion causing the rejuvenation of the channel network. Consequently a key factor in Chine evolution is the relative balance between rates of cliff retreat and headwards incision caused by knickpoint migration. Specifically, there is concern that if contemporary coastal retreat rates are higher than the corresponding rates of knickpoint recession, there will be long-term a reduction in the overall extent of the Chines and their associated habitats. In an attempt to provide a long-term context for these issues, in this poster we explore the Holocene erosional history of the Chines using a numerical landscape evolution model. The model includes a stochastic cliff recession function that controls the position of the outlet boundary. Knickpoint recession rates are simulated using a detachment-limited channel erosion law wherein erosion rate is a power function of drainage area and stream gradient with model parameters defined using empirically- derived data. Simulations are undertaken for a range of imposed boundary conditions representing different scenarios of long-term cliff retreat forced by Holocene sea-level rise, plausible scenarios corresponding to cases where simulated and observed Chine and landscape forms match. The study provides an example of how a landscape evolution model could be used to reconstruct

  6. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate


    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel


    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  7. Modelling snow ice and superimposed ice on landfast sea ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixin Wang


    Full Text Available Snow ice and superimposed ice formation on landfast sea ice in a Svalbard fjord, Kongsfjorden, was investigated with a high-resolution thermodynamic snow and sea-ice model, applying meteorological weather station data as external forcing. The model shows that sea-ice formation occurs both at the ice bottom and at the snow/ice interface. Modelling results indicated that the total snow ice and superimposed ice, which formed at the snow/ice interface, was about 14 cm during the simulation period, accounting for about 15% of the total ice mass and 35% of the total ice growth. Introducing a time-dependent snow density improved the modelled results, and a time-dependent oceanic heat flux parameterization yielded reasonable ice growth at the ice bottom. Model results suggest that weather conditions, in particular air temperature and precipitation, as well as snow thermal properties and surface albedo are the most critical factors for the development of snow ice and superimposed ice in Kongsfjorden. While both warming air and higher precipitation led to increased snow ice and superimposed ice forming in Kongsfjorden in the model runs, the processes were more sensitive to precipitation than to air temperature.

  8. A Smart City Application: A Fully Controlled Street Lighting Isle Based on Raspberry-Pi Card, a ZigBee Sensor Network and WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Leccese


    Full Text Available A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field.

  9. Uma Reflexão do Islã na Mídia Brasileira: Televisão e Mundo Muçulmano, 2001-2002


    Cesar Henrique de Queiroz Porto


    Esta tese consiste em um estudo das representações do islã, de árabes e muçulmanos veiculadas pela telenovela O Clone. Seu objetivo principal é verificar como a novela levou a cultura islâmica para a televisão na conjuntura do imediato pós 11 de setembro de 2001. Utilizando como fonte principal o discurso presente na telenovela, concluímos que O Clone funcionou como um instrumento didático para as audiências, oferecendo informações da cultura e religião islâmica em um momento em que essa trad...

  10. A smart city application: a fully controlled street lighting isle based on Raspberry-Pi card, a ZigBee sensor network and WiMAX. (United States)

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Trinca, Daniele


    A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field.

  11. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea


    Restoration of three-dimensional shell habitats in coastal Louisiana presents a valuable and potentially self-sustaining approach to providing shoreline protection and critical nekton habitat and may contribute to water quality maintenance. The use of what has been called “living shorelines” is particularly promising because in addition to the hypothesized shoreline protection services, it is predicted that, if built and located in viable sites, these living shorelines may ultimately contribute to water quality maintenance through filtration of bivalves and may enhance nekton habitat. This approach, however, has not been tested extensively in different shallow water estuarine settings; understanding under what conditions a living shoreline must have to support a sustainable oyster population, and where these reefs may provide valuable shoreline protection, is key to ensuring that this approach provides an effective tool for coastal restoration. This project gathered preliminary data on the sustainability and shoreline stabilization of three large bioengineered fringing reefs located in Grand Isle, Lake Eloi, and Lake Fortuna, Louisiana. We collected preconstruction and postconstruction physiochemical and biological data by using a before-after-control-impact approach to evaluate the effectiveness of these living shoreline structures on reducing marsh erosion, enabling reef sustainability, and providing other ecosystem benefits. Although this project was originally designed to compare reef performance and impacts across three different locations over 2 years, delays in construction because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in reefs being built from 12 to 18 months later than anticipated. As a result, monitoring postconstruction was severely limited. One reef, Grand Isle, was completed in March 2011 and monitored up to 18 months postcreation, whereas Lake Eloi and Lake Fortuna reefs were not completed until January 2012, and only 8 months of

  12. Coulombic charge ice (United States)

    McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.


    We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.

  13. 'ISL pattern reserve requirements for today's spot price,' or 'how many in-place pounds are needed for a mining pattern to be profitable in today's market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, H.L.


    Recent uranium spot market values place additional burdens on the geologist and project manager to identify mineralized ore that will yield a profitable return on investment to the mining venture and its investors. The author reviews the various cost components that comprise the total work effort required to produce uranium via ISL methods to arrive at a suitable ore grade that will guarantee profitably. Amortization of costs based on recent expenditures for typical ISL operations are used in conjunction with wellfield development, operating and restoration costs to determine the ore value required to show a positive return on investment. (author)

  14. Creep of ice: further studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, H.C.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.


    Detailed studies have been done of ice creep as related to the icy satellites, Ganymede and Callisto. Included were: (1) the flow of high-pressure water ices II, III, and V, and (2) frictional sliding of ice I sub h. Work was also begun on the study of the effects of impurities on the flow of ice. Test results are summarized

  15. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  16. The study of fresh-water lake ice using multiplexed imaging radar (United States)

    Leonard, Bryan M.; Larson, R.W.


    The study of ice in the upper Great Lakes, both from the operational and the scientific points of view, is receiving continued attention. Quantitative and qualitative field work is being conducted to provide the needed background for accurate interpretation of remotely sensed data. The data under discussion in this paper were obtained by a side-looking multiplexed airborne radar (SLAR) supplemented with ground-truth data.Because of its ability to penetrate adverse weather, radar is an especially important instrument for monitoring ice in the upper Great Lakes. It has previously been shown that imaging radars can provide maps of ice cover in these areas. However, questions concerning both the nature of the surfaces reflecting radar energy and the interpretation of the radar imagery continually arise.Our analysis of ice in Whitefish Bay (Lake Superior) indicates that the combination of the ice/water interlace and the ice/air interface is the major contributor to the radar backscatter as seen on the imagery At these frequencies the ice has a very low relative dielectric permittivity (types studied include newly formed black ice, pancake ice, and frozen and consolidated pack and brash ice.Although ice thickness cannot be measured directly from the received signals, it is suspected that by combining the information pertaining to radar backscatter with data on the meteorological and sea-state history of the area, together with some basic ground truth, better estimates of the ice thickness may be provided. In addition, certain ice features (e.g. ridges, ice-foot formation, areas of brash ice) may be identified with reasonable confidence. There is a continued need for additional ground work to verify the validity of imaging radars for these types of interpretations.

  17. Ice Engineering Research Area (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  18. Ice Cream Stick Math. (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia


    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  19. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.


    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  20. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.


    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  1. Estelas funerarias islámicas de Ávila : clasificación e inscripciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jiménez Gadea


    Full Text Available La excavación, entre los años 1999 y 2003, de la necrópolis islámica de Ávila, generó la entrega en el Museo de Ávila de un conjunto de estelas funerarias que, añadidas a las ya existentes en el museo, forman –en el contexto de la arqueología medieval española– un conjunto único de estelas funerarias mudéjares. En este trabajo se proporciona un sistema de clasificación para las mismas que ayuda a su estudio y que puede hacerse extensible al de las muchas que aún se encuentran reutilizadas por la ciudad de Ávila, como sillares en muchos de sus antiguos edificios y muros y como simples bolardos urbanos, así como para piezas similares que puedan aparecer en otros contextos, con el objetivo de simplificar la terminología y evitar confusiones interpretativas debidas al mal uso de ciertos arabismos. Aunque la mayoría son anepígrafas, se conservan, sin embargo, algunas con inscripciones en árabe, de las que aquí se ofrece también su traducción. El análisis formal, estilístico y epigráfico de las piezas y el contexto estratigráfico de aquellas aparecidas en excavación arqueológica sitúan cronológicamente el conjunto entre los siglos XIII y XV, confirmando, pues, el carácter mudéjar de la almacabra abulense.The excavation of the Islamic necropolis of Ávila (between 1999-2003 generated the delivery in the Museum of Ávila of an assembly of funeral gravestones, that added to the preexistents in the Museum, they form –in the context of the Spanish Medieval Archeology– an unique assembly of mudéjar funeral gravestones. In this work a systemof classification for the mis provided, that helps to its study and can be done extendible for that of the many of them that still are reused in the city of Ávila, like ashlars in many of their old buildings and walls and also as simple urban bollards, as well as for similar pieces that can appear in other contexts, with the objective to simplify the terminology and avoid

  2. A survey of the inorganic chemistry of bottled mineral waters from the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, Pauline L.


    Research highlights: → Bottled waters from the UK have major-ion compositions that broadly reflect the compositions of groundwaters abstracted directly from the corresponding host aquifers. → Many trace elements differ in composition from in situ groundwaters due to post-abstraction modifying processes. → All parameters analysed comply with European and national limits for drinking water and with WHO guideline values; elements that most closely approach the limits include U, Ba. → Bottled water compositions clearly show the influence of contamination with Sb from PET bottles, although concentrations do not exceed drinking-water limits. - Abstract: The inorganic chemistry of 85 samples of bottled natural mineral waters and spring waters has been investigated from 67 sources across the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland). Sources include boreholes, springs and wells. Waters are from a diverse range of aquifer lithologies and are disproportionately derived from comparatively minor aquifers, the most represented being Lower Palaeozoic (10 sources), Devonian Sandstone (10 sources) and Carboniferous Limestone (9 sources). The waters show correspondingly variable major-ion compositions, ranging from Ca-HCO 3 , through mixed-cation-mixed-anion to Na-HCO 3 types. Concentrations of total dissolved solids are mostly low to very low (range 58-800 mg/L). All samples analysed in the study had concentrations of inorganic constituents well within the limits for compliance with European and national standards for bottled waters. Concentrations of NO 3 -N reached up to half the limit of 11.3 mg/L, although 62% of samples had concentrations 10 μg/L, both being from the Welsh Devonian Sandstone. The highest observed U concentration was 13.6 μg/L. Solute concentrations in waters contained in glass bottles compared with waters in PET showed slightly though significantly higher concentrations of Al, Ce, Cu, La, Nd, Mn, Sn, W, Zn and

  3. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate. (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D


    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  4. Method for maintenance of ice beds of ice condenser containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrabis, C.M.; Hardin, R.T. Jr.


    This patent describes a method of maintaining ice baskets associated with a nuclear reactor system and disposed in an array of plural such ice baskets, supported in generally vertically oriented and parallel relationship by a lattice support structure which extends between the individual ice baskets and includes lateral supports adjacent the tops of the comprising: selecting an ice basket of the array requiring replenishment of the ice therewithin due to sublimation voids within the ice charges in the basket; isolating the selected ice basket; drilling a hole downwardly through the ice charges in the ice basket in general parallel axial relationship with respect to the cylindrical sidewall of the ice basket, utilizing a rotary drill bit connected through an auger to a rotary drive means; maintaining the rotary drive means in a fixed axial position and reversing the direction of rotation thereof for driving the auger in reverse rotation; and supplying ice in particulate form to the vicinity of the auger and conveying the particulate ice through the drilled hole by continued, reverse rotation of the auger so as to fill the sublimated voids in communication with the drilled hole, from the lowest and through successively higher such voids in the ice charges within the ice basket, and withdrawing the auger from the drilled hole as the voids are filled

  5. Iter Britannicum: Noble Visitors from the Bohemian Lands and Their Perception of the British Isles in the Second Half of 16th and Early 17th Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holý, Martin


    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2017), s. 121-133 ISSN 2333-4142 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Nobility * Travelling * British Isles * Early Modern Period Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  6. Parasitic nematodes of the genus Syphacia Seurat, 1916 infecting Muridae in the British Isles, and the peculiar case of Syphacia frederici.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, Alex; Lowe, Ann; Smales, Lesley; Bajer, Anna; Bradley, Jan; Dwużnik, Dorota; Franssen, Frits; Griffith, Jack; Stuart, Peter; Turner, Cyan; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Behnke, Jerzy M


    Syphacia stroma (von Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932 and Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945 are oxyurid nematodes that parasitize two murid rodents, Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis, on the European mainland. Only S. stroma has been recorded previously in Apodemus spp. from the British Isles.

  7. Icing losses on wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, T.; Fotsing, I.; Pearson, S. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the energy losses that can occur as a result of icing on wind turbines. Airfoil deterioration can occur in the presence of rime and glaze ice. Anemometers are also impacted by ice, and shut-downs can occur as a result of icing events. Availability deficits that occur during the winter months can lead to annual energy losses of 0.5 percent. The impact of icing events on total wind power energy production in Quebec is estimated at between 1.3 percent to 2.7 percent. Ice loss estimates are considered during the pre-construction phases of wind power projects. However, ice loss prediction methods are often inaccurate. Studies have demonstrated that preconstruction masts show a reasonable correlation with wind turbine icing, and that icing losses are site-specific. tabs., figs.

  8. Improvement of Ice Hockey Players' On-Ice Sprint With Combined Plyometric and Strength Training. (United States)

    Dæhlin, Torstein E; Haugen, Ole C; Haugerud, Simen; Hollan, Ivana; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R


    Combined plyometric and strength training has previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training have not previously been compared with the effects of strength training only. To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with those of strength training only. Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions/wk for 8 wk. One group included plyometric exercises at the start of 3 sessions/wk (PLY+ST), and the other group included core exercises in the same sessions (ST). Tests of 10- and 35-m skating sprints, horizontal jumping, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, skating multistage aerobic test (SMAT), maximal oxygen consumption, repeated cycle sprints, and body composition were performed before and after the intervention. The participants increased their 1RM squat, lean mass, and body mass (P plyometric and strength training for 8 wk was superior to strength training alone at improving 10-m on-ice sprint performance in high-level ice hockey players.

  9. Ice flow Modelling of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Tangaa

    Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others. In t...... a steady state with respect to the reference climate at the end of the simulation and that the mass balance of the ice sheet at this time was more sensitive to recent climate fluctuations than the temperature forcing in the early or mid-Holocene.......Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others....... In this PhD project, the use of ice flow models for the interpretation of the age-structure of the Greenland ice sheet, i.e. the depth within the ice, at which ice deposited at given times are found at present day. Two different observational data sets of this archive were investigated. Further, paleo...

  10. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.


    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  11. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.


    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  12. Geologic-tectonic evolutional characteristics and prospecting potential for ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposits; in Sichuan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianhua; Zhu Xiyang; Wang Sili; Wei Jisheng


    Through the analysis on geologic-tectonic evolution of Sichuan basin, authors of this paper suggest: because of the heterogeneity of the basin basement and cover structures resulting from the lateral dividing, those segments in the basin that experienced only weak tectonic activation, and those that were uplifted and eroded earlier have not been intensely deformed, and have not experienced long-period burying. Rocks in those segments are poorly consolidated and there exist conditions for the formation of large-area artesian slope at the transitional sites between uplifted and subsided areas, possessing favourable hydrogeologic conditions for long-term infiltration of groundwater. These areas must be the targets for prospecting for ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Correspondingly, the Triassic and Jurassic where loose sand bodies are hosted are prospecting target horizons for uranium. (authors)

  13. Labirintos de Luxbûna : Alfama e a influência da arquitectura islâmica


    Marreiros, Alexandre Leong Pedrosa dos Santos, 1984-


    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Arquitectura, Universidade Lusíada de Lisboa, 2012 Exame público realizado em 19 de Junho de 2013 A presente dissertação propõe a leitura de um lugar, o estudo e análise, de um bairro tradicional da cidade de Lisboa – Alfama –, e a sua íntima relação com o modelo urbano e arquitectura da medina islâmica do Norte de África. A abordagem deste trabalho é desenvolvida a partir da origem do desenho da planta de Lisboa, assim como, das características g...

  14. Lap time simulation and design optimisation of a brushed DC electric motorcycle for the Isle of Man TT Zero Challenge (United States)

    Dal Bianco, N.; Lot, R.; Matthys, K.


    This works regards the design of an electric motorcycle for the annual Isle of Man TT Zero Challenge. Optimal control theory was used to perform lap time simulation and design optimisation. A bespoked model was developed, featuring 3D road topology, vehicle dynamics and electric power train, composed of a lithium battery pack, brushed DC motors and motor controller. The model runs simulations over the entire ? or ? of the Snaefell Mountain Course. The work is validated using experimental data from the BX chassis of the Brunel Racing team, which ran during the 2009 to 2015 TT Zero races. Optimal control is used to improve drive train and power train configurations. Findings demonstrate computational efficiency, good lap time prediction and design optimisation potential, achieving a 2 minutes reduction of the reference lap time through changes in final drive gear ratio, battery pack size and motor configuration.

  15. Descriptions and revised key to the eggcases of the skates (Rajiformes: Rajidae) and catsharks (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae) of the British Isles. (United States)

    Gordon, Cat A; Hood, Ali R; Ellis, Jim R


    Updated descriptions and measurements for the eggcases of 10 rajiform and three scyliorhinid species occurring in the shelf seas around the British Isles are given, based on museum material, specimens collected during the 'Great Eggcase Hunt' (a Shark Trust recording project), and specimens obtained from fishery surveys. Quantitative data are given for Amblyraja radiata (n = 94), Dipturus batis (n = 24), D. cf. intermedia (n = 33), Leucoraja naevus (n = 94), Raja brachyura (n = 53), R. clavata (n = 52), R. microocellata (n = 57), R. montagui (n = 52), R. undulata (n = 52), Rostroraja alba (n = 5), Galeus melastomus (n = 7), Scyliorhinus canicula (n = 52) and S. stellaris (n = 58). An updated key for the identification of elasmobranch eggcases is provided, incorporating recent changes in skate taxonomy.

  16. Narrativa audiovisual, ontología y terrorismo: paradojas comunicativas en los videos del Estado Islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Rodríguez-Serrano


    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza los procesos de significación e impacto global del material audiovisual generado por el autoproclamado Estado Islámico. Se trata, sin duda, de un objeto de estudio contemporáneo y de primer or-den, en cuanto gran parte de la crisis geopolítica en Oriente Próximo, así como los flujos migratorios hacia Europa, penden en este momento de las acciones bélicas de las fuerzas terroristas que emergieron de las llamadas primaveras árabes. Nuestra hipótesis de partida es que la técnica comunica-tiva de Estado Islámico no solo es una evolución salvaje de los propios pro-cesos comunicativos en las sociedades posmodernas, sino que, además, es profundamente paradójico e inconsistente en lo que a sus procesos de sig-nificación se refieren. Para analizar este material, se utilizará una metodolo-gía híbrida compuesta, en primer lugar, por una ontología política, en la que se rastrean las relaciones entre espectáculo, atrocidad, terrorismo y control político, incluyendo referencias a la existencia de la ley obscena como fundamento ideológico generador de mensajes. En segundo lugar, se repasarán someramente algunos de los recursos narrativos audiovisuales que generan significación en dichas piezas.

  17. Allah in Deutschland?”: representações da comunidade islâmica na revista Der Spiegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Maria Leal de Assunção Martinho Toldy


    Full Text Available Pretende-se apontar alguns elementos para a análise da forma como a comunidade islâmica na Alemanha é representada na revista Der Spiegel. O objetivo último é analisar como os meios de comunicação social espelham as potencialidades e os limites de alguns conceitos que têm sido fundamentais na modernidade e que parecem estar sendo questionados na pós-modernidade, nomeadamente, o próprio conceito de modernidade, mas também os de secularização e dos direitos humanos. Palavras-chave: Modernidade; colonialidade; secularização; gênero e direitos humanos. Resumen Se pretende señalar algunos elementos necesarios para analizar la manera en que la comunidad islámica en Alemania está representada en la revista Der Spiegel. El objetivo último es analizar cómo los medios de comunicación social reflejan las potencialidades y los límites de algunos conceptos que han sido fundamentales en la modernidad y que parecen estar cuestionados en la postmodernidad, principalmente el propio concepto de modernidad, pero también los conceptos de secularización y de los derechos humanos. Palabras-clave: Modernidad; colonialidad; secularización; género y derechos humanos. Abstract The text aims to identify some useful elements for the analysis of the representations of the Islamic community in Germany present in the magazine Der Spiegel. The final aim is to analyse how media reflect the potentialities and limits of some of the basic concepts of modernity which are under fire in postmodern times, such as “modernity” itself, but also “secularization” and “human rights”. Keywords: Modernity; coloniality; secularization; gender and human rights.

  18. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park (United States)

    Morrissey, M. M.; Savage, W. Z.; Wieczorek, G. F.


    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt% dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ˜220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (˜220 m/s versus ˜110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations.

  19. The ICES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inzaghi, A.


    ICES is an integrated system used in the various engineering fields. It is made up of the Basic System and the applied Subsystems. ICES is controlled by the Operating System of the computer, from which it calls for suitable services: space allocation, loading of the modules etc... To be able to use software of this type on a computer the Operating System should be made more general. The Subsystems are developed with special programs included in the ICES Basic System. Each Subsystem is associated with an area of application. In other words, a Subsystem can only treat a previously defined ''class of problems''. The engineer (user) communicates with the Subsystem using a language oriented towards the problem (POL) also previously defined using the CDL language. The use of the (POL) language makes the engineer-computer contact much easier. The applied programs written in ICETRAN, once supplied as input to the ICETRAN Precompiler, become Fortran programs with special characteristics. A Fortran compiler produces the corresponding object programs with which, using the ICES ''Link-edit'' procedures, one obtains the modules which can be executed by an ICES Subsystem

  20. Ice Engineering. Number 25, September 2000. Remote Ice Motion Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Government agencies, and the engineering community in general. The potential exists for property damage, serious injury, and fatalities during ice-related flooding, evacuations, and other ice mitigation operations...

  1. On the Ice Nucleation Spectrum (United States)

    Barahona, D.


    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  2. Rheology of planetary ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  3. Ice accreditation vs wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.; Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Wind and ice data from Hydro Quebec and Environment Canada indicates that winds during ice storms are in the general direction of the St. Lawrence River. This observation is important for upgrading existing power transmission lines from the Manicouagan and Churchill generation system because they are parallel to the St. Lawrence and they were designed with lower criteria than is currently accepted. ASCE 74 suggests an accumulation ratio based on thickness of 0.70 for winds parallel to the line. The Goodwin model was used to calculate this ratio. The presentation includes illustrations showing the accumulation ratio for a north wind, as well as the accumulation ratios and wind roses at Quebec. A table showing a comparison of ratios from passive ice meters shows that results are similar to mean values from the theoretical model.

  4. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García


    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  5. Ice cores and palaeoclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogh Andersen, K.; Ditlevsen, P.; Steffensen, J.P.


    Ice cores from Greenland give testimony of a highly variable climate during the last glacial period. Dramatic climate warmings of 15 to 25 deg. C for the annual average temperature in less than a human lifetime have been documented. Several questions arise: Why is the Holocene so stable? Is climatic instability only a property of glacial periods? What is the mechanism behind the sudden climate changes? Are the increased temperatures in the past century man-made? And what happens in the future? The ice core community tries to attack some of these problems. The NGRIP ice core currently being drilled is analysed in very high detail, allowing for a very precise dating of climate events. It will be possible to study some of the fast changes on a year by year basis and from this we expect to find clues to the sequence of events during rapid changes. New techniques are hoped to allow for detection of annual layers as far back as 100,000 years and thus a much improved time scale over past climate changes. It is also hoped to find ice from the Eemian period. If the Eemian layers confirm the GRIP sequence, the Eemian was actually climatically unstable just as the glacial period. This would mean that the stability of the Holocene is unique. It would also mean, that if human made global warming indeed occurs, we could jeopardize the Holocene stability and create an unstable 'Eemian situation' which ultimately could start an ice age. Currenlty mankind is changing the composition of the atmosphere. Ice cores document significant increases in greenhouse gases, and due to increased emissions of sulfuric and nitric acid from fossil fuel burning, combustion engines and agriculture, modern Greenland snow is 3 - 5 times more acidic than pre-industrial snow (Mayewski et al., 1986). However, the magnitude and abruptness of the temperature changes of the past century do not exceed the magnitude of natural variability. It is from the ice core perspective thus not possible to attribute the

  6. ICE Online Detainee Locator System (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  7. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass. (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D


    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  8. Aportaciones del feminismo islámico como feminismo poscolonial para la emancipación de las mujeres musulmanas. Revisión bibliográfica de fuentes


    Salas Rodríguez, Ana


    Se intentar contrastar las contribuciones del feminismo clásico occidental con el feminismo islámico, haciendo mención a otros movimientos feministas, como el poscolonial, por lo que éste nos puede aportar a la hora de entender mejor aquellos feminismo que, como el islámico, no se encuentran en la órbita del feminismo occidental, sino que incluso tienen planteamientos encontrados. De hecho, el propio feminismo islámico es un feminismo poscolonial.

  9. The IceProd Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.


    of computational resources. IceProd is a distributed management system based on Python, XML-RPC and GridFTP. It is driven by a central database in order to coordinate and admin- ister production of simulations and processing of data produced by the IceCube detector. IceProd runs as a separate layer on top of other...

  10. 2006 Program of Study: Ice (United States)


    form a debris flow. One such debris flow, initiated by a glacial lake flood in Peru in 1941, devastated the city of Huaraz, killing over 6000 people [, a series of’ prototype interlocking fingers is formed which grow ats the ice floes areI compressed and the ice floes plough through one another

  11. Polar Ice Caps: a Canary for the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Honsaker, W.; Lowell, T. V.; Sagredo, E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hall, B. L.


    Ice caps are glacier masses that are highly sensitive to climate change. Because of their hypsometry they can have a binary state. When relatively slight changes in the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) either intersect or rise above the land the ice can become established or disappear. Thus these upland ice masses have a fast response time. Here we consider a way to extract the ELA signal from independent ice caps adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. It may be that these ice caps are sensitive trackers of climate change that also impact the ice sheet margin. One example is the Istorvet Ice Cap located in Liverpool Land, East Greenland (70.881°N, 22.156°W). The ice cap topography and the underlying bedrock surface dips to the north, with peak elevation of the current ice ranging in elevation from 1050 to 745 m.a.s.l. On the eastern side of the ice mass the outlet glaciers extending down to sea level. The western margin has several small lobes in topographic depressions, with the margin reaching down to 300 m.a.s.l. Topographic highs separate the ice cap into at least 5 main catchments, each having a pair of outlet lobes toward either side of the ice cap. Because of the regional bedrock slope each catchment has its own elevation range. Therefore, as the ELA changes it is possible for some catchments of the ice cap to experience positive mass balance while others have a negative balance. Based on weather observations we estimate the present day ELA to be ~1000 m.a.s.l, meaning mass balance is negative for the majority of the ice cap. By tracking glacier presence/absence in these different catchments, we can reconstruct small changes in the ELA. Another example is the High Ice Cap (informal name) in Milne Land (70.903°N, 25.626°W, 1080 m), East Greenland. Here at least 4 unconformities in ice layers found near the southern margin of the ice cap record changing intervals of accumulation and ablation. Therefore, this location may also be sensitive to slight

  12. Polar Stereographic Valid Ice Masks Derived from National Ice Center Monthly Sea Ice Climatologies, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These valid ice masks provide a way to remove spurious ice caused by residual weather effects and land spillover in passive microwave data. They are derived from the...

  13. User's guide for ICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.K.


    ICE is a cross-section mixing code which will accept cross sections from an AMPX working library and produce mixed cross sections in the AMPX working library format, ANISN format, and the group-independent ANISN format. User input is in the free-form or fixed-form FIDO structure. The code is operable as a module in the AMPX system

  14. Autosub under ice


    Griffiths, G.


    Autosub made headlines recently when it became trapped under 200m of ice in Antarctica.Here we explore the ideas behind the £5.86 million research programme, and look back at an earlier expedition which took place last summer off the coast of Greenland.

  15. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi


    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  16. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  17. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun


    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  18. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model (United States)

    Sun, Sainan; Cornford, Stephen L.; Moore, John C.; Gladstone, Rupert; Zhao, Liyun


    Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM) to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ˜ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor) fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  19. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Buoys for Seasonal Sea Ice (United States)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Parno, J. T.; Elder, B. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.


    The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes and attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover can be accomplished by increasing temporal and spatial measurements. Mass balance information can be used to understand the ongoing changes in the Arctic sea ice cover and to improve predictions of future ice conditions. Thinner seasonal ice in the Arctic necessitates the deployment of Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) capable of long-term, in situ data collection in both ice and open ocean. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating IMB's that allow data collection in thick ice, thin ice, during times of transition, and even open water. The newest generation of SIMB aims to increase the number of reliable IMB's in the Arctic by leveraging inexpensive commercial-grade instrumentation when combined with specially developed monitoring hardware. Monitoring tasks are handled by a custom, expandable data logger that provides low-cost flexibility for integrating a large range of instrumentation. The SIMB features ultrasonic sensors for direct measurement of both snow depth and ice thickness and a digital temperature chain (DTC) for temperature measurements every 2cm through both snow and ice. Air temperature and pressure, along with GPS data complete the Arctic picture. Additionally, the new SIMB is more compact to maximize deployment opportunities from multiple types of platforms.

  20. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, J.


    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change...... estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper from 2002 to 2010 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor from 2010. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and thus have a significant impact on the estimate of the volume...... change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show...

  1. Heterogeneous ice nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    The classical theory of heterogenous ice nucleation is reviewed in detail. The modelling of ice nucleation in the adsorbed water films on natural particles by analogous ice nucleation in adsorbed water films on the walls of porous media is discussed. Ice nucleation in adsorbed films of purewater and the HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}0 binary system on the surface of porous aerosol (SiO{sub 2}) was investigated using the method of NMR spectroscopy. The median freezing temperature and freezing temperature region were shown to be highly sensitive both to the average thickness of the adsorbed films and to the amount of adsorbed nitric acid. The character of the ice phase formation tends to approach that of bulk liquid with increasing adsorbed film thickness. Under the given conditions the thickness of the adsorbed films decreases with an increasing amount of adsorbed nitric acid molecules The molar concentration of nitric acid in the adsorbed films is very small (of the order of 10{sup -}3 10{sup -}2 (M/l)). Nitric acid molecules tend to adsorb on the surface of aerosol to a greater extent than in subsequent layers. The concentration is greatest in layers situated close to the surface and sharply decreases with the distance from the surface. The difference between the median freezing temperatures for adsorbed pure water and for the binary system was found to be about 9 K for films of equal thickness. This is about 150 times greater than the difference between the median freezing temperatures of bulk pure water and a solution with the same concentration of nitric acid. (orig.)

  2. Bibliography of Ice Properties and Forecasting Related to Transportation in Ice-Covered Waters. (United States)


    N. and Tabata , T., Ice study in the Gulf of Peschanskii, I.S., Ice science and ice technology, Bothnia, III: observations on large grains of and by Sterrett, K.F., The arctic environment and the hitting ice floes. Results of these measurements have arctic surface effect vehicle, growth, temperature 26-3673 effects, ice cover thickness. 28-557 Determining contact stresses when a ship’s stem hits the ice, Kheisin, D.E

  3. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.


    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  4. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles... following business will be conducted: Overview of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colour-picture ever must be that of Lactrodactu mactans (black widow spider); incidentally the button pider is mi ing. Altogether this book must be considered one of the best general text-books of medicine. It is of particular use to student, and for the most part the articles can be recommended as being highly authoritative. P.l..

  6. A study of geographical variations in the concentrations of plutonium and radiostrontium in human teeth throughout the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Rauiri


    Concern has been expressed about the impact on humans of plutonium and radiostrontium releases from nuclear installations in the United Kingdom, with public interest focusing on reported leukaemia clusters in the vicinity of some of these installations. In particular, it is not clear whether such discharges result in and increase in the body burden of plutonium and radiostrontium (present as a consequence of global fallout) in the local population. In this collaborative study the comparative exposures to 239,240Pu and 90Sr of different geographically located child populations in the British Isles have been examined using teeth removed from children for orthodontic purposes. Minute traces on 239,240Pu were found to be present in children's teeth. The overall mean concentration was 5+4 mBq/kg (ash), which is three orders of magnitude lower than reported total activities. Approximately 75% of the samples analysed showed concentrations below the mean value. Although there is considerable scatter in the data, there is some evidence of a marginal enhancement in the 239,240Pu concentration measured in the general vicinity of Cumbria, where the BNF plc. nuclear fuel reprocessing complex is located. Concentrations of 90Sr in teeth exceeded those of plutonium by three orders of magnitude, the overall mean being 8+5Bq/kg (ash). However, there was no evidence of any enhancement in the levels throughout Cumbria. No correlation was observed between 239,240Pu or 90Sr concentrations and mean annual rainfall, not was there any correlation between the levels of these radionuclides in the same samples. The plutonium and radiostrontium concentrations measured in teeth are similar to those reported for human bone in the British Isles and suggests that teeth can be used as an indicator of skeletal burden. On the basis of the above mentioned data, estimates have been made of the approximate risks of leukaemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma assuming chronic intakes of these radionuclides. The

  7. La revista Zanan, de la iraní Shahla Sherkat, y su contribución al feminismo islámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Velasco de Castro


    Full Text Available En cualquier sociedad, el feminismo conforma una parte importante de la lucha por los derechos humanos. En las sociedades islámicas, además, muchas de las militantes feministas lideran los movimientos ciudadanos y sus demandas de libertad. En este proceso, la palabra como medio de expresión y de denuncia, constituye un eficaz y peligroso instrumento para informar y concienciar a la población. Al igual que otras periodistas y escritoras perseguidas, el testimonio de Sherkat y de su revista, Zanan, están considerados como uno de los principales portavoces no sólo del feminismo islámico en el país, sino también de la libertad de expresión cercenada por un régimen político dictatorial.

  8. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water. (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan


    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  9. 77 FR 4897 - Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, VA (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, VA AGENCY: Coast... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the live-fire gun exercises on the M/V Del Monte... associated with the live-fire gun exercise. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on February 1, 2012...

  10. 76 FR 31848 - Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, Virginia (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, Virginia AGENCY... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the live-fire gun exercises on the M/V Del Monte... associated with the live-fire gun exercise. DATES: This rule will be effective from 11 a.m. June 6, 2011...

  11. GPR capabilities for ice thickness sampling of low salinity ice and for detecting oil in ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalumiere, Louis [Sensors by Design Ltd. (Canada)


    This report discusses the performance and capabilities test of two airborne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500, for monitoring low salinity snow and ice properties which was used to measure the thickness of brackish ice on Lake Melville in Labrador and on a tidal river in Prince Edward Island. The work of other researchers is documented and the measurement techniques proposed are compared to the actual GPR approach. Different plots of GPR data taken over snow and freshwater ice and over ice with changing salinity are discussed. An interpretation of brackish ice GPR plots done by the Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500 systems is given based on resolution criterion. Additionally, the capability of the BIO helicopter-borne GPR to detect oil-in-ice has been also investigated, and an opinion on the likelihood of the success of GPR as an oil-in-ice detector is given.

  12. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E


    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  13. Skating on slippery ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. van Leeuwen


    Full Text Available The friction of a stationary moving skate on smooth ice is investigated, in particular in relation to the formation of a thin layer of water between skate and ice. It is found that the combination of ploughing and sliding gives a friction force that is rather insensitive for parameters such as velocity and temperature. The weak dependence originates from the pressure adjustment inside the water layer. For instance, high velocities, which would give rise to high friction, also lead to large pressures, which, in turn, decrease the contact zone and so lower the friction. The theory is a combination and completion of two existing but conflicting theories on the formation of the water layer.

  14. Theory of amorphous ices. (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David


    We derive a phase diagram for amorphous solids and liquid supercooled water and explain why the amorphous solids of water exist in several different forms. Application of large-deviation theory allows us to prepare such phases in computer simulations. Along with nonequilibrium transitions between the ergodic liquid and two distinct amorphous solids, we establish coexistence between these two amorphous solids. The phase diagram we predict includes a nonequilibrium triple point where two amorphous phases and the liquid coexist. Whereas the amorphous solids are long-lived and slowly aging glasses, their melting can lead quickly to the formation of crystalline ice. Further, melting of the higher density amorphous solid at low pressures takes place in steps, transitioning to the lower-density glass before accessing a nonequilibrium liquid from which ice coarsens.

  15. Landforms, sediments and dates to constrain rates and style of marine-influenced ice sheet decay; the BRITICE-CHRONO project. (United States)

    Clark, Chris


    Uncertainty exists regarding the future mass of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets and how they will respond to forcings from sea level, and atmospheric and ocean temperatures. If we want to know more about the mechanisms and rate of change of shrinking ice sheets, then why not examine an ice sheet that has fully disappeared and track its retreat through time? If achieved in enough detail such information on ice retreat could be a data-rich playground for improving the next breed of numerical ice sheet models to be used in ice and sea level forecasting. We regard that the last British-Irish Ice Sheet is a good target for this work, on account of its small size, density of information and with its numerous researchers already investigating it. Geomorphological mapping across the British Isles and the surrounding continental shelf has revealed the nature and distribution of glacial landforms. Here we demonstrate how such data have been used to build a pattern of ice margin retreat. The BRITICE-CHRONO consortium of Quaternary scientists and glaciologists, are now working on a project running from 2012 - 2017 to produce an ice sheet wide database of geochronometric dates to constrain and then understand ice margin retreat. This is being achieved by focusing on 8 transects running from the continental shelf edge to a short distance (10s km) onshore and acquiring marine and terrestrial samples for geochronometric dating. The project includes funding for 587 radiocarbon, 140 OSL and 158 TCN samples for surface exposure dating; with sampling accomplished by two research cruises and 16 fieldwork campaigns. Results will reveal the timing and rate of change of ice margin recession for each transect, and combined with existing landform and dating databases, will be used to build an ice sheet-wide empirical reconstruction of retreat. Simulations using two numerical ice sheet models, fitted against the margin data, will help us understand the nature and significance of sea

  16. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 4 Caesium-137 and plutonium in soils of Cumbria and the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.


    A network of soil sampling sites covering an area of some 2500 km 2 in Cumbria and the whole of the Isle of Man was selected and sampled in 1978. Soils from permanent grassland, coniferous woodland and deciduous woodland were examined, to a depth of 30 cm. The spatial distribution of sampling points is based on a grid of 10 km side. The objective of the study is to provide information on the integrated deposition of Cs-137, Pu-239+240 and Pu-238 from the atmosphere, and to determine the distribution of possible emissions from the nuclear establishment at Windscale in the presence of radioactivity deposited from nuclear weapons fallout, that is superimposed upon the natural background of radioactivity in soil. Results from soil samples collected in 1978 in Cumbria and the Isle of Man are compared with the average integrated deposition for UK soils from nuclear fallout. In the Isle of Man no radioactivity is observed in excess of nuclear weapons fallout, but in Cumbria excess levels of plutonium are detected in coastal lowland areas under permanent grassland probably due to the transport of radioactive material from sea to land. At three sampling sites on grassland and woodland within 2.3 km of the Windscale stacks, the excess plutonium and Cs-137 in soil could be attributed mainly to atmospheric discharges from Windscale. The observed deposition of radioactivity has little radiological significance, based on assessment of risk by inhalation of soil dust that contains plutonium. (author)

  17. Las plantas que llegaron de Levante. Acerca del legado alimentario islámico en la Cataluña Medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riera Melis, Antoni


    Full Text Available During the High Middle Ages, the Islam encouraged a deep agricultural renewal in the lands between India and Península Ibérica. The new musulman agriculture introduced in the Western Mediterranean countries some unknown vegetable products, such as sugar-cane, rice, citrics, egg-plant and spinach. Between the 10th and 13th centuries, these five products played an important role in the andalusian cookery. In the Late Middle Ages, the Catalan adopted some islamic cultural elements. High Christian cookery introduced these new products to their own style and created new recepies quite different from their islamic models.

    Durante la Alta Edad Media, la expansión islámica estimuló una profunda renovación agraria en la franja de territorios comprendidos entre la India y la Península Ibérica. La nueva agricultura musulmana introdujo en el Mediterráneo Occidental especies vegetales desconocidas, como la caña de azúcar, el arroz, los cítricos, la berenjena y la espinaca. Estos cinco alimentos desempeñaron, entre los siglos X y XIII, un papel muy importante en la cocina andalusí. Los catalanes, en la Baja Edad Media, adoptaron bastantes elementos culturales islámicos. La alta cocina cristiana integró estos productos a su propio estilo, creando recetas bastante diferentes a los modelos islámicos.

  18. Arctic Ice Studies (United States)


    i heoriotlscale wace s 50 kin wthe11 aii vertical leadi tof M o.ChrlesA Lcur the siir-ai’.orc~5 . ~ ~G. RLI Lt(lWA~S II I Shuchln P A P Ut alI 9...can be utilized msccesafully. distinguish between these two major ice types and open I. INTRODUCTION water. S THE geophysical and economic importance of

  19. Car engine breather icing


    Horoufi, Aryan


    Icing in an engine breather system can block the engine breather pipe, cause excessive crankcase pressure and degrade the engine performance. In this project, a numerical study, experimental tests and CFD analysis are employed in order to understand condensation and the extent of freezing inside a vertical pipe, a horizontal pipe and a T-joint pipe which are exposed to an external convective cooling. The pipe internal flow is assumed to be a vapour/air mixture. This study has l...

  20. Marginal Ice Zone Bibliography. (United States)


    Tsunamis, Gravimetry , Earth Tides, World Data Center A: Oceanography Recent Movements of the Earth’s National Oceanographic Data Center Crust...sufficiently low, the dissolved salts precipitate out in the form of solid hydrates. It has been proposed that these solid hydrates add to the overall...strength of the ice. The first salt hydrate to precipitate should be that of sodium sul- * fate, Na2SO4IOH2O (the sulfate ion is the second most

  1. Ice condenser experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannberg, L.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Owczarski, P.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.


    An experimental plan is being developed to validate the computer code ICEDF. The code was developed to estimate the extent of aerosol retention in the ice compartments of pressurized water reactor ice condenser containment systems during severe accidents. The development of the experimental plan began with review of available information on the conditions under which the code will be applied. Computer-generated estimates of thermohydraulic and aerosol conditions entering the ice condenser were evaluated and along with other information, used to generate design criteria. The design criteria have been used for preliminary test assembly design and for generation of statistical test designs. Consideration of the phenomena to be evaluated in the testing program, as well as equipment and measurement limitations, have led to changes in the design criteria and to subsequent changes in the test assembly design and statistical test design. The overall strategy in developing the experimental plan includes iterative generation and evaluation of candidate test designs using computer codes for statistical test design and ICEDF for estimation of experimental results. Estimates of experimental variability made prior to actual testing will be verified by replicate testing at preselected design points

  2. Colonisation and extinction in relation to competition and resource partitioning in acanthocephalans of freshwater fishes of the British Isles. (United States)

    Lyndon, A R; Kennedy, C R


    This paper challenges two paradigms long held in relation to the ecology of parasites in freshwater systems: (1) autogenic species are poorer colonisers than allogenic ones; and (2) parasites with direct life cycles are more successful colonisers than those with complex life cycles. Using new and existing data for Acanthocephala in freshwater fish from the British Isles, it is suggested that all six species present have been able to colonise and persist successfully, in spite of the supposed limitations of their autogenic life-style. It is proposed that these parasites have overcome these limitations by a variety of means, which apply equally to all species considered. Foremost among these is the utilisation of a migratory fish host as either a preferred or a suitable host in their life cycle, allowing colonisation of new areas and rescue effects in established areas, whilst equally important is the use of a common and widespread crustacean as the intermediate host. In addition, all six species appear to exhibit resource partitioning by host at either or both the larval and adult stages, thus reducing the potential for competition and further facilitating colonisation and survival. This hypothesis is supported by data from previous studies both on acanthocephalans from Europe and North America and on other autogenic parasites. It also provides an explanation for the apparently atypical host utilisation patterns of some acanthocephalan species in areas on the edge of their distributions, notably in Ireland.

  3. Death on a strange isle: the mortality of the stone workers of Purbeck in the nineteenth century. (United States)

    Hinde, Andrew; Edgar, Michael


    This paper analyses the mortality of a group of rural workers in an extractive industry, the stone quarriers of the Isle of Purbeck in the southern English county of Dorset. The analysis uses a database created by nominal record linkage of the census enumerators' books and the Church of England baptism and burial registers to estimate age-specific death rates at all ages for males and females, and hence statistics such as the expectation of life at birth. The results are compared with mortality statistics published by the Registrar General of England and Wales (on the basis of the civil registers of deaths) for the registration district of Wareham, in which Purbeck is situated. The stone quarriers had heavier mortality levels than the rest of the population of Purbeck. Closer inspection, however, reveals that their high mortality was confined to males, and was almost entirely due to especially high mortality among boys aged less than five years. In contrast to the experience of coal and metal ore miners, adult male mortality among stone workers was no higher than that among the general population. The final section of the paper considers possible explanations for these results, and suggests that excess mortality among boys in Purbeck from lung diseases might have been responsible.

  4. An Enhancer Near ISL1 and an Ultraconserved Exon of PCBP2 areDerived from a Retroposon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejerano, Gill; Lowe, Craig; Ahituv, Nadav; King, Bryan; Siepel,Adam; Salama, Sofie; Rubin, Edward M.; Kent, W. James; Haussler, David


    Hundreds of highly conserved distal cis-regulatory elementshave been characterized to date in vertebrate genomes1. Many thousandsmore are predicted based on comparative genomics2,3. Yet, in starkcontrast to the genes they regulate, virtually none of these regions canbe traced using sequence similarity in invertebrates, leaving theirevolutionary origin obscure. Here we show that a class of conserved,primarily non-coding regions in tetrapods originated from a novel shortinterspersed repetitive element (SINE) retroposon family that was activein Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and terrestrial vertebrates) in theSilurian at least 410 Mya4, and, remarkably, appears to be recentlyactive in the "living fossil" Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeriamenadoensis. We show that one copy is a distal enhancer, located 500kbfrom the neuro-developmental gene ISL1. Several others represent new,possibly regulatory, alternatively spliced exons in the middle ofpre-existing Sarcopterygian genes. One of these is the>200bpultraconserved region5, 100 percent identical in mammals, and 80 percentidentical to the coelacanth SINE, that contains a 31aa alternativelyspliced exon of the mRNA processing gene PCBP26. These add to a growinglist of examples7 in which relics of transposable elements have acquireda function that serves their host, a process termed "exaptation"8, andprovide an origin for at least some of the highly-conservedvertebrate-specific genomic sequences recently discovered usingcomparative genomics.

  5. Using ice melting and ice rolling technologies to remove ice from sub-transmission and transmission lines at Manitoba Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, A. R.


    Development of an of an Ice Storm Management program by Manitoba Hydro to reduce ice storm damage to its 8 kV feeders to 115 kV transmission lines, is discussed. The program consists of the de-icing of overhead lines, either by ice melting, or ice rolling. Ice melting involves the placement of a three-phase short at a calculated point. The term ice rolling denotes a process of mechanically stripping the ice from conductors. The most recent major ice storm experienced by Manitoba Hydro was in the winter of 1997/1998. During the period from February 6 to February 17, 1998, a total of 83 'ice melt' procedures were performed to melt the ice from 2,628 km of overhead line (7,883 km of conductor), in addition to 'ice rolling'. This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's 25-years' experience with ice melting and it also describes the advantages and disadvantages of both ice melting and ice rolling. Although not a panacea to combat the effects of ice storms, ice melting was found to be the most effective way of removing ice from overhead transmission and sub-transmission lines. Ice rolling was also found to be effective. Other tools that have been found to be useful by various utilities in combating ice storm damage include improved structure and line design, system design that provide more redundancies and emergency sources, and standby generators at critical load points

  6. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint


    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  7. IceCube systematic errors investigation: Simulation of the ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resconi, Elisa; Wolf, Martin [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schukraft, Anne [RWTH, Aachen University (Germany)


    IceCube is a neutrino observatory for astroparticle and astronomy research at the South Pole. It uses one cubic kilometer of Antartica's deepest ice (1500 m-2500 m in depth) to detect Cherenkov light, generated by charged particles traveling through the ice, with an array of phototubes encapsulated in glass pressure spheres. The arrival time as well as the charge deposited of the detected photons represent the base measurements that are used for track and energy reconstruction of those charged particles. The optical properties of the deep antarctic ice vary from layer to layer. Measurements of the ice properties and their correct modeling in Monte Carlo simulation is then of primary importance for the correct understanding of the IceCube telescope behavior. After a short summary about the different methods to investigate the ice properties and to calibrate the detector, we show how the simulation obtained by using this information compares to the measured data and how systematic errors due to uncertain ice properties are determined in IceCube.

  8. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı


    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  9. Radiation effects in ice: New results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Fama, M.; Loeffler, M.J.; Raut, U.; Shi, J.


    Studies of radiation effects in ice are motivated by intrinsic interest and by applications in astronomy. Here we report on new and recent results on radiation effects induced by energetic ions in ice: amorphization of crystalline ice, compaction of microporous amorphous ice, electrostatic charging and dielectric breakdown and correlated structural/chemical changes in the irradiation of water-ammonia ices

  10. The making of salty ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bove, L.E.


    Full text: It is widely accepted that ice, no matter what phase, is unable to incorporate large amount of salt into its structure. This conclusion is based on the observation that upon freezing of saltwater, ice expels the salt almost entirely into brine, a fact which can be exploited to desalinate seawater. Here we show, by neutron diffraction under high pressure, that this behaviour is not an intrinsic physico-chemical property of ice phases. We demonstrate that substantial am mounts of dissolved LiCl can be built homogeneously into the ice VII structure if it is produced by recrystallisation of its glassy state under pressure [1]. Such highly doped or alloyed ice VII has significantly different structural properties compared to pure ice VII, such as a 8% larger unit cell volume, 5 times larger displacement factors, an absence of a transition to an ordered ice VIII structure, plasticity, and most likely ionic conductivity. Our study suggests that there could be a whole new class of salty ices based on various kinds of solutes and high pressure ice forms. (author)

  11. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor


    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  12. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.


    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  13. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi


    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5glaucoma surgery, phthisis bulbi, or loss of light perception. Of a total of 106 eyes, 58 and 48 eyes underwent AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (Pglaucoma medications was comparable after 1 year (1.3+/-1.2 vs. 1.9+/-0.8 for superior and inferior implants, respectively, P = 0.256). Success rates were also similar at 1 year: 27 eyes (81.8%) versus 20 eyes (95.2%) for superior and inferior implants, respectively (P = 0.227). However, the overall rate of complications, such as implant exposure necessitating removal, cosmetically unappealing appearance, and endophthalmitis, was higher in the inferior group: 12 eyes (25%) versus 3 eyes (5.2%) for superior and inferior groups, respectively, (P = 0.004). Superior and inferior AGV implants have similar intermediate efficacy in terms of IOP reduction, decrease in number of glaucoma medications, and preservation of vision. However

  14. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjeldsen, K.K.; Khan, S.A.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van Angelen, J.H.


    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change

  15. Eulerian method for ice crystal icing in turbofan engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen


    The newer generations of high-bypass-ratio engines are susceptible to the ingestion of small ice crystals which may cause engine power loss or damage. The research presented in this thesis focusses on the development of a computational method for in-engine ice crystal accretion. The work has been

  16. Tropospheric characteristics over sea ice during N-ICE2015 (United States)

    Kayser, Markus; Maturilli, Marion; Graham, Robert; Hudson, Stephen; Cohen, Lana; Rinke, Annette; Kim, Joo-Hong; Park, Sang-Jong; Moon, Woosok; Granskog, Mats


    Over recent years, the Arctic Ocean region has shifted towards a younger and thinner sea-ice regime. The Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition was designed to investigate the atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean interactions in this new ice regime north of Svalbard. Here we analyze upper-air measurements made by radiosondes launched twice daily together with surface meteorology observations during N-ICE2015 from January to June 2015. We study the multiple cyclonic events observed during N-ICE2015 with respect to changes in the vertical thermodynamic structure, sudden increases in moisture content and temperature, temperature inversions and boundary layer dynamics. The influence of synoptic cyclones is strongest under polar night conditions, when radiative cooling is most effective and the moisture content is low. We find that transitions between the radiatively clear and opaque state are the largest drivers of changes to temperature inversion and stability characteristics in the boundary layer during winter. In spring radiative fluxes warm the surface leading to lifted temperature inversions and a statically unstable boundary layer. The unique N-ICE2015 dataset is used for case studies investigating changes in the vertical structure of the atmosphere under varying synoptic conditions. The goal is to deepen our understanding of synoptic interactions within the Arctic climate system, to improve model performance, as well as to identify gaps in instrumentation, which precludes further investigations.

  17. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  18. The response of the Goddard general circulation model to sea ice boundary conditions (United States)

    Herman, G.; Johnson, W. T.


    The effect of variation in the location of Arctic sea ice boundaries on the model's mean monthly climatology was examined. When sea ice boundaries were at their maximum extent the differences resulted in the January-February climatology. Sea level pressure was higher over the Barents Sea, in the Davis Strait, and in the Sea of Okhotsk. Pressure was lower by as much as 8 mb in the North Atlantic between Iceland and the British Isles, and in the Gulf of Alaska. Pressure rises in the eastern subtropical regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific accompanied pressure falls in the Gulf of Alaska and Icelandic region. Geopotential heights at 500 mb were more than 100 gpm lower in the Bering Sea, and more than 120 gpm lower in the Icelandic region. Zonally averaged temperatures were cooler by 4 deg C below 3800 mb between 50 deg and 70 deg N with little change elsewhere. Zonally averaged geopotentials were lower by as much as 70 gpm in the mid-troposphere between 50/-70 deg N and zonal winds increased by as much as 3 m s in the mid-troposphere between 35/-50 deg N.

  19. Climate Impacts of Ice Nucleation (United States)

    Gettelman, Andrew; Liu, Xiaohong; Barahona, Donifan; Lohmann, Ulrike; Chen, Celia


    Several different ice nucleation parameterizations in two different General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to understand the effects of ice nucleation on the mean climate state, and the Aerosol Indirect Effects (AIE) of cirrus clouds on climate. Simulations have a range of ice microphysical states that are consistent with the spread of observations, but many simulations have higher present-day ice crystal number concentrations than in-situ observations. These different states result from different parameterizations of ice cloud nucleation processes, and feature different balances of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. Black carbon aerosols have a small (0.06 Wm(exp-2) and not statistically significant AIE when included as ice nuclei, for nucleation efficiencies within the range of laboratory measurements. Indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds occur as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic sulfur emissions with different mechanisms important in different models. In one model this is due to increases in homogeneous nucleation fraction, and in the other due to increases in heterogeneous nucleation with coated dust. The magnitude of the effect is the same however. The resulting ice AIE does not seem strongly dependent on the balance between homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Regional effects can reach several Wm2. Indirect effects are slightly larger for those states with less homogeneous nucleation and lower ice number concentration in the base state. The total ice AIE is estimated at 0.27 +/- 0.10 Wm(exp-2) (1 sigma uncertainty). This represents a 20% offset of the simulated total shortwave AIE for ice and liquid clouds of 1.6 Wm(sup-2).

  20. Environmental Assessment for Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control, Presque Isle Power Plant, Marquette, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates environmental issues associated with constructing and operating an integrated emissions control system proposed by We Energies and its project partners with cost-shared funding support by DOE. The proposed project would be demonstrated at the existing 90-MW Units 7, 8, and 9 of We Energies' coal-fired Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. The commercial-scale demonstrate would allow utilities to make decisions regarding the integrated emissions control system as a viable commercial option. DOE's share of the funding for the 5-year demonstration project would be about $25 million, while $25 million would also be provided by We Energies and its project partners. This project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) for negotiation of a cooperative agreement to demonstrate the integration of technologies to reduce emissions of mercury (Hg) and particulate matter, as well as potentially control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions. DOE's decision is whether or not to fund the project. The EA evaluates the principal environmental issues, including air quality, waste management, and traffic, that could result from construction and operation of the proposed project. The EA also considers two reasonably foreseeable scenarios that could result from the no-action alternative in which DOE would not provide cost-shared funding for the proposed project. Key findings include that potential air quality impacts resulting from the proposed project would generally be beneficial because plantwide air emissions would decrease or continue at the same level. The decrease in stack exit temperature would decrease the plume rise, which could result in increased downwind ground-level concentrations of those air pollutants experience little or no decrease in stack emissions. However, results of air dispersion modeling indicated that no

  1. Access to medicines in remote and rural areas: a survey of residents in the Scottish Highlands & Western Isles. (United States)

    Rushworth, G F; Diack, L; MacRobbie, A; Munoz, S-A; Pfleger, S; Stewart, D


    Sparsely populated areas are potentially predisposed to health inequalities due to limited access to services. This study aimed to explore and describe issues of access to medicines and related advice experienced by residents of the Scottish Highlands and Western Isles. Cross-sectional cohort study. Anonymized questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 6000 residents aged ≥18 years identified from the electoral register. The questionnaire contained items on: access to medicines; interactions with health care services; and perceptions of the services. Results were analysed using descriptive, inferential and spatial statistics. Adjusted response rate was 49.5% (2913/5889). Almost two thirds (63.4%, 1847) were prescribed medicines regularly, 88.5% (1634) of whom considered the source convenient. Pharmacy (73.8%, 1364) or dispensing GP (24.0%, 443) were the most accessed sources. Prescription medicine advice was mainly obtained from the GP (55.7%, 1029). Respondents ≥80 years old were significantly (P 80 years living alone disagreed that they obtained prescribed medicines from a convenient source. The majority of respondents who felt they did not have a convenient medicines source, regardless of urban/rural classification, lived within five miles of a pharmacy or GP practice. Respondents accessed medicines and advice from a variety of sources. While most considered their access to medicines convenient, there were issues for those over 80 years and living alone. Perceived convenience would not appear to be solely based on geographical proximity to supply source. This requires further exploration given that these individuals are likely to have long-term conditions and be prescribed medicines on a chronic basis. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Ximenes, Carlos Alberto


    Persistent left superior vena cava absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the coronary sinus. We report the case of a patient with a persistent left superior vena cava and absence of right superior vena cava identified by chance during a chest radiograph and computed tomography examination for investigation of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. The patient had no congenital heart disease and the blood from the right side was drained by the persistent left superior vena cava into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. (author)

  3. Ice hockey injuries. (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H


    This article reviews the distribution and determinants of injuries reported in the pediatric ice hockey literature, and suggests potential injury prevention strategies and directions for further research. Thirteen electronic databases, the ISI Web of Science, and 'grey literature' databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify potentially relevant articles. The bibliographies of selected studies were searched to identify additional articles. Studies were selected for review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A comparison between studies on this topic area was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of injury, study populations, and measurements used to assess injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during games compared with practices. The two most commonly reported injuries were sprains/strains and contusions. Players competing at the Minor hockey, High School, and Junior levels of competition sustained most of their injuries to the upper extremity, head, and lower extremity, respectively. The primary mechanism of injury was body checking, followed by stick and puck contact. The frequency of catastrophic eye injuries has been significantly reduced with the world-wide mandation of full facial protection for all Minor hockey players. Specific hockey-related injury risk factors are poorly delineated and rarely studied among pediatric ice hockey players leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies. Risk management strategies should be focused at avoiding unnecessary foreseeable risk, and controlling the risks inherent to the sport. Suggestions for injury prevention and future research are discussed.

  4. The physics of ice cream (United States)

    Clarke, Chris


    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  5. Snow, ice and solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.


    The snow-covered ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland reflect most of the incoming solar radiation. The reflectivity, commonly called the albedo, of snow on these ice sheets has been observed to vary in space and time. In this thesis, temporal and spatial changes in snow albedo is found to depend

  6. Ice as a Construction Material (United States)

    Zuppero, Anthony; Lewis, Joseph


    The use of ice as a construction material is discussed. A model of an ice tire torus space ship, which slowly spins to produce artificial gravity is proposed. The size of the ship, needed to support a given number of people and the required envelope mass is presented.

  7. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  8. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter


    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  9. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition. (United States)

    Hockley, William E


    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  10. The IceProd (IceCube Production) Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Vélez, J C


    IceProd is a data processing and management framework developed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory for processing of Monte Carlo simulations and data. IceProd runs as a separate layer on top of middleware or cluster job schedulers and can take advantage of a variety of computing resources including grids such as EGI, OSG, and NorduGrid as well as local clusters running batch systems like HT Condor, PBS, and SGE. This is accomplished by a set of dedicated daemons which process job submission in a coordinated fashion through the use of middleware plug-ins that serve to abstract the details of job submission and job management. IceProd can also manage complex workflow DAGs across distributed computing grids in order to optimize usage of resources. We describe several aspects of IceProd's design and it's applications in collaborative computing environments. We also briefly discuss design aspects of a second generation IceProd, currently being tested in IceCube.

  11. Vena cava superior syndrome associated with sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.; Walz, M.; Reidemeister, J.C.; Donhuijsen, K.


    We report the first observation of clinical manifestations of vena cava superior syndrome (VCSS) associated with sarcoidosis. Twenty-four years after the first signs of the disease had been noted, mediastinal lymphomas penetrating the wall of the vena cava superior caused complete obstruction. It is most unusual for the vessel wall to be destroyed in this way, which explains why VCSS is often missed in sarcoidosis. The obstructed vessel was resected and successfully replaced by a Gore-Tex prosthesis. The importance of VCSS for the differential diagnosis is pointed out. Two further peculiarities are the simultaneous occurrence of elevated intraocular pressure and VCSS, and the familial incidence. (orig.) [de

  12. A condição das mulheres no Islã: a questão da igualdade Islamic women's status: the question of equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïcha El Hajjami


    Full Text Available No ocidente, o tema da condição das mulheres no Islã está ligado à representação que geralmente se faz do Islã e dos muçulmanos. É uma representação constituída por estereótipos, esquematizações reducionistas e por confusões conceituais. A realidade do Islã e das sociedades muçulmanas possui muito mais nuances e freqüentemente não corresponde às idéias estabelecidas. A condição de inferioridade e precariedade a que está confinada a maior parte das mulheres muçulmanas, revela principalmente a hegemonia de uma mentalidade e de um sistema patriarcal que instrumentaliza sua leitura da religião para legitimar as situações de dominação, de violência e de exclusão em relação às mulheres. Partindo desta constatação, a autora propõe uma outra leitura do Islã e uma reflexão sobre a noção de igualdade no Alcorão e Sunna, na sua relação com o contexto da revelação, as finalidades da Chari'a e as perspectivas de evolução que podem revelar o referencial islâmico. Este trabalho de base é passível de reduzir as distâncias entre os princípios de igualdade entre os sexos inscritos nas convenções internacionais e seu equivalente no Islã.The Western idea relative to Islamic women's status is linked to the representations generally held on Islam and Muslim people. These representantions are riddled by esterotypes, reductionist schemas and conceptual confusions. Islam and Muslim societies' reality is much more nuanced and common held ideas do not correspond to it. The inferior status and poverty in which most of Muslim women are confined show the hegemony of a mentality and a patriarchal system that uses its readings of religion in order to legitimate the domination, violence and exclusion of women. Beginning with this idea, the author proposes another reading of Islam and a reflection about the equality notions in the Coran and in the Sunna in the context of revelation, Chari'a objectives and the

  13. Little Ice Age Fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T.


    A record of the past extents of Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC) provides valuable information about tropical climate change from late glacial to recent time. Here, we examine the timing and regional significance of fluctuations of QIC during the Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1300-1850 AD). One prominent set of moraines, known as the Huancane I moraines, is located ~1 km from the present-day western ice cap margin and provides a near-continuous outline of the most recent advance of QIC. This moraine set was radiocarbon dated (~298 ± 134 and 831 ± 87 yr BP) by Mercer and Palacios (1977) and presented as some of the first evidence for cooling in the tropics during the Little Ice Age. Recent field investigations in the QIC region focused on refining the chronology of the Huancane I moraines. In 2008, new stratigraphic sections exposed by local lake-flooding events revealed multiple layers of peat within the Huancane I moraines. In both 2008 and 2009, samples were obtained for 10Be dating of boulders on Huancane I moraines. A combination of radiocarbon and 10Be ages indicate that the Huancane I moraines were deposited by ice cap expansion after ~3800 yr BP and likely by multiple advances at approximately 1000, 600, 400, and 200 yr BP. Radiocarbon and 10Be chronologies of the Huancane I moraines are compared with the Quelccaya ice core records (Thompson et al., 1985; 1986; 2006). Accumulation data from the ice core records are interpreted to indicate a significant wet period at ~1500-1700 AD followed by a significant drought at ~1720-1860 AD. We examine ice marginal fluctuations during these times to determine influence of such events on the ice cap extent.

  14. Arctic sea-ice ridges—Safe heavens for sea-ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt? (United States)

    Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin


    The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (Turbellaria, Nematoda and Harpacticoida also were observed in pressure ridges (0-200 ind l -1, median 40 ind l -1), although values were highly variable and only medians of Turbellaria were significantly higher in ridge ice than in level ice. Median abundances of under-ice amphipods at all ice types (level ice, various ice ridge structures) ranged from 8 to 114 ind m -2 per station and mainly consisted of Apherusa glacialis (87%), Onisimus spp. (7%) and Gammarus wilkitzkii (6%). Highest amphipod abundances were observed in pressure ridges at depths >3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of

  15. review of the archaeological evidence for food plants from the British Isles: an example of the use of the Archaeobotanical Computer Database (ABCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Tomlinson


    Full Text Available The Archaeobotanical Computer Database is an electronic compilation of information about remains of plants from archaeological deposits throughout the British Isles. For the first time, this wealth of published data, much of it post-dating Godwin's (1975 History of the British Flora has been brought together in a form in which the user can explore the history of a particular species or group of plants, or investigate the flora and vegetation of a particular archaeological period or part of the British Isles. The database contains information about the sites, deposits and samples from which the remains in question have been recovered, together with details of the plant parts identified and their mode of preservation. It also provides some interpretative guidance concerning the integrity of contexts and the reliability of dating as an aid to judging the quality of the data available. In this paper the compilers of the ABCD make use of the database in order to review the archaeological evidence for food plants in the British Isles. The paper begins with a definition of its scope, examining the concept of a "food plant" and the taphonomy of plant remains on British archaeological sites. It then summarises the principal changes in food plants from the prehistoric period to post-medieval times. The body of the paper is a detailed discussion of the evidence for the use of berries, other fruits, vegetables, pulses, herbs and flavourings, oil plants, cereals and nuts. Finally, the paper compares the archaeological evidence with that known from documentary sources. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps and will be able to explore aspects of the database online, enabling queries by taxa, site or worker. Instructions on obtaining electronic copies of the database tables and registering as an ABCD user are also included.

  16. Superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new concepts in superior oblique muscle weakening surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Koornneef, L.; Everhard-Halm, Y. S.; Hughes, D. S.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, L. J.


    We used superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new surgical procedures to treat acquired Brown's syndrome and superior oblique muscle overaction. We studied nine patients (11 eyes) who underwent trochlear surgery between 1988 and 1993. Four patients had acquired Brown's syndrome and

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Novelino Simão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results: A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2% of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%. In 10 (47.6% of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum. In the remaining 11 (52.4%, surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion: A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven and 4.8% (projected. However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra.

  18. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)


    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    : The public image of Camp Century was one of technological comfort and military-scientific control. Amidst the raging Cold War and up against the harsh environment, the construction of the camp would prove to the public that the combined forces of the US military-technology-science complex would prevail......This paper uses Paul Edwards’ closed world metaphor to understand US involvement in Greenland during the Cold War. Closed worlds mark military-techno-scientific geographies of conflict: They refer to sealed techno-spaces of observation, containment, and control, but also to the settings in which....... However, the military logic of Camp Century was self-referential and closed in the sense that the very idea of constructing the city under ice emerged from Cold War strategy. The closed world of Camp Century established a temporary boundary between, on the one hand, the comfortable space controlled by US...

  20. Ice-skating injuries. (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M


    The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.

  1. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Tony [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; van Nieuwstadt, Lin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; De Roo, Roger [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Karr, Dale [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Lozenge, David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Meadows, Guy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering


    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  2. Population Structure and Abundance of Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacteria along an Arsenic Pollution Gradient in Waters of the Upper Isle River Basin, France▿ † (United States)

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Cébron, Aurélie; Billard, Patrick; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Garrido, Francis; Leyval, Corinne; Joulian, Catherine


    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were successfully developed to monitor functional aoxB genes as markers of aerobic arsenite oxidizers. DGGE profiles showed a shift in the structure of the aoxB-carrying bacterial population, composed of members of the Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, depending on arsenic (As) and Eh levels in Upper Isle River Basin waters. The highest aoxB gene densities were found in the most As-polluted oxic surface waters but without any significant correlation with environmental factors. Arsenite oxidizers seem to play a key role in As mobility in As-impacted waters. PMID:20453153

  3. Formation mechanism of self-potential at ISL-amenable interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposit and the simulation and application of self-potential anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongzhi; Liu Qingcheng; Su Zhaofeng; Gong Yuling


    Based on the analysis of geochemical characteristics and metallogenic physico-chemical conditions of ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposits, the formation mechanism of self-potential field is discussed, a mathematic calculation model has been set up, and the simulation calculation has been performed for self-potential anomalies above uranium ore bodies of ordinary form, features of survey curve are analysed and methods for correcting topography at self-potential anomalies are discussed, and a simulation curve of self-potential in the area of slope topography has been presented. Finally, the availability of the method is demonstrated by an example. (authors)

  4. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics. (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S


    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  5. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education. (United States)

    Reid, D. J.


    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  6. Mammographic varicosities indicative of a superior mediastinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, an abnormal calibre of the superficial veins can reflect not only underrying breast pathology, but a collateral venous return resulting from an upper mediastinal obstruction. A case mammographically demonstrating mammary varicosities resulting from a superior mediastinal syndrome is described. S. Afr. Med.

  7. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science (United States)

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  8. Perturbation resilience and superiorization of iterative algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censor, Y; Davidi, R; Herman, G T


    Iterative algorithms aimed at solving some problems are discussed. For certain problems, such as finding a common point in the intersection of a finite number of convex sets, there often exist iterative algorithms that impose very little demand on computer resources. For other problems, such as finding that point in the intersection at which the value of a given function is optimal, algorithms tend to need more computer memory and longer execution time. A methodology is presented whose aim is to produce automatically for an iterative algorithm of the first kind a 'superiorized version' of it that retains its computational efficiency but nevertheless goes a long way toward solving an optimization problem. This is possible to do if the original algorithm is 'perturbation resilient', which is shown to be the case for various projection algorithms for solving the consistent convex feasibility problem. The superiorized versions of such algorithms use perturbations that steer the process in the direction of a superior feasible point, which is not necessarily optimal, with respect to the given function. After presenting these intuitive ideas in a precise mathematical form, they are illustrated in image reconstruction from projections for two different projection algorithms superiorized for the function whose value is the total variation of the image

  9. A model of the ice-d electron metal interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, K.R.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.; Tosi, M.P.


    A qualitative explanation of the different orientations of the growth of ice on Pt (111) and Ag (111) surfaces is proposed. Other physical consequences which follow are discussed and experiments are suggested to test these. (author)

  10. VT Ice Damage Assessment from the 1998 Ice Storm (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset (ICEDAMAG98) depicts the extent and severity of tree damage caused by the 1998 ice storm, which resulted in extensive tree damage in...

  11. Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kimura


    Full Text Available Summer sea-ice cover in the Arctic varies largely from year to year owing to several factors. This study examines one such factor, the relationship between interannual difference in winter ice motion and ice area in the following summer. A daily-ice velocity product on a 37.5-km resolution grid is prepared using the satellite passive microwave sensor Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System data for the nine years of 2003–2011. Derived daily-ice motion reveals the dynamic modification of the winter ice cover. The winter ice divergence/convergence is strongly related to the summer ice cover in some regions; the correlation coefficient between the winter ice convergence and summer ice area ranges between 0.5 and 0.9 in areas with high interannual variability. This relation implies that the winter ice redistribution controls the spring ice thickness and the summer ice cover.

  12. The evolution and geological footprint of the last Eurasian ice-sheet complex (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Winsborrow, Monica; Stroeven, Arjen; Auriac, Amandine; Heyman, Jakob


    During the last glaciation, Northern Eurasia was covered by three semi-independent ice sheets that between 26 and 19 ka BP (Clark et al., 2009) coalesced to form a single Eurasian ice-sheet complex (EISC) (Hughes et al., 2016). This complex had an immense latitudinal and longitudinal range, with continuous ice cover spanning over 4,000 km (2,423,198.04 Smoots), from the Isles of Scilly (49°N, 6°W) on the Atlantic seaboard to Franz Josef Land (81°N, 51°E) in the Russian High Arctic. It was the third largest ice mass after the Laurentide and Antarctic ice sheets, which with a combined volume around three times the present Greenland ice sheet accounted for over 20 m of eustatic sea-level lowering during the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) (Patton et al., 2016). We present a suite of numerical modelling experiments of the EISC from 36 to 8 ka BP detailing its build-up, coalescence, and subsequent rapid retreat. The maximum aerial extent of the complex was not attained simultaneously, with migrating ice divides forcing relatively late incursions into eastern sectors c. 20-21 ka BP compared to c. 23-25 ka BP along western margins. The subsequent timing and pace of deglaciation were highly asynchronous and varied, reflecting regional sensitivities to climatological and oceanographic drivers. Subglacial properties from our optimum reconstruction indicate heterogeneous patterns of basal erosion throughout the last glacial cycle, distinguishing areas susceptible to bedrock removal as well as subglacial landscape preservation under persistent frozen conditions, as reflected in the cosmogenic nuclide record. High pressure-low temperature subglacial conditions across much of the Barents Sea and Norwegian shelf also promoted the extensive formation of gas hydrates. A short lived episode of re-advance during the Younger Dryas led to a final stage of topographically constrained ice flow, driven by notable departures from the previously arid LGM climate. The ice sheet complex along

  13. 14 CFR 23.1419 - Ice protection. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ice protection. 23.1419 Section 23.1419... Ice protection. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired, compliance with the... performed to establish, on the basis of the airplane's operational needs, the adequacy of the ice protection...

  14. Airframe Icing Research Gaps: NASA Perspective (United States)

    Potapczuk, Mark


    qCurrent Airframe Icing Technology Gaps: Development of a full 3D ice accretion simulation model. Development of an improved simulation model for SLD conditions. CFD modeling of stall behavior for ice-contaminated wings/tails. Computational methods for simulation of stability and control parameters. Analysis of thermal ice protection system performance. Quantification of 3D ice shape geometric characteristics Development of accurate ground-based simulation of SLD conditions. Development of scaling methods for SLD conditions. Development of advanced diagnostic techniques for assessment of tunnel cloud conditions. Identification of critical ice shapes for aerodynamic performance degradation. Aerodynamic scaling issues associated with testing scale model ice shape geometries. Development of altitude scaling methods for thermal ice protections systems. Development of accurate parameter identification methods. Measurement of stability and control parameters for an ice-contaminated swept wing aircraft. Creation of control law modifications to prevent loss of control during icing encounters. 3D ice shape geometries. Collection efficiency data for ice shape geometries. SLD ice shape data, in-flight and ground-based, for simulation verification. Aerodynamic performance data for 3D geometries and various icing conditions. Stability and control parameter data for iced aircraft configurations. Thermal ice protection system data for simulation validation.

  15. Review of Anti-Icing/Ice Release Systems (United States)


    walkways, and superstructure which the US Navy has shown 1 for a Green Arctic Patrol Vessel can be supplied by waste heat recovery from engine...adhesion strength than the ice does, thus facilitating shear. It has been found that such treatments depend on the chemical nature and condition of...application. • Ablative or Depletion Coatings: where the coating fails cohesively as ice is sheared away, or where low surface energy or oily additives

  16. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin


    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  17. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic. (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A


    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  18. Charge Transfer Scheme for Atmospheric Ice Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Najeeb MUGHAL


    Full Text Available The atmospheric icing parameters are being measured nowadays with the aid of more customized yet limited commercial equipment. The parameters include atmospheric ice detection, icing load and icing rate. The robustness of such equipment is usually under scrutiny when it comes to cold/harsh environment operations. This phenomenon was experienced consistently by the atmospheric Icing Research Team at Narvik University College during data retrieval exercises from its atmospheric icing stations installed at Fargnesfjellet during 2012-13. In this paper it is aimed to address the potential feasibility to produce a robust hardware addressing the icing measurements signals, which includes instrumentation hardware giving icing indications, icing type and de- icing rate measurements in a single platform (not commercially available till date.

  19. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance (United States)

    Reeh, N.


    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  20. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.


    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  1. Sticking properties of ice grains (United States)

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.


    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  2. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)


    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  3. Microfabricated Ice-Detection Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeAnna, Russell


    .... The sensor is capable of distinguishing between an ice covered and a clean surface. It employs a bulk micromachined wafer with a 7 micrometers thick, boron doped, silicon diaphragm which serves as one plate of a parallel plate capacitor...

  4. 2006 Program of Study: Ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balmforth, Neil J; Wettlaufer, John S; Worster, Grae


    .... Towards the end of Grae's lectures, we also held the 2006 GFD Public Lecture. This was given by Greg Dash of the University of Washington, on matters of ice physics and a well known popularization...

  5. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna


    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  6. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey (United States)


    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  7. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice (United States)


    Sea ice reflectance or albedo , a key parameter in climate modeling, is primarily determined by melt pond and ice floe configurations. Ice - albedo ...determine their albedo - a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a conceptual sea ice climate model passing through a...bifurcation points. Ising model for melt ponds on Arctic sea ice Y. Ma, I. Sudakov, and K. M. Golden Abstract: The albedo of melting

  8. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)


    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  9. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars


    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  10. Endmembers of Ice Shelf Melt (United States)

    Boghosian, A.; Child, S. F.; Kingslake, J.; Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Alexandrov, O.; McMichael, S.


    Studies of surface melt on ice shelves have defined a spectrum of meltwater behavior. On one end the storage of meltwater in persistent surface ponds can trigger ice shelf collapse as in the 2002 event leading to the disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf. On the other, meltwater export by rivers can stabilize an ice shelf as was recently shown on the Nansen Ice Shelf. We explore this dichotomy by quantifying the partitioning between stored and transported water on two glaciers adjacent to floating ice shelves, Nimrod (Antarctica) and Peterman (Greenland). We analyze optical satellite imagery (LANDSAT, WorldView), airborne imagery (Operation IceBridge, Trimetrogon Aerial Phototography), satellite radar (Sentinel-1), and digital elevation models (DEMs) to categorize surface meltwater fate and map the evolution of ice shelf hydrology and topographic features through time. On the floating Peterman Glacier tongue a sizable river exports water to the ocean. The surface hydrology of Nimrod Glacier, geometrically similar to Peterman but with ten times shallower surface slope, is dominated by storage in surface lakes. In contrast, the Nansen has the same surface slope as Nimrod but transports water through surface rivers. Slope alone is not the sole control on ice shelf hydrology. It is essential to track the storage and transport volumes for each of these systems. To estimate water storage and transport we analyze high resolution (40 cm - 2 m) modern and historical DEMs. We produce historical (1957 onwards) DEMs with structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The DEMs are used to constrain water storage potential estimates of observed basins and water routing/transport potential. We quantify the total volume of water stored seasonally and interannually. We use the normalize difference water index to map meltwater extent, and estimate lake water depth from optical data. We also consider the role of stored water in subsurface aquifers in recharging surface water after

  11. Matrimonio poligámico, inmigración islámica y libertad de conciencia en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Lema Tomé


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el derecho a contraer nupcias en situaciones de inmigración, mostrando las diferencias ideológicas que pueden ocurrir en los Estados de origen y destino en la forma de concebir el matrimonio. El artículo se centra en la experiencia de los inmigrantes islámicos en España. Un tema especialmente difícil es el matrimonio poligámico, institución arraigada en los países islámicos que ha planteado varios problemas, especialmente desde la perspectiva jurídica. La solución a la que se ha llegado en España procede de la vía jurisprudencial y tiene como punto de referencia dos casos: el de Diop, un inmigrante senegalés que fallece dejando dos viudas, y el de un trabajador marroquí, que había estado casado con dos mujeres a la vez durante un periodo, quien muere tras haberse divorciado de una de ellas

  12. Atmospheric Icing on Sea Structures, (United States)


    results. ESTIMATION OF ICING INTENSITY Freezing process When supercooled water drops fall or move with wind, hit a structure, and freeze, the...a collision with another drop- let, with the ground, or with a structure. When a supercooled droplet hits a solid obstacle, it spreads and turns to...accretion is likely. The meteorological conditions that prevail during ship icing have been studied widely (Shektman 1968, Tabata 1968, Borisenkov and

  13. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, A


    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally.

  14. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, A.


    This is a report about 4 patients with aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery of arteriosclerotic, mycotic and probably congenital etiology together with a review of the literature as to the etiology, diagnostic possibilities and therapy. Arteriography is the method of choice even though a diagnosis may be possible by sonography or CT in special cases. Even though an aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery is rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of persisting abdominal problems of unknown origin. This is especially true for patients with a predisposing history such as previous or existing endocarditis, sepsis, arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Because of the possibility of rupture followed by life threating bleeding an adequate diagnostic step such as arteriography has to be considered finally. (orig.) [de


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij K. Vasil’chuk


    Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.

  16. NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research (United States)

    Addy, Gene


    This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.

  17. Superior cold recycling : The score project




    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  18. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael


    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  19. [Neuromolecular mechanism of the superiority illusion]. (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko


    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as above average. This is a cognitive bias called "the superiority illusion". This illusory self-evaluation helps us to have hopes for the future, and has been central to the process of human evolution. Possessing this illusion is also important for mental health, as depressed people appear to have a more realistic perception of themselves, dubbed "depressive realism". Our recent study revealed the spontaneous brain activity and central dopaminergic neurotransmission that generate this illusion, using resting-state fMRI and PET. A functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum, regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission, determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. We further revealed that blocking the dopamine transporter, which enhanced the level of dopamine, increased the degree of the superiority illusion. These findings suggest that dopamine acts on striatal dopamine receptors to suppress fronto-striatal functional connectivity, leading to disinhibited, heuristic, approaches to positive self-evaluation. These findings help us to understand how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and will suggest treatments for depressive symptoms by targeting specific molecules and neural circuits.

  20. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ... (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  1. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman


    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  2. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  3. Momentum Exchange Near Ice Keels in the Under Ice Ocean Boundary Layer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bleidorn, John C


    .... Understanding ice-ocean momentum exchange is important for accurate predictive ice modeling. Due to climate change, increased naval presence in the Arctic region is anticipated and ice models will become necessary for tactical and safety reasons...

  4. Meteorites, Ice, and Antarctica (United States)

    Cassidy, William A.


    Bill Cassidy led meteorite recovery expeditions in the Antarctic for fifteen years and his searches have resulted in the collection of thousands of meteorite specimens from the ice. This personal account of his field experiences on the U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites Project reveals the influence the work has had on our understanding of the moon, Mars and the asteroid belt. Cassidy describes the hardships and dangers of fieldwork in a hostile environment, as well as the appreciation he developed for its beauty. William Cassidy is Emeritus Professor of Geology and Planetary Science at the University of Pittsburgh. He initiated the U.S. Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) nroject and led meteorite recovery expeditions in Antarctica in1976. His name is found attached to a mineral (cassidyite), on the map of Antarctica (Cassidy Glacier), and in the Catalog of Asteroids (3382 Cassidy). Profiled in "American Men of Science," and "Who's Who in America," he is also a recipient of The Antarctic Service Medal from the United States and has published widely in Science, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, and The Journal of Geophysical Research.

  5. Fire in the ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Graham


    Research is ongoing to investigate the feasibility of unlocking about 85 trillion cubic feet of pure methane gas from hydrates on Alaska's North Slope while sequestering CO2 to combat global warming. When the well reaches a depth of 2,597 feet, the wireline well logs will be registered. The well site was chosen for its multiplicity of test horizons, that is, varying porosity sandstones. The CO2 injection scheme should be tested before the hydrate experiment is carried out. Lab tests and numerical modeling developed by ConocoPhillips and the University of Bergen have demonstrated the feasibility of exchanging CH4 (methane) for CO2 in porous and permeable sandstone reservoirs. However, the challenge is that that field situation is more complex than a lab test. So a new, smaller ice pad around the well is planne, starting with a nitrogen and CO2 mix injection and adjusting the mix as the experiment progresses. Canada did not participate in this test project, because it is difficult to scale up from idealized lab-scale studies and theoretical modeling to the field scale. The U.S Gulf of Mexico also has important gas hydrates reserves which may be less expensive to research and operate.

  6. Burlington Northern Taconite Transshipment Facility, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Superior Wisconsin. Environmental Assessment Report. (United States)


    the Federal Government declared the Duluth- Superior area to be economically depressed . The reason given was the "consistant and chronic unemployment...include dogwood, sumac, arrowwood, blueberry, highbush cranberry , elderberry, wild grape, buttonbrush, snowberry and partridgeberry. Aquatic and...water for the proposed greenbelt areas and as dust sup- pression spray. 10.003 The depressed economy of the Duluth-Superior area would benefit by the

  7. Acquisition of Ice Thickness and Ice Surface Characteristics in the Seasonal Ice Zone by CULPIS-X during the US Coast Guard’s Arctic Domain Awareness Program (United States)


    OBJECTIVES • What is the volume of sea ice in the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ) and how does this evolve during summer as the ice edge...retreats? Recent observations suggest that the remaining ice in the Beaufort Sea is younger and thinner in recent years in part because even the oldest...surrounding ice . Recent analyses have indicated that ponds on thinner ice are often darker, accelerating the ice - albedo feedback over thin ice in summer

  8. Superior mesenteric artery compression syndrome - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rocha França Neto


    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is an entity generally caused by the loss of the intervening mesenteric fat pad, resulting in compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery. This article reports the case of a patient with irremovable metastatic adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon, that evolved with intense vomiting. Intestinal transit was carried out, which showed important gastric dilation extended until the third portion of the duodenum, compatible with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Considering the patient's nutritional condition, the medical team opted for the conservative treatment. Four months after the surgery and conservative measures, the patient did not present vomiting after eating, maintaining previous weight. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is uncommon and can have unspecific symptoms. Thus, high suspicion is required for the appropriate clinical adjustment. A barium examination is required to make the diagnosis. The treatment can initially require gastric decompression and hydration, besides reversal of weight loss through adequate nutrition. Surgery should be adopted only in case of clinical treatment failure.A síndrome da artéria mesentérica superior é uma entidade clínica causada geralmente pela perda do tecido adiposo mesentérico, resultando na compressão da terceira porção do duodeno pela artéria mesentérica superior. Esse artigo relata o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de adenocarcinoma de cólon sigmoide metastático irressecável, que evoluiu com vômitos incoercíveis. Realizou-se, então, trânsito intestinal que evidenciou dilatação gástrica importante, que se prolongava até a terceira porção duodenal, quadro radiológico compatível com pinçamento da artéria mesentérica superior. Diante da condição nutricional da paciente, foi optado por iniciar medidas conservadoras (porções alimentares pequenas e mais frequentes, além de dec

  9. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So


    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  10. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides (United States)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich


    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  11. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit


    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  12. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K.


    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between ∼0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m 3 /s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m 3 /s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs

  13. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear. (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza


    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  14. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch


    Full Text Available Superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS, clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:715-718

  15. Superior Venacava Thrombus-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Sah


    Full Text Available Superior venacava (SVC thrombus is a condition requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. SVC thrombus causes obstruction of blood flow through the SVC resulting in severe decrease in venous return from the head, neck and upper extremity to the heart. The presenting symptoms of SVC obstruction include headache, hoarseness of voice, dyspnea, and laryngeal edema, dizziness, swelling of face, neck, and upper extremity. We hereby present a case of SVC thrombus who presented to the casualty department of COMS-TH with features of SVC syndrome which was diagnosed and managed promptly.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:33-5.

  16. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.


    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  17. Cold-front driven storm erosion and overwash in the central part of the Isles Dernieres, a Louisiana barrier-island arc (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.; Reiss, T.E.


    Tropical and extratropical storms produce significant erosion on the barrier islands of Louisiana. Over the past 100 years, such storms have produced at least 2 km of northward beach-face retreat and the loss of 63% of the surface area of the Isles Dernieres, a low-lying barrier-island arc along the central Louisiana coast. Elevations on the islands within the arc are typically less than 2 m above mean sea level. The islands typically have a washover-flat topography with occasional, poorly developed, dune-terrace topography consisting of low-lying and broken dunes. The central part of the arc consists of salt-marsh deposits overlain by washover sands along the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. Sand thicknesses range from zero behind the beach, to less than 2 m under the berm crest, and back to zero in the first nearshore trough. The sand veneer is sufficiently thin that storms can strip all the sand from the beach face, exposing the underlying marsh deposits. The geomorphic changes produced by cold fronts, a type of extratropical storm that commonly affect the Isles Dernieres between late fall and early spring are described. Between August 1986 and September 1987, repeated surveys along eleven shore-normal transects that covered 400 m of shoreline revealed the timing and extent of cold-front-produced beach change along a typical section of the central Isles Dernieres. During the study period, the beach face retreated approximately 20 m during the cold-front season but did not rebuild during the subsequent summer. Because the volume of sand deposited on the backshore (5600 m3) was less than the volume of material lost from the beach face (19,200 m3), approximately 13,600 m3 of material disappeared. Assuming that underlying marsh deposits decrease in volume in direct proportion to the amount of beach-face retreat, an estimate of the mud loss during the study period is 14,000 m3. Thus, the decrease in volume along the profiles can be accounted for without removing any sand

  18. ICeE an interface for C. elegans experiments. (United States)

    Montañana, Frédéric; Julien, Renaud A; Vaglio, Philippe; Matthews, Lisa R; Tichit, Laurent; Ewbank, Jonathan J


    An increasing number of laboratories are using the COPAS Biosort™ to implement high-throughput approaches to tackle diverse biological problems. While providing a powerful tool for generating quantitative data, the utility of the Biosort is currently limited by the absence of resources for data management. We describe a simple electronic database designed to allow easy storage and retrieval of Biosort data for C. elegans, but that has a wide potential application for organizing electronic files and data sets. ICeE is an Open Source application. The code and accompanying documentation are freely available via the web at

  19. Open-Source Python Modules to Estimate Level Ice Thickness from Ice Charts (United States)

    Geiger, C. A.; Deliberty, T. L.; Bernstein, E. R.; Helfrich, S.


    A collaborative research effort between the University of Delaware (UD) and National Ice Center (NIC) addresses the task of providing open-source translations of sea ice stage-of-development into level ice thickness estimates on a 4km grid for the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). The characteristics for stage-of-development are quantified from remote sensing imagery with estimates of level ice thickness categories originating from World Meteorological Organization (WMO) egg coded ice charts codified since the 1970s. Conversions utilize Python scripting modules which transform electronic ice charts with WMO egg code characteristics into five level ice thickness categories, in centimeters, (0-10, 10-30, 30-70, 70-120, >120cm) and five ice types (open water, first year pack ice, fast ice, multiyear ice, and glacial ice with a reserve slot for deformed ice fractions). Both level ice thickness categories and ice concentration fractions are reported with uncertainties propagated based on WMO ice stage ranges which serve as proxy estimates for standard deviation. These products are in preparation for use by NCEP, CMC, and NAVO by 2014 based on their modeling requirements for daily products in near-real time. In addition to development, continuing research tests the value of these estimated products against in situ observations to improve both value and uncertainty estimates.

  20. Characterization of an IceTop tank for the IceCube surface extension IceVeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Julian; Auffenberg, Jan; Hansmann, Bengt; Rongen, Martin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration


    IceTop is an air-shower detector located at the South Pole on the surface above the IceCube detector. It consists of 81 detector stations with two Cherenkov tanks each. The tanks are filled with clear ice and instrumented with two photomultipliers. IceTop detects cosmic-ray induced air-showers above an energy threshold of ∝300 TeV. Muons and neutrinos from these air-showers are the main background for astrophysical neutrino searches with IceCube. The usage of IceTop to veto air-showers largely reduces this background in the field of view. To enlarge the field of view an extension of the surface detector, IceVeto, is planned. Therefore, we investigate the properties of an original IceTop tank as a laboratory reference for the development of new detection module designs. First results of these measurements are presented.

  1. Proceedings of the 19. IAHR international symposium on ice : using new technology to understand water-ice interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasek, M.; Andrishak, R.; Siddiqui, A.


    This conference provided a venue for scientists, engineers and researchers an opportunity to expand their knowledge of water-ice interactions with reference to water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy and the environment. The the theme of new technology falls into 3 basic groups, notably measurement and instrumentation; remote sensing; and numerical simulation. The thermal regime of rivers was discussed along with ice mechanics, ice hydraulics, ice structures and modelling ice phenomena. The titles of the sessions were: river ice, glaciers and climate change; freeze-up processes on rivers and oceans; river ice-structure interactions; numerical simulations in ice engineering; river-ice break-up and ice jam formation; ice measurement; Grasse River ice evaluation; evaluation of structural ice control alternatives; remote sensing; hydropower and dam decommissioning; mechanical behaviour of river ice, ice covered flow and thermal modelling; mathematical and computer model formulations for ice friction and sea ice; ice bergs and ice navigation; ice crushing processes; sea ice and shore/structure interactions; ice properties, testing and physical modelling; ice actions on compliant structures; oil spills in ice; desalination, ice thickness and climate change; and, sea ice ridges. The conference featured 123 presentations, of which 20 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Thermodynamic and Dynamic Aspects of Ice Nucleation (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan


    It is known that ice nucleating particles (INP) immersed within supercooled droplets promote the formation of ice. Common theoretical models used to represent this process assume that the immersed particle lowers the work of ice nucleation without significantly affecting the dynamics of water in the vicinity of the particle. This is contrary to evidence showing that immersed surfaces significantly affect the viscosity and diffusivity of vicinal water. To study how this may affect ice formation this work introduces a model linking the ice nucleation rate to the modification of the dynamics and thermodynamics of vicinal water by immersed particles. It is shown that INP that significantly reduce the work of ice nucleation also pose strong limitations to the growth of the nascent ice germs. This leads to the onset of a new ice nucleation regime, called spinodal ice nucleation, where the dynamics of ice germ growth instead of the ice germ size determines the nucleation rate. Nucleation in this regime is characterized by an enhanced sensitivity to particle area and cooling rate. Comparison of the predicted ice nucleation rate against experimental measurements for a diverse set of species relevant to cloud formation suggests that spinodal ice nucleation may be common in nature.

  3. The safety band of Antarctic ice shelves (United States)

    Fürst, Johannes Jakob; Durand, Gaël; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Tavard, Laure; Rankl, Melanie; Braun, Matthias; Gagliardini, Olivier


    The floating ice shelves along the seaboard of the Antarctic ice sheet restrain the outflow of upstream grounded ice. Removal of these ice shelves, as shown by past ice-shelf recession and break-up, accelerates the outflow, which adds to sea-level rise. A key question in predicting future outflow is to quantify the extent of calving that might precondition other dynamic consequences and lead to loss of ice-shelf restraint. Here we delineate frontal areas that we label as `passive shelf ice’ and that can be removed without major dynamic implications, with contrasting results across the continent. The ice shelves in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas have limited or almost no `passive’ portion, which implies that further retreat of current ice-shelf fronts will yield important dynamic consequences. This region is particularly vulnerable as ice shelves have been thinning at high rates for two decades and as upstream grounded ice rests on a backward sloping bed, a precondition to marine ice-sheet instability. In contrast to these ice shelves, Larsen C Ice Shelf, in the Weddell Sea, exhibits a large `passive’ frontal area, suggesting that the imminent calving of a vast tabular iceberg will be unlikely to instantly produce much dynamic change.

  4. Inelastic neutron scattering of amorphous ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Susumu; Suzuki, Yoshiharu


    We measured the inelastic neutron scattering from high-density amorphous (HDA) and low-density amorphous (LDA) ice produced by pressurizing and releasing the pressure. We found a clear difference between the intermolecular vibrations in HDA and those in LDA ice: LDA ice has peaks at 22 and 33 meV, which are also seen in the spectrum of lattice vibrations in ice crystal, but the spectrum of HDA ice does not have these peaks. The excitation energy of librational vibrations in HDA ice is 10 meV lower than that in LDA ice. These results imply that HDA ice includes 2- and 5-coordinated hydrogen bonds that are created by breakage of hydrogen bonds and migration of water molecules into the interstitial site, while LDA ice contains mainly 4-coordinated hydrogen bonds and large cavities. Furthermore, we report the dynamical structure factor in the amorphous ice and show that LDA ice is more closely related to the ice crystal structure than to HDA ice. (author)

  5. Heavy Metal Presence in Two Different Types of Ice Cream: Artisanal Ice Cream (Italian Gelato) and Industrial Ice Cream. (United States)

    Conficoni, D; Alberghini, L; Bissacco, E; Ferioli, M; Giaccone, V


    Ice cream, a popular product worldwide, is usually a milk-based product with other types of ingredients (fruit, eggs, cocoa, dried fruit, additives, and others). Different materials are used to obtain the desired taste, texture, consistency, and appearance of the final product. This study surveyed ice cream products available in Italy for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin, and arsenic). The differences between artisanal and industrial ice cream were also investigated because of the importance in the Italian diet and the diffusion of this ready-to-eat food. Ice cream sampling was performed between October 2010 and February 2011 in the northeast of Italy. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from different sources: 50 industrial samples produced by 19 different brands were collected in coffee bars and supermarkets; 50 artisanal ice cream samples were gathered at nine different artisanal ice cream shops. Ten wooden sticks of industrial ice cream were analyzed in parallel to the ice cream. All samples were negative for arsenic and mercury. None of the artisanal ice cream samples were positive for lead and tin; 18% of the industrial ice cream samples were positive. All positive lead samples were higher than the legal limit stated for milk (0.02 mg/kg). All industrial ice cream samples were negative for cadmium, but cadmium was present in 10% of the artisanal ice cream samples. Chromium was found in 26% of the artisanal and in 58% of the industrial ice cream samples. The heavy metals found in the wooden sticks were different from the corresponding ice cream, pointing out the lack of cross-contamination between the products. Considering the results and the amount of ice cream consumed during the year, contamination through ice cream is a low risk for the Italian population, even though there is need for further analysis.

  6. PU-ICE Summary Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Generator Knowledge Report for the Plutonium Isentropic Compression Experiment Containment Systems (GK Report) provides information for the Plutonium Isentropic Compression Experiment (Pu- ICE) program to support waste management and characterization efforts. Attachment 3-18 presents generator knowledge (GK) information specific to the eighteenth Pu-ICE conducted in August 2015, also known as ‘Shot 18 (Aug 2015) and Pu-ICE Z-2841 (1).’ Shot 18 (Aug 2015) was generated on August 28, 2015 (1). Calculations based on the isotopic content of Shot 18 (Aug 2015) and the measured mass of the containment system demonstrate the post-shot containment system is low-level waste (LLW). Therefore, this containment system will be managed at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico (SNL/NM) as LLW. Attachment 3-18 provides documentation of the TRU concentration and documents the concentration of any hazardous constituents.

  7. Disorder and Quantum Spin Ice (United States)

    Martin, N.; Bonville, P.; Lhotel, E.; Guitteny, S.; Wildes, A.; Decorse, C.; Ciomaga Hatnean, M.; Balakrishnan, G.; Mirebeau, I.; Petit, S.


    We report on diffuse neutron scattering experiments providing evidence for the presence of random strains in the quantum spin-ice candidate Pr2Zr2O7 . Since Pr3 + is a non-Kramers ion, the strain deeply modifies the picture of Ising magnetic moments governing the low-temperature properties of this material. It is shown that the derived strain distribution accounts for the temperature dependence of the specific heat and of the spin-excitation spectra. Taking advantage of mean-field and spin-dynamics simulations, we argue that the randomness in Pr2Zr2O7 promotes a new state of matter, which is disordered yet characterized by short-range antiferroquadrupolar correlations, and from which emerge spin-ice-like excitations. Thus, this study gives an original research route in the field of quantum spin ice.

  8. Acute Bilateral Superior Branch Vestibular Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Yacovino


    Full Text Available The rapid onset of a bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH is often attributed to vestibular ototoxicity. However, without any prior exposure to ototoxins, the idiopathic form of BVH is most common. Although sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis (VN is described as a cause of BVH, clinical evidence for simultaneous and acute onset bilateral VN is unknown. We describe a patient with an acute onset of severe gait ataxia and oscillopsia with features compatible with acute BVH putatively due to a bilateral VN, which we serially evaluated with clinical and laboratory vestibular function testing over the course of 1 year. Initially, bilateral superior and horizontal semicircular canals and bilateral utricles were impaired, consistent with damage to both superior branches of each vestibular nerve. Hearing was spared. Only modest results were obtained following 6 months of vestibular rehabilitation. At a 1-year follow-up, only the utricular function of one side recovered. This case is the first evidence supporting an acute presentation of bilateral VN as a cause for BVH, which would not have been observed without critical assessment of each of the 10 vestibular end organs.

  9. Premissas para o Ensino Superior do Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Marques da Silveira


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a temática da Educação Superior e objetivo identificar premissas para o Ensino em Design no Brasil. Para tanto, efetua um estudo dos conteúdos das comunicações da área em periódicos e livros quanto ao assunto. O método de investigação utilizado foi a análise de conteúdo e observou as seguintes etapas de investigação: registro de dados, interpretação inferencial e categorização. Num primeiro momento, identifica a frequência do aparecimento de índices lexicais quanto ao relato de problemas no processo de Ensino-aprendizagem do Design e as proposições para o seu enfrentamento. Procede uma interpretação inferencial destes dados e, por fim, propõe como resultado, um conjunto de doze premissas que devem ser observadas quanto ao Ensino Superior em Design, a saber: 1 Incentivar o empreendedorismo; 2 Nivelar a Formação; 3 Desenvolver estrategistas; 4 Pensar a ética na atuação profissional; 5 Educar para o social; 6 Valorizar os ideias humanistas; 7 Repensar as estruturas acadêmicas; 8 Focar na aprendizagem baseada em problemas; 9 Aceitar os novos paradigmas; 10 Fomentar o pensamento crítico reflexivo; 11 Estimular a transdisciplinaridade; 12 Focar nas economias emergentes.

  10. An integrated approach to the remote sensing of floating ice (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Ramseier, R. O.; Weeks, W. F.; Gloersen, P.


    Review article on remote sensing applications to glaciology. Ice parameters sensed include: ice cover vs open water, ice thickness, distribution and morphology of ice formations, vertical resolution of ice thickness, ice salinity (percolation and drainage of brine; flushing of ice body with fresh water), first-year ice and multiyear ice, ice growth rate and surface heat flux, divergence of ice packs, snow cover masking ice, behavior of ice shelves, icebergs, lake ice and river ice; time changes. Sensing techniques discussed include: satellite photographic surveys, thermal IR, passive and active microwave studies, microwave radiometry, microwave scatterometry, side-looking radar, and synthetic aperture radar. Remote sensing of large aquatic mammals and operational ice forecasting are also discussed.

  11. Tratamento da síndrome da veia cava superior Treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino


    Full Text Available A veia cava superior é formada pela união das duas veias inominadas, direita e esquerda, e localiza-se no mediastino médio, à direita da artéria aorta e anteriormente à traquéia. A síndrome da veia cava superior representa um conjunto de sinais (dilatação das veias do pescoço, pletora facial, edema de membros superiores, cianose e sintomas (cefaléia, dispnéia, tosse, edema de membro superior, ortopnéia e disfagia decorrentes da obstrução do fluxo sanguíneo através da veia cava superior em direção ao átrio direito. A obstrução pode ser causada por compressão extrínseca, invasão tumoral, trombose ou por dificuldade do retorno venoso ao coração secundária a doenças intra-atriais ou intraluminais. Aproximadamente 73% a 97% dos casos de síndrome da veia cava superior ocorrem durante a evolução de processos malignos intratorácicos. A maioria dos pacientes com a síndrome secundária a neoplasias malignas é tratada sem necessidade de cirurgia, através de radioterapia ou quimioterapia, ou através da colocação de stents endoluminais. Quando a síndrome é de etiologia benigna, o tratamento é feito através de medidas clínicas (anticoagulação, elevação da cabeça, etc. ou, em casos refratários, através de angioplastia, colocação de stents endoluminais e cirurgia.The superior vena cava is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins. It is located in the middle mediastinum, to the right of the aorta and anterior to the trachea. Superior vena cava syndrome consists of a group of signs (dilation of the veins in the neck, facial swelling, edema of the upper limbs, and cyanosis and symptoms (headache, dyspnea, cough, orthopnea and dysphagia caused by the obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava to the right atrium. This obstruction can be caused by extrinsic compression, tumor invasion or thrombosis. Such obstruction may also occur as a result of insufficient venous return

  12. Correlating Ice Cores from Quelccaya Ice Cap with Chronology from Little Ice Age Glacial Extents (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.


    Proxy records indicate Southern Hemisphere climatic changes during the Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1300-1850 AD). In particular, records of change in and around the tropical latitudes require attention because these areas are sensitive to climatic change and record the dynamic interplay between hemispheres (Oerlemans, 2005). Despite this significance, relatively few records exist for the southern tropics. Here we present a reconstruction of glacial fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC), Peruvian Andes, from pre-LIA up to the present day. In the Qori Kalis valley, extensive sets of moraines exist beginning with the 1963 AD ice margin (Thompson et al., 2006) and getting progressively older down valley. Several of these older moraines can be traced and are continuous with moraines in the Challpa Cocha valley. These moraines have been dated at chronology of past ice cap extents are correlated with ice core records from QIC which show an accumulation increase during ~1500-1700 AD and an accumulation decrease during ~1720-1860 AD (Thompson et al., 1985; 1986; 2006). In addition, other proxy records from Peru and the tropics are correlated with the records at QIC as a means to understand climate conditions during the LIA. This work forms the basis for future modeling of the glacial system during the LIA at QIC and for modeling of past temperature and precipitation regimes at high altitude in the tropics.

  13. Changes on the ice plain of Ice Stream B and Ross Ice Shelf (United States)

    Shabtaie, Sion


    During the 1970's and 1980's, nearly 200 stations from which accurate, three dimensional position fixes have been obtained from TRANSIT satellites were occupied throughout the Ross Ice Shelf. We have transformed the elevations obtained by satellite altimetry to the same geodetic datum, and then applied a second transformation to reduce the geodetic heights to elevations above mean sea level using the GEM-10C geoidal height. On the IGY Ross Ice Shelf traverse between Oct. 1957 and Feb. 1958, an accurate method of barometric altimetry was used on a loop around the ice shelf that was directly tied to the sea at both ends of the travel route, thus providing absolute elevations. Comparisons of the two sets of data at 32 station pairs on floating ice show a mean difference of 0 +/- 1 m. The elevation data were also compared with theoretical values of elevations for a hydrostatically floating ice shelf. The mean difference between theoretical and measured values of elevations is -2 +/- 1 m.

  14. Delfina Serrano Ruano (éd.), Crueldad y compasíon en la literatura árabe e islámica


    Clément, François


    Cet ouvrage constitue les actes du séminaire « Narrar y suscitar : violencia, compasíon y crueldad en la literatura árabe e islámica », qui s’est tenu en octobre 2008 à l’Institut des langues et cultures de la Méditerranée et du Proche-Orient (CCHS-CSIC, Madrid). Il s’inscrit dans le champ des recherches sur l’histoire des émotions, un domaine de plus en plus exploré (voir les travaux de C. Lutz et L. Abu-Lughod, B. H. Rosenwein, ou D. Boquet et P. Nagy), mais encore largement en friche en ce...

  15. Marine litter abundance and distribution on beaches on the Isle of Rügen considering the influence of exposition, morphology and recreational activities. (United States)

    Hengstmann, Elena; Gräwe, Dennis; Tamminga, Matthias; Fischer, Elke Kerstin


    The abundance, weight and composition of marine debris were determined at the northwest coast of the Isle of Rügen in 2015. A total number of 1115 macrolitter items were registered, resulting in an abundance of 304±88.96 items per 100m of beach length and therefore being greater than the abundances found for other beaches at the Baltic Sea. Macrolitter items were predominantly composed of plastic, on average 83%. The four beaches under investigation have different exposition as well as touristic levels. The differing influence of wind and water currents as well as recreational activities on the macrolitter at these beaches was detectable. The distribution of items within a beach segment was analyzed by implementing D-GPS and drone aerial photography. The results of this analysis suggested that the identity of the substrate as well as the presence of vegetation are both major influencing factors in the macrolitter distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pneumatic Tire Performance on Ice


    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anudeep


    The evolution of vehicle safety systems, from the earliest brakes to today's accident avoidance systems, has led vehicles to have very high passenger safety. Driving on ice, though, still happens to be one of the driving conditions of low safety. A multitude of factors were identified by various studies to contribute to the complex frictional mechanism at the tire-ice interface. The tire is only force transmitting element of the vehicle, to the surface. Thus it is very essential to have in de...

  17. The formation of ice sails (United States)

    Fowler, A. C.; Mayer, C.


    Debris-covered glaciers are prone to the formation of a number of supraglacial geomorphological features, and generally speaking, their upper surfaces are far from level surfaces. Some of these features are due to radiation screening or enhancing properties of the debris cover, but theoretical explanations of the consequent surface forms are in their infancy. In this paper we consider a theoretical model for the formation of "ice sails", which are regularly spaced bare ice features which are found on debris-covered glaciers in the Karakoram.

  18. Continuous Chemistry in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid

    on parameters involved in the study of photolysis as a source of in situ CO2. The concentration of organic substances in Greenland ice is poorly known due to their low levels and the fact that only a few studies evaluate the concentrations of specific organic compounds. Light does not penetrate deep...... depth was found as a function of wavelength. Further, by computational chemistry hybrid density functional methods (DFT), the four most common conformers of pyruvic acid were investigated in both gas, water and ice using the DFT model CAM-B3LYP with dielectric medium methods. A de rease of the energy...

  19. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  20. IceBridge Mission Flight Reports (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Mission Flight Reports data set contains flight reports from NASA Operation IceBridge Greenland, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alaska missions. Flight reports...

  1. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  2. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  3. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  4. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.


    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This inf......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past...... Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even...

  5. Effect of freeze-thaw repetitions upon the supercooling release ability of ice-nucleating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Yooko; Hasegawa, Hiromi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro


    We have studied the durability of ice-nucleating bacteria with a potent supercooling release capacity through repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Through experiment, we confirmed that UV sterilized Erwinia ananas maintains a superior supercooling release capacity at around -1degC through 2000 freeze-thaw cycles. We also found that γ-ray sterilization, which is more suitable than UV for large-scale sterilization treatment, has a similar effect at appropriately selected doses. (author)

  6. Ice sheet anisotropy measured with polarimetric ice sounding radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen


    For polar ice sheets, valuable stress and strain information can be deduced from crystal orientation fabrics (COF) and their prevailing c-axis alignment. Polarimetric radio echo sounding is a promising technique to measure the anisotropic electromagnetic propagation and reflection properties asso...

  7. Seasonal ice dynamics of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard


    and temporal details. This study focus on the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which consists of three main outlets, 79 North glacier (79N), Zachariae Isstrøm (ZI) and Storstrømmen Glacier (SG). While both 79 North and Storstrømmen have floating tongues, Zachariae Isstrøm is mostly grounded...

  8. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice? (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco


    Plain Awful is an imaginary valley on the Andes populated by a highly-imitative, cubical people for which the most criminal offence is to exhibit round objects. The duck family (Scrooge, Donald and nephews) are teaming against Scrooge's worst enemy, Flintheart Glomgold, trying to buy the famous Plain Awful square eggs. Inadvertently, Scrooge violates the taboo, showing his Number One Dime, and is imprisoned in the stone quarries. He can be released only after the presentation of an ice cream soda to the President of Plain Awful. Donald and his nephews fly with Flintheart to deliver it, but Scrooge's enemy, of course, betrays the previous agreement after getting the ice cream, forcing the ducks into making an emergence replacement on the spot. Using dried milk, sugar and chocolate from their ration packs, plus some snow and salt for cooling they are able make the ice cream, and after dressing it with the carbonated water from a fire extinguisher they finally manage to produce the desired dessert. This comic may serve as an introduction to the "mysterious" phenomenon that added salt melts the ice and, even more surprising, does it by lowering the temperature of the mixture.

  9. Got Ice? Teaching Ice-Skating as a Lifelong Activity (United States)

    Tarkinton, Brenda C.; Karp, Grace Goc


    With today's focus on the importance of lifelong physical activity, educators are increasingly offering a variety of such activities in their classes, as well as in before- and after-school programs. This article describes the benefits of offering ice skating as a challenging and rewarding lifetime activity, either before or after school or in…

  10. Sca-1+ cardiosphere-derived cells are enriched for Isl1-expressing cardiac precursors and improve cardiac function after myocardial injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous cardiac progenitor cells are a promising option for cell-therapy for myocardial infarction (MI. However, obtaining adequate numbers of cardiac progenitors after MI remains a challenge. Cardiospheres (CSs have been proposed to have cardiac regenerative properties; however, their cellular composition and how they may be influenced by the tissue milieu remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using "middle aged" mice as CSs donors, we found that acute MI induced a dramatic increase in the number of CSs in a mouse model of MI, and this increase was attenuated back to baseline over time. We also observed that CSs from post-MI hearts engrafted in ischemic myocardium induced angiogenesis and restored cardiac function. To determine the role of Sca-1(+CD45(- cells within CSs, we cloned these from single cell isolates. Expression of Islet-1 (Isl1 in Sca-1(+CD45(- cells from CSs was 3-fold higher than in whole CSs. Cloned Sca-1(+CD45(- cells had the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in vitro. We also observed that cloned cells engrafted in ischemic myocardium induced angiogenesis, differentiated into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and improved cardiac function in post-MI hearts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies demonstrate that cloned Sca-1(+CD45(- cells derived from CSs from infarcted "middle aged" hearts are enriched for second heart field (i.e., Isl-1(+ precursors that give rise to both myocardial and vascular tissues, and may be an appropriate source of progenitor cells for autologous cell-therapy post-MI.

  11. Air Power's First Among Equals: Why Air Superiority Still Matters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slawson, Andrew T


    .... History is replete with examples of successful or failed air superiority campaigns. This paper details air superiority's role in both the Battle of Britain, and the 1967 Six Day War's Operation MOKED...

  12. Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Coordination (United States)


    Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of opportunity in the summers of 2012- 2014. In...measurements across the Beaufort-Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of...such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water. In addition to SIZRS

  13. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families. (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M


    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  14. Antarctic krill under sea ice: elevated abundance in a narrow band just south of ice edge. (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Fernandes, Paul G; Brandon, Mark A; Armstrong, Frederick; Millard, Nicholas W; McPhail, Steven D; Stevenson, Peter; Pebody, Miles; Perrett, James; Squires, Mark; Bone, Douglas G; Griffiths, Gwyn


    We surveyed Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) under sea ice using the autonomous underwater vehicle Autosub-2. Krill were concentrated within a band under ice between 1 and 13 kilometers south of the ice edge. Within this band, krill densities were fivefold greater than that of open water. The under-ice environment has long been considered an important habitat for krill, but sampling difficulties have previously prevented direct observations under ice over the scale necessary for robust krill density estimation. Autosub-2 enabled us to make continuous high-resolution measurements of krill density under ice reaching 27 kilometers beyond the ice edge.

  15. An Ice Protection and Detection Systems Manufacturer's Perspective (United States)

    Sweet, Dave


    Accomplishments include: World Class Aircraft Icing Research Center and Facility. Primary Sponsor/Partner - Aircraft Icing Consortia/Meetings. Icing Research Tunnel. Icing Test Aircraft. Icing Codes - LEWICE/Scaling, et al. Development of New Technologies (SBIR, STTR, et al). Example: Look Ahead Ice Detection. Pilot Training Materials. Full Cooperation with Academia, Government and Industry.

  16. Constraining ice sheet history in the Weddell Sea, West Antarctica, using ice fabric at Korff Ice Rise (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Smith, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Baird, A. F.; Martin, C.; Kingslake, J.


    The grounding history of ice rises (grounded area of independent flow regime within a floating ice shelf) can be used to constrain large scale ice sheet history: ice fabric, resulting from the preferred orientation of ice crystals due to the stress regime, can be used to infer this grounding history. With the aim of measuring the present day ice fabric at Korff Ice Rise, West Antarctica, a multi-azimuth wide-angle seismic experiment was undertaken. Three wide-angle common-midpoint gathers were acquired centred on the apex of the ice rise, at azimuths of 60 degrees to one another, to measure variation in seismic properties with offset and azimuth. Both vertical and horizontal receivers were used to record P and S arrivals including converted phases. Measurements of the variation with offset and azimuth of seismic traveltimes, seismic attenuation and shear wave splitting have been used to quantify seismic anisotropy in the ice column. The observations cannot be reproduced using an isotropic ice column model. Anisotropic ray tracing has been used to test likely models of ice fabric by comparison with the data. A model with a weak girdle fabric overlying a strong cluster fabric provides the best fit to the observations. Fabric of this nature is consistent with Korff Ice Rise having been stable for the order of 10,000 years without any ungrounding or significant change in the ice flow configuration across the ice rise for this period. This observation has significant implications for the ice sheet history of the Weddell Sea sector.

  17. Development of a Capacitive Ice Sensor to Measure Ice Growth in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhi


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the capacitive sensor to measure the growth of ice on a fuel pipe surface in real time. The ice sensor consists of pairs of electrodes to detect the change in capacitance and a thermocouple temperature sensor to examine the ice formation situation. In addition, an environmental chamber was specially designed to control the humidity and temperature to simulate the ice formation conditions. From the humidity, a water film is formed on the ice sensor, which results in an increase in capacitance. Ice nucleation occurs, followed by the rapid formation of frost ice that decreases the capacitance suddenly. The capacitance is saturated. The developed ice sensor explains the ice growth providing information about the icing temperature in real time.

  18. Development of a capacitive ice sensor to measure ice growth in real time. (United States)

    Zhi, Xiang; Cho, Hyo Chang; Wang, Bo; Ahn, Cheol Hee; Moon, Hyeong Soon; Go, Jeung Sang


    This paper presents the development of the capacitive sensor to measure the growth of ice on a fuel pipe surface in real time. The ice sensor consists of pairs of electrodes to detect the change in capacitance and a thermocouple temperature sensor to examine the ice formation situation. In addition, an environmental chamber was specially designed to control the humidity and temperature to simulate the ice formation conditions. From the humidity, a water film is formed on the ice sensor, which results in an increase in capacitance. Ice nucleation occurs, followed by the rapid formation of frost ice that decreases the capacitance suddenly. The capacitance is saturated. The developed ice sensor explains the ice growth providing information about the icing temperature in real time.

  19. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (United States)


    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  20. CICE, The Los Alamos Sea Ice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) is the result of an effort to develop a computationally efficient sea ice component for a fully coupled atmosphere–land–ocean–ice global climate model. It was originally designed to be compatible with the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), an ocean circulation model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use on massively parallel computers. CICE has several interacting components: a vertical thermodynamic model that computes local growth rates of snow and ice due to vertical conductive, radiative and turbulent fluxes, along with snowfall; an elastic-viscous-plastic model of ice dynamics, which predicts the velocity field of the ice pack based on a model of the material strength of the ice; an incremental remapping transport model that describes horizontal advection of the areal concentration, ice and snow volume and other state variables; and a ridging parameterization that transfers ice among thickness categories based on energetic balances and rates of strain. It also includes a biogeochemical model that describes evolution of the ice ecosystem. The CICE sea ice model is used for climate research as one component of complex global earth system models that include atmosphere, land, ocean and biogeochemistry components. It is also used for operational sea ice forecasting in the polar regions and in numerical weather prediction models.

  1. On the origin of the ice ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.


    Ice sheet dynamics provide a possible explanation for the 100 kyr power in climatic records. Some numerical experiments presented here show that even the transition from an essentially ice-free earth to a glacial can be produced by a northern hemisphere ice-sheet model, provided that a

  2. 14 CFR 29.1419 - Ice protection. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ice protection. 29.1419 Section 29.1419... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 29.1419 Ice protection. (a) To obtain... of the ice protection system for the various components of the rotorcraft. (c) In addition to the...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1419 - Ice protection. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ice protection. 25.1419 Section 25.1419... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1419 Ice protection. If the...) An analysis must be performed to establish that the ice protection for the various components of the...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1419 - Ice protection. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ice protection. 27.1419 Section 27.1419... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1419 Ice protection. (a) To obtain..., the adequacy of the ice protection system for the various components of the rotorcraft. (c) In...

  5. Plant ice-binding (antifreeze) proteins (United States)

    Proteins that determine the temperature at which ice crystals will form in water-based solutions in cells and tissues, that bind to growing ice crystals, thus affecting their size, and that impact ice re-crystallization have been widely-documented and studied in many plant, bacterial, fungal, insect...

  6. Tree recovery from ice storm injury (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith


    Ice storms are part of nature, particularly in northeastern North America. The combination of air and surface temperatures, precipitation, and wind that result in damaging layers of ice is very specific, occurring infrequently at any given location. Across the region however, damaging ice is formed in fragmented areas every year. Occasionally as in December 2013 and...

  7. Glacial Cycles and ice-sheet modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.


    An attempt is made to simulate the Pleistocene glacial cycles with a numerical model of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. This model treats the vertically-integrated ice flow along a meridian, including computation of bedrock adjustment and temperature distribution in the ice. Basal melt water is

  8. Ice targets for use at NTOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, D.J.


    This report describes ice targets which were used during an experiment at the Neutron Time of Flight facility (NTOF) at LAMPF. Reasons for using the ice targets are given, and the construction, refrigeration system, and target preparation are detailed. Results of the research using these ice targets will be published at a later date

  9. 21 CFR 135.160 - Water ices. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water ices. 135.160 Section 135.160 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.160 Water ices. (a) Description. Water ices are the foods each of which is prepared from the same ingredients and in the same...

  10. Radiotherapy of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Imada, Hajime; Terashima, Hiromi; Nakata, Hajime


    The records of 38 patients with superior vena cava syndrome (SVC syndrome) due to malignancy and who received radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The majority were lung cancers, constituting 28 of the 38 cases (73.7%). All patients were treated with conventional radiation doses ranging from 20 to 70 Gy and good symptomatic response was observed in 31 cases (81.6% ). The response appeared within 1.7±0.9 weeks on average (3 days-4 weeks;, and performance status also improved in 50% of the patients. The median survival was 6.6 months. Long term survivors were seen mostly in patients with thymoma, and only one patient ever showed a recurrence of SVC syndrome. We conclude that radiotherapy can be an effective therapeutic modality for SVC syndrome and that it improves the quality of life in most patients. (author)

  11. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%)

  12. CT findings of superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee


    Since early 1980's high resolution CT has been used for detection of intrathoracic pathologic condition such as superior vena cava syndrome. Authors retrospectively analysed CT findings of 18 cases of proven SVC syndrome. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age was 50-year-old, and 14 cases were male. 2. Of 18 cases of SVC syndrome, 8 cases had confirmed to be lung cancers, malignant thymoma and teratoma were respectively each 2 cases, and malignant lymphoma, mediastinal abscess, thyroid adenoma and metastatic tumor were 1 case. 3. CT findings were A. Abnormal SVC consisted of compression with displacement (44.4%), intraluminal thrombus (27.8%), and encasement (27.8%). B. The collateral pathways were the azygos-homozygous (88.8%), vertebral (50%), internal mammary (44.4%), and lateral thoracic route (33.3%).

  13. Have the Guests Perceived Superior Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levyda Levyda


    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe guests’ perceived value by using a multidimensional approach. From previous research, guests’ perceived value consisted of some functional value, emotional value, and social value. Based on guest experience, and functional value consisted of physical evidence, guest room, food and beverage, hotel staff, and price. This research was conducted in four-star hotels in Jakarta. The respondents were the guests who had stayed in four-star hotels. The number of the respondent was 405. The data were obtained by using self-administered questionnaires. This research shows that guests have not perceived superior value. Some of the values and the necessary efforts need to be improved.

  14. Superiority: China Mobile in the competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The market share between China Mobile and China Unicom has stabilized since 2002.It is found that China Mobile has the superiority in the competition, for example, the scissors movement between its revenue and cost indicates that it has a strong profit generating ability and there is enough room for it to reduce the price.The ratio between its price (marginal income) and marginal cost indicates that there is a very distant limit for it to reduce the price.Its demand is obviously flexible with the price, but it does not use the price weapon abundantly.The reason for the stabilization of the market is that China Mobile withdrew from the competition.

  15. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome or Wilkie Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano Llano, Rodrigo; Chams Anturi, Abraham; Arango Vargas, Paula


    We described three cases of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, chronic duodenal ileus, or cast syndrome. This syndrome occurs when the third portion of the duodenum is compressed between the SMA and the aorta. The major risk factors for development of SMA syndrome are rapid weight loss and surgical correction of spinal deformities. The clinical presentation of SMA syndrome is variable and nonspecific, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis is based on endoscopic, radiographic and tomographic findings of duodenal compression by the SMA. The treatment of SMA syndrome is aimed at the precipitating factor, which usually is related to weight loss. Therefore, conservative therapy with nutritional supplementation is the initial approach, and surgery is reserved for those who do not respond to nutritional therapy.

  16. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold for perc...... simultaneously we find a different pattern: In a whole report experiment with six stimuli (letters or words), letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity....... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...

  17. Superior vena thrombosis with peripartum dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, R.; Hussain, S.; Kayani, A.M.


    A 30 years multiparous female with history of emergency caesarean section 10 days back was referred to us with cough, severe breathlessness at rest, orthopnea with pain in neck and arms. Clinical examination revealed signs of heart failure. Echocardiography showed ejection fraction of 15%, with no right ventricular strain. A diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy was made. Doppler ultrasound of neck veins showed bilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis. Subsequent multislice CT examination showed thrombosis of superior vena cava and both internal jugular veins (with collateral formation) and pulmonary embolism. There were no mediastinal abnormalities on the CT scan. Her thrombophilia screen and CT scan brain was normal. She was managed in collaboration with cardiologist. Following treatment with subcutaneous enoxaparin therapy and warfarin her symptoms of upper limb pain improved. She responded very well to medical therapy for heart failure with marked improvement of NYHA functional class. (author)

  18. Superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeb Molhem


    Full Text Available Obstruction of blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC results in symptoms and signs of SVC syndrome. SVC obstruction can be caused either by invasion or external compression of the SVC by contagious pathologic processes involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, or by thrombosis of blood within the SVC. Occasionally, both mechanisms co-exist. We hereby report a case of a 28-year-old male, Saudi patient who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease and was maintained on regular hemodiaysis via right jugular vein dual lumen catheter for ten months. Three years later, the patient presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of SVC obstruction that was successfully managed with SVC stenting.

  19. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.


    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  20. Superiority of Bessel function over Zernicke polynomial as base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Here we describe the superiority of Bessel function as base function for radial expan- sion over Zernicke polynomial in the tomographic reconstruction technique. The causes for the superiority have been described in detail. The superiority has been shown both with simulated data for Kadomtsev's model for ...

  1. Superior glenoid inclination and rotator cuff tears. (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Beck, Lindsay; Granger, Erin; Henninger, Heath; Tashjian, Robert Z


    The objectives of this study were to determine whether glenoid inclination (1) could be measured accurately on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using computed tomography (CT) as a gold standard, (2) could be measured reliably on MRI, and (3) whether it differed between patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched controls without evidence of rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In this comparative retrospective radiographic study, we measured glenoid inclination on T1 coronal MRI corrected into the plane of the scapula. We determined accuracy by comparison with CT and inter-rater reliability. We compared glenoid inclination between patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and patients aged >50 years without evidence of a rotator cuff tear or glenohumeral arthritis. An a priori power analysis determined adequate power to detect a 2° difference in glenoid inclination. (1) In a validation cohort of 37 patients with MRI and CT, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.877, with a mean difference of 0° (95% confidence interval, -1° to 1°). (2) For MRI inclination, the inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.911. (3) Superior glenoid inclination was 2° higher (range, 1°-4°, P rotator cuff tear group of 192 patients than in the control cohort of 107 patients. Glenoid inclination can be accurately and reliably measured on MRI. Although superior glenoid inclination is statistically greater in those with rotator cuff tears than in patients of similar age without rotator cuff tears or glenohumeral arthritis, the difference is likely below clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kompetisi Stasiun Televisi Swasta Nasional Berdasarkan Superiority Direction dan Superiority Magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Winanti Riesardhy


    Full Text Available Abstract: Uses and gratification theory is employed particularly as the teoritical frame of the research to examine the extent to which ten national television stations compete to satisfy Indonesian audiences. In particular, two main concepts of that theory namely audiences “gratification sought and gratifications obtained, are broken down and counted based on superiority direction and superiority magnitude. In general, the findings show that those televisions have satisfied their audiences, although in terms of gratifications to dispersal motives, they haven’t satisfied as much as it was expected. Significant competition occurs between TRANSTV and TRANS7, RCTI and SCTV, and TVONE and METROTV. TVONE become the most satisfiyng television station. Abstrak: Teori Uses & Gratification menjadi dasar penelitian ini untuk mengukur bagaimana kompetisi yang terjadi di antara sepuluh stasiun televisi yang bersiaran secara nasional di Indonesia. Aplikasi dari teori tersebut dimunculkan dalam konsep kepuasan yang diharapkan dan kepuasan yang diperoleh ketika menonton acara televisi dan didasarkan pada penghitungan superiority direction dan superiority magnitude. Sepuluh stasiun televisi yang diteliti telah dapat memuaskan audiensnya, meskipun untuk kepuasan atas motif pengalihan masih belum dapat melampaui kepuasan yang diharapkan. Kompetisi yang signifikan terjadi antara TRANSTV dengan TRANS7, RCTI dengan SCTV serta TVONE dengan METROTV. TVONE menjadi stasiun televisi yang menduduki peringkat pertama dalam memberikan kepuasan tertinggi kepada audiens.

  3. Arctic multiyear ice classification and summer ice cover using passive microwave satellite data (United States)

    Comiso, J. C.


    The ability to classify and monitor Arctic multiyear sea ice cover using multispectral passive microwave data is studied. Sea ice concentration maps during several summer minima have been analyzed to obtain estimates of ice surviving the summer. The results are compared with multiyear ice concentrations derived from data the following winter, using an algorithm that assumes a certain emissivity for multiyear ice. The multiyear ice cover inferred from the winter data is approximately 25 to 40% less than the summer ice cover minimum, suggesting that even during winter when the emissivity of sea ice is most stable, passive microwave data may account for only a fraction of the total multiyear ice cover. The difference of about 2×106 km2 is considerably more than estimates of advection through Fram Strait during the intervening period. It appears that as in the Antarctic, some multiyear ice floes in the Arctic, especially those near the summer marginal ice zone, have first-year ice or intermediate signatures in the subsequent winter. A likely mechanism for this is the intrusion of seawater into the snow-ice interface, which often occurs near the marginal ice zone or in areas where snow load is heavy. Spatial variations in melt and melt ponding effects also contribute to the complexity of the microwave emissivity of multiyear ice. Hence the multiyear ice data should be studied in conjunction with the previous summer ice data to obtain a more complete characterization of the state of the Arctic ice cover. The total extent and actual areas of the summertime Arctic pack ice were estimated to be 8.4×106 km2 and 6.2×106 km2, respectively, and exhibit small interannual variability during the years 1979 through 1985, suggesting a relatively stable ice cover.

  4. Airfields on Antarctic Glacier Ice (United States)


    that depends on compacting the thin 3350 true. There was also a crosswind runway snow cover on the hard ice. aligned with the storm wind direction. No...expire onl 31 December 1991.) flights. It Is suggested that the USAP should adopt tile The place known to us as lte Peg .-asus site can concept of

  5. Medical ice slurry production device (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL; Oras, John [Des Plaines, IL; Son, HyunJin [Naperville, IL


    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  6. Modeling and Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils (United States)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Pennline, James A.; Schilling, Herbert W.


    SmaggIce Version 2.0 is a software toolkit for geometric modeling and grid generation for two-dimensional, singleand multi-element, clean and iced airfoils. A previous version of SmaggIce was described in Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 8 (August 2004), page 32. To recapitulate: Ice shapes make it difficult to generate quality grids around airfoils, yet these grids are essential for predicting ice-induced complex flow. This software efficiently creates high-quality structured grids with tools that are uniquely tailored for various ice shapes. SmaggIce Version 2.0 significantly enhances the previous version primarily by adding the capability to generate grids for multi-element airfoils. This version of the software is an important step in streamlining the aeronautical analysis of ice airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The user may prepare the ice shape, define the flow domain, decompose it into blocks, generate grids, modify/divide/merge blocks, and control grid density and smoothness. All these steps may be performed efficiently even for the difficult glaze and rime ice shapes. Providing the means to generate highly controlled grids near rough ice, the software includes the creation of a wrap-around block (called the "viscous sublayer block"), which is a thin, C-type block around the wake line and iced airfoil. For multi-element airfoils, the software makes use of grids that wrap around and fill in the areas between the viscous sub-layer blocks for all elements that make up the airfoil. A scripting feature records the history of interactive steps, which can be edited and replayed later to produce other grids. Using this version of SmaggIce, ice shape handling and grid generation can become a practical engineering process, rather than a laborious research effort.

  7. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice. (United States)

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni


    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice. (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N


    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales

  9. Structural Instability in Ice VIII under Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.; Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Marshall, W.; Nelmes, R.; Loveday, J.


    Below 125K, tetragonal ice VIII remains in a metastable form at ambient pressure. This form has long been considered to be identical to ice VIII, although unexplained discrepancies exist between their vibrational spectra. Neutron diffraction studies reveal an isostructural phase transformation below 2GPa related to a weakening of the bonds between the two D 2 O sublattices of ice VIII. In this new phase, ice VIII ' , the tetragonal distortion is 20% larger than in ice VIII, which accounts for the differences between the vibrational frequencies of the two phases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program Overview (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; VanZante, Judith Foss; Riley, James T.


    The effects of tailplane icing were investigated in a four-year NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing, Program (TIP). This research program was developed to improve the understanding, of iced tailplane aeroperformance and aircraft aerodynamics, and to develop design and training aides to help reduce the number of incidents and accidents caused by tailplane icing. To do this, the TIP was constructed with elements that included icing, wind tunnel testing, dry-air aerodynamic wind tunnel testing, flight tests, and analytical code development. This paper provides an overview of the entire program demonstrating the interconnectivity of the program elements and reports on current accomplishments.

  11. Sea Ice, Climate and Fram Strait (United States)

    Hunkins, K.


    When sea ice is formed the albedo of the ocean surface increases from its open water value of about 0.1 to a value as high as 0.8. This albedo change effects the radiation balance and thus has the potential to alter climate. Sea ice also partially seals off the ocean from the atmosphere, reducing the exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide. This is another possible mechanism by which climate might be affected. The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 83 to 84) is an international, multidisciplinary study of processes controlling the edge of the ice pack in that area including the interactions between sea, air and ice.

  12. There goes the sea ice: following Arctic sea ice parcels and their properties. (United States)

    Tschudi, M. A.; Tooth, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, S.


    Arctic sea ice distribution has changed considerably over the last couple of decades. Sea ice extent record minimums have been observed in recent years, the distribution of ice age now heavily favors younger ice, and sea ice is likely thinning. This new state of the Arctic sea ice cover has several impacts, including effects on marine life, feedback on the warming of the ocean and atmosphere, and on the future evolution of the ice pack. The shift in the state of the ice cover, from a pack dominated by older ice, to the current state of a pack with mostly young ice, impacts specific properties of the ice pack, and consequently the pack's response to the changing Arctic climate. For example, younger ice typically contains more numerous melt ponds during the melt season, resulting in a lower albedo. First-year ice is typically thinner and more fragile than multi-year ice, making it more susceptible to dynamic and thermodynamic forcing. To investigate the response of the ice pack to climate forcing during summertime melt, we have developed a database that tracks individual Arctic sea ice parcels along with associated properties as these parcels advect during the summer. Our database tracks parcels in the Beaufort Sea, from 1985 - present, along with variables such as ice surface temperature, albedo, ice concentration, and convergence. We are using this database to deduce how these thousands of tracked parcels fare during summer melt, i.e. what fraction of the parcels advect through the Beaufort, and what fraction melts out? The tracked variables describe the thermodynamic and dynamic forcing on these parcels during their journey. This database will also be made available to all interested investigators, after it is published in the near future. The attached image shows the ice surface temperature of all parcels (right) that advected through the Beaufort Sea region (left) in 2014.

  13. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover (United States)


    fraction product and the remotely sensed albedo product in the context of understanding the surface radiation budget. Particular attention is paid to...Stamnes, Chapter 2 The Polar Environment: Sun, Clouds, and Ice, in Ocean Colour Remote Sensing in Polar Seas, p 5-25, in press. Istomina, L, G

  14. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover (United States)


    the remotely sensed albedo product in the context of understanding the surface radiation budget. Particular attention is paid to the infrequent...Chapter 2 The Polar Environment: Sun, Clouds, and Ice, in Ocean Colour Remote Sensing in Polar Seas, p 5-25, in press. Istomina, L, G. Heygster, M

  15. Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness. (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.


    The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.

  16. Ice-Cliff Failure via Retrogressive Slumping (United States)

    Parizek, B. R.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Voytenko, D.; Vankova, I.; Dixon, T. H.; Holland, D.


    The magnitude and rate of future sea-level rise from warming-induced ice-sheet shrinkage remain notably uncertain. Removal of most of an ice sheet by surface melting alone requires centuries to millennia. Oceanic warming may accelerate loss by removing buttressing ice shelves and thereby speeding flow of non-floating ice into the ocean, but, until recently, modeled timescales for major dynamic ice-sheet shrinkage were centuries or longer. Beyond certain thresholds, however, observations show that warming removes floating ice shelves, leaving grounded ice cliffs from which icebergs break off directly. Cliffs higher than some limit experience rapid structural failure. Recent parameterization of this process in a comprehensive ice-flow model produced much faster sea-level rise from future rapid warming than in previous modeling studies, through formation and retreat of tall ice cliffs. Fully physical representations of this process are not yet available, however. Here, we use modeling guided by terrestrial radar data from Helheim Glacier, Greenland to show that cliffs will fail by slumping and trigger rapid retreat at a threshold height that, in crevassed ice with surface melting, may be only slightly above the 100-m maximum observed today, but may be roughly twice that (180-275 m) in mechanically-competent ice under well-drained or low-melt conditions.

  17. Evidence for radionuclide transport by sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meese, D.A.; Tucker, W.B.; Gow, A.J.; Reimnitz, E.; Bischof, J.; Darby, D.


    Ice and ice-borne sediments were collected across the Arctic Basin during the Arctic Ocean Section, 1994 (AOS-94), a recent US/Canada trans-Arctic expedition. Sediments were analysed for 137 Cs, clay mineralogy and carbon. Concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 5 to 73 Bq kg -1 in the ice-borne sediments. Concentrations of ice samples without sediment were all less than 1 Bq m -3 . The sediment sample with the highest 137 Cs concentration (73 Bq kg -1 ) was collected in the Beaufort Sea. This concentration was significantly higher than in bottom sediments collected in the same area, indicating an ice transport mechanism from an area with correspondingly higher concentrations. Recent results from the application of ice transport models and sediment analyses indicate that it is very likely that sediments are transported by ice, from the Siberian shelf areas to the Beaufort Sea

  18. Ice Accretion on Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudecz, Adriána; Koss, Holger; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    In this paper, both experimental and numerical simulations of the effects of ice accretion on a NACA 64-618 airfoil section with 7° angle of attack are presented. The wind tunnel tests were conducted in a closed-circuit climatic wind tunnel at Force Technology in Denmark. The changes of aerodynamic...... forces were monitored as ice was building up on the airfoil for glaze, rime and mixed ice. In the first part of the numerical analysis, the resulted ice profiles of the wind tunnel tests were compared to profiles estimated by using the 2D ice accretion code TURBICE. In the second part, Ansys Fluent...... of the rime iced ice profile follows the streamlines quite well, disturbing the flow the least. The TURBICE analysis agrees fairly with the profiles produced during the wind tunnel testing....

  19. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation. (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria


    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  20. Observed ices in the Solar System (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Grundy, Will; Carlson, Robert R.; Noll, Keith; Gudipati, Murthy; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.


    Ices have been detected and mapped on the Earth and all planets and/or their satellites further from the sun. Water ice is the most common frozen volatile observed and is also unambiguously detected or inferred in every planet and/or their moon(s) except Venus. Carbon dioxide is also extensively found in all systems beyond the Earth except Pluto although it sometimes appears to be trapped rather than as an ice on some objects. The largest deposits of carbon dioxide ice is on Mars. Sulfur dioxide ice is found in the Jupiter system. Nitrogen and methane ices are common beyond the Uranian system. Saturn’s moon Titan probably has the most complex active chemistry involving ices, with benzene (C6H6) and many tentative or inferred compounds including ices of Cyanoacetylene (HC3N), Toluene (C7H8), Cyanogen (C2N2), Acetonitrile (CH3CN), H2O, CO2, and NH3. Confirming compounds on Titan is hampered by its thick smoggy atmosphere. Ammonia was predicted on many icy moons but is notably absent among the definitively detected ices with the possible exception of Enceladus. Comets, storehouses of many compounds that could exist as ices in their nuclei, have only had small amounts of water ice definitively detected on their surfaces. Only one asteroid has had a direct detection of surface water ice, although its presence can be inferred in others. This chapter reviews some of the properties of ices that lead to their detection, and surveys the ices that have been observed on solid surfaces throughout the Solar System.

  1. Effect of Controlled Ice Nucleation on Stability of Lactate Dehydrogenase During Freeze-Drying. (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mudhivarthi, Vamsi; Bogner, Robin H; Pikal, Michael J


    Several controlled ice nucleation techniques have been developed to increase the efficiency of the freeze-drying process as well as to improve the quality of pharmaceutical products. Owing to the reduction in ice surface area, these techniques have the potential to reduce the degradation of proteins labile during freezing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice nucleation temperature on the in-process stability of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH in potassium phosphate buffer was nucleated at -4°C, -8°C, and -12°C using ControLyo™ or allowed to nucleate spontaneously. Both the enzymatic activity and tetramer recovery after freeze-thawing linearly correlated with product ice nucleation temperature (n = 24). Controlled nucleation also significantly improved batch homogeneity as reflected by reduced inter-vial variation in activity and tetramer recovery. With the correlation established in the laboratory, the degradation of protein in manufacturing arising from ice nucleation temperature differences can be quantitatively predicted. The results show that controlled nucleation reduced the degradation of LDH during the freezing process, but this does not necessarily translate to vastly superior stability during the entire freeze-drying process. The capability of improving batch homogeneity provides potential advantages in scaling-up from lab to manufacturing scale. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiyear ice transport and small scale sea ice deformation near the Alaska coast measured by air-deployable Ice Trackers (United States)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Kasper, J.; Winsor, P.


    Highly complex patterns of ice motion and deformation were captured by fifteen satellite-telemetered GPS buoys (known as Ice Trackers) deployed near Barrow, Alaska, in spring 2015. Two pentagonal clusters of buoys were deployed on pack ice by helicopter in the Beaufort Sea between 20 and 80 km offshore. During deployment, ice motion in the study region was effectively zero, but two days later the buoys captured a rapid transport event in which multiyear ice from the Beaufort Sea was flushed into the Chukchi Sea. During this event, westward ice motion began in the Chukchi Sea and propagated eastward. This created new openings in the ice and led to rapid elongation of the clusters as the westernmost buoys accelerated away from their neighbors to the east. The buoys tracked ice velocities of over 1.5 ms-1, with fastest motion occurring closest to the coast indicating strong current shear. Three days later, ice motion reversed and the two clusters became intermingled, rendering divergence calculations based on the area enclosed by clusters invalid. The data show no detectable difference in velocity between first year and multiyear ice floes, but Lagrangian timeseries of SAR imagery centered on each buoy show that first year ice underwent significant small-scale deformation during the event. The five remaining buoys were deployed by local residents on prominent ridges embedded in the landfast ice within 16 km of Barrow in order to track the fate of such features after they detached from the coast. Break-up of the landfast ice took place over a period of several days and, although the buoys each initially followed a similar eastward trajectory around Point Barrow into the Beaufort Sea, they rapidly dispersed over an area more than 50 km across. With rapid environmental and socio-economic change in the Arctic, understanding the complexity of nearshore ice motion is increasingly important for predict future changes in the ice and the tracking ice-related hazards

  3. EBSD in Antarctic and Greenland Ice (United States)

    Weikusat, Ilka; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Pennock, Gill; Sepp, Kipfstuhl; Drury, Martyn


    Ice, particularly the extensive amounts found in the polar ice sheets, impacts directly on the global climate by changing the albedo and indirectly by supplying an enormous water reservoir that affects sea level change. The discharge of material into the oceans is partly controlled by the melt excess over snow accumulation, partly by the dynamic flow of ice. In addition to sliding over bedrock, an ice body deforms gravitationally under its own weight. In order to improve our description of this flow, ice microstructure studies are needed that elucidate the dominant deformation and recrystallization mechanisms involved. Deformation of hexagonal ice is highly anisotropic: ice is easily sheared in the basal plane and is about two orders of magnitude harder parallel to the c-axis. As dislocation creep is the dominant deformation mechanism in polar ice this strong anisotropy needs to be understood in terms of dislocation activity. The high anisotropy of the ice crystal is usually ascribed to a particular behaviour of dislocations in ice, namely the extension of dislocations into partials on the basal plane. Analysis of EBSD data can help our understanding of dislocation activity by characterizing subgrain boundary types thus providing a tool for comprehensive dislocation characterization in polar ice. Cryo-EBSD microstructure in combination with light microscopy measurements from ice core material from Antarctica (EPICA-DML deep ice core) and Greenland (NEEM deep ice core) are presented and interpreted regarding substructure identification and characterization. We examined one depth for each ice core (EDML: 656 m, NEEM: 719 m) to obtain the first comparison of slip system activity from the two ice sheets. The subgrain boundary to grain boundary threshold misorientation was taken to be 3-5° (Weikusat et al. 2011). EBSD analyses suggest that a large portion of edge dislocations with slip systems basal gliding on the basal plane were indeed involved in forming subgrain

  4. Life in Ice: Implications to Astrobiology (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    During the 2008 Tawani International Expedition Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Antarctica Expedition, living and instantly motile bacteria were found in freshly thawed meltwater from ice of the Schirmacher Oasis Lakes, the Anuchin Glacier ice and samples of the that perennial ice sheet above Lake Untersee. This phenomenon of living bacteria encased in ice had previously been observed in the 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Tunnel. The bacteria found in this ice included the strain FTR1T which was isolated and published as valid new species (Carnobacterium pleistocenium) the first validly published living Pleistocene organism still alive today. Living bacteria were also extracted from ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The discovery that many strains of bacteria are able to survive and remain alive while frozen in ice sheets for long periods of time may have direct relevance to Astrobiology. The abundance of viable bacteria in the ice sheets of Antarctica suggests that the presence of live bacteria in ice is common, rather than an isolated phenomenon. This paper will discuss the results of recent studies at NSSTC of bacteria cryopreserved in ice. This paper advances the hypothesis that cryopreserved cells, and perhaps even viable bacterial cells, may exist today--frozen in the water-ice of lunar craters, the Polar Caps or craters of Mars; or in the permafrost of Mars; ice and rocks of comets or water bearing asteroids; or in the frozen crusts of the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The existence of bacterial life in ice suggests that it may not be necessary to drill through a thick ice crust to reach liquid water seas deep beneath the icy crusts of Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus. The presence of viable bacteria in the ice of the Earth s Polar Caps suggests that the possibility that cryo-panspermia (i.e., the trans-planetary transfer of microbial life by impact ejection/spallation of bacteria-rich polar ice masses) deserves serious consideration and study as a

  5. The effect of ice-cream-scoop water on the hygiene of ice cream. (United States)

    Wilson, I. G.; Heaney, J. C.; Weatherup, S. T.


    A survey of unopened ice cream, ice cream in use, and ice-cream-scoop water (n = 91) was conducted to determine the effect of scoop water hygiene on the microbiological quality of ice cream. An aerobic plate count around 10(6) c.f.u. ml-1 was the modal value for scoop waters. Unopened ice creams generally had counts around 10(3)-10(4) c.f.u. ml-1 and this increased by one order of magnitude when in use. Many scoop waters had low coliform counts, but almost half contained > 100 c.f.u. ml-1. E. coli was isolated in 18% of ice creams in use, and in 10% of unopened ice creams. S. aureus was not detected in any sample. Statistical analysis showed strong associations between indicator organisms and increased counts in ice cream in use. EC guidelines for indicator organisms in ice cream were exceeded by up to 56% of samples. PMID:9287941

  6. The future of ice sheets and sea ice: between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss. (United States)

    Notz, Dirk


    We discuss the existence of cryospheric "tipping points" in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice-albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, we review the recent findings that such a tipping point probably does not exist for the loss of Arctic summer sea ice. Hence, in a cooler climate, sea ice could recover rapidly from the loss it has experienced in recent years. In addition, we discuss why this recent rapid retreat of Arctic summer sea ice might largely be a consequence of a slow shift in ice-thickness distribution, which will lead to strongly increased year-to-year variability of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent. This variability will render seasonal forecasts of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent increasingly difficult. We also discuss why, in contrast to Arctic summer sea ice, a tipping point is more likely to exist for the loss of the Greenland ice sheet and the West Antarctic ice sheet.

  7. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine (United States)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael


    Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and bromine concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and bromine, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and bromine records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and bromine persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but bromine levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.

  8. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W


    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  9. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ... (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  10. Evidence for middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from diatoms and ice-rafted debris. (United States)

    Stickley, Catherine E; St John, Kristen; Koç, Nalân; Jordan, Richard W; Passchier, Sandra; Pearce, Richard B; Kearns, Lance E


    Oceanic sediments from long cores drilled on the Lomonosov ridge, in the central Arctic, contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) back to the middle Eocene epoch, prompting recent suggestions that ice appeared in the Arctic about 46 million years (Myr) ago. However, because IRD can be transported by icebergs (derived from land-based ice) and also by sea ice, IRD records are restricted to providing a history of general ice-rafting only. It is critical to differentiate sea ice from glacial (land-based) ice as climate feedback mechanisms vary and global impacts differ between these systems: sea ice directly affects ocean-atmosphere exchanges, whereas land-based ice affects sea level and consequently ocean acidity. An earlier report assumed that sea ice was prevalent in the middle Eocene Arctic on the basis of IRD, and although somewhat preliminary supportive evidence exists, these data are neither comprehensive nor quantified. Here we show the presence of middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from an extraordinary abundance of a group of sea-ice-dependent fossil diatoms (Synedropsis spp.). Analysis of quartz grain textural characteristics further supports sea ice as the dominant transporter of IRD at this time. Together with new information on cosmopolitan diatoms and existing IRD records, our data strongly suggest a two-phase establishment of sea ice: initial episodic formation in marginal shelf areas approximately 47.5 Myr ago, followed approximately 0.5 Myr later by the onset of seasonally paced sea-ice formation in offshore areas of the central Arctic. Our data establish a 2-Myr record of sea ice, documenting the transition from a warm, ice-free environment to one dominated by winter sea ice at the start of the middle Eocene climatic cooling phase.

  11. Pressure melting and ice skating (United States)

    Colbeck, S. C.


    Pressure melting cannot be responsible for the low friction of ice. The pressure needed to reach the melting temperature is above the compressive failure stress and, if it did occur, high squeeze losses would result in very thin films. Pure liquid water cannot coexist with ice much below -20 °C at any pressure and friction does not increase suddenly in that range. If frictional heating and pressure melting contribute equally, the length of the wetted contact could not exceed 15 μm at a speed of 5 m/s, which seems much too short. If pressure melting is the dominant process, the water films are less than 0.08 μm thick because of the high pressures.

  12. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.


    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  13. Observation and modeling of snow melt and superimposed ice formation on sea ice


    Nicolaus, Marcel; Haas, Christian


    Sea ice plays a key role within the global climate system. It covers some 7% of earths surface and processes a strong seasonal cycle. Snow on sea ice even amplifies the importance of sea ice in the coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean system, because it dominates surface properties and energy balance (incl. albedo).Several quantitative observations of summer sea ice and its snow cover show the formation of superimposed ice and a gap layer underneath, which was found to be associated to high standing ...

  14. Impact of CO2 emissions on the geoecological state of landscapes of the British Isles: carbon footprint versus the assimilation potential (United States)

    Romanova, Emma; Bulokhov, Anton; Arshinova, Marina


    The geoecological state of landscapes is determined by the type and intensity of anthropogenic impacts, the ability of geosystems to sustain them and the number of population living within a particular landscape unit. The main sources of CO2 emissions are thermal power plants, industrial facilities, transport and waste utilization. In Great Britain 163 enterprises produce 254.7 MMT CO2Eq. and 20 enterprises in Ireland - 17.8 MMT CO2Eq. Total transport emissions are 122 MMT CO2Eq. Utilization of solid wastes collected on the British Isles produces about 4.2 MMT CO2Eq. The spatial pattern of CO2 sources within the landscapes is particularly mosaic. Among the indicators which characterize the capacity of landscapes to neutralize wastes the assimilation potential (AP) is particularly important. The neutralization is based on the process of sequestration of gaseous substances, i.e. their accumulation in leaves, branches and stocks during respiration and growth of trees and in water bodies by aquatic organisms. Thus the AP is calculated basing on the area of forests and wetlands which perform the regulating services in landscapes. Total absorbing capacity of forests of the British Isles is 6.805 MMT CO2Eq. Inland waters cover 0.01% of the territory and their assimilating role is minor. The evaluation procedure includes several analytical steps: 1) inventory of the volumes of CO2 emissions by all anthropogenic sources within the borders of natural geosystems; 2) calculation of the area of CO2 assimilation in landscapes and the maximum possible volumes of CO2 sequestration; 3) comparison of the volumes of emissions and the assimilation potential of each landscape, classification of landscapes into debtors (with the deficit of AP) and creditors (with surplus AP); 4) calculation of population in each landscape; 5) risk assessment for the inhabitants living within landscapes-debtors; 6) classification and mapping of landscapes according to their geoecological state. The

  15. The 3 micron ice band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.; Bult, C.E.P.M. van de


    Ever since it was proposed that H 2 O could be a dominant constituent of interstellar grains, its detection, or lack thereof, has played a large role in theories of grains and their evolution. It now appears possible to provide a basic theoretical structure for the evolution of grains in molecular clouds based on current observational evidence and laboratory experiments on the ice band. Both band strengths and shapes can be reasonably predicted by grain models. (U.K.)

  16. Ice Segregation and Frost Heaving. (United States)


    to a buried chilled gas pipeline by continual frost ’. ’- heave during the service life or to a buried liquefied gas tank is a more _ recent concern...M). Lule en: Uiversity of Lulea. Pehner, E., 1982. Aspects of ice lens fornmation. P ing of the Third International Syvosium on Ground Freezi, Hanover...Soils. Lalea, Sweden: Uiversity ofLulea. . Berg, R. L., G. Guymon and J. Ingersoll, 1979. Conference on soil-water . problems in cold regions. Cold

  17. Solar ice; Sonne und Eis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, Simon


    Fishing and fish marketing are the major sources of income at Santo Antao, the biggest of the Cape Verde Islands off Africa's west coast. In the coastal village of Monte Trigo, ice for keeping the fish fresh is now produced by a photovoltaic plant. As the Alliance for Rural Electrification recently reported, the community now gets its power from a 27.3 kW local power grid.

  18. Ice storm 1998 : lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, J. [Eastern Ontario Model Forest, Kemptville, ON (Canada)


    This paper presented details of a partnership formed in response to the ice storm of 1998, which caused extensive damage to trees in woodlots and urban settings in eastern Ontario and western Quebec. The aim of the Ice Storm Forest Recovery Group was to assist in the recovery of eastern forests, collect information on the extent of the damage to trees as well as contribute to the development of assistance programs for woodlot owners and municipalities. In response to the group's request, an initial aerial survey was conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to map the extent of the damage in eastern Ontario, which was followed by a more scientific survey with the Canadian Forest Service through the development of a flying grid pattern to observe the status of trees, followed by extensive ground checks. Damage was variable, depending on tree species, stand age and composition, management practices, wind direction, topography and ice deposition patterns. A summary of the severity of damage indicated that conifers suffered less than hardwoods. Consultants were hired to prepare news releases and extension notes to the public in order to provide information for the caring of trees. Various educational workshops were held which attracted large numbers of landowners and homeowners. A literature review was undertaken to produce a summary of current published knowledge covering the effects of storms and ice damage to trees and forests. Science efforts were published in a series of papers, and financial assistance programs were then organized by governmental agencies. It was concluded that cooperation between all agencies, groups and levels of government is needed in order to coordinate effective emergency strategies. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  19. Simulating Extraterrestrial Ices in the Laboratory (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Carey, E. M.; Hand, K. P.; Choukroun, M.


    Several ongoing experiments at JPL attempt to simulate the ice environment for various regimes associated with icy moons. The Europa Penitent Ice Experiment (EPIX) simulates the surface environment of an icy moon, to investigate the physics of ice surface morphology growth. This experiment features half-meter-scale cryogenic ice samples, cryogenic radiative sink environment, vacuum conditions, and diurnal cycling solar simulation. The experiment also includes several smaller fixed-geometry vacuum chambers for ice simulation at Earth-like and intermediate temperature and vacuum conditions for development of surface morphology growth scaling relations. Additionally, an ice cutting facility built on a similar platform provides qualitative data on the mechanical behavior of cryogenic ice with impurities under vacuum, and allows testing of ice cutting/sampling tools relevant for landing spacecraft. A larger cutting facility is under construction at JPL, which will provide more quantitative data and allow full-scale sampling tool tests. Another facility, the JPL Ice Physics Laboratory, features icy analog simulant preparation abilities that range icy solar system objects such as Mars, Ceres and the icy satellites of Saturn and Jupiter. In addition, the Ice Physics Lab has unique facilities for Icy Analog Tidal Simulation and Rheological Studies of Cryogenic Icy Slurries, as well as equipment to perform thermal and mechanical properties testing on icy analog materials and their response to sinusoidal tidal stresses.

  20. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa? (United States)


    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  1. Coordinated Mapping of Sea Ice Deformation Features with Autonomous Vehicles (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Williams, G. D.; Singh, H.; Weissling, B.; Anderson, J.; Maki, T.; Ackley, S. F.


    Decreases in summer sea ice extent in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas has lead to a transition from a largely perennial ice cover, to a seasonal ice cover. This drives shifts in sea ice production, dynamics, ice types, and thickness distribution. To examine how the processes driving ice advance might also impact the morphology of the ice cover, a coordinated ice mapping effort was undertaken during a field campaign in the Beaufort Sea in October, 2015. Here, we present observations of sea ice draft topography from six missions of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle run under different ice types and deformation features observed during autumn freeze-up. Ice surface features were also mapped during coordinated drone photogrammetric missions over each site. We present preliminary results of a comparison between sea ice surface topography and ice underside morphology for a range of sample ice types, including hummocked multiyear ice, rubble fields, young ice ridges and rafts, and consolidated pancake ice. These data are compared to prior observations of ice morphological features from deformed Antarctic sea ice. Such data will be useful for improving parameterizations of sea ice redistribution during deformation, and for better constraining estimates of airborne or satellite sea ice thickness.

  2. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael


    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  3. Sintering and microstructure of ice: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, Jane R


    Sintering of ice is driven by the thermodynamic requirement to decrease surface energy. The structural morphology of ice in nature has many forms-from snowflakes to glaciers. These forms and their evolution depend critically on the balance between the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved. Ice is a crystalline material so scientific understanding and approaches from more conventional materials can be applied to ice. The early models of solid state ice sintering are based on power law models originally developed in metallurgy. For pressure sintering of ice, these are based on work on hot isostatic pressing of metals and ceramics. Recent advances in recognizing the grain boundary groove geometry between sintering ice particles require models that use new approaches in materials science. The newer models of sintering in materials science are beginning to incorporate more realistic processing conditions and microstructural complexity, and so there is much to be gained from applying these to ice in the future. The vapour pressure of ice is high, which causes it to sublime readily. The main mechanism for isothermal sintering of ice particles is by vapour diffusion; however other transport mechanisms certainly contribute. Plastic deformation with power law creep combined with recrystallization become important mechanisms in sintering with external pressure. Modern experimental techniques, low temperature scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography, are providing new insights into the evolution of microstructures in ice. Sintering in the presence of a small volume fraction of the liquid phase causes much higher bond growth rates. This may be important in natural snow which contains impurities that form a liquid phase. Knowledge of ice microstructure and sintering is beneficial in understanding mechanical behaviour in ice friction and the stability of snow slopes prone to avalanches. (topical review)

  4. Theory of ice-skating (United States)

    Le Berre, Martine; Pomeau, Yves


    Almost frictionless skating on ice relies on a thin layer of melted water insulating mechanically the blade of the skate from ice. Using the basic equations of fluid mechanics and Stefan law, we derive a set of two coupled equations for the thickness of the film and the length of contact, a length scale which cannot be taken as its value at rest. The analytical study of these equations allows to define a small a-dimensional parameter depending on the longitudinal coordinate which can be neglected everywhere except close to the contact points at the front and the end of the blade, where a boundary layer solution is given. This solution provides without any calculation the order of magnitude of the film thickness, and its dependence with respect to external parameters like the velocity and mass of the skater and the radius of profile and bite angle of the blade, in good agreement with the numerical study. Moreover this solution also shows that a lubricating water layer of macroscopic thickness always exists for standard values of ice skating data, contrary to what happens in the case of cavitation of droplets due to thermal heating (Leidenfrost effect).

  5. ICE-DIP kicks off

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Last month, Marie Curie Actions* added a new member to its ranks: ICE-DIP (the Intel-CERN European Doctorate Industrial Program). The programme held its kick-off meeting on 18-19 February in Leixlip near Dublin, Ireland, at Intel’s premises.   Building on CERN’s long-standing relationship with Intel in the CERN openlab project, ICE-DIP brings together CERN and industrial partners, Intel and Xena Networks, to train five Early Stage ICT Researchers. These researchers will be funded by the European Commission and granted a CERN Fellow contract while enrolled in the doctoral programmes at partner universities Dublin City University and National University of Ireland Maynooth. The researchers will go on extended secondments to Intel Labs Europe locations across Europe during their three-year training programme. The primary focus of the ICE-DIP researchers will be the development of techniques for acquiring and processing data that are relevant for the trigger a...

  6. Multiple climate regimes in an idealized lake-ice-atmosphere model (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Kravtsov, Sergey; Roebber, Paul


    In recent decades, the Laurentian Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming with the summertime trends substantially exceeding the warming rates of surrounding land. Warming of the deepest (Lake Superior) was the strongest, and that of the shallowest (Lake Erie)—the weakest of all lakes. To investigate the dynamics of accelerated lake warming, we considered single-column and multi-column thermodynamic lake-ice models coupled to an idealized two-layer atmosphere. The variable temperature of the upper atmospheric layer—a proxy for the large-scale atmospheric forcing—consisted, in the most general case, of a linear trend mimicking the global warming and atmospheric interannual variability, both on top of the prescribed seasonal cycle of the upper-air temperature. The atmospheric boundary layer of the coupled model exchanged heat with the lake and exhibited lateral diffusive heat transports between the adjacent atmospheric columns. In simpler single-column models, we find that, for a certain range of periodic atmospheric forcing, each lake possesses two stable equilibrium seasonal cycles, which we call "regimes"—with and without lake-ice occurrence in winter and with corresponding cold and warm temperatures in the following summer, respectively, all under an identical seasonally varying external forcing. Deeper lakes exhibit larger differences in their summertime surface water temperature between the warm and cold regimes, due to their larger thermal and dynamical inertia. The regime behavior of multi-column coupled models is similar but more complex, and in some cases, they admit more than two stable equilibrium seasonal cycles, with varying degrees of wintertime ice-cover. The simulated lake response to climate change in the presence of the atmospheric noise rationalizes the observed accelerated warming of the lakes, the correlation between wintertime ice cover and next summer's lake-surface temperature, as well as higher warming trends of the

  7. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William


    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  8. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida


    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  9. A comparison of lead pollution record in Sphagnum peat with known historical Pb emission rates in the British Isles and the Czech Republic (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Erel, Yigal; Zemanova, Leona; Bottrell, Simon H.; Adamova, Marie

    Vertical Pb concentration gradients and isotope ratios ( 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb) are reported for five 210Pb-dated Sphagnum peat profiles. The studied peat bogs are in the British Isles (Thorne Moors, England; Mull, Scotland; and Connemara, Eire) and central Europe (Ocean, northern Czech Republic; Rybarenska slat, southern Czech Republic). Both the U.K. and the Czech Republic experienced maximum Pb emissions from Ag-Pb smelting around 1880. Pb emissions from coal burning peaked in 1955 in the U.K. and in the 1980s in the Czech Republic. In both countries, use of alkyl-lead additives to gasoline resulted in large Pb emissions between 1950 and 2000. We hypothesized that peaks in Pb emissions from smelting, coal burning and gasoline burning, respectively, should be mirrored in the peat profiles. However, a more complicated pattern emerged. Maximum annual Pb accumulation rates occurred in 1870 at Ocean, 1940 at Thorne Moors, 1988 at Rybarenska slat, and 1990 at Mull and Connemara. Atmospheric Pb inputs decreased in the order Thorne Moors ≥ Ocean > Rybarenska slat > Mull > Connemara. The Ocean bog was unique in the central European region in that its maximum Pb pollution dated back to the 19th century and coincided with maximum Pb smelting at Freiberg and Pribram. In contrast, numerous previously studied sites showed no Pb accumulation maximum in the 19th century, but increasing pollution until the 1980s. It remains unclear why Ocean did not record the regional peak in Pb emissions caused by high coal and gasoline burning around 1980, while an array of nearby bogs studied previously did record the 1980 coal/gasoline peak, but no 1880 smelting peak. Mean 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios of potential pollution sources were 1.07 and 1.11 for gasoline, 1.17 and 1.17 for local ores, and 1.18 and 1.19 for coal in the U.K. and the Czech Republic, respectively. The calculated percentages of gasoline-derived Pb in peat (≤55% for the British Isles and ≤63% for the Czech Republic

  10. On the Predictability of Sea Ice (United States)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward

    We investigate the persistence and predictability of sea ice in numerical models and observations. We first use the 3rd generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) General Circulation Model (GCM) to investigate the inherent persistence of sea-ice area and thickness. We find that sea-ice area anomalies have a seasonal decay timescale, exhibiting an initial decorrelation similar to a first order auto-regressive (AR1, or red noise) process. Beyond this initial loss of memory, there is a re-emergence of memory at certain times of the year. There are two distinct modes of re-emergence in the model, one driven by the seasonal coupling of area and thickness anomalies in the summer, the other by the persistence of upper ocean temperature anomalies that originate from ice anomalies in the melt season and then influence ice anomalies in the growth season. Comparison with satellite observations where available indicate these processes appear in nature. We then use the 4th generation CCSM (CCSM4) to investigate the partition of Arctic sea-ice predictability into its initial-value and boundary forced components under present day forcing conditions. We find that initial-value predictability lasts for 1-2 years for sea-ice area, and 3-4 years for sea-ice volume. Forced predictability arises after just 4-5 years for both area and volume. Initial-value predictability of sea-ice area during the summer hinges on the coupling between thickness and area anomalies during that season. We find that the loss of initial-value predictability with time is not uniform --- there is a rapid loss of predictability of sea-ice volume during the late spring early summer associated with snow melt and albedo feedbacks. At the same time, loss of predictability is not uniform across different regions. Given the usefulness of ice thickness as a predictor of summer sea-ice area, we obtain a hindcast of September sea-ice area initializing the GCM on May 1with an estimate of observed sea-ice thickness

  11. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels


    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated...

  12. Luis A. García Moreno et María Jesús Viguera Molins (éd.), Del Nilo al Ebro, t. I : Estudios sobre las fuentes de la conquista islámica


    Nef, Annliese


    Cet ouvrage est le premier volume d’un projet quadriennal en cours financé par la Communauté Autonome de Madrid et intitulé « La expansión del Imperio árabe-islámico en el Norte de África y Occidente (siglos vii-viii) según las fuentes no islámicas ». Ce projet collectif prévoyait trois étapes comme le rappelle l’introduction : d’abord, la récolte et l’analyse de sources littéraires manuscrites non islamiques (entendre non musulmanes, nous y reviendrons) sur les conquêtes arabo-musulmanes dep...

  13. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.


    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  14. Duality of Ross Ice Shelf systems: crustal boundary, ice sheet processes and ocean circulation from ROSETTA-Ice surveys (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Das, I.; Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Siegfried, M. R.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Bell, R. E.


    Bathymetry beneath Antarctic ice shelves controls sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation and has a major influence on the stability and dynamics of the ice sheets. Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, the sea-floor bathymetry is a product of both tectonics and glacial processes, and is influenced by the processes it controls. New aerogeophysical surveys have revealed a fundamental crustal boundary bisecting the Ross Ice Shelf and imparting a duality to the Ross Ice Shelf systems, encompassing bathymetry, ocean circulation and ice flow history. The ROSETTA-Ice surveys were designed to increase the resolution of Ross Ice Shelf mapping from the 55 km RIGGS survey of the 1970s to a 10 km survey grid, flown over three years from New York Air National Guard LC130s. Radar, LiDAR, gravity and magnetic instruments provide a top to bottom profile of the ice shelf and the underlying seafloor, with 20 km resolution achieved in the first two survey seasons (2015 and 2016). ALAMO ocean-profiling floats deployed in the 2016 season are measuring the temperature and salinity of water entering and exiting the sub-ice water cavity. A significant east-west contrast in the character of the magnetic and gravity fields reveals that the lithospheric boundary between East and West Antarctica exists not at the base of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), as previously thought, but 300 km further east. The newly-identified boundary spatially coincides with the southward extension of the Central High, a rib of shallow basement identified in the Ross Sea. The East Antarctic side is characterized by lower amplitude magnetic anomalies and denser TAM-type lithosphere compared to the West Antarctic side. The crustal structure imparts a fundamental duality on the overlying ice and ocean, with deeper bathymetry and thinner ice on the East Antarctic side creating a larger sub-ice cavity for ocean circulation. The West Antarctic side has a shallower seabed, more restricted ocean access and a more complex history of

  15. The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.


    The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins is described. The veins are more frequently seen on the right side. The right superior intercostal vein should not be misinterpreted as a paraspinal mass when it is large or bulges into the contour of the right lung. A case of stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein is shown, where the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral. (orig.)

  16. Bimodal SLD Ice Accretion on a NACA 0012 Airfoil Model (United States)

    Potapczuk, Mark; Tsao, Jen-Ching; King-Steen, Laura


    This presentation describes the results of ice accretion measurements on a NACA 0012 airfoil model, from the NASA Icing Research Tunnel, using an icing cloud composed of a bimodal distribution of Supercooled Large Droplets. The data consists of photographs, laser scans of the ice surface, and measurements of the mass of ice for each icing condition. The results of ice shapes accumulated as a result of exposure to an icing cloud with a bimodal droplet distribution were compared to the ice shapes resulting from an equivalent cloud composed of a droplet distribution with a standard bell curve shape.

  17. On Wave-Ice Interaction in the Arctic Marginal Ice Zone: Dispersion, Attenuation, and Ice Response (United States)


    described in Thorndike et al. [1975]. Waves have not played a role in CICE because their influence is limited to the MIZ which was traditionally a... Thorndike et al, [1979] d(p) is area conserving, so that the integral over all ranges of ice property, p, is unity. � ()...most effected by lateral melt < O(30 m). Observations of FSD [Rothrock and Thorndike , 1984; Toyota et al., 2006], done through analysis of aerial

  18. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Keskin


    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment.

  19. Information Superiority: Outsourcing an Air Force Core Competency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McTerman, Hugh


    .... This thesis explores the perceived relationship between the core competency requirements for information superiority and the tasks defined for the Air Force communication, computer, and information career field...

  20. Road icing forecasting and detecting system (United States)

    Xu, Hongke; Zheng, Jinnan; Li, Peiqi; Wang, Qiucai


    Regard for the facts that the low accuracy and low real-time of the artificial observation to determine the road icing condition, and it is difficult to forecast icing situation, according to the main factors influencing the road-icing, and the electrical characteristics reflected by the pavement ice layer, this paper presents an innovative system, that is, ice-forecasting of the highway's dangerous section. The system bases on road surface water salinity measurements and pavement temperature measurement to calculate the freezing point of water and temperature change trend, and then predicts the occurrence time of road icing; using capacitance measurements to verdict the road surface is frozen or not; This paper expounds the method of using single chip microcomputer as the core of the control system and described the business process of the system.

  1. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.


    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  2. IceProd 2 Usage Experience (United States)

    Delventhal, D.; Schultz, D.; Diaz Velez, J. C.


    IceProd is a data processing and management framework developed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory for processing of Monte Carlo simulations, detector data, and data driven analysis. It runs as a separate layer on top of grid and batch systems. This is accomplished by a set of daemons which process job workflow, maintaining configuration and status information on the job before, during, and after processing. IceProd can also manage complex workflow DAGs across distributed computing grids in order to optimize usage of resources. IceProd has recently been rewritten to increase its scaling capabilities, handle user analysis workflows together with simulation production, and facilitate the integration with 3rd party scheduling tools. IceProd 2, the second generation of IceProd, has been running in production for several months now. We share our experience setting up the system and things we’ve learned along the way.

  3. Design of an airborne P-band ice sounding radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Skou, Niels; Kusk, Anders


    is to test new ice sounding techniques, e.g. polarimetry, synthetic aperture processing, and coherent clutter suppression. A system analysis involving ice scattering models confirms that it is feasible to detect the bedrock through 4 km of ice and to detect deep ice layers. The ice sounder design features...

  4. National Ice Center Arctic Sea Ice Charts and Climatologies in Gridded Format (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Ice Center (NIC) is an inter-agency sea ice analysis and forecasting center comprised of the Department of Commerce/NOAA, the Department of...

  5. SmaggIce 2.0: Additional Capabilities for Interactive Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils (United States)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Vickerman, Mary B.


    The Surface Modeling and Grid Generation for Iced Airfoils (SmaggIce) software toolkit has been extended to allow interactive grid generation for multi-element iced airfoils. The essential phases of an icing effects study include geometry preparation, block creation and grid generation. SmaggIce Version 2.0 now includes these main capabilities for both single and multi-element airfoils, plus an improved flow solver interface and a variety of additional tools to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of icing effects studies. An overview of these features is given, especially the new multi-element blocking strategy using the multiple wakes method. Examples are given which illustrate the capabilities of SmaggIce for conducting an icing effects study for both single and multi-element airfoils.

  6. Ice Motion and Topography Near Margin Areas of Kamb Ice Stream, Antarctica, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes ice motion and topography measurements that were taken by measuring movement and altitude of poles set in the West Antarctic Ice Shelf. The...

  7. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ICE (Ice Extent Lines) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of ice extent in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent 50 percent ice coverage. Location-specific type and...

  8. A review of the physics of ice surface friction and the development of ice skating. (United States)

    Formenti, Federico


    Our walking and running movement patterns require friction between shoes and ground. The surface of ice is characterised by low friction in several naturally occurring conditions, and compromises our typical locomotion pattern. Ice skates take advantage of this slippery nature of ice; the first ice skates were made more than 4000 years ago, and afforded the development of a very efficient form of human locomotion. This review presents an overview of the physics of ice surface friction, and discusses the most relevant factors that can influence ice skates' dynamic friction coefficient. It also presents the main stages in the development of ice skating, describes the associated implications for exercise physiology, and shows the extent to which ice skating performance improved through history. This article illustrates how technical and materials' development, together with empirical understanding of muscle biomechanics and energetics, led to one of the fastest forms of human powered locomotion.

  9. IceBridge Radar L3 Tomographic Ice Thickness V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 tomographic ice thickness measurements derived from data captured by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Multichannel...

  10. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei


    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69,p Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter 'ocean-effect' snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  11. Ice Draft and Ice Velocity Data in the Beaufort Sea, 1990-2003, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurement of sea ice draft (m) and the movement of sea ice (cm/s) over the continental shelf of the Eastern Beaufort Sea. The data set spans...

  12. Ice nucleation properties of mineral dusts


    Steinke, Isabelle


    Ice nucleation in clouds has a significant impact on the global hydrological cycle as well as on the radiative budget of the Earth. The AIDA cloud chamber was used to investigate the ice nucleation efficiency of various atmospherically relevant mineral dusts. From experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) a humidity and temperature dependent ice nucleation active surface site density parameterization was developed to describe deposition nucleation at temperatures above 220 K. Based...

  13. Elevator deflections on the icing process (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.


    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the... the body. The device may include a holder that keeps the bag in place against an external area of the...

  15. Ice Storms in a Changing Climate (United States)


    CHANGING CLIMATE by Jennifer M. McNitt June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Wendell Nuss Co-Advisor: David W. Titley THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...SUBTITLE ICE STORMS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer M. McNitt 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...increase in global temperatures, due to climate change, could affect the frequency, intensity, and geographic location of ice storms. Three known ice

  16. On the origin of the ice ages


    Oerlemans, J.


    Ice sheet dynamics provide a possible explanation for the 100 kyr power in climatic records. Some numerical experiments presented here show that even the transition from an essentially ice-free earth to a glacial can be produced by a northern hemisphere ice-sheet model, provided that a slow general cooling on the northern hemisphere continents is imposed. Such a cooling could for example be the result of continental drift.

  17. Greenland Ice Shelves and Ice Tongues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels


    literature and physical properties are reviewed. There exists a difference between: (1) Floating glaciers in northern Greenland (>77°N) which experience bottom melting as their dominant ablation mechanism and calve relatively thin, but large (km-sized) tabular icebergs (‘ice islands’), and (2) Grounded...... glaciers further south (iceberg calving provides the dominant ablation mechanism. The relatively smaller iceberg discharge in northern Greenland is closely related to the occurrence of extended floating glacier sections, allowing bottom melting estimated at up to 10 m year−1 for locations...

  18. Icing Branch Current Research Activities in Icing Physics (United States)

    Vargas, Mario


    Current development: A grid block transformation scheme which allows the input of grids in arbitrary reference frames, the use of mirror planes, and grids with relative velocities has been developed. A simple ice crystal and sand particle bouncing scheme has been included. Added an SLD splashing model based on that developed by William Wright for the LEWICE 3.2.2 software. A new area based collection efficiency algorithm will be incorporated which calculates trajectories from inflow block boundaries to outflow block boundaries. This method will be used for calculating and passing collection efficiency data between blade rows for turbo-machinery calculations.

  19. Possible Mechanisms for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing at High Altitude (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Struk, Peter M.; Oliver, Michael J.


    A thermodynamic model is presented to describe possible mechanisms of ice formation on unheated surfaces inside a turbofan engine compression system from fully glaciated ice crystal clouds often formed at high altitude near deep convective weather systems. It is shown from the analysis that generally there could be two distinct types of ice formation: (1) when the "surface freezing fraction" is in the range of 0 to 1, dominated by the freezing of water melt from fully or partially melted ice crystals, the ice structure is formed from accretion with strong adhesion to the surface, and (2) when the "surface melting fraction" is the range of 0 to 1, dominated by the further melting of ice crystals, the ice structure is formed from accumulation of un-melted ice crystals with relatively weak bonding to the surface. The model captures important qualitative trends of the fundamental ice-crystal icing phenomenon reported earlier (Refs. 1 and 2) from the research collaboration work by NASA and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. Further, preliminary analysis of test data from the 2013 full scale turbofan engine ice crystal icing test (Ref. 3) conducted in the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) has also suggested that (1) both types of ice formation occurred during the test, and (2) the model has captured some important qualitative trend of turning on (or off) the ice crystal ice formation process in the tested engine low pressure compressor (LPC) targeted area under different icing conditions that ultimately would lead to (or suppress) an engine core roll back (RB) event.

  20. Sea ice roughness: the key for predicting Arctic summer ice albedo (United States)

    Landy, J.; Ehn, J. K.; Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Barber, D. G.


    Although melt ponds on Arctic sea ice evolve in stages, ice with smoother surface topography typically allows the pond water to spread over a wider area, reducing the ice-albedo and accelerating further melt. Building on this theory, we simulated the distribution of meltwater on a range of statistically-derived topographies to develop a quantitative relationship between premelt sea ice surface roughness and summer ice albedo. Our method, previously applied to ICESat observations of the end-of-winter sea ice roughness, could account for 85% of the variance in AVHRR observations of the summer ice-albedo [Landy et al., 2015]. Consequently, an Arctic-wide reduction in sea ice roughness over the ICESat operational period (from 2003 to 2008) explained a drop in ice-albedo that resulted in a 16% increase in solar heat input to the sea ice cover. Here we will review this work and present new research linking pre-melt sea ice surface roughness observations from Cryosat-2 to summer sea ice albedo over the past six years, examining the potential of winter roughness as a significant new source of sea ice predictability. We will further evaluate the possibility for high-resolution (kilometre-scale) forecasts of summer sea ice albedo from waveform-level Cryosat-2 roughness data in the landfast sea ice zone of the Canadian Arctic. Landy, J. C., J. K. Ehn, and D. G. Barber (2015), Albedo feedback enhanced by smoother Arctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 10,714-10,720, doi:10.1002/2015GL066712.

  1. Windows in Arctic sea ice: Light transmission and ice algae in a refrozen lead (United States)

    Kauko, Hanna M.; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Assmy, Philipp; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Mundy, C. J.; Duarte, Pedro; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Olsen, Lasse M.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Johnsen, Geir; Elliott, Ashley; Wang, Feiyue; Granskog, Mats A.


    The Arctic Ocean is rapidly changing from thicker multiyear to thinner first-year ice cover, with significant consequences for radiative transfer through the ice pack and light availability for algal growth. A thinner, more dynamic ice cover will possibly result in more frequent leads, covered by newly formed ice with little snow cover. We studied a refrozen lead (≤0.27 m ice) in drifting pack ice north of Svalbard (80.5-81.8°N) in May-June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015). We measured downwelling incident and ice-transmitted spectral irradiance, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), particle absorption, ultraviolet (UV)-protecting mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in melted sea ice samples. We found occasionally very high MAA concentrations (up to 39 mg m-3, mean 4.5 ± 7.8 mg m-3) and MAA to Chl a ratios (up to 6.3, mean 1.2 ± 1.3). Disagreement in modeled and observed transmittance in the UV range let us conclude that MAA signatures in CDOM absorption spectra may be artifacts due to osmotic shock during ice melting. Although observed PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) transmittance through the thin ice was significantly higher than that of the adjacent thicker ice with deep snow cover, ice algal standing stocks were low (≤2.31 mg Chl a m-2) and similar to the adjacent ice. Ice algal accumulation in the lead was possibly delayed by the low inoculum and the time needed for photoacclimation to the high-light environment. However, leads are important for phytoplankton growth by acting like windows into the water column.

  2. Determining the ice seasons severity during 1982-2015 using the ice extents sum as a new characteristic (United States)

    Rjazin, Jevgeni; Pärn, Ove


    Sea ice is a key climate factor and it restricts considerably the winter navigation in sever seasons on the Baltic Sea. So determining ice conditions severity and describing ice cover behaviour at severe seasons interests scientists, engineers and navigation managers. The present study is carried out to determine the ice seasons severity degree basing on the ice seasons 1982 to 2015. A new integrative characteristic is introduced to describe the ice season severity. It is the sum of ice extents of the ice season id est the daily ice extents of the season are summed. The commonly used procedure to determine the ice season severity degree by the maximal ice extent is in this research compared to the new characteristic values. The remote sensing data on the ice concentrations on the Baltic Sea published in the European Copernicus Programme are used to obtain the severity characteristic values. The ice extents are calculated on these ice concentration data. Both the maximal ice extent of the season and a newly introduced characteristic - the ice extents sum are used to classify the winters with respect of severity. The most severe winter of the reviewed period is 1986/87. Also the ice seasons 1981/82, 1984/85, 1985/86, 1995/96 and 2002/03 are classified as severe. Only three seasons of this list are severe by both the criteria. They are 1984/85, 1985/86 and 1986/87. We interpret this coincidence as the evidence of enough-during extensive ice cover in these three seasons. In several winters, for example 2010/11 ice cover extended enough for some time, but did not endure. At few other ice seasons as 2002/03 the Baltic Sea was ice-covered in moderate extent, but the ice cover stayed long time. At 11 winters the ice extents sum differed considerably (> 10%) from the maximal ice extent. These winters yield one third of the studied ice seasons. The maximal ice extent of the season is simple to use and enables to reconstruct the ice cover history and to predict maximal ice

  3. A cross-cultural exploration of abortion fund patients in the USA and the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. (United States)

    Ely, Gretchen E; Hales, Travis W; Jackson, D Lynn


    This paper details results of a study examining administrative case data from 2010-2015 from abortion funds serving the USA and the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. Driven by the available data, the researchers compared organisational characteristics, patient characteristics, procedural costs, patient resources and the ratio between patient resources and procedural costs. Independent t-tests were conducted to assess whether differences in characteristics, costs or resources were significant. The number of patients serviced by abortion funds across the two datasets increased yearly from 2010-2015. While patients in the USA had more resources, on average, to contribute to their abortion procedure, Irish, Northern Irish and Manx patients had the resources to pay for a greater percentage of their costs, on average, which was mainly attributable to the differences in gestational age of those helped by the different abortion funds. Patients across all nations were similar in terms of their marital status, average age and number of existing children. Patients across these countries face expensive procedures and a lack of resources that are bridged in part by abortion fund assistance.

  4. As mulheres, os outros e as mulheres dos outros: feminismo, academia e Islão Womens and their others feminism, academy and islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cardeira da Silva


    Full Text Available O véu, real ou metafórico, das mulheres muçulmanas faz, hoje em dia, parte de um claro e sonante argumentário político a diferentes níveis. Este artigo relembra a necessidade de objectivar o modo como as relações generificadas entre a Antropologia, o Islão e as políticas internacionais e nacionais contribuíram para a produção desse argumentário, concorrendo, assim, para o seu espessamento político. Para "descobrir" as mulheres muçulmanas, a Antropologia tem que se "desvelar" de constrangimentos políticos imediatos.Nowadays, the veil of the Muslim women - either real or metaphoric - make part of clearly and sounding political rhetorics at different levels. It is my intention to remind that gendered relationships between Anthropology, Islam and international and national politics have largely supplied the production of this speech-making, concurring, thus, for its political thickness. This is why these relations must always stay under scrutiny regardless of the scale of our ethnographies, reminding us that the first step to 'unveil' Muslim women is to allow political immunity to anthropological inquiry.

  5. Extremismo y radicalismo islámico en la Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional 2013: Una visión fragmentada e incompleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Tomé


    Full Text Available A pesar de que el extremismo islámico es una de las cuestiones más relevantes de la agenda internacional de los últimos años, no adquiere una entidad específica en la Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional (ESN. Aparece como un potenciador, que se integra en una concepción compleja y multidimensional de la seguridad y que está relacionado con (a la amenaza terrorista, (b el riesgo de vulnerabilidad energética, y (c el riesgo que supone una posible ausencia de cohesión social. Al descenso en el nivel analítico se añade la confusión conceptual en torno a los términos radicalismo, fundamentalismo y extremismo. Esta falta de precisión, que homogeniza un conjunto de procesos multiformes, imposibilita el diseño de unas líneas de acción precisas y eficaces que señalen los actores específicos con los que colaborar y las áreas concretas sobre las que incidir.

  6. Culturas migratorias en el Caribe colombiano: El caso de los isleños raizales de las islas de Old Providence y Santa Catalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Márquez Pérez


    Full Text Available Las migraciones caribeñas han sido ampliamente documentadas, especialmente desde visiones económicas y demográficas que enfatizan los aspectos negativos que estas causan en individuos y sociedades. Sin embargo, desde las ciencias humanas se ha difundido el concepto de culturas migratorias para analizarlas . El eje central es que, más allá de un fenómeno de tipo económico, ligado a superpoblación y desempleo , la movilidad caribeña puede entenderse como una tradición cultural que se ha convertido en un modo de vida legitimado por generaciones de migrantes, permitiendo la viabilidad de estas sociedades. Este concepto supone la movilidad constante a manera de migraciones temporales utilizadas como estrategias económicas básicas, así como mecanismos socioculturales que facilitan y perpetúan esta práctica. Este seria el caso de los habitantes de Providencia y Santa Catalina en el territorio de habla inglesa en el Caribe colombiano, quienes poseen una larga historia de migraciones que continúan hasta hoy y que constituyen una forma de vida. Este documento resulta de investigaciones realizadas tanto en las islas como con migrantes en Bogotá, entre 2004 y 2011, en las cuales se abordaron diversos temas, incluyendo el papel de las migraciones en la vida de estos isleños, las memorias y las percepciones sobre las mismas.

  7. Parasitic nematodes of the genus Syphacia Seurat, 1916 infecting Muridae in the British Isles, and the peculiar case of Syphacia frederici. (United States)

    Stewart, Alex; Lowe, Ann; Smales, Lesley; Bajer, Anna; Bradley, Jan; Dwużnik, Dorota; Franssen, Frits; Griffith, Jack; Stuart, Peter; Turner, Cyan; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Behnke, Jerzy M


    Syphacia stroma (von Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932 and Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945 are oxyurid nematodes that parasitize two murid rodents, Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis, on the European mainland. Only S. stroma has been recorded previously in Apodemus spp. from the British Isles. Despite the paucity of earlier reports, we identified S. frederici in four disparate British sites, two in Nottinghamshire, one each in Berkshire and Anglesey, Wales. Identification was based on their site in the host (caecum and not small intestine), on key morphological criteria that differentiate this species from S. stroma (in particular the tail of female worms) and by sequencing two genetic loci (cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene and a section of ribosomal DNA). Sequences derived from both genetic loci of putative British S. frederici isolates formed a tight clade with sequences from continental worms known to be S. frederici, clearly distinguishing these isolates from S. stroma which formed a tight clade of its own, distinct from clades representative of Syphacia obvelata from Mus and S. muris from Rattus. The data in this paper therefore constitute the first record of S. frederici from British wood mice, and confirm the status of this species as distinct from both S. obvelata and S. stroma.

  8. Icing Impacts on Wind Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil

    was developed for the identification of icing periods from the turbine power data and the nacelle wind speeds. This method was based on the spread of power production observations at cold temperatures that was not seen during warmer periods. Using the insights gained through the observational analysis...... and the turbine power loss. The model took the shape of a hierarchal model that combined a decision tree model, based on the existence of ice on the turbine blade, and two Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The GAM for periods where icing was forecast was found to include the terms wind speed, total ice mass...

  9. Ice nucleation triggered by negative pressure. (United States)

    Marcolli, Claudia


    Homogeneous ice nucleation needs supercooling of more than 35 K to become effective. When pressure is applied to water, the melting and the freezing points both decrease. Conversely, melting and freezing temperatures increase under negative pressure, i.e. when water is stretched. This study presents an extrapolation of homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures from positive to negative pressures as a basis for further exploration of ice nucleation under negative pressure. It predicts that increasing negative pressure at temperatures below about 262 K eventually results in homogeneous ice nucleation while at warmer temperature homogeneous cavitation, i. e. bubble nucleation, dominates. Negative pressure occurs locally and briefly when water is stretched due to mechanical shock, sonic waves, or fragmentation. The occurrence of such transient negative pressure should suffice to trigger homogeneous ice nucleation at large supercooling in the absence of ice-nucleating surfaces. In addition, negative pressure can act together with ice-inducing surfaces to enhance their intrinsic ice nucleation efficiency. Dynamic ice nucleation can be used to improve properties and uniformity of frozen products by applying ultrasonic fields and might also be relevant for the freezing of large drops in rainclouds.

  10. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans


    crustal model can be modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed......Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full...

  11. Ice load reducer for dams : laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupien, R.; Cote, A.; Robert, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)


    Many studies have focused on measuring static ice loads on various hydraulic structures in Canada. This paper discussed a Hydro-Quebec research project whose main purpose was to harmonize the ice thrust value in load combinations for use in general hydraulic works or for specific cases. The objectives of the project were to obtain a better understanding of existing data and to characterize sites and their influence on ice thrust; study the structural mechanisms involved in the generation of ice thrust, their consequences on the structural behaviour of ice and the natural mitigating circumstances that may be offered by ice properties or site operating procedures; and examine the relevance of developing an ice load reducer for works that might not fit the harmonized design value. The paper presented the main research goals and ice load reducer goals, with particular focus on the four pipe samples that were planned, built and tested. The experimental program involved checking the pipe shape behaviour in terms of flexibility-stiffness; maximum deformations; maximum load reduction; permanent deformations; and, ability to shape recovering. The testing also involved examining the strength versus strain rate; creep versus strain rate; and creep capacity under biaxial state of tension and compression. It was concluded that the two phenomena involved in generation of ice thrust, notably thermal expansion and water level changes, had very low strain rates. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  12. [Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay]. (United States)

    Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng


    In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors.

  13. Dynamics of colloidal particles in ice

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa


    We use x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to probe the dynamics of colloidal particles in polycrystalline ice. During freezing, the dendritic ice morphology and rejection of particles from the ice created regions of high particle density, where some of the colloids were forced into contact and formed disordered aggregates. The particles in these high density regions underwent ballistic motion, with a characteristic velocity that increased with temperature. This ballistic motion is coupled with both stretched and compressed exponential decays of the intensity autocorrelation function. We suggest that this behavior could result from ice grain boundary migration. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan; Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin; Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun; Song, Yanlin


    Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J 0 and Γ, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J 0 and Γ, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces

  15. The IceCube Computing Infrastructure Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Besides the big LHC experiments a number of mid-size experiments is coming online which need to define new computing models to meet the demands on processing and storage requirements of those experiments. We present the hybrid computing model of IceCube which leverages GRID models with a more flexible direct user model as an example of a possible solution. In IceCube a central datacenter at UW-Madison servers as Tier-0 with a single Tier-1 datacenter at DESY Zeuthen. We describe the setup of the IceCube computing infrastructure and report on our experience in successfully provisioning the IceCube computing needs.

  16. Deformation and failure of the ice bridge on the Wilkins Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humbert, A.; Gross, D.; Müller, R.; Braun, M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Vaughan, D.G.; van de Berg, W.J.


    A narrow bridge of floating ice that connected the Wilkins Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to two confining islands eventually collapsed in early April 2009. In the month preceding the collapse, we observed deformation of the ice bridge by means of satellite imagery and from an in situ GPS station.

  17. Assimilation of ice and water observations from SAR imagery to improve estimates of sea ice concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Andrea Scott


    Full Text Available In this paper, the assimilation of binary observations calculated from synthetic aperture radar (SAR images of sea ice is investigated. Ice and water observations are obtained from a set of SAR images by thresholding ice and water probabilities calculated using a supervised maximum likelihood estimator (MLE. These ice and water observations are then assimilated in combination with ice concentration from passive microwave imagery for the purpose of estimating sea ice concentration. Due to the fact that the observations are binary, consisting of zeros and ones, while the state vector is a continuous variable (ice concentration, the forward model used to map the state vector to the observation space requires special consideration. Both linear and non-linear forward models were investigated. In both cases, the assimilation of SAR data was able to produce ice concentration analyses in closer agreement with image analysis charts than when assimilating passive microwave data only. When both passive microwave and SAR data are assimilated, the bias between the ice concentration analyses and the ice concentration from ice charts is 19.78%, as compared to 26.72% when only passive microwave data are assimilated. The method presented here for the assimilation of SAR data could be applied to other binary observations, such as ice/water information from visual/infrared sensors.

  18. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate. (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan


    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  19. Thermodynamics of high-pressure ice polymorphs : ices III and V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchijov, [No Value; Ayala, RB; Leon, GC; Nagornov, O

    Thermodynamic properties of high-pressure ice polymorphs, ices III and V, are studied theoretically. The results of TIP4P molecular dynamics simulations in the NPT ensemble are used to calculate the temperature dependence of the specific volume of ices III and V at pressures 0.25 and 0.5 GPa,

  20. Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity. (United States)

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter


    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms.